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Sample records for tinto spain applications

  1. 76 FR 80430 - Rio Tinto plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... plc and Rio Tinto Limited; Notice of Application December 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange Commission (``Commission''). ACTION: Notice of application under section 3(b)(2) and 45(a) of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (the ``Act''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Rio Tinto plc (``RTP'') and Rio Tinto...

  2. In-situ Moessbauer Spectroscopy with MIMOS II at Rio Tinto, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleischer, I; Klingelhoefer, G; Wehrheim, S; Ebert, S; Panthoefer, M; Blumers, M; Schmanke, D; Maul, J; Schroeder, C [Institut fuer Anorganische und analytische Chemie, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, 55128 Mainz (Germany); Rull, F, E-mail: fleischi@uni-mainz.d [Unidad Asociada UVA-CSIC, al Centro de AstrobiologIa, Universidad de Valladolid, 47006-Valladolid (Spain)

    2010-03-01

    The Rio Tinto, located in southwest Spain, exhibits a nearly constant, acidic pH-value along its course. Due to the formation of sulfate minerals, Rio Tinto is considered a potential analogue site for sulfate-rich regions on Mars, in particular at the landing site of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, where the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite was identified with Opportunity's Moessbauer spectrometer. Primary and secondary mineralogy was investigated in situ with portable Raman and Moessbauer spectrometers at four different Rio Tinto sampling sites. The two techniques analyse different sample portions due to their specific field of view and sampling depth and provide complementary mineralogical information.

  3. In-situ Moessbauer Spectroscopy with MIMOS II at Rio Tinto, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischer, I; Klingelhoefer, G; Wehrheim, S; Ebert, S; Panthoefer, M; Blumers, M; Schmanke, D; Maul, J; Schroeder, C; Rull, F

    2010-01-01

    The Rio Tinto, located in southwest Spain, exhibits a nearly constant, acidic pH-value along its course. Due to the formation of sulfate minerals, Rio Tinto is considered a potential analogue site for sulfate-rich regions on Mars, in particular at the landing site of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, where the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite was identified with Opportunity's Moessbauer spectrometer. Primary and secondary mineralogy was investigated in situ with portable Raman and Moessbauer spectrometers at four different Rio Tinto sampling sites. The two techniques analyse different sample portions due to their specific field of view and sampling depth and provide complementary mineralogical information.

  4. Heavy metal anomalies in the Tinto and Odiel River and estuary system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, C.H.; Lamothe, P.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers drain 100 km from the Rio Tinto sulphide mining district, and join at a 20-km long estuary entering the Atlantic Ocean. A reconnaissance study of heavy metal anomalies in channel sand and overbank mud of the river and estuary by semi-quantitative emission dc-arc spectrographic analysis shows the following upstream to downstream ranges in ppm (??g g-1): As 3,000 to TOC), sandysilty overbank clay has been analyzed to represent suspended load materials. The high content of heavy metals in the overbank clay throughout the river and estuary systems indicates the importance of suspended sediment transport for dispersing heavy metals from natural erosion and anthropogenic mining activities of the sulfide deposit. The organic-poor (0.21-0.37% TOC) river bed sand has been analyzed to represent bedload transport of naturally-occurring sulfide minerals. The sand has high concentrations of metals upstream but these decrease an order of magnitude in the lower estuary. Although heavy metal contamination of estuary mouth beach sand has been diluted to background levels estuary mud exhibits increased contamination apparently related to finer grain size, higher organic carbon content, precipitation of river-borne dissolved solids, and input of anthropogenic heavy metals from industrial sources. The contaminated estuary mud disperses to the inner shelf mud belt and offshore suspended sediment, which exhibit metal anomalies from natural erosion and mining of upstream Rio Tinto sulphide lode sources (Pb, Cu, Zn) and industrial activities within the estuary (Fe, Cr, Ti). Because heavy metal contamination of Tinto-Odiel river sediment reaches or exceeds the highest levels encountered in other river sediments of Spain and Europe, a detailed analysis of metals in water and suspended sediment throughout the system, and epidemiological analysis of heavy metal effects in humans is appropriate. ?? 1993 Estuarine Research Federation.

  5. Characterization of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Massive Sulfide Deposits at Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications for Extant Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriquez, N.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Aguilera, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Dunagan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of abundant sulfate minerals, particularly Jarosite by the Opportunity Rover at Sinus Merdiani on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for an acidic lake or sea on ancient Mars [1,2], since the mineral Jarosite is soluble in liquid water at pH above 4. The most likely mechanism to produce sufficient protons to acidify a large body of liquid water is near surface oxidation of pyrite rich deposits [3]. The acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, and the associated deposits of Hematite, Goethite, and Jarosite have been recognized as an important chemical analog to the Sinus Merdiani site on Mars [4]. The Rio Tinto is a river in southern Spain that flows 100 km from its source in the Iberian pyrite belt, one of the Earth s largest Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide (VHMS) provinces, into the Atlantic ocean. The river originates in artesian springs emanating from ground water that is acidified by the interaction with subsurface pyrite ore deposits. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has been investigating the hypothesis that a subsurface biosphere exists at Rio Tinto living within the VHMS deposit living on chemical energy derived from sulfur and iron minerals. Reduced iron and sulfur might provide electron donors for microbial metabolism while in situ oxidized iron or oxidants entrained in recharge water might provide electron acceptors.

  6. Characterization of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Massive Sulfide Deposit At Rio Tinto, Spain: Implications For Extant Life On Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Gomez-Elvira, J.; Rodriguez, N.; Gomez, F.; Gonzalez-Toril, E.; Aguilera, A.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Dunagan, S.

    2005-01-01

    The recent discovery of abundant sulfate minerals, particularly Jarosite by the Opportunity Rover at Sinus Merdiani on Mars has been interpreted as evidence for an acidic lake or sea on ancient Mars [1,2], since the mineral Jarosite is soluble in liquid water at pH above 4. The most likely mechanism to produce sufficient protons to acidify a large body of liquid water is near surface oxidation of pyrite rich deposits [3]. The acidic waters of the Rio Tinto, and the associated deposits of Hematite, Goethite, and Jarosite have been recognized as an important chemical analog to the Sinus Merdiani site on Mars [4]. The Rio Tinto is a river in southern Spain that flows 100 km from its source in the Iberian pyrite belt, one of the Earth's largest Volcanically Hosted Massive Sulfide (VHMS) provinces, into the Atlantic ocean. The river originates in artesian springs emanating from ground water that is acidified by the interaction with subsurface pyrite ore deposits. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has been investigating the hypothesis that a subsurface biosphere exists at Rio Tinto living within the VHMS deposit living on chemical energy derived from sulfur and iron minerals. Reduced iron and sulfur might provide electron donors for microbial metabolism while in situ oxidized iron or oxidants entrained in recharge water might provide electron acceptors.

  7. Mars Analog Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE): A Simulated Mars Drilling Mission to Search for Subsurface Life at the Rio Tinto, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol; Lemke, Larry; Mandell, Humboldt; McKay, David; George, Jeffrey; Gomez-Alvera, Javier; Amils, Ricardo; Stevens, Todd; Miller, David

    2003-01-01

    The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project was selected by the new NASA ASTEP program, which supports field experiments having an equal emphasis on Astrobiology science and technology development relevant to future Astrobiology missions. MARTE will search for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Tinto River in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology needed to search for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The experiment is informed by the strategy for searching for life on Mars.

  8. Subsurface geomicrobiology in a Mars terrestrial analogue, Río Tinto (SW, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amils, R.; Fernández-Remolar, D.; Gómez, F.; González-Toril, E.; Rodríguez, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Sanz, J. L.; Díaz, E.; Stoker, C.

    2008-09-01

    Since its discovery, only few years ago, subsurface geomicrobiology is a matter of growing interest [1]. From a fundamental point of view, it seeks to determine whether life can be sustained in the absence of radiation. From an astrobiological point of view, it is an interesting model for life in other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars, as well as early life on Earth. Río Tinto is an unusual extreme acidic environment due to its size (around 100 km), constant acidic pH (mean pH 2.3), high concentrations of heavy metals and high level of microbial diversity [2]. Río Tinto rises in the core of the Iberian Pyritic Belt, one of the biggest sulfidic ore deposits in the world [3]. Today it is well stablished that the extreme characteristics of Río Tinto are not due to acid mine drainage from mining activity, as has been suggested in the past. To explore the hypothesis that a continuous underground reactor of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich sulfidic minerals of the Iberian Pyritic Belt is responsible for the extreme conditions found in the system, a drilling project has been developed to detect evidence of subsurface microbial activity and potential resources to support these microbial communities in situ (MARTE project) [4]. Here we report a search for subsurface life in volcanically hosted massive sulfidic deposits from the Iberian Pyritic Belt. Aseptic core samples were obtained within and down-gradient from the massive sulfide deposits and formation water was sampled within the resulting bore holes. Microbial activity was detected in un-contaminated samples by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Aerobic iron- and sulfide- oxidizing bacteria, and anaerobic denitrifying thiosulfate-oxidizing bacteria, sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic archaea have been identified. Potential energy fluxes detected in the system include oxidation of reduced iron and sulfur, or hydrogen gas coupled to nitrite, sulfate, ferric iron, inorganic

  9. A Search for Life in the Subsurface At Rio Tinto Spain, An Analog To Searching For Life On Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Most familiar life forms on Earth live in the surface biosphere where liquid water, sunlight, and the essential chemical elements for life are abundant. However, such environments are not found on Mars or anywhere else in the solar system. On Mars, the surface environmental conditions of pressure and temperature prevent formation of liquid water. Furthermore, conditions at the Martian surface are unfavorable to life due to intense ultraviolet radiation and strong oxidizing compounds that destroy organic compounds. However, subsurface liquid water on Mars has been predicted on theoretical grounds. The recent discovery of near surface ground ice by the Mars Odyssey mission, and the abundant evidence for recent Gully features observed by the Mars Global Surveyor mission strengthen the case for subsurface liquid water on Mars. Thus, the strategy for searching for life on Mars points to drilling to the depth of liquid water, bringing samples to the surface and analyzing them with instrumentation to detect in situ organisms and biomarker compounds. The MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment) project is a field experiment focused on searching for a hypothesized subsurface anaerobic chemoautotrophic biosphere in the region of the Rio Tinto, a river in southwestern Spain while also demonstrating technology relevant to searching for a subsurface biosphere on Mars. The Tinto river is located in the Iberian Pyrite belt, one of the largest deposits of sulfide minerals in the world. The surface (river) system is an acidic extreme environment produced and maintained by microbes that metabolize sulfide minerals and produce sulfuric acid as a byproduct. Evidence suggests that the river is a surface manifestation of an underground biochemical reactor. Organisms found in the river are capable of chemoautotrophic metabolism using sulfide and ferric iron mineral substrates, suggesting these organisms could thrive in groundwater which is the source of the Rio Tinto

  10. Mineralogical In-situ Investigation of Acid-Sulfate Samples from the Rio Tinto River, Spain, with a Portable XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Amils, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blake, D.; Bish, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A field campaign was organized in September 2006 by Centro de Astobiologica (Spain) and Washington University (St Louis, USA) for the geological study of the Rio Tinto river bed sediments using a suite of in-situ instruments comprising an ASD reflectance spectrometer, an emission spectrometer, panoramic and close-up color imaging cameras, a life detection system and NASA's CheMin 4 XRD/XRF prototype. The primary objectives of the field campaign were to study the geology of the site and test the potential of the instrument suite in an astrobiological investigation context for future Mars surface robotic missions. The results of the overall campaign will be presented elsewhere. This paper focuses on the results of the XRD/XRF instrument deployment. The specific objectives of the CheMin 4 prototype in Rio Tinto were to 1) characterize the mineralogy of efflorescent salts in their native environments; 2) analyze the mineralogy of salts and oxides from the modern environment to terraces formed earlier as part of the Rio Tinto evaporative system; and 3) map the transition from hematite-dominated terraces to the mixed goethite/salt-bearing terraces where biosignatures are best preserved.

  11. Tolerance to cadmium in Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) strains isolated from an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River (SW, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera, Angeles; Amils, Ricardo

    2005-01-01

    The effects of selected concentrations of Cd on the growth and ultrastructure of three strains of Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from a highly acidic river, Rio Tinto (SW Spain) were examined. The river is characterized by its extreme physico-chemical conditions in terms of low pH, mean 2.2 and high concentrations of heavy metals. Growth, Cd accumulation, chlorophyll a, influence of Fe in Cd toxicity and ultrastructural localization were determined. The strains were cultured in both, artificial chemically defined media as well as in natural water from the river. Since iron is the main component of the river water, the effect of different concentrations of this element in relation with Cd toxicity was also analysed. The three strains analysed showed comparable growth and ultrastructural changes. Cd concentration corresponding to 50% growth inhibition (EC 5 ) was 0.2 mM when cells were grown in artificial media. When cells were grown in natural water, no significant differences were found between the controls and the Cd supplemented media even at the highest concentration of 0.8 mM. At an inhibitory level of 0.1 mM of Cd, increasing the concentration of iron up to 90 or 180 mM resulted in a dramatic recovery in algal growth rates in artificial media, reaching normal growth curves. The accumulation of Cd depended on dose and time in the artificial media. The maximal accumulation of Cd was reached after 3 days for all Cd doses, and remained almost unchanged in the subsequent period of time. Chlorophyll a amount depended on dose but not on time in the artificial growth media. At the ultrastructural level, an increase in the periplasmalemmal space was observed due to the presence of a large number of vacuoles, together with a decrease in the relative volume of the nucleus when the cells were incubated in the presence of Cd. Pyrenoid and starch granules were observed and accumulation of spherical electron-dense bodies were also detected. X-ray spectra of these bodies for

  12. Tolerance to cadmium in Chlamydomonas sp. (Chlorophyta) strains isolated from an extreme acidic environment, the Tinto River (SW, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilera, Angeles [Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: aaguilera@cbm.uam.es; Amils, Ricardo [Centro de Astrobiologia, Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial, Carretera de Ajalvir Km 4, Torrejon de Ardoz, 28850 Madrid (Spain); Centro de Biologia Molecular (UAM-CSIC), Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Canto Blanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-30

    The effects of selected concentrations of Cd on the growth and ultrastructure of three strains of Chlamydomonas sp. isolated from a highly acidic river, Rio Tinto (SW Spain) were examined. The river is characterized by its extreme physico-chemical conditions in terms of low pH, mean 2.2 and high concentrations of heavy metals. Growth, Cd accumulation, chlorophyll a, influence of Fe in Cd toxicity and ultrastructural localization were determined. The strains were cultured in both, artificial chemically defined media as well as in natural water from the river. Since iron is the main component of the river water, the effect of different concentrations of this element in relation with Cd toxicity was also analysed. The three strains analysed showed comparable growth and ultrastructural changes. Cd concentration corresponding to 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 5}) was 0.2 mM when cells were grown in artificial media. When cells were grown in natural water, no significant differences were found between the controls and the Cd supplemented media even at the highest concentration of 0.8 mM. At an inhibitory level of 0.1 mM of Cd, increasing the concentration of iron up to 90 or 180 mM resulted in a dramatic recovery in algal growth rates in artificial media, reaching normal growth curves. The accumulation of Cd depended on dose and time in the artificial media. The maximal accumulation of Cd was reached after 3 days for all Cd doses, and remained almost unchanged in the subsequent period of time. Chlorophyll a amount depended on dose but not on time in the artificial growth media. At the ultrastructural level, an increase in the periplasmalemmal space was observed due to the presence of a large number of vacuoles, together with a decrease in the relative volume of the nucleus when the cells were incubated in the presence of Cd. Pyrenoid and starch granules were observed and accumulation of spherical electron-dense bodies were also detected. X-ray spectra of these bodies for

  13. Inorganic arsenic speciation at river basin scales: The Tinto and Odiel Rivers in the Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarmiento, A.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain)], E-mail: aguasanta.miguel@dgeo.uhu.es; Nieto, J.M. [Department of Geology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Casiot, C.; Elbaz-Poulichet, F.; Egal, M. [Laboratoire Hydrosciences, UMR 5569, Universite Montpellier 2, Place E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier cedex 05 (France)

    2009-04-15

    The Tinto and Odiel rivers are heavily affected by acid mine drainage from mining areas in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. In this work we have conducted a study along these rivers where surface water samples have been collected. Field measurements, total dissolved metals and Fe and inorganic As speciation analysis were performed. The average total concentration of As in the Tinto river (1975 {mu}g L{sup -1}) is larger than in the Odiel river (441 {mu}g L{sup -1}); however, the mean concentration of As(III) is almost four times higher in the Odiel. In wet seasons the mean pH levels of both rivers (2.4 and 3.2 for the Tinto and Odiel, respectively) increase slightly and the amount of dissolved total arsenic tend to decrease, while the As(III)/(V) ratio strongly increase. Besides, the concentration of the reduced As species increase along the water course. As a result, As(III)/(V) ratio can be up to 100 times higher in the lower part of the basins. An estimation of the As(III) load transported by both rivers into the Atlantic Ocean has been performed, resulting in about 60 kg yr{sup -1} and 2.7 t yr{sup -1} by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, respectively. - Total arsenic concentration decreases along the water basins, however the As(III)/(V) ratio increases.

  14. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Nieto, Jose Miguel

    2012-01-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12–16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2–4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: ► We study the influence of freshwater releases on the acidic Tinto river

  15. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canovas, Carlos Ruiz, E-mail: carlos.ruiz@dgeo.uhu.es [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC). c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, University of Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olias, Manuel [Department of Physical, Chemical and Natural Systems, University Pablo de Olavide. Ctra.de Utrera km 1, 41013, Sevilla (Spain); Vazquez-Sune, Enric; Ayora, Carlos [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAeA-CSIC). c/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Nieto, Jose Miguel [Department of Geology, University of Huelva, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Avenida 3 de Marzo s/n, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the influence of freshwater releases on the

  16. Identification of the subsurface sulfide bodies responsible for acidity in Río Tinto source water, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ortiz, David; Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Granda, Ángel; Quesada, Cecilio; Granda, Teresa; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Molina, Antonio; Amils, Ricardo

    2014-04-01

    The acidic waters of the Río Tinto rise from several acidic springs that emerge in the area surrounding Peña de Hierro (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2005). These springs are located above minor normal faults that act as natural conduits for the water from the underlying deep aquifer. Although it has been suggested that the acidity of the river originates from the biooxidation of massive and stockwork sulfides (Fernández-Remolar et al., 2008a), the location of the source for these acidic solutions has not previously been established. This lack of evidence has been used to suggest that the acidity of the Río Tinto may be the product of the most conspicuous of the possible source, the extensive mining of the area over approximately the last 5000 years (Davis et al., 2000). In this paper, we report resistivity and time-domain electromagnetic sounding data from the Río Tinto aquifer to a depth of ∼600 m, revealing the locations for the acidic sources. Both types of data support the presence of two distinct geological units that we interpret as thrust sheets emplaced onto each other during the Variscan orogeny of the Carboniferous. These units, both of which contain massive and stockwork sulfides, act as the aquifer for the acidic waters of the Río Tinto. Under this scenario, which is in agreement with the geological record of the Río Tinto fluvial system for the past 6 Ma (Moreno et al., 2003), our results imply that mining activity had little influence on the generation of the acidic river waters.

  17. Influence of releases from a fresh water reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River (SW Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, Carlos Ruiz; Olias, Manuel; Vazquez-Suñé, Enric; Ayora, Carlos; Miguel Nieto, Jose

    2012-02-01

    The Tinto River is an extreme case of pollution by acid mine drainage (AMD), with pH values below 3 and high sulphate, metal and metalloid concentrations along its main course. This study evaluates the impact of releases from a freshwater reservoir on the Tinto River, identifying the metal transport mechanisms. This information is needed to understand the water quality evolution in the long term, and involves the comprehension of interactions between AMD sources, freshwaters, particulate matter and sediments. This work proposes a methodology for quantifying the proportions in which the different sources are contributing. The method is based on the mass balance of solutes and accounts for the uncertainty of end-members. The impact of the releases from the Corumbel Reservoir on the hydrochemistry of the Tinto River was significant, accounting up to a 92% of river discharge. These releases provoked a sharp decrease in dissolved metal concentrations, especially for Fe (approximately 1000 fold) due to dilution and precipitation. Cadmium, Zn, Cu, Co, Ni and Al suffered a dilution to a 12-16 fold decrease while Ca, Sr, Na, Pb and Si were less affected (2-4 folds decrease). However, these releases also gave rise to an increase in particulate transport, mainly Fe, As, Cr, Ba, Pb and Ti, due to sediment remobilisation and Fe precipitation. Aluminium, Li, K, Si, Al, Ni and Sr, together with Cu were present in the particulate phase during the discharge peak. The proposed 2-component mixing model revealed the existence of non-conservative behaviour for Al, Ca, Li, Mn, Ni and Si as a consequence of the interactions between the acidic Tinto waters and the clay-rich reservoir sediments during the bottom outlet opening. These results were improved by a 3-component mixing model, introducing a new end-member to account the chemical dissolution of clay-rich sediments by acidic Tinto waters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Trace metal partitioning over a tidal cycle in an estuary affected by acid mine drainage (Tinto estuary, SW Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hierro, A. [Department of Physics, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Olías, M., E-mail: manuel.olias@dgyp.uhu.es [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Cánovas, C.R. [Department of Geodynamics and Paleontology, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Martín, J.E.; Bolivar, J.P. [Department of Applied Physics, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Campus de Excelencia Internacional del Mar CEIMAR, 21071 Huelva (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    The Tinto River estuary is highly polluted with the acid lixiviates from old sulphide mines. In this work the behaviour of dissolved and particulate trace metals under strong chemical gradients during a tidal cycle is studied. The pH values range from 4.4 with low tide to 6.9 with high tide. Precipitation of Fe and Al is intense during rising tides and As and Pb are almost exclusively found in the particulate matter (PM). Sorption processes are very important in controlling the mobility (and hence bioavailability) of some metals and particularly affect Cu below pH 6. Above pH ∼ 6 Cu is desorbed, probably by the formation of Cu(I)–chloride complexes. Although less pronounced than Cu, also Zn desorption above pH 6.5 seems to occur. Mn and Co are affected by sorption processes at pH higher than ca. 6. Cd behaves conservatively and Ni is slightly affected by sorption processes. - Highlights: • The Tinto estuary shows strong pH gradients and high trace elements concentrations. • PM has a hysteretic relationship with tides and high contents of Fe, Al, As and Pb. • Co and Mn are controlled by river and sea water mixing and sorption processes. • Sorption processes strongly affect Cu below pH 6, above this value Cu is desorpted. • Cadmium behaves conservatively along the pH range studied (4.4–6.9)

  19. Environmental control of Tinto and Odiel river basins by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Respaldiza, M.A.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Lopez-Tarrida, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the elemental concentrations of sediments of the rivers Tinto and Odiel, in Huelva, Spain, has been performed using PIXE. Thirteen samples have been collected, seven in the Tinto and six in the Odiel. Concentrations of 19 elements have been determined in each of them. The analysis of the data illustrates the environmental impact of the mining and fertilizer plants in the area. (orig.)

  20. Visible-near infrared point spectrometry of drill core samples from Río Tinto, Spain: results from the 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) drilling exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, Brad; Brown, Adrian J; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    Sampling of subsurface rock may be required to detect evidence of past biological activity on Mars. The Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) utilized the Río Tinto region, Spain, as a Mars analog site to test dry drilling technologies specific to Mars that retrieve subsurface rock for biological analysis. This work examines the usefulness of visible-near infrared (VNIR) (450-1000 nm) point spectrometry to characterize ferric iron minerals in core material retrieved during a simulated Mars drilling mission. VNIR spectrometry can indicate the presence of aqueously precipitated ferric iron minerals and, thus, determine whether biological analysis of retrieved rock is warranted. Core spectra obtained during the mission with T1 (893-897 nm) and T2 (644-652 nm) features indicate goethite-dominated samples, while relatively lower wavelength T1 (832-880 nm) features indicate hematite. Hematite/goethite molar ratios varied from 0 to 1.4, and within the 880-898 nm range, T1 features were used to estimate hematite/goethite molar ratios. Post-mission X-ray analysis detected phyllosilicates, which indicates that examining beyond the VNIR (e.g., shortwave infrared, 1000-2500 nm) will enhance the detection of other minerals formed by aqueous processes. Despite the limited spectral range of VNIR point spectrometry utilized in the MARTE Mars drilling simulation project, ferric iron minerals could be identified in retrieved core material, and their distribution served to direct core subsampling for biological analysis.

  1. Río Tinto : A geochemical and mineralogical terrestrial analogue of Mars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amils, Ricardo; Fernández-Remolar, David; Parro, Victor; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José Antonio; Oggerin, Monike; Sánchez-Román, Mónica; López, Francisco J.; Fernández-Rodríguez, José Pablo; Puente-Sánchez, Fernando; Briones, Carlos; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Tornos, Fernando; Gómez, Felipe; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Rodríguez, Nuria; Omoregie, Enoma; Timmis, Kenneth; Arce, Alejandro; Sanz, José Luis; Gómez-Ortiz, David

    2014-01-01

    The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain) have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals), but also

  2. Specific jarosite biomineralization by purpureocillium lilacinum, an acidophilic fungi isolated from río Tinto

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oggerin, Monike; Tornos, Fernando; Rodríguez, Nuria; del Moral, C.; Sánchez-Román, M.; Amils, R.

    Río Tinto (Huelva, southwestern Spain) is an extreme environment with a remarkably constant acidic pH and a high concentration of heavy metals, conditions generated by the metabolic activity of chemolithotrophic microorganisms thriving in the rich complex sulfides of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB).

  3. Río Tinto: A Geochemical and Mineralogical Terrestrial Analogue of Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Amils

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The geomicrobiological characterization of the water column and sediments of Río Tinto (Huelva, Southwestern Spain have proven the importance of the iron and the sulfur cycles, not only in generating the extreme conditions of the habitat (low pH, high concentration of toxic heavy metals, but also in maintaining the high level of microbial diversity detected in the basin. It has been proven that the extreme acidic conditions of Río Tinto basin are not the product of 5000 years of mining activity in the area, but the consequence of an active underground bioreactor that obtains its energy from the massive sulfidic minerals existing in the Iberian Pyrite Belt. Two drilling projects, MARTE (Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (2003–2006 and IPBSL (Iberian Pyrite Belt Subsurface Life Detection (2011–2015, were developed and carried out to provide evidence of subsurface microbial activity and the potential resources that support these activities. The reduced substrates and the oxidants that drive the system appear to come from the rock matrix. These resources need only groundwater to launch diverse microbial metabolisms. The similarities between the vast sulfate and iron oxide deposits on Mars and the main sulfide bioleaching products found in the Tinto basin have given Río Tinto the status of a geochemical and mineralogical Mars terrestrial analogue.

  4. Comment on “Identification of the subsurface sulfide bodies responsible for acidity in Río Tinto source water, Spain” by Gómez-Ortiz et al. (Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 391 (2014) 36-41)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olías, Manuel; Nieto, José Miguel

    2014-10-01

    The source of the Río Tinto (SW Spain) is currently located close to the Peña de Hierro mine, where it receives the first acidic waters. A few kilometers south, the river crosses the Río Tinto mines, a supergiant massive sulfide deposit that is much more important than those of Peña de Hierro, and the acid pollutant contributions to the river increase by orders of magnitude.

  5. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoppo, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on nuclear export activities in Spain, as elsewhere, which occur in a political, economic, and technological context. The factors operating the process are not always explicitly related in the public and the private sectors, nor between these sectors, by the relevant decision makers. A redefinition of Spain's policies in the nuclear sector has been going on since at least 1984, when a new energy plan was legislated by the newly elected Socialist government. It would be accurate to suggest that this process remains dynamic and not fully completed for policy purposes. This condition has resulted from the fact that Spain underwent a crucial political regime change from dictatorship to parliamentary democracy about a decade ago, with the transition to democracy only recently consolidated. Moreover, no policy in regard to nuclear nonproliferation existed during the Franco regime. Instead, Spain's official position was to maintain the right to preserve a nuclear option for national defense. However, this option was not developed into a concerted program to develop a nuclear military capability

  6. Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-03-01

    Spain is a constitutional monarchy with a population of 38.3 million growing at .5%/year. The most striking topographical features are the high plateaus and internal compartmentalization by mountain and river barriers. Nearly 3/4 of the country is arid. The Iberian peninsula was the scene of successive invasions and warfare for centuries. Phoenicians, Greeks, Carthaginians, Moors, Celts, Romans, and Visigoths all invaded at some time. The present language, religion, and laws stem from the Roman Period. The Reconquest from the North African Moors lasted over 700 years until they were driven out in 1492. The unification of present day Spain was complete by 1512. A period of dictatorial rule from 1923-31 ended with establishment of the Second Republic which saw increasing political polarization culminating in the Spanish Civil War. Franco's victory in 1939 was followed by official neutrality but pro-Axis policies during World War II. Spain's economy began to recover during the 1950s, but large scale modernization and development did not occur until the 1960s. Prince Juan Carlos de Borbon y Borbon, Franco's personally designated heir, assumed the title of king and chief of state with Franco's death in 1975. Franco's last prime minister was replaced in July 1976 in order to speed the pace of post-Franco liberalization. Spain's 1st parliamentary elections since 1936 were held in 1977, and a new constitution protecting human and civil rights and granting due process was overwhelmingly approved in 1978. The constitution also authorized creation of regional autonomous governments. By the mid-1970s, Spain had developed a strong and diversified industrial sector and a thriving tourist industry. From 1975-83, there were 8 years of double-digit inflation, an average growth rate of 1.5% in real terms, and an increase in unemployment from about 4.7% to 18.4%. By 1984 there was substantial improvement in inflation and the balance of payments. Goals of current government economic

  7. Mobile Applications and Destination Branding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Scolari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article sets out the findings of research carried out in 2013 on the Spanish tourism mobile applications. The research that covered 66 apps combined a quantitative description of this sector with qualitative categories based on a semiotic analysis. The article evaluates and compares the apps, identifies their main traits, and proposes a taxonomy: the content-based app, the participatory app and the leisure app.

  8. Exploration of a Subsurface Biosphere in a Volcanic Massive Sulfide: Results of the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, C. R.; Stevens, T.; Amils, R.; Fernandez, D.

    2005-12-01

    Biological systems on Earth require three key ingredients-- liquid water, an energy source, and a carbon source, that are found in very few extraterrestrial environments. Previous examples of independent subsurface ecosystems have been found only in basalt aquifers. Such lithotrophic microbial ecosystems (LME) have been proposed as models for steps in the early evolution of Earth's biosphere and for potential biospheres on other planets where the surface is uninhabitable, such as Mars and Europa.. The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) has searched in a volcanic massive sulfide deposit in Rio Tinto Spain for a subsurface biosphere capable of living without sunlight or oxygen and found a subsurface ecosystem driven by the weathering of the massive sulfide deposit (VMS) in which the rock matrix provides sufficient resources to support microbial metabolism, including the vigorous production of H2 by water-rock interactions. Microbial production of methane and sulfate occurred in the sulfide orebody and microbial production of methane and hydrogen sulfide continued in an anoxic plume downgradient from the sulfide ore. Organic carbon concentrations in the parent rock were too low to support microbes. The Rio Tinto system thus represents a new type of subsurface ecosystem with strong relevance for exobiological studies. Commercial drilling was used to reach the aquifer system at 100 m depth and conventional laboratory techniques were used to identify and characterize the biosphere. Then, the life search strategy that led to successful identification of this biosphere was applied to the development of a robotic drilling, core handling, inspection, subsampling, and life detection system built on a prototype planetary lander that was deployed in Rio Tinto Spain in September 2005 to test the capability of a robotic drilling system to search for subsurface life. A remote science team directed the simulation and analyzed the data from the MARTE robotic drill. The results

  9. Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Spanish low and intermediate level radioactive wastes are disposed of at the El Cabril Disposal Facility, in the province of Cordoba (SPAIN). The fundamental safety objective of the facility consists of the immediate and longer term protection of people and the environment. This objective leads to the need to isolate the wastes from the human surroundings, such that any release of the radionuclides contained in them does not pose any radiological risk for either people or the environment over the necessary time period. Consequently, it is necessary to fully protect the wastes against external aggression, from both the climatic and biological point of view (infiltration of water, temperature variations, chemical action of water, attacks by living macro and microorganisms, plants, etc.). This waste isolation is achieved by means of a multi-barrier system separating the activity stored from the aforementioned actions

  10. Fungal Iron Biomineralization in Río Tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monike Oggerin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Although there are many studies on biomineralization processes, most of them focus on the role of prokaryotes. As fungi play an important role in different geological and biogeochemical processes, it was considered of interest to evaluate their role in a natural extreme acidic environment, Río Tinto, which has a high level of fungal diversity and a high concentration of metals. In this work we report, for the first time, the generation of iron oxyhydroxide minerals by the fungal community in a specific location of the Tinto basin. Using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and High Angle Angular Dark Field coupled with Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (HAADF-STEM and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX, we observed fungal structures involved in the formation of iron oxyhydroxide minerals in mineralized sediment samples from the Río Tinto basin. Although Río Tinto waters are supersaturated in these minerals, they do not precipitate due to their slow precipitation kinetics. The presence of fungi, which simply provide charged surfaces for metal binding, favors the precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides by overcoming these kinetic barriers. These results prove that the fungal community of Río Tinto participates very actively in the geochemical processes that take place there.

  11. Building on Tinto's model of engagement and persistence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Building on Tinto's model of engagement and persistence: Experiences from the Umthombo Youth Development Foundation Scholarship Scheme. A Ross. Abstract. Background. Major inequalities in staffing levels at rural and urban hospitals contribute to poorer health outcomes in rural areas. Local and international ...

  12. Modelling and Mapping Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition of Precipitation in Spain for Hydrologic and Climatic Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Diaz-Teijeiro, M. F. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Madrid (Spain); Castano, S. [Geological Survey of Spain (IGME), Madrid (Spain)

    2013-07-15

    A simple multiple regression model based on two geographic factors (latitude and elevation) has been developed that reproduces reasonably well the spatial distribution of the current mean oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation over spain. In a preliminary analysis, additional geographic and climatic factors do not improve the performance of the model. A continuous digital map of oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation has been produced by combining the polynomial model with a digital elevation model using GIS tools. Application of the resulting map to several groundwater case studies in spain has shown it to be useful as a reference of the input function to recharge. Further validation of the model, and further testing of its usefulness in surface hydrology and climatic studies, is ongoing through comparison of model results with isotope data from the GNIP database and from isotope studies in hydrogeology and climate change taking place in spain. (author)

  13. Scientific results and lessons learned from an integrated crewed Mars exploration simulation at the Rio Tinto Mars analogue site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgel, Csilla; Kereszturi, Ákos; Váczi, Tamás; Groemer, Gernot; Sattler, Birgit

    2014-02-01

    Between 15 and 25 April 2011 in the framework of the PolAres programme of the Austrian Space Forum, a five-day field test of the Aouda.X spacesuit simulator was conducted at the Rio Tinto Mars-analogue site in southern Spain. The field crew was supported by a full-scale Mission Control Center (MCC) in Innsbruck, Austria. The field telemetry data were relayed to the MCC, enabling a Remote Science Support (RSS) team to study field data in near-real-time and adjust the flight planning in a flexible manner. We report on the experiences in the field of robotics, geophysics (Ground Penetrating Radar) and geology as well as life sciences in a simulated spaceflight operational environment. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) maps had been prepared using Google Earth and aerial images. The Rio Tinto mining area offers an excellent location for Mars analogue simulations. It is recognised as a terrestrial Mars analogue site because of the presence of jarosite and related sulphates, which have been identified by the NASA Mars Exploration Rover "Opportunity" in the El Capitan region of Meridiani Planum on Mars. The acidic, high ferric-sulphate content water of Rio Tinto is also considered as a possible analogue in astrobiology regarding the analysis of ferric sulphate related biochemical pathways and produced biomarkers. During our Mars simulation, 18 different types of soil and rock samples were collected by the spacesuit tester. The Raman results confirm the presence of minerals expected, such as jarosite, different Fe oxides and oxi-hydroxides, pyrite and complex Mg and Ca sulphates. Eight science experiments were conducted in the field. In this contribution first we list the important findings during the management and realisation of tests, and also a first summary of the scientific results. Based on these experiences suggestions for future analogue work are also summarised. We finish with recommendations for future field missions, including the preparation of the experiments

  14. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The session "Astrobiology: Analogs and Applications to the Search for Life" included the folowing reports:The Search for Life on Mars Using Macroscopically Visible Microbial Mats (Stromatolites) in 3.5/3.3 Ga Cherts from the Pilbara in Australia and Barberton in South Africa as Analogues; Life in a Mars Analog: Microbial Activity Associated with Carbonate Cemented Lava Breccias from NW Spitsbergen; Groundwater-fed Iron-rich Microbial Mats in a Freshwater Creek: Growth Cycles and Fossilization Potential of Microbial Features; Episodic Fossilization of Microorganisms on an Annual Timescale in an Anthropogenically Modified Natural Environment: Geochemical Controls and Implications for Astrobiology; Proterozoic Microfossils and Their Implications for Recognizing Life on Mars; Microbial Alteration of Volcanic Glass in Modern and Ancient Oceanic Crust as a Proxy for Studies of Extraterrestrial Material ; Olivine Alteration on Earth and Mars; Searching for an Acidic Aquifer in the R!o Tinto Basin. First Geobiology Results of MARTE Project; In-Field Testing of Life Detection Instruments and Protocols in a Mars Analogue Arctic Environment; Habitability of the Shallow Subsurface on Mars: Clues from the Meteorites; Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE): 2003 Drilling Campaign to Search for a Subsurface Biosphere at Rio Tinto Spain; Characterization of the Organic Matter in an Archean Chert (Warrawoona, Australia); and The Solfatara Crater, Italy: Characterization of Hydrothermal Deposits, Biosignatures and Their Astrobiological Implication.

  15. Application of environmental impact assessment in Spain (1989-2008): the case of Road Projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbero Rodriguez, J.; Espigares Pinilla, T.

    2010-01-01

    In this study we analyze the application in Spain of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) along the first 20 years since its implementation, paying special attention to road projects. We revised all Environmental Impact Statement (EISs) published during the period 1989-2008 and monitored, among others, the following variables; the record of decision (favorable or unfavorable) of the State Authority, the type of ecosystem affected by the projects and the mitigation measures required to the developer to implement the project. The results allow us to evaluate the effectiveness of EIA procedure for road projects and to suggest some practical recommendations to improve the quality of EISs. (Author) 13 refs.

  16. An application of the multilayer perceptron: Solar radiation maps in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hontoria, L.; Aguilera, J. [Grupo Investigacion y Desarrollo en Energia Solar y Automatica, Dpto. de Ingenieria Electronica, de Telecomunicaciones y Automatica, Escuela Politecnica Superior de Jaen, Campus de las Lagunillas, Universidad de Jaen, 23071 Jaen (Spain); Zufiria, P. [Grupo de Redes Neuronales, Dpto. de Matematica Aplicada a las Tecnologias de la Informacion, ETSI Telecomunicaciones, UPM Ciudad Universitaria s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-11-01

    In this work an application of a methodology to obtain solar radiation maps is presented. This methodology is based on a neural network system [Lippmann, R.P., 1987. An introduction to computing with neural nets. IEEE ASSP Magazine, 4-22] called Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) [Haykin, S., 1994. Neural Networks. A Comprehensive Foundation. Macmillan Publishing Company; Hornik, K., Stinchcombe, M., White, H., 1989. Multilayer feedforward networks are universal approximators. Neural Networks, 2(5), 359-366]. To obtain a solar radiation map it is necessary to know the solar radiation of many points spread wide across the zone of the map where it is going to be drawn. For most of the locations all over the world the records of these data (solar radiation in whatever scale, daily or hourly values) are non-existent. Only very few locations have the privilege of having good meteorological stations where records of solar radiation have being registered. But even in those locations with historical records of solar data, the quality of these solar series is not as good as it should be for most purposes. In addition, to draw solar radiation maps the number of points on the maps (real sites) that it is necessary to work with makes this problem difficult to solve. Nevertheless, with the application of the methodology proposed in this paper, this problem has been solved and solar radiation maps have been obtained for a small region of Spain: Jaen province, a southern province of Spain between parallels 38{sup o}25' N and 37{sup o}25' N, and meridians 4{sup o}10' W and 2{sup o}10' W, and for a larger region: Andalucia, the most southern region of Spain situated between parallels 38{sup o}40' N and 36{sup o}00' N, and meridians 7{sup o}30' W and 1{sup o}40' W. (author)

  17. Licensing requirements for initial commissioning programs in Spain: Application to different PWR designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munuera, A.; Conde, J.M.; Martinez, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the overall licensing process in Spain, focusing on the initial commissioning requirements. The significance of this part of the regulatory work is evident both from the licensing and the licensee's points of view. Licensing in Spain is ruled by different laws which determine the general requirements and fix the licensing frame. Being a nuclear technology importer country, the base of the regulatory work lies on the rules and regulations of the country of origin of the planet, with the addition of case specific requirements. The application of this methodology to plants designed in different countries produces licensing processes which are similar to the overall, but very different in its development. It also means a special technical effort on the part of the regulatory body to cope with the problems arising from the use of different technologies and safety standards. The start-up programs from fuel loading to full power of a Westinghouse plant (Vandellos 2) and a Siemens-KWU plant (Trillo 1) are compared from the technical point of view, enhancing the differences that can be relevant for the regulatory work. The difficulties arising from the application of both the German and US concepts are discussed. (orig.)

  18. GPR applications in Civil Engineering in Spain - state-of-the-art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Gracia, Vega; Solla, Mercedes; Santos-Assunçao, Sonia; Lorenzo, Henrique

    2014-05-01

    GPR was introduced in Spain in 1990, and the first significant work was the PhD thesis of H. Lorenzo in 1994. Due to its versatile applicability, the employ has been increased and actually, GPR is extensively used in detection of pipes, wiring and urban services mainly. During the last years, this method was also widely utilized in the detection of graves from the civil war and in forensic studies, with irregular results. It was also commonly applied in archaeology. Actually exists more than 20 private companies offering geotechnical services by means of GPR. Also, several public institutions as Universities and Research Institutes base part of their research in GPR or in GPR applications. Notwithstanding, no training courses of specific formation on GPR is offered, but in several doctorate programs it is possible to work with GPR. Also, in many schools, GPR is part of the geophysical formation of graduate students. However, no national guidelines and rules exist, and each company defines the investigation protocols. Nevertheless, one of the aims of the Comisión Española de Geodesia y Geofísica (Spanish Committee for Geodesy and Geophysics) is to define guidelines for the GPR studies. Probably, the existence of national guidelines or perhaps European guidelines could be the most effective way to promote the responsible use of GPR in different domains. On the other hand, perhaps recommendations on the use of combined methodologies could be a practical way to persuade in the application of geophysical non-destructive technologies. The CEDEX, Centro de Estudios y Experimentación de Obras Públicas (Center for Studies and Experimentation in Civil Engineering), which is a civil engineering research agency in Spain, offers different test sites to calibrate and evaluate the method. It is an autonomous organization, organically ascribed at present to the Ministry of Fomento, and functionally ascribed to the Ministries of Fomento and Medioambiente of Spain, giving

  19. Modelling and Mapping Oxygen-18 Isotope Composition of Precipitation in Spain for Hydrologic and Climatic Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez-Arevalo, J.; Diaz-Teijeiro, M.F.; Castano, S.

    2011-01-01

    A simple multiple regression model based on two geographic factors (latitude and elevation) has been developed that reproduces reasonably well the spatial distribution of the current mean oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation over Spain. In a preliminary analysis, additional geographic and climatic factors do not improve the performance of the model. A continuous digital map of oxygen-18 isotope composition in precipitation has been produced by combining the polynomial model with a Digital Elevation Model using GIS tools. Application of the resulting map to several case studies in Spain has shown it to be useful as a reference of the isotope input function to groundwater recharge and surface runoff. The results obtained so far show a good fit between modelled stable isotope values and those measured in surface and ground waters from different aquifers and recharge areas. The GIS tools applied to a continuous digital layer of spatial isotope are able to provide accurate information at detailed scales that are not affordable by other means. Further validation of the model, and further testing of its usefulness in surface hydrology and climatic studies, is going on.

  20. Study of erosion processes in the Tinto salt-marshes with remote sensing images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Both climatic factors and the sea wave energy are two important factors to study the tidal wetlands. One of the most important wetlands in the Southwest of the Iberian Peninsula is the Tinto salt-marshes, the third largest wetland in Andalusia after ...

  1. International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends (InPACT) Book of Proceedings (Madrid, Spain, April 26-28, 2013)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pracana, Clara, Ed.; Silva, Liliana, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    We are delighted to welcome you to the International Psychological Applications Conference and Trends 2013, taking place in Madrid, Spain, from 26 to 28 of April. Our efforts and active engagement can now be rewarded with these three days of exciting new developments about what we are passionate about: Psychology and its connections. We take pride…

  2. Assessment of the accessibility legislation in Spain and its effective application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Hernández-Galán

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The existence of legislation on accessibility does not always imply it is enforced effectively. This article aims to answer the following question: Is the existence of accessibility legislation enough to make physical environments truly accessible?This study assesses the current Spanish legislation as well as any existing voluntary regulations in the country. This assessment is done chronologically, so as to show the historical evolution of the accessibility regulations in Spain.In order to determine whether accessibility legislation has been truly effectively enforced, the issue is studied as it affects Spanish municipalities with respect to urban planning, public buildings, public transportation and websites. The conclusion of this study is that the existence of accessibility legislation per se is not enough to ensure its practical application, and ultimately, to render physical environments, products and services accessible to the majority of the population regardless of their functional capabilities.

  3. Catalonia-Spain political conflict and the potential application of Article 7 TEU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    Catalonia-Spain political conflict and the potential application of Article 7 TEU My presentation will explore the appropriateness of applying Article 7 TEU in response to potential disproportionate measures taken by a Member State as a reaction to the threat of celebration of a referendum for self...... and the rule of law; the limits of the principle of non-intervention; the definition of Nation and the principle of self-determination. The celebration of a referendum without the state´s consent also tensions and contrasts some of the EU founded values (Article 2 TEU) promoted and safeguarded by art. 7 TEU....... On the one hand we have the rule of law and on the other hand we have democracy and freedom of expression. This presentation will focus in the second section of the precedent sentence, meaning the collision of EU founded values. The presentation will follow analysing the meaning of Article 7 TEU designed...

  4. Application of seasonal forecasting for the drought forecasting in Catalonia (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Zaragoza, Albert; Aznar, Blanca; Cabot, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    Low flows and droughts are a hydro-climatic feature in Spain (Alvarez et al, 2008). The construction of dams as water reservoirs has been a usual tool to manage the water resources for agriculture and livestock, industries and human needs (MIMAM, 2000, 2007). The last drought that has affected Spain has last four years in Catalonia, from 2004 to the spring of 2008, and it has been particularly hard as a consequence of the precipitation deficit in the upper part of the rivers that nourish the main dams. This problem increases when the water scarcity affects very populated areas, like big cities. The Barcelona city, with more than 3.000.000 people concentrated in the downtown and surrounding areas is a clear example. One of the objectives of the SOSTAQUA project is to improve the water resources management in real time, in order to improve the water supply in the cities in the framework of sustainable development. The work presented here deals with the application of seasonal forecasting to improve the water management in Catalonia, particularly in drought conditions. A seasonal prediction index has been created as a linear combination of climatic data and the ECM4 prediction that has been validated too. This information has implemented into a hydrological model and it has been applied to the last drought considering the real water demands of population, as well as to the water storage evolution in the last months. It has been found a considerable advance in the forecasting of water volume into reservoirs. The advantage of this methodology is that it only requires seasonal forecasting free through internet. Due to the fact that the principal rivers that supply water to Barcelona, birth on the Pyrenees and Pre-Pyrenees region, the analysis and precipitation forecasting is focused on this region (Zaragoza, 2008).

  5. NPP long term operation in Spain - First application for license renewal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.; Gorrochategui, I.; Marcos, R.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: In the operation of the Spanish nuclear power plants (NPP), safety is always the prime consideration. Plant Life Management Programmes have been set up with the strategic objective to operate the NPPs as long as they are considered safe and reliable. The safety of each NPP is reviewed by the Spanish nuclear regulatory authority (CSN) under a continuous process. In addition, experience is gained from operating the plants and from exchanges with operators of similar units. Current Spanish regulatory framework for renewing NPP operating licenses requires performing a Periodic Safety Review (PSR) to be performed every 10 years and submitted when applying for a new renewal of the NPP operating license. A few years ago, CSN issued a document regarding the licensing requirements that nuclear power plants should meet in order to be granted with an operating license for long term operation (i.e, operation beyond the original plant design life, typically 40 years). Besides the traditional PSR requirements, specific requirements regarding to long term operation (LTO) include: - An Aging Management and Evaluation Program, including the identification and evaluation of Time Limited Aging Analysis (TLAA). - An updated Radiological Impact Study. - A review and assessment of regulation/standard applicability. Garona NPP (GE, BWR/3 design) operated by Spanish utility Nuclenor from 1971 has a current operating license up to 2009. A decision was made to apply for a new operating license, being Garona plant the first one in Spain to face with the new long term operation requirements. The paper will provide an overview of the methodology used in Spain to address and perform the required analyses to support the LTO application for the operating license renewal. In particular, focus will be paid on the project developed in Garona (2002-2006) whose result has been the first Spanish application for License Renewal for LTO. Also it will be reported the ongoing work necessary to

  6. Pig Manure Application for Remediation of Mine Soils in Murcia Province, SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Faz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In southern Spain, specifically in Murcia Province, an increased pig population causes large amounts of slurry production that creates a very serious environmental concern. Our aim was to use this waste to reduce the acid mine drainage process, heavy metal mobilization, and to improve soil conditions to enhance plant establishment in mine soils. Pig manure, sewage sludge, and lime were used as soil amendments in a field experiment and in undisturbed soil column. Field experiments showed an increase in pH, total nitrogen, organic carbon, and carbonate contents; a reduction of diethylene-tetramine pentaacetic acid (DTPA– and water-extractable metals; and an improvement of plant establishment. The field studies showed that pig manure could be utilized to remediate polluted soils. Column studies in the laboratory showed that amendment of mine soil with pig manure initially increased soil pH from 2.21 to 6.34, promoted reduced conditions in the surface soil, and decreased the metal mobility. After 21 weeks, while the leachate was slightly acidic, however, the mobility of metals was substantially low. Additions of 7 and 14% of pig manure were insufficient to maintain a neutral pH in the leachate. Therefore, continuous application of the pig manure may be advised.

  7. Application of statistical downscaling technique for the production of wine grapes (Vitis vinifera L.) in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán Fernández, E.; García Moreno, R.; Pino Otín, M. R.; Ribalaygua Batalla, J.

    2012-04-01

    Climate and soil are two of the most important limiting factors for agricultural production. Nowadays climate change has been documented in many geographical locations affecting different cropping systems. The General Circulation Models (GCM) has become important tools to simulate the more relevant aspects of the climate expected for the XXI century in the frame of climatic change. These models are able to reproduce the general features of the atmospheric dynamic but their low resolution (about 200 Km) avoids a proper simulation of lower scale meteorological effects. Downscaling techniques allow overcoming this problem by adapting the model outcomes to local scale. In this context, FIC (Fundación para la Investigación del Clima) has developed a statistical downscaling technique based on a two step analogue methods. This methodology has been broadly tested on national and international environments leading to excellent results on future climate models. In a collaboration project, this statistical downscaling technique was applied to predict future scenarios for the grape growing systems in Spain. The application of such model is very important to predict expected climate for the different growing crops, mainly for grape, where the success of different varieties are highly related to climate and soil. The model allowed the implementation of agricultural conservation practices in the crop production, detecting highly sensible areas to negative impacts produced by any modification of climate in the different regions, mainly those protected with protected designation of origin, and the definition of new production areas with optimal edaphoclimatic conditions for the different varieties.

  8. The economic value of drought information: Application to water resources management decisions in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrote, Luis; Sordo, Alvaro; Iglesias, Ana

    2016-04-01

    Information is valuable when it improves decision-making (e.g., actions can be adjusted to better suit the situation at hand) and enables the mitigation of damage. However, quantifying the value of information is often difficult. Here we explore a general approach to understand the economic value of drought information for water managers framing our approach in the precautionary principle that reminds us that uncertainty is not a reason to postpone or avoid action. We explore how decision making can disregard uncertain effects, taking a short-term approach and focusing instead on the certain costs and benefits of taking action. Two main questions arise: How do we know that advanced drought information is actually helping decisions?; and What is the value of information in the decision process? The approach is applied to several regulated water resources systems in Spain. It first views drought information as a factor in the decision process which can be used by water managers to reduce uncertainty. Second, the value of drought information is the expected gain in a decision outcome (utility) from using additional information. Finally, the gains of improved information are compared with the information collection costs. Here we estimate the value by taking into account the accuracy of the drought information, the subjective probabilities about the value, analyzed as Bayesian probabilities, and the ability or skill of the stakeholders to apply the drought information to modify their actions. Since information may be considered a public good (non-rivalry and non-excludability), it may justify public policy in the provision of information, considering social costs and benefits. The application of the framework to the Spanish case studies shows that information benefits exceeds to costs when drought frequency is 20-40% above normal values; below these values uncertainty in the decisions dominate the results; above these values, the management decisions are limited even

  9. INES in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarzuela, J.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the INES activities in Spain addressing the following issues: applicability; rating procedure; public information; activities in 1997; events above level 0 (October 1996 - September 1997); difficulties

  10. The subsurface geology of Río Tinto: material examined during a simulated Mars drilling mission for the Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Martínez-Frías, Jesús; Schutt, John; Sutter, Brad; Heldmann, Jennifer L; Bell, Mary Sue; Battler, Melissa; Cannon, Howard; Gómez-Elvira, Javier; Stoker, Carol R

    2008-10-01

    The 2005 Mars Astrobiology Research and Technology Experiment (MARTE) project conducted a simulated 1-month Mars drilling mission in the Río Tinto district, Spain. Dry robotic drilling, core sampling, and biological and geological analytical technologies were collectively tested for the first time for potential use on Mars. Drilling and subsurface sampling and analytical technologies are being explored for Mars because the subsurface is the most likely place to find life on Mars. The objectives of this work are to describe drilling, sampling, and analytical procedures; present the geological analysis of core and borehole material; and examine lessons learned from the drilling simulation. Drilling occurred at an undisclosed location, causing the science team to rely only on mission data for geological and biological interpretations. Core and borehole imaging was used for micromorphological analysis of rock, targeting rock for biological analysis, and making decisions regarding the next day's drilling operations. Drilling reached 606 cm depth into poorly consolidated gossan that allowed only 35% of core recovery and contributed to borehole wall failure during drilling. Core material containing any indication of biology was sampled and analyzed in more detail for its confirmation. Despite the poorly consolidated nature of the subsurface gossan, dry drilling was able to retrieve useful core material for geological and biological analysis. Lessons learned from this drilling simulation can guide the development of dry drilling and subsurface geological and biological analytical technologies for future Mars drilling missions.

  11. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes – application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    A. G. Gómez; J. García Alba; A. Puente; J. A. Juanes

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT. A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitabi...

  12. Environmental Risk Assessment of dredging processes - application to Marin harbour (NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A. G.; García Alba, J.; Puente, A.; Juanes, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    A methodological procedure to estimate the environmental risk of dredging operations in aquatic systems has been developed. Environmental risk estimations are based on numerical models results, which provide an appropriated spatio-temporal framework analysis to guarantee an effective decision-making process. The methodological procedure has been applied on a real dredging operation in the port of Marin (NW Spain). Results from Marin harbour confirmed the suitability of the developed methodology and the conceptual approaches as a comprehensive and practical management tool.

  13. Assessing residential building values in Spain for risk analyses - application to the landslide hazard in the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarino, I.; Torrijo, F. J.; Palencia, S.; Gielen, E.

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a method of valuing the stock of residential buildings in Spain as the first step in assessing possible damage caused to them by natural hazards. For the purposes of the study we had access to the SIOSE (the Spanish Land Use and Cover Information System), a high-resolution land-use model, as well as to a report on the financial valuations of this type of building throughout Spain. Using dasymetric disaggregation processes and GIS techniques we developed a geolocalized method of obtaining this information, which was the exposure variable in the general risk assessment formula. Then, with the application over a hazard map, the risk value can be easily obtained. An example of its application is given in a case study that assesses the risk of a landslide in the entire 23 200 km2 of the Valencia Autonomous Community (NUT2), the results of which are analysed by municipal areas (LAU2) for the years 2005 and 2009.

  14. Tinto's Theoretical Perspective and Expectancy-Value Paradigm: A confrontation to explain freshmen's academic achievement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandrine Neuville

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available For decades, success in postsecondary education has preoccupied psychological and educational researchers. In this respect, Tinto's student integration model (1982, 1997 is one of the most frequently cited models. Tinto proposed that students' background characteristics, initial intentions and aspirations towards college influence their academic and social integration, which in turn affect their persistence. Unfortunately, although this model is an integrative one, it does not take motivational variables such as students' self-efficacy (Bandura, 1997; Bong & Skaalvik, 2003 and students' subjective value of academic tasks (Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Neuville, 2004 into account although their impact on learning has been widely demonstrated (Robbins, Lauver, Le, Davis, & Langley, 2004. The purpose of this study, conducted with 2637 first-year university students from all the Bachelor's degree programs of a Belgian university, is to compare, through structural equation models, the explanatory power of these two research traditions (students' integration, on the one hand, and a motivational paradigm, on the other hand in predicting students' academic performance.

  15. LDPI Working Paper 11: The mining-conservation nexus: Rio Tinto, development ‘gifts’ and contested compensation in Madagascar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seagle, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces a genealogy of land access and legitimisation strategies culminating in the recent convergence of multinational mining and conservation in southeast Madagascar. Drawing on empirical research carried out on the Rio Tinto/QMM ilmenite mine in Fort Dauphin, it focuses on how local

  16. Revising Tinto's Interactionalist Theory of Student Departure Through Theory Elaboration: Examining the Role of Organizational Attributes in the Persistence Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Joseph B.; Braxton, John M.

    1998-01-01

    A study used theory elaboration to help revise Tinto's interactionalist theory of individual student departure from college to include the effects of organizational attributes on student withdrawal. Results provide strong support for including concepts from organizational theory and suggest future research should use theory elaboration to look for…

  17. Análisis de la información financiera y analítica de The Rio Tinto Company Limited (1873-1954

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Carmen Avilés Palacios

    2006-12-01

    explota desde 1873 a 1954 -The Rio Tinto Company Ltd. (R.T.C.- debido a la gran relevancia que ambas presentan. Las minas de Río Tinto se erigen como los yacimientos mineros de mayor riqueza en minerales metálicos de entre los conocidos en el Siglo XIX. Estas minas se venden a perpetuidad a un consorcio financiero de bandera británica, The Rio Tinto Company Ltd., constituido al efecto. El proyecto de compra-venta es el más significativo de los llevados a cabo en la Bolsa de Londres

  18. APPLICATION DEVELOPERS AND APP BOOKS FOR CHILDREN AND YOUNG PEOPLE IN SPAIN: CHARACTERISTICS, PROSPECTS AND BUSINESS MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neila Sanz Pilar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish market of Children and Young people’s Literature has been on the rise in recent decades and has undergone an exponential increase since introduction of ICT and the acquisition of digital contents which are dedicated to the children and young audience. For this reason, this research aims to show brief X-ray developers of a particular kind of ebooks, enhanced ebooks in Anglo-Saxon terminology, to set aside children and young people in Spain. Due to the lack of studies on these kinds of ebooks in the Children and Young people’s literature in Spain, an exploratory methodology has been applied. On the one hand, it’s based on the collection of primary and secondary sources of information, and on the other hand, an orderly and systematic survey of controlled variables has been created to obtain the answers from developers of enhanced ebooks. The purpose is to know the intrinsic characteristics that define its; to analyze the changes in the business model through the production, marketing and promotion of enhanced ebooks; and finally, to outline the future prospects these companies both application books in Spanish Children and Young people’s literature subsector; showing that they are young companies, composed by interdisciplinary teams and advocating the renewal of the business model through the integration of digital media, online sales platforms and 2.0 Social Media tools.

  19. Assessing residential buildings value in Spain for risk analyses. Application to the landslide hazard in the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarino, I.; Torrijo, F. J.; Palencia, S.; Gielen, E.

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a method of valuing the stock of residential buildings in Spain as the first step in assessing possible damage caused to them by natural hazards. For the purposes of the study we had access to the SIOSE (the Spanish Land Use and Cover Information System), a high-resolution land-use model, as well as to a report on the financial valuations of this type of buildings throughout Spain. Using dasymetric disaggregation processes and GIS techniques we developed a geolocalized method of obtaining this information, which was the exposure variable in the general risk assessment formula. If hazard maps and risk assessment methods - the other variables - are available, the risk value can easily be obtained. An example of its application is given in a case study that assesses the risk of a landslide in the entire 23 200 km2 of the Valencia Autonomous Community (NUT2), the results of which are analyzed by municipal areas (LAU2) for the years 2005 and 2009.

  20. Innovations and trends in meat consumption: an application of the Delphi method in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Antonio; Miranda, Francisco J; Rubio, Sergio; Valero, Víctor

    2012-12-01

    The meat sector in Spain is an important industry. However, traditional consumption is changing as a result of the country's economic crisis and the new structure of households. The objective of the present study was to identify trends in meat consumption in Spain extrapolated to 2016, and the main innovations that should be of interest to firms in the sector. The study was conducted in 2011 using the Delphi method with the participation of 26 experts. The results showed that, while the demand for meat will not vary significantly in amount, it will do so in composition, with chicken replacing beef as the meat of most importance in the shopping basket. In addition, significant growth is expected in certified meat, but the demand for organic meat will not take off. Neither will there be no significant changes in end purchase formats, but there will be a clear trend in consumers' purchasing decision criteria away from price, external appearance and origin towards quality certification and the attributes of the packaging. With respect to end purchase channels, the experts estimate that the current trend will be accentuated with increasing market share for large supermarkets and major distribution brands. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Text of an Agreement between the Agency and Spain Relating to the Application of Safeguards to a Quantity of Enriched Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The text of an agreement between the Agency and Spain relating to the application of safeguards to approximately 4. 5 kilograms of enriched uranium is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 19 November 1974, pursuant to Section 10.

  2. The Text of an Agreement between the Agency and Spain Relating to the Application of Safeguards to a Quantity of Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-01-20

    The text of an agreement between the Agency and Spain relating to the application of safeguards to approximately 4. 5 kilograms of enriched uranium is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 19 November 1974, pursuant to Section 10.

  3. The Text of an Agreement between the Agency and Spain Relating to the Application of Safeguards to a Quantity of Enriched Uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-07-23

    The text of an agreement between the Agency and Spain relating to the application of safeguards to a quantity of enriched uranium is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The agreement entered into force on 18 June 1975, pursuant to Section 24.

  4. On the application of Hidden Markov Model and Bayesian Belief Network to seismic noise at Las Canadas Caldera, Tenerife, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintero Oliveros, Anggi [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine (Italy); Departamento de Ciencias de La Tierra, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela); Carniel, Roberto [Dipartimento di Georisorse e Territorio, Universita di Udine (Italy)], E-mail: roberto.carniel@uniud.it; Tarraga, Marta [Departamento de Volcanologia, Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, CSIC, Madrid (Spain); Aspinall, Willy [Aspinall and Associates, 5 Woodside Close, Beaconsfield, Bucks (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    The Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex situated in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has recently shown signs of unrest, long after its last eruptive episode at Chinyero in 1909, and the last explosive episode which happened at Montana Blanca, 2000 years ago. In this paper we study the seismicity of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex recorded between May and December 2004, in order to show the applicability of tools such as Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Belief Networks which can be used to build a structure for evaluating the probability of given eruptive or volcano-related scenarios. The results support the existence of a bidirectional relationship between volcano-tectonic events and the background seismic noise - in particular its frequency content. This in turn suggests that the two phenomena can be related to one unique process influencing their generation.

  5. Event recognition by detrended fluctuation analysis: An application to Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex, Tenerife, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Pin, Enrico; Carniel, Roberto; Tarraga, Marta

    2008-01-01

    In this work we investigate the application of the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to seismic data recorded in the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) during the month of July 2004, in a phase of possible unrest of the Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex. Tectonic events recorded in the area are recognized and located by the Spanish national agency Instituto Geografico Nacional (IGN) and their catalogue is the only currently available dataset, whose completeness unfortunately suffers from the strong presence of anthropogenic noise. In this paper we propose the use of DFA to help to automatically identify events. The evaluation of this case study proves DFA to be a promising tool to be used for rapidly screening large seismic datasets and highlighting time windows with the potential presence of discrete events

  6. On the application of Hidden Markov Model and Bayesian Belief Network to seismic noise at Las Canadas Caldera, Tenerife, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quintero Oliveros, Anggi; Carniel, Roberto; Tarraga, Marta; Aspinall, Willy

    2008-01-01

    The Teide-Pico Viejo volcanic complex situated in Tenerife Island (Canary Islands, Spain) has recently shown signs of unrest, long after its last eruptive episode at Chinyero in 1909, and the last explosive episode which happened at Montana Blanca, 2000 years ago. In this paper we study the seismicity of the Teide-Pico Viejo complex recorded between May and December 2004, in order to show the applicability of tools such as Hidden Markov Models and Bayesian Belief Networks which can be used to build a structure for evaluating the probability of given eruptive or volcano-related scenarios. The results support the existence of a bidirectional relationship between volcano-tectonic events and the background seismic noise - in particular its frequency content. This in turn suggests that the two phenomena can be related to one unique process influencing their generation

  7. Sedimentology models from activity concentration measurements: application to the 'Bay of Cadiz' Natural Park (SW Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligero, R.A.; Vidal, J.; Melendez, M.J.; Hamani, M.; Casas-Ruiz, M.

    2009-01-01

    A previous study on seabed sediments of the Bay of Cadiz (SW of Spain) enabled us to identify several relations between sedimentological variables and activity concentrations of environmental radionuclides such as 137 Cs, 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K. In this paper the study has been extended to a large neighbouring inter-tidal area in order to establish if the above mentioned models can be generalized. As a result we have determined that the measured activity concentrations are closely to the values predicted by the theoretical models (correlation coefficient range = 0.85-0.93). Furthermore, the proposal model for granulometric facies as a function of activity concentrations of the abovementioned radionuclides provides for the sediments distribution a representation which agrees with the values of the tidal energy distribution obtained using numeric models calibrated with experimental data from current meters and water level recorders

  8. Production and consumption of foods in Spain, for its applications in radiological impact evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, B.; Suanez, A.; Vazquez, C.

    1994-01-01

    This work is focussed on characterization, organization and analysis for the most relevant regional parameters used in dose assessment models when a food pathway contamination occurs. It was carried in the framework of a contract with a several European Institutions (CEA-IPSN, NRPB) for the development of a general methodology for the evaluation of the radiological consequences caused by accidentally radioactive releases into the environment. Spain, a member of the mediterranean country group, has a remarkably diverse climate which determines crop production agricultural practices, and consequently the animal and human diets. This project intention in to study in depth these particular characteristics and their consequences so that the estimated dose received by an individual reflects a variety of factors, therefore, the production and consumption of the five autonomous Mediterranean regions have been compared individually and globally with the national production and consumption averages. These data have been used in committed dose evaluation exercise applied to the ingestion of contaminated food throughout the first year after an accidental release of Caesium-137. This exercise was realized within the TARRAS (Transfer of Accidentally Released of Radionuclides in Agricultural Systems) project, financed by CE, ENRESA and CSN. (Author) 6 ref

  9. Application of an entry-exit tariff model to the gas transport system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, Alejandro; Serrano, Miguel; Olmos, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Under an entry-exit gas tariff system, reservation of capacity is split into entry capacity, to transport gas from the injection points to a virtual balancing point, and exit capacity, to transport gas from the balancing point to the exit points in the system. Entry-exit tariff for gas transport systems have been recommended by the 3rd EU Energy Package, since they are cost reflective, facilitate gas trade and can provide signals for the location of gas injections or off-takes. The advisability of applying an entry-exit tariff system is discussed in this paper. Apart from this, authors propose an entry-exit tariff model and apply it to compute charges for the Spanish gas transport system in 2009. Results produced by the model are presented as coefficients which should multiply the current postal transport tariff. The paper concludes that entry-exit tariffs would be useful location signals which would result in a better use of the gas transport system in Spain. In those cases where demand exceeds available capacity, as it occurs at the congested connection with France, entry-exit tariffs could be supplemented by capacity charges at entry points resulting from auctions. (author)

  10. A Model for Assessing Pedestrian Corridors. Application to Vitoria-Gasteiz City (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Delso

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available From a mobility perspective, walking is considered to be the most sustainable transport mode. One of the consequences of motor-oriented urban configuration on pedestrian mobility is urban fragmentation, which affects sustainability in cities. In this paper, we use a natural-based approach to landscape fragmentation and connectivity (inherited from landscape ecology for pedestrian mobility planning. Our aim is to design a useful methodology to identify priority pedestrian corridors, and to assess the effects of implementing barrier-free pedestrian corridors in the city. For this purpose, we developed a method that integrates Geographical Information Systems (GIS network analysis with kernel density methods, which are commonly used for designating habitat corridors. It was applied to Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain. Pedestrian mobility was assessed by comparison of travel times between different scenarios. Results show that the implementation of pedestrian corridors reduces travel time by approximately 6%. Thus, an intervention in a small percentage of the city’s street network could considerably reduce pedestrian travel times. The proposed methodology is a useful tool for urban and transport planners to improve pedestrian mobility and manage motorised traffic.

  11. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  12. Forecasting the need for medical specialists in Spain: application of a system dynamics model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Spain has gone from a surplus to a shortage of medical doctors in very few years. Medium and long-term planning for health professionals has become a high priority for health authorities. Methods We created a supply and demand/need simulation model for 43 medical specialties using system dynamics. The model includes demographic, education and labour market variables. Several scenarios were defined. Variables controllable by health planners can be set as parameters to simulate different scenarios. The model calculates the supply and the deficit or surplus. Experts set the ratio of specialists needed per 1000 inhabitants with a Delphi method. Results In the scenario of the baseline model with moderate population growth, the deficit of medical specialists will grow from 2% at present (2800 specialists) to 14.3% in 2025 (almost 21 000). The specialties with the greatest medium-term shortages are Anesthesiology, Orthopedic and Traumatic Surgery, Pediatric Surgery, Plastic Aesthetic and Reparatory Surgery, Family and Community Medicine, Pediatrics, Radiology, and Urology. Conclusions The model suggests the need to increase the number of students admitted to medical school. Training itineraries should be redesigned to facilitate mobility among specialties. In the meantime, the need to make more flexible the supply in the short term is being filled by the immigration of physicians from new members of the European Union and from Latin America. PMID:21034458

  13. Focus: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Historically, Spain's nuclear program has had its share of successes and challenges. The country currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity and accounting for more than a third of Spain's electricity generation. Yet four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed due to a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at one reactor in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, Spain opted to continue the moratorium and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. The current nuclear facilities will continue to operate, and the government will continue to pursue advanced reactor research, and expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe

  14. Avaliação da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Sauvignon, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Brasil em 1921, mas foi somente a partir de 1980 que houve incremento de seu plantio na Serra Gaúcha. É uma cultivar destinada à elaboração de vinho tinto de guarda ou jovem. Devido a sua importância, conduziu-se esse trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da cv. Cabernet Sauvignon para a elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1992. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Sauvignon tem cacho de tamanho médio de 149.3g/L e baga pequena de 1.40g. O mosto possui bom teor de açúcar e acidez titulável de 120meq/L, adequada para a produção de vinho tinto, o qual se caracteriza por apresentar teores elevados de álcoois superiores. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Cabernet Sauvignon se caracteriza pela cor vermelha relativamente intensa e com reflexos violáceos acentuados; pelo aroma típico que lembra pimentão-verde, que é sua característica varietal; e pelo corpo, estrutura e boa distinguibilidade.

  15. Building social license to operate through community engagement: the WUSC-Rio Tinto Alcan partnership in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Eaton, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Presenting the case study of the WUSC-Rio Tinto Alcan partnership in Ghana, this article focuses on the benefits and challenges of a multi-stakeholder partnership between an NGO, a mining company, governments and local communities. Strong community empowerment, alignment of multiple stakeholders’ interests, and the contribution of an expert development NGO definitely contributed to the success of the project, while also strengthening Rio Tinto’s social license to operate.

  16. Five Years of Designing Wireless Sensor Networks in the Doñana Biological Reserve (Spain): An Applications Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Diego F.; Barbancho, Julio; Sevillano, José L.; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Molina, Francisco J.; Gasull, Virginia G.; Mora-Merchan, Javier M.; León, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a technology that is becoming very popular for many applications, and environmental monitoring is one of its most important application areas. This technology solves the lack of flexibility of wired sensor installations and, at the same time, reduces the deployment costs. To demonstrate the advantages of WSN technology, for the last five years we have been deploying some prototypes in the Doñana Biological Reserve, which is an important protected area in Southern Spain. These prototypes not only evaluate the technology, but also solve some of the monitoring problems that have been raised by biologists working in Doñana. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed during these five years. Here, we demonstrate the enormous potential of using machine learning in wireless sensor networks for environmental and animal monitoring because this approach increases the amount of useful information and reduces the effort that is required by biologists in an environmental monitoring task. PMID:24025554

  17. Five years of designing wireless sensor networks in the Doñana Biological Reserve (Spain): an applications approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larios, Diego F; Barbancho, Julio; Sevillano, José L; Rodríguez, Gustavo; Molina, Francisco J; Gasull, Virginia G; Mora-Merchan, Javier M; León, Carlos

    2013-09-10

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a technology that is becoming very popular for many applications, and environmental monitoring is one of its most important application areas. This technology solves the lack of flexibility of wired sensor installations and, at the same time, reduces the deployment costs. To demonstrate the advantages of WSN technology, for the last five years we have been deploying some prototypes in the Doñana Biological Reserve, which is an important protected area in Southern Spain. These prototypes not only evaluate the technology, but also solve some of the monitoring problems that have been raised by biologists working in Doñana. This paper presents a review of the work that has been developed during these five years. Here, we demonstrate the enormous potential of using machine learning in wireless sensor networks for environmental and animal monitoring because this approach increases the amount of useful information and reduces the effort that is required by biologists in an environmental monitoring task.

  18. Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt: 1. Hydrochemical characteristics and pollutant load of the Tinto and Odiel rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Jose M; Sarmiento, Aguasanta M; Canovas, Carlos R; Olias, Manuel; Ayora, Carlos

    2013-11-01

    Acid mine drainage in the Iberian Pyrite Belt is probably the worst case in the world of surface water pollution associated with mining of sulphide mineral deposits. The Iberian Pyrite Belt is located in SW Iberian Peninsula, and it has been mined during the last 4,500 years. The central and eastern part of the Iberian Pyrite Belt is drained by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, which receive most of the acidic leachates from the mining areas. As a result, the main channels of the Tinto and Odiel rivers are very rich in metals and highly acidic until reaching the Atlantic Ocean. A significant amount of the pollutant load transported by these two rivers is delivered during the rainy season, as is usual in rivers of Mediterranean climate regions. Therefore, in order to have an accurate estimation of the pollutant loads transported by the Tinto and Odiel rivers, a systematic sampling on a weekly basis and a high temporal resolution sampling of floods events were both performed. Results obtained show that metal fluxes are strongly dependent on the study period, highlighting the importance of inter-annual studies involving dry and wet years.

  19. Avaliação da uva cv. Isabel para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIZZON Luiz Antenor

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A uva Isabel, originária do Sul dos Estados Unidos, é uma das principais cultivares de Vitis labrusca. Atualmente é a cultivar mais difundida na Serra Gaúcha, representando aproximadamente 45% de toda a uva produzida nessa região. Além da elaboração de vinho tinto comum, a Isabel é utilizada para elaboração de vinho rosado e suco e comercializada como uva de mesa. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Isabel, para elaboração de vinho tinto comum. Para isso, avaliou-se a maturação da uva e realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto, nas safras de 1988 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a uva Isabel tem cacho pequeno, solto, formado por bagas e sementes grandes. O mosto apresenta cor rosada pouco intensa, tem bom teor de açúcar e baixo nível de ácido málico e acidez total. O vinho tem cor vermelha viva; o aroma é intenso e com acentuada tipicidade varietal; a análise sensorial evidencia que geralmente falta ao vinho equilíbrio e maciez.

  20. Probabilistic flood forecasting tool for Andalusia (Spain). Application to September 2012 disaster event in Vera Playa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Darío; Baquerizo, Asunción; Ortega, Miguel; Herrero, Javier; Ángel Losada, Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Torrential and heavy rains are frequent in Andalusia (Southern Spain) due to the characteristic Mediterranean climate (semi-arid areas). This, in combination with a massive occupation of floodable (river sides) and coastal areas, produces severe problems of management and damage to the population and social and economical activities when extreme events occur. Some of the most important problems are being produced during last years in Almería (Southeastern Andalusia). Between 27 and 28 September 2012 rainstorms characterized by 240mm in 24h (exceeding precipitation for a return period of 500 years) occurred. Antas River and Jático creek, that are normally dry, became raging torrents. The massive flooding of occupied areas resulted in eleven deaths and two missing in Andalucía, with a total estimated cost of all claims for compensation on the order of 197 million euros. This study presents a probabilistic flood forecasting tool including the effect of river and marine forcings. It is based on a distributed, physically-based hydrological model (WiMMed). For Almería the model has been calibrated with the largest event recorded in Cantoria gauging station (data since 1965) on 19 October 1973. It was then validated with the second strongest event (26 October 1977). Among the different results of the model, it can provide probability floods scenarios in Andalusia with up 10 days weather forecasts. The tool has been applied to Vera, a 15.000 inhabitants town located in the east of Almería along the Antas River at an altitude of 95 meters. Its main economic resource is the "beach and sun" based-tourism, which has experienced an enormous growth during last decades. Its coastal stretch has been completely built in these years, occupying floodable areas and constricting the channel and rivers mouths. Simulations of the model in this area for the 1973 event and published in March 2011 on the internet event already announced that the floods of September 2012 may occur.

  1. Multiobjective optimization for Groundwater Nitrate Pollution Control. Application to El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llopis-Albert, C.; Peña-Haro, S.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Molina, J.

    2012-04-01

    Water quality management is complex due to the inter-relations between socio-political, environmental and economic constraints and objectives. In order to choose an appropriate policy to reduce nitrate pollution in groundwater it is necessary to consider different objectives, often in conflict. In this paper, a hydro-economic modeling framework, based on a non-linear optimization(CONOPT) technique, which embeds simulation of groundwater mass transport through concentration response matrices, is used to study optimal policies for groundwater nitrate pollution control under different objectives and constraints. Three objectives were considered: recovery time (for meeting the environmental standards, as required by the EU Water Framework Directive and Groundwater Directive), maximum nitrate concentration in groundwater, and net benefits in agriculture. Another criterion was added: the reliability of meeting the nitrate concentration standards. The approach allows deriving the trade-offs between the reliability of meeting the standard, the net benefits from agricultural production and the recovery time. Two different policies were considered: spatially distributed fertilizer standards or quotas (obtained through multi-objective optimization) and fertilizer prices. The multi-objective analysis allows to compare the achievement of the different policies, Pareto fronts (or efficiency frontiers) and tradeoffs for the set of mutually conflicting objectives. The constraint method is applied to generate the set of non-dominated solutions. The multi-objective framework can be used to design groundwater management policies taking into consideration different stakeholders' interests (e.g., policy makers, agricultures or environmental groups). The methodology was applied to the El Salobral-Los Llanos aquifer in Spain. Over the past 30 years the area has undertaken a significant socioeconomic development, mainly due to the intensive groundwater use for irrigated crops, which has

  2. An alternative radiometric method for calculating the sedimentation rates: Application to an intertidal region (SW of Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligero, R.A., E-mail: rufino.ligero@uca.e [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Casas-Ruiz, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain); Barrera, M. [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Barbero, L. [Departamento de Ciencias de la Tierra, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real (Spain); Melendez, M.J. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Cadiz, 11510 Puerto Real, Cadiz (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    A new method using the inventory determined for the activity of the radionuclide {sup 137}Cs, coming from global radioactive fallout has been utilised to calculate the sedimentation rates. The method has been applied in a wide intertidal region in the Bay of Cadiz Natural Park (SW Spain). The sedimentation rates estimated by the {sup 137}Cs inventory method ranged from 0.26 cm/year to 1.72 cm/year. The average value of the sedimentation rate obtained is 0.59 cm/year, and this rate has been compared with those resulting from the application of the {sup 210}Pb dating technique. A good agreement between the two procedures has been found. From the study carried out, it has been possible for the first time, to draw a map of sedimentation rates for this zone where numerous physico-chemical, oceanographic and ecological studies converge, since it is situated in a region of great environmental interest. This area, which is representative of common environmental coastal scenarios, is particularly sensitive to perturbations related to climate change, and the results of the study will allow to make short and medium term evaluations of this change.

  3. Contrasting microbial community assembly hypotheses: a reconciling tale from the Río Tinto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Carmen; Zettler, Erik; Amils, Ricardo; Amaral-Zettler, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The Río Tinto (RT) is distinguished from other acid mine drainage systems by its natural and ancient origins. Microbial life from all three domains flourishes in this ecosystem, but bacteria dominate metabolic processes that perpetuate environmental extremes. While the patchy geochemistry of the RT likely influences the dynamics of bacterial populations, demonstrating which environmental variables shape microbial diversity and unveiling the mechanisms underlying observed patterns, remain major challenges in microbial ecology whose answers rely upon detailed assessments of community structures coupled with fine-scale measurements of physico-chemical parameters. By using high-throughput environmental tag sequencing we achieved saturation of richness estimators for the first time in the RT. We found that environmental factors dictate the distribution of the most abundant taxa in this system, but stochastic niche differentiation processes, such as mutation and dispersal, also contribute to observed diversity patterns. We predict that studies providing clues to the evolutionary and ecological processes underlying microbial distributions will reconcile the ongoing debate between the Baas Becking vs. Hubbell community assembly hypotheses.

  4. Contrasting microbial community assembly hypotheses: a reconciling tale from the Río Tinto.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Palacios

    Full Text Available The Río Tinto (RT is distinguished from other acid mine drainage systems by its natural and ancient origins. Microbial life from all three domains flourishes in this ecosystem, but bacteria dominate metabolic processes that perpetuate environmental extremes. While the patchy geochemistry of the RT likely influences the dynamics of bacterial populations, demonstrating which environmental variables shape microbial diversity and unveiling the mechanisms underlying observed patterns, remain major challenges in microbial ecology whose answers rely upon detailed assessments of community structures coupled with fine-scale measurements of physico-chemical parameters.By using high-throughput environmental tag sequencing we achieved saturation of richness estimators for the first time in the RT. We found that environmental factors dictate the distribution of the most abundant taxa in this system, but stochastic niche differentiation processes, such as mutation and dispersal, also contribute to observed diversity patterns.We predict that studies providing clues to the evolutionary and ecological processes underlying microbial distributions will reconcile the ongoing debate between the Baas Becking vs. Hubbell community assembly hypotheses.

  5. The retention of first-generation college students in STEM: An extension of Tinto's longitudinal model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, Ada Rosemary

    In the current technologically advanced global economy, the role of human capital and education cannot be over-emphasized. Since almost all great inventions in the world have a scientific or technological foundation, having a skilled workforce is imperative for any nation's economic growth. Currently, large segments of the United States' population are underrepresented in the attainment of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) degrees, and in the STEM professions. Scholars, educators, policy-makers, and employers are concerned about the decline in student enrollment and graduation from STEM disciplines. This trend is especially problematic for first-generation college students. This study uses both quantitative and qualitative methods to assess the factors that predict the retention of first-generation college students in the STEM majors. It employs Tinto's longitudinal model (1993) as a conceptual framework to predict STEM retention for first-generation college students. The analysis uses the Beginning Post-secondary Students study (BPS 04/09) data and Roots of STEM qualitative data to investigate the role of first-generation status in STEM major retention. Results indicate that upper levels of achievement in high school math have a significant effect on first-generation status in STEM outcomes.

  6. Dreams and needs: The application of isotopes to industry in Spain in the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Barca Salom, Francesc Xavier

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The efforts to change the bleak image of the atom bomb galvanised the discourse on the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. This contributed to a utopian vision of nuclear energy, especially of the uses of radioactive isotopes in the immediate post-war period. Desire for peace engendered dreams of a better future based on the use of radioactivity. These dreams were first converted into reality using isotopes in medicine. These advances were subsequently applied to...

  7. Dreams and needs: The applications of isotopes to industry in Spain in the 1960s

    OpenAIRE

    Barca-Salom, Francesc X.

    2009-01-01

    The efforts to change the bleak image of the atom bomb galvanised the discourse on the peaceful applications of nuclear energy. This contributed to a utopian vision of nuclear energy, especially of the uses of radioactive isotopes in the immediate post-war period. Desire for peace engendered dreams of a better future based on the use of radioactivity. These dreams were first converted into reality using isotopes in medicine. These advances were subsequently applied to industry and agriculture...

  8. Application of new technologies in the virtual library: Seminars in Turkey, Portugal, and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Judy F.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper focuses on the technologies that are available today to support the concept of a virtual library. The concept of a 'virtual library' or a 'library without walls' is meant to convey the idea that information in any format should be available to the end-user from the desktop as if it were located on the local workstation. Discussed here are the background, trends, technology enablers, end-user requirements, and the NASA Access Mechanism (NAM) system, one example of how it is possible to apply existing technologies to the client server architecture to logically centralize geographically distributed applications and information.

  9. Environmental risk analysis of oil handling facilities in port areas. Application to Tarragona harbor (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdor, Paloma F; Gómez, Aina G; Puente, Araceli

    2015-01-15

    Diffuse pollution from oil spills is a widespread problem in port areas (as a result of fuel supply, navigation and loading/unloading activities). This article presents a method to assess the environmental risk of oil handling facilities in port areas. The method is based on (i) identification of environmental hazards, (ii) characterization of meteorological and oceanographic conditions, (iii) characterization of environmental risk scenarios, and (iv) assessment of environmental risk. The procedure has been tested by application to the Tarragona harbor. The results show that the method is capable of representing (i) specific local pollution cases (i.e., discriminating between products and quantities released by a discharge source), (ii) oceanographic and meteorological conditions (selecting a representative subset data), and (iii) potentially affected areas in probabilistic terms. Accordingly, it can inform the design of monitoring plans to study and control the environmental impact of these facilities, as well as the design of contingency plans. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. MINA-2008: an approach renewed to the Masters of Nuclear Engineering and its Applications in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, L. E.; Garcia-Cuesta, J. C.; Falcon, S.; Marco, M.; Couhoud, M.

    2008-01-01

    Inspired by the so-called nuclear renaissance, the challenge of preserving nuclear knowledge and expertise and on the basis of the European Education Area, the Master's degree in Nuclear Engineering and Applications (MINA) has been set up by CIEMAT, in close collaboration with Spanish Universities and the national nuclear industries, with a drastically renewed approach. The MINA, born as a professionalizing masters intends to build a bridge between University education and technical know-how demanded by todays nuclear industry and organizations. In short, an enabling training that will provide participants with the actual skills that nuclear sector needs. The five major MINA keystone become are professional orientation, full scope, integrating policy, excellence in mastering and plural academic acceptance. These principles as well as other major MINA features are described in detail in this paper. (Author)

  11. A press database on natural risks and its application in the study of floods in Northeastern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Llasat

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to introduce a systematic press database on natural hazards and climate change in Catalonia (NE of Spain and to analyze its potential application to social-impact studies. For this reason, a review of the concepts of risk, hazard, vulnerability and social perception is also included. This database has been built for the period 1982–2007 and contains all the news related with those issues published by the oldest still-active newspaper in Catalonia. Some parameters are registered for each article and for each event, including criteria that enable us to determine the importance accorded to it by the newspaper, and a compilation of information about it. This ACCESS data base allows each article to be classified on the basis of the seven defined topics and key words, as well as summary information about the format and structuring of the new itself, the social impact of the event and data about the magnitude or intensity of the event. The coverage given to this type of news has been assessed because of its influence on construction of the social perception of natural risk and climate change, and as a potential source of information about them. The treatment accorded by the press to different risks is also considered. More than 14 000 press articles have been classified. Results show that the largest number of news items for the period 1982–2007 relates to forest fires and droughts, followed by floods and heavy rainfalls, although floods are the major risk in the region of study. Two flood events recorded in 2002 have been analyzed in order to show an example of the role of the press information as indicator of risk perception.

  12. VINHOS TINTOS DO NOROESTE PAULISTA: RELAÇÃO ENTRE OS PERFIS FÍSICO-QUÍMICO E SENSORIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Bonatto Machado de Castilhos

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Os vinhos tintos, no Brasil, são muito apreciados pelos consumidores das regiões de clima tropical, pelo fato de apresentar tipicidade aromática e paladar frutado. Nesse sentido, o objetivo desse artigo é verificar a qualidade de três vinhos tintos provenientes de vinícolas da região noroeste do estado de São Paulo, através da relação entre determinações físico-químicas e atributos sensoriais. Três vinhos dessa região foram avaliados por meio de métodos analíticos e sensoriais e foi possível observar diferenças significativas nas determinações acidez fixa, teor alcoólico, teor de fenólicos totais e extrato seco. A análise multidimensional mostrou a interação do teor de fenólicos totais com a adstringência, a relação do extrato seco total com o corpo da bebida a relação da acidez volátil na avaliação do odor das amostras. Foi possível constatar a influência físico-química na avaliação dos atributos sensoriais, evidenciando a importância do perfil químico na elucidação de possíveis alterações sensoriais nos vinhos tintos.

  13. Comments about the application of the dose limitation system in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz de la Cruz, F.; Gil Lopez, E.

    1982-01-01

    The problems arising from the application of the Dose Limitation System (DLS) established by ICRP and recommended by I.A.E.A. are presented. The Spanish Nuclear Regulatory Body has tried to set numerical guides to develop the criteria included in the DLS concept during the licensing process of nuclear instalations and isotopes uses in order to guarantee to the population not only the respect of the authorised limits but also that the instalations and practices are justified and optimised. All efforts have been useless. The cost quantification of the protection systems present marketing and maintenance problems that lead to meaningless estimations. Besides the evaluation of the radiological detriment as function of the collective dose by means of the price of the sievert-person adds two more difficulties: the first one is intrinsic to the hypothesis made and the second one is the discrimination over different population groups resulting from monetary fluctuations in inflation ist economies. The authors have developped a method spanding the detriment concept to the whole environment (not only the man) arriving to an easy way to make an effective optimization. The method is based in the quantification of the degradation energy released to the surroundings by means of a price assigned to the kw-hr. This price can dissuade the licensee and oblige him for economical reasons to select a more effective retention systems and/or a better operation.(author)

  14. Improving GNSS time series for volcano monitoring: application to Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; Sevilla, Miguel J.; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The number of permanent GNSS stations has increased significantly in recent years for different geodetic applications such as volcano monitoring, which require a high precision. Recently we have started to have coordinates time series long enough so that we can apply different analysis and filters that allow us to improve the GNSS coordinates results. Following this idea we have processed data from GNSS permanent stations used by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) for volcano monitoring in Canary Islands to obtained time series by double difference processing method with Bernese v5.0 for the period 2007-2014. We have identified the characteristics of these time series and obtained models to estimate velocities with greater accuracy and more realistic uncertainties. In order to improve the results we have used two kinds of filters to improve the time series. The first, a spatial filter, has been computed using the series of residuals of all stations in the Canary Islands without an anomalous behaviour after removing a linear trend. This allows us to apply this filter to all sets of coordinates of the permanent stations reducing their dispersion. The second filter takes account of the temporal correlation in the coordinate time series for each station individually. A research about the evolution of the velocity depending on the series length has been carried out and it has demonstrated the need for using time series of at least four years. Therefore, in those stations with more than four years of data, we calculated the velocity and the characteristic parameters in order to have time series of residuals. This methodology has been applied to the GNSS data network in El Hierro (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 eruption and the subsequent magmatic intrusions (2012-2014). The results show that in the new series it is easier to detect anomalous behaviours in the coordinates, so they are most useful to detect crustal deformations in volcano monitoring.

  15. Roadway management plan based on rockfall modelling calibration and validation. Application along the Ma-10 road in Mallorca (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos, Rosa Maria; Garcia, Inmaculada; Reichenbach, Paola; Herrera, Gerardo; Sarro, Roberto; Rius, Joan; Aguilo, Raul

    2016-04-01

    taking into account, not only the success, but also the mistakes. We have further validated the calibrated parameters along the Ma-road using the 63 rockfall recorded during the past 18 years along the road. 81.5% of the rockfalls are well represented by STONE modelling. Results have been exploited by the Road Maintenance Service of Mallorca for the design of the following road management plan: (1) Phase 1. Short-term. Design a specific plan for the road- sections where rockfalls were registered and modelling results were obtained. A large investment will be expended for implementation of retention and protection measures. (2) Phase 2. Medium-term. Design a specific plan for the road- sections where rockfalls were registered but no modelling results were obtained. For these cases, new studies at local scale are necessary as well as the application of other modelling software which include higher resolution input data. (3) Phase 3. Long-term. Design a specific plan for the road- sections where no rockfalls were registered but modelling results were obtained. These are potential rockfall areas and local and specific ground studies are necessaries. References Mateos RM (2006) Los movimientos de ladera en la Serra de Tramuntana (Mallorca). Caracterización geomecánica y análisis de peligrosidad. PhD. Servicio de Publicaciones de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Madrid, 299 p. Mateos RM, García-Moreno I, Herrera G, Mulas J (2013) Damage caused by recent mass-movements in Majorca (Spain), a region with a high risk due to tourism.Landslide Science and Practice.Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti and KyojiSassa (Editors). Volume 7: Social and Economic Impact and Policies. 105-113. Guzzetti F, Crosta G, Detti R, Agliardi F (2002) STONE: A computer program for the three-dimensional simulation of rock-falls. Computers Geosciences. Vol. 28:1079-1093.

  16. Spawning and nursery habitat of the wedge sole Dicologlossa cuneata (Moreau, 1881 in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva García-Isarch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyoplankton samples and hydrological data were obtained in an inshore area, between the mouths of the Rivers Guadalquivir and Guadiana (Gulf of Cádiz, SW Spain during monthly surveys carried out from March 2002 to March 2003. Horizontal and temporal distributions of wedge sole (Dicologlossa cuneata egg and larval abundances were analysed during this annual cycle in relation to environmental parameters. This area proved to be an important spawning and nursery ground for the species, which showed a winter-spring reproductive strategy with a long reproductive period lasting from autumn until early summer. Spawning areas were located in the shallowest waters (above 30 m depth between the mouths of the Rives Guadiana and Tinto-Odiel, and to a lesser extent in the coastal zone between the mouths of the Rivers Tinto-Odiel and Guadalquivir. The spawning habitat was mainly determined by the distribution of the adults, the bathymetry and the temperature, and a preference for shallow and colder waters was observed. The inshore zone between the mouths of the Rivers Tinto-Odiel and Guadalquivir is the main nursery ground, with the greatest larval concentration and productivity in the area, due to the influence of the River Guadalquivir. The presence of recruits in this area may be linked to these favourable conditions for larval growth and survival.

  17. Hydro-economic modeling of water scarcity under global change: an application to the Gállego river basin (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveline, N.; Majone, B.; van Duinen, Rianne; Ansink, E.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches are needed to assess the effects of global changes on the future state of water resources at regional scales. We develop a hydro-economic model of the Gállego catchment, Spain, to assess how global change and policy options affect the catchment’s water scarcity and the economic

  18. Sugary drinks taxation as a measure to reduce obesity in Spain. Effectiveness analysis and evaluation of its application in other countries.

    OpenAIRE

    Aroca Gamero, Maria del Carmen

    2018-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions, and according to experts, if this trend in not reversed in the coming years, non-transmissible diseases could be the cause of 73% of the deaths. In addition, the World Health Organization decided to launch a recommendation, in which point out that the policies promoting a 20% increase in the sale price to the final consumer of sugary drinks could reduce its consumption in a proportional way. In order to know about the tax, its application in Spain and...

  19. Application of specific extraction chromatographic methods to the Rb-Sr, Sm-Nd isotope study of geological samples: The Hombreiro-Santa Eulalia Granite (Lugo, NW Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Santos Zalduegui, J. F.; Pin, C.; Aranguren, A.; Gil Ibarguchi, José Ignacio

    1996-01-01

    The analytical application to geological samples of three new chromatographic resins, TRU-Spec ®, Sr-Spec ® and LN-Spec ®) has been investigated. Seven samples of the Hombreiro massif (Lugo, NW Spain) have been studied, that yield a Rb-Sr age of 298 ±5 Ma (SrQ = 0.7086, MSWD = 7.64) for the magma crystallization. Sm-Nd data results for the same massif give eNd values dose to -2 at 300 Ma. This suggests that the origin of the magma might be related to the partial melting of immature sediments,...

  20. EucaTool®, a cloud computing application for estimating the growth and production of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rojo-Alboreca

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: To present the software utilities and explain how to use EucaTool®, a free cloud computing application developed to estimate the growth and production of seedling and clonal blue gum (Eucalyptus globulus Labill. plantations in Galicia (NW Spain.Area of study: Galicia (NW Spain.Material and methods: EucaTool® implements a dynamic growth and production model that is valid for clonal and non-clonal blue gum plantations in the region. The model integrates transition functions for dominant height (site index curves, number of stems per hectare (mortality function and basal area, as well as output functions for tree and stand volume, biomass and carbon content.Main results: EucaTool® can be freely accessed from any device with an Internet connection, from http://app.eucatool.com. In addition, useful information about the application is published on a related website: http://www.eucatool.com.Research highlights: The application has been designed to enable forest stakeholders to estimate volume, biomass and carbon content of forest plantations from individual trees, diameter classes or stand data, as well as to estimate growth and future production (indicating the optimal rotation age for maximum income by measurement of only four stand variables: age, number of trees per hectare, dominant height and basal area.Keywords: forest management; biomass; seedling; clones; blue gum; forest tool.

  1. Photoreduction fuels biogeochemical cycling of iron in Spain's acid rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, C.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Parker, S.R.; Snyder, D.M.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Amils, R.; Poulson, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    A number of investigations have shown that photoreduction of Fe(III) causes midday accumulations of dissolved Fe(II) in rivers and lakes, leading to large diel (24-h) fluctuations in the concentration and speciation of total dissolved iron. Less well appreciated is the importance of photoreduction in providing chemical energy for bacteria to thrive in low pH waters. Diel variations in water chemistry from the highly acidic (pH 2.3 to 3.1) Ri??o Tinto, Ri??o Odiel, and Ri??o Agrio of southwestern Spain (Iberian Pyrite Belt) resulted in daytime increases in Fe(II) concentration of 15 to 66????M at four diel sampling locations. Dissolved Fe(II) concentrations increased with solar radiation, and one of the stream sites showed an antithetic relationship between dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations; both results are consistent with photoreduction. The diel data were used to estimate rates of microbially catalyzed Fe(II) oxidation (1 to 3??nmol L- 1 s- 1) and maximum rates of Fe(III) photoreduction (1.7 to 4.3??nmol L- 1 s- 1). Bioenergetic calculations indicate that the latter rates are sufficient to build up a population of Fe-oxidizing bacteria to the levels observed in the Ri??o Tinto in about 30??days. We conclude that photoreduction plays an important role in the bioenergetics of the bacterial communities of these acidic rivers, which have previously been shown to be dominated by autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizers such as Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Given the possibility of the previous existence of acidic, Fe(III)-rich water on Mars, photoreduction may be an important process on other planets, a fact that could have implications to astrobiological research. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A Modified Model of College Student Persistence: Exploring the Relationship between Astin's Theory of Involvement and Tinto's Theory of Student Departure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milem, Jeffrey F.; Berger, Joseph B.

    1997-01-01

    Provides insight into first-year undergraduate persistence by using behavioral measures--based on Alexander Astin's theory of involvement--to further understanding of Tinto's theory of student departure. Findings support the use of an integrated model in which student behaviors and perceptions interact to influence the development of academic and…

  3. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  4. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Capobianco-Uriarte

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28. The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  5. Analysis of Spain´s competitiveness in the European tomato market: An application of the Constant Market Share method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capobianco-Uriarte, M.; Aparicio, J.; Pablo-Valenciano, J. de

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative analysis of the competitiveness of Spanish tomato export compared with its major competitors in the European Union market countries (EU28). The methodological framework is implemented through Constant Market Share to analyze variations in exports, allowing the portion attributable to competitiveness and segregation into general or specific competitiveness to be quantified. This analysis was carried out with the 2005-2009 and 2010-2014 periods to see if there had been a recovery from the global financial and economic crisis of 2007 in the Spanish tomato trade. Before the global economic and financial crisis, Spain had a positive structural effect of exports which contributed significantly to the growth of tomato sales to the EU, but had a negative change in the volume of exports to the EU28, mainly due to the negative effect of the competitiveness component. According to the segregation effect of competitiveness, a marked general negative competitive effect was evident, that cannot be offset by the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Since 2010, Spain has experienced a positive change in the volume of its tomato exports to the EU28, the competitiveness component also being positive, due to positive investment of the component of general competitiveness and whose greatest contribution was the positive effect of specific competitiveness. Within the group of competitors, Spain is the only country supplying tomatoes to the EU28 that has experienced a positive change in volume when comparing business performance of 2010-2014 vs 2005-2009.

  6. Investigation of Wave Height Reduction behind the Wave Dragon Wave Energy Converters and Application in Santander, Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen Quvang Harck; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    This paper deals with a case study on the wave height reduction behind floating Wave Dragon wave energy converters in Santander Bay, Spain. The study is performed using the MIKE21 Boussinesq model from DHI. The Wave Dragon transmission characteristics in the numerical wave propagation model...... are based on previously performed physical model tests in scale 1:51. Typical winter storm conditions are considered in the case study together with different stiffness in the mooring system of the floating device. From the study it is found that if multiple Wave Dragons are positioned in a farm the wave...

  7. The Text of the Agreement of 1 April 1981 Between Spain and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards Relating to Four Nuclear Facilities. Agreement to Amend the Agreement of 1 April 1981. Corrigendum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-07-01

    The Agreement of 4 July 1985 to Amend the Agreement of 1 April 1981 between the Government of Spain and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Relation to Four Nuclear Facilities entered into force on 8 November 1985, and not on 24 September 1985 as indicated in document INFCIRC/291/Mod.1 paragraph 2

  8. The Application of GIS Viewshed Analysis to Roman Urban Studies: the Case-Study of Empúries, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan E. Kaiser

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available This article demonstrates the potential of applying GIS viewshed analysis to Roman urban studies. It examines the visual dynamics of the Roman city of Empúries, Spain, through an analysis of the visibility of, and view from, a temple and a domus within the city. The analysis proves that the two buildings in question would have had wide views of the Gulf of Roses to the east of the city, and could easily have been seen by people in boats in the Gulf, but they were virtually invisible from within the city and would certainly not have dominated the cityscape. The article concludes that the absence of the villa and temple from the intramural cityscape of Empúries cautions modern investigators of ancient cities against simply assuming that currently prominent ruins on hills or ridges were also highly visible from near as well as far in antiquity.

  9. Application of the Putting Women First protocol in a study on violence against immigrant women in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrubiano-Domínguez, Jordi; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our experience of using the Putting Women First protocol in the design and implementation of a cross-sectional study on violence against women (VAW) among 1607 immigrant women from Morocco, Ecuador and Romania living in Spain in 2011. The Putting Women First protocol is an ethical guideline for VAW research, which includes recommendations to ensure the safety of the women involved in studies on this subject. The response rate in this study was 59.3%. The prevalence of VAW cases last year was 11.7%, of which 15.6% corresponded to Ecuadorian women, 10.9% to Moroccan women and 8.6% to Romanian women. We consider that the most important goal for future research is the use of VAW scales validated in different languages, which would help to overcome the language barriers encountered in this study. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Photogrammetric Methodology for the Production of Geomorphologic Maps: Application to the Veleta Rock Glacier (Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Jesús Guerrero

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a stereo feature-based method using SIFT (Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors. We use automatic feature extractors, matching algorithms between images and techniques of robust estimation to produce a DTM (Digital Terrain Model using convergent shots of a rock glacier.The geomorphologic structure observed in this study is the Veleta rock glacier (Sierra Nevada, Granada, Spain. This rock glacier is of high scientific interest because it is the southernmost active rock glacier in Europe and it has been analyzed every year since 2001. The research on the Veleta rock glacier is devoted to the study of its displacement and cartography through geodetic and photogrammetric techniques.

  11. The role of GIS in urban seismic risk studies: application to the city of Almería (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Medina, A.; Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Benito, B.; Bernabé, M. A.

    2013-11-01

    This work describes the structure and characteristics of the geographic information system (GIS) developed for the urban seismic risk study of the city of Almería (southern Spain), identifying the stages in which the use of this tool proved to be very beneficial for adopting informed decisions throughout the execution of the work. After the completion of the regional emergency plans for seismic risk in Spain and its subsequent approval by the National Civil Defence Commission, the municipalities that need to develop specific local seismic risk plans have been identified. Hence, the next action is to develop urban seismic risk analyses at a proper scale (Urban Seismic Risk Evaluation - Risk-UR). For this evaluation, different factors influencing seismic risk such as seismic hazard, geotechnical soil characteristics, vulnerability of structures of the region, reparation costs of damaged buildings and exposed population are combined. All these variables are gathered and analysed within a GIS and subsequently used for seismic risk estimation. The GIS constitutes a highly useful working tool because it facilitates data interoperability, making the great volume of information required and the numerous processes that take part in the calculations easier to handle, speeding up the analysis and the interpretation and presentation of the results of the different working phases. The result of this study is based on a great set of variables that provide a comprehensive view of the urban seismic risk, such as the damage distribution of buildings and dwellings of different typologies, the mean damage and the number of uninhabitable buildings for the expected seismic motion, the number of dead and injured at different times of the day, the cost of reconstruction and repair of buildings, among others. These results are intended for interpretation and decision making in emergency management by unspecialised users (Civil Defence technicians and managers).

  12. COMPARAÇÃO DO TEOR DE FENÓLICOS TOTAIS E DA AÇÃO ANTIOXIDANTE DE SUCOS INDUSTRIALIZADOS DE UVA E DE VINHOS TINTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone de Paula Dias

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Os benefícios do consumo diário de vinho tinto já são bem conhecidos e descritos, e incluem a diminuição da probabilidade de ocorrência de doenças coronárias e de complicações cardiovasculares. Atribui-se esta ação benéfica e “protetora” à presença de compostos flavonoides encontrados na casca da uva (Vitis vinifera, principalmente antocianidinas e do derivado fenólico resveratrol. Apesar disto, o vinho é caracterizado por apresentar entre 5 a 12% de álcool e o seu consumo diário pode trazer, juntamente aos benefícios cardíacos grandes prejuízos à saúde. O presente trabalho objetivou verificar se o consumo frequente de suco de uva tinto seria capaz de trazer os mesmos efeitos protetores do vinho tinto.  Observou-se nestas análises que a atividade antioxidante dos vinhos amostrados foi superior a dos sucos. Não foi possível observar diferença significativa entre os teores de compostos fenólicos totais nas amostras de suco e de vinho. Uma vez que a atividade antioxidante está muito relacionada à proteção cardiovascular, conclui-se que o consumo do suco de uva tinto não é capaz de substituir o vinho em sua ação protetora

  13. Streamflow predictions in Alpine Catchments by using artificial neural networks. Application in the Alto Genil Basin (South Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimeno-Saez, Patricia; Pegalajar-Cuellar, Manuel; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2017-04-01

    This study explores techniques of modeling water inflow series, focusing on techniques of short-term steamflow prediction. An appropriate estimation of streamflow in advance is necessary to anticipate measures to mitigate the impacts and risks related to drought conditions. This study analyzes the prediction of future streamflow of nineteen subbasins in the Alto-Genil basin in Granada (Southeast of Spain). Some of these basin streamflow have an important component of snowmelt due to part of the system is located in Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, the highest mountain of continental Spain. Streamflow prediction models have been calibrated using time series of historical natural streamflows. The available streamflow measurements have been downloaded from several public data sources. These original data have been preprocessed to turn them to the original natural regime, removing the anthropic effects. The missing values in the adopted horizon period to calibrate the prediction models have been estimated by using a Temez hydrological balance model, approaching the snowmelt processes with a hybrid degree day method. In the experimentation, ARIMA models are used as baseline method, and recurrent neural networks ELMAN and nonlinear autoregressive neural network (NAR) to test if the prediction accuracy can be improved. After performing the multiple experiments with these models, non-parametric statistical tests are applied to select the best of these techniques. In the experiments carried out with ARIMA, it is concluded that ARIMA models are not adequate in this case study due to the existence of a nonlinear component that cannot be modeled. Secondly, ELMAN and NAR neural networks with multi-start training is performed with each network structure to deal with the local optimum problem, since in neural network training there is a very strong dependence on the initial weights of the network. The obtained results suggest that both neural networks are efficient for the short

  14. How Attractive Is Upland Olive Groves Landscape? Application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process and GIS in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olexandr Nekhay

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The upland olive groves of Andalusia (Southern Spain are an example of fragile landscape from an ecological point of view. The wildfire and soil erosion risks that can result in the desertification of the area are the main components of fragility. This paper focuses on the visual quality assessment of this agricultural system as a mean to their economic and environmental sustainability. The case study is represented by the upland olive groves of the municipality of Montoro where rural tourism is an important economic activity. We carried out a personal interview survey on 480 citizens to determine their visual preferences regarding three representative types of olive plantation landscape to be transferred to landscape level through a Geographical Information Systems (GIS. The Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP multicriteria decision-making technique was the method used to derive preferences from the survey. The results suggest that olive farming systems with grass vegetation cover between the trees are the preferred landscape type (0.42, followed very closely by the non-productive olive groves (0.41. The conventional olive farming system was the least preferred landscape (0.17. The visual quality map presents five categories, revealing that most of the olive groves in the study area belong to the very low visual quality category (93% of the total area.

  15. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Aparicio

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65, followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54, that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013, however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47. In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales.

  16. Changes in productivity in the virgin olive oil sector: An application to Protected Designations of Origin in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aparicio, J.; Monge, J.F; Ortiz, L.; Pastor, J.T.

    2016-11-01

    Virgin olive oil is a key ingredient of the renowned Mediterranean diet. In this context, the main objective of this study was to estimate and decompose productivity change for Protected Designations of Origin (PDOs) in the Spanish virgin olive oil sector for the period 2008-2013. To this end, we introduced a Luenberger-type indicator based on a specific weighted additive model in Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which, in contrast to previous studies, captured all sources of inefficiency and avoided infeasibilities. Regarding the results, we found a reduction in productivity, in average terms, in the first periods analyzed (-0.12 and -1.65), followed by an improvement (0.79 and 0.54), that in the last period analyzed (2012-2013), however, returned to adverse figures (-0.47). In Spain, where foreign competition is weak, the most productive PDOs were those with an important number of oil mills and packaging/marketing companies such as “Montes de Toledo” and “Siurana”; productivity changes were mainly the consequence of downwards and upwards of the frontier of the technology over time. These changes were explained, to a certain extent, by the evolution of the economic crisis; and the productivity of the sector declined, in general, from 2008 to 2010, improving thereafter except for the last registered period, 2012-2013, where expectations for market recovery exceeded actual sales. (Author)

  17. Efeito do vinho tinto associado ao exercício físico no sistema cardiovascular de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Soares Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Prática de exercício físico (EF é eficiente no tratamento e na prevenção da hipertensão, associada à melhora do perfil lipídico e da função contrátil cardíaca. Consumo moderado e regular de bebidas alcoólicas, como vinho tinto, desempenha efeito cardiovascular protetor. Polifenóis da bebida apresentam propriedades antioxidantes, beneficiando vasos sanguíneos. Há poucas evidências sobre o consumo de vinho tinto associado ao EF e as influências no sistema cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da interação entre o EF e o consumo moderado de vinho tinto na pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL, desempenho físico e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR. MÉTODOS: Amostra de 32 SHR distribuídos em quatro grupos: grupo vinho e exercício (GVE, grupo vinho (GV, grupo exercício (GE e grupo controle (GC. Doses de vinho tinto, equivalentes ao consumo moderado em humanos, foram administradas por gavagem, durante dez semanas, simultâneas ao período de EF, realizado em esteira. Os SHR receberam 3,715 ml/kg/dia de vinho. O desempenho físico foi analisado por teste de esforço (TE, e a FEVE foi obtida por medidas ecocardiográficas. A aferição da PAS ocorreu antes e após o protocolo do EF. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se redução significativa da PAS nos grupos de intervenção, comparados ao GC. Ao final do protocolo, o GVE apresentou a maior redução. Assim como na PAS, o GVE apresentou melhor resultado nos níveis de HDL. Não houve diferença significativa no desempenho físico e na FEVE entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O EF associado à ingesta moderada de vinho tinto exerce efeito cardioprotetor na PAS e na HDL de SHR. O desempenho físico e a FEVE não são alterados.

  18. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz, M.; Bielza, J.; Garrido, A.; Iglesias, A.

    2015-07-01

    Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk. (Author)

  19. Dealing with drought in irrigated agriculture through insurance schemes: an application to an irrigation district in Southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Ruiz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrological drought is expected to have an increasing impact on both crop and fruit yields in arid and semi-arid regions. Some existing crop insurance schemes provide coverage against water deficits in rain-fed agriculture. The Prevented Planting Program in the USA covers against drought for irrigated agriculture. However, drought insurance for irrigated agriculture is still a challenge for companies and institutions because of the complexity of the design and implementation of this type of insurance. Few studies have attempted to evaluate the risk of loss due to irrigation water scarcity using both stand-alone production functions and crop simulation models. This paper’s contributions are that it evaluates the suitability of AquaCrop for calculating drought insurance premiums for irrigated agriculture and that it discusses contract conditions and insurance design for hydrological drought risk coverage as part of a traditional insurance product, with on-field loss assessment in combination with a trigger index. This method was applied to an irrigation district in southern Spain. Our insurance premium calculation showed that it is feasible to apply this method provided that its data requirements are met, such as a large enough set of reliable small-scale yield and irrigation time series data, especially soil data, to calibrate AquaCrop. The choice of a trigger index should not be underestimated because it proved to have a decisive influence on insurance premiums and indemnities. Our discussion of the contract conditions shows that hydrological drought insurance must comply with a series of constraints in order to avoid moral hazard and basis risk.

  20. Burnup credit in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conde, J.M.; Recio, M.

    2001-01-01

    The status of development of burnup credit for criticality safety analyses in Spain is described in this paper. Ongoing activities in the country in this field, both national and international, are resumed. Burnup credit is currently being applied to wet storage of PWR fuel, and credit to integral burnable absorbers is given for BWR fuel storage. It is envisaged to apply burnup credit techniques to the new generation of transport casks now in the design phase. The analysis methodologies submitted for the analyses of PWR and BWR fuel wet storage are outlined. Analytical activities in the country are described, as well as international collaborations in this field. Perspectives for future research and development of new applications are finally resumed. (author)

  1. FTIR microspectroscopy and SIMS study of water-poor cordierite from El Hoyazo, Spain: Application to mineral and melt devolatilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Ventura, Giancarlo; Bellatreccia, Fabio; Cesare, Bernardo; Harley, Simon; Piccinini, Massimo

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the microchemical and microspectroscopic FTIR study of cordierite from a partially melted graphite-bearing granulitic enclave within the dacitic lava dome of El Hoyazo (SE Spain). Optically transparent single-crystals, hand picked from the rock, were oriented using X-ray diffraction and studied by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR). Single-crystal FTIR spectroscopy shows that the examined cordierite is CO 2-rich and almost H 2O-free. Two weak and sharp peaks are observed at 3708 and 3595 cm - 1 , respectively, which are strongly polarised for E // a. These peaks are assigned to combination modes of CO 2. Very weak bands due to H 2O molecules oriented with the H…H vector // c (type I water) are occasionally observed in certain zones of the grains, associated with absorptions due to hydrated inclusions of alteration products. The very intense bands observed in the 2600-2000 cm - 1 region are assigned to CO 2 molecules oriented // a; the spectra also show the presence of 13C and 18O, and weak amounts of CO in the sample. Microspectrometric mapping shows that the distribution of C is relatively homogeneous, whereas that of H 2O is complicated by a very broad absorption extending from 3700 to 3100 cm - 1 . High-resolution FTIR imaging, done using a focal-plane array of detectors, shows that this broad absorption is associated with microfractures. SIMS analyses give an average concentration of H 2O = 0.033 ± 0.007 wt.% and CO 2 = 0.21 ± 0.07 wt.%. On the basis of these data, molar absorption coefficients can be calibrated for CO 2: ɛiCO2 (integrated) = 11,000 ± 4000 l/(mol cm - 2 ) and ɛlCO2 (linear) = 800 ± 250 l/(mol cm - 1 ). Due to the extremely low amount of H 2O and its inhomogeneous distribution, calibration of absorption ɛH2O coefficients is unreliable. The very low H 2O contents in the El Hoyazo cordierite indicate continued mineral-melt volatile exchange during decompression from ˜ 5 kbar to significantly shallower levels.

  2. Assessing Soil Quality in Areas Affected by Sulfide Mining. Application to Soils in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel González

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The characterization, evaluation and remediation of polluted soils is one of the present environmental challenges to be addressed in the coming years. The origin of trace elements in soils can be either geogenic or anthropogenic, but only the latter is interesting from a legal point of view. The hazard of the pollutants in the soils not only depends on their total concentration, but particularly on their availability. The mobility of the trace elements depends on their speciation, and it is also affected by several soil parameters. Mining activity is one of the most important anthropogenic causes of soil pollution. As a case study, this work is focused in the Riotinto mining area (Iberian Pyrite Belt, IPB, SW Spain. The IPB is one of the most important metallogenic provinces in the world and it has been exploited for thousands of years. The disposal of mining residues has produced important sources of contamination by trace elements and acidic waters affecting soils and rivers. In addition to these problems, the closure of mines in the Pyrite Belt at the end of the 20th Century has led to a great loss of employment, which has caused the development of an intensive agriculture of citrus fruits as a new source of income. The intensive growing of citrus fruits and the traditional subsistence agriculture have been developed surrounding the mining areas and on floodplains near to mining sites. The level of soil pollution has not been taken into account in these cases, nor has its impact on the health of the inhabitants of these areas. Therefore, it is of great interest to study the current state of the cultivated soils and the sources and types of contaminants derived from mining activity in order to program its decontamination, where appropriate, according to legislation. In order to know the present and future hazard posed by the soils chemical and mineralogical speciation has been carried out, given that the availability of a metal depends on the

  3. Inclusion of potential vorticity uncertainties into a hydrometeorological forecasting chain: application to a medium size basin of Mediterranean Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amengual, A.; Romero, R.; Vich, M.; Alonso, S.

    2009-06-01

    The improvement of the short- and mid-range numerical runoff forecasts over the flood-prone Spanish Mediterranean area is a challenging issue. This work analyses four intense precipitation events which produced floods of different magnitude over the Llobregat river basin, a medium size catchment located in Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. One of them was a devasting flash flood - known as the "Montserrat" event - which produced 5 fatalities and material losses estimated at about 65 million euros. The characterization of the Llobregat basin's hydrological response to these floods is first assessed by using rain-gauge data and the Hydrologic Engineering Center's Hydrological Modeling System (HEC-HMS) runoff model. In second place, the non-hydrostatic fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5) is nested within the ECMWF large-scale forecast fields in a set of 54 h period simulations to provide quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPFs) for each hydrometeorological episode. The hydrological model is forced with these QPFs to evaluate the reliability of the resulting discharge forecasts, while an ensemble prediction system (EPS) based on perturbed atmospheric initial and boundary conditions has been designed to test the value of a probabilistic strategy versus the previous deterministic approach. Specifically, a Potential Vorticity (PV) Inversion technique has been used to perturb the MM5 model initial and boundary states (i.e. ECMWF forecast fields). For that purpose, a PV error climatology has been previously derived in order to introduce realistic PV perturbations in the EPS. Results show the benefits of using a probabilistic approach in those cases where the deterministic QPF presents significant deficiencies over the Llobregat river basin in terms of the rainfall amounts, timing and localization. These deficiences in precipitation fields have a major impact on flood forecasts. Our ensemble strategy has been found useful to reduce the

  4. Contribution of the climatic transect approach application to the study of soil degradation in South of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Sinoga, José D.; Gabarrón-Galeote, Miguel A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Martínez-Murillo, Juan F.

    2014-05-01

    Since 1990s, the climatic transect approach has been widely applied to Mediterranean mountainous areas where climatic conditions are modified in few kilometres, from semiarid to humid conditions. The target in most of the cases was to evaluate the climatic change effect on the spatial variability of eco-geomorphological system, runoff and erosion and soil degradation processes, especially, in abandoned fields and Mediterranean rangeland. The Physical Geography and Land Management Research Group from the University of Málaga is applying this experimental approach since 2001. The study area corresponded to the Mediterranean Cordillera Bética in South of Spain, from the Strait of Gibraltar to Cabo de Gata, where a longitudinal climatic transect can be observed: from humid Mediterranean climate in the West (>1,500 mm/y) to nearly arid Mediterranean climate in the East (200 mm/y). More specifically, the investigations were focussed on the spatial and temporal variability of eco-geomorphological system (vegetation, soil and water relationship), runoff and erosion processes and controlling factors affecting to abandoned fields located in steep hillslopes of metamorphic and acid bedrocks (phyllites, schists and mica-schists) but differing in climatic conditions (humid, subhumid, dry and semiarid Mediterranean climate). The aim of this contribution is to share our findings and challenges from the last 13 years being some of the most important ones: i) Mediterranean summer drought homogenise the functioning of eco-geomorphological system independently of the geographical location along the climatic transect; ii) drought period affects more dramatically to humid and subhumid Mediterranean areas, especially, to the vegetation cover and pattern; iii) areas characterised by dry-Mediterranean climate are found as threshold areas and in risk of aridification due to Climate Change; iv) runoff and erosion processes can be similar in humid and semiarid abandoned lands as it has to

  5. Interpolation of GPS and Geological Data Using InSAR Deformation Maps: Method and Application to Land Subsidence in the Alto Guadalentín Aquifer (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Béjar-Pizarro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Land subsidence resulting from groundwater extractions is a global phenomenon adversely affecting many regions worldwide. Understanding the governing processes and mitigating associated hazards require knowing the spatial distribution of the implicated factors (piezometric levels, lithology, ground deformation, usually only known at discrete locations. Here, we propose a methodology based on the Kriging with External Drift (KED approach to interpolate sparse point measurements of variables influencing land subsidence using high density InSAR measurements. In our study, located in the Alto Guadalentín basin, SE Spain, these variables are GPS vertical velocities and the thickness of compressible soils. First, we estimate InSAR and GPS rates of subsidence covering the periods 2003–2010 and 2004–2013, respectively. Then, we apply the KED method to the discrete variables. The resulting continuous GPS velocity map shows maximum subsidence rates of 13 cm/year in the center of the basin, in agreement with previous studies. The compressible deposits thickness map is significantly improved. We also test the coherence of Sentinel-1 data in the study region and evaluate the applicability of this methodology with the new satellite, which will improve the monitoring of aquifer-related subsidence and the mapping of variables governing this phenomenon.

  6. Economic Valuation of Mining Heritage from a Recreational Approach: Application to the Case of El Soplao Cave in Spain (Geosite UR004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Pérez-Álvarez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Heritage tourism can increase incomes and stimulate the economy in former mining areas. Recreational tourism is one of the main sources of value of heritage. People from urban areas are willing to pay for access to these tourism options. The measurement of the economic impact of this availability is one of the main problems to confront, due to the immeasurable possibilities of heritage resources. The use of non-market values and their estimation by means of revealed preference methods should help to assess the economic value of this sort of resources from a recreational perspective. The travel cost method (TCM is widely used to value areas with recreational uses, such as lakes, beaches or forests, but there are not references to previous applications of this methodology in the field of mining heritage. In this work, TCM has been applied to obtain the economic value of El Soplao Cave (Geosite UR004, Cantabria, Spain as a recreational site, providing an estimated result of 34,961,162 euros.

  7. Karst groundwater protection: First application of a Pan-European Approach to vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping in the Sierra de Libar (Southern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreo, Bartolome [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain)]. E-mail: Andreo@uma.es; Goldscheider, Nico [Centre of Hydrogeology, University of Neuchatel, 11 rue Emile-Argand, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Vadillo, Inaki [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Vias, Jesus Maria [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Neukum, Christoph [Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse, 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Sinreich, Michael [Centre of Hydrogeology, University of Neuchatel, 11 rue Emile-Argand, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland); Jimenez, Pablo [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Brechenmacher, Julia [Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse, 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Carrasco, Francisco [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Hoetzl, Heinz [Department of Applied Geology, University of Karlsruhe, Kaiserstrasse, 12, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Perles, Maria Jesus [Group of Hydrogeology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaga, Campus de Teatinos, E-29071 Malaga (Spain); Zwahlen, Francois [Centre of Hydrogeology, University of Neuchatel, 11 rue Emile-Argand, CH-2007 Neuchatel (Switzerland)

    2006-03-15

    The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, validation of vulnerability maps, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this Pan-European Approach to the Sierra de Libar, a karst hydrogeology system in Andalusia, Spain. The intrinsic vulnerability maps take into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the area but are independent from specific contaminant properties. Two specific vulnerability maps were prepared for faecal coliforms and BTEX. These maps take into account the specific properties of these two groups of contaminants and their interaction with the karst hydrogeological system. The vulnerability assessment was validated by means of tracing tests, hydrological, hydrochemical and isotope methods. The hazard map shows the localization of potential contamination sources resulting from human activities, and evaluates those according to their dangerousness. The risk of groundwater contamination depends on the hazards and the vulnerability of the aquifer system. The risk map for the Sierra de Libar was thus created by overlaying the hazard and vulnerability maps.

  8. Karst groundwater protection: First application of a Pan-European Approach to vulnerability, hazard and risk mapping in the Sierra de Libar (Southern Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreo, Bartolome; Goldscheider, Nico; Vadillo, Inaki; Vias, Jesus Maria; Neukum, Christoph; Sinreich, Michael; Jimenez, Pablo; Brechenmacher, Julia; Carrasco, Francisco; Hoetzl, Heinz; Perles, Maria Jesus; Zwahlen, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The European COST action 620 proposed a comprehensive approach to karst groundwater protection, comprising methods of intrinsic and specific vulnerability mapping, validation of vulnerability maps, hazard and risk mapping. This paper presents the first application of all components of this Pan-European Approach to the Sierra de Libar, a karst hydrogeology system in Andalusia, Spain. The intrinsic vulnerability maps take into account the hydrogeological characteristics of the area but are independent from specific contaminant properties. Two specific vulnerability maps were prepared for faecal coliforms and BTEX. These maps take into account the specific properties of these two groups of contaminants and their interaction with the karst hydrogeological system. The vulnerability assessment was validated by means of tracing tests, hydrological, hydrochemical and isotope methods. The hazard map shows the localization of potential contamination sources resulting from human activities, and evaluates those according to their dangerousness. The risk of groundwater contamination depends on the hazards and the vulnerability of the aquifer system. The risk map for the Sierra de Libar was thus created by overlaying the hazard and vulnerability maps

  9. Classification of Modern and Old Río Tinto Sedimentary Deposits Through the Biomolecular Record Using a Life Marker Biochip: Implications for Detecting Life on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A.; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A.; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar

  10. Classification of modern and old Río Tinto sedimentary deposits through the biomolecular record using a life marker biochip: implications for detecting life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parro, Victor; Fernández-Remolar, David; Rodríguez-Manfredi, José A; Cruz-Gil, Patricia; Rivas, Luis A; Ruiz-Bermejo, Marta; Moreno-Paz, Mercedes; García-Villadangos, Miriam; Gómez-Ortiz, David; Blanco-López, Yolanda; Menor-Salván, César; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Gómez-Elvira, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The particular mineralogy formed in the acidic conditions of the Río Tinto has proven to be a first-order analogue for the acid-sulfate aqueous environments of Mars. Therefore, studies about the formation and preservation of biosignatures in the Río Tinto will provide insights into equivalent processes on Mars. We characterized the biomolecular patterns recorded in samples of modern and old fluvial sediments along a segment of the river by means of an antibody microarray containing more than 200 antibodies (LDCHIP200, for Life Detector Chip) against whole microorganisms, universal biomolecules, or environmental extracts. Samples containing 0.3-0.5 g of solid material were automatically analyzed in situ by the Signs Of LIfe Detector instrument (SOLID2), and the results were corroborated by extensive analysis in the laboratory. Positive antigen-antibody reactions indicated the presence of microbial strains or high-molecular-weight biopolymers that originated from them. The LDCHIP200 results were quantified and subjected to a multivariate analysis for immunoprofiling. We associated similar immunopatterns, and biomolecular markers, to samples with similar sedimentary age. Phyllosilicate-rich samples from modern fluvial sediments gave strong positive reactions with antibodies against bacteria of the genus Acidithiobacillus and against biochemical extracts from Río Tinto sediments and biofilms. These samples contained high amounts of sugars (mostly polysaccharides) with monosaccharides like glucose, rhamnose, fucose, and so on. By contrast, the older deposits, which are a mix of clastic sands and evaporites, showed only a few positives with LDCHIP200, consistent with lower protein and sugar content. We conclude that LDCHIP200 results can establish a correlation between microenvironments, diagenetic stages, and age with the biomarker profile associated with a sample. Our results would help in the search for putative martian biomarkers in acidic deposits with similar

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions; Determinacion Espectrofotometrica de Zinc en muestras de rio-Tinto prvia estracciond el Ditizonato con Tetracloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.; Reyes Tamaral, A.

    1972-07-01

    A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-(2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs.

  12. Efecto del drenaje ácido de minas sobre el agua y el sedimento del estuario de los ríos Tinto y Odiel

    OpenAIRE

    Carro Flores, Berta

    2016-01-01

    Son numerosos los estudios realizados con respecto al efecto del drenaje ácido de minas en los sistemas fluviales que desembocan en el estuario de los ríos Tinto y Odiel (Aroba et at., 2007; Cánovas et al., (2008); De la Torre et al (2009, 2010, 2014); Grande et al., (2000, 2003, 2005, 2010, 2011, 2013, 2014); Olías et al., (2004); Sáinz et al., (2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005); Sarmiento et al., (2009)), la contaminación asociada a la actividad minera de la zona (Nelson y Lamoth...

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of zinc in impure solutions; Determinacion Espectrofotometrica de Zinc en muestras de rio-Tinto prvia estracciond el Ditizonato con Tetracloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B; Reyes Tamaral, A

    1972-07-01

    A dithizone colorimetric method is described for determining zinc concentrations of 0.001 to 5 g/l in aqueous solutions from Rio Tinto Mines, containing copper, iron and other impurities. Citrate, cyanide and bis-(2hydroxyethyl)-dithiocarbamate are added to the aqueous sample of masking several metals, and zinc is extracted at pH 5 with a solution of dithizone in carbon tetrachloride. Excess of dithizone is removed with sodium sulphide, and optical density of zinc dithionate in organic solution is measured at 5.35 nm. Calibration curves obey Beer's law up to 0.5 micro Zn/ml. (Author) 5 refs.

  14. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Methods Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. Results The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. Conclusions In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This

  15. Development of spatial density maps based on geoprocessing web services: application to tuberculosis incidence in Barcelona, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominkovics, Pau; Granell, Carlos; Pérez-Navarro, Antoni; Casals, Martí; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2011-11-29

    Health professionals and authorities strive to cope with heterogeneous data, services, and statistical models to support decision making on public health. Sophisticated analysis and distributed processing capabilities over geocoded epidemiological data are seen as driving factors to speed up control and decision making in these health risk situations. In this context, recent Web technologies and standards-based web services deployed on geospatial information infrastructures have rapidly become an efficient way to access, share, process, and visualize geocoded health-related information. Data used on this study is based on Tuberculosis (TB) cases registered in Barcelona city during 2009. Residential addresses are geocoded and loaded into a spatial database that acts as a backend database. The web-based application architecture and geoprocessing web services are designed according to the Representational State Transfer (REST) principles. These web processing services produce spatial density maps against the backend database. The results are focused on the use of the proposed web-based application to the analysis of TB cases in Barcelona. The application produces spatial density maps to ease the monitoring and decision making process by health professionals. We also include a discussion of how spatial density maps may be useful for health practitioners in such contexts. In this paper, we developed web-based client application and a set of geoprocessing web services to support specific health-spatial requirements. Spatial density maps of TB incidence were generated to help health professionals in analysis and decision-making tasks. The combined use of geographic information tools, map viewers, and geoprocessing services leads to interesting possibilities in handling health data in a spatial manner. In particular, the use of spatial density maps has been effective to identify the most affected areas and its spatial impact. This study is an attempt to demonstrate how web

  16. Spain: Europe's California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilvert, Calvin

    1994-01-01

    Contends that, as Spain integrates into the European Economic Community, it is considered to be Europe's California. Asserts that making regional comparisons between California and Spain can be an effective teaching method. Provides comparisons in such areas as agriculture and tourism. (CFR)

  17. Energy Made in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz del Arbol, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spain is the first country in Europe and the second worldwide in installed thermoelectric solar power, the second place in Europe and fourth worldwide in wind energy. Moreover, Spain is the second country in photovoltaic energy so in Europe as in the World.

  18. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  19. A new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects. Application to natural Pinus sylvestris L. stands in Central Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojo-Alboreca, A.; García-Villabrille, J.D.; Corral-Rivas, J.J.; Alía, R.; Montero, G.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To propose a new approach to defining rotation ages on the basis of productive and technological aspects and to present an example of application of the methodology to natural Pinus sylvestris stands in relation to silvicultural treatment (light or heavy thinning) and site index. Area of study: Central Spain. Material and methods: We assumed that the price per m3 of logwood suitable for veneer is four times higher than logwood not apt for veneer. Considering the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes, a model of diameter distributions and yield tables, the variation in an average price index for different age classes, site indexes and silvicultural treatments was calculated. The age at which the price index rises by less than 3%, the proportion of trees with d.b.h. higher than 40 cm, and other aspects such as the possible presence of fungal decay in old-growth stands were also taken into account to establish three criteria for defining rotation ages. Main results: The proposed methodology generates a wide range of rotation ages between 100 and 140 years for lightly thinned stands, and between 90 and 140 years for heavily thinned stands, depending on the site index. Research highlights: The proposed approach is based on technological and productive criteria, with the limitations imposed by sanitary risks. The methodology can be applied to generate rotation ages in relation to different site indexes and silvicultural treatments, provided that the timber market prices and the yield distribution for different technological and commercial classes are known, and that a model of diameter distributions and yield tables are available.

  20. EIAMUO methodology for environmental assessment of the post-war housing estates renovation: Practical application in Seville (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrido-Piñero, Julia; Mercader-Moyano, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the environmental impact assessment of a specific urban fabric: the housing estate. This urban-growth typology arose in the second half of the twentieth century to supply the existing needs of the time. It involved short-term processes, reduced costs, and lower comfort standards, which are far from present European guidelines. Currently, they represent situations of unsustainability in cities worldwide that are undergoing improvement. Here, the environmental impact assessment and minimization for urban organisms (EIAMUO) methodology is presented. This consists of a system of eco-indicators created specifically for estimating the impacts associated with these fabrics. Through its practical application, a snapshot of the current situation is achieved and the targets designed to minimize the environmental impact are proposed. - Highlights: • An environmental-impact minimization methodology for housing estates is proposed. • The paper presents a new definition for city analysis: urban organism. • The areas for the assessment are energy, water, materials and waste and atmosphere. • Energy and water areas determine most of the housing estate environmental behavior. • The building character prevails in the urban organism's environmental assessment.

  1. Comparing the application of Health Information Technology in primary care in Denmark and Andalucía, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protti, Denis; Johansen, Ib; Perez-Torres, Francisco

    2009-04-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Denmark is one, if not the, leading country in terms of the use of information technology by its primary care physicians. Other countries, notably excluding the United States and Canada, are also advanced in terms of electronic medical records in general practitioner offices and clinics. This paper compares the status of primary care physician office computing in Andalucía to that of Denmark by contrasting the functionality of electronic medical records (EMRs) and the ability to electronically communicate clinical information in both jurisdictions. A novel scoring system has been developed based on data gathered from databases held by the respective jurisdictional programs, and interviews with individuals involved in the deployment of the systems. The scoring methodology was applied for the first time in a comparison of the degree of automation in primary care physician offices in Denmark and the province of Alberta in Canada. It was also used to compare Denmark and New Zealand. This paper is the third offering of this method of scoring the adoption of electronic medical records in primary care office settings which hopefully may be applicable to other health jurisdictions at national, state, or provincial levels. Although similar in many respects, there are significant differences between these two relatively autonomous health systems which have led to the rates of uptake of physician office computing. Particularly notable is the reality that the Danish primary care physicians have individual "Electronic Medical Records" while in Andalucía, the primary care physicians share a common record which when secondary care is fully implemented will indeed be an "Electronic Health Record". It is clear that the diffusion of technology, within the primary care physician sector of the health care market, is subject to historical, financial, legal, cultural, and social factors. This tale of two places illustrates the issues, and different

  2. Spain: NATO or Neutrality,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    having Spain as a member. Spain is a traditional country in many ways. Religion is still a strongly-felt part of national life and atheism is looked at... Siglo XXI, 30 April 1979. Pedro J. Ramirez, "Diez Razones a favor de la OTAN," ABC, 17 September 1978, p. 7. 8 Ibid. Il 167 - SPAIN - WHAT’S IN IT...Cordoba and Granada. All three of the country’s major religions lived in relative harmony primarily in Moorish kingdoms, where the arts, commerce, and the

  3. Obtaining the mean relative weights of the cost of care in Catalonia (Spain): retrospective application of the adjusted clinical groups case-mix system in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras-Mainar, Antoni; Velasco-Velasco, Soledad; Navarro-Artieda, Ruth; Aguado Jodar, Alba; Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Hermosilla-Pérez, Eduardo; Bolibar-Ribas, Bonaventura; Prados-Torres, Alejandra; Violan-Fors, Concepción

    2013-04-01

    The study aims to obtain the mean relative weights (MRWs) of the cost of care through the retrospective application of the adjusted clinical groups (ACGs) in several primary health care (PHC) centres in Catalonia (Spain) in routine clinical practice. This is a retrospective study based on computerized medical records. All patients attended by 13 PHC teams in 2008 were included. The principle measurements were: demographic variables (age and sex), dependent variables (number of diagnoses and total costs), and case-mix or co-morbidity variables (International Classification of Primary Care). The costs model for each patient was established by differentiating the fix costs from the variable costs. In the bivariate analysis, the Student's t, analysis of variance, chi-squared, Pearson's linear correlation and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests were used. In order to compare the MRW of the present study with those of the United States (US), the concordance [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)] and the correlation (coefficient of determination: R²) were measured. The total number of patients studied was 227,235, and the frequentation was 5.9 visits/habitant/year) and with a mean diagnoses number of 4.5 (3.2). The distribution of costs was €148.7 million, of which 29.1% were fixed costs. The mean total cost per patient/year was €654.2 (851.7), which was considered to be the reference MRW. Relationship between study-MRW and US-MRW: ICC was 0.40 [confidential interval (CI) 95%: 0.21-0.60] and the CCC was 0.42 (CI 95%: 0.35-0.49). The correlation between the US MRW and the MRW of the present study can be seen; the adjusted R² value is 0.691. The explanatory power of the ACG classification was 36.9% for the total costs. The R² of the total cost without considering outliers was 56.9%. The methodology has been shown appropriate for promoting the calculation of the MRW for each category of the classification. The results provide

  4. Acidez na vinificação em tinto das uvas Isabel, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizzon Luiz Antenor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A acidez é uma das características gustativas mais importantes dos vinhos e influencia sua estabilidade e coloração. Devido à insolubilização do ácido tartárico sob a forma de sais, a acidez titulável e o pH podem ser alterados durante a vinificação de acordo com o teor de potássio da uva. Este trabalho avaliou a evolução da acidez durante a vinificação de três cultivares de uvas tintas (Isabel - Vitis labrusca -, Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc - Vitis vinifera da Serra Gaúcha. Os vinhos foram elaborados por microvinificação na safra de 1995, sendo avaliados a evolução da acidez titulável, pH, ácido tartárico e potássio imediatamente após o esmagamento da uva, na descuba e após a fermentação alcoólica, a fermentação malolática e a estabilização tartárica, totalizando análises em cinco fases da vinificação. Os resultados mostraram uma evolução diferente da acidez, avaliados através do pH, da acidez titulável, do ácido tartárico e do potássio, na vinificação em tinto da uva Isabel em relação à Cabernet Sauvignon e à Cabernet Franc, nas fases compreendidas entre o esmagamento da uva e a descuba. O vinho Isabel se caracterizou por apresentar teores mais elevados de acidez titulável e ácido tartárico e mais baixos de potássio e pH, em relação aos vinhos Cabernet Sauvignon e Cabernet Franc.

  5. In the matter of the application of the Westinghouse Electric Corporation for the export of pressurized water reactor to Asociacion Nuclear ASCO II, Barcelona, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowden, M.A.; Mason, E.A.; Gilinsky, V.; Kennedy, R.T.

    1976-01-01

    The paper contains the text of a decision of the US NRC that the export of the ASCO nuclear power unit II to Spain would not be inimical to the common defense and security of the United States, so that there are no objections to issue the license to Westinghouse Electric Corporation. Furthermore the paper contains the dissenting opinion of Commissioner Gilinsky. (HP) [de

  6. Analogue modelling of a reactivated, basement controlled strike-slip zone, Sierra de Albarracín, Spain: application of sandbox modelling to polyphase deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merten, S.; Smit, W.G.; Nieuwland, D.A.; Rondeel, H.E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an analogue modelling study on the reactivation of Riedel shears generated by basement-induced sinistral strike-slip faulting. It is based on a natural example in the Sierra de Albarracín, Iberian Range (Spain). The area has a polyphase deformation history, defined

  7. Molecular Gastronomy in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    García-Segovia, Purificación; Garrido, María Dolores; Vercet Tormo, Antonio; Arboleya, Juan Carlos; FISZMAN DAL SANTO, SUSANA; Martínez Monzó, Javier; Laguarda, Sergio; Palacios, Victor; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientificand technological universe in the culinary area. Nowadays, this is a well-established discipline in Spain, with a number of research groups covering related topics, several companies commercializing appliances and additives worl...

  8. EELA Training Activities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherubino, C.; Ciuffo, L. N.; Fuentes, A.; Mayo, R.

    2007-01-01

    EELA (E-Infrastructure shared between Europe and Latin America) is a collaboration project between Latin American and European institutions whose aim is to consolidate a shared e-Infrastructure for e-Science applications. Training activities play a crucial role in this scope, providing the necessary skills to the users and allowing them to properly utilize the available grid infrastructure at all levels. This paper highlights the results achieved by the knowledge dissemination task of the project, in particular those obtained in Spain, one of the most active EELA partners. The EELA project is funded by the European Commission under the contract number IST- 2006-026409. (Author)

  9. AVALIAÇÃO DA CV. CABERNET FRANC PARA ELABORAÇÃO DE VINHO TINTO EVALUATION OF CV. CABERNET FRANC TO ELABORATE RED WINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor RIZZON

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available A uva Cabernet Franc, originária da região de Bordeaux, França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem, embora apresente aptidão para envelhecer. Face a sua importância, conduziu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de determinar as características agronômicas e enológicas da uva Cabernet Franc para elaboração de vinho tinto. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho tinto nas safras de 1987 a 1994. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram que a cv. Cabernet Franc tem cacho médio, formado por bagas pequenas. O mosto possui teores de açúcar e de acidez adequados para vinificação. O vinho apresenta elevado teor de K e de álcoois superiores. No aspecto sensorial, apresenta cor vermelho-rubi, com reflexos violáceos quando jovem, e de intensidade variável em função das safras vitícolas. No olfato, apresenta aroma com notas vegetais e frutadas, que lembram pimentão e frutas vermelhas, respectivamente. Gustativamente, o vinho apresenta boa estrutura, equilíbrio e personalidade marcante.Cabernet Franc grape is originated from Bordeaux, France. It was introduced in the Serra Gaúcha region in the south of Brazil, by the Estação Agronômica the Porto Alegre, RS. It is used to elaborate young red wine, but it can be aged too. Due to the importance of Cabernet Franc, this work had the objective to determine its agronomic and winemaking characteristics. To achieve this purpose, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were performed from 1987 to 1994. The results showed that Cabernet Franc grapes have clusters of medium size and small berries. The must has adequate sugar and titratable acidity levels for vinification. The Cabernet Franc wine has a high concentration of K and higher alcohols. The sensory evaluation showed that it has a ruby color with violet reflexes when

  10. Aversive racism in Spain: testing the theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wojcieszak, M.

    2015-01-01

    This study applies the aversive racism framework to Spain and tests whether aversive racism depends on intergroup contact. Relying on a 3 (qualifications) by 3 (ethnicity) experiment, this study finds that aversive racism is especially pronounced against the Mexican job applicant, and emerges among

  11. Application of foresight methods in applications for patents and trademarks in Spain; Aplicacion de metodos de prevision en las solicitudes de patentes y marcas en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Glabaly Marquez, S.

    2011-07-01

    Patent and trademark offices which run according to principles of new management have an inherent need for dependable forecasting data in planning capacity and service levels. The predictive approach adopted for the time series of Spanish patents and trademarks applications (1979-2009) has been the use of different techniques of time series prediction in a short-term time horizon. The methods used can be grouped into two specifics areas: regression models of trends and time series models advanced. The results of this study show that it is possible to model the series of patents and trademarks applications with different models, especially ARIMA, with satisfactory model adjustment and relatively low error. (Author) 33 refs.

  12. University Teacher’s Evaluation in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Tejedor Tejedor

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This article intends to make a brief overview about the performance evaluation for university teachers in democratic Spain. It contents: a considerations about teaching evaluation, in order to delimit the authors’ position in this matter, due to the fact that this position obviously conditions any revision; b a brief summary of the history of university teachers evaluation in Spain during the last years, since the Spanish Constitution of 1978 approval; c a typology of the evaluation plans, in order to define a map of the planning lines for evaluations applied in Spain; d the technical guidelines for teachers´ evaluation and presentation of the current model, exampled by its application in the university of Salamanca; and e as a conclusion, some considerations about the consequences of evaluation and its entailment with the professionalization of university teachers.

  13. Spain's uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    Spain currently operates nine nuclear reactors totalling over 7,100 MWe of capacity, contributing about one-third of all electricity generated in Spain. Four reactors at advanced stages of construction remain mothballed as the result of a government-imposed moratorium, and a fire at Vandellos 1 in 1989 led to its premature closure and to a revival of anti-nuclear sentiment in the country. In the new national energy plan, which was sent to the Spanish Parliament on July 25, 1991, Spain opted to continue the nuclear moratorium that began in 1984 and rely upon conservation measures, additional natural gas imports, and electricity imports to meet expected demand. Under the new plan, nuclear power's share of Spain's total installed electrical generating capacity will fall from about 17 percent in 1990, to approximately 14 percent by the end of the century, as only the current nuclear facilities will continue to operate and no new nuclear plants will be built. Spain's integration into the European Community also is affecting the country's energy plans, prompting consolidation within the Spanish electricity sector in order to be more competitive in Europe. To supply the existing reactors, the government is supporting a major expansion of the country's domestic uranium industry

  14. Some Ecological Mechanisms to Generate Habitability in Planetary Subsurface Areas by Chemolithotrophic Communities: The Ro Tinto Subsurface Ecosystem as a Model System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C.; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T.; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amiols, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Ro Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Ro Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  15. Some ecological mechanisms to generate habitability in planetary subsurface areas by chemolithotrophic communities: the Río Tinto subsurface ecosystem as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Remolar, David C; Gómez, Felipe; Prieto-Ballesteros, Olga; Schelble, Rachel T; Rodríguez, Nuria; Amils, Ricardo

    2008-02-01

    Chemolithotrophic communities that colonize subsurface habitats have great relevance for the astrobiological exploration of our Solar System. We hypothesize that the chemical and thermal stabilization of an environment through microbial activity could make a given planetary region habitable. The MARTE project ground-truth drilling campaigns that sampled cryptic subsurface microbial communities in the basement of the Río Tinto headwaters have shown that acidic surficial habitats are the result of the microbial oxidation of pyritic ores. The oxidation process is exothermic and releases heat under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. These microbial communities can maintain the subsurface habitat temperature through storage heat if the subsurface temperature does not exceed their maximum growth temperature. In the acidic solutions of the Río Tinto, ferric iron acts as an effective buffer for controlling water pH. Under anaerobic conditions, ferric iron is the oxidant used by microbes to decompose pyrite through the production of sulfate, ferrous iron, and protons. The integration between the physical and chemical processes mediated by microorganisms with those driven by the local geology and hydrology have led us to hypothesize that thermal and chemical regulation mechanisms exist in this environment and that these homeostatic mechanisms could play an essential role in creating habitable areas for other types of microorganisms. Therefore, searching for the physicochemical expression of extinct and extant homeostatic mechanisms through physical and chemical anomalies in the Mars crust (i.e., local thermal gradient or high concentration of unusual products such as ferric sulfates precipitated out from acidic solutions produced by hypothetical microbial communities) could be a first step in the search for biological traces of a putative extant or extinct Mars biosphere.

  16. Gender relations, the gendered division of labour and health: the case of the women factory workers of Rio Tinto, northeast Brazil, 1924-91.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira De Macedo, M B

    1996-01-01

    This article examines gendered work-health relationships among female factory workers in Rio Tinto, a textile factory town in Brazil. The author draws on her own and her parents' experiences as factory workers and as residents of Rio Tinto. In addition, she gathered research during 1982-86 and 1988-93, interviewing 30 female and 12 male workers. Findings from 1924-58 and 1959-91 indicate that the family structure and work process were interlinked. Self-images are construed to be the intersection of social relations of sex and class, psychopathology, and the concept of work positions. Gendered relations are a social construction, and awareness of these relations is based on a hierarchy and form of power based on a gendered division of labor. Gendered relations arise out of a specific historical context. Social practices reflect the relationship between sexual division of labor and gendered social relations, their modalities, shape, and periodization. The work-health relationship is expressed in the gendered technical organization of work, the gendered socialization of work, and domestic labor. The period of 1917-58 reflects the capitalist influences. When women became wage earners, their management of household tasks was changed. Men took over the heavy tasks, and women performed tasks that required skill and patience. Work-related health impacts, such as deformed knees or severed fingers, and accidents varied with the task. Women adapted to work conditions. During the 1940s, female workers refused to join the collective protests of men for better wages and conditions. The dream of progress faded by 1964. After 1959, new gendered relations of production and reproduction emerged. Labor laws were passed; new machines were introduced. During 1965-70, the health issues were headaches, irritability, and anxiety. 1970-91 brought a hollowness of spirit and the search for an explanation for the violence they had experienced.

  17. Tinto's South Africa lectures

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013 Isaac Newton and student college completion. Journal of College Student Retention. 15, 1-7. 2012 Completing College: Rethinking institutional action. Chicago: The University of. Chicago Press. 2011 Moving from theory to action: A model of institutional action for student success. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College Student ...

  18. Implementation of environmental management tools to support the management of solid waste in the municipality of Rio Tinto / PB | Implementação de ferramentas de gestão ambiental para apoiar a gestão de resíduos sólidos no município de Rio Tinto / PB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Maria Gomes Pinheiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Questão dos Resíduos Tornou-se Objecto de varias DISCUSSÕES, Uma Vez Que afeta o Desenvolvimento Social, Político, económico e ambiental. A Produção de Resíduos ESTÁ relacionada com como Actividades humanas, e consumo excessivo e Programa de aumento obsolescência Geração. ASSIM, este Objectivo de Investigação Para Estudar a Questão dos Resíduos Sólidos no município de Rio Tinto / PB, Tentando analisar o Fator sociais, Que Incorpora um População local; Geração Fator de Resíduos, identificando OS principais Resíduos produzidos; Coleção Fator e Resíduos de Embalagens, avaliando o Sistema de Coleta de Seu armazenamento comeu uma eliminação final; e, Finalmente, analisar a necessidade de uma Gestão Ambiental na Região. Por ISSO, foi Elaborado hum Questionário. Percebeu-se Que a Cidade de Rio Tinto TEM uma Alta vulnerabilidade social, a Deficiência uma não Sistema de Coleta de Resíduos e apresenta uma grande necessidade de aplicar a Prática da Gestão Ambiental.

  19. Quality assurance in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villate, J.

    1980-01-01

    The first part of this lecture is devoted to present the energy program in Spain and the three generations of nuclear plants. The evolution of QA is outlined pointing out how IAEA Codes of Practice on QA is now a requirement and also how USA regulations, codes and standards have constituted, up to now, the main framework to develop QA activities in Spain. A general idea is given of the Spanish program of courses to qualify the personnel to be involved in QA tasks in nuclear power plants. Finally a general scheme is given, emphasizing the three main aspects: design, procurement and fabrication; construction (QA on site). (orig./RW)

  20. Spain investigates PLEX options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hevia, F.

    1990-01-01

    Spain's nuclear generation capacity will be reduced by some 6000MWe by the year 2015 if decommissioning of the units currently in operation takes place at the end of their 40-year design life. Bearing this in mind, in 1988 the Santa Maria de Garona BWR and the Jose Cabrera PWR were chosen by their respective owners as reference units for plant life extension (PLEX) activities. These plants are the oldest of their types operating in Spain and PLEX programmes were already under way. (author)

  1. Superconductivity in Spain. Midas program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yndurain, F.

    1996-01-01

    The different activities in the field of applied superconductivity carried out in Spain under the auspices of the MIDAS program are reported. Applications using both low- and high-temperature superconductors are considered. In the low temperature superconductors case, the design and construction of a 1 mega joule SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) unit, as well as the fabrication of voltage and resistance standards, are reviewed. Developments involving the design and fabrication of an inductive current fault limited and mono- and multi-filamentary wires and tapes using high-temperature superconductors are discussed. Finally, the prospects for the application of superconductivity technology to electric power systems for the electric utilities is considered. (author)

  2. Efeito do vinho tinto associado ao exercício físico no sistema cardiovascular de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos Efecto del vino tinto asociado al ejercicio físico en el sistema cardiovascular de ratones espontáneamente hipertensos Effect of red wine associated with physical exercise in the cardiovascular system of spontaneously hipertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Soares Filho

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: Prática de exercício físico (EF é eficiente no tratamento e na prevenção da hipertensão, associada à melhora do perfil lipídico e da função contrátil cardíaca. Consumo moderado e regular de bebidas alcoólicas, como vinho tinto, desempenha efeito cardiovascular protetor. Polifenóis da bebida apresentam propriedades antioxidantes, beneficiando vasos sanguíneos. Há poucas evidências sobre o consumo de vinho tinto associado ao EF e as influências no sistema cardiovascular. OBJETIVO: Investigar o efeito da interação entre o EF e o consumo moderado de vinho tinto na pressão arterial sistólica (PAS, lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL, desempenho físico e fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo (FEVE de ratos espontaneamente hipertensos (SHR. MÉTODOS: Amostra de 32 SHR distribuídos em quatro grupos: grupo vinho e exercício (GVE, grupo vinho (GV, grupo exercício (GE e grupo controle (GC. Doses de vinho tinto, equivalentes ao consumo moderado em humanos, foram administradas por gavagem, durante dez semanas, simultâneas ao período de EF, realizado em esteira. Os SHR receberam 3,715 ml/kg/dia de vinho. O desempenho físico foi analisado por teste de esforço (TE, e a FEVE foi obtida por medidas ecocardiográficas. A aferição da PAS ocorreu antes e após o protocolo do EF. RESULTADOS: Demonstrou-se redução significativa da PAS nos grupos de intervenção, comparados ao GC. Ao final do protocolo, o GVE apresentou a maior redução. Assim como na PAS, o GVE apresentou melhor resultado nos níveis de HDL. Não houve diferença significativa no desempenho físico e na FEVE entre os grupos. CONCLUSÃO: O EF associado à ingesta moderada de vinho tinto exerce efeito cardioprotetor na PAS e na HDL de SHR. O desempenho físico e a FEVE não são alterados.FUNDAMENTO: Práctica de ejercicio físico (EF es eficiente en el tratamiento y en la prevención de la hipertensión, asociada a la mejora del perfil lip

  3. Molecular gastronomy in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Segovia, P.; Garrido, M. D.; Vercet, A.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond the overwhelming international success of Ferrán Adria, Spain has been one of the countries with a more active implication in molecular gastronomy as a scientific discipline but also in the use of ingredients, technologies, and equipment from the scientific and technological universe...... with scientists for facing the future of Spanish gastronomy....

  4. Mineralogy and origin of atmospheric particles in the industrial area of Huelva (SW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé, J. M.; Carretero, M. I.; Galán, E.

    The mineralogy of atmospheric particles at the confluence of the Tinto and Odiel rivers, south of Huelva (a highly industrialized city in the SW Spain), was characterized in view to identify source origins. In spite of the small amount of sample collected, mineralogical characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction, polarized light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy with EDS analysis system, using an adequate sample preparation methodology. Sedimentable (SP) and aerosols particles were sampled an one-week basis every two months for one year. Quartz, calcite and feldspars were found to be the major minerals in both fractions, and phyllosilicates, dolomite and gypsum were also identified in lower content. Minor mineral particles included barite, apatite, sphalerite and pyrite. SEM studies revealed the additional presence of chalcopyrite in both SP and aerosols, and of chalcocite-covellite, halite and sylvite in the latter. Siderite, hematite and ankerite were only detected in the SP fraction. The concentrations of the previous minerals increased in summer by effect of the limited rain and the resulting scarcity of atmosphere washing. Non-mineral particles detected by SEM in SP and aerosol fractions included spherical, biological and compositionally complex particles. The main source of mineral particles was found to be the soil suspension in addition to the metallurgical and fertilizer production industries in the area.

  5. Tangible fixed assets For SME: Portuguese and Spain evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Maria Lúcia; Abreu, Rute; Pérez-López, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    The problem statement of this research is the application level of IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment in SMEs provide by SME in Portugal and Spain. Indeed, the purpose of the research is comparing the accounting framework of IAS 16 - Property, Plant and Equipment in SME in Portugal and Spain. Also, it considers the information disclosure, conduct annually by the SME in both countries, comparing their similarities and differences. The methodology a used descriptive, pilot and explanatory a...

  6. The text of the Agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Agreement between the Governments on co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-07-01

    The full text of the agreement of 9 June 1982 between the Federal Republic of Germany, Spain and the Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the agreement between the Governments in co-operation in the field of the utilization of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes of 5 December 1978 is presented

  7. Avaliação da cv. Merlot para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Merlot to make red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A uva Merlot é uma das responsáveis pelas características dos vinhos tintos de Saint Émillion, região de Bordeaux, França. Foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul através da Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre. É, atualmente, uma das cultivares tinta de Vitis vinifera L. com maior volume de produção da Serra Gaúcha. É utilizada para a elaboração de vinho tinto para ser consumido jovem. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial enológico da cv. Merlot para a elaboração de vinho tinto fino. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho nas safras de 1987 a 1994, em Bento Gonçalves, RS. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Merlot tem cacho com peso médio de 161,9g e baga esférica e pequena, pesando 1,61g. No mosto, o valor médio de açúcar é de 18,4ºBrix; o da acidez total, de 104meqL-1; e o do pH, de 3,21. O vinho se caracteriza por ter teores médios de 10,8% v/v de álcool; 70,3meqL-1 de acidez titulável; e pH de 3,49. Sob o aspecto sensorial, o vinho Merlot apresenta cor vermelho-violáceo com boa intensidade. Gustativamente distingue-se pela maciez, equilíbrio e fineza.Merlot is a traditional grape of the Saint Émillion wines, Bordeaux region - France. It was introduced into, the State of Rio Grande do Sul by the Estação Agronômica de Porto Alegre, Brazil. Today, of the red grape cultivars it shows the largest production in the Serra Gaúcha region. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the enological potential of Merlot grapes for red winemaking. To achieve this purpose, variables related to berry clusters, must and wine were measured between 1987 and 1994 vintages, from Merlot vineyards located in the municipality of Bento Gonçalves. The results showed that Merlot grapes have clusters of medium size (161.9g and small berries (1.61g. The must showed adequate sugar level (18.4ºBrix, high titratable acidity (104mqL-1 and medium pH 3.21. The wine Merlot had an

  8. Avaliação da cv. Tannat para elaboração de vinho tinto Evaluation of cv. Tannat to elaborate red wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A uva Tannat, originária do Sudoeste da França, foi introduzida no Rio Grande do Sul, pela Estação Experimental de Caxias do Sul. É uma cultivar difundida na Serra Gaúcha para elaboração de vinho tinto, utilizado para corte e para a produção de vinho varietal. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o potencial enológico da cv. Tannat para a elaboração de vinho tinto fino nessa região vitícola. Para isso, realizaram-se estudos para caracterizar o cacho, o mosto e o vinho nas safras de 1987 a 1994, a partir de um vinhedo localizado em Bento Gonçalves, RS. Os resultados evidenciaram que a cv. Tannat tem cacho com peso médio de 216,1g e baga esférica pequena (1,54g. O mosto apresenta teor elevado de acidez titulável (155meq/L-1. O vinho se caracteriza por teores elevados em: polifenóis totais (I 280= 43,0, taninos (1,9g/L, antocianinas (539mg/L, potássio (1.856mg/L-1 e soma dos álcoois superiores (512mg/L-1. As características sensoriais do vinho Tannat na Serra Gaúcha evidenciam uma cor vermelha-violácea intensa, tânicos, nervosos, relativamente duros e aromas de frutas vermelhas. É recomendável para corte com outros vinhos tintos finos para intensificar sua cor e estrutura e também para a produção de vinho varietal podendo melhorar com o amadurecimento em barricas de carvalho.The Tannat grape is native to the Southwest of France, and was introduced into the State of Rio Grande do Sul by the Caxias do Sul Experimental Station. It is a cultivar diffused in the Serra Gaucha region with the purpose of elaborating varietal red wine for blending. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the enological potential of the Tannat grape for red wine in this region. To achieve this objective, variables related to the berries, clusters, must, and wine were evaluated from the 1987 to 1994 vintages, in a vineyard established in Bento Gonçalves, RS, Brazil. The results showed that Tannat grapes have large clusters (216.1g and

  9. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla, M.

    1984-01-01

    The 'Plan Energetico Nacional de 1983' (1983 National Energy Program)(PEN-83) was approved recently by the Spanish Government and presented to the 'Cortes Espanolas' (Spanish Parliament) in May 1984. The PEN-83 is being discussed at present in the Parliament and it is possible that some modifications be introduced, but expectedly will be rather limited and minor. PEN-83 covers the period 1983-1992. It includes a comparative analysis of the evolution and situation in OECD countries and in Spain. In Spain the offer, supply and consumption of primary energy and of the interrelation with other economic indicators, such as the gross domestic product, inflation rate and unemployment compared with that of the industrialized OECD countries, has shown a much lower capability to adapt its structure to the energy price increases

  10. Application, difficulties and perspectives of artificial recharge of groundwater in Spain; Aplicacion, dificultades y perspectivas de la recarga artificial de acuiferos en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Paricio, A.

    2001-07-01

    Artificial recharge of groundwater is an extremely useful techniques for the management of water resources. This is why artificial recharge is viewed as an essential component of water supply systems in some countries. Because spreading scientific-technical knowledge is a key to combat misconceptions, this paper describes the results obtained in an European project, where the author participated as representative of the Technical University of Catalonia. the variety of topics addressed by this project and the status of artificial recharge in other regions contrast notoriously with the current situation in Spain, as explained in the paper. Nowadays, there are symptoms of improvement, but it is still necessary a conceptual change. This requires more imaginative plants that take advantage of treated waste-water and storm water, as well as their integration with alternative measures, such as desalination, reuse, optimization of water distribution and irrigation networks and the management of water demand. (Author) 25 refs.

  11. Effects of Vacation Rental Websites on the Concentration of Tourists—Potential Environmental Impacts. An Application to the Balearic Islands in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Martín, José Antonio; Zermeño Mejía, Karla Aída; Salinas Fernández, José Antonio

    2018-01-01

    The concentration of tourists at certain times of the year can damage sensitive environments. The use of peer-to-peer vacation rental websites has increased greatly during the last decade. This system could either reduce seasonality in touristic destinations where the tourist activity takes place throughout the year at a lower price or on the contrary, it could increase the number of visitors at certain times of the year even more. This paper intends to analyze the effect that these platforms have on tourism seasonality in order to calculate if they help reduce or increase the pressure on the destinations. To do so, the Gini Index has been applied to one of the main touristic spots in Europe, the Balearic Islands in Spain. The conclusion is that this type of accommodation has aggravated the problem, generating a greater concentration of tourists and a higher pressure on the resources of the islands. PMID:29462863

  12. Effects of Vacation Rental Websites on the Concentration of Tourists-Potential Environmental Impacts. An Application to the Balearic Islands in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, José María Martín; Martín, José Antonio Rodriguez; Mejía, Karla Aída Zermeño; Fernández, José Antonio Salinas

    2018-02-15

    The concentration of tourists at certain times of the year can damage sensitive environments. The use of peer-to-peer vacation rental websites has increased greatly during the last decade. This system could either reduce seasonality in touristic destinations where the tourist activity takes place throughout the year at a lower price or on the contrary, it could increase the number of visitors at certain times of the year even more. This paper intends to analyze the effect that these platforms have on tourism seasonality in order to calculate if they help reduce or increase the pressure on the destinations. To do so, the Gini Index has been applied to one of the main touristic spots in Europe, the Balearic Islands in Spain. The conclusion is that this type of accommodation has aggravated the problem, generating a greater concentration of tourists and a higher pressure on the resources of the islands.

  13. Trace metal distribution in the Arosa estuary (N.W. Spain): The application of a recently developed sequential extraction procedure for metal partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria-Fernandez, Rebeca; Cave, Mark R.; Hill, Steve J.

    2006-01-01

    A study of the trace metal distribution in sediment samples from the Galician coast (Spain) has been performed. A multielement extraction method optimised via experimental design has been employed. The method uses centrifugation to pass the extractant solution at varying pH, through the sediment sample. The sequential leaches were collected and analysed by ICP-AES. Chemometric approaches were utilised to identify the composition of the physico-chemical components in order to characterise the sample. The samples collected at different sites could be classified according to their differences in metal bio-availability and important information regarding element distribution within the physico-chemical components is given. The method has proved to be a quick and reliable way to evaluate sediment samples for environmental geochemistry analysis. In addition, this approach has potential as fast screening method for the bio-availability of metals in the environment

  14. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    the plans of the Spanish Government to reduce their dependence on oil over the next ten years by a considerable increase in nuclear generating capacity are outlined. Data on the type, generating power, location and commissioning data of a number of nuclear power stations in Spain are tabulated. The use of foreign companies for the design and construction of the nuclear stations and the national organisations responsible for different aspects of the programme are considered. (UK)

  15. Snakebite poisoning in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sierra, Cristina; Nogué-Xarau, Santiago; Pinillos Echeverría, Miguel Ángel; Rey Pecharromán, José Miguel

    2018-01-01

    Emergencies due to snakebites, although unusual in Spain, are potentially serious. Of the 13 species native to the Iberian peninsula, only 5 are poisonous: 2 belong to the Colubridae family and 3 to the Viperidae family. Bites from these venemous snakes can be life-threatening, but the venomous species can be easily identified by attending to certain physical traits. Signs denoting poisoning from vipers, and the appropriate treatment to follow, have changed in recent years.

  16. Mecanismos moleculares de ação anti-inflamatória e antioxidante de polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto na aterosclerose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Séfora-Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho visa investigar os possíveis mecanismos moleculares de ação dos polifenóis de uvas e vinho tinto contra os processos oxidativos e inflamatórios envolvidos na aterosclerose. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão de literatura realizado por meio de buscas nas bases de dados PubMed e ScienceDirect utilizando os seguintes descritores: vinho tinto, uva, polifenóis, resveratrol, aterosclerose, LDL-oxidada, inflamação, estresse oxidativo, NF-kB, AP-1, Nrf2, SIRT-1, MicroRNA. Embora tais mecanismos ainda não estejam totalmente esclarecidos, os estudos indicam que compostos fenólicos presentes em uvas podem se complexar com metais (como ferro e cobre que provocam peroxidação dos lipídios, aumentam a atividade antioxidante do plasma, associam-se com a LDL-c aumentando sua resistência à oxidação, preservam a atividade da enzima paraoxonase, neutralizam radicais livres, e ativam fatores de transcrição como o Nrf2, que aumenta a expressão de genes que codificam proteínas importantes na defesa antioxidante, como a superóxido dismutase e a glutationa peroxidase. Além disso, os polifenóis inibem a fosforilação de MAP quinases, inibindo assim os fatores de transcrição NF-kB e AP-1 e, consequentemente, reduzindo a síntese do TNF-á, interleucinas, moléculas de adesão e quimiocinas. Também inibem a atividade das enzimas cicloxigenase e lipoxigenase. Outro mecanismo proposto é a ação do resveratrol sobre a atividade de deacetilases de histonas, como a SITR-1. Estas ações em conjunto reduzem a oxidação da LDL-c e o processo inflamatório, atenuando o processo aterogênico.

  17. Eficácia dos flavonóides da uva, vinho tinto e suco de uva tinto na prevenção e no tratamento secundário da aterosclerose = Efficacy of grape, red wine and grape juice flavonoids in the prevention and secondary treatment of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giehl, Mara Rúbia

    2007-01-01

    Conclusões: existe uma relação inversa entre a mortalidade por doença arterial coronariana e o consumo de alimentos ricos em flavonóides. Os flavonóides do vinho tinto exerceram ação antioxidante mais eficaz que os do suco de uva, tanto em seres humanos quanto em animais, reduzindo a oxidação do colesterol LDL. O suco de uva mostrou eficácia em alguns estudos, diminuindo o desenvolvimento da placa lipídica, porém em outros estudos houve controvérsias. É fundamental que sejam realizados estudos longitudinais com o suco de uva, para que se possa chegar a um resultado mais esclarecedor em relação ao seu benefício como antioxidante

  18. [Suicide in Spain today].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Olry de Labry-Lima, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    Spain presents one of the lowest suicide rates (8.7 per 100,000) but, as well as Ireland, it has also experienced one of the highest rate increases both within Europe and within the world. In our country, it can be observed an increase in the suicide rates from 1975 to 1994, being this increase greater in men than in women. It can also be noted that there was a stabilisation in the following years. Social factors, specially those which have to deal with gender roles and changes in these roles, are the most common explanations. Another possible explanation for the observed increase in mortality due to suicide among young men could be the AIDS epidemic and intravenous drug addiction, that was observed in Spain during the eighties and nineties. Furthermore, we are witnessing an epidemic related to violence against children and women. Literature strongly suggests that child abuse (psychological and sexual) is associated with increased suicide risk in adolescent or adult life. Women experience violence from their intimate partners and have a greater risk of suffering from chronic pain, diverse somatisations, greater substance use like drugs and alcohol, depression and suicide attempt. The association between work precariousness and suicide seems to be due to economic and social and family support factors, which can lead to greater vulnerability to mental health problems. These factors are of great relevance, since Spain presents one of the highest unemployment and temporary employment rates in the European Union. It seems reasonable that, due to the individualism that characterises the contemporary society, its demands and the new role of women in the work market that cause, among others, a greater difficulty in combining work and family life, are factors that could explain the lack of decrease in suicide rates.

  19. Planned reuse of wastewater effluents for environmental applications in Granollers (Barcelona, Spain); Reutilizacion planificada de aguas depuradas para uso ambientales en Granollers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, J.; Domingo, V.

    2006-07-01

    This paper describe the technical characteristics, performance, and operation and maintenance activities of the 1 ha surface flow constructed wetland (SF) located in Can Cabanyes, Granollers, Barcelona, Spain. The system started in operation by April 2003 as restoration measure for a degraded zone near the river Congost. The SFis fed with treated effluent of Granollers wastewater treatment plant. Currently treats a small flow (approximately 100 m''3/d, hydraulic load of 10mm/d) because the effluents of the TP have a high concentration of ammonia N (approximately 30 mg N/L) and the system was designed to reach a concentration lower than 2 mg/l. Somewhat more of the 50% of the data have an ammonia concentration lower than 2 mg N/L. The 85% of the samples had a faecal coliform concentration lower than 1.4 ulog/100 mL, which was the target value used for design. The system is currently a key element in the natural environments surrounding the Congost river. (Author) 6 refs.

  20. A study of the application of permeable pavements as a sustainable technique for the mitigation of soil sealing in cities: A case study in the south of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rojas, M I; Huertas-Fernández, F; Moreno, B; Martínez, G; Grindlay, A L

    2018-01-01

    The use of 'Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems' (SuDS) has become a more sustainable alternative for managing stormwater, greatly reducing the effects of soil sealing. However, the lack of monitored projects is a barrier to their implementation, as the companies which manage sewer systems cannot quantify the impact and cost-efficiency of SuDS. This paper presents a project developed in the south of Spain, in which the hydrological performance of 3 types of permeable pavements has been analyzed. The efficiencies obtained (over 70%), are higher than or similar to the efficiencies of vegetated SuDS, demonstrating the capacity of these pavements for delaying catchment area response and slow flow velocities, reducing the operating costs of sewer systems and the flood risk, while also ensuring service conditions for cities and safety for pedestrian and vehicular circulation. This pilot site has generated results which are sufficiently consistent so as to be representative, and serve as a reference for other cities with a similar climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Methodology for Decreasing Uncertainties in the Seismic Hazard Assessment Results by Using Sensitivity Analysis. An Application to Sites in Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giner, J. J.; Molina, S.; Jáuregui, P.; Delgado, J.

    - In this study a sensitivity analysis has been carried out by means of the seismic hazard results obtained using the non-zoning methodology (Epstein and Lomnitz, 1966) and the extreme value distribution functions proposed by Gumbel (1958), via a logic tree procedure. The aim of the sensitivity analysis is to identify the input parameters that have the largest impact on assessed hazard and its uncertainty. The research findings from the study of these parameters can serve as a useful guide to facilitate further research studies on seismic hazard evaluations because it allows us to identify parameters that have little or no effect on the seismic hazard results as well as parameters that have great effects on them. In this way, using the obtained results, we have proposed objective criteria in assigning probabilities to the different logic tree branches in a more objective way. It should be noted that, although the sensitivity of the logic tree branches depends on the site, it does not always do so in the same way. Finally, re-evaluation of seismic hazard using the proposed methodology applied to eastern Spain leads to a reduction of uncertainty from 52% to 27% of the expected acceleration with 10% probability of exceedence, at the site with the highest value of seismic hazard (Site 1: Torrevieja).

  2. The influence of home-site factors on residents' willingness to pay: An application for power generation from scrubland in Galicia, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solino, Mario; Farizo, Begona A.; Campos, Pablo

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to measure how much home-site factors can help to explain the individual WTP for an environmental improvement in power generation in Galicia, Spain. The results show that home-site variables such as a dispersed population, local community income, population growth and coastal/inland emplacements have significant effects on the residents' WTP. Individual and home-site models are compared using goodness-of-fit measures, and implications for forestry resources management and energy planning are discussed. The results favor to take into account the home-site variables into the WTP function. Moreover, a different structure of preferences for coastal and inland inhabitants is identified. A cross-validity analysis shows that some home-site coefficients are common to both sub-samples, but the scale parameters are not homogenous. This analysis could be useful to inform and support the public energy policy when designing incentives that promote the electric use of biomass.

  3. Application of the Microtox test and pollution indices to the study of water toxicity in the Albufera Natural Park (Valencia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda, R; Quintanilla, J F; Bonilla, J A; Sáez, E; Gamón, M

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects of waters collected from irrigation channels in a Mediterranean wetland (Albufera Natural Park, Valencia, Spain) were tested with the Microtox assay and compared with six pollution indices (PIs) defined from analytical parameters. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), nutrients, heavy metals and pesticides were measured. The bioassay result (concentrations of the water sample (% V/V) that reduced light emission to 10%, 20% and 50%, EC10, EC20 and EC50, respectively (ECs)) was compared with the PIs. This comparison has demonstrated a general agreement between ECs and PIs, except in the case of irrigation channels affected by herbicides used in rice farming (molinate and thiobencarb). No pronounced inhibition was detected in the bioluminescence in relation to the eutrophic parameters in the irrigation waters for EC50 values, indicating that this parameter does not suffice to detect eutrophic waters. Data derived from irrigation water pollution and bioassay were assembled by multivariate statistical techniques (principal component analysis). These components were associated with various contamination sources.

  4. Recommendation system to determine suitable and viable hiking routes: a prototype application in Sierra de las Nieves Nature Reserve (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vías, Jesús; Rolland, José; Gómez, María Luisa; Ocaña, Carmen; Luque, Ana

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a system for recommending hiking routes to help manage hiking activities in a protected area. The system proposes various routes, based on five criteria that maximize some aspects of hikers' requirements (by analyzing the viability and difficulty of the trails) and also those of protected areas managers (by proposals to relieve congestion in areas already used for hiking and to promote awareness of new ones, as a contribution to environmental education). The recommendation system uses network analysis, multi-criteria decision analysis and geographic information system by free software tools: PgRouting, PostgreSQL and PostGIS. This system has been tested in Sierra de las Nieves Nature Reserve (Andalusia, Spain). Of the 182 routes obtained by the system, 62 (34%) are considered viable for hikers in Sierra de las Nieves, taking into account the type of user most likely to visit this protected area. Most routes have a high difficulty level, which is coherent with the mountainous character of the protected area.

  5. Energy planning in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cortina Garcia, J.

    1995-01-01

    This report aims to describe energy planning in Spain. It briefly analyses the three completed national energy plans (Plan Energetico Nacional, PEN). The fourth PEN 1991-2000 is analysed in detail, by reference to its objectives and characteristics and to developments during its first five years in operation. The Ministry of Industry and Energy has updated PEN en 1995, almost halfway through its period, and this is also summarised. Finally, there are some reflections on the future of energy planning. (Author) 46 refs

  6. Radiation protection aspects of dismantling and decommissioning of Uranium Mining of Andujar (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortiz Ramis, M.T.; Garcia-Bermejo Fernandez, R.; Martin Palomo, N.

    1995-01-01

    This study analyzes the radiation protection aspects during the decommissioning and dismantling of uranium mining in Andujar (Spain). The application during dismantling's mining, the transfer factor of natural radioactive isotopes and the application during the sterile movements are presented

  7. Nuclear material control in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velilla, A.

    1988-01-01

    A general view about the safeguards activities in Spain is presented. The national system of accounting for and control of nuclear materials is described. The safeguards agreements signed by Spain are presented and the facilities and nuclear materials under these agreements are listed. (E.G.) [pt

  8. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  9. Environmental performance reviews: Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-10-01

    The second OECD Review of Spain's environmental performance reviews Spain's progress in the context of OECD environmental strategy for the first decade of the 21st century in relation to its own policy objectives. It praises a number of achievements such as in commitments to climate change policies and developments of cogeneration and renewable energy sources. Although emissions of sulphur dioxide from the energy sector have fallen since 1990 they are still high when measured per capita and per unit of GDP. The OECD recommends further control of emissions of SOx, NOx, VOCs and NH{sub 3}. Subsidies such as compulsory purchase of domestic coal by electricity producers are set to increase. The report recommends the phasing out of environmental subsidies (which has begun) and making use of economic instruments to encourage efficient resource management and reduction of pollutants. Greenhouse gas emissions increased by 38% between 1990 and 2002 and the outlook for the next few years is pessimistic. 39 figs., 31 tabs.

  10. Nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villota, C. de

    2007-01-01

    Carlos Villota. Director of Nuclear Energy of UNESA gave an overview of the Spanish nuclear industry, the utility companies and the relevant institutions. Companies of the nuclear industry include firms that produce heavy components or equipment (ENSA), manufacturers of nuclear fuel (ENUSA), engineering companies, the National Company for Radioactive Waste Management (ENRESA), and nuclear power plants (nine units at seven sites). Nuclear energy is a significant component of the energy mix in Spain: 11% of all energy produced in Spain is of nuclear origin, whilst the share of nuclear energy in the total electricity generation is approximately 23%. The five main players of the energy sector that provide for the vast majority of electricity production, distribution, and supply have formed the Spanish Electricity Industry Association (UNESA). The latter carries out co-ordination, representation, management and promotion tasks for its members, as well as the protection of their business and professional interests. In the nuclear field, UNESA through its Nuclear Energy Committee co-ordinates aspects related to nuclear safety and radiological protection, regulation, NPP operation and R and D. Regarding the institutional framework of the nuclear industry, ENSA, ENUSA and ENRESA are controlled by the national government through the Ministry of Economy and Finance and the Ministry of Science and Technology. All companies of the nuclear industry are licensed by the Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITYC), while the regulatory body is the Nuclear Safety Council (CSN). It is noteworthy that CSN is independent of the government, as it reports directly to Parliament. (author)

  11. Contribution of the multi-attribute value theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management - application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.

    2015-03-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have often been identified as an impediment to the realisation and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires the clarification of stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholder preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards the definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), which facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi-attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation into the different stages of the planning process, to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes was defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resource availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes in preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the approval of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties in the results were notable, but did not influence the alternative ranking heavily. The

  12. Contribution of the Multi Attribute Value Theory to conflict resolution in groundwater management. Application to the Mancha Oriental groundwater system, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperl, B.; Andreu, J.; Karjalainen, T. P.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2014-09-01

    The implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive demands participatory water resource management approaches. Decision making in groundwater quantity and quality management is complex because of the existence of many independent actors, heterogeneous stakeholder interests, multiple objectives, different potential policies, and uncertain outcomes. Conflicting stakeholder interests have been often identified as an impediment to the realization and success of water regulations and policies. The management of complex groundwater systems requires clarifying stakeholders' positions (identifying stakeholders preferences and values), improving transparency with respect to outcomes of alternatives, and moving the discussion from the selection of alternatives towards definition of fundamental objectives (value-thinking approach), what facilitates negotiation. The aims of the study are to analyse the potential of the multi attribute value theory for conflict resolution in groundwater management and to evaluate the benefit of stakeholder incorporation in the different stages of the planning process to find an overall satisfying solution for groundwater management. The research was conducted in the Mancha Oriental groundwater system (Spain), subject to an intensive use of groundwater for irrigation. A complex set of objectives and attributes were defined, and the management alternatives were created by a combination of different fundamental actions, considering different implementation stages and future changes in water resources availability. Interviews were conducted with representative stakeholder groups using an interactive platform, showing simultaneously the consequences of changes of preferences to the alternative ranking. Results show that the acceptation of alternatives depends strongly on the combination of measures and the implementation stages. Uncertainties of the results were notable but did not influence heavily on the alternative ranking. The expected

  13. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B

  14. Factors selection in landslide susceptibility modelling on large scale following the gis matrix method: application to the river Beiro basin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Costanzo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A procedure to select the controlling factors connected to the slope instability has been defined. It allowed us to assess the landslide susceptibility in the Rio Beiro basin (about 10 km2 over the northeastern area of the city of Granada (Spain. Field and remote (Google EarthTM recognition techniques allowed us to generate a landslide inventory consisting in 127 phenomena. To discriminate between stable and unstable conditions, a diagnostic area had been chosen as the one limited to the crown and the toe of the scarp of the landslide. 15 controlling or determining factors have been defined considering topographic, geologic, geomorphologic and pedologic available data. Univariate tests, using both association coefficients and validation results of single-variable susceptibility models, allowed us to select the best predictors, which were combined for the unique conditions analysis. For each of the five recognised landslide typologies, susceptibility maps for the best models were prepared. In order to verify both the goodness of fit and the prediction skill of the susceptibility models, two different validation procedures were applied and compared. Both procedures are based on a random partition of the landslide archive for producing a test and a training subset. The first method is based on the analysis of the shape of the success and prediction rate curves, which are quantitatively analysed exploiting two morphometric indexes. The second method is based on the analysis of the degree of fit, by considering the relative error between the intersected target landslides by each of the different susceptibility classes in which the study area was partitioned. Both the validation procedures confirmed a very good predictive performance of the susceptibility models and of the actual procedure followed to select the controlling factors.

  15. Low-Altitude Long-Endurance Solar Unmanned Plane for Forest Fire Prevention: Application to the Natural Park of Serra do Xures (spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Jorge, H.; Bueno, M.; Martínez-Sánchez, J.; Arias, P.

    2017-08-01

    Unamnned aerial systems (UAS) show great potential in operations related to surveillance. These systems can be successfully applied to the prevention of forest fires, especially those caused by human intervention. The present works focuses on a study of the operational possibilities of the unmanned system "AtlantikSolar" developed by the ETH Zurich for the prevention of forest fires in the Spanish natural park of Serra do Xurés, an area of 20,920 ha with height variations between 300 m and 1,500 m. The operation evaluation of AtlantikSolar is based on the use of Flir Tau 2 LWIR camera as imaging payload which could detect illegal activities in the forest, such as bonfires, uncontrolled burning or pyromaniacs. Flight surveillance is planned for an altitude of 100 m to obey the legal limit of the Spanish UAS regulation. This altitude produces a swath width of 346.4 m and pixel resolution between 1.5 and 1.8 pixels/m. Operation is planned to adapt altitude to the change on the topography and obtain a constant ground resolution. Operational speed is selected to 52 km/h. The UAS trajectory is adapted to the limits of the natural park and the border between Spain and Portugal. Matlab code is developed for mission planning. The complete surveillance of the natural park requires a total time of 15.6 hours for a distance of 811.6 km.

  16. LOW-ALTITUDE LONG-ENDURANCE SOLAR UNMANNED PLANE FOR FOREST FIRE PREVENTION: APPLICATION TO THE NATURAL PARK OF SERRA DO XURES (SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. González-Jorge

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Unamnned aerial systems (UAS show great potential in operations related to surveillance. These systems can be successfully applied to the prevention of forest fires, especially those caused by human intervention. The present works focuses on a study of the operational possibilities of the unmanned system “AtlantikSolar” developed by the ETH Zurich for the prevention of forest fires in the Spanish natural park of Serra do Xurés, an area of 20,920 ha with height variations between 300 m and 1,500 m. The operation evaluation of AtlantikSolar is based on the use of Flir Tau 2 LWIR camera as imaging payload which could detect illegal activities in the forest, such as bonfires, uncontrolled burning or pyromaniacs. Flight surveillance is planned for an altitude of 100 m to obey the legal limit of the Spanish UAS regulation. This altitude produces a swath width of 346.4 m and pixel resolution between 1.5 and 1.8 pixels/m. Operation is planned to adapt altitude to the change on the topography and obtain a constant ground resolution. Operational speed is selected to 52 km/h. The UAS trajectory is adapted to the limits of the natural park and the border between Spain and Portugal. Matlab code is developed for mission planning. The complete surveillance of the natural park requires a total time of 15.6 hours for a distance of 811.6 km.

  17. MURASOC, a parametric model to test climate change effects on soil organic carbon. Application to Southern Spain (Mediterranean áreas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz; Brevik, Eric C.; Olaya-Abril, Alfonso; Obregón-Romero, Rafael; Gil Torres, Juan; Recio-Espejo, Jose Manuel

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is formed through the decomposition processes of plant, animal and microbial residues, root exudates, living and dead microorganism and soil biota; and is the main energy source for soil microorganism. Consequently, a strong feedback is stablished among a large number of components in the complex biota-abiota network. Likewise, SOC influences in physical, chemical and biological soil properties such as temperature, cationic exchange capacity and plant growth (Parras-Alcántara et al., 2015). Therefore, to improve our knowledge about what soil variables are more responsible of SOC content would be extremely useful in soils characterization. In many studies, independent variables were related to SOC, however, the possible combined effects of different independent variables and their ability to model SOC have not been considered. On the other hand, over the last few decades interest in soil organic carbon (SOC) has increased due to its role in C sequestration in terrestrial ecosystems, which could contribute to decreasing atmospheric CO2 levels (Lozano-García et al., 2016; Fernández-Romero et al., 2016; Parras-Alcántara and Lozano-García 2014). Then, attempts to model SOC content have multiplied over this time. In this study, 612 soil profiles obtained from the Natura 2000 network of protected areas in the Sierra Morena mountains, (Spain) were used with the following objectives: i) To quantify SOC content according to different variables (analytical, morphological, genetic and climatic) in order to define the variables that are most closely related to SOC content; ii) To model the Current SOC content for a geographic area (Sierra Morena - Spain); iii) To model SOC suitability-habitat under a climate change scenario; iv) To extrapolate the SOC content and distribution model to the wider Andalusia region, showing the areas that have a high probability to experience an increase in their SOC content in coming years; and v) To propose

  18. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candela, Lucila; Tamoh, Karim; Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere–ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013–2037 (2025) and 2038–2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface–subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall–runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 °C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights:

  19. Modelling impacts of climate change on water resources in ungauged and data-scarce watersheds. Application to the Siurana catchment (NE Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candela, Lucila, E-mail: lucila.candela@upc.edu [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Tamoh, Karim [Department of Geotechnical Engineering and Geoscience, Technical University of Catalonia-UPC, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Olivares, Gonzalo; Gomez, Manuel [Flumen Research Institute, UPC Gran Capitan s.n. Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-12-01

    Gaining knowledge on potential climate change impacts on water resources is a complex process which depends on numerical models capable of describing these processes in quantitative terms. Under limited data or ungauged basin conditions, which constrain the modelling approach, a physically based coherent methodological approach is required. The traditional approach to assess flow regime and groundwater recharge impacts, based on coupling general atmosphere-ocean circulation models (GCM) and hydrologic models, has been investigated in the Siurana ungauged catchment (NE Spain). The future A2 (medium-high) and B1 (medium-low) greenhouse gas scenarios and time slices 2013-2037 (2025) and 2038-2062 (2050), developed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2001), have been selected. For scenario simulations, coupled GCM ECHAM5 scenarios, stochastically downscaled outputs and surface-subsurface modelling to simulate changes in water resources were applied to the catchment. Flow regime analysis was assessed by HEC-HMS, a physically based hydrologic model to assess rainfall-runoff in a catchment, while recharge was estimated with VisualBALAN, a distributed model for natural recharge estimation. Simulations show that the projected climate change at the catchment will affect the entire hydrological system with a maximum of 56% reduction of water resources. While subtle changes are observed for the 2025 time slice, the temperature and precipitation forecast for 2050 shows a maximum increase of 2.2 Degree-Sign C and a decreased precipitation volume of 11.3% in relation to historical values. Regarding historical values, runoff output shows a maximum 20% decrease, and 18% decrease of natural recharge with a certain delay in relation to runoff and rainfall data. According to the results, the most important parameters conditioning future water resources are changes in climatic parameters, but they are highly dependent on soil moisture conditions. -- Highlights

  20. Spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    The spent fuel management strategy in Spain is presented. The strategy includes temporary solutions and plans for final disposal. The need for R and D including partitioning and transmutation, as well as the financial constraints are also addressed. (author)

  1. Involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Viadel, M; Cañete-Nicolás, C; Bellido-Rodriguez, C; Asensio-Pascual, P; Lera-Calatayud, G; Calabuig-Crespo, R; Leal-Cercós, C

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades there have been significant legislative changes in Spain. Society develops faster than laws, however, and new challenges have emerged. In 2004, the Spanish Association of Relatives of the Mentally Ill (FEAFES) proposed amending the existing legislation to allow for the implementation of involuntary outpatient treatment (IOT) for patients with severe mental illness. Currently, and after having made several attempts at change, there is no specific legislation governing the application of this measure. Although IOT may be implemented in local programmes, we consider legal regulation to be needed in this matter. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptación del modelo de deserción universitaria de Tinto a la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Saldaña Villa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se adaptó el modelo de Vincent Tinto para analizar la deserción de los alumnos deIngeniería Civil en la Universidad Católica de la Santísima Concepción, Chile. El objetivo de este estudio esidentificar qué factores afectan la permanencia de los estudiantes en la carrera escogida, considerando característicaspropias de los alumnos, el compromiso con la institución y el rendimiento académico al interior de launiversidad. La metodología utilizada es el análisis de eventos históricos y se modela a través de una regresiónlogística binaria, construyendo un modelo que predice correctamente el 90,3% de los casos. Las variables quemejor explican la deserción son los ingresos familiares y el rendimiento académico de los alumnos; sin embargo,se plantea la necesidad de repensar la relación entre ingresos y deserción a la luz de los resultados de este estudio.Se concluye que el modelo de Tinto y su adaptación a la realidad chilena son un esquema conceptual válidopara examinar el fenómeno de la deserción universitaria.

  3. Radioactive influence of some phosphogypsum piles located at the SW Spain in their surrounding soils and salt-marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar, J. P.; Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Martinez-Sanchez, M. J.; Perez-Sirvent, C.; Martinez-Lopez, S.

    2012-04-01

    In the SW of Spain, just in the confluence of the mouths of the Tinto and Odiel River and in the vicinity of Huelva town, there is a big industrial complex which includes between others an industry devoted during more than 40 years to the production of phosphoric acid, by treating sedimentary phosphate rock by the so-called "wet acid method". As a by-product of the mentioned process it have been produced historically huge amounts of a compound called phosphogypsum, which composition is mostly di-hydrate calcium sulphate containing some of the impurities of heavy metals and natural radionuclides originally present in the raw material. Due to the lack of market for this by-product, it has been mostly piled over some salt-marshes located in the vicinity of the industry, on the bank of the Tinto River. About 100 million tons of phosphogypsum have been piled in an area covering more than 1000 hectares, constituting a clear environmental and radiological anomaly in the zone. The phosphogypsum piles set do not conform obviously a close system. They are interacting with the nearby environment mostly by leaching waters releases from the waters accumulated in them either for its previous use in transporting in suspension the PG from the factory or by rainfall. These waters leaks contain in solution enhanced amounts of heavy metals and radionuclides that can provoke the chemical and radioactive contamination in surroundings soil and salt-marshes areas. In this communication the radioactive influence by the phosphogypsum piles in the surrounding terrestrial environment is evaluated. This contamination is mostly due to radionuclides belonging to the uranium series, which are present originally in the raw material treated in the industry, and afterwards in the generated phosphogypsum, in enhanced amounts in relation to typical soils. In addition, the different dynamics and behavior of different radionuclides will be discussed and analyzed. The gained information in this study

  4. Omnichannel strategy and the distribution of public services in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Rey-Moreno

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the current situation of the development of e-Government in Spain, showing the real applicability and degree of efficacy of the previously mentioned strategies to increase the citizens’ rate of use of e-Government, compared to traditional management channels.

  5. The Creative Class and the Creative Economy in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, Juan Miguel; Bergua, José Angel; Pac, David

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an application in Spain of Florida's model (2002/2010, 2005) about creativity, economy and growth. Creativity is an indicator that measures and combines technology, talent, and tolerance. Each of these is composed of three subindices. The most important conclusion from the data reported here is that creativity in particular,…

  6. Nuclear power in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koryakin, Yu.I.

    1977-01-01

    The present states of nuclear power in Spain is shortly surveyed. Data are provided on NPPs currently in operation, under construction, designed and planned. In line with the 10-year ''National programme of electricity supply'' a major and all increasing part of the electricity generation growth is to be ensured by NPPs and to account for more than 50% by the end of the period (1987). Out of the 7 units of NPPs now under construction, 6 units utilize PWR reactors and only 1 unit- a BWR reactor. The roles of private and public sectors are noted. Main characteristics of the ''ENSA'' plant now under construction are provided where components of NPPs with PWR and BWR reactors will be fabricated. Major developments in the fields of mining, milling and extraction of U from lignites, U enrichment, fuel fabrication and spent fuel reprocessing are considered. Measures now taken to improve the licensing procedure, surveillance of NPPs and personnel training are to advance the nuclear power development programme in the country

  7. Maintenance and improvement of thermal hydraulic system codes using results of OCDE experiments (PKL, Rosa, Atlas) and application to Spanish Nuclear power plants. Camp-Spain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, M.; Perez, J.; Martorell, S.; Carlos, S.; Villanueva, J. F.; Sanchez, F.; Queral, C.; Rebollo, M. J.; Rivas-Lewicky, J.; Verdu, G.; Gallardo, S.; Miro, R.; Querol, A.; Munoz-Cobo, J. L.; Escriva, A.; Berna, C.; Reventos, F.; Freixa, J.; Martinez, V.

    2016-01-01

    CSN involvement in different international NEA experimental TH programmes has outlined the scope for a new period of CAMP-Espana activities, currently focused on the: -Analysis, simulation and investigation of specific safety aspects of PKL3/OECD and ATLAS/OECD experiments. -Analysis of applicability and/or extension of the results in these projects to the safety, operation or availability of the Spanish nuclear power plants. Both objective are carried out by simulating experiments and plant application with the last available versions of NRC TH codes (RELAP5 or TRACE). A CAMP in kind contribution (NUREG/IA) is aimed as final result of both types of analyses. Five different national research groups (from Technical Universities of Madrid, Valencia and Cataluna) ate carrying out the development of these activities. (Author)

  8. May arsenic pollution contribute to limiting Artemia franciscana invasion in southern Spain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta I. Sánchez

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Limited information exists regarding the complex interactions between biological invasions, pollution, and climate change. Most studies indicate that pollution tends to favor invasive species. Here, we provide evidence that arsenic (As pollution may have a role in limiting the invasion of the exotic brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. We tested As toxicity in natural populations of Artemia parthenogenetica (a native taxon and A. franciscana from localities in southern Spain with differing degrees of As contamination. Tests were conducted both under current mean temperature conditions (25 °C, and as per a future climate scenario (i.e., an increase in mean temperature of 4 °C. Acute toxicity was estimated on the basis of the median lethal concentration (at 24 h, and chronic toxicity was evaluated by measuring Artemia survival and growth under sublethal exposures (after 26 days. At 25 °C, native A. parthenogenetica from the highly polluted Odiel and Tinto estuary was much more resistant to acute As stress (LC50-24 h, 24.67 mg L−1 than A. franciscana (15.78 mg L−1 and A. parthenogenetica from unpolluted sites (12.04 mg L−1–suggesting that local adaptation to polluted conditions may occur. At 29 °C, resistance of A. parthenogenetica from Odiel decreased significantly, and there were no statistical differences in sensitivity between the three species/populations, suggesting that climate change may enhance the probability of invasion. Resistance increased with developmental stage from nauplii to adults, and was extremely high in cysts which still hatched at As concentrations of up to 6400 mg L−1. Under sublethal chronic exposure A. franciscana performed better (survival and growth than A. parthenogenetica, and both species experienced a faster growth when exposed to As, compared with unexposed (control individuals, probably due to the hormesis. We discuss the ecological implications of our results.

  9. Enhanced Productivity of a Lutein-Enriched Novel Acidophile Microalga Grown on Urea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casal, C.; Cuaresma, M.; Vega, J.M.; Vilchez, C.

    2011-01-01

    Coccomyxa acidophila is an extremophile eukaryotic microalga isolated from the Tinto River mining area in Huelva, Spain. Coccomyxa acidophila accumulates relevant amounts of b-carotene and lutein, well-known carotenoids with many biotechnological applications, especially in food and health-related

  10. Aseptically Sampled Organics in Subsurface Rocks From the Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment: An Analog For The Search for Deep Subsurface Life on Mars.}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.

    2005-12-01

    The subsurface is the key environment for searching for life on planets lacking surface life. Subsurface ecosystems are of great relevance to astrobiology including the search for past/present life on Mars. The surface of Mars has conditions preventing current life but the subsurface might preserve organics and even host some life [1]. The Mars-Analog-Rio-Tinto-Experiment (MARTE) is performing a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment. This comprises conventional and robotic drilling of cores in a volcanically-hosted-massive-pyrite deposit [2] from the Iberian Pyritic Belt (IBP) and life detection experiments applying anti-contamination protocols (e.g., ATP Luminometry assay). The RT is considered an important analog of the Sinus Meridiani site on Mars and an ideal model analog for a deep subsurface Martian environment. Former results from MARTE suggest the existence of a relatively complex subsurface life including aerobic and anaerobic chemoautotrophs and strict anaerobic methanogens sustained by Fe and S minerals in anoxic conditions. A key requirement for the analysis of a subsurface sample on Mars is a set of simple tests that can help determine if the sample contains organic material of biological origin, and its potential for retaining definitive biosignatures. We report here on the presence of bulk organic matter Corg (0.03-0.05 Wt%), and Ntot (0.01-0.04 Wt%) and amount of measured ATP (Lightning MVP, Biocontrol) in weathered rocks (tuffs, gossan, pyrite stockwork from Borehole #8; >166m). This provides key insight on the type of trophic system sustaining the subsurface biosphere (i.e., heterotrophs vs. autotrophs) at RT. ATP data (Relative-Luminosity-Units, RLU) provide information on possible contamination and distribution of viable biomass with core depth (BH#8, and BH#7, ~3m). Avg. 153 RLU, i.e., surface vs. center of core, suggest that cleaness/sterility can be maintained when using a simple sterile protocol under field conditions. Results from this

  11. Application of the exergy index as ecological indicator of organically enrichment areas in the Mar Menor lagoon (south-eastern Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, F.; Marques, J.C. [University of Coimbra (Portugal). Dept. of Zoology; Marcos, C.; Perez-Ruzafa, A. [University of Murcia (Spain). Dept. of Ecology and and Hidrology

    2005-10-01

    The increase of stress induced changes in marine environments caused by different types of marine pollution made necessary the search for indicators that assist in assessing pollution effects at the community level. The main goals, with a view to an effective management, are the early detection and evaluation of environmental responses to pollution and to avoid or mitigate negative impacts that different uses may generate. Exergy has been considered as a promising indicator of ecosystem integrity, acquiring a considerable interest in the context of systems ecology. In this research we have tested the capability of exergy (both the exergy index and specific exergy) alongside other diversity indices (Shannon and Margalef indices) of distinguishing organically enriched areas in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (El Mar Menor). Results show that the exergy index and specific exergy were able to give useful information on community structure, although they were not capable of distinguishing high and poor organically enriched areas or affected by any other type of pollution. Diversity indices were more sensitive to organic pollution. We may say that the exergy and specific exergy are still not applicable as the only ecological indicators in a generalized way in the field of environmental management. Therefore, they still require further application in a wider range of geographical areas and in different conditions in order to study more widely the properties of exergy as an ecological indicator. (author)

  12. Demand for radiotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Borrás, J M; López-Torrecilla, J; Algara, M; Palacios-Eito, A; Gómez-Caamaño, A; Olay, L; Lara, P C

    2017-02-01

    Assessing the demand for radiotherapy in Spain based on existing evidence to estimate the human resources and equipment needed so that every person in Spain has access to high-quality radiotherapy when they need it. We used data from the European Cancer Observatory on the estimated incidence of cancer in Spain in 2012, along with the evidence-based indications for radiotherapy developed by the Australian CCORE project, to obtain an optimal radiotherapy utilisation proportion (OUP) for each tumour. About 50.5 % of new cancers in Spain require radiotherapy at least once over the course of the disease. Additional demand for these services comes from reradiation therapy and non-melanoma skin cancer. Approximately, 25-30 % of cancer patients with an indication for radiotherapy do not receive it due to factors that include access, patient preference, familiarity with the treatment among physicians, and especially resource shortages, all of which contribute to its underutilisation. Radiotherapy is underused in Spain. The increasing incidence of cancer expected over the next decade and the greater frequency of reradiations necessitate the incorporation of radiotherapy demand into need-based calculations for cancer services planning.

  13. Forum on stakeholder confidence: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vari, A.; Pescatore, C.

    2006-01-01

    The FSC workshop in Spain provided an important opportunity to carry out an in-depth examination of decision-making processes undertaken in an NEA member country, and to reflect on the evolution that has taken place over time. It offered a well-rounded perspective on the inclusion of stakeholders in decision making, and the atmosphere of the meetings was conducive to an honest and open exchange of ideas. The workshop started with the introduction of two case studies: the earlier attempt in Spain to locate a potential site for a high-level waste (HLW) disposal facility, and the dismantling of the Vandellos-I nuclear power plant. This was followed by two days of presentations and round-table discussions based on the recent COWAM Spain initiative (stemming from the EU-wide project on Community Waste Management), which aims at developing recommendations for institutional arrangements and decision-making processes concerning the siting of waste management facilities in Spain. This article provides a brief summary of the case studies and the COWAM Spain initiative, followed by some of the lessons learnt from an international perspective. (authors)

  14. Applications of the X-ray fluorescence analysis to the cultural patrimony of the Comunidad Valenciana (Spain). Painting, metal and paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, J.L.; Ardid, M.; Roldan, C.; Navarro, E.; Marzal, M.; Almirante, J.; Ineba, P.; Vergara, J.; Mata, C.

    1999-01-01

    Examples of the application of the X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to the study of the artistic and cultural patrimony of the Comunidad Valenciana are presented in the following areas: a) Valencian paintings of the XV an XVI centuries; b) silver ornaments coming from Iberian towns (s. III b.C.); c) ink and paper samples in manuscripts and engravings of the XVII and XIX centuries. The non destructive analyses are carried out 'in situ' using a XRF system that consists of a tube of X-rays of 50 kV and 1 mA, and a detector of Si(Li) with an energy resolution 140 eV (FWHM at 5.9 keV). (author)

  15. Application of realistic (best- estimate) methodologies for large break loss of coolant (LOCA) safety analysis: licensing of Westinghouse ASTRUM evaluation model in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Carlos; Frepoli, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    When the LOCA Final Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactors was issued in Appendix K of 10CFR50 both the USNRC and the industry recognized that the rule was highly conservative. At that time, however, the degree of conservatism in the analysis could not be quantified. As a result, the USNRC began a research program to identify the degree of conservatism in those models permitted in the Appendix K rule and to develop improved thermal-hydraulic computer codes so that realistic accident analysis calculations could be performed. The overall results of this research program quantified the conservatism in the Appendix K rule and confirmed that some relaxation of the rule can be made without a loss in safety to the public. Also, from a risk-informed perspective it is recognized that conservatism is not always a complete defense for lack of sophistication in models. In 1988, as a result of the improved understanding of LOCA phenomena, the USNRC staff amended the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K, 'ECCS Evaluation Models', so that a realistic evaluation model may be used to analyze the performance of the ECCS during a hypothetical LOCA. Under the amended rules, best-estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) thermal-hydraulic analysis may be used in place of the overly prescriptive set of models mandated by Appendix K rule. Further guidance for the use of best-estimate codes was provided in Regulatory Guide 1.157 To demonstrate use of the revised ECCS rule, the USNRC and its consultants developed a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology as an approach for defining and qualifying a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code and quantifying the uncertainties in a LOCA analysis. More recently the CSAU principles have been generalized in the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) of Regulatory Guide 1.203. ASTRUM is the Westinghouse Best Estimate Large Break LOCA evaluation model applicable to two-, three

  16. Applicability of major histocompatibility complex DRB1 alleles as markers to detect vertebrate hybridization: a case study from Iberian ibex × domestic goat in southern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alasaad Samer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization between closely related wild and domestic species is of great concern because it can alter the evolutionary integrity of the affected populations. The high allelic variability of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC loci usually excludes them from being used in studies to detect hybridization events. However, if a the parental species don’t share alleles, and b one of the parental species possesses an exceptionally low number of alleles (to facilitate analysis, then even MHC loci have the potential to detect hybrids. Results By genotyping the exon2 of the MHC class II DRB1 locus, we were able to detect hybridization between domestic goats (Capra hircus and free-ranging Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica by molecular means. Conclusions This is the first documentation of a Capra pyrenaica × Capra hircus hybridization, which presented us the opportunity to test the applicability of MHC loci as new, simple, cost-effective, and time-saving approach to detect hybridization between wild species and their domesticated relatives, thus adding value to MHC genes role in animal conservation and management.

  17. Spain: Success story in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdon, Norman

    From the early 1960's, European governments were aware that they had to take part in the exploration, and potential exploitation, of space, or be left behind in a field of high-technology that had far-reaching possibilities. It was also realized that financial and manpower constraints would limit the extent to which individual nations could carry out their own national programs. They, therefor, joined forces in two organizations: the European Space Research Organization (ESRO) and the European Launcher Development Organization (ELDO). By 1975, when the potential of space development had been more fully appreciated, the two organizations were merged into the Europeans Space Agency (ESA) of which Spain was a founding member. ESA looks after the interest of 13 member states, one associated member state (Finland), and one cooperating state (Canada) in the peaceful uses of space. Its programs center around a mandatory core of technological research and space science to which member states contribute on the basis of their Gross National Product. Spain in 1992 contributes 6.46% to this mandatory program budget. The member states then have the chance to join optional programs that include telecommunications, observation of the earth and its environment, space transportation systems, microgravity research, and participation in the European contribution to the International Space Station Freedom. Each government decides whether it is in its interest to join a particular optional program, and the percentage that it wishes to contribute to the budget. Although in the early days of ESA, Spain participated in only a few optional programs, today Spain makes a significant contribution to nearly all of ESA's optional programs. This document presents Spain's contributions to particular ESA Programs and discusses Spain's future involvement in ESA.

  18. Light pollution in Spain 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez de Miguel, A.; Zamorano, J.; Pila-Díez, B.; Rubio, J.; Ruiz, R.; Rodríguez-Herranz, I.; González-Pérez, A.

    2011-11-01

    The most recent data on electricity consumption for public lighting inSpain is presented and compared with light pollution measurements asderived from night satellite imagery. NOAA-MSP images (low-resolution)and higher resolution images obtained with conventional DSLR cameras on board the International Space Station (ISS) have been used.We show that the data can be related to night sky brightness maps with a study conducted within the Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid. Weintend to extend our work to the rest of Spain through tight collaborationwith amateur astronomers.

  19. [Intensive medicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    the future of intensive care medicine in Spain and in Europe, recommendations are made towards specialization in intensive care medicine incorporating in the training program those competences (knowledge, skills and attitudes) that should be present an intensivist in Europe and that are extensively fulfilled by the current Spanish training program. The trajectory followed by intensive care medicine in Europe and recently in China, shows the increasing need of intensive care and the progressive recognition of the specialty in economically growing countries, and emphasizes the need of homogenization in the training of future specialists in intensive care medicine globally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. PSA results and trends for Spain's NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carretero, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Spain regulatory authority CSN demanded performance of PSA for all Spain nuclear power plants. The specific data analysis carried out as a part of the PSA has contributed to the realistic view on the results which could be achieved by the PSA. The main characteristics of the PSA in Spain and PSA trends in the development are presented in the paper

  1. CRIMINAL PSYCHOLOGY IN SPAIN: PRESENT AND FUTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis González

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available As part of legal psychology, as it is understood in Spain, we can distinguish between the applications of psychology in the different steps of the judicial process: in police stations during criminal investigations, in court when the perpetrators have already been identified and arrested, and in prisons where they are eventually sent after being convicted. This paper argues that when psychology assists the criminal investigation in the first step of the judicial process - the police activities-, we are talking about criminal psychology, at two levels: the operational level (mostly pertaining to criminal psychology and the strategic level (shared with other areas of expertise. After describing its peculiarities and specific areas, in analogy with the support provided by other forensic sciences, we explain that in Spain this specialty is carried out professionally from within our own police forces, with a profile that is very different from the more traditional police psychology, and in close collaboration with the academic environment with regard to the scientific development of techniques and procedures.

  2. Novel lyssavirus in bat, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aréchiga Ceballos, Nidia; Vázquez Morón, Sonia; Berciano, José M; Nicolás, Olga; Aznar López, Carolina; Juste, Javier; Rodríguez Nevado, Cristina; Aguilar Setién, Alvaro; Echevarría, Juan E

    2013-05-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  3. Novel Lyssavirus in Bat, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Ceballos, Nidia Ar?chiga; Mor?n, Sonia V?zquez; Berciano, Jos? M.; Nicol?s, Olga; L?pez, Carolina Aznar; Juste, Javier; Nevado, Cristina Rodr?guez; Seti?n, ?lvaro Aguilar; Echevarr?a, Juan E.

    2013-01-01

    A new tentative lyssavirus, Lleida bat lyssavirus, was found in a bent-winged bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain. It does not belong to phylogroups I or II, and it seems to be more closely related to the West Causasian bat virus, and especially to the Ikoma lyssavirus.

  4. The gas industry in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jego, H.

    1999-01-01

    This short presentation of the Spanish gas industry looks at the industry's different players including Gas Natural, which controls almost all of the gas distribution in Spain. Natural gas, almost all of which is imported, accounts for an ever-growing share in the country's energy balance and has undergone great developments, particularly in industry and in thermal generating plants. (author)

  5. Dimensionado de una bodega de elaboración de vino tinto con capacidad para la entrada de 100 000Kg de uva,Sección clarificación a embotellado

    OpenAIRE

    Martín Ballesteros, Mónica

    2012-01-01

    Se ha dimensionado una Bodega de elaboración de vino tinto con capacidad para producir 91.866 botellas de vino, de las cuales 45.833 (50%) se destinarán como vino joven, 28.551 (31%) como crianza, 1.586 (2%) como Reserva, 1.586 (2%) como Gran Reserva y 14.309 (15,6%) como vino Mesa; el proyecto ha abarcado la sección desde la Clarificación al Embotellado. La Bodega se ha situado en la localidad de Serrada, dentro de la Denominación de Origen de Rueda (D.O.R), en la provincia de Vallado...

  6. Application of hyper spectral imagings techniques to study soil degradation in arid environments. (Los Monegros, Spain); Aplicacion de tecnicas hiperespectrales de imagen al estudio de la degradacion de suelos en ambientes aridos (Los Monegros, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumuzzio Such, A.; Palacios Orueta, A.; Schmid, T.; Dominguez, J. A.; Gumuzzio, J.

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this work is to identify characteristics associated to soils affected by degradation within and arid area of Spain using optical hyper spectral airborne data. The methodological approach was developed to determine the spatial distribution of selected soils affected by degradation processes. A satisfactory spatial distribution is obtained where the corresponding soil characteristics are closely related to degradation processes. (Author) 2 refs.

  7. Cancer incidence in Spain, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galceran, J; Ameijide, A; Carulla, M; Mateos, A; Quirós, J R; Rojas, D; Alemán, A; Torrella, A; Chico, M; Vicente, M; Díaz, J M; Larrañaga, N; Marcos-Gragera, R; Sánchez, M J; Perucha, J; Franch, P; Navarro, C; Ardanaz, E; Bigorra, J; Rodrigo, P; Bonet, R Peris

    2017-07-01

    Periodic cancer incidence estimates of Spain from all existing population-based cancer registries at any given time are required. The objective of this study was to present the current situation of cancer incidence in Spain. The Spanish Network of Cancer Registries (REDECAN) estimated the numbers of new cancer cases occurred in Spain in 2015 by applying the incidence-mortality ratios method. In the calculus, incidence data from population-based cancer registries and mortality data of all Spain were used. In 2015, nearly a quarter of a million new invasive cancer cases were diagnosed in Spain, almost 149,000 in men (60.0%) and 99,000 in women. Globally, the five most common cancers were those of colon-rectum, prostate, lung, breast and urinary bladder. By gender, the four most common cancers in men were those of prostate (22.4%), colon-rectum (16.6%), lung (15.1%) and urinary bladder (11.7%). In women, the most common ones were those of breast (28.0%), colon-rectum (16.9%), corpus uteri (6.2%) and lung (6.0%). In recent years, cancer incidence in men seems to have stabilized due to the fact that the decrease in tobacco-related cancers compensates for the increase in other types of cancer like those of colon and prostate. In women, despite the stabilization of breast cancer incidence, increased incidence is due, above all, to the rise of colorectal and tobacco-related cancers. To reduce these incident cancer cases, improvement of smoking control policies and extension of colorectal cancer screening should be the two priorities in cancer prevention for the next years.

  8. Análises químicas e organolépticas de vinhos de mesa brancos e tintos adquiridos no comércio Characteristics of Brazilian white and red wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odette Zardetto de Toledo

    1963-01-01

    Full Text Available São apresentados os resultados organolépticos e analíticos de 15 amostras de vinhos de mesa brancos e 15 de tintos, adquiridos no comércio de Campinas, em 1960. Foram encontradas poucas amostras com características inteiramente satisfatórias, notando-se, principalmente, deficiências de clarificação e de filtração. Das 15 marcas de vinhos brancos, só três se apresentaram perfeitamente brilhantes, e sete, ligeira ou completamente turvos. Nos tintos, em geral, foi maior a turbidez. Verificou-se, também, a presença, entre os brancos, de vinhos com acidez volátil acima do limite permitido pela legislação brasileira. Foi notada a ausência de anidrido sulfuroso total e livre. Os resultados dos outros componentes mostraram-se, todavia, bastante satisfatórios. Foram ainda observados o comprimento insuficiente das rôlhas para garantir a boa conservação do vinho, e a desuniformidade das garrafas quanto a tipo, forma, capacidade e côr.Fifteen hrands of white and 15 of red wines were collected from groceries for analysis and flavor tests. Very few samples were satisfactory. Most of the wines had been poorly clarified and filtered. Only three of the 15 samples of white wines were brilliant; seven were classified as slightly cloudy or cloudy. Cloudiness was higher among the red wines. Two samples of the white wines had a high volatile acidity, above the limit permitted by the Brazilian regulation. Lack af free and total sulfur dioxide was observed. As far as the other wines constituents are concerned, all analysed samples were satisfactory. The corks utilized were generally shorter than it is desirable to seal the bottles satisfactorily. Also, the bottles were not uniform in type, shape, capacity, and color.

  9. CAS Introduction to Accelerator Physics in Spain

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the University of Granada jointly organised a course called "Introduction to Accelerator Physics" in Granada, Spain, from 28 October to 9 November, 2012.   The course attracted over 200 applicants, of whom 139 were selected to attend. The students were of 25 different nationalities, coming from countries as far away as Australia, China, Guatemala and India. The intensive programme comprised 38 lectures, 3 seminars, 4 tutorials where the students were split into three groups, a poster session and 7 hours of guided and private study. Feedback from the students was very positive, praising the expertise of the lecturers, as well as the high standard and quality of their lectures. CERN's Director-General, Rolf Heuer, gave a public lecture at the Parque de las Ciencias entitled "The Large Hadron Collider: Unveiling the Universe". In addition to the academic programme, the students had the opportunity to visit the well...

  10. [What is an efficient health technology in Spain?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacristán, J A; Oliva, J; Del Llano, J; Prieto, L; Pinto, J L

    2002-01-01

    Despite the growing recognition of the potential applications of cost-effectiveness assessments, a criterion to establish what is an efficient health technology does not exist in Spain. The objective of this work is to describe the limits and the criteria used in Spain to recommend the adoption of health interventions. A review of the economic evaluations of health technologies published in Spain from 1990 to 2001 was conducted. Complete economic assessments in which the cost-effectiveness ratio was expressed as cost per life-year gained (LYG), cost per quality-adjusted-life-year (QALY) or cost per saved live were selected. Those interventions in which the authors established recommendations (adoption or rejection) and the criteria used were analyzed. Twenty (20%) of the 100 complete economic evaluations fulfilled the selection criteria. In16 studies, the results were expressed as cost per LYG, in 6 studies as cost per QALY and in 1 as cost per saved live. A total of 82 health interventions were assessed and some kind of recommendation was established in 44 of them. All technologies with a cost-effectiveness ratio lower than 30,000 euros (5 million pesetas) per LYG were recommended for adoption by the authors. Up to that limit there was no a clear tendency. Although the results must be interpreted with much precaution, given the limitations of the study, the limits of cost-effectiveness presented in this work could be a first reference to which would be an efficient health intervention in Spain.

  11. Spain; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) Update for Spain. Although there is a core of strong banks that are well managed and appear resilient to further shocks, vulnerabilities remain. Substantial progress has been made in reforming the former savings banks, and the most vulnerable institutions have either been resolved or are being restructured. Recent measures address the most problematic part of banks’ portfolios. Moving ahead, a further restru...

  12. Update on Spain's oil market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, D.; Gutierrez, I.

    1994-01-01

    Since Spain's entry into the European Community a liberalisation of the oil industry has occurred culminating in two oil sector reform laws passed in 1992. While competition has increased, a return to the free-market policies which held sway before 1927 has not happened. Rather, three large companies dominate the Spanish oil market, with continuing input from government towards liberalization, if somewhat slowly. This paper describes recent changes and examines factors which limit liberalization policies. (UK)

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-34 - Clementines from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Clementines from Spain. 319.56-34 Section 319.56-34... Clementines from Spain. Clementines (Citrus reticulata) from Spain may only be imported into the United States... agreement. Clementines from Spain may be imported only if the Government of Spain or its designated...

  14. Construction industry accidents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camino López, Miguel A; Ritzel, Dale O; Fontaneda, Ignacio; González Alcantara, Oscar J

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzed industrial accidents that take place on construction sites and their severity. Eighteen variables were studied. We analyzed the influence of each of these with respect to the severity and fatality of the accident. This descriptive analysis was grounded in 1,630,452 accidents, representing the total number of accidents suffered by workers in the construction sector in Spain over the period 1990-2000. It was shown that age, type of contract, time of accident, length of service in the company, company size, day of the week, and the remainder of the variables under analysis influenced the seriousness of the accident. IMPACT ON INJURY PREVENTION: The results obtained show that different training was needed, depending on the severity of accidents, for different age, length of service in the company, organization of work, and time when workers work. The research provides an insight to the likely causes of construction injuries in Spain. As a result of the analysis, industries and governmental agencies in Spain can start to provide appropriate strategies and training to the construction workers.

  15. Measurement of 210Pb and its Application to Evaluate Contamination in an Area Affected by NORM Releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosqueda, F.; Vaca, F.; Villa, M.; Hurtado, S.; Absi, A.; Manjon, G.; Garcia-Tenorio, R.

    2008-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting (LSC) is an easy and straightforward technique, and combined with its low limit of detection, makes it a powerful tool for both routine and low level measurements that can be applied to 210 Pb low level counting in environmental samples. 210 Pb can be easily measured following a sulphate co-precipitation method; the addition of a carrier and the weighing of the recovered amount is a widespread technique to evaluate radiochemical yield, however, this evaluation of the recovery is sometimes questioned. The samples employed in this work were recollected in 1999 and 2005 from the estuary of the Odiel and Tinto rivers (SW of Spain), which were affected by phosphogypsum (pg.) discharges until 1998. Phosphogypsum contains most of the 210 Pb from the treated raw material, for that reason analysed riverbed sediments have enhanced 210 Pb activity concentrations and hence, enhanced activity concentration of its daughter 210 Po, both in secular equilibrium after two years

  16. Sustainable Drainage Practices in Spain, Specially Focused on Pervious Pavements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodriguez-Hernandez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Spanish climate is full of contrasts, with torrential rains and long droughts; under these conditions, appropriate water management is essential. In Spain, until the end of the twentieth century, water management and legislative development lagged behind other more developed countries. Nowadays, great efforts are being made to reverse this situation and improve both water management and legislation in order to control the two main problems related to stormwater management in cities: floods and diffuse pollution. In this context, Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS were developed as the main solution to these problems. The study of these techniques started in the 1970s in the USA, but they were not studied in Spain until 1993 when the University of Cantabria and CLABSA started to look into solutions for stormwater management. After 20 years of research and application, sustainable drainage in Spain is still behind other countries in spite of the efforts to change this situation, notably by the University of Cantabria with 10 years of experience in these techniques, mainly regarding pervious pavements, where more than 13 related research projects have been carried out. The future challenges focus on the application of pervious pavements for Urban Hydrological Rehabilitation.

  17. Acid Deposition Maps in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artinano, B.; Cabal, H.; Garcia, C.

    1998-01-01

    Animal and monthly deposition velocity and total sulfur deposition maps have been performed for the peninsular Spain for 1992 by using the inferential method. To do this, updated databases with high space and time resolution, for land uses (CORINE) and meteorological information from analysis modelling for the same year, have been utilized. The final result are deposition maps in a 5x5 Km 2 grid which allow to assess the methodology used in Europe to obtain the maps of excedances over the critical loads of pollutants. (Author) 32 refs

  18. [Nuclear medicine in Spain: high technology 2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano Castrejón, A M; Prats Rivera, E; Alonso Farto, J C; Vallejo Casas, J A; Rodriguez Gasen, A; Setoain Perego, J; Arbizu Lostao, J

    2014-01-01

    This article details the high technology equipment in Spain obtained through a survey sent to the three main provider companies of equipment installed in Spain. The geographical distribution of high technology by Autonomous Communities and its antiquity have been analyzed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  19. Spain succeeds on the PWR learning curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varley, J.

    1982-01-01

    The development of nuclear power in Spain is described. Although the programme has been delayed and cut back, success has been achieved in carrying out technology transfer. Spain now has an industry capable of exporting nuclear components, equipment and expertise. An architect-engineering capability has also developed. (U.K.)

  20. Inspection of nuclear fuel transport in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobo Mendez, J.

    1977-01-01

    The experience acquired in inspecting nuclear fuel shipments carried out in Spain will serve as a basis for establishing the regulations wich must be adhered to for future transports, as the transport of nuclear fuels in Spain will increase considerably within the next years as a result of the Spanish nuclear program. The experience acquired in nuclear fuel transport inspection is described. (author) [es

  1. Teaching Gender and Geography in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ramon, Maria-Dolors

    2011-01-01

    Since the introduction of gender themes into university teaching in geography in Spain in 1989, significant gains have been made but challenges remain in relation to placing gender into undergraduate curricula and developing teaching resources in local languages. Geographers in Spain have to meet those challenges in the near future in order to…

  2. Marriage strategies among immigrants in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sánchez-Domínguez, M.; de Valk, H.A.G.; Reher, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies patterns of endogamous marriages of immigrants in Spain by using data from the National Immigrant Survey of Spain (2007). First of all, we examine patterns of endogamous marriage and links between migration and marriage. Second, we assess the factors influencing the likelihood of

  3. Spain's marketing sector seeing more changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that Spain's petroleum marketing sector continues to restructure. Partly state owned Repsol SA and Royal Dutch/Shell Group are discussing supplying each other's retail outlets in the UK and Spain. And Portugal's state owned Petroleos de Portugal (Petrogal), seeking to sharply expand retail operations in Spain, complains of government interference with foreign investment in Spanish marketing. Meantime, Conoco Inc. Has agreed with Saras SpA Raffinerie Sarde, Milan, to set up a network of service stations in northern Spain and Portugal at a cost of 100 billion pesetas (%972 million). The two are considering building an oil terminal at the port city of Gijon in Asturias, Spain, and the Exxon Corp., Total, and Shell are interested in participating in the project

  4. Spain. Women in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, E; Serrano, N

    1994-08-01

    Spanish women live almost 2 times longer today than did their great grandmothers (60-65 years vs. 35). Contraception is more accessible, resulting in fewer pregnancies and their complications. The National Health Service of Spain provides women and their families medical care. Yet, women's health risks continue. Class, race, and geography result in women having uneven access to medical care. Primary health care services are not a priority as are high- technology hospitals. Women, who already lead a busy life, still care for older people or people with disabilities. Many households have a very limited or no income and depend on welfare benefits or family. There are more women than men who are poor because women, many of whom are single, are raising large families and many live alone. Women are often the victims of violence and of domestic abuse (1993, 86 violent deaths and 200,000 cases of abuse by a partner). Spain has laws that protect women facing divorce and that allow abortion, but men have created the world order. Women suffer daily in a world which does not recognize rape and sexual harassment as war crimes (e.g., former Yugoslavia). In Seville, the Solidarity Network of Women in Black is a pacifist group working to stop violence. They plan on setting up links to publicly denounce and act against all aggression and to institutionalize women's right to full freedom. War is destroying women's lives.

  5. Implementation and validation of an economic module in the Be-FAST model to predict costs generated by livestock disease epidemics: Application to classical swine fever epidemics in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Carrión, E; Ivorra, B; Martínez-López, B; Ramos, A M; Sánchez-Vizcaíno, J M

    2016-04-01

    Be-FAST is a computer program based on a time-spatial stochastic spread mathematical model for studying the transmission of infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. The present work describes a new module integrated into Be-FAST to model the economic consequences of the spreading of classical swine fever (CSF) and other infectious livestock diseases within and between farms. CSF is financially one of the most damaging diseases in the swine industry worldwide. Specifically in Spain, the economic costs in the two last CSF epidemics (1997 and 2001) reached jointly more than 108 million euros. The present analysis suggests that severe CSF epidemics are associated with significant economic costs, approximately 80% of which are related to animal culling. Direct costs associated with control measures are strongly associated with the number of infected farms, while indirect costs are more strongly associated with epidemic duration. The economic model has been validated with economic information around the last outbreaks in Spain. These results suggest that our economic module may be useful for analysing and predicting economic consequences of livestock disease epidemics. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Involuntary outpatient treatment (iot) for severe mental patients: current situation in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañete-Nicolás, Carlos; Hernández-Viadel, Miguel; Bellido-Rodríguez, Carmen; Lera-Calatayud, Guillem; Asensio-Pascual, Pedro; Pérez-Prieto, Juan F; Calabuig-Crespo, Roman; Leal-Cercós, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Involuntary Outpatient Treatment (IOT) expects to improve treatment compliance and, therefore, prevent the impairment of patients with severe mental illness, as well as the risk for them and others. Besides IOT introduction defenders and opponent's states, scientific literature offers contradictory results. Legislative changes have been taken in the vast majority of our neighbouring countries in order to regulate IOT application. There is no legal regulation in Spain; however, OIT application is possible in certain Spanish cities. This article reviews IOT in Spain and surrounding countries.

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-31 - Peppers from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Peppers from Spain. 319.56-31 Section 319.56-31... from Spain. Peppers (fruit) (Capsicum spp.) may be imported into the United States from Spain only... subpart: (a) The peppers must be grown in the Alicante or Almeria Province of Spain in pest-proof...

  8. 78 FR 6227 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... continental Spain. As a condition of entry, fresh apricots from continental Spain would have to be produced in... organization of Spain certifying that the fruit is free from all quarantine pests and has been produced in...

  9. Clinical biochemistry education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queraltó, J M

    1994-12-31

    Clinical biochemistry in Spain was first established in 1978 as an independent specialty. It is one of several clinical laboratory sciences specialties, together with haematology, microbiology, immunology and general laboratory (Clinical analysis, análisis clinicos). Graduates in Medicine, Pharmacy, Chemistry and Biological Sciences can enter post-graduate training in Clinical Chemistry after a nation-wide examination. Training in an accredited Clinical Chemistry department is 4 years. A national committee for medical and pharmacist specialties advises the government on the number of trainees, program and educational units accreditation criteria. Technical staff includes nurses and specifically trained technologists. Accreditation of laboratories is developed at different regional levels. The Spanish Society for Clinical Biochemistry and Molecular Pathology (SECQ), the national representative in the IFCC, has 1600 members, currently publishes a scientific journal (Química Clinica) and a newsletter. It organizes a continuous education program, a quality control program and an annual Congress.

  10. Nuclear insurance problems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo, Julian.

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the problems raised in Spain by third party liability insurance for nuclear damage. National law in this field is based on the Paris Convention on nuclear third party liability and defines the conditions of liability of operators of nuclear installations. The insurance contract requirements must comply with the regulations on cover for nuclear risks, under the control of the Finance Ministry's competent services. Certain exceptional nuclear risks which cannot be covered entirely by ordinary insurance policies, are taken over by the Consorcio de Compensacion de Seguros which belongs to this Ministry. From the insurance viewpoint, the regulations make a distinction between nuclear and radioactive installations and nuclear transport. (NEA) [fr

  11. Uranium ore processing in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa, J.M.

    1976-01-01

    The paper presents a review of the Spanish needs of uranium concentrates and uranium ore processing technology and trends in Spain. Spain produces approximately 200t U 3 O 8 /a at two facilities. One plant in the south (Andujar, Jaen) can obtain 70t U 3 O 8 /a and uses a conventional acid leaching process with countercurrent solvent extraction. A second plant, situated in the west (Ciudad Rodrigo, Salamanca) has started in 1975 and has a capacity of 120-130t U 3 O 8 /a, using acid heap leaching and solvent extraction. There is another experimental facility (Don Benito, Badajoz) scheduled to start in 1976 and expected to produce about 25-35t U 3 O 8 /a as a by-product of the research work. For the near future (1978) it is hoped to increase the production with: (a) A new conventional acid leaching/solvent extraction plant in Ciudad Rodrigo; its tentative capacity is fixed at 550t U 3 O 8 /a. (b) A facility in the south, to recover about 130t U 3 O 8 /a from phosphoric acid. (c) Several small mobile plants (30t U 3 O 8 /a per plant); these will be placed near small and isolated mines. The next production increase (1979-1980) will come with the treatment of sandstones (Guadalajara and Cataluna) and lignites(Cataluna); this is being studied. There are also research programmes to study the recovery of uranium from low-grade ores (heap, in-situ and bacterial leaching) and from other industries. (author)

  12. Self-Employed Foreign Workers In Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Trinidad Luisa García

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a full study of the legal system applicable to selfemployed foreigners wishing to carry out an economic activity in Spain. The focus varies according to the country of origin of the individual, whether it lies within the European Economic Community, whether it is a country with which the European Union has co-operation and association agreements or finally, whether it is under the general regime. The utilitarian perspective which considers immigration as necessary manual labour has justified more efficient legal mechanisms to facilitate the employment of immigrant manual workers. These mechanisms do not apply to self-employed workers. The lack of interest of legislators in this type of worker is highlighted by the suppression of motivation and refusal of the mandatory visa. The detailed analysis of the anticipated administrative requirements emphasises that within the labour legislation for immigrants there is a marked difference between those who work for an employer and those who are self-employed and there is no correspondence or comparison with the more far reaching policies of the labour doctrine with regard to the rights and guarantees of both categories of workers.

  13. The Technological Consolidation of UNED in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Garcia Aretio

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the role of the technologies that have been utilized to advance distance teaching and learning by the National Distance Education University (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia – UNED of Spain. Following a description of UNED's historical development and organizational structure, UNED's experience with various educational media is discussed. Printed teaching materials, in the form of didactic units, were one of the first methods to be utilized when UNED began its operations in 1972. In turn, the role of radio and audio recordings, television and video recordings, telephone, videoconferencing, computer systems and computer-mediated communications are also described. UNED's pioneering projects, including the virtual classroom, virtual campus, and a program for the physically handicapped, are also detailed. Recent experiments include providing access to radio and television programs on the Internet and adoption of WebCT. On the horizon for UNED are portals for cellular phones using WAP technology and gearing up for multiple applications in accordance with Universal Mobile Telecommunications Technology (UMTS.

  14. Oil sector in Spain: Final adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marin-Quemada, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper analyzes organizational and marketing changes occurring in Spain's oil industry as a result of its conversion from a state run monopoly system to a free market system. The analysis uses statistical data to indicate national oil production, import and consumption trends and compares these with overall trends in the European Communities. An explanation of the way in which oil is marketed in Spain makes reference to data on Spain's refining capacity and pipeline network, deemed to be amongst the most complete and modern in Europe. Comments are also made on the efficacy of Spain's national energy policies which stress energy source diversification to lessen this country's heavy dependence on foreign supplied oil

  15. Transfer of nuclear technology from Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madrid, G.

    1985-01-01

    Technology transfer from Spain is possible in several fields of nuclear technology ranging from the head end of the fuel cycle (ENUSA) to the back end (ENRESA). The advantages of such a transfer are emphasized

  16. Description of the Energy System of Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldes, N; Lechon, Y; Labriet, M; Cabal, H; Rua, C de la; Saez, R; Varela, M

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this report is to describe the complete Spain energy system, in order to make possible its modelling with the TIMES model within the NEEDS project (http://www.needs-project.org). (Author) 56 refs.

  17. Spain: From massive immigration to vast emigration?

    OpenAIRE

    Izquierdo, Mario; Jimeno, Juan F.; Lacuesta, Aitor

    2016-01-01

    Large immigration flows during the 1995-2007 period increased the weight of foreigners living in Spain to 12 % of the total population. The rapid increase in unemployment associated with the Great Recession and the subsequent European debt crisis, substantially changed migration flows, so that, from the beginning of the 2010s, Spain experienced positive net outflows. In this paper, we take on three tasks. First, we show that sensitivity of migration flows to unemployment is similar between Sp...

  18. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology, which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (University. The paper analyzes the political and economic aspects of life in Spain, and its foreign policy of the period of government of Mariano Rajoy (from 2011 to the present time. The article is dedicated to actual problems of modern Spain: the economy and the priorities of the government of M.Rajoy, the problem of separatism and political system of the country. Modern Spain is still recovering economically from the euro debt crisis and continues to struggle with near-record unemployment. Domestic economic recovery of Spain and the country's foreign position are closely linked. The European integration process still remains the main strategic task of the spanish foreign policy. Spain increases its role in world politics and obtains a non-permanent UN's Security Council seat for the 2015-2016 term.

  19. Benefits and costs of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.; Ansink, E.; van de Wiel, C.; Wesseler, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  20. Benefits and costs of biologically contained genetically modified tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.; Wiel, van de C.C.M.; Wesseler, J.H.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM) crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent

  1. [Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpena, Amalio Lorente

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

  2. The Impact of ISO Quality Management Systems on Primary and Secondary Schools in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arribas Díaz, Jorge Antonio; Martínez-Mediano, Catalina

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the application of quality management systems (QMS) based on international standards of quality in education (ISO 9001:2008) and ascertain the influence of this quality model on primary and secondary schools in Spain. Design/methodology/approach: The study was conducted in 26 publicly funded,…

  3. The Inequalities in School Choice in Spain in Accordance to PISA Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escardibul, Josep-Oriol; Villarroya, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In Spain as in other European countries, policies on school choice have been implemented in tandem with the channelling of public resources into private education. Given the application of public money to private schooling, the primary objective of this paper is to analyse the extent to which Spanish families enjoy equality in their ability to…

  4. NL-Netherlands: Court applies Google Spain: no right to be forgotten for convicted criminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, V.

    2014-01-01

    On 18 September 2014, the Amsterdam Court handed down the first national application of the EU Court of Justice’s Google Spain judgment. The case was initiated by a convicted criminal after Google had not fully granted his online removal requests. The court rejected the claim, but it should be noted

  5. Spain and the Hamas government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Álvarez-Ossorio Alvariño

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the restoration of democracy, Spain’s successive governments have been noted for their favourable stance toward the issue of Palestine and their support for the creation of a sovereign independent state in the territories that Israel occupied during the Six-Day War. Yasser Arafat’s visit to Spain in the time of the UCD, the holding of the Madrid Conference during the term of government of the PSOE and the designation of Miguel Ángel Moratinos as the EU’s special envoy for the Peace Process during the Partido Popular’s term of government are some of the landmarks that have expressed this exemplary relationship between the Spanish State and the Palestine question. However, the victory of Hamas in the legislative elections of 25 January 2006 radically changed the situation, as it led to Rodríguez Zapatero’s government joining the international boycott of the new Islamist executive; even so, the Spanish government clearly maintained its support for restarting the Peace Process, in the form of its backing for Mahmud Abbas, the President of the Palestine Authority. The armed conflict in Gaza in June 2007 which led to the Islamists retaking the Gaza Strip and the formation of a new government in the West Bank led by the technocrat Salam Fayad served to normalise the situation, given that it encouraged the raising of international sanctions and a return to normality in Spanish-Palestine relations.

  6. NDT performance demonstration in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The experience obtained from the in-service inspection of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) of Spanish nuclear power plants and the participation in several international programs, such as PISC, has shown the need for a performance demonstration, not only for the ultrasonic inspection techniques of RPV, but also for other ISI non-destructive techniques as in the case of eddy current inspection of steam generator tubing. Section XI of the ASME Code, which is applied in Spain for ISI, has incorporated recently the Appendix VIII for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques. As a direct consequence of this, a Spanish project for performance demonstration of ultrasonic inspection techniques has been launched recently, which includes the manufacturing of full-scale mock-ups of nozzle to vessel welds, reactor vessel welds, wrought austenitic piping welds and ferritic piping welds of PWR and BWR nuclear power plants from different suppliers. This considerable technical effort will let the different Spanish organizations which are part of the project to participate and colaborate with similar international projects and in particular with a European initiative for performance demonstration. (Author)

  7. Quality and safety in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Barrio, J. M.; Martinez Martin, D. J.

    2015-01-01

    For three decades, and after the entry of Spain into the EU, it has been developed a regulatory, stable but evolving, framework that has allowed to create the conditions and structures to have stringent safety conditions of products and manufacturing facilities, as well as all the activities necessary for their certification and control. This development has been possible, among others, by the work of impulse and coordination of the Ministry of industry, Energy and Tourism, and particularly of the quality and Industrial safety sub directorate. On the other hand it has been developed a quality infrastructure that has, at the State level, with a standardisation (AENOR) entity and an accreditation body (ENAC) with recognized prestige around the world. In this article, in the first part, a list the regulations which apply to products and manufacturing facilities is shown, as well as explain the role played by standards and accreditation system in industrial safety and the factor of competitiveness that this entails for our industrial sector, and, in the second part, the institutional role of the Ministry and, the aforementioned Sub directorate, is described. The aim of the article is to be a descriptive reference of the current regulatory framework as well as the role of the State in this process. (Author)

  8. Climate index for Spain - Methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the calculation methodology of average, minimum and maximum weather indexes with the winter and summer regression equations for the different economical regions of Spain. (J.S.)

  9. Uranium mining operations in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, J.-M.; Arnaiz, J.; Criado, M.; Lopez, A.

    1995-01-01

    The Empresa Nacional del Uranio, SA (ENUSA) was founded in 1972 to undertake and develop the industrial and procurement activities of the nuclear fuel cycle in Spain. Within the organisation of ENUSA, the Uranium Division is directly responsible for the uranium mining and production operations that have been carried out since 1973 in the area of Ciudad Rodrigo in the province of Salamanca. These activities are based on open pit mining, heap leaching and a hydrometallurgical plant (Elefante) for extracting uranium concentrates from the ore. This plant was shut down in 1993 and a new plant was started up on the same site (Quercus) with a dynamic leaching process. The nominal capacity of the new plant is 950 t U 3 O 8 per year. Because of the historically low uranium prices which have recently prevailed, the plant is currently running at a strategic production rate of 300 t U 3 O 8 per year. From 1981 to 1990, in the area of La Haba (Badajoz province), ENUSA also operated a uranium production site, based on open pit mining, and an experimental extraction plant (Lobo-G). ENUSA is currently decommissioning these installations. This paper describes innovations and improvements that ENUSA has recently introduced in the field of uranium concentrates production with a view to cutting production costs, and to improving the decommissioning and site restoration processes in those sites where production is being shut down or resources have been worked out. (author)

  10. Sources and timing of anthropogenic pollution in the Ensenada de San Simon (inner Ria de Vigo), Galicia, NW Spain: an application of mixture-modelling and nonlinear optimization to recent sedimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarth, Richard J; Evans, Graham; Croudace, Ian W; Cundy, Andrew B

    2005-03-20

    The Ensenada de San Simon is the inner part of the Ria de Vigo, one of the major mesotidal rias of the Galician coast, NW Spain. The geochemistry of its bottom sediments can be accounted for in terms of both natural and anthropogenic sources. Mixture-modelling enables much of the Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations of the bottom and subaqueous sediments to be explained by sediment input from the river systems and faecal matter from manmade mussel rafts. The compositions and relative contributions of additional, unknown, sources of anomalous heavy-metal concentrations are quantified using constrained nonlinear optimization. The pattern of metal enrichment is attributed to: material carried in solution and suspension in marine water entering the Ensenada from the polluted industrial areas of the adjacent Ria de Vigo; wind-borne urban dusts and/or vehicular emissions from the surrounding network of roads and a motorway road-bridge over the Estrecho de Rande; industrial and agricultural pollution from the R. Redondela; and waste from a former ceramics factory near the mouth of the combined R. Oitaben and R. Verdugo. Using (137)Cs dating, it is suggested that heavy metal build-up in the sediments since the late 1970s followed development of inshore fisheries and introduction of the mussel rafts (ca. 1960) and increasing industrialisation.

  11. Convergences and Divergences between Financial Reporting Systems of Romania and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laptes R.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to perform a comparative study regarding the theory and practice of financial statements in Romania and Spain. To achieve this goal, we performed a documentary research of the main papers of this area and of the applicable accounting regulations from Romania and Spain, research that allowed us to identify convergences and divergences about financial statements in both countries. The main conclusion of this study is that, while Romania experiences improving its financial reporting system by conformism, respectively by assigning through legislation forms adapted to European accounting regulations, Spain chooses a flexible development, trying to realize a complete presentation of the accounting information published in the annual financial statements.

  12. Transparency and Good Governance in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalina Larach

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, transparency and Governance are relevant for Spain. Especially, for the dissatisfied citizenship and the weakness in national and local institutions over the last few years, with results like not trusting, less guarantee on healthcare and education system, the corruption in public administration, politics-economic issues, and so on. Although, in the European Union, Spain has been one of the last countries to regulate this issue, whit Act 19/2013 there are new objectives relating to open government, citizenship, technology, accountability. Moreover in relation with the structure of administration because the “commission for transparency and good governance” was initiated on last 19th January. In general, its effectiveness in moderating this issue and applying measures in order to get administration systems cleaner in countries like Spain.

  13. Preventing erosive risks after wildfire in Spain: advances and gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Filgueira, Cristina; Vega Hidalgo, José A.; Fontúrbel Lliteras, Teresa

    2017-04-01

    Galicia (NW Spain) is one of the most wildfire-affected areas in Western Europe and where the highest soil losses following fire are recorded in the Iberian Peninsula. During the last decade, mitigation of hydrological and erosive risk has been an important objective for researchers and forest managers. For this reason, research carried out has focused on three main issues: i) the development of operational tools to prioritize post-fire soil stabilization actions, based on soil burn severity indicators and remote sensed information, and testing of their ability to reflect degradation risk in relevant soil properties and subsequent soil erosion, ii) the development and testing of different soil stabilization treatments and their effectiveness for reducing erosion, following their application at broad scale, under the specific environmental conditions of Galicia and iii) the assessment of the performance of current erosion models as well as the development of empirical models to predict post-fire soil losses. On the other hand, the use of forest resources is an essential component of the regional incomes in NW Spain and consequently there is a pressing necessity for investigation on techniques suitable for reconciling soil conservation and sustainable use of those resources. In the framework of wildfire impacts this involve many and complex challenges. This scenario contrast with most of the Iberian Peninsula under Mediterranean influence where salvage logging is not a priority. As in other regions, post-fire hydrologic and erosive risk modeling, including threatened resources vulnerability evaluation is also a capital research need, particularly in a climate change context where dramatic changes in drivers such as precipitation, evapotranspiration and fire regime are expected. The study was funded by the National Institute of Agricultural Research of Spain (INIA) through project RTA2014-00011-C06-02, cofunded by FEDER and the Plan de Mejora e Innovación Forestal de

  14. The Text of the Safeguards Agreement of 10 February 1977 between the Agency, Canada and Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1977-05-05

    The text of the Agreement of 10 February 1977 between the Agency, Canada and Spain for the application of safeguards in relation to the Agreement of 7 July 1975 between the two Governments for the Development and Application of Atomic Energy for Peaceful Purposes is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force, pursuant to Section 34, on 10 February 1977.

  15. Taxation of nuclear waste in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Rozas Valdés, José Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Law 15/2012 established in Spain four new environmental taxes and extended the scope objective excise duties on mineral oils to tax the use of natural gas and coal as sources of electricity. One of the newly created taxes falls on all electric power producers, and has as tax base the turnover. The second one tax hydropower production, and the other two fall on the nuclear industry. So, there are two new taxes in Spain on the production of electricity from nuclear sources. The first one is a t...

  16. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling of expedited reviews pursuant... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be likely...

  17. 78 FR 32184 - Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2011-0132] RIN 0579-AD62 Importation of Fresh Apricots From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and... United States of fresh apricots from continental Spain. This action will allow interested persons... importation of fruits and vegetables to allow the importation of fresh apricots from continental Spain into...

  18. 48 CFR 252.229-7005 - Tax exemptions (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tax exemptions (Spain... of Provisions And Clauses 252.229-7005 Tax exemptions (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(e), use the following clause: Tax Exemptions (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) The Contractor represents that the...

  19. 78 FR 32183 - Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    .... APHIS-2012-0002] RIN 0579-AD63 Importation of Avocados From Continental Spain AGENCY: Animal and Plant... continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States. This action will... avocados from continental Spain (excluding the Balearic Islands and Canary Islands) into the United States...

  20. Situation and perspective of spent fuel management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Garcia, A.

    2009-01-01

    Between september 2006 and september 2007, the Foundation for Energy Studies carried out the study Radioactive Waste Management: Situation, Analysis and Perspectives. This study focuses specially on spent fuel and high level radioactive waste management. The different aspects covered in this study are as follows: -Description of the different applicable technologies -Analysis and comparison of the different options of spent fuel management, including the strategic and economic aspects. - Situation, strategies and forecasts in the main countries. -Analysis of the situation and alternatives for the spent fuel management in spain. Although the report focuses principally pn the technological and environmental aspects other issues related with the management of these materials were considered, such as the strategic, economic and institutional aspects as well as the social acceptation. In answer to the request of the SNE publication, the article enclosed is a summary of one of the chapters of this study, and more particularly the one dedicated to the situation of spent fuel and high level radioactive waste management in Spain. (Author)

  1. Tarasca: ritual monster of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, David D

    2008-09-01

    Let us now revisit our original assumptions. First, we note that for the participants in Hacinas Carnival the Tarasca is a figure of fun and joy, but it also exudes a strain of aggressive misogyny that many female residents, not to mention tourists, find somewhat unsettling. In the spirit of feminist currents in Spain, a group of young women protested in 1992 to town officials and, when rebuffed, sought to build their own female monster, which they intended to use to attack boys and men. While their plan was never carried out, and indeed met with stiff opposition from officialdom and, especially, from older women, some of the younger, more modern girls find the Tarasca appalling, and they told me so without compunction. Accordingly, today the festival tends to polarize the sexes as well as the generations. Also, many children are frightened by the gigantic mock-up with its snapping teeth and foul breath, and many of them burst into tears at the roaring of the demons. But despite these negatives--or perhaps because of them--the Tarasca breaks down boundaries between things normally kept separate in the mind: humor and terror, man and beast, order and disorder, old and young, life and death, and so on. In so collapsing opposites, the Tarasca causes people to pause and to think about and question everyday reality in the non-Carnival universe. All these observations of course support the structural arguments of our four theorists above and in particular seem to corroborate Bloch's concept (1992) of the regenerative power of "rebounding violence." However, there are three specific features here that need psychological amplification beyond simply confirming the work of previous theorists. We must first note that like most grotesque fantasies, the Hacinas monster combines disparate organic "realities" into a bizarre and monstrous image that by its very oddness and the resulting "cognitive mismatch" captures people's attention and sparks the imagination, especially that of

  2. Food-related life style in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Brunsø, Karen; Grunert, Klaus G.

    1996-01-01

    Executive summary 1. This report contains the main results of a survey of food-related lifestyle in Spain, based on a representative sample of 1000 Spanish households. 2. Generally speaking, Spanish food consumers are very interested in shopping for food and cooking. Compared with other European ...

  3. Wind turbines in Spain: la vuelta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeanson, E.; Trancart, M.

    2000-01-01

    Ten years ago it was just the beginning of the wind industry in Spain. Today it takes the third place in Europe and the fourth in the world. The pilot regions are the Galicia and the Navarre. (A.L.B.)

  4. Border Disease Virus among Chamois, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; Lavín, Santiago

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 3,000 Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) died in northeastern Spain during 2005–2007. Border disease virus infection was identified by reverse transcription–PCR and sequencing analysis. These results implicate this virus as the primary cause of death, similar to findings in the previous epizootic in 2001. PMID:19239761

  5. Prospects of spent management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melches, C.; Ramirez, E.; Selgas, F.; Cabanilles, P.A.; Lopez Perez, B.; Uriarte, A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline the forecast on spent fuel management in Spain, taking into account the international developments produced during the last years and specially on LWR fuels. This forecast is based on the following actions: increase of the storage capacity in the reactors: construction of an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and a fuel reprocessing pilot plant. (author)

  6. The water footprint of tourism in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cazcarro, I.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Sánchez Chóliz, J.

    2014-01-01

    This study complements the water footprint (WF) estimations for Spain, incorporating insights of the process analysis and input–output (IO) analysis. We evaluate the virtual (both blue and green consumed) water trade of agricultural and industrial products, but also of services, especially through

  7. Chinese migration in Spain. General characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia Sáiz López

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Chinese presence in Spain is analyzed from a chronological perspective along with the ongoing changes in geographic location and economic activity. The growth in numbers of this community has obliged its members to look for new locations, distancing themselves from their ethnic strongholds, with the aim of bringingtheir migratory plans to fruition.

  8. Road accidents and business cycles in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-López, Jesús; Marrero, Gustavo A; González, Rosa Marina; Leal-Linares, Teresa

    2016-11-01

    This paper explores the causes behind the downturn in road accidents in Spain across the last decade. Possible causes are grouped into three categories: Institutional factors (a Penalty Point System, PPS, dating from 2006), technological factors (active safety and passive safety of vehicles), and macroeconomic factors (the Great recession starting in 2008, and an increase in fuel prices during the spring of 2008). The PPS has been blessed by incumbent authorities as responsible for the decline of road fatalities in Spain. Using cointegration techniques, the GDP growth rate, the fuel price, the PPS, and technological items embedded in motor vehicles appear to be statistically significantly related with accidents. Importantly, PPS is found to be significant in reducing fatal accidents. However, PPS is not significant for non-fatal accidents. In view of these results, we conclude that road accidents in Spain are very sensitive to the business cycle, and that the PPS influenced the severity (fatality) rather than the quantity of accidents in Spain. Importantly, technological items help explain a sizable fraction in accidents downturn, their effects dating back from the end of the nineties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Tuberculosis and immigration in Spain: scoping review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casals, Martí; Rodrigo, Teresa; Camprubí, Esteve; Orcau, Angels; Caylà, Joan A

    2014-01-01

    Immigration is a fairly recent phenomenon in Spain and there are still few scientific publications on tuberculosis (TB) and immigration. Therefore, the aim of this study is to describe the differential characteristics of TB in the immigrant population with respect to natives in Spain. Literature review of original articles written in Spanish or English and published 1998-2012 about TB among immigrant population. The articles with the key words "Tuberculosis", "immigrants" and "Spain" were included. Literature search was performed in Medline and MEDES. A total of 72,087 articles on TB were detected worldwide, 6% of them dealt with the immigration issue. Regarding Spain we found 2,917 articles representing 4% of the papers published worldwide, and in 219 (7.5%) immigration was considered. Of the 219 articles, 48% were published in Spanish journals and the 52% remaining in Anglo-Saxon journals. 93.5% of immigrants with TB were younger than 51, whereas this percentage was 64.9% in natives. Drug resistance can be seen in 7.8% of the immigrant population but in only 3.8% of natives. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem. Immigrants with TB were characterized by being younger and having more drug resistance and coming mostly from Latin America, Eastern Europe, Africa and Asia. It was also detected that the unavailability of a health card could be a problem.

  10. Does Education Affect Happiness? Evidence for Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunado, Juncal; de Gracia, Fernando Perez

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study the impact of education on happiness in Spain using individual-level data from the European Social Survey, by means of estimating Ordinal Logit Models. We find both direct and indirect effects of education on happiness. First, we find an indirect effect of education on happiness through income and labour status. That is, we…

  11. ITER site selection studies in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medrano, M.; Alejaldre, C.; Doncel, J.; Garcia, A.; Ibarra, A.; Jimenez, J.A.; Sanchez de Mora, M.A.; Alcala, F.; Diez, J.E.; Dominguez, M.; Albisu, F.

    2003-01-01

    The studies carried out to evaluate and select a candidate site for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) construction in Spain are presented in this paper. The ITER design, completed in July 2001, considered a number of technical requirements that must be fulfilled by the selected site. Several assumptions concerning the ITER site were made in order to carry on the design before final site selection. In the studies undertaken for ITER site selection in Spain, the referred technical requirements and assumptions were applied across the whole of Spain and two areas were identified as being preferential. These areas are on the Mediterranean coast and are situated in the Catalan and Valencian regions. A comparative evaluation based on technical characteristics for the concrete plots, proposed within the preferential areas, has been done. The result of these studies was the selection of a site that was deemed to be the most competitive--Vandellos (Tarragona)--and it was proposed to the European Commission for detailed studies in order to be considered as a possible European site for ITER construction. Another key factor for hosting ITER in Spain, is the licensing process. The present status is summarised in this paper

  12. Economic crisis and nursing in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabalegui, Adelaida; Cabrera, Esther

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study is to describe the economic context in Spain and its impact on the health care sector and in nursing schools. The global economic crisis is affecting nursing in Spain. This study analyses and compares indicators related to health care and nursing schools among European countries. Some new strategies to cope with the challenges arising from the health care crisis are suggested. Health care costs are increasing as a result of the ageing of the Spanish population, immigration, chronicity of health problems and new medical technology. Nursing education has changed in 2010 from a 3-year diploma programme to a 4-year University degree in Nursing. This change requires new resources involving staff, facilities and equipment, all of which are lacking because of the economic crisis in Spain. The worldwide economic crisis has affected Spain more than it has other European Union (EU) countries. This global crisis has an impact on the health care sector as well on nursing schools. It is essential for nursing management to develop creative approaches to maintain cost effective patient care. New programmes and technology must be carefully evaluated in terms of cost effectiveness before being implemented. All health care professionals should be well informed and have a solid understanding of this situation.

  13. Reviews of National Policies for Education: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    Recent reforms affecting every aspect of Spain's educational system are reviewed in this report. The first part presents the observations of three educators from other European countries ("The Examiners' Report"). Part 2 is a "Record of the Review Meeting" held in Paris in December of 1985 10 months after the examiners' visit…

  14. Evaluation of local versus remote areas of CH4 sources at IC3 stations using a combined analysis of 222Rn tracer and Atmospheric Particles Transport Model (APTM) results. Application at the Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3), Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Claudia; Morguí, Josep Anton; Curcoll, Roger; Àgueda, Alba; Arnold, Delia; Batet, Oscar; Cañas, Lidia; Nofuentes, Manel; Occhipinti, Paola; Vogel, Felix; Vargas, Arturo; Rodó, Xavier

    2014-05-01

    The Gredos and Iruelas station (GIC3) is part of the IC3 (Institut Català de Ciències del Clima) atmospheric monitoring network. This station is located in the Gredos Natural Park (40.22º N; -5.14º E) in the Spanish central plateau. The IC3 network consists of 8 stations distributed across Spain. It has been developed with the aim of studying climatic processes and the responses of impacted systems at different temporal and spatial scales. Since 2012, CO2, CH4, 222Rn (a natural radioactive gas) and meteorological variables are continuously measured at GIC3 at 20 m a.g.l. (1100 m a.s.l.). Furthermore, 4-days backward simulations are run daily for each IC3 station using the FLEXPART model. Simulations use ECMWF meteorological data as input and a horizontal spatial resolution of 0.2 degrees. The Laboratory of the Atmosphere and the Oceans (LAO) of the IC3 has elaborated a new approach to evaluate the local or remote greenhouse gases emissions using the radon gas as tracer and the atmospheric particles transport model FLEXPART under nocturnal and winter conditions. The ratios between the normalized and rescaled measured concentrations of CH4 and 222Rn during nocturnal hours (21h, 00h, 03h and 06h) and in the winter season, in order to reduce local radon flux and methane source due to seasonal livestock migration and to get stable atmospheric conditions, have been analyzed in relation to the influence of the local area (set to an initial dimension of 20x20 km2). The influence area (IA) has been defined as the percentage of the ratio between the residence time of the fictitious particles released in FLEXPART simulations over the area of interest (TLocal Area) and the residence time of these fictitious particles over the total area included in the simulation (TTotal Area ), i.e. IA = (TLocal Area/TTotal Area * 100). First results considering an area of interest of 20x20 km2 show a linear increase of the radon concentration with IA until reaching a maximum when IA is

  15. Maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. for red winemaking/ Curvas de maturação da uva ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. para a elaboração de vinho tinto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Genta

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The objetive of this research was to characterize the maturation of ‘Tannat’ grape (Vitis vinifera L. produced in the northwest of Parana state, for red winemaking. The experimental area was established in a commercial vineyard of Vinícola Intervin®, Maringá, PR. The vineyard was planted in August of 2000 and the vines were trained in a pergola system, in a 4.0 x 1.0 m spacing, budded on ‘IAC 766 Campinas’ rootstock. The evaluations started from the winter pruning of 2003. The random design was used as the statistical model with 20 replications and each plot was composed by one tree. The maturation curves of ‘Tannat’ grape were determined through chemical characteristic analysis of berries, such as total soluble solids (TSS, titratable acidity (TA and maturation index (TSS/TA, which were evaluated weekly from early ripening to 7 days after harvest, processing 300 berries per sampling. Through regression analysis, the performance of these chemical characteristics was evaluated over time. It was possible to conclude that: the curves of TSS, TA and TSS/TA were well-fitted to the cubic model and; the ‘Tannat’ grape reached 21.20 oBrix, 1.04% of tartaric acid and 20.38 of maturation index during harvest, what indicates a good performance of this cultivar for red winemaking at the local condition.O trabalho teve como objetivo caracterizar a maturação da videira ‘Tannat’ (Vitis vinifera L. cultivada no norte do Estado do Paraná para a elaboração de vinho tinto. A área experimental foi instalada em uma propriedade comercial pertencente à Vinícola Intervin®, no município de Maringá, PR. O vinhedo foi estabelecido em agosto de 2000 e as plantas foram conduzidas no sistema latada no espaçamento de 4,0 m x 1,5 m, enxertadas sobre o porta-enxerto ‘IAC 766 Campinas’. As avaliações tiveram início a partir da poda de produção, realizada no fim do inverno de 2003. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente

  16. Pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente, Maria-Reyes; Hernández, Juana; Antoñanzas, Fernando

    2013-11-01

    Assisted reproduction is one of the health services currently being considered for possible limitation or exclusion from the public health services portfolio in Spain. One of the main reasons claimed for this is the impact on the budget for pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess the significance of the pharmaceutical costs of assisted reproduction in Spain. This study focused on medical practice in Spain, and is based on the opinions of experts in assisted reproduction and the results provided by professional societies' publications. The reference year is 2012 and the setting was secondary care. We have included all existing pharmaceutical modalities for assisted reproduction, as well as the most common drug for each modality. We have considered the pharmaceutical cost per cycle for artificial insemination, in vitro fertilisation with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF_ICSI), and cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception. In Spain, artificial insemination has a pharmaceutical cost per cycle of between €69.36 and €873.79. This amounts to an average cycle cost of €364.87 for partner's sperm and €327.10 for donor sperm. The pharmaceutical cost of IVF_ICSI ranges between €278.16 and €1,902.66, giving an average cost per cycle of €1,139.65. In the case of cryotransfer and donated fresh oocytes reception, the pharmaceutical cost per cycle is between €22.61 and €58.73, yielding an average cost of €40.67. The budgetary impact of pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction in Spain for the year 2012 was estimated at €98.7 million. In Spain, the total pharmaceutical cost of assisted reproduction is substantial. According to our results, we can say that about 29% of the total pharmaceutical expenditure for assisted reproduction techniques is funded by the National Health System and the rest represents 2.4% of the total annual out-of-pocket family expenditure on drugs.

  17. 3D Virtual Itinerary for Education Using Google Earth as a Tool for the Recovery of the Geological Heritage of Natural Areas: Application in the “Las Batuecas Valley” Nature Park (Salamanca, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Miguel Martínez-Graña

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop a methodology that enhances the value and position of the geological heritage of any natural area in the world using a 3D virtual itinerary. Field applications of this geological itinerary enable students to participate actively in teaching and learning theoretical concepts in the earth sciences and engineering. The educational resources, which include a virtual itinerary, a flight simulator, a field notebook with questionnaires, videos, and an augmented reality developed with Google Earth, provide a familiar and effective learning environment that can be implemented by students daily using new technologies (smartphones, tablets, and iPods and can leverage the power of computer games to achieve the objectives of a specific curriculum. The implementation of geological content in an interactive, educational game has been employed in compulsory levels of secondary education, high school, and college in Batuecas Valley. The geomatic applications are free as they can be accessed from existing computer labs.

  18. Social risk perception: recent findings in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prades-Lopez, A.; Martinez-Arias, R.; Diaz-Hidalgo, M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present our main results from a survey carried out in Spain in the context of social risk perception. This survey is included in a broad project (PRISP) sponsored by the UE and the national Civil Protection Service, and carried out simultaneously in three countries: Spain, Italy and UK. The project combined qualitative and quantitative assessment methods, although only survey results are presented here. A random sample of 600 subjects from two different Spanish communities close to a COMAH chemical site was selected for the research. Main findings regarding, differential perception between both community populations, sex differences, and 'bias perception' of risks among others have been achieved. Main dimensions were obtained by multidimensional scaling and Factor Analysis. Dimensions reported here are similar to the usual findings from the psychometric paradigm. (authors)

  19. Courses and syllabus: the situation in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iranzo, E.

    1989-01-01

    The regulation covering radioactive and nuclear installations classifies workers operating such installations as operators or supervisors. Operators are persons who, working directly under a supervisor, handle the installation operational equipment and which have a bearing on nuclear safety or protection against radiation. Supervisors are persons directing the operations of a radioactive or nuclear installation and operator activities. The study deals with the courses given in Spain which qualify operators and supervisors in industrial radioactive installations as permit holders, as well as the courses currently being run for persons engaged in the transport of radioactive materials. Spain regulations covering transport of dangerous goods are based on separate Royal Decrees dealing with road and air transport respectively

  20. Training in breast surgery in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguelena, José M; Domínguez Cunchillos, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Breast surgery is a key part of training and competency in general surgery in Spain and is a "frontier area" that can be efficiently managed by general surgeons and gynecologists. The main objective of the training process consists of the surgical treatment of breast cancer, including conservative surgery, oncoplastic and reconstructive techniques. This article analyses the current status of breast surgery training in Spain and schematically proposes potential targets of the different training programs, to improve access and training for surgeons and residents in this area, taking into account the RD 639/2014 and European regulation. The priority is to specify the level of training that should be achieved, in relation to the group of professionals involved, considering their area of competency: surgery resident, educational programs, and surgeons with special dedication to this area. Copyright © 2016 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Entrepreneurship research in Spain: developments and distinctiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, José C; Gutiérrez, Andrea

    2011-08-01

    This article presents a review of research on entrepreneurship in Spain, paying particular attention to its beginnings, nature and main focus of interest. We have developed a database based on the review of 471 works produced between 1977 and 2009, including articles published in national and international journals and dissertations (read in Spain) that allowed us to extract the following results. There is a preference for qualitative methods, conceptual contributions and the entrepreneurial process as the privileged research theme. There is also a strong focus of interest on micro and small enterprises. These characteristics of Spanish research in areas of entrepreneurship can make a distinctive contribution to international research. However, the dissemination of knowledge and inadequate strategies for international publication limit the diffusion of Spanish research in entrepreneurship. Lastly, we discuss the implications for future research.

  2. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  3. Renewable Energy Policy Fact sheet - Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-07-01

    The EurObserv'ER policy profiles give a snapshot of the renewable energy policy in the EU Member States. On October 2015, a new support scheme (the 'Regimen Retributivo Especifico') was established in Spain. The aim was to grant a specific remuneration regime for new biomass plants located in the mainland electricity system and for wind energy plants. The allocation of the referred specific remuneration regime has been done through a competitive call for tenders. A tax regulation mechanism for investments related to RESE plants is in place. There is a tax credit for solar thermal and for bio-fuels in transport. Furthermore a quota system for bio-fuels is in place. RES-E operators are entitled to grid connection, priority dispatch against the grid operator. Currently no support schemes for RES-H and C are in place in Spain

  4. A practical application of the geological and mining characterization method to the “Rosa Porriño” deposit (Galicia, Spain). Quality cartography and estimation of the distribution of reserves for mining exploitation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero Arias, A.; Taboada Castro, J.; Iglesias Comesaña, C.; Baltuille Martín, J.M.; Giráldez Pérez, E.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the “Rosa Porriño” granite, which is known worldwide and has been marketed for more than 50 years, through the application of geologic-mining techniques. These techniques are widely used for analysing rock masses with the aim of commercially exploiting them. The basis is the general criteria for the characterization of geological and mining parameters: the lithologies present and their distribution, types and location of fractures, the industrial quality of the rock and the location of the exploitable rock volumes, previous activity, planning possibilities and rationalization of the exploitation, to name a few. This geological and mining information was used to make a map of the industrial qualities, forming the basis for the estimation of reserves and their distribution within the deposit. The application of geostatistical techniques allowed the definition of the three dimensions and thus the existing volumes corresponding to each industrial quality (defined in the geological-mining cartography). Four different qualities were defined and their volumes estimated, namely first and second qualities for granite suitable for its use as ornamental stone or other applications of high added value; third quality for the granite suitable for its use as a construction material (generally of smaller volume than the previous qualities) and the fourth quality for the granite for aggregates. The overburden zones were determined as well. Once the reserves of the qualities and their spatial distribution within the deposit are known, different alternatives for a rational exploitation can be considered for the existing operating units. This modelling enables a more effective and efficient mining operation, with controlled, lower environmental impact and thus with a more sustainable exploitation of the mining resources. [es

  5. Regulatory Control of Radioactive Sources in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, M.; Martin, J.L., E-mail: mrm@csn.es [Nuclear Safety Council, Madrid (Spain)

    2011-07-15

    The arrangements for the regulatory control of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources in Spain are described. Emphasis is given to the situations which are most likely to result in the loss of control of sources and on the procedures introduced to reduce the likelihood of losses in these cases. Finally, the strategy for locating sources which have been lost from control (orphan sources) is described. (author)

  6. Legislating tolerance: Spain's national public smoking law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muggli, Monique E; Lockhart, Nikki J; Ebbert, Jon O; Jiménez-Ruiz, Carlos A; Riesco Miranda, Juan Antonio; Hurt, Richard D

    2010-02-01

    While Spain's national tobacco control legislation prohibits smoking in many indoor public places, the law provides for an exception to the prohibition of smoking by allowing separate seating sections and ventilation options in certain public places such as bars and restaurants, hotels and airports. Accordingly, Spain's law is not aligned with Article 8 Guidelines of the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which requires parties to ensure universal protection against secondhand smoke exposure in all enclosed public places, workplaces and on all means of public transport. Spain's law is currently being promoted by the tobacco companies in other countries as a model for smoke-free legislation. In order to prevent weakening of smoke-free laws in other countries through industry-supported exceptions, we investigated the tactics used by the tobacco companies before the implementation of the new law and assessed the consequences of these actions in the hospitality sector. Internal tobacco industry documents made public through US litigation settlements dating back to the 1980s were searched in 2008-9. Documents show that tobacco companies sought to protect hospitality venues from smoking restrictions by promoting separate seating for smokers and ineffective ventilation technologies, supporting an unenforceable voluntary agreement between the Madrid local government and the hospitality industry, influencing ventilation standards setting and manipulating Spanish media. The Spanish National Assembly should adopt comprehensive smoke-free legislation that does not accommodate the interests of the tobacco industry. In doing so, Spain's smoke-free public places law would be better aligned with the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  7. The Actual Problems of Modern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Natalya E. Anikeeva

    2014-01-01

    The important aim of national and Spanish historiography and political science is to study history and foreign policy of modern Spain. The author studied articles and monographies of spanish politicians and researchers ( M. Rahoy, I. Aries, A. Rubalcaba, I. Molina) for the preparation of this article during the scientific trip to Madrid (Complutense University, Faculty of Political Science and Sociology), which was held in the framework of cooperation between the Bank Santander and MGIMO (Uni...

  8. The dilemmas of nuclear energy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranzadi, C.

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews the economic basis of some controversial political choices concerning the future of nuclear energy in Spain: authorisation or refusal of existing nuclear power plants life extension and investment in new ones. These decisions are to be taken in an environment characterised by a reluctant public opinion that feel uninformed and whose risk perception differs deeply from experts assessment, but prefers not to be consulted. (Author) 19 refs

  9. National registry of hemoglobinopathies in Spain (REPHem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cela, Elena; Bellón, José M; de la Cruz, María; Beléndez, Cristina; Berrueco, Rubén; Ruiz, Anna; Elorza, Izaskun; Díaz de Heredia, Cristina; Cervera, Aurea; Vallés, Griselda; Salinas, J Antonio; Coll, M Teresa; Bermúdez, Mar; Prudencio, Marta; Argilés, Bienvenida; Vecilla, Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Although highly prevalent throughout the world, the accurate prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain is unknown. This study presents data on the national registry of hemoglobinopathies of patients with thalassemia major (TM), thalassemia intermedia (TI), and sickle cell disease (SCD) in Spain created in 2014. Fifty centers reported cases retrospectively. Data were registered from neonatal screening or from the first contact at diagnosis until last follow-up or death. Data of the 715 eligible patients were collected: 615 SCD (497 SS, 64 SC, 54 SBeta phenotypes), 73 thalassemia, 9 CC phenotype, and 18 other variants. Most of the SCD patients were born in Spain (65%), and 51% of these were diagnosed at newborn screening. Median age at the first diagnosis was 0.4 years for thalassemia and 1.0 years for SCD. The estimated incidence was 0.002 thalassemia cases and 0.03 SCD cases/1,000 live births. Median age was 8.9 years (0.2-33.7) for thalassemia and 8.1 years (0.2-32.8) for SCD patients. Stroke was registered in 16 SCD cases. Transplantation was performed in 43 TM and 23 SCD patients at a median age of 5.2 and 7.8 years, respectively. Twenty-one patients died (3 TM, 17 SCD, 1 CC) and 200 were lost to follow-up. Causes of death were related to transplantation in three patients with TM and three patients with SCD. Death did not seem to be associated with SCD in six patients, but nine patients died secondary to disease complications. Overall survival was 95% at 15 years of age. The registry provides data about the prevalence of hemoglobinopathies in Spain and will permit future cohort studies and the possibility of comparison with other registries. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lessons learned from Spain's nuclear program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Rodriguez, A.

    1993-01-01

    The commercial nuclear program in Spain dates back to the beginning of the 1960s. There are currently nine units in operation, one more has been decommissioned and a further five are in different phases of construction but under nuclear moratorium since 1983. This article gives a general overview of the program, the criteria applied, what it has meant to and required of the industry and, finally, what lessons have been learned. (author) 2 figs

  11. The effects of repeated applications of the molluscicide metaldehyde and the biocontrol nematode Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita on molluscs, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans: a two-year study in north-west Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Javier; Castillejo, José; Castro, Ramón

    2003-11-01

    Over two years, six consecutive field experiments were done in which the chemical molluscicide metaldehyde and the nematode biocontrol agent Phasmarhabditis hermaphrodita (Schneider) were applied at the standard field rates to replicated mini-plots successively planted with lettuce, Brussels sprouts, leaf beet and cabbage, to compare the effectiveness of different treatments in reducing slug damage to the crops. Soil samples from each plot were taken prior to the start of the experiments, and then monthly, to assess the populations of slugs, snails, earthworms, nematodes, acarids and collembolans. The experiments were done on the same site and each plot received the same treatment in the six experiments. The six treatments were: (1) untreated controls, (2) metaldehyde pellets, (3 and 4) nematodes applied to the planted area 3 days prior to planting without or with previous application of cow manure slurry, (5) nematodes applied to the area surrounding the planted area 3 days prior to planting, and (6) nematodes applied to the planted area once (only in the first of the six consecutive experiments). Only the metaldehyde treatment and the nematodes applied to the planted area at the beginning of each experiment without previous application of manure significantly reduced slug damage to the plants, and only metaldehyde reduced the number of slugs contaminating the harvested plants. The numbers of slugs, snails and earthworms in soil samples were compared among the six treatments tested: with respect to the untreated controls, the numbers of Deroceras reticulatum (Müller) were significantly affected only in the metaldehyde plots, and the numbers of Arion ater L only in the plots treated with nematodes applied to the planted area 3 days prior to planting without previous application of manure; numbers of snails (Ponentina ponentina (Morelet) and Oxychilus helveticus (Blum)) were not affected by the treatment. The total numbers of all earthworm species and of Lumbricus

  12. Water Markets in Spain: Performance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Palomo-Hierro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Law 46/1999 incorporated formal water markets into the Spanish legal and regulatory framework, allowing spot water markets and the creation of water banks. The implementation of water markets in Spain aimed at improving the efficiency of water use by reallocating water towards uses with higher added value. However, the performance of water markets in Spain has been rather disappointing, since they have been operative only during drought periods, and even under these extreme scarcity situations, trading activity counted for less than 5.0% of total water use. The narrowness of the market suggests that there are some barriers hampering their effective functioning. This paper examines the evolution and performance of water markets in Spain, relying on a transaction costs analysis framework. This analysis allows the identification of the main factors impeding water markets from operating effectively as a water reallocation tool. This analysis also provides some guidelines on how to overcome these obstacles and, thus, how to improve the efficiency of water use.

  13. Small hydro: Policy and potential in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez, C.

    2001-01-01

    In Spain, the benefits of small-scale (less than 10 MW) hydro are apparently rarely appreciated and there is little support from European institutions. The article suggests that small hydro technology can make a significant contribution to the country's energy requirements and create employment, provided certain obstacles can be removed. Data on the number of small hydros in Spain, and of recent installations are given; the share of hydro in Spain's total energy production is 2.5%. The low environmental impact of hydro is extolled, and the conclusions of a recent study of 'environmental impacts of the production of electricity' are listed. There are said to be unreasonable administrative obstacles; for example, it is more difficult to obtain permission to refurbish a 100 kW hydro plant in Castilla y Leon than it is to install a 30,000 kW gas plant. Some details relating to the affect of hydro on aquatic ecosystems, noise levels, and water quality, are given

  14. Informational Literacy and Information and Communication Technologies Use by Secondary Education Students in Spain: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Ma. José Rodríguez; Migueláñez, Susana Olmos; Molina, María Pinto; Abad, Fernando Martínez; Riaza, Blanca García

    2011-01-01

    Informational literacy and the use of technologies by Secondary Education students in Spain: A descriptive study. The development of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), together with their application to research carried out on educational areas, are factors which contribute to the promotion of a new educative model constructed on…

  15. Costs, outcomes and challenges for diabetes care in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Bastida, Julio; Boronat, Mauro; Moreno, Juan Oliva; Schurer, Willemien

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetes is becoming of increasing concern in Spain due to rising incidence and prevalence, although little information is known with regards to costs and outcomes. The information on cost of diabetes in Spain is fragmented and outdated. Our objective is to update diabetes costs, and to identify outcomes and quality of care of diabetes in Spain. Methods We performed systematic searches from secondary sources, including scientific literature and government data and reports. Results ...

  16. Catalonia and Spain at the crossroads: financial and economic aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Castells, Antoni (Castells Oliveres)

    2014-01-01

    In some large European countries, in recent decades, economic globalization has gone hand in hand with a powerful trend to political decentralization (this has been the case in the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain). In Spain, and after years of apparent stability, the relations between Catalonia and Spain are experiencing troubled times. This paper examines particularly the main economic effects of both the staying together and the secession scenarios. Following the introduction, the ...

  17. Measuring the technical effciency of public service broadcasters: An application of DEA in Spain || Midiendo la eficiencia técnica de los servicios públicos de televisión: una aplicación de DEA en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latorre Martínez, Pilar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The excessive debt of the Spanish economy in the last few year raises the issue of efficiency in the management of public resources. Within this context, this research measures the technical efficiency of regional public service broadcasters (PSBs in Spain using data envelopment analysis (DEA. The results indicate that several corporations are not efficient and they need to make decisions regarding some of their inputs to guarantee their sustainability.In addition, those PSBs following a management model based on outsourcing are more efficient. This research also provides a theoretical framework and a methodological application for the measurement of efficiency in the public service media sector. || La excesiva deuda pública que presenta la economía española obliga a analizar la eficiencia en la gestión de los recursos públicos. Dentro de este contexto, este artículo mide la eficiencia técnica de los servicios públicos autonómicos de televisión en España a través del Análisis Envolvente de Datos (DEA. Los resultados indican que varias televisiones autonómicas no son eficientes y que requieren variar algunos de sus inputs para garantizar su sostenibilidad. Además, los servicios públicos regionales de televisión que siguen un modelo de gestión basado en externalizar parte de su actividad son más eficientes. Esta investigación también aporta un modelo teórico y una aplicación metodológica a la medición de la eficiencia en el sector de los medios de comunicación públicos.

  18. Patterns of care for brachytherapy in Europe. Results in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Torrecilla, J; Guedea, F; Heeren, G; Nissin, R; Ellison, T; Cottier, B

    2006-05-01

    In 2003 ESTRO began a project whose primary objective, was to make a map in the European area of infrastructures in technology and personnel for brachytherapy. A survey and a web site were elaborated. The survey was sent to the 76 Spanish Radiation Oncology departments in May 2003. By the end of 2003, 66 (86.8%) services had responded, 40 (71.4%) of which had brachytherapy. The services with brachytherapy treated 73.5% of the total patients, an average of 1,199 patients. The mean number of patients treated with brachytherapy by department was 135.5 and the number of applications was 265 annually. The average number of specialists was 7, 4 of them trained in brachytherapy. The average weekly work load of the radiation oncologists, physicists, and technicians was 22.6 h, 13.8 h and 21.0 h, respectively. The mean time dedicated to each patient by radiation oncologists, physicists and technicians was 9.2 h; 6.19 h; 7.2 h, respectively. The total number of afterloaders was 43 (22 HDR, 18 LDR, 3 PDR). The tumours most frequently treated with brachytherapy were gynaecological (56.24%), breast (14.2%) and prostate (11.7%). High dose rate was used in 47.46% of the patients and low dose rate in 47.24%. Between 1997 and 2002 there was an increase of 50.53% in patients treated with brachytherapy. The survey shows the brachytherapy resources and activity in Spain up to 2003. Increased use of brachytherapy in prostate tumours, prevalence of gynaecology brachytherapy and similar number of treatments with HDR and LDR are demonstrated in the Patterns of Care of Brachytherapy in Europe (PCBE) study in Spain.

  19. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  20. Uneven chances of breastfeeding in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Río Isabel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background No large scale studies on breastfeeding onset patterns have been carried out in Spain. This work aims to explore the prevalence and the risk factors for not initiating breastfeeding in hospitals from Catalonia (CAT and Valencia (V, two regions accounting approximately for 30% of the annual births in Spain. Methods The prevalence of not initiating breastfeeding was calculated by maternal/neonatal characteristics and type of hospital, and logistic regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted risks of not breastfeeding in each region. Results Prevalence of breastfeeding initiation was 81.7% and 82.5% in Catalonia and Valencia, respectively. We identified conspicuous regional differences in the adjusted-risk of not breastfeeding, especially for multiple [CAT = 3.12 (95% CI: 2.93, 3.31, V = 2.44 (95% CI: 2.23, 2.67] and preterm and low birth weight deliveries [very preterm and very low birth weight: CAT = 7.61 (95% CI: 6.50, 8.92, V = 4.03 (95% CI: 3.13, 5.19; moderate preterm and moderate low birth weight: CAT = 4.28 (95% CI: 4.01, 4.57, V = 2.55 (95% CI:2.34, 2.79]. Conclusions Our results suggest the existence of regional variations in breastfeeding initiation in Spain. Taking into account the known short and long-term benefits of breastfeeding it is recommended that further research should explore these differences in order to prevent potential inequities in neonatal, child and adult health.

  1. Pediatric allergy and immunology in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Antonio; Mazon, Angel; Martin-Mateos, Maria Anunciacion; Plaza, Ana-Maria; Garde, Jesus; Alonso, Elena; Martorell, Antonio; Boquete, Manuel; Lorente, Felix; Ibero, Marcel; Bone, Javier; Pamies, Rafael; Garcia, Juan Miguel; Echeverria, Luis; Nevot, Santiago; Martinez-Cañavate, Ana; Fernandez-Benitez, Margarita; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2011-11-01

    The data of the ISAAC project in Spain show a prevalence of childhood asthma ranging from 7.1% to 15.3%, with regional differences; a higher prevalence, 22.6% to 35.8%, is described for rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis is found in 4.1% to 7.6% of children. The prevalence of food allergy is 3%. All children in Spain have the right to be visited in the National Health System. The medical care at the primary level is provided by pediatricians, who have obtained their titles through a 4-yr medical residency training program. The education on pediatric allergy during that period is not compulsory and thus very variable. There are currently 112 certified European pediatric allergists in Spain, who have obtained the accreditation of the European Union of Medical Specialist for proven skills and experience in pediatric allergy. Future specialists in pediatric allergy should obtain their titles through a specific education program to be developed in one of the four accredited training units on pediatric allergy, after obtaining the title on pediatrics. The Spanish Society of Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (SEICAP) gathers over 350 pediatric allergists and pediatricians working in this field. SEICAP has a growing activity including yearly congresses, continued education courses, elaboration of technical clinical documents and protocols, education of patients, and collaboration with other scientific societies and associations of patients. The official journal of SEICAP is Allergologia et Immunophatologia, published every 2 months since 1972. The web site of SEICAP, http://www.seicap.es, open since 2004, offers information for professionals and extensive information on pediatric allergic and immunologic disorders for the lay public; the web site is receiving 750 daily visits during 2011. The pediatric allergy units are very active in clinical work, procedures as immunotherapy or induction of oral tolerance in food allergy, contribution to scientific literature, and

  2. Historical sketch of the Freinet’ movement in Spain. 1926-1939

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Hernández díaz

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The postulates on education from Celestín Freinet, and his determination to provide to the Cooperative of Lay Education (CLE of an international character, came out soon the French borders. Spain was not foreign to such influence and, very soon, the Freinet’s educational offer had a good reception, even though, in the first moment, it had scanty diffusion and minor application. The winds of pedagogic renovation, propitiated by the Spanish Second Republic, gave impulse and encouraged the application of the new educational technologies from France. Thus, the incipient Freinet’s Spanish movement was taking shape and, in a little time, this had a «battalion» of «sniper» teachers, who wanted to apply those ideas, a solid organization and a promising future truncated by the beginning of the civil war. This research is about the Spanish receipt from the Modern School, the advertising and diffusion of those ideas, the itinerary followed by the Spanish’s Freynet move- ment during it expansion and Franco’s government. Likewise, this paper presents a profile of the Freynet’s teachers movement in Spain, and a census of school notebooks realized through the school press, with expression of the locality of edition and of the teachers who stimulated the publication. Key words: Freinet, Spain, Second Republic, Purge, School notebooks, Pedagogic renovation. 

  3. Pattern of electroconvulsive therapy use in Spain: Proposals for an optimal practice and equitable access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Fuentenebro, Javier; Vera, Ignacio; Verdura, Ernesto; Urretavizcaya, Mikel; Martínez-Amorós, Erika; Soria, Virginia; Bernardo, Miquel

    The main aims of our study were to estimate the current rates and pattern of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) use in Spain, as well as exploring the causes that may be limiting its use in our country. A cross-sectional survey was conducted covering every psychiatric unit in Spain as of 31 December 2012. More than half (54.9%) of the psychiatric units applied ECT at a rate of 0.66 patients per 10,000 inhabitants. There are wide variations with regard to ECT application rates between the different autonomous communities (0.00-1.39) and provinces (0.00-3.90). ECT was prescribed to a mean of 25.5 patients per hospital that used the technique and 4.5 in referral centre (P=.000), but wide differences were reported in the number of patients who were prescribed ECT from hospital to hospital. Although the percentage of psychiatric units applying ECT in our country is among the highest in the world, the ECT application rate in Spain is among the lowest within western countries. Large differences in ECT use have been reported across the various autonomous communities, provinces and hospitals. Thus, health planning strategies need to be implemented, as well as promoting training in ECT among health professionals, if these differences in ECT use are to be reduced. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. The quality assurance practice in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugica, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Even when the basic requirements for a Quality Assurance Program are delineated in documents such as the Code of Federal Regulations or Standards like ANSI N 45. 2, the way in which these requirements are put into practice is very dependent on the organization to which they are applied. So, in order to approach accurately the Quality Assurance practice and experience in Spain, the legal and industrial scenario must be considered. We are trying to present an outlook of the Spanish Energy Plan, Regulations and Nuclear Industry. (orig.)

  5. Country policy profile - Spain. December 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-12-01

    According to the Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources the target for the share of energy from renewable sources in gross final consumption of energy in the year 2020 for Spain is 20% (according to EurObserv'ER calculation the share was 14.2% in 2012). The Directive has a mandatory 10 % target for transport to be achieved by all Member States, which refers to renewable sources as a whole, not bio-fuels alone. In Spain, the main support scheme called 'Regimen Especial' (Royal Decree 661/2007) operated until the end of 2011 was suspended at the beginning of 2012. The price regulation system is currently phased out trough Real Decreto 9/2013. In the former system, operators could choose between two options: a guaranteed feed-in tariff and a guaranteed bonus (premium) paid on top of the electricity price derived on the free market. More recently, the 6 June, Spain approved a clean energy bill that introduces an entirely new subsidy system. The FiT and market price plus premium systems have effectively been abolished retroactively and replaced by a sum to be allocated based on the plant's installed capacity to compensate for investment-related financial outlay. Under the decree, generators will earn a rate of return of about 7.5 percent over their lifetimes. This rate, which may be revised every three years, is based on the average interest of a 10-year sovereign bond plus 3 percentage points. These measures will be implemented retroactively to apply from July 2013. Currently, there is no support scheme for RES-H and C in place in Spain but building must satisfy a minimal solar contribution of warm sanitary water. Approved in March 2006, through Royal Decree 314/2006 of 17 March 2006, the Building Technical Code (CTE - Codigo Tecnico de la Edificacion) requires all new or renovated buildings to cover 30%-70% of the Domestic Hot Water demand with solar thermal energy. Some

  6. History of health technology assessment: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampietro-Colom, Laura; Asua, Jose; Briones, Eduardo; Gol, Jordi

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of the introduction and diffusion of health technology assessment (HTA) in Spain. A survey to summarize the evolution of HTA was sent to representatives of different HTA initiatives in Spain. HTA was introduced in the late 1980s. The main factors were the trend to an increase in healthcare expenditure, concerns regarding efficiency in providing health care, as well as in the level of rationality introducing high technology. Spain has direct (i.e., regulation) and indirect (i.e., payment systems, evidence-based programs, HTA) mechanisms to control health technologies. A recent high priority regulation has established the need of HTA to decide the introduction of a new health technology in the lists of public healthcare coverage, although similar regulations existed in the past and were scarcely implemented. HTA initiatives started at the regional government level. Its introduction followed a progressive pattern among regions. In the beginning, resources were scarce and expertise limited, with work done at intramural level. With time, expertise increase, and promotion of commissioned work was implemented. HTA knowledge transfer in the healthcare system has been carried out through courses, publications, and commissioned research. Currently, there are seven HTA units/agencies, which coordinate their work. HTA in Spain is in its maturity. Facing the unavoidable change of health care environment over time, HTA is also evolving and, currently, there is a trend to broaden the areas of influence of HTA by devolving capacity to hospitals and applying principles to very early phases of health technology development, under the umbrella of regional HTA units/agencies. However, there are two main challenges ahead. One is to have a real impact at the highest level of healthcare policy coordination among Spanish regions, which is done at the Central Ministry of Health. The other is to avoid the influence of political waves

  7. Household water saving: Evidence from Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisa, Rosa; Larramona, Gemma

    2012-12-01

    This article focuses on household water use in Spain by analyzing the influence of a detailed set of factors. We find that, although the presence of both water-saving equipment and water-conservation habits leads to water savings, the factors that influence each are not the same. In particular, our results show that those individuals most committed to the adoption of water-saving equipment and, at the same time, less committed to water-conservation habits tend to have higher incomes.

  8. Benefits and Costs of Biologically Contained Genetically Modified Tomatoes and Eggplants in Italy and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf A. Groeneveld

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we assess the benefits and costs of introducing biologically contained genetically modified (GM crops, with an application to the potential introduction of GM tomatoes and eggplants in Italy and Spain. Such crops possess both the standard beneficial GM traits, and they prevent introgression of transgenes from GM crops to their conventional or wild relatives, thereby adding to the safety of their cultivation. As a result, coexistence regulations for these crops are less stringent than for crops without biological containment. The potential adoption of biologically contained GM tomatoes and eggplants is assessed in a cost-benefit framework for Italy and Spain. We conclude that biological containment has considerable potential benefits if policy makers are willing to loosen the restrictions on the introduction of these varieties.

  9. [Anesthesia in urology: notes on its history and development in Spain, 1847 to 1950].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A; Cortés, J; Hernández, B; Alvarez, J

    2007-01-01

    This review of the historical course of anesthesia performed in the context of urology in Spain relies on primary sources: doctoral theses, dissertations, published articles, inaugural addresses, conference proceedings, and books belonging to various archives and libraries. We collected a large number of documents relating to urology and of particular interest regarding anesthesia, classified them, and subjected them to critical analysis. This allowed us to carefully follow the development of anesthesia and urology itself, both of which attained notable clinical and scientific importance in Spain. Anesthesia with chloroform and incomplete anesthesia were the norm during the second half of the 19th century. However, during the first half of the 20th century, the most widely used techniques were the application of ether or spinal or local infusions, although epidural and intravenous techniques were also mentioned.

  10. Extreme Temperatures and Health in Spain in a Context of Climate Change: Some Lines of Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Linares

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The heat wave that occurred in Europe in the summer of 2003 led health authorities to develop Prevention Plans to minimize the impacts of heat waves on citizens´ health. Spain developed, based on existing research, a High Temperature Prevention Plan, which was in force until 2015, when it was updated. This paper summarizes studies carried out in our country that led to the updating of this Plan. We also analyze some studies conducted in Spain regarding cold waves and their attributable mortality; the temporal evolution of heat impacts according to age groups; the detection of specially susceptible groups; the geographic variability of the health effects of heat waves and their applicability to the improvement of Prevention Plans; and future lines of research in the field of extreme temperatures and their impact on health.

  11. Teaching Digital Libraries in Spain: Context and Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Marco, Francisco-Javier

    2009-01-01

    The situation of digital libraries teaching and learning in Spain up to 2008 is examined. A detailed analysis of the different curricula and subjects is provided both at undergraduate and postgraduate level. Digital libraries have been mostly a postgraduate topic in Spain, but they should become mainstream, with special subjects devoted to them,…

  12. Sex Education in Spain: Teachers' Views of Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jose L.; Carcedo, Rodrigo J.; Fuertes, Antonio; Vicario-Molina, Isabel; Fernandez-Fuertes, Andres A.; Orgaz, Begona

    2012-01-01

    This paper offers an overview of the current state, difficulties, limitations and future possibilities for sex education in Spain. On the basis of a study involving 3760 teachers from all provinces in Spain, a detailed analysis of the obstacles at legislative, school and teacher levels was developed. Significant weaknesses were found at each of…

  13. Deregulation and restructuring of the electricity sector in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francia, L.

    2000-01-01

    This economic analysis of the Electric Power industry and market in Spain shows how the electricity deregulation and liberalization in Spain have given rise to an electricity industry which not only complies in spirit and letter with the E.U. Directive on the internal energy market, but which in fact goes much further. (A.L.B.)

  14. The Queen's Two Bodies: Sor Juana and New Spain's Vicereines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, George Anthony

    2009-01-01

    The work of Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz contains many examples of positive representations of the Queens of Spain and the Vicereines of New Spain. These poetic portraits serve to counter the primarily misogynistic portrayals of ruling women of the seventeenth century. Most importantly, Sor Juana increased the visibility of the vicereine in colonial…

  15. The History of the Democratic Adult Education Movement in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Esther; Tellado, Itxaso; Yuste, Montserrat; Larena-Fernández, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: Traditional adult education in Spain treated the learner as a mere object that could be shaped by the educator. Although current practices of the democratic adult education movement in Spain reveals a completely opposite standpoint on adult education, there has been little analysis of the several influences converging and…

  16. Implementation of the new maintenance rule in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coello, A. L.; Gerez, L.

    2000-01-01

    The maintenance rule involving a change in philosophy both for the facilities and regulations has been implemented in Spain nuclear power plants as from April 1st this year. The authors describe this rule and detail its fulfillment in Spain. (Author)

  17. Comprehensive Characterization of Palygorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Spain) Based on Experimental Techniques and Theoretical DFT Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.

    2013-01-01

    New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)

  18. Comprehensive Characterization of Palygorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Spain) Based on Experimental Techniques and Theoretical DFT Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, A.M.; Timon, V.; Cubero, J. J.; Sanchez-Ledesma, D. M.; Gutierrez-Nebot, L.; Martinez, J. J.; Romero, C.; Labajo, M.; Melon, A.; Barrios, I.

    2013-10-01

    New data about the physico-chemical, microstructural and crystal-chemical properties of the mineral paligorskite from Torrejon el Rubio (Caceres, Spain) were obtained by a combination of experimental techniques (XRD, FRX, FTIR, TG-DSC, SEM and chemical analyses), as well as geometry optimization by means of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). This study demonstrates the applicability of the mixed theoretical-experimental work to characterize and understand the properties of clay minerals used in technological applications and environmental remediation. (Author)

  19. [Heart failure mortality in Spain: is there an andalusian paradox?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Navarro, M; Gómez-Doblas, J; Molero, E; Galván, E de Teresa

    2006-06-01

    Congestive heart failure has a high mortality, as reflected in different clinical trials and observational studies. Spain, as other countries around the Mediterranean basin, have a relatively low rate of coronary deaths, attributed to the so-called Mediterranean lifestyle. Andalusia, in the southern most part of Spain, constitutes the paradigm of Mediterranean lifestyle. However, different reports show that the prevalence of ischemic heart disease is higher in Andalusia than in other zones of Spain. Thus the mortality rate due to heart failure in Spain in the year 2000 per 100,000 inhabitants was 27.3 in men and 28.88 in women and each one of the eight Andalusia provinces had greater rates than the national mean in both men and woman. Even in countries with a relatively low prevalence of coronary heart disease as is the case in Spain, heart failure mortality seems to be parallel to local differences in IHD prevalence.

  20. Radioactive waste communication policy in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, V.

    1993-01-01

    ENRESA (Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A.), is a State-owned company, founded in 1985 and is responsible for radioactive waste management in Spain. ENRESA's activities are developed following a General Radioactive Waste Plan approved by the Spanish Government. As in most countries, Spanish public opinion is concerned with the most activities related to radioactivity or rad-waste management due to different facts but mainly to a lack of information on the matter. This situation provides misuse of information on it by some politicians, green groups and media which increases distrust of public on responsible companies and institutions. To gain public acceptance, it would be necessary to develop long-term information policy, due to the fact that results in communication are reached in the long term. ENRESA is carrying out a Communication Plan (CP) which has been implemented in a continuous way with success around the area of the disposal site of low and intermediate level wastes as well as around an old uranium mill factory in which remedial actions are being implemented. The implantation of CP at a national level is being done stepwise. The more relevant issues related to the radioactive waste situation in Spain, as well as the communication actions are explained in this document

  1. Nuclear power training programmes in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro, A.; Izquierdo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of nuclear power in Spain is developing very rapidly. At present 1.1GW(e) are installed in Spain and this is expected to increase to 8GW(e) in 1980 and to 28GW(e) in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel, which is estimated to become approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: (a) in engineering schools; (b) in the Nuclear Studies Institute; (c) in the electric companies with nuclear programmes. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programmes. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism dependent on the Nuclear Energy Commission and responsible, among other subjects, for training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the training programmes. (author)

  2. [Lessons learned from tobacco control in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Villalbí, Joan R; Córdoba, Rodrigo

    2006-01-01

    The growing involvement in Spain by civil society in the demand for tobacco control policies has been notable. The basis for the creation of the National Committee for Tobacco Prevention was established in 2004. At the end of that year, an intensive intervention was aimed at specifying, in law, the regulatory actions in the National Plan for Tobacco Prevention. This would facilitate a qualitative leap, taking advantage of the legal transposition of the European directive on advertising. With broad political consensus, the Law 28/2005 was established regarding sanitary measures for tobacco and the regulation of the sale, supply and consumption of tobacco products. The objective stated in this law is to prevent the initiation of tobacco consumption, especially among youth, guarantee the right of non-smokers to breathe air free from tobacco smoke and make quitting this habit easier for people who wish to do so. The main issues included are the prohibition of tobacco advertising and the limitation of tobacco consumption in common work areas and enclosed public spaces. The new law has replaced the previous rules in Spain, which were some of the most permissive in the European Union in terms of tobacco sales, advertising limitations and restrictions on smoking locations. It is clear that there is still much to be done. At this time, more social support needs to be generated in favor of the new regulations, and an important effort needs to be made to educate the public.

  3. Nucleoelectric energy training programs in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanarro, A.; Izquierdo, L.

    1977-01-01

    The introduction of nucleoelectric energy in Spain is developing very rapidly. The nuclear power installed in Spain at the present time is 1,1 GWe and it is expected to increase to 8 GWe in 1980 and to 28 GWe in 1990. Spanish industry and technology are also rapidly increasing their participation in building nuclear stations, in manufacturing the necessary components and in the activities related to the nuclear fuel cycle. All of this requires properly trained personnel which is estimated at approximately 1200 high-level technicians, 1100 medium-level technicians and 1500 technical assistants by 1980. This personnel is trained: a) In engineering schools; b) In the Nuclear Studies Institute; and c) In the electric companies with nuclear programs. The majority of the high-level engineering schools in the Country include physics and basic nuclear technology courses in their programs. Some of them have an experimental low-power nuclear reactor. The Nuclear Studies Institute is an official organism depending on the Nuclear Energy Commission responsible, among other subjects, of training personnel for the peaceful use and development of nuclear energy in the Country. The electric companies also participate in training personnel for future nuclear stations and they plan to have advanced simulators of the PWR and BWR type stations for operator training. The report deals with the personnel requirement forecasts and describes the personnel training programs [es

  4. Briquettes of plant remains from the greenhouses of Almeria (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callejon-Ferre, A. J.; Lopez-Martinez, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    Since ancient times, plant biomass has been used as a primary fuel, and today, with the impending depletion of fossil fuels, these vegetal sources constitute a cleaner alternative and furthermore have a multitude of uses. The aim of the present study is to design a method of recycling and reuse of plant wastes from intensive agriculture under plastic, by manufacturing briquettes in an environmentally friendly manner. In Almeria (SE Spain), agriculture generates 769,500 t year{sup -}1 of plant remains from greenhouse-grown horticultural crops, a resource currently used for composting and for producing electricity.With the machinery and procedures of the present study, another potential use has been developed by detoxifying and eliminating the plastic wastes of the original biomass for the fabrication of briquettes for fireplaces. The results were slightly inferior to the commercial briquette from other non-horticultural plant materials (no forestry material), specifically 2512 kJ kg{sup -}1, in the least favourable case. On the contrary, the heating value with respect to the two charcoals was significantly lower, with a difference of 12,142 kJ kg{sup -}1. In conclusion; a procedure, applicable in ecological cultivation without agrochemicals or plastic cords, has been developed and tested to reuse and transform plant materials from intensive cultivation into a stable non-toxic product similar to composite logs, applicable in commercial settings or in residential fireplaces. (Author) 48 refs.

  5. Indução da fermentação maloláctica em vinho tinto com a cultura láctica viniflora oenos Induction of malolactic fermentation in red wine with the starter culture viniflora oenos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Dias de Avila

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A fermentação maloláctica é responsável pela redução da acidez total, muitas vezes elevada em vinhos tintos jovens, ao mesmo tempo que proporciona maior estabilidade biológica e complexidade de aroma e sabor. No Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, a fermentação maloláctica se torna uma necessidade devido a freqüente elevada acidez das uvas, no entanto a indução por inoculação bacteriana não tem sido prática comum. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o comportamento de uma cultura láctica na indução da fermentação maloláctica, em relação as bactérias nativas. Um mosto da Vitis vinífera Cabernet Sauvignon foi vinificado e inoculado com a cultura comercial de Leuconostoc oenos, Viniflora Oenos, em diferentes níveis de açúcar residual: 34,1 - 13,8 - 1,7 e 1,5g/l. As inoculações, com duas repetições, foram comparadas com a fermentação maloláctica espontânea (controle. A degradação do ácido málico foi acompanhada através de cromatografia em papel. Os ácidos orgânicos foram determinados através de cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Foram também analisados os açúcares redutores (AR, °Brix, pH, acidez total e álcool. Os vinhos inoculados no estádio 34,1 g/l AR fermentaram em 14 dias,enquanto os controles levaram em média 28,5 dias. Nos estádios com 13,8 e 1,7g/l AR, Viniflora Oenos completou a degradação do ácido málico em torno de 13 e 11 dias, enquanto os controles levaram 20,5 e 16,5 dias, respectivamente. No estádio 1,5g/l AR, os vinhos inoculados e os controles não demonstraram diferença significativa e fermentaram entre 8 e 10 dias. Viniflora Oenos completou a fermentação maloláctica em menos tempo que o controle, demostrando que a inoculação pode ser realizada antes do término da fermentação alcoólica com bons resultados. Na maioria dos tratamentos, não houve diferença significativa na produção de ácido acético entre a cultura e o controle. O

  6. Development and application of the BOA code in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tortuero Lopez, C.; Doncel Gutierrez, N.; Culebras, F.

    2012-01-01

    The BOA code allows to quantitatively establish the level of risk of Axial Offset Anomaly and increased deposition of crud on the basis of specific conditions in each case. For this reason, the code is parameterized according to the individual characteristics of each plant. This paper summarizes the results obtained in the implementation of the code, as well as its future perspective.

  7. Clinical application of cell, gene and tissue therapies in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Martín, P; Ruiz, A; Clares, B

    2018-05-01

    Scientific and technical advances in the areas of biomedicine and regenerative medicine have enabled the development of new treatments known as "advanced therapies", which encompass cell therapy, genetics and tissue engineering. The biologic products that can be manufactured from these elements are classified from the standpoint of the Spanish Agency of Medication and Health Products in advanced drug therapies, blood products and transplants. This review seeks to provide scientific and administrative information for clinicians on the use of these biologic resources. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  8. [Abortion. Spain: the keys to the controversy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    For many years, illegal abortion has been denounced in Spain. The estimate of 300,000 abortions annually is widely quoted but poorly founded in fact. Weekend "charters" to London and Amsterdam for women seeking abortions have been commented upon, denounced, and caricatured. The evidence indicates that abortions occur in Spain despite their illegality, just as they occur in every other country and have always occurred. Poor women abort in a poor way, with traditional healers, while rich women abort in a rich way, with physicians. "Charters" are the solution of the middle class. Proposed legislation in Spain would permit abortion on 3 grounds: rape, fetal malformation, and risk to the woman's life if the pregnancy continued. Excesses have been committed both by those opposing abortion and by those struggling for liberalization of laws. Defenders of abortion, such as radical feminists, appear to forget that abortion is a medical procedure with possible dangerous psychophysical consequences, and that preventive measures such as sex education and diffusion of contraception or social measures such as assistance for unwed mothers and their children would be preferrable to abortion. There is the question of whether medical personnel should be excused from assisting in abortions on grounds of conscience and whether those who do assist in abortions automatically become "progressive" by doing so. The staunchest defenders of fetal life are not moved to contribute anything beyond words to improvement of the plight of the many millions of already born who live in miserable conditions of hunger and want. Abortion is a violent act against the fetus and the pregnant woman. Its criminalization is a violent act against the woman and a social intrusion into matters better left to personal ethics. The government which proposes abortion on a few grounds fails to initiate a program to promote life through social protection of single mothers and their children or of families in general

  9. Modelling the fine and coarse fraction of heavy metals in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Vivanco, Marta; González, M. Angeles

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metals, such as cadmium, lead, nickel, arsenic, copper, chrome, zinc and selenium, are present in the air due to natural and anthropogenic emissions, normally joined to particles. These metals can affect life organisms via inhalation or ingestion, causing damages in human health and ecosystems. Small particles are inhaled and embebed in lungs and alveolus more easily than coarse particles. The CHIMERE model is a eulerian air quality model extensively used in air quality modelling. Metals have been recently included in this model in a special version developed in the CIEMAT (Madrid, Spain) modelling group. Vivanco et al. (2011) and González et al. (2012) showed the model performance for some metals in Spain and Europe. However, in these studies, metals were considered as fine particles. Some studies based on observed heavy metals air concentration indicate the presence of metals also in the coarse fraction, in special for Cu and Zn. For this reason, a new attempt of modelling metals considering a fine (Arsenic, Lead, Cadmium and Nickel Ambient Air Concentrations in Spain, 2011. Proceedings of the 11 th International Conference on Computational Science and Its Applications (ICCSA 11) 243-246 - González, Ma Vivanco, Marta; Palomino, Inmaculada; Garrido, Juan; Santiago, Manuel; Bessagnet, Bertrand Modelling Some Heavy Metals Air Concentration in Europe. // Water, Air & Soil Pollution;Sep2012, Vol. 223 Issue 8, p5227

  10. Radionuclides transfer into halophytes growing in tidal salt marshes from the Southwest of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, Carlos J.; Vaca, Federico; García-Trapote, Ana; Hierro, Almudena; Bolívar, Juan P.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are sinks of materials and substances which are released directly into them or transported from rivers that drain the basin. It is usual to find high organic matter loads and fine particles in the sediments. We analyzed radionuclide concentrations ("2"1"0Po, "2"3"0Th, "2"3"2Th, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U, "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Th, "2"2"8Ra, "4"0K) in sediments and three different organs (roots, stems and leaves) of three species of halophytes plants (Spartina maritima, Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis). The study was carried out in two tidal salt marshes, one polluted by U-series radionuclides and another nearby that was unpolluted and was used as a control (or reference) area. The Tinto River salt marsh shows high levels of U-series radionuclides coming from mining and industrial discharges. On the contrary, the unperturbed Piedras River salt marsh is located about 25 km from the Tinto marsh, and shows little presence of contaminants and radionuclides. The results of this work have shown that natural radionuclide concentrations (specially the U-isotopes) in the Tinto salt marsh sediments are one order of magnitude higher than those in the Piedras marsh. These radionuclide enhancements are reflected in the different organs of the plants, which have similar concentration increases as the sediments where they have grown. Finally, the transfer factor (TF) of the most polluted radionuclides (U-isotopes and "2"1"0Po) in the Tinto area are one order of magnitude higher than in the Piedras area, indicating that the fraction of each radionuclide in the sediment originating from the pollution is more available for the plants than the indigenous fraction. This means that the plants of the salt marshes are unhelpful as bioindicators or for the phytoremediation of radionuclides. - Highlights: • Radionuclides were analyzed in sediments and plants in unpolluted salt marshes. • Plants uptake radionuclides in all organs in both salt marshes. • The transfer factors

  11. Spain and Portugal facing Euratom. Some considerations in the access of Spain and Portugal to Euratom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corretjer, L.; Lopez Rodriguez, M.

    1985-01-01

    The access of Spain and Portugal to the European Community of Atomic Energy (EURATOM) will give rise to significative consequences and it is a subject which must be thoroughly considered as to its implications regarding the present state of nuclear development in both countries and with regard to their reciprocal relations in nuclear energy matters. To determine such consequences and implications it is necessary, first of all, to analyze what EURATOM is and how it acts, in addition to consider the situation of each of its Member States as to the utilization of nuclear energy. As well, it is necessary to explain the evolution and the present situation of nuclear development in Spain and in Portugal and their mutual relations in this field. In pursuit of such analysis we may determine the possible consequences of their access; this is made bearing in mind each of the aspects in which EURATOM acts, according to the Treaty and the ''acquis communitaire'', and dividing them into common consequences and individual ones for both countries. The whole exposition, which was studied and carried out from an exclusively technical point of view, has a result the deduction of the joint possibilities offered to Spain and Portugal to make use of EURATOM's availabilities and of the joint actions which both countries may achieve to benefit as much as possible from their access to EURATOM. (author)

  12. Micronutrient recommendations and policies in Spain: the cases of iodine, folic acid and vitamin D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito Garcia, N; Serra Majem, L

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: As part of the work carried out within the EURopean micronutrient RECommendations Aligned (EURRECA) Network of Excellence in Spain, we conducted a series of semi-structured interviews with decision makers and relevant scientific institutions in the field of nutrition and public health. The information gathered was collated with national relevant official and unofficial documents and subsequently analysed. To describe the current situation about nutrition policy in Spain, with special focus on the process of setting micronutrient recommendations and the development of subsequent policies. 3 cases will be detailed: iodine, folic acid and vitamin D. Information from 9 interviews was contrasted with the available official and unofficial documents on micronutrients recommendations setting and subsequent policy applications to help the population to achieve their requirements. Common topics and themes were identified in the interviews and desk research. They describe a heterogenic picture of isolated initiatives and timid measures regarding micronutrients recommendations and subsequent policy instruments. Several recommendations coexist but none of them is the result of an official request by the government or competent authority. Iodine, folic acid and vitamin D represent the past, the present and the future of public health policy measures on micronutrients in Spain. Despite of some examples, there exist a need for action. Current nutrition strategies are focused on obesity, with little room for micronutrients national measures despite of the opinion of many experts. Regardless of the several nutrients recommendations coexisting nowadays in Spain, there exist the need for a coordinated action in the field of micronutrients recommendations, fostered by the health and nutrition official authorities with financial support and clear terms of reference.

  13. Saint Benedict of Palermo in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard VINCENT

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the devotions to the black Saints, the one of which Benedict of Palermo was the object in Spain in the 17th and 18th centuries was the most remarkable. Born near Palermo to African slaves, this lay brother of a Sicilian franciscan convent, died in the odor of sanctity in 1589. His immediate popularity, encouraged both by the Church and by the Hispanic monarchy, was considerable within the communities of slaves and free blacks. Benedict was beatified in 1743, event which was followed by numerous celebrations and his eventual canonization in 1807. The fervour which surrounded him fade gradually because of the competition represented by the devotion to other black saints and by the very visible decline of slavery. However, thanks to the efforts of the franciscan order, the worship of Saint Benoît of Palermo continued until our days, particularly in Galicia.

  14. Spain's greatest and most recent mine disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Flor Ma; Lozano, Macarena; Rueda-Cantuche, José M

    2008-03-01

    On 25 April 1998, the mineral waste retaining wall at the Swedish-owned pyrite mine at Aznalcóllar (Seville, Spain) burst, causing the most harmful environmental and socio-economic disaster in the history of the River Guadiamar basin. The damage was so great that the regional government decided in May 1998 to finance a comprehensive, multidisciplinary research initiative with the objective of eradicating or at least minimising all of the negative social, economic and environmental impacts. This paper utilises a Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis to identify eight strategic measures aimed at providing policymakers with key guidelines on implementing a sustainable development model, in a broad sense. Empirical evidence, though, reveals that, to date, major efforts to tackle the negative impacts have centred on environmental concerns and that the socio-economic consequences have not been completely mitigated.

  15. [Imported dengue: an emerging arbovirosis in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Geldres, T T; García López-Hortelano, M; Baquero-Artigao, F; Montero Vega, D; López Quintana, B; Mellado Peña, M J

    2015-01-01

    Dengue is caused by one of 4 serotypes of dengue virus. Only imported cases have been reported in Spain. The main clinical findings are fever and exanthema, although there may be severe forms, particularly in secondary infections. Five children with a primary, non severe dengue infection are presented. The diagnosis was based on clinical suspicion and epidemiological history, and confirmed by immunochromatography and ELISA tests. The outcome was favourable in all cases. It is important to consider this diagnosis in international travellers that present with fever within the 14 days of returning from an endemic area, in order to get an early diagnosis, adequate treatment and a good prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. The problems of asbestosis in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segarra, F

    1979-04-01

    About 50 cases of asbestosis have been descirbed in Spain from 1948 through 1974. Since 1975 the Instituto Territorial de Barcelona, Servicio Social de Higiene y Seguridad del Trabajo, has initiated a survey of all the industries with an asbestosis risk in the Barcelona area. Nearly 300 cases of asbestosis have been detected to date. Given the poor hygienic conditions of most of the industries, with an asbestosis risk, and the considerably large number of exposed people, it can easily be predicted that a rapid increase of the incidence of the disease in the years to come will occur. Most of the observed cases in Barcelona were from two fibrocement industries. Of a total of 1003 workers examined, 247 (about 25%) had asbestosis.

  17. Media Speech about Youth in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Alcoceba

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze the media treatment of young people in Spain. Besides, we offer some tools to help media editors and journalists to be more impartial in information about youth. The research held a media content analysis (three months in 2006, for newspapers, radio and TV and a qualitative speech analysis (for a reduce number of news in newspapers, radio and TV. From first analysis, we noticed that most news about youth are related with difficult, problematic and controversial circumstances. The main recommendation of this study is for the responsible of media: to understand young people in diversity, with functions and capabilities to change social life.

  18. Retrofit of radwaste solidification systems in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rorcillo, R.; Virzi, E.

    1983-01-01

    In order to meet current Spanish engineering criteria as well as to provide for likely future Spanish Regulatory requirements, utilities committed to a major policy change in the preferred radwaste solidification media. In the early 1970's Spanish utilities, following the United States experience, purchased inexpensive solidification systems which used urea formaldehyde (UF) as the binding matrix. By the late 1970's the Spanish utilities, seeing the deterioration of the UF position and slow progress toward its improvement, unilaterally changed their binding matrix to cement. This paper illustrates the implementation of this change at the ASCO Nuclear Plant. The problems of layout modifications, shortened delivery schedule and criteria unique for Spain are addressed. Also presented is the operating experience acquired during the pre-operational start-up of the ASCO I Radwaste System

  19. Radon in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martín Sánchez, A.; Torre Pérez, J. de la; Ruano Sánchez, A.B.; Naranjo Correa, F.L.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements are usually associated with housing. However, a typical person spends about one-third of the day at their workplace. A survey was made of radon levels in workplaces in Extremadura (Spain). More than 200 measurements were performed in some 130 firms and organizations of different sectors (urban wellness centres, spas, caves, mines, water management facilities, underground carparks, wine cellars, museums, etc.). Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. The results indicated the importance of performing this type of measurement because the exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. - Highlights: ► More than 200 measurements were performed in about 130 working places. ► Activated charcoal canisters and track detectors were used for sampling. ► The exposure of workers can reach high values in some cases. ► Geological characteristics of the soil influence the indoor radon levels.

  20. North Spain (Burgos wild mammals ectoparasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez G.

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-seven species of arthropods were collected from 105 wild mammals, six wolves Canis lupus (Linnaeus, 1758 included. A total of 87 animals (82,8 % harboured some ectoparasites. Ticks were found in 60 % of the samples, fleas in 51.4 %, chewing-lice in 3.8 %, and others (Mesostigmata and hippoboscids in 3.8 %. Moreover, 42.5 % were single infestation and 57.5 % mixed. Some of the species were new records for a host in spanish country such as Trichodectes canis (De Géer, 1778, Ixodes trianguliceps (Birula, 1895, Ceralophyllus (Monopsyllus S. sciurorum (Schrank, 1803 and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856 on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925 and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835.

  1. [Emergency Medical Technician profile in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Isasi, Santiago; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, María José; Vázquez-Santamariña, David; Abella-Lorenzo, Javier; Castro Dios, Diana Josefa; Fernández García, Daniel

    2017-12-11

    The emergency medical technician plays a fundamental role and is the most important figure quantitatively in pre-hospital emergencies. The aim was to asses the socio-demographic, work-related, health characteristics and technical skills of an Emergency Medical Technician in Spain. Cross-sectional descriptive study. An ad hoc questionnaire was managed using Google Docs® that was delivered between April-June 2014 via email and social networks. A total of 705 questionnaires were collected. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS ® 20.0 Windows version. A significance level p≤0.05 was used for all analyzes. The data analyzed show that the profile of the Emergency Medical Technician in Spain is an 39 year-old man, married or living as a couple and has a child. The average BMI is 27 kg/m2, does regular exercise, does not smoke. His seniority in the company is 10 years and has the Medium Cycle of Emergency Medical Technician. The analysis for gender shows that men have an average of 40, an average BMI of 27, 5 kg/m2 and work in an advanced life support unit; while women have an average of 36,5 years, an average BMI of 24,7 kg/m2, mainly work in Basic Life Support Unit and her seniority in the company is 6,76 years. Emergency Medical Technician profile is a overweight men, who refer to practise regular exercise, his seniority in the company is 10 years and is in possession of CMTES; differences were observed according to gender in BMI, resource where they perform their work, seniority and age.

  2. [Epidemiology of cerebrovascular disease in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brea, Angel; Laclaustra, Martín; Martorell, Esperanza; Pedragosa, Angels

    2013-01-01

    In Spain, cerebrovascular disease (CVD) is a very common cause of morbidity and hospitalization. They are the second leading cause of mortality in the general population, and the first in women. They also constitute a very high social spending, which is estimated to increase in coming years, due to the aging of our population. Data from the Hospital Morbidity Survey of the National Statistics Institute recorded, in 2011, 116,017 strokes and 14,933 transient ischemic attacks, corresponding, respectively, to an incidence of 252 and 32 events per 100,000 people. In 2002, the cost of hospitalization for each stroke was estimated at €3,047. The amount of total cost health care throughout the life of a stroke patient is calculated at €43,129. Internationally, the direct costs of stroke constitute 3% of national health spending, this being similar amount in different countries around us. Hypertension was the cardiovascular risk factor (CVRF) more prevalent in both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes, followed by dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. Peripheral arterial disease and hypertension were more frequently associated with atherothrombotic events, atrial fibrillation with cardioembolic strokes, and obesity and high blood pressure to lacunar infarcts. In Spain, as showing several studies, we are far from optimal control of CVRF, especially in secondary prevention of stroke. According to the ICTUSCARE study, achieving recommended values was 17.6% in the case of hypertension, 29.8% in LDL-cholesterol, 74.9% of smoking, and 50.2% in diabetes mellitus. In this review, we analyze in detail the epidemiology, prevention and costs originated by CVD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. y SEA. All rights reserved.

  3. [Gender inequalities in occupational health in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Serna, Javier; Ronda-Pérez, Elena; Artazcoz, Lucía; Benavides, Fernando G

    2012-01-01

    To analyze gender inequalities in employment and working conditions, the work-life balance, and work-related health problems in a sample of the employed population in Spain in 2007, taking into account social class and the economic sector. Gender inequalities were analyzed by applying 25 indicators to the 11,054 workers interviewed for the VI edition of the National Working Conditions Survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), stratifying by occupational social class and economic sector. More women than men worked without a contract (OR=1.83; 95% CI: 1.51-2.21) and under high-effort/low-reward conditions (1.14:1.05-1.25). Women also experienced more sexual harassment (2.85:1.75-4.62), discrimination (1.60:1.26-2.03) and musculoskeletal pain (1.38:1.19-1.59). More men than women carried out shift work (0.86:0.79-0.94), with high noise levels (0.34:0.30-0.40), and high physical demands (0.58:0.54-0.63). Men also suffered more injuries due to occupational accidents (0.67:0.59-0.76). Women white-collar-workers were more likely than their male counterparts to have a temporary contract (1.34:1.09-1.63), be exposed to psychosocial hazards and discrimination (2.47:1.49-4.09) and have occupational diseases (1.91:1.28-2.83). Gender inequalities were higher in the industry sector. There are substantial gender inequalities in employment, working conditions, and work-related health problems in Spain. These gender inequalities are influenced by social class and the economic sector, and should be considered in the design of public policies in occupational health. Copyright © 2011 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Q and A. The future of nuclear energy in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraev, Kamen [NucNet, The Independent Global Nuclear News Agency, Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    Nuclear is the primary source of electricity in Spain. Wind is second. In the first quarter of 2017 nuclear's contribution was 25 %, but by the end of the year it will even out to more or less the same level of 2016. Nuclear is still very important for Spain's energy mix. The question is, what will happen with nuclear in the near future? NucNet spoke to Ignacio Araluce, president of Spanish industry group Foro Nuclear, about energy policy, plant shut-downs and how Spain's nuclear industry is successfully diversifying overseas.

  5. Links between the Philippines and Spain: migration and bilateral relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelia Pe-Pua

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the implications which Spanish policy regarding foreign workers has on the living and working conditions of the Filipino community in Spain. The author pays special attention to bilateral relations between the Philippines and Spain in issues suchas Spanish investment in the Philippines, the trade balance between the two countries and labour relations. In conclusion the article considers the necessity of reaching a bilateral labour agreement which would be beneficial to both countries and which at the same time would improve the working conditions and the integration of Philippine nationals living in Spain.

  6. Aquecimento de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias não afeta a capacidade antioxidante e o teor de fenóis totais Heating of red wine and grape juice in food preparations does not affect their antioxidant capacity and total phenol content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanine Schütz Cardoso Teófilo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a capacidade antioxidante e a concentração dos compostos fenólicos de vinho tinto e suco de uva utilizados em preparações culinárias, quando submetidos ao processo de fervura. Métodos: A avaliação ocorreu após diferentes períodos de aquecimento (100°C em dois sistemas: i panela de alumínio e chama de fogão e ii balão de vidro e manta térmica. Amostras comerciais de vinho tinto (n=4 e suco de uva integral (n=4 foram submetidas à fervura por 10, 20 e 60 minutos. Antes e após cada período de fervura, a capacidade antioxidante total foi avaliada pela medida do potencial redutor férrico, e o teor de fenóis totais foi quantificado pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau. As diferenças foram comparadas pela análise de variância para medidas repetidas (pObjective: This study evaluated the antioxidant capacity and concentration of phenolic compounds in red wine and grape juice used in culinary preparations subjected to boiling. Methods: The assessments were done after different boiling times (100°C using two systems: i aluminum pot and stove flame and ii volumetric flask and heating mantle. Samples of red wine (n=4 and grape juice (n=4 were subjected to boiling for 10, 20 and 60 minutes. Before and after each boiling period, the total antioxidant capacity was evaluated by the ferric reducing antioxidant power assay and the total phenol content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Differences were compared by repeated measures analysis of variance (RM-ANOVA (p<0.05. Results: The different boiling times did not cause significant changes in the total antioxidant capacity or total phenol content of the beverages, regardless of boiling method. Conclusion: The results show that the antioxidant properties of red wine and grape juice did not change significantly after boiling for 60 minutes.

  7. A method for livestock waste management planning in NE Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teira-Esmatges, M.R.; Flotats, X.

    2003-01-01

    A method of decision-making on livestock wastes management in areas with nutrient surplus due to high livestock density is applied in Catalonia (NE Spain). Nutrient balance is made considering soil nitrogen application as the limiting factor. Special attention is paid to the centralized treatment option. The method presented consists of: - minimizing livestock waste generation (at farm scale) as a step previous to any other, both in amount and limiting components,; - applying the nitrogen balance method at regional and municipal scale and providing enough storage capacity in order to apply wastes in an agronomically correct way,; - spatially refining the results of the nitrogen balance by a proposed method that allows precisely pinpointing the hotspots of livestock waste generation, where centralized treatment might be an interesting option, and; - deciding on the waste treatment objectives, provided that treatments be necessary. Knowledge about the wastes, meeting the interests and merging the efforts of the various actors, as well as an adequate budget are necessary ingredients for the success of any waste management plan

  8. State of the art of the energy policy in spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafuente Felez, A.

    1995-01-01

    After the slow application during the first years of the National Energy Plan (1991-2000), a sharp increase on the final energy demand has been noticed during 1994 in Spain and forecasts are still higher for year 95. In the electricity sector, the available power by means of auto production is growing, while in the legal framework, the Act on Ruling of the National Electricity System will let to adjust unexpected deviations between real and foreseen consumption in a flexible way and respecting free concurrence. In coal sector, a new system of aids is being implemented. This system is fully dependent from electricity ruling, more compatible with regards to European norms and quite transparent. In oil sector, liberalization is reaching good results in terms of concurrence and service. In gas sector, it is remarkable the expansion of this sector in the energy balance. This fact requires both security supply and better distribution, that are the two goals aimed by the new design of the national gas pipelines network. For all sectors, the principal axes of advanced action are: technology development, environment and energy saving. (Author)

  9. Hydrochemistry and radioactivity in the rivers of Biscay (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, F.; Herranz, M.; Elejalde, C.; Legarda, F.

    1995-01-01

    For a research project on the evaluations of radioactive constituents in ecological segments of Biscay (Spain), nuclides in water of the main rivers and hydrochemical parameters (pH, conductivity, temperature, percentage of saturation in oxygen and chemical components) were measured. Radioactive data obtained after statistical treatment at 95% confidence level, were as follows; i) Total alpha and beta idexes with a gas flow detector on dry residues not greater than 2 and 10 mg/cm''2, respectively and ii) gamma emitters with a low level spectrometer (Ge-HP detector + 8000 channels analyser) on the dry residue of more than 8 litres and a counting period of 4 days. This paper include 28 samples from the following rivers: Nervion (10), Ibaizabal (5), Cadagua (8), Barbadun, Butron, Oca, Lea and Artibay. On the basis of average values, studied rivers are characterized as follows: Nervion (important amount of Cs. 137 and the greatest beta index), Ibaizabal (high K.40 contents), Cadagua (the biggest alpha index ) and low radionuclides concentrations in the other rivers. Finally, the application of multivariate statistical techniques, mainly cluster analysis, is tried to find out relations between chemical and radioactive constituents. (Author)

  10. [Conflicts between nursing ethics and health care legislation in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea-Sánchez, Montserrat; Terés-Vidal, Lourdes; Briones-Vozmediano, Erica; Molina, Fidel; Gastaldo, Denise; Otero-García, Laura

    2016-01-01

    To identify the ethical conflicts that may arise between the nursing codes of ethics and the Royal Decree-law 16/2012 modifying Spanish health regulations. We conducted a review and critical analysis of the discourse of five nursing codes of ethics from Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe and International, and of the discourse of the Spanish legislation in force in 2013. Language structures referring to five different concepts of the theoretical framework of care were identified in the texts: equity, human rights, right to healthcare, access to care, and continuity of care. Codes of ethics define the function of nursing according to equity, acknowledgement of human rights, right to healthcare, access to care and continuity of care, while legal discourse hinges on the concept of beneficiary or being insured. The divergence between the code of ethics and the legal discourse may produce ethical conflicts that negatively affect nursing practice. The application of RDL 16/2012 promotes a framework of action that prevents nursing professionals from providing care to uninsured collectives, which violates human rights and the principles of care ethics. Copyright © 2016 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of Anglo-American theoretical models on the evolution of the nursing discipline in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Olga; Caïs, Jordi; Monforte-Royo, Cristina

    2017-07-01

    In Spain, the introduction of the new Diploma in Nursing in 1977 saw the role of nurses shifting from that of medical assistants with technical skills to being independent members of the healthcare team with specific responsibility for providing professional nursing care. Here, we analyse the evolution of the nursing profession in Spain following the transfer of nurse education to universities, doing so through interviews with the first generation of academic tutors. This was a qualitative study using the method of analytic induction and based on the principles of grounded theory. Participants were selected by means of theoretical sampling and then underwent in-depth interviews. Steps were taken to ensure the credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability of data. The main conclusion of the analysis is that there is a gap between a theoretical framework borrowed from the Anglo-American context and a nursing practice that, in Spain, has traditionally prioritised the application of technical procedures, a role akin to that of a medical assistant. It is argued that a key factor underlying the way in which nursing in Spain has evolved in recent decades is the lack of conceptual clarity regarding what the role of the professional nurse might actually entail in practice. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Bargaining for Social Rights (BARSORI) project: Country report on Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos Martin, N.E.

    2012-01-01

    The Barsori project studied social partners' initiatives contributing to the reduction of precarious employment through collective bargaining and social dialogue. The project compared experiences in seven EU countries: Denmark, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Slovakia, Spain and the UK. Trade

  13. Different Patterns in Health Care Use Among Immigrants in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarroel, Nazmy; Artazcoz, Lucía

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyze the differences in the use of primary care (PC), hospital, and emergency services between people born in Spain and immigrants. Data were obtained from the 2006 Spanish National Health Survey. The sample was composed of individuals aged 16-64 years from Spain and the seven countries with most immigrants in Spain (n = 22,224). Hierarchical multiple logistic regression models were fitted. Romanian men were less likely to use health care at all levels compared to men from other countries. Women from Argentina, Bolivia and Ecuador reported a lower use of PC. Among women, there were no differences in emergency visits or hospitalizations between countries. Bolivian men reported more hospitalizations than Spanish men, whereas Argentinean men reported more emergency visits than their Spanish counterparts. In Spain, most immigrants made less than, or about the same use of health care services as the native Spanish population.

  14. State of the art of reservoir sedimentation management in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Avendaño Salas, Cándido; Sanz Montero, Esther; Cobo Rayán, Rafael

    2000-01-01

    Part of the total reservoir storage capacity in Spain (56 km3) is lost due to sedimentation processes taking place. Surveys carried out in 121 reservoirs indicate that 6% of them have undergone a capacity reduction of over 50%. However, most of them (81%) are characterised by a reservoir capacity loss below 20%. The most frequent methods used to control reservoir sedimentation in Spain fall into one of the following groups: reduction of sediment yield through basin management and removal of t...

  15. Macroeconomic impact of the Solar Thermal Electricity Industry in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-10-15

    In the last three years, Solar Thermal Electricity (STE) in Spain has grown significantly. Its weight within the renewables mix is becoming relevant, and even more so, its impact on economics, society, the environment, and reducing energy dependence. This report was carried out by Deloitte for Protermosolar to quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the main macroeconomic variables derived from the development of this technology in Spain from 2008 to 2010, and forecast its possible future impact.

  16. Immigration and labor productivity: New empirical evidence for Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper of this paper is to explore the immigration and productivity in Spain. We estimate the effect of immigration on labor productivity from 2004 until 2008 for Spain. Using firms (SABI) and individuals data (Social Security Records) we calculate the effect by sector and municipality for the two big Spanish provinces that have received most immigrants in the last decade: Barcelona and Madrid. After controlling for endogeneity of immigration, the results demonstrate that i...

  17. The Sixteenth Nation: Spain’s Role in NATO,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Clerks Pat Williams (Lead Clerk) Dorothy M. Mack Laura W. Hall Carol A. Valentine Editorial Board Advisers Rear Admiral S. A. Swarztrauber, USN, Inter...industrial defense potential is in J. Sanchez Mendez , "Spain and its Defense Organization, Part 2: The Defense Industry," International Defense Review 13...discussion of Spanish military capabilities, see J. Sanchez Mendez , "Spain and its Defense Organization, Part 1: The Armed Forces," International Defense

  18. Information transfer in the agricultural sector in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Canavate, Antonio; Hipola, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the structures of information transfer to the agricultural (production) and agro-alimentary (transformation and commercialization of the products) sector within Spain. A historical perspective is provided to better illustrate the reality and complexity of Spain with regard to the systems of agrarian extension, agricultural research, resources provided by Spain’s central administration, and the use of information by related enterprises. The Service of Agrarian Extens...

  19. Analysis of the economic impact of environmental biosafety works projects in healthcare centres in extremadura (spain)

    OpenAIRE

    García Sanz-Calcedo, Justo; Monzón-González, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the results obtained in the methodological application of techniques aimed at the maintenance of environmental biosafety in works of reform and expansion of healthcare centres in Extremadura, Spain during 2004-2010, assessing the costs of its implementation and contrasting if the use of a BSA project in phase of works affects the probability of nosocomial infection and the conditions of health and safety. The average investment accounted for a cost of 5.5 €...

  20. 36 Annual Meeting of Spanish Nuclear Society, Oct. 6-9 2010 Santiago de Compostela, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish Nuclear Society (SNE) is a non-profit association, made up of professionals and institutions in order to promote awareness and dissemination of science and nuclear technology. The 36th meeting of the SNE was held in Santiago de Compostela between 6 and 8 October 2010. Participants discussed the situation of nuclear energy and its challenges, the development of electric cars and their distributional implications, and the study of nuclear advertising on other countries and their potential application to the case of Spain.

  1. [Criminologic problems of political change in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, A S

    1981-01-01

    In this article the Author considers the modern-day and historical situation as regards the administration of justice in Spain, pausing to make a particularly careful analysis of those crimes whose rate of increase, over the past few years, has been the greatest. He runs back over the various stages of Spain's recent history: from the period preceding Franco's regime, during which a multiplicity of criminological theories were developed by Spanish authors, leading to the creation of a school of jurisprudence, in which theory and practice tended toward seeking a balance between freedom and security; through the period of the dictatorship, in which there was a tightening-up of the preceding trend, with a definite predisposition towards security, whether within the State or external to it (to be noted--the Author observes--is that this security in reality is not a guarantee of the lives and liberties of the citizens, but rather only a safeguarding of the State from attacks on its supremacy and power); to the successive period of the democracy, which came about without cruel and revolutionary upsets, but nonetheless has felt for many years the effects of the preceding political climate; criminality is increasing considerably, but the administration of justice is not able to soundly and accurately evaluate it, it having functioned at only 45% efficiency--or so says the Author--up until 1978: the imbalances in the society that can be seen in its passage through the various political regimes are, therefore, present too in the field of criminality; this, in fact, is apparently decreasing (since crimes against the external and internal security of the State are decreasing, as the number of convictions are decreasing); but in reality this criminality is undergoing a strong evolutionary movement, due more than anything else to the fact that the tendency is to give priority to liberty, and no longer to security, as is true in fact of every democratic regime. Even in 1978, when

  2. Chemical composition of spoil from bituminous coal and anthracite in Spain. Composicion quimica de los esteriles de hulla y antracita de Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Canibano, J; Fernandez Valcarce, A

    1991-05-01

    The article describes the chemical composition of spoil from bituminous coal and anthracite in Spain. Chemical composition, mineralogical properties and physical and mechanical characteristics are used to determine the most suitable application for the spoil in order to solve the problem of disposal. 20 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. The Text of the Safeguards Transfer Agreement relating to the Bilateral Agreement between Spain and the United States of America. Protocol of Suspension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The text of the Protocol suspending the application of safeguards pursuant to the Safeguards Transfer Agreement of 9 December 1966, as amended, between the Agency, Spain and the United States of America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members [es

  4. [Mortality cost of smoking in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobacho Tornel, Ma Belén; López Nicolás, Angel; Ramos Parreño, José María

    2010-01-01

    Public policies are crucial for smoking prevention and improving health among the population. Despite the positive impact in Spain of the law for smoking prevention in 2006, there is room for further improvement in this area of public policy. The estimate of the mortality cost per pack of cigarretes is a crucial factor in cost-benefit analysis for policies aimed to reducing smoking induced mortality. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we estimate the Value of Statistical Life (VSL) among Spanish smokers. Secondly, we quantify the mortality cost of smoking. We use a hedonic wage model to quantify the marginal value of an increase in the mortality risk in monetary terms. We estimate the model for the Spanish labour market using the European Community Household Data and the Encuesta de Accidentes de Trabajo from the Ministerio de Trabajo e Inmigración. We estimate a VSL of 3.78 million Euros for Spanish smokers. Using this value, in conjunction with the increase in the mortality risk over the life cycle due to smoking, the private mortality cost of smoking is 78 Euros per pack for men, and 54 Euros per pack for women (in 2000 Euros). The mortality cost per pack of cigarettes is highly above its market price.

  5. Suicide, unemployment, and economic recession in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-García, Celso; Sáiz, Pilar A; Burón, Patricia; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Jiménez-Treviño, Luis; Fernández-Artamendi, Sergio; Al-Halabí, Susana; Corcoran, Paul; García-Portilla, M Paz; Bobes, Julio

    The aim of the present work is to determine the association between unemployment and suicide, and to investigate whether this association is affected by changes in the economic cycle or other variables such as age and sex. A time-trend analysis was conducted to study changes in the number of suicides between 1999 and 2013 in Spain. Pearson's correlation coefficients and regression models were used to find the association between unemployment and suicide. A significant positive association was found between unemployment and suicide in the pre-crisis period in men. In that period (1999-2007), each 1% annual increase in unemployment was associated with a 6.90% increase in the annual variation of suicide in the total population, and with a 9.04% increase in the annual variation of suicide in working age men. The correlation between unemployment and suicide is significant in periods of economic stability, but has weakened during the recent financial crisis. Unemployment and suicide have a complex relationship modulated by age, sex and economic cycle. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. Occupation and gastric cancer in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C A; Sanz, M; Marcos, G; Pita, S; Brullet, E; Vida, F; Agudo, A; Hsieh, C C

    1991-08-01

    The association between occupational exposure and stomach cancer was investigated in a multicenter case-referent study conducted in Spain on 354 histologically confirmed cases and 354 hospital referents, matched by age, gender, and residence. An increased risk of gastric cancer was found for coal mining workers [odds ratio (OR) 11.8], but the number of workers was small, and therefore the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was wide (95% CI 1.36-103). An increased risk was observed for wood and furniture workers (OR 1.76), construction workers (OR 1.68), and glass and ceramic workers (OR 2.18), but none of these risks were statistically significant. According to an occupation-exposure linkage system an increased risk was found for occupations associated with exposure to silica and mineral dust (OR 1.80, 95% CI 0.90-3.59). All of the OR estimates were adjusted for the confounding factors socioprofessional status and dietary habits. The possibility of a causal association between stomach cancer and coal and mineral dust is supported by the results.

  7. [25 years of laparoscopic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Sanz, Carlos; Tenías-Burillo, Jose María; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Balague-Ponz, Carmen; Díaz-Luis, Hermógenes; Enriquez-Valens, Pablo; Manuel-Palazuelos, Juan Carlos; Martínez-Cortijo, Sagrario; Olsina-Kissler, Jorge; Socas-Macias, María; Toledano-Trincado, Miguel; Vidal-Pérez, Oscar; Noguera-Aguilar, Juan Francisco; Salvador-Sanchís, José Luis; Feliu-Pala, Xavier; Targarona-Soler, Eduard M

    2014-04-01

    The introduction of laparoscopic surgery (LS) can be considered the most important advancement in our specialty in the past 25 years. Despite its advantages, implementation and consolidation has not been homogenous, especially for advanced techniques. The aim of this study was to analyse the level of development and use of laparoscopic surgery in Spain at the present time and its evolution in recent years. During the second half of 2012 a survey was developed to evaluate different aspects of the implementation and development of LS in our country. The survey was performed using an electronic questionnaire. The global response rate was 16% and 103 heads of Department answered the survey. A total of 92% worked in the public system. A total of 99% perform basic laparoscopic surgery and 85,2% advanced LS. Most of the responders (79%) consider that the instruments they have available for LS are adequate and 71% consider that LS is in the right stage of development in their environment. Basic laparoscopic surgery has developed in our country to be considered the standard performed by most surgeons, and forms part of the basic surgical training of residents. With regards to advanced LS, although it is frequently used, there are still remaining areas of deficit, and therefore, opportunities for improvement. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Low and intermediate waste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuloaga, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this facility is the final disposal of all L and ILW produced in Spain, mainly in the operating Nuclear Power Reactors, in the Nuclear Power Plant under decommissioning by ENRESA, a fuel fabrication plant and institutional producers, as well as those arising from incidents outside the nuclear industry. The disposal concept consists of so called disposal units, mainly durable concrete overpacks, placed in concrete vaults. A drain control system exists in inspection galleries constructed beneath the disposal vaults. These vaults are protected from the weather during their operation and sealing by a metallic shelter, which also supports the handling crane. The facility also include: A treatment and conditioning shop, which includes incineration, institutional wastes segregation and conditioning, drum transfer into overpacks, supercompaction, liquid waste collection, and grout preparation and injection. A waste form characterisation laboratory with means for non-destructive radiological characterisation and for destructive test on the waste forms(specimens extractions, unskinning of the drums, mechanical strength, leaching test on specimens and full size packages) to supports the waste acceptance procedures and the verification of the overall quality of the packages. A fabrication shop for overpacks construction. Auxiliary systems and buildings in support of operation, maintenance and surveillance of the facility. The paper deals with the design, the operating experience of the facility, the waste packages characterisation and acceptance practises and the reception of the wastes from the generating facilities. (author)

  9. Decommissioning and radwaste management in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colino, A.

    2004-01-01

    The management of radioactive wastes in Spain is undertaken by 'Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radioactivos, S.A.' (ENRESA), the Spanish national radioactive waste company, constituted in 1984. ENRESA operates as a management company, whose role is to develop radioactive waste management programs in accordance with the policy and strategy approved by the Spanish government. Its responsibilities include the decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear installations. ENRESA is a state company whose shareholders are CIEMAT (Centre for Energy-Related, Environmental and Technological Research), previously known as the 'Junta de Energia Nuclear' (Nuclear Energy Council) and SEPI (State Industrial Holding Company). Both of them are governmental institutions with an eighty and twenty percent of the company respectively. In 1980 the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) was constituted as the sole competent organisation in the field of nuclear safety and radiological protection, and in general is responsible for regulating and supervising nuclear installations. This organisation, governed by a legal statute, is independent from the administration and reports directly to parliament. (author)

  10. Environmental impact of household activity in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Choliz, Julio; Duarte, Rosa; Mainar, Alfredo [Department of Economic Analysis University of Zaragoza Gran Via 2, 50005, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2007-04-20

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the environmental impacts of the Spanish economy by way of water and atmospheric pollution on the basis of a Spanish Accounting Matrix for 1999. Only households were taken as an exogenous account. The pollution measures are estimated for seven categories of pollution: three atmospheric pollutants (CO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}) and four indicators for water (waste water, nitrogen, metals and biological oxygen demand (BOD)). The environmental data base was obtained from the Spanish Statistical Institute. The analysis reveals that pollution in Spain is closely linked to food production, energy, extractive industries and paper manufacturing. We show that services, taken as a whole, are major polluters, though this is due to the volume of household expenditure they represent rather than their pollution potential as such. We also show that the Spanish economy avoids a great deal of pollution by importing inputs, which pollute where they are produced. Finally, the study also provides per capita pollution values for the aforementioned seven pollutants. (author)

  11. [Social perception of biomedicine in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Sedeño, Eulalia; Miranda Suárez, María José

    2008-12-01

    There is increasing concern that studies of public understanding of science, especially biomedicine, should be expected to bring shared frameworks to European and national policies. The present article aims to provide a critical overview of the most recent studies of public understanding of biomedicine in Spain. Specifically, this essay reviews the similarities and differences in the latest European and Spanish surveys. Throughout this article we compare the Third National Survey of Social Perception of Science and Technology produced by the Spanish National Science and Technology Foundation, focusing on issues related to biomedicine, and the Medical and Health Research. A special Eurobarometer Public Survey published by the European Commission. The two surveys were compared attending to the three main common items of science, technology and biomedicine: the level of interest, the level of information and political attitudes. Some discrepancies in the results of the two studies, such as public interest in these subjects, may partly be due to the different methodologies used in the survey designs. Further national studies exploring public understanding of science, technology and biomedicine at the national level, as well as the use of European standards, would be of great help in other cross-national studies and policies. Improving qualitative studies would also be useful to strengthen relations among science, technology and society.

  12. Spain's magic mountain: narrating prehistory at Atapuerca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochadel, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The Sierra de Atapuerca in northern Spain is ranked among the most important excavation sites in human origins research worldwide. The project boasts not only spectacular hominid fossils, among them the 'oldest European', but also a fully fledged 'popularization industry'. This article interprets this multimedia industry as a generator of different narratives about the researchers as well as about the prehistoric hominids of Atapuerca. It focuses on the popular works of the three co-directors of the project. Juan Luis Arsuaga, José María Bermúdez de Castro and Eudald Carbonell make deliberate use of a variety of narrative devices, resonant cultural references and strategies of scientific self-commodification. All three, in different ways, use the history of science and of their own research project to mark their place in the field of human origins research, drawing on mythical elements to tell the story of the rise of a humble Spanish team overcoming all odds to achieve universal acclaim. Furthermore, the co-directors make skilful use of palaeofiction - that of Björn Kurtén and Jean Auel, as well as writing their own - in order to tell gripping stories about compassion and solidarity in human prehistory. This mixture of nationalist and universalist narratives invites the Spanish audience to identify not just with 'their ancestors' but also with the scientists, as objects and subjects of research become conflated through popularization.

  13. [Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asensio, Angel; Monge, Diana

    2012-06-01

    There has been increasing interest in Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) due its association with healthcare and its impact on morbidity and mortality in the elderly. During the last few years there has been a growing increase in the number of published studies on the incidence, changes on the clinical presentation and on the epidemiology, with the description of new risk factors. The frequency of CDI in Spain is not sufficiently characterised. The available data indicates that incidence is within the range of that of surrounding countries but increasing. Furthermore, the high and growing use of broad spectrum antibiotics, both in our hospitals and in the community setting, are factors that favour the increase of the disease. The hyper-virulent ribotype 027 has not spread in our hospitals. We need to know with enhanced validity and accuracy the incidence of CDI, both community and healthcare-associated, the information on outbreaks, the incidence on certain population groups, the characterisation of circulating ribotypes and the impact of the disease in terms of mortality and health costs. We need to implement programs for the improvement of antibiotic therapy in the hospital, as well as in the community. Furthermore, the knowledge and the performance of standard precautions need to be improved, particularly hand hygiene, and the specific measures to limit the transmission of C. difficile among the healthcare institutions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  14. [Health and the media in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelta, Gemma

    2006-03-01

    The so-called media agenda has a great influence on the issues considered to be important by society. In this article, based on the Informe Quiral (Quiral Survey), the author analyses the coverage of health issues in Spanish press. In Spain, media concentration causes a clear tendency to information homogeneity and thus, health issues are rarely dealt with in an independent way or in its own specific space or by specialized professionals. The main chronic issues the Spanish press has followed during the years included in the survey have been: cancer, sexuality and reproduction, aids, drugs (including tobacco), mental disorders and nutrition-related issues. Politicians or individuals with political and technical posts are the sources which carry the burden of informing about health issues (49%). On the other hand, the more specialized sector is the source of information in only 26% of the cases. In order to improve health information, the author suggests establishing communication platforms and closer collaboration between the specialized sector and the media, fostering mutual knowledge of all professional groups taking part in the process and ridding health information of all political influences.

  15. Core optimization studies at JEN-Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Alonso, M.

    1983-01-01

    The JEN-1 is a 3-MW reactor which uses flat-plate fuel elements. It was originally fueled with 20%-enriched uranium but more recently with 90%-enriched fuel. It now appears that it will have to be converted back to using 20%- enriched fuel. Progress is presently being made in fuel fabrication. Plates with meat thicknesses of up to 1.5 mm have been fabricated. Plates are being tested with 40 wt % uranium in the fuel meat. Progress is also being made in reactor design in collaboration with atomic energy commissions of other countries for swimming pool reactors being designed or under construction in Chile, Ecuador, and Spain itself. The design studies address core optimization, safety analysis report updating, irradiation facilities, etc. Core optimization is specifically addressed in this paper. A common swimming-pool-type reactor such as the JEN-1 served as an example. The philosophy adopted in this study is not to try to match the high enrichment core, but rather to treat the design as new and try to optimize it using simplified neutronic/thermal hydraulic/economic models. This philosophy appears to be somewhat original. As many as possible of the fuel parameters are constrained to remain constant

  16. Sustainable energy communities: a study contrasting Spain and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero-Rubio, Carmen; Andrés Díaz, José Ramón de

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, several governments and organisations in the developed world have encouraged the creation of sustainable energy communities (SECs) as a strategy for achieving their energy and environmental targets. However, whereas in some of these countries (e.g., Germany), numerous SECs have been founded, there are other countries, such as Spain, where the creation and growth of SECs has been much slower. The purpose of this article is to analyse the case of Spain, to determine the causes of the lack of SECs in this country, and to propose actions adapted to the Spanish context aimed at accelerating the creation of SECs. To facilitate these tasks, we have taken the German case as a reference. The key finding is that, in contrast to Germany, in Spain, SECs have scarcely contributed to the development of RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures, despite having similar incentives for renewable electricity (until recently). Moreover, in Spain, these incentives have been drastically cut recently. Therefore, it has become even more difficult to finance a renewable electricity generation plant. That is why strategies in sectors other than renewable electricity have been suggested for the encouragement of SECs in Spain. -- Highlights: •Collective-ownership models for RE (Renewable energy) infrastructures are very widespread in Germany. •Approximately 22% of the installed renewable electricity capacity in Germany is owned by SECs. •In contrast, collective ownership of RE infrastructures is rare in Spain. •In Spain, incentives for renewable electricity have been drastically cut recently. •To encourage SECs, energy activities other than renewable electricity production are proposed

  17. CAP DIRECT PAYMENTS AS THE MAIN TOOL TO SUPPORT THE EU FARMERS: AN ANALYSIS OF THEIR IMPLEMENTATION BASED ON SPAIN EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana CIMPOIES

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct payments are the main tool of the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP and the main objective is to support EU farmers incomes. They benefit from a particular attention during the new 2014-2020 reform. For the first time direct payments were introduced in 1992 after MacSharry reform and known as coupled payments (payments per hectare and animal head. In 2003 were introduced the decoupled payments focused at encouraging farmers and enhancing the competitiveness and sustainability of the EU agriculture. The aim of this paper is to analyze the application of direct payments as main support instrument to the EU farmers based on Spain experience. In Spain the new changes in the Single Payment Scheme (SPS were first introduced in 2006, beginning with the regime of partial decoupling, until 2012, when the coupled payments disappeared, being integrated under the SPS or transformed into additional payment. In this analysis, secondary data provided by the Spanish Agrarian Guarantee Fund (FEGA, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment of Spain (MAGRAMA and Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN. The analyzed data refers to the amount of allocated direct payments in Spain and EU countries, number of beneficiaries and its distribution on territorial aspect. So far, the distribution of direct payments in Spain, similar to other EU member states, is unequal, as a result of various factors, as the CAP development and diversity of production, the use of historical references to fix the decoupled payments per farm and others.

  18. Seismic risk assessment of Navarre (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar-Escribano, J. M.; Rivas-Medina, A.; García Rodríguez, M. J.; Benito, B.; Tsige, M.; Martínez-Díaz, J. J.; Murphy, P.

    2009-04-01

    The RISNA project, financed by the Emergency Agency of Navarre (Northern Spain), aims at assessing the seismic risk of the entire region. The final goal of the project is the definition of emergency plans for future earthquakes. With this purpose, four main topics are covered: seismic hazard characterization, geotechnical classification, vulnerability assessment and damage estimation to structures and exposed population. A geographic information system is used to integrate, analyze and represent all information colleted in the different phases of the study. Expected ground motions on rock conditions with a 90% probability of non-exceedance in an exposure time of 50 years are determined following a Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Assessment (PSHA) methodology that includes a logic tree with different ground motion and source zoning models. As the region under study is located in the boundary between Spain and France, an effort is required to collect and homogenise seismological data from different national and regional agencies. A new homogenised seismic catalogue, merging data from Spanish, French, Catalonian and international agencies and establishing correlations between different magnitude scales, is developed. In addition, a new seismic zoning model focused on the study area is proposed. Results show that the highest ground motions on rock conditions are expected in the northeastern part of the region, decreasing southwards. Seismic hazard can be expressed as low-to-moderate. A geotechnical classification of the entire region is developed based on surface geology, available borehole data and morphotectonic constraints. Frequency-dependent amplification factors, consistent with code values, are proposed. The northern and southern parts of the region are characterized by stiff and soft soils respectively, being the softest soils located along river valleys. Seismic hazard maps including soil effects are obtained by applying these factors to the seismic hazard maps

  19. Illicit drug policy in Spain: the opinion of health and legal professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Paola; Blay, Ester; Costela, Víctor; Torrens, Marta

    2018-01-01

    The high frequency of criminal behaviour and related legal problems associated with substance addiction generates a field of interaction between legal and healthcare systems. This study was developed as a multicentre project to investigate the opinions of professionals from legal and healthcare systems about policies on illegal drugs and their implementation in practice. A multiple choice questionnaire designed ad hoc was administered to a sample of 230 professionals from legal and healthcare fields working in the cities of Barcelona, Granada and Bilbao. The questionnaire included sociodemographic and work-related data, and assessed interviewees' information about the response to drug-related crime and opinion on drug policy issues. This article presents the results from Spain. The main results showed that both groups of professionals value alternative measures to imprisonment (AMI) as useful tools to prevent offenses related to drug use and claim a broader application of AMI. They also evaluated positively the regulations on cannabis use in effect. Though the attitude of healthcare professionals towards the application of AMI is more permissive, both groups favour restricting these sanctions in cases of recidivism. Both groups show mild satisfaction with the current addiction healthcare system and express dissatisfaction with actual drug policies in Spain.

  20. Governing Non-Potable Water-Reuse to Alleviate Water Stress: The Case of Sabadell, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marketa Šteflová

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The world will experience an estimated 40% freshwater supply shortage by 2030, converting water scarcity into one of the principal global challenges that modern society faces. Urban water reuse is recognized as a promising and necessary measure to alleviate the growing water stress in many regions. The transformation to widespread application of water-reuse systems requires major changes in the way water is governed, and countries such as Spain already find themselves involved in this process. Through the systematic assessment of the city of Sabadell (Spain, we aim to identify the main barriers, opportunities and transferable lessons that can enhance governance capacity to implement systems for non-potable reuse of treated wastewater in cities. It was found that continuous learning, the availability and quality of information, the level of knowledge, and strong agents of change are the main capacity-building priorities. On the other hand, awareness, multilevel network potential and implementing capacity are already well-established. It is concluded that in order to undertake a widespread application of water-reuse practices, criteria examining water quality according to its use need to be developed independently of the water’s origin. The development and implementation of such a legislative frame should be based on the experience of local water-reuse practices and continuous evaluation. Finally, the need for public engagement and adequate pricing mechanisms are emphasized.

  1. Prevalence of oppositional defiant disorder in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Villalobos, José Antonio; Andrés-De Llano, Jesús María; Rodríguez-Molinero, Luis; Garrido-Redondo, Mercedes; Sacristán-Martín, Ana María; Martínez-Rivera, María Teresa; Alberola-López, Susana; Sánchez-Azón, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characterized by a pattern of negative, defiant, disobedient and hostile behavior toward authority figures. ODD is one of the most frequent reasons for clinical consultation on mental health during childhood and adolescence. ODD has a high morbidity and dysfunction, and has important implications for the future if not treated early. To determine the prevalence of ODD in schoolchildren aged 6-16 years in Castile and Leon (Spain). Population study with a stratified multistage sample, and a proportional cluster design. Sample analyzed: 1,049. Cases were defined according to DSM-IV criteria. An overall prevalence rate of 5.6% was found (95% CI: 4.2%-7%). Male gender prevalence=6.8%; female=4.3%. Prevalence in secondary education=6.2%; primary education=5.3%. No significant differences by gender, age, grade, type of school, or demographic area were found. ODD prevalence without considering functional impairment, such as is performed in some research, would increase the prevalence to 7.4%. ODD cases have significantly worse academic outcomes (overall academic performance, reading, maths and writing), and worse classroom behavior (relationship with peers, respect for rules, organizational skills, academic tasks, and disruption of the class). Castile and Leon has a prevalence rate of ODD slightly higher to that observed in international publications. Depending on the distribution by age, morbidity and clinical dysfunctional impact, an early diagnosis and a preventive intervention are required for health planning. Copyright © 2013 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Coal restructuring in Spain. Continuity and uncertainty?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabanal, Nuria G.

    2009-01-01

    The policies of coal energy are currently undergoing a significant change. At the European Community level, energy concerns are dominated by environmental commitments that seem to demand coal's disappearance. The countries that for years have supplied the European energy market with this resource have confronted their future challenges in differing ways. The history of the energy sector in Spain has been marked by important changes, and coal has been a key factor in this process. Membership in the European Union has constituted a clear transition for a historically subsidized and protected sector that now faces an uncertain role in the national energy market. The aim of this paper is to offer an overview and analysis of the mechanisms that have been implemented in the energy sector. The first part analyzes the rationalization policies that preceded Spanish entry into the EU, giving a detailed description of the complex programs designed by the government to help mining companies. The second part analyzes later systems aimed at helping the coal industry that were implemented after the EU imposed new criteria and objectives. These systems led to the so-called 'mixed model' of rationalization. This model, which is completely different from that implemented in other member states, is based on maintaining a system of subsidies that discriminate between public and private companies. The third part examines the objectives of the current system and the plans projected for the future in the context of the EU's adoption of an energy strategy that seeks to reconcile a self-sufficient energy supply with adherence to environmental commitments. (author)

  3. Incidence of eating disorders in Navarra (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahortiga-Ramos, Francisca; De Irala-Estévez, Jokin; Cano-Prous, Adrián; Gual-García, Pilar; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Cervera-Enguix, Salvador

    2005-03-01

    To estimate the overall annual incidence and age group distribution of eating disorders in a representative sample of adolescent female residents of Navarra, Spain. We studied a representative sample of 2734 adolescent Navarran females between 13 and 22 years of age who were free of any eating disorder at the start of our study. Eighteen months into the study, we visited the established centers and the eating attitudes test (EAT-40) and eating disorder inventory (EDI) Questionnaires were administered to the entire study population. We obtained a final response of 92%. All adolescents whose EAT score was over 21 points and a randomized sample of those who scored 21 or below, were interviewed. Any person meeting the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for Anorexia Nervosa (AN), Bulimia Nervosa (BN) or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) was considered a case. We detected 90 new cases of eating disorders. Taking into consideration the randomly selected group whose EAT score was 21 points or below, we estimated the overall weighted incidence of eating disorders to be 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), after 18 months of observation, in which EDNOS predominated with an incidence of 4.2% (95% CI: 2.0-6.3). The incidence of AN was 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5), while that of BN was also found to be 0.3% (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). The highest incidence was observed in the group of adolescents between 15 and 16 years of age. The overall incidence of ED in a cohort of 2509 adolescents after 18 months of follow-up was 4.8% (95% CI: 2.8-6.8), with EDNOS outweighing the other diagnoses. The majority of new cases of eating disorders were diagnosed between ages 15 and 16.

  4. The Radioactive Waste Management Programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, A. R.; Vico, E.

    2000-01-01

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Ministry of Industry and Energy. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Industry and Energy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  5. The radioactive waste management programme in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beceiro, Alvaro R.; Vico, Elena

    2002-01-01

    In 1984 the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos (ENRESA) was set up in order to be responsible for all radioactive waste management activities in the country. ENRESA is a state-owned company, the shareholders of which are CIEMAT (Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, formerly (JEN) and SEPI (Sociedad Estatal de Participaciones Industriales), both institutions dependent on the Spanish Government. ENRESA has a broad scope of responsibilities, including not only the management of L/ILW, HLW and spent fuel but also the decommissioning of nuclear installations, as well as the rehabilitation of uranium mining and milling facilities when required. The policy on radioactive waste management is defined by the Government, and the strategies are developed by ENRESA in accordance with the General Radioactive Waste Management Plan. This Plan is a strategic document which must be submitted yearly by ENRESA to the Government, for its approval when the Ministry of Economy decided so. The plan, in general terms, contains the main aspects related to waste generation and forecasts, as well as the strategies and technical solutions to be prepared, along with the associated economic and financial aspects. ENRESA's activities are financed by the waste producers. On the one hand the nucleoelectric sector pays a percentage fee on all the electricity sales, while small producers pay tariffs according to the services provided, both are approved by the Government. The Fifth General Radioactive Waste Plan, approved by the Government in July 1999, is currently in force and contains the strategies for the management of radioactive wastes and decommissioning of nuclear installations in Spain. (author)

  6. Gambling in Spain: update on experience, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Menchón, Jose Manuel

    2014-10-01

    To describe the current situation of gambling in Spain, sketching its history and discussing the regulations and legislation currently in force within the framework of the European Union (EU), and to review the epidemiology of gambling in Spain, the self-help groups and professional treatments available, and their potential effectiveness. A systematic computerized search was performed in three databases (EMBASE, PubMed and PsychINFO, including articles and chapters) and the reference lists from previous reviews to obtain some of the most relevant studies published up to now on the topic of pathologic gambling in Spain. Similar to other EU countries, Spain has a high prevalence of pathologic gambling, focused on specific culturally bounded types of gambling. Expenditure in online gaming has risen significantly in the last few years, prompting the Spanish government to draft new legislation to regulate gaming. The gaming industry is expected to be one of the fastest growing sectors in Spain in the coming years owing to the rise of new technologies and the development of online gaming. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  7. Wind power development in Spain, the model of Navarra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miguel Ichaso, A. de [Energia Hidroelectrica de Navarra S.A. (EHN), Pamplona (Spain)

    2000-08-01

    Wind power implementation in Spain has undergone spectacular growth in recent years. From 834 Megawatts installed at the end of 1998, the figure of 1,500 MW was reached at the end of 1999 and forecasts expect well over 2,500 MW by the end of the year 2000. A favourable legislative framework and tariff structure have brought about this rate of development, which is mainly based on the implementation of large wind farms on high altitude sites in Spain. The region of Navarra (northern Spain) has played a special role in this development, and EHN, a company born in this region, has carried out major projects that have given it 30% of the Spanish wind power sector. The challenges for the sector in Spain over the next few years are: (1) Make its development compatible with the supply guarantees required by the national electricity supply operator, (2) ensure that the implementation of wind farms is done with respect for the environment, (3) harmonise the wind power development of the different Autonomous Communities of Spain, and (4) reduce the investment costs in order to obtain enough profitability with falling energy prices in the coming years. (orig.)

  8. The State of the Art of Group Psychotherapy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Taboada, Cristina; Amutio, Alberto; Elgorriaga, Edurne; Arnoso, Ainara

    2015-10-01

    (1) What is the history and the theoretical orientation of group therapy in Spain? (2) How is training organized? (3) What role does group psychotherapy play in the health system in Spain? (4) What is the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice in Spain? (5) What topics can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Spain? (6) How are group-related issues important within the social background of Spain? and (7) What does group work hold for the future? Although not even a century has passed since the birth of this discipline, there have already been many events associated with the management of power and knowledge, the development of a sense of community, and the evolution of the political and social life of our country. Group therapy training is still evolving and is properly supported and accredited by prestigious institutions. In the 2013 Symposium of the Spanish Society of Group Psychotherapy and Group Techniques (SEPTG), the need for joint group theories and techniques within the profession's activities was clearly highlighted. Further, the enthusiasm of group psychotherapists to open themselves to specific social perspectives (health, education, community prevention, organizations) is a way of encouraging society to untangle conscious and unconscious knots that are created in social interaction.

  9. Catalan Nationalism and Challenges to the Territorial Integrity of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. I. Volkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the beginning of the 21st century Spain faced a number of challenges, primarily the growth of separatist sentiments in the regions fraught with the danger of its fragmentation on ethno-national basis. In the context of increased ethno-national mobilization of “small peoples” in Spain one of its most economically developed regions – Catalonia – envisages a rise of the regional identity. Against the backdrop of economic problems generated by the crisis of 2008-2014 the autonomous communities of Spain, including Catalonia, came across the rise of socio-political problems, particularly the growing distance between the society and the central administrative bodies formed in democratic conditions, as well as the two-party administrative system.

  10. Eating out in Spain: Motivations, sociability and consumer contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Méndez, Cecilia; García-Espejo, Isabel

    2017-12-01

    Eating out is a consumer practice which is difficult to define. The study of this practice has traditionally been based on the work/leisure dichotomy. However, in Spain this is not so clear. If we analyse profiles, motivations, places and relationships, we discover an eating-out food model which is specific to Spain and in which food is not limited by this dual link with work and leisure. Eating linked to work does not respond only to instrumental needs. Leisure eating is not always a choice based on preference. Both contain a strong element of sociability which acts as a motivator and are linked to the familisme of Spanish society, whilst at the same time de-routinizing daily life, both at home and at work. This study is based on a national survey carried out in 2014 and helps to understand this consumer practice and those elements which are specific to Spain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spain out of Spain. Spanish Patriotism in the Argentinian emigration: an approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela García Sebastiani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available During the first third of the 20th century, Spanish migrants in Argentina prompted, from specific areas of civil society and the public sphere, corporate identity for political purposes. It was a residual patriotism and condemned from the outset. It was activated in specific circumstances and in relation to the local policies projected towards the collective migratory, the Spanish politics, and recognition of shared sociopolitical and cultural genealogies. From the perspective of cultural history of the policy, and based on primary and secondary sources, this article discusses about built imaginaries, social mobilization generated and results between 1885 and 1920. During that time, from distance, migrants also built ideas about Spain and drawn up national myths in the cultural version of liberalism that eventually led to a conservative nationalist, catholic and –at times– fascist.

  12. [Birth rates evolution in Spain. Birth trends in Spain from 1941 to 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés de Llano, J M; Alberola López, S; Garmendia Leiza, J R; Quiñones Rubio, C; Cancho Candela, R; Ramalle-Gómara, E

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse trends of births in Spain and its Autonomous Communities (CCAA) over a 70 year period (1941-2010). The crude birth rates per 1,000 inhabitants/year were calculated by CCAA using Joinpoint regression models. Change points in trend and annual percentage of change (APC) were identified. The distribution of 38,160,305 births between 1941 and 2010 shows important changes in trends both nationally and among the CCAA. There is a general pattern for the whole country, with 5 turning points being identified with changes in trend and annual percentage change (APC). Differences are also found among regions. The analysis of trends in birth rates and the annual rates of change should enable public health authorities to properly plan pediatric care resources in our country. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. [Epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus in children in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde Barreiro, S; Rodríguez Rigual, M; Bueno Lozano, G; López Siguero, J P; González Pelegrín, B; Rodrigo Val, M P; Compés Dea, M L

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological studies in many regions and countries have contributed to determining the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) in children less than 15 years old. Studies in many regions of Spain have been published, but the national incidence is not really known. A review was made of the publications on the epidemiology of T1DM in Spain, selecting the references on patients less than 15 years old. Many epidemiological studies on T1DM in almost all regions in Spain have been published. The methodology of these studies is heterogeneous, with variations in geographical definition, duration, period of study, limit of age, and data collection. The incidence rates are variable, from 11.5 cases per 100,000/year in Asturias to 27.6 in Castilla-La Mancha. Some studies report the percentage of diabetic ketoacidosis at the time of diagnosis, which is usually in the range of 25-40%. Although there have been various epidemiological studies on T1DM in almost all regions in Spain, the methodology is heterogeneous. The mean incidence of T1DM in children less than 15 years old in Spain, stimated from the selected studies is 17,69 cases per 100,000/year. T1DM registers need to be created and updated, using standardized methodology, to get more reliable data of the epidemiology of T1DM in Spain in the near future. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Inspection of nuclear power plants under construction in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoma, L.

    1977-01-01

    Brief summary of the situation of the nuclear industry in Spain, in order to better understand the questions involved in the inspection of the Spanish nuclear power plants, as well as the experience acquired, followed by a description of some of the problems which have arisen during the construction phase. Also the problems faced by the Inspection of the Junta de Energia Nuclear are described in order to fulfill the missions entrusted to it. Finally, some recommendations are made in light of the experience had by Spain.(author) [es

  15. Approaches to Open Data for Science in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Wulff-Barreiro

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available As observational data has attained new legal status, allowing their integration into open Internet systems, and experimental data continues to be assembled in common and free platforms, state of the art, easy to access data repositories have been designed in Spain. These repositories have removed many obstacles to re-utilization of GIS and other data. European legislation has also made advances in opening biodiversity data, including a European space in the Latin-American grid infrastructure. Open access biomedical repositories attract commercial attention while astronomical, meteorological, and oncological institutions promote data quality and access. This paper describes recent approaches to open access data for science in Spain.

  16. On Reproductive Work in Spain: Transnational Adoption, Egg Donation, Surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marre, Diana; San Román, Beatriz; Guerra, Diana

    2018-01-01

    Spain's plummeting fertility since the late twentieth century may seem to reflect a waning desire for children. Nevertheless, reproductive disappointments resulting from gender inequalities cause many Spanish women to postpone motherhood and experience age-related fertility problems. For them, creating a family often becomes possible only through the reproductive labor of other women. Our analysis of transnational adoption, egg donation, and surrogacy in Spain shows how anonymity and altruism play out in these three strategies, with implications for the valuation of women's reproductive work and relationships among reproductive providers, intermediaries, recipients, and the resulting children.

  17. Psychoanalysis and the transition to democracy in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druet, Anne-Cécile

    2017-11-01

    This article studies the links between psychoanalysis and the transition to democracy in Spain. It examines the major changes that characterized the spread of psychoanalysis in the years after Franco's death, in particular the rise of the Lacanian movement, the impact of this phenomenon on the sociocultural sphere and, in broader terms, its role in the re-emergence of psychoanalysis as a cultural object in the country. The article also analyzes factors linked to the history of psychoanalysis during the Franco dictatorship; factors that, together with the arrival of Oscar Masotta and numerous Argentinian analysts in Spain, help explain the new vision of the field that emerged during the transition.

  18. Spain, words that succeed and climate policies that fail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabara, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Official figures submitted in 2002 showing the trends of greenhouse gases during the period 1990-2000 indicate that Spain is a long way from attaining its commitments with the international and national programmes on climate change. Both structural and cultural factors are used to explain the evolution in climate politics and the growth of its emissions with particular emphasis given to the lack of public participation in this respect. It is also argued that Spain will have either to buy emission reductions abroad or/and find new ways to reduce greenhouse gases in a more decentralised manner in tune with its current Autonomous Communities' (ACs) political organisation

  19. Cereal Production Ratio and NDVI in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Recuero, Laura; Palacios, Alicia; Díaz-Ambrona, Carlos G. H.; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    Droughts are long-term phenomena affecting large regions causing significant damages both in human lives and economic losses. The use of remote sensing has proved to be very important in monitoring the growth of agricultural crops and trying to asses weather impact on crop loss. Several indices has been developed based in remote sensing data being one of them the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). In this study we have focus to know the correlation between NDVI data and the looses of rain fed cereal in the Spanish area where this crop is majority. For this propose data from drought damage in cereal come from the pool of agricultural insurance in Spain (AGROSEGURO) including 2007/2008 to 2011/2012 (five agricultural campaigns). This data is given as a ratio between drought party claims against the insured value of production aggregated at the agrarian region level. Medium resolution (500x500 m2) MODIS images were used during the same campaigns to estimate the eight-day composites NDVI at these locations. The NDVI values are accumulated following the normal cycle of the cereal taking in account the sowing date at different sites. At the same time, CORINE Land Cover (2006) was used to classify the pixels belonging to rain fed cereal use including a set of conditions such as pixels showing dry during summer, area in which there has been no change of use. Fallow presence is studied with particular attention as it imposes an inter annual variation between crop and bare soil and causes decreases in greenness in a pixel and mix both situations. This is more complex in the situation in which the avoid fallow and a continuous monoculture is performed. The results shown that around 40% of the area is subject to the regime of fallow while 60% have growing every year. In addition, another variation is detected if the year is humid (decrease of fallow) or dry (increase of fallow). The level of correlation between the drought damage ratios and cumulative NDVI for the

  20. SDI-based business processes: A territorial analysis web information system in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béjar, Rubén; Latre, Miguel Á.; Lopez-Pellicer, Francisco J.; Nogueras-Iso, Javier; Zarazaga-Soria, F. J.; Muro-Medrano, Pedro R.

    2012-09-01

    Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) provide access to geospatial data and operations through interoperable Web services. These data and operations can be chained to set up specialized geospatial business processes, and these processes can give support to different applications. End users can benefit from these applications, while experts can integrate the Web services in their own business processes and developments. This paper presents an SDI-based territorial analysis Web information system for Spain, which gives access to land cover, topography and elevation data, as well as to a number of interoperable geospatial operations by means of a Web Processing Service (WPS). Several examples illustrate how different territorial analysis business processes are supported. The system has been established by the Spanish National SDI (Infraestructura de Datos Espaciales de España, IDEE) both as an experimental platform for geoscientists and geoinformation system developers, and as a mechanism to contribute to the Spanish citizens knowledge about their territory.

  1. 48 CFR 252.229-7004 - Status of contractors as a direct contractor (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... direct contractor (Spain). 252.229-7004 Section 252.229-7004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... contractor (Spain). As prescribed in 229.402-70(d), use the following clause: Status of Contractor as a Director Contractor (Spain) (JUN 1997) (a) “Direct Contractor,” as used in this clause, means an individual...

  2. What's Going On? An Overview of Adult Education Policies in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio-Villegas, Emilio

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, I attempt to present the state of adult education in Spain. Adult education in Spain is not unlike that of other countries in Europe in that it focuses on the policies and practices of lifelong learning rather than on the perspectives of people and communities. However, Spain has two specific characteristics that are distinctive…

  3. Training in nuclear safety and technology at Ciemat (Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galan, M.; Rodriguez, M.; Hernando, E.

    2006-01-01

    Fission nuclear energy acceptance has suffered great change from its discovery. During 50 s and 70 s, was worldwide approved but a high social repulse is experimented nowadays in some societies. This fact has led to a contradictory situation in the world. We can find some countries where the majority of their electric energy is produced in nuclear power plants (NPPs). In Europe, France produces over the 75% of the electric energy consumed, moreover, in Asia, new NPPs are being constructed in China, Japan or India; but on the contrary, other countries, such as Spain, has signed the nuclear moratorium. The result of this situation has conducted to a lower interest in nuclear training at universities and few implementation of superior studies in Nuclear Technology. But nuclear and radioactive installations are still opened and need qualified staff. The training Unit of C.I.E.M.A.T. has been organizing courses on nuclear energy and radiation protection for more than 30 years and develops all the educational program which has been required by Spanish Radiation Protection Education. Within the training courses variety, a course of about 68 E.C.T.S. (following Bologna Process, 1999) to permit young graduated to be specialized in this area, has been organised. E.C.T.S. credits indicate the average student work load to successfully complete a course. 68 E.C.T.S. represents, in terms of workload, near one year of study. The programme contents subjects like Fission, Fusion, NPPs Operation and Control, Nuclear Fuel and Cycle. At a more interdisciplinary level, the programme also provides knowledge in other fields of application such as Nuclear Medicine, Radiation Effects, Radiation Protection, Shielding against Radiation, Material Science, Radiation Measurements and Instruments, Waste Management and Decommissioning, Environmental Impact of NPPs and National and International Regulation. The theoretical schedules are completed by practical sessions on computational codes

  4. Red Beads and Love Magic. Cross-Cultural Exchanges Between Spain and new Spain in Modern Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Andreia Martins Torres

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the significance of particular red beads used in love magic during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically on the construction of symbolic universe through perceptions based on «others» materiality. It aims to provide a connected studied between Spain and New Spain through the histories of the gipsy Generosa Vicente and mestiza Margarita Palacios recovered from the Inquisition authorities notes. This is the way to understand the extent to which cross-cultural contacts privilege the transmission of ideas associated with objects, and how they were used apparently with similar purposes but with a very different meaning.

  5. Factors influencing a student's decision to pursue a communications degree in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sierra Sánchez

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This paper analyzes the factors that influence secondary school students’ choice of higher education options in Spain today and explores the implications and benefits of establishing provider-client relationships between universities and students.Design/methodology/approach: A quantitative approach using questionnaires to demonstrate the hypothesis and achieve the objectives. We have prepared a questionnaire via telematic LimeSurvey application consisting of twenty-four closed questions.Findings: Results depict that the leading criteria for Spanish students interested in pursuing studies in communication sciences were a university’s reputation and excellence and the quality of its educational programmes. In terms of sources of information related to universities and their degree programmes, Spanish communication sciences students placed the highest value on direct and experiential sources. Spanish students interested in pursuing degrees in communication sciences preferred public universities over private universities.Research limitations: It is a descriptive paper. The sample could have been larger and have covered the entire universe of communication schools in Spain.Practical implications: Gain in-depth insight into the academic, cultural, and sociodemographic characteristics of students who choose to pursue an undergraduate degree in communications sciences in Spain.Ascertain which sources of information proved to be the most valuable to prospective students in choosing a university and degree programme and the other factors that influenced their choices by means of a survey involving first-year undergraduate communication sciences students. Use the results of this survey to rank the criteria used by students when choosing a university and degree programme. Gain a clearer picture of how parents and friends influence a student’s choice of degree programmes and universities.Social implications: Knowing the factors of choice

  6. Decommissioning and dismantling of nuclear and fuel cycle facilitites in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravalos, J.M.; Alamo, S.

    1992-01-01

    In the recent past, and as a consequence of a fire in the turbine island of the Vandellos I Graphite Gas type Nuclear Plant, which damaged the facility to a point that recovery was not judged economically feasible, the authorities decided on the final shutdown of the plant. Several studies were performed in order to select the dismantling strategy to be adopted. In spite of Valdellos I being the first commercial reactor to be decommissioned in Spain, several research reactors and fuel cycle facilities, which have reached the end of their commercial lives, are at present at different stages of their dismantling and decommissioning process as is described further. The development of an exemption policy for below regulatory concern wastes is considered a very significant issue regarding decommissioning as it has a large impact on radioactive waste volumes, and thus on costs. Aware of this problem ENRESA together with Spanish regulatory authorities are working in close cooperation with CEC research programs to complete the development of criteria and methodologies for the application of exemption practices in Spain

  7. An exploration into municipal waste charges for environmental management at local level: The case of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi; Sastre Sanz, Sergio

    2017-11-01

    Municipal waste charges have been widely acknowledged as a crucial tool for waste management at the local level. This is because they contribute to financing the costly provision of waste collection and treatment services and they can be designed to provide an economic stimulus to encourage citizens and local businesses to improve separate collection and recycling. This work presents a methodology to evaluate a sample of 125 municipal waste charges in Spain for the year 2015, covering 33.91% of the Spanish population. The qualitative benchmarking of municipal waste charges shows that flat fees are frequent, whereas variable fees are set according to criteria that are weakly related to waste generation. The average fee per household is €82.2 per year, which does not provide full cost recovery. The current configuration of municipal waste charges penalises taxpayers contributing to source separation of waste, while subsidising less environmentally friendly behaviours. In this sense, municipal waste charges in Spain are far from applying the polluter pays principle. Furthermore, it is argued that municipal waste charges are ineffective for promoting the proper application of the so-called 'waste hierarchy'.

  8. Wrong postural hygiene and ergonomics in dental students of the University of Valencia (Spain) (part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervera-Espert, J; Pascual-Moscardó, A; Camps-Alemany, I

    2018-02-01

    Failure to adopt a correct working posture can lead to occupational diseases. Evaluate knowledge in relation to ergonomics about BHOP concept and its application to routine clinical practice amongst undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in the University of Valencia (Valencia, Spain). A study based on interviews of undergraduate and postgraduate dental students in the University of Valencia (Valencia, Spain) was carried out. The information from a total of 336 interviews was used for the statistical analysis, differentiating according to gender and academic year: knowledge of ergonomics, pain prevalence and antecedents, assessment of the possible necessity for improved training in ergonomics, and evaluation of postural hygiene. Only 28.6% of the students were found to sit correctly in the dentist chair. Furthermore, in the opinion of the students, very few subjects during the career afforded adequate teaching in relation to ergonomics and working posture. The analysis of postural hygiene showed great variability. There were no significant differences in posture between males and females, although some incorrect postures appeared to be associated with the academic year (Ppostural hygiene were noted on progressing from one academic year to the next. The students in our study were not familiar with the principles of ergonomics and did not sit correctly in the dentist chair. Improved training in this field is required in dental school. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Characterization of wildland-urban interfaces for fire prevention in the province of Valencia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Madrigal Olmo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. The present study is the first attempt to characterize and map wildland-urban interfaces (WUIs in eastern Spain (province of Valencia and its relationship with wildfire occurrence. Area of study. The study area is located in eastern Spain in the province of Valencia. The area covers 246,426 ha and includes four administrative departments comprising 86 municipalities.Material and methods. The methodology integrates housing density and vegetation aggregation for large-scale fire prevention using the WUImap ® ARC GIS tool. A PLS model was developed to relate wildfire occurrence and WUI typologies.Main results. The results show that 21% of housing can be considered as WUIs, highlighting the high degree of fire hazard in the study area. The PLS model shows that the 4 typologies outside of WUI present lower significance than most of WUI typologies. The types of WUI most related to fire occurrence (Number of Fires and Area Burned are Insolated and Scattered housing with Low or High vegetation aggregation. The type Insolated housing with low aggregation presents the highest significance to explain wildfire occurrence.Research highlights: A significant relationship between wildfire occurrence the study area and WUI has been demonstrated. The obtained results verify the ability of WUImap tool in classifying large-scale administrative departments and its suitability for application to prioritize preventive actions in the Mediterranean areasKey words: Housing density; PLS (Partial Least Squares model; vegetation aggregation; WUImap.

  10. Initiating a sustained diffusion of wind power: The role of public-private partnerships in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinica, Valentina

    2008-01-01

    The literature on policy approaches for the market support of renewable electricity is dominated by narrow conceptualizations of policy, referring mostly to direct instruments for economic feasibility. Such approaches often led to unsatisfactory explanations of diffusion results. This is the case of wind power diffusion in Spain, the success of which is typically credited to the 'feed-in-tariff' instrument. This paper offers an alternative explanatory account for wind power diffusion in Spain. It is argued that diffusion can be explained by a less obvious policy of stimulating investments by means of public-private partnerships (PPPs). The three legal frameworks for economic feasibility applicable up to 2004 harbored high economic risks. Although projects could have high profitability because of generous investment subsidies, up to mid 1990s most investments were based on PPPs, to address the risk perceptions of early investors. Fully-private partnerships now dominate investments, though PPPs have not disappeared. Next to winning investors' confidence, the PPP policy led to an investment culture whereby partnership investments dominate. By 2000, 95.7% of the installed wind capacity was owned by partnerships, and only 4.3% by individual companies. Partnerships invest in larger projects, have ambitious investment plans, and these lead to a high diffusion tempo

  11. National Intelligence Survey. Spain. Section 23. Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    1963-07-01

    on to successor organiza- tions. In 1934 the meteorological services were organized as the Servicio Meteorolögico Nacional (S.M.N.). Spain became a...service’s communications system for collecting data relies heavily on tele- phone, telegraph, and CW-radio broadcasts. A micro -wave radio teletype

  12. Coal mining in Spain: first half year 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-01-01

    Statistical data from the first half of 1986 on coal mining in Spain. These figures cover anthracite, bituminous coal and lignite both nationally and for the coal-producing regions of Leon, Asturias, Palencia, Teruel and La Coruna. Special attention is paid to absenteeism and its causes.

  13. Current research in Spain on walnut for wood production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neus Alet& #224; Neus NO-VALUE

    2004-01-01

    The Department of Mediterranean Trees at the Institut de Recerca i Tecnologia Agroalimentaries (IRTA) in Spain initiated a research program in 1993 to examine the variability among walnut species for wood production and to establish orchards with improved selections. The main objective of the programme is to obtain superior Persian walnut (Juglans regia...

  14. Wind energy in Spain. 2000 MW in 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    Spain ranks third in terms of wind energy in Europe. Its wind power capacity has been soaring for the past five years and development of renewable energies is seen as a way to stimulate economy and employment. Two regions are at the forefront in this: Galicia and Navarra. Each autonomous region has its own way to develop wind energy. (A.L.B.)

  15. Biomass power: Exploring the diffusion challenges in Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dinica, V.

    2009-01-01

    The use of biomass resources for power generation offers numerous benefits of interest for political decision-makers: fuel security, rural and industrial development, ecological benefits. In Spain, policy instruments have been used since 1980 to stimulate biomass power generation. However, the

  16. Acculturation Stress and Bullying among Immigrant Youths in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Adam M.; Nieri, Tanya A.; Villar, Paula; Luengo, Maria Angeles

    2012-01-01

    Few bullying studies focus on immigrant youths or acculturation stress as a risk factor for bullying and being bullied. Employing a sample of 1,157 foreign-born secondary students in Spain, we found that acculturation stress was widely experienced, although the average level of stress was moderate. Five percent of the sample reported being…

  17. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space. PMID:22294904

  18. Increasing Contact with Hepatitis E Virus in Red Deer, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Maribel; Martín, Marga; Vicente, Joaquín; Segalés, Joaquim; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian

    2010-01-01

    To describe the epidemiology of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in red deer in mainland Spain, we tested red deer for HEV RNA and antibodies. Overall, 10.4% and 13.6% of serum samples were positive by ELISA and reverse transcription–PCR, respectively. The increasing prevalence suggests a potential risk for humans. PMID:21122241

  19. Great Writers of Spain I (Nineteenth Century): 7506.26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The main goal of this course of study is for the student to understand, recognize, and interpret the many changes which occurred in the poetry and prose of Spain at the advent of Romanticism. The student also studies the movements that followed Romanticism: Realism, Regionalism, and Naturalism. Performance objectives, suggested materials, learning…

  20. International Briefing 34: Training and Development in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Mike; Ponce Sanz, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This article locates training and development in Spain within the country's socio-economic context. It maps the major changes which have been introduced into the training and development system since the briefing by Escardíbul and Llinas-Audet published in this journal in 2010. It relates those changes to the ongoing economic crisis which began in…

  1. Updating Rurality Index for Small Areas in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Lara, Elisa; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, there is a wide debate about what rural means. An operational definition of rural concept is essential in order to measure health problems, optimize resource allocation and facilitate decision making aimed at closing the gap on inequity between areas. In 2005, the rurality index for Small Areas in Spain (IRAP) was developed using the…

  2. Spain: Current Issues and U.S. Policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Woehrel, Steven

    2007-01-01

    .... The United States and Spain have generally enjoyed good relations. However, problems have arisen in recent years over such issues as the war in Iraq, promoting democracy in Latin America, and the tactics to be used in fighting the war on terrorism...

  3. Spain gives science and technology a ministry of its own

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X

    2000-01-01

    Spain's re-elected prime minister announced the creation of a new Ministry of Science and Technology. It will be responsible for policy on basic and applied research, IT and telecommunications. It will also incorporate the country's Higher Council of Research (1/2 page).

  4. Deteminants of interregional migration in Spain: new analysis techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Maza Fernández

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the determinants of internal migration in Spain from a regional standpoint. For this purpose, it develops both a nonparametric and semiparametric approach. The general conclusion that it is drawn from the study is that migratory movements are very persistent and mainly respond, though weakly, to the differentials of per capita income, unemployment rates and housing costs between regions.

  5. Guidance for Older Workers in Denmark and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, Peter; Lopez-Sanchez, Maria Jose

    2011-01-01

    Guidance has a role to play in helping older workers to lead meaningful and fruitful lives; inside, outside, on the edge of the labour market, or in voluntary work with examples from two very different European countries: Denmark and Spain. This paper aims to draw attention to older workers guidance from an economic policy approach. It will be…

  6. Sensors and Technologies in Spain: State-of-the-Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pajares

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this special issue was to provide a comprehensive view on the state-of-the-art sensor technology in Spain. Different problems cause the appearance and development of new sensor technologies and vice versa, the emergence of new sensors facilitates the solution of existing real problems. [...

  7. Young Pedestrians' Gendering of Mathematics: Australia and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgasz, Helen; Leder, Gilah; Gómez-Chacón, Inés Ma

    2012-01-01

    People aged 20-39 were stopped in the streets of Victoria (Australia) and Madrid (Spain) to gauge their views on the gendering of mathematics. The findings suggested that for respondents from both countries, if stereotyped beliefs are held they were more strongly associated with the traditional male stereotype, that is, that males are considered…

  8. Wage Gaps Between the Public and Private Sectors in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassibille, Gerard

    1998-01-01

    Estimates separate earnings equations by employment sector and gender in Spain and identifies returns to human capital, based on 1990-91 household survey data. Public wages are higher, and civil servants more highly educated. However, the public sector pays lower returns to education and experience. Earnings advantage is largest for least skilled…

  9. Evaluation of Hybrid and Distance Education Learning Environments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Cascales, Rosario; Walker, Scott L.; Reig-Ferrer, Abilio; Fernandez-Pascual, Maria Dolores; Albaladejo-Blazquez, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the adaptation and validation of the "Distance Education Learning Environments Survey" (DELES) for use in investigating the qualities found in distance and hybrid education psycho-social learning environments in Spain. As Europe moves toward post-secondary student mobility, equanimity in access to higher education,…

  10. [Beginnings of bariatric and metabolic surgery in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltasar, Aniceto; Domínguez-Adame, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    When bariatric and metabolic surgery initially began in Spain, it was a subject of debate, due to not knowing exactly who were the first surgeons to perform it. A study has revealed the authors of the first interventions. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. [Tarantism in Spain in the eighteen century: latrodectism and suggestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral-Corral, I; Corral-Corral, C

    2016-10-16

    Tarantism is the disease caused by the bite of the tarantula, in which the music tarantella triggers an involuntary dance. It is known in Italy since the sixteenth century. To analyze the tarantism reported in Spain at the end of the eighteenth century, with special attention to its neurological aspects, and to propose its medical and psychopathological explanation. An epidemic of people affected by the tarantula bite occurred in Spain in 1782. Spanish doctors described appropriately the clinical effects, identical to those produced by the bite of the spider black widow (Latrodectus tredecimguttatus), which was at that time identified as a tarantula. The cases reported by Francisco Xavier Cid cured with the involuntary dance triggered by the tarantella, as was described in Italy since the sixteenth century. Our interpretation is that this curative effect of dance in Spain was induced by suggestion. In Spanish patients there were no behavioral disturbances, periodic recurrences or collective involvement as those reported by Italian authors, which suggest an hysterical phenomenon, probably a continuation of the dancing mania of the Middle Age. Tarantism reported in Spain in the eighteenth century includes two different phenomena: the systemic symptoms produced by the tarantula bite, which is actually latrodectism, and the curative effect of the tarantella, explained by suggestion. The psychiatric disturbances, with a hysterical nature, falsely associated to the tarantula bite, observed in Italy, were not present among the Spanish cases of tarantism in the eighteenth century.

  12. Small fluxgate magnetometers: development and future trends in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, David; Díaz-Michelena, Marina; Pérez, Lucas; Aroca, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  13. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Pérez; Claudio Aroca; Marina Díaz-Michelena; David Ciudad

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  14. Small Fluxgate Magnetometers: Development and Future Trends in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we give an overview of the research on fluxgate magnetometers carried out in Spain. In particular we focus in the development of the planar-type instruments. We summarize the fabrication processes and signal processing developments as well as their use in complex systems and space.

  15. Disability related to road traffic crashes among adults in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Palmera-Suárez

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: The prevalence of disability due to road traffic accidents in Spain is lower than in other developed countries, with middle-aged and socio-economically underprivileged persons being the most affected. Disability due to road traffic accidents is related to a greater demand for social/health care support, problems of accessibility/commuting, and major changes in economic activity.

  16. Time use in Spain: is polychronicity a cultural phenomenon?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adams, S.J.M.; van Eerde, W.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to measure polychronicity in Spain, traditionally typified as having a polychronic culture, characterized by a multifocused working environment. Design/methodology/approach - A sample of 134 executives from 19 organizations in Madrid completed a questionnaire

  17. Universal Developmental Screening: Preliminary Studies in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmiento Campos, Jose A.; Squires, Jane; Ponte, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    "A_Tempo" is a research project that is currently under development in Galicia, an autonomous community of Spain. Its main aim is to propose an effective universal screening procedure for early identification of developmental disorders in children from zero to three years of age who attend Galician pre-primary schools.…

  18. From Dictatorship to Democracy: History of Education in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñao, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    In a book published in 1995 providing an overview on the state of the art in European educational historiography in Europe, Marie-Madeleine Compère referring to post-Franco Spain, emphasised the "dynamism" and "the capacity to mobilise" that had arisen among Spanish researchers by "any collective initiative." Moving…

  19. The Slow Reform of Teacher Education in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morganstern de Finkel, Sara

    1991-01-01

    After 16 years of transition from dictatorship to democracy, Spain's teacher education system has not changed substantially. The existing model is much criticized, but politics impede the process of change. The proposed new model for preservice training shows little innovation, but some progress is seen in inservice training. (MSE)

  20. Naval Assistance to Spain and the Triple Entente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas W. Mitiukov

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I Spain rendered military support to the Triple Entente, avoiding the regime of neutrality. Five trawlers, converted into minesweepers were sold to Russia and eight – to Italy. Data, concerning France, vary. There is information about no less than 27 trawlers. But probably 243 watercrafts were sold to France and 14 were contracted to build.

  1. Inclusive Education in Spain: Promoting Advocacy by Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luis, Edurne Chocarro

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews the journey of special education in Spain by considering the legal frameworks. It examines the extent to which legislation has tapped into the feelings of society in general towards people with disabilities who wish to secure inclusion in both education and society. It tracks the evolution of legislation, originally based on a…

  2. Ancient DNA reveals past existence of Eurasian lynx in Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez-Varela, R.; García, N.; Nores, C.

    2016-01-01

    . The paleontological record and our data indicate a population replacement of the Iberian lynx by the Eurasian lynx during the Pleistocene/Holocene transition in the Cantabrian cornice of Spain. Phylogeographic patterns of Late Pleistocene and Holocene Eurasian lynx from Iberia, France, Italy and Denmark show...

  3. Networks and Selection in International Migration to Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neubecker, Nina; Smolka, Marcel; Steinbacher, Anne

    This paper provides new evidence on migrant networks as determinants of the scale and skill structure of migration, using aggregate data from a recent migration boom to Spain. We develop a three-level nested multinomial logit migration model. Our model accommodates varying degrees of similarity...

  4. A survey of Rocketry and astronautics in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluquer, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The entire field of rocketry and astronautics in Spain was studied. Congreve war rockets in military actions were emphasized in the African war, the Cuban campaign and the Spanish Civil War. Rockets in space travel were also summarized along with space science fiction.

  5. Regulatory aspects to the radioactive facilities in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormo Ferrero, Manuel Jose

    1998-01-01

    The work refers the history to the nuclear energy in Spain, the creation to the Junta de Energia Nuclear for the regulatory control as regards to radiological protection and security, and the laws and established ordinances for these ends in the country

  6. Languages, Minorities and Education in Spain: The Case of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer, Ferran

    2000-01-01

    Examines Catalan's remarkable revival in Catalonia (Spain) in the past 20 years. Discusses the 1978 referendum designating "autonomous communities," their languages having co-official status with Spanish; increases in Catalan usage in many sectors and among the young; Catalan usage in education; and challenges related to bilingual…

  7. The evolution of the treatment of urban waste water Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cajigas Delgado, A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the evolution of the wastewater treatment sector in Spain during the last three decades and identifies the milestone events that influenced its transformation. It analyses the situation before and after the major development plans and how they have had influence in the main regulations. (Author)

  8. Canal + Spain & Live Football Broadcasts: A Whole Different Game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez Ortega, Vicente; Romero Santos, Rubén

    2017-01-01

    textabstractIn 1988 the Law for Private Television Broadcasting was approved by Spanish parliament. Three licenses were initially awarded. Soon thereafter, in 1990, three channels started broadcasting: Antena 3, Berlusconi-related Tele 5 and, against all odds, a pay channel, Canal + Spain. This

  9. Foreign Policy Aspect of Regional Politics of Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A V Shabaga

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the regional participation of Autonomous Communities of Spain in European upbringing. The history of the process is investigated as well as the main initiatives of the Spanish government towards the integration of Autonomous Communities in the European Union decision making process are analyzed.

  10. Women, University and Science in Twentieth-Century Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Antonio Fco.

    2018-01-01

    This article aims to question the widely accepted idea that female university students in Spain have, in the past, tended to opt for degrees in the field of humanities. Based on an analysis of the official statistics that are currently available, the paper demonstrates that Spanish female university students showed a clear preference for…

  11. Postgraduate Studies in Librarianship and Information Science in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Cañavate, Antonio; Larios-Suárez, Verónica

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews the history and current situation of postgraduate studies in Librarianship and Information Science (LIS) at the university level in Spain before and after the development of the Bologna Process's European Higher Education Area (EHEA). It contextualizes the historical development of these studies, describing how official…

  12. Spain: Marine sciences information activity report for 1999/2000

    OpenAIRE

    Wulff, Enrique

    2002-01-01

    This 99/00 marine sciences-relevant activities report is a portrait of research information available within Spain. From the least available electronic information on such subjects as vaccines to a flood of information on thematics like Spanish Antartic research.

  13. The 'Tortonian salinity crisis' of the eastern Betics (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krijgsman, W.; Garcés, Miguel; Agustí, Jorge; Raffi, I.; Taberner, C.; Zachariasse, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    The late Miocene depositional history of the Lorca and Fortuna basins, both occupying an internal position in the eastern Betics of Spain, is marked by a regressive sequence from open marine marls, via diatomites and evaporites, to continental sediments. Based on facies similarities, these

  14. Investigation on sea water desalination plants in Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, S.; Sterner, R.; Ugarte, J.

    1978-01-01

    A description of various experimental installations at La Moncloa in Madrid, Spain, are presented. These include multi-flash, vapor compression, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis and solar distillation projects. Also described are pilot projects for multi-flash and vapor-compression distillation located in Lanzarote, Canary Islands. Computer programs for these systems are given.

  15. Investigating the reasons for Spain's falling birth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, X

    1998-09-12

    On August 25, 1998, the Spanish National Institute of Statistics announced that Spain, which has had the most accelerated decrease in fecundity of all European countries during the last 25 years, had the lowest birth rate in Europe. Spain's average birth rate was 2.86 in 1970, 2.21 in 1980, and 1.21 in 1994. According to Eurostat, Spain's average birth rate in 1995 was 1.18, while the European Community's was 1.43. Although all the countries of the European Community have birth rates below 2.1, Spain's is 44% below this minimum rate needed to achieve generation replacement. In 1994 and 1997, in 5 northern communities, including the Basque country and Galicia, the birth rate was less than 1.0. The lowest birth rate (0.76 in 1997) was in the northern region of Asturias. Although southern autonomous regions have higher birth rates (between 1.21 and 1.44 for 1997) than northern ones, these are also decreasing (from 3.36 in 1970 to 1.29 in 1997 in Andalusia). Credit for the rapid decrease is given to improved quality of life and education, increased contraceptive usage, and social change. Employment of women has increased, and unemployed sons are remaining at home for longer periods. The most important reasons are 1) the increased number of single people and 2) the increased average age of women having their first child. The latter increase began in 1988. Most Spanish women now have their first child between the ages of 30 and 39 years. The average age was 28 years in 1975; in 1995, it was 30 years. Women from the northern autonomous regions have the highest average age at first birth (Basque women, 31.2 years in 1995). The pattern of fecundity in Spain is different from other countries in Europe. In Spain, the decrease started in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Until the 1980s, Spain had one of the highest birth rates in Europe. This was followed by a decrease in the 1990s. However, in 1997, there were 3000 more births than in 1996. The National Institute of Demography

  16. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    Spain, with an area of 504 748 km''2, occupies a large part of the Iberian Peninsula. At present the country appears to have about 6300 t of reasonably assured uranium reserves and 8500 t of additional estimated reserves (all at less than $30/lb of U 3 O 8 ). Spain has devoted some $33 million to prospecting for uranium since the beginning of such work. Most of the reasonably assured reserves are located in ores impregnating Cambrian schists intersected by Hercynian granites (of so-called 'Iberian type'); a small amount, however, is found in veins in Hercynian granites of the Spanish Meseta. The additional estimated reserves are situated in the peripheral post-Hercynian continental basins of the Meseta. Apart from these classical ores, sub-ores have been identified in Silurian quartzites with low concentrations of uranium associated with refractory minerals, totalling more than 200,000 t of U (at concentrations of a few hundred ppm); there are likewise uranium-bearing Oligocene lignites in the Ebro Basin with some 140,000 t of U. These facts, and also the very wide distribution of uranium in space and time (from the Cambrian to the Miocene!) and the country's favourable geological characteristics, suggest that Spain ought in fact to have large reserves of uranium, a conclusion unfortunately belied by the paucity of the economic reserves identified so far. Two things must be borne in mind, however; firstly, Spain's financial outlay for uranium prospecting up till now represents only a quarter of what has been invested in France, for example, and, secondly, the nature of the mineralised bodies in Spain makes exploration difficult. In conclusion it seems that prospecting both of the Iberian-type deposits in the Meseta region and of the deposits associated with detrital sediments in the peripheral continental basins - especially blind mineralized bodies - should hold out excellent prospects for Spain. Consequently we propose that Spain should be placed at least in

  17. Utility and Actual Use of European and Spanish Guidelines on the Management of Endometrial Cancer Among Gynecologic Oncologists in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapardiel, Ignacio; Blancafort, Claudia; Cibula, David; Jaunarena, Ibon; Gorostidi, Mikel; Gil-Moreno, Antonio; De Santiago, Javier

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze the current management of endometrial cancer across Spain and to evaluate the use and applicability of the national and international guidelines. An electronic 30-question survey was distributed among all Spanish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology-registered specialists dedicated to gynecologic oncology in Spain by e-mail. Data were collected anonymously and analyzed using SPSS program. One hundred forty-five (17.8%) surveys were collected. Significant differences were observed between tertiary hospitals and secondary or private hospitals in terms of appropriate (according to European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology guidelines) nodal staging in low-risk cases (96 [95%] vs 27 [61.4%], respectively; P comparing centers with less than 20 cases per year to centers with more than 40 cases annually, with significant differences in the management of low-risk and intermediate-risk endometrial cancers. This cross-sectional study demonstrates a broad heterogeneity of care giving between the clinical national and international guidelines and the actual practice in Spain. Although most of the responders refer to base their endometrial cancer management on Spanish and European Society of Gynaecologic Oncology guidelines (64.1%), many discrepancies have been observed, mainly in the management of intermediate-risk cases and follow-up. It may be caused by the lack of consensus on certain points, lack of facilities in lower case load centers, and also due to disagreement or unawareness on the current knowledge.

  18. Socioeducative labor of the Salesian missions in America and Spain in the XIX century and the beginning of XX century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente LlORENT BEDMAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to highlight the initial labour of the Salesian missions, being one of the most significant religious congregations from the nineteenth century to the present, in the history of America and Spain. It is inevitable stand out their pedagogical-religious milestones, that were developed in both territories by chronological order in the different national contexts. For offering an illustration of their educational impact and social work; we must remember that, from the beginning, the Salesian were worried about the training and education of young people wherever they has spread. So we analyzes the evolution since the arrival of the first Salesians for America (1874 and Spain (1880, until the early twentieth century, still being 3526 in 31 countries, more than half of America. We can argue that the diverse historical, economic, political and cultural aspects of Spain and America, the Salesian had peculiar features in each of these territories. However, both have a common core: the application of preventive educational system and the social integration of young people.

  19. Provincial-level spatial statistical modelling of the change in per capita disposable Family Income in Spain, 1975-1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Griffith

    1998-02-01

    Full Text Available Computational simplifications for a space-time autoregressive response model specification are explored for the change in Spain's per capita disposable family income between 1975 and 1983. The geographic resolution for this analysis is the provincial partitioning of part of the Iberian peninsula into Spain's 47 coterminous provinces coupled with its 3 island clusters provinces. In keeping with the Paelinckian tradition of spatial econometrics, exploration focuses on both new spatial econometric estimators and model specifications that emphasize the capturing of spatial dependency effects in the mean response term. One goal of this analysis is to differentiate between spatial, temporal, and space-time interaction information contained in the per capita disposable family income data. A second objective of the application is to illustrate the utility of extending computational simplifications from the spatial to the space-time domain. And a third purpose is to gain some substantive insights into the economic development of one country in a changing Europe. A serendipitous outcome of this investigation is a detailed analysis of locational information latent in Spain's regionally disaggregated per capita disposable family income.

  20. Factors associated with active aging in Finland, Poland, and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, Jaime; Martin, Steven; Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis; Chatterji, Somnath; Garin, Noe; Koskinen, Seppo; Leonardi, Matilde; Miret, Marta; Moneta, Victoria; Olaya, Beatriz; Tobiasz-Adamczyk, Beata; Haro, Josep Maria

    2014-08-01

    Continuous population aging has raised international policy interest in promoting active aging (AA). AA theoretical models have been defined from a biomedical or a psychosocial perspective. These models may be expanded including components suggested by lay individuals. This paper aims to study the correlates of AA in three European countries, namely, Spain, Poland, and Finland using four different definitions of AA. The EU COURAGE in Europe project was a cross-sectional general adult population survey conducted in a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized population of Finland, Poland, and Spain. Participants (10,800) lived in the community. This analysis focuses on individuals aged 50 years old and over (7,987). Four definitions (two biomedical, one psychosocial, and a complete definition including biomedical, psychosocial, and external variables) of AA were analyzed. Differences in AA were found for country, age, education, and occupation. Finland scored consistently the highest in AA followed by Spain and Poland. Younger age was associated with higher AA. Higher education and occupation was associated with AA. Being married or cohabiting was associated with better AA compared to being widowed or separated in most definitions. Gender and urbanicity were not associated with AA, with few exceptions. Men scored higher in AA only in Spain, whereas there was no gender association in the other two countries. Being widowed was only associated with lower AA in Poland and not being married was associated with lower AA in Poland and Finland but not Spain. Associations with education, marital status, and occupation suggest that these factors are the most important components of AA. These association patterns, however, seem to vary across the three countries. Actions to promote AA in these countries may be addressed at reducing inequalities in occupation and education or directly tackling the components of AA lacking in each country.

  1. Crisis, suicide and labour productivity losses in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Berta; Casal, Bruno; Currais, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Suicide became the first cause of death between the ages of 15 and 44 in Spain in the year 2013. Moreover, the suicide rate in Spain went up by more than 9 % with respect to the previous year. This increase could be related to the serious economic recession that Spain has been experiencing in recent years. In this sense, there is a lack of evidence to help assess to what extent these suicides have a social cost in terms of losses in human capital. Firstly, this article examines the relationship between the variables related to the economic cycle and the suicide rates in the 17 Spanish regions. Secondly, an estimate is made of the losses in labour productivity owing to these suicides. In this article, panel data models are used to consider different variables related to the economic cycle. Demographic variables and the suicide rates for regions across Spain from 2002 to 2013 also come into play. The present and future production costs owing to premature death from suicide are calculated using a human capital model. These costs are valued from the gross salary that an individual no longer receives in the future at the very moment he or she leaves the labour market. The results provide a strong indication that a decrease in economic growth and an increase in unemployment negatively affect suicide rates. Due to suicide, 38,038 potential years of working life were lost in 2013. This has an estimated cost of over 565 million euros. The economic crisis endured by Spain in recent years has played a role in the higher suicide rates one can observe from the data in official statistics. From a social perspective, suicide is a public health problem with far-reaching consequences.

  2. Nephrology around Europe: organization models and management strategies: Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Francisco, Angel L M; Piñera, Celestino

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this report is to present a picture of the current organization of nephrology in Spain. The Spanish health system offers almost universal coverage, a wide variety of services and a high-quality network of hospitals and primary care centers. Spain has a specialized health care training system that is highly developed, highly regulated, with the capacity to provide high-quality training in 54 different specialties. Nephrology is basically a hospital-based specialty. There are no private dialysis patients in Spain. Hemodialysis centers are 40% public, 15% private and 45% run by companies. The National Health System covers 95% of the population, and there is no cost to patients for treatment of renal disease (dialysis and transplant). We observed a clear decrease of nephrology in residents' election rankings, with position 29 out of 47 specialties in 2007. Some of the reasons for this are the complexity of the subject, no clear information at the university, reduction of professional posts and a very good public service with minimal private practice. In Spain, a model of organization for transplantation was adopted based on a decentralized transplant coordinating network. For cadaveric donors, it compares favorably with rates in other Western countries. Living donor transplantation is very low in Spain--just 10% of total renal transplantation activity. New programs due to financial constraints need to include reduced dialysis costs, greater cost-effectiveness of prescriptions, better handling of ethical issues related to the need for using a clinical score of chronic kidney disease patients to make decisions about conservative or renal replacement therapy and an action plan for improvement of organ donation and transplantation. Recovery of skills (acute kidney injury, biopsies, vascular access, etc.), research and advances in autonomous activities (imaging, surgical and medical vascular training, etc.) are some of the future educational paths needed in

  3. Advances in differential equations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez, Vicente

    2014-01-01

    The book contains a selection of contributions given at the 23rd Congress on Differential Equations and Applications (CEDYA) / 13th Congress of Applied Mathematics (CMA) that took place at Castellon, Spain, in 2013. CEDYA is renowned as the congress of the Spanish Society of Applied Mathematics (SEMA) and constitutes the main forum and meeting point for applied mathematicians in Spain. The papers included in this book have been selected after a thorough refereeing process and provide a good summary of the recent activity developed by different groups working mainly in Spain on applications of mathematics to several fields of science and technology. The purpose is to provide a useful reference of academic and industrial researchers working in the area of numerical analysis and its applications.

  4. Does social capital travel? Influences on the life satisfaction of young people living in England and Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Antony R

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study used a social capital framework to examine the relationship between a set of potential protective ('health assets' factors and the wellbeing of 15 year adolescents living in Spain and England. The overall purpose of the study was to compare the consistency of these relationships between countries and to investigate their respective relative importance. Methods Data were drawn from the 2002, English and Spanish components of the WHO Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC survey A total of 3,591 respondents (1884, Spain; 1707, England aged 15, drawn from random samples of students in 215 and 80 schools respectively were included in the study. A series of univariate, bivariate and multivariate (general linear modelling and decision tree analyses were used to establish the relationships. Results Results showed that the wellbeing of Spanish and English adolescents is similar and good. Three measures of social capital and 2 measures of social support were found to be important factors in the general linear model. Namely, family autonomy and control; family and school sense of belonging; and social support at home and school. However, there were differences in how the sub components of social capital manifest themselves in each country--feelings of autonomy of control, were more important in England and social support factors in Spain. Conclusions There is some evidence to suggest that social capital (and its related concept of social support do travel and are applicable to young people living in Spain and England. Given the different constellation of assets found in each country, it is not possible to define exactly the precise formula for applying social capital across cultures. This should more appropriately be defined at the programme planning stage.

  5. On a Lecture Trip to Spain: The Scientific Relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presas i Puig, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the scientific relations between Germany and Spain during the Entente Boycott (1919-1926) and the German academic policy that fostered it. The study of the international relations of German science during the 1920s has been carried out using as a basis the archives of scientific institutions. Personal…

  6. Curve numbers for olive orchard catchments in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguas, Encarnación; Yuan, Yongping; Licciardello, Feliciana; Gómez, Jose

    2014-05-01

    The Curve Number (CN) method (Soil Conservation Service, 1972) is widely applied around the world to estimate direct runoff and the corresponding hydrograph of a rainfall event. Its efficient and simple computation, its complete parameterization for different soils, uses and managements and its good performance justify its application. Nevertheless, apart from Romero et al. (2007) who calculated CN-values at the plot scale, there is little information on the model performance in olive orchards at the catchment scale. In this work, the CN-model has been applied in three small catchments in Spain ranging between 6 and 8 ha with different soil types (regosol, luvisol and vertisol), topography (mean slopes between 9-15%) and management practices (non-tillage with a spontaneous grass cover, minimum tillage, conventional tillage). A rainfall-runoff dataset of 6 years have been used to test the usefulness of model as well as the accuracy of its reference parameterization (CNs and of initial substraction, Ia). CN-values were adjusted, optimized and compared with reference values for orchard crops while the sensitivity of the goodness of fit to Ia was described for each catchment. Classical equations based on the use of CN-percentiles 50, 10 and 90 for determining the antecedent moisture content (AMC) provided very good results with Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients of efficiency equal to 0.73 and 0.81 in two of the catchments with an annual rainfall higher than 600 mm. The third one -with an annual rainfall lower than 400 mm and spontaneous grass cover- showed a different pattern where a multiple linear regression dependant on precipitation and temperature features, represented notably better the rainfall-runoff relationships. Although fractions of Ia on the storage (S) equal to 0.15 and 0.25 allowed to optimize the adjustments of CN, the usual reference of 0.20 is quite appropriate. Finally, significant deviations were observed on reference-CNs for sandy soils that should be

  7. Bluish granites from Extremadura (Spain): a radiological evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Dolores; Neves, Luís.; Peinado, Mercedes; Pereira, Alcides; Rodríguez, Leticia; António Blanco, José

    2010-05-01

    We have found in the area of Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain) a variety of striking bluish granites, outcropping within the Plasenzuela pluton. They are all quarried under different names and are characterized by leucocratic minerals such as quartz, feldspar (both potassium and plagioclase), sometimes giving a fenocrystic texture and muscovite, with some biotite. As accessory phases, idiomorphic tourmaline is found. Recently a bluish phosphate distributed in the whole rock was detected, included within most mineral phases and fillings from stressed structures that are cutting the rock. We attribute the bluish color of the granites to this phosphate. Although biotite is almost always transformed to chlorite, the rock gives an excellent response to be polished. Physico-mechanical properties make this bluish granite a perfect option for most applications. Absorption coefficient is rather low and alteration by thermal changes has not been observed. A secondary facies with yellow colour also occurs, spatially close to the topographic surface, and probably represents an alteration product of the original granite. This facies is also commercialized as ornamental stone. A radiological survey was carried out in the field, using a gamma ray spectrometer. The radiological background is quite homogeneous in the pluton, without significant differences between gamma ray fluxes of both facies (altered and non altered). The average contents of U, Th and K2O determined in situ with the spectrometer are 7.4 ppm, 0.8 ppm and 3.67%, respectively (n=15). Using U as a Ra proxy, the I index of the EU technical document 112 can be determined, and results in a value of 0.64 for the referred composition. This implies that the rock can be used without any restrictions for building purposes. However, a marked difference was observed in radon exhalation tests carried out in laboratorial facilities. The dominant blue variety shows radon exhalation rates comprised between 0.02 and 0.04 Bq.kg-1.h-1

  8. Land degradation in the Canyoles river watershed, Eastern Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Gonzalez Peñaloza, F. A.; Imeson, A. C.; Gimenez Morera, A.

    2012-04-01

    Human induced Land Degradation by actions that have a negative impact on the functioning of the environment (Imeson, 2012). Mediterranean arid lands have been intensely transformed by human activity through history, especially due to agricultural management. This intense use of the land resulted in a new man made landscape that is evolving as a consequence of the global change to a new situation that can trigger Land Degradation processes. Extensive areas of olive groves, fruit orchards and vineyards, many of them grown on marginal areas (e.g., terraced slopes) as well as non-sustainable land uses have induced different environmental problems in the Canyoles river watershed (Eastern Spain). The human and physical changes suffered by this region are being used as a representative area of the western Mediterranean basin to monitor how the responses to the Desertification and Land Degradation fit. The aim of this research is to evaluate socio-ecological systems as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project. This presentation will show the main Land Degradation processes that has been identified: [1] soil erosion as a consequence of agriculture, [2] soil compaction due to herbicide and heavy machinery use, [3] soil sealing on croplands due to heavy vehicles and asphalt and concrete application on roads, [4] soil/water pollution due to agrochemicals, [5] reduction of biodiversity in croplands due to herbicides and substitution of the traditional irrigation system, [6] urbanization processes of rural areas due to the development of urban areas and agricultural infrastructures, [7] monoculture of citrus plantations in the lower part of the watershed, [8] roads and railway construction, [9] aquifer depletion, [10] abandonment of industrial activities, [11] abandonment of local traditional practices for food production and other resources and [12] the effect of land abandonment and wildfires in the nearby mountainous

  9. [Health Campaigns Against Malaria in Spain through the Specialized Journalism in Spain (1929-1954)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barón Cano, Natalia; Mosquera Gordillo, Miguel Armando; Ballester Añón, Rosa

    2016-06-07

    Malaria was one of the most important public health problems of the Colonial Medicine and, for this reason, the subject was reflected in the Spanish medical journalism. The aim of the paper was to reconstruct the Spanish contributions to international health during the first half of the twentieth century. The primary sources of information on malaria were the medical journals Medicina de los Países Cálidos and Medicina Colonial, between 1929 and 1954. The documents were classified according to the sections of the magazine and its contents were studied, framing them in the history of international public health. In primary sources were found 466 documents. Malaria was one of the major diseases of the Spanish Protectorate in Morocco and Spanish Guinea, favoured by the occupation of the Spanish army. Antimalaria campaigns included strategies such as the use of Dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane, preventive education and massive quininización. Malariology in the specialized journalism, experienced a growing boom. The most outstanding authors in magazines analyzed were Gustavo Pittaluga, Sadí de Buen, Eliseo de Buen and Juan Gil-Collado. The Spanish specialized journalism provides the importance e interaction in antimalaria campaigns in Spain and Spanish African colonies of scientific, professional, political and military factors. The colonial situation was negative and marked differences between metropolis and colonies in terms of the effort, efficiency and the different temporal sequence of the measures undertaken.

  10. Genotyping of Coxiella burnetii from domestic ruminants in northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astobiza Ianire

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information on the genotypic diversity of Coxiella burnetii isolates from infected domestic ruminants in Spain is limited. The aim of this study was to identify the C. burnetii genotypes infecting livestock in Northern Spain and compare them to other European genotypes. A commercial real-time PCR targeting the IS1111a insertion element was used to detect the presence of C. burnetii DNA in domestic ruminants from Spain. Genotypes were determined by a 6-loci Multiple Locus Variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA panel and Multispacer Sequence Typing (MST. Results A total of 45 samples from 4 goat herds (placentas, N = 4, 12 dairy cattle herds (vaginal mucus, individual milk, bulk tank milk, aerosols, N = 20 and 5 sheep flocks (placenta, vaginal swabs, faeces, air samples, dust, N = 21 were included in the study. Samples from goats and sheep were obtained from herds which had suffered abortions suspected to be caused by C. burnetii, whereas cattle samples were obtained from animals with reproductive problems compatible with C. burnetii infection, or consisted of bulk tank milk (BTM samples from a Q fever surveillance programme. C. burnetii genotypes identified in ruminants from Spain were compared to those detected in other countries. Three MLVA genotypes were found in 4 goat farms, 7 MLVA genotypes were identified in 12 cattle herds and 4 MLVA genotypes were identified in 5 sheep flocks. Clustering of the MLVA genotypes using the minimum spanning tree method showed a high degree of genetic similarity between most MLVA genotypes. Overall 11 different MLVA genotypes were obtained corresponding to 4 different MST genotypes: MST genotype 13, identified in goat, sheep and cattle from Spain; MST genotype 18, only identified in goats; and, MST genotypes 8 and 20, identified in small ruminants and cattle, respectively. All these genotypes had been previously identified in animal and human clinical samples from several

  11. Social Life Cycle Assessment of a Concentrated Solar Power Plant in Spain: A Methodological Proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corona, Blanca; Bozhilova-Kisheva, Kossara Petrova; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    of sustainability, namely, economy, environment, and society. Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is a novel methodology still under development, used to cover the social aspects of sustainability within LCSA. The aim of this article is to provide additional discussion on the practical application of S...... generation in a concentrated solar power plant in Spain. The inventory phase was completed by using the indicators proposed by the United Nations Environment Program/Society for Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (UNEP/SETAC) Guidelines on S-LCA. The impact assessment phase was approached by developing...... a social performance indicator that builds on performance reference points, an activity variable, and a numeric scale with positive and negative values. The social performance indicator obtained (+0.42 over a range of –2 to +2) shows that the deployment of the solar power plant increases the social welfare...

  12. Seismic and environmental qualification of class IE equipment manufactured in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerini, P.; Lumbreras, A.; Naredo, F.

    1978-01-01

    Nuclear power plant instrumentation and control design is affected by several factors such as various plant operating conditions, transient response capability, safety requirements and changes in IEEE standards. Recent upgraded IEEE standards that call for Qualification of all Safety related I anc C equipment, namely IEEE 323 (Qualifying Class IE Electric Equipment for nuclear power generating stations) and its daughter Standard IEEE 344 (Recommended Practices for Seismic Qualification of Class IE Equipment for nuclear power generating stations) have been endorsed by the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission through the issuance of corresponding Regulatory Guides. The author describes the Qualification requirements applicable to the Class IE I and C Components made in Spain for the different vintages of plants, and the programs implemented or plans established by Westinghouse to fulfill those requirements. (author)

  13. Domestic Service and the Labour Market in Spain: A Gender Perspective on Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Domínguez Mujica

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Many Spanish women manage to cope with the demands of both job and family by hiring immigrant women to do some housework and look after dependant relatives. In the last few years there has been an important increase in the demand for extra-communitarian workers to carry out this kind of task. These workers have been segregated by sex regarding occupation. In the procedure of regularisation of foreign workers that took place in Spain during 2005, 83.4 percent of the applications for jobs in the area of domestic service were submitted by women (around 220,000, with an absolute predominance of immigrants from Latin America. Among the factors that explain this specialization we may find cultural affinity and the flexibility that characterizes this kind of job. This phenomenon reveals an occupational ethno-stratification on the grounds of gender and origin.

  14. Interactive Lab to Learn Radio Astronomy, Microwave & Antenna Engineering at the Technical University of Cartagena (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Daniel Quesada-Pereira

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available An initiative carried out at the Technical University of Cartagena (UPCT, Spain to encourage students and promote the interest for Scientific and Engineering Culture between society is presented in this contribution. For this purpose, a long-term project based on the set-up of an interactive laboratory surrounding a small Radio Telescope (SRT system has been carried out. The main novelty is that this project is entirely being developed by students of last courses of our Telecommunication Engineering Faculty, under the supervision of four lecturers. This lab offers the possibility to remotely control the SRT, and it provides a set of multimedia web-based applications to produce a novel, practical, multidisciplinary virtual laboratory to improve the learning and teaching processes in related sciences and technologies.

  15. Assessment of the occupational exposures at two NORM industries located at the South of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Tenorio, Rafael; Juan Pedro, Bolivar

    2008-01-01

    On the frame of a broad project devoted to the control of exposures in several typical NORM industries located at the South of Spain, the evaluation of the occupational radiation exposures in two industries, one devoted to the production of phosphoric acid by the so-called 'wet-acid method' and the other devoted to the production of titanium dioxide pigments, has been performed. Internal (via inhalation) and external (via gamma) pathways of exposure have been considered in the performed evaluations, arriving in both industrial activities to the same conclusion: under normal running conditions, the increment of the occupational exposures is lower than 1 mSv/y. However, some precautions should be taken in both industries: a) In order not to change drastically the worker time occupational factors, now under application, especially in the areas with high instantaneous external dose rates and; b) During maintenance operations. (author)

  16. Legislative provisions governing installations for the disposal of radioactive waste in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Together with the other installations defined as nuclear or radioactive in the Law on Nuclear Energy of 1964, the construction and operation of nuclear waste facilities are subject to the prior authorisation of the Minister of Industry and Energy. They are also subject to the regulations applicable to mining activities. However, for the moment there exist no criteria regulating the underground disposal of radioactive waste, although it is generally agreed that responsibility for such disposal should be given to a public body, for instance the Junta de Energia Nuclear. Moreover, it is this body which is in charge of the sole existing installation in Spain for the storage of solid radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  17. Life cycle assessment modelling of waste-to-energy incineration in Spain and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margallo, M; Aldaco, R; Irabien, A; Carrillo, V; Fischer, M; Bala, A; Fullana, P

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, waste management systems have been evaluated using a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. A main shortcoming of prior studies was the focus on a mixture of waste with different characteristics. The estimation of emissions and consumptions associated with each waste fraction in these studies presented allocation problems. Waste-to-energy (WTE) incineration is a clear example in which municipal solid waste (MSW), comprising many types of materials, is processed to produce several outputs. This paper investigates an approach to better understand incineration processes in Spain and Portugal by applying a multi-input/output allocation model. The application of this model enabled predictions of WTE inputs and outputs, including the consumption of ancillary materials and combustibles, air emissions, solid wastes, and the energy produced during the combustion of each waste fraction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A set of rapid-response models for pollutant dispersion assessments in southern Spain coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perianez, R.; Caravaca, F.

    2010-01-01

    Three rapid-response Lagrangian particle-tracking dispersion models have been developed for southern Spain coastal waters. The three domains cover the Gulf of Cadiz (Atlantic Ocean), the Alboran Sea (Mediterranean), and the Strait of Gibraltar with higher spatial resolution. The models are based on different hydrodynamic submodels, which are run in advance. Tides are calculated using a 2D barotropic model in the three cases. Models used to obtain the residual circulation depend on the physical oceanography of each region. Thus, two-layer models are applied to Gibraltar Strait and Alboran Sea and a 3D baroclinic model is used in the Gulf of Cadiz. Results from these models have been compared with observations to validate them and are then used by the particle-tracking models to calculate dispersion. Chemical, radioactive and oil spills may be simulated, incorporating specific processes for each kind of pollutant. Several application examples are provided.

  19. Early works on the nuclear microprobe for microelectronics irradiation tests at the CEICI (Sevilla, Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palomo, F.R.; Morilla, Y.; Mogollon, J.M.; Garcia-Lopez, J.; Labrador, J.A.; Aguirre, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Particle radiation effects are a fundamental problem in the use of numerous electronic devices for space applications, which is aggravated with the technology shrinking towards smaller and smaller scales. The suitability of low-energy accelerators for irradiation testing is being considered nowadays. Moreover, the possibility to use a nuclear microprobe, with a lateral resolution of a few microns, allows us to evaluate the behavior under ion irradiation of specific elements in an electronic device. The CEICI is the new CEnter for Integrated Circuits Irradiation tests, created into the facilities at the Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA) in Sevilla-Spain. We have verified that our 3 MV Tandem accelerator, typically used for ion beam characterization of materials, is also a valuable tool to perform irradiation experiments in the low LET (Linear Energy Transfer) region.

  20. Rape and transgression. Forensic medicine and sexual morality in Spain in the 19th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorente Carpena, Amalio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to analyse the importance of the contribution of the Spanish forensic medical discourse in the 19th century, and its application in cases of sexual harassment, to legitimize the sexual moral value of the time. For that reason we will analyse the main forensic medicine treaties edited in Spain during this century.

    En este trabajo se examina la contribución del discurso médico-forense español del siglo XIX, a través de su aplicación en los casos de agresión sexual, a la legitimación del orden moral sexual de la época. Con este objetivo se analizan los principales tratados de Medicina Forense editados en nuestro país durante ese siglo.