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Sample records for tinh structure nam

  1. Tiềm năng lớn của vệ tinh siêu nhỏ đáp ứng nhu cầuquản lý hàng hải của Việt Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Vu Trong, Thu; Pham Quang, Hung; Nguyen Hoang, Giang; Nguyen, Hugo

    2011-01-01

    Trong 10 năm gần đây, loại vệ tinh siêu nhỏ có kích thước 10x10x10 cm và trọng lượng 1 kg với tên gọi CubeSat từ công cụ thực hành của sinh viên đại học đang dần trở thành nền tảng cho những vệ tinh có khả năng ứng dụng trong thực tiễn. Ngày nay, người sử dụng có thể tự thiết kế hoặc mua sẵn linh kiện điện tử và cơ khí lắp thành vệ tinh cỡ 1, 2, 3... kg với các tính năng mong muốn. Ưu điểm của loại vệ tinh siêu nhỏ này là thời gian chế tạo ngắn, chi phí thấp và càng phát huy năng lực khi sử d...

  2. Drill bit seismic, vertical seismic profiling, and seismic depth imaging to aid drilling decisions in the Tho Tinh structure, Nam Con Son basin, Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borland, W.; Hayashida, N.; Kusaka, H.; Leaney, W.; Nakanishi, S.

    1996-10-01

    This paper reviews the problem of overpressure, a common reason for acquiring look-ahead VSPs, and the seismic trace inversion problem, a fundamental issue in look-ahead prediction. The essential components of intermediate VSPs were examined from acquisition through processing to inversion, and recently acquired real data were provided, which were indicative of the advances being made toward developing an exclusive high resolution VSP service. A simple interpretation method and an end product of predicted mud weight versus depth were also presented, which were obtained from the inverted acoustic impedance and empirical relations. Of paramount importance in predicting the depth to a target was the velocity function used below the intermediate TD. The use of empirical or assumed density functions was an obvious weak link in the procedure. The advent of real-time time-depth measurements from drill bit seismic allowed a continuously updated predicted target depth below the present bit depth. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  3. The Innovative Structure Solution for Preventing Salt Intrusion and Retaining Freshwater In Mekong Delta VietNam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, S.T.; Vrijling, J.K.; Stive, M.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta Vietnam, the construction of sluices with the purpose of retaining fresh water and preventing salt water intrusion potentially plays a very important role. However, the structures constructed in small rivers according to local or traditional technology revealed many disadvantages

  4. Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... Viet Nam has undergone remarkable change, evidenced by significant poverty reduction, sustained high growth, trade liberalization and transition to a market economy. However, changes in the structure of economic (and political) governance have not proceeded apace, leaving the economy exposed to external shocks.

  5. Verify MesoNAM Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III

    2010-01-01

    The AMU conducted an objective analysis of the MesoNAM forecasts compared to observed values from sensors at specified KSC/CCAFS wind towers by calculating the following statistics to verify the performance of the model: 1) Bias (mean difference), 2) Standard deviation of Bias, 3) Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), and 4) Hypothesis test for Bias = O. The 45 WS LWOs use the MesoNAM to support launch weather operations. However, the actual performance of the model at KSC and CCAFS had not been measured objectively. The analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature and dew point to the observed values from the sensors on wind towers. The data were stratified by tower sensor, month and onshore/offshore wind direction based on the orientation of the coastline to each tower's location. The model's performance statistics were then calculated for each wind tower based on sensor height and model initialization time. The period of record for the data used in this task was based on the operational start of the current MesoNAM in mid-August 2006 and so the task began with the first full month of data, September 2006, through May 2010. The analysis of model performance indicated: a) The accuracy decreased as the forecast valid time from the model initialization increased, b) There was a diurnal signal in T with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, c) There was a diurnal signal in Td with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night, and d) The model parameters at each vertical level most closely matched the observed parameters at heights closest to those vertical levels. The AMU developed a GUI that consists of a multi-level drop-down menu written in JavaScript embedded within the HTML code. This tool allows the LWO to easily and efficiently navigate among the charts and spreadsheet files containing the model performance statistics. The objective statistics give the LWOs knowledge of the model's strengths and

  6. Field Survey of Cinnamon in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Michiho, Ito; Yasuo, Shimada; Fumiyuki, Kiuchi; Tran Kim, Qui; Gisho, Honda; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University; Mitsuboshi Pharmacutical Co.; Tsukuba Medicinal Plant Research Station, National Institute of Health Siences, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare; Research Center for Applied Chemistry, National University; Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Kyoto University

    2004-01-01

    A field survey of cinnamon in Viet Nam was performed during the period from 1999 till 2001. Interviews were carried out three times covering most of the famous cinnamon producing sites in Viet Nam. Through the interviews, various aspects of current status of cinnamon production were told by the villagers and it turned out that there might be two types of cinnamon trees in Viet Nam, one is the Tra My type andthe other is the Thanh Hoa type. They are very similar in the morphological characteri...

  7. Nam June Paik / Nam June Paik ; interv. Tilman Baumgärtel

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paik, Nam June

    2006-01-01

    Korea-ameerika kunstnikust Nam June Paikist (sünd. 1932), telefoniintervjuu kunstnikuga tema talvekodus Floridas 20.01.2001. Nam June Paiki töödest "Participation TV" (1963), "Video Synthesizer" (1969/70),sateliidiperformance'itest "Good Morning, Mr. Orwell!" (1980), "Bye Bye, Kipling" (1987) ja "Wrap around the World" (1988), näitusest "Electronic Superhighway" (1994) jm. Nam June Paik ka Internetist, Interneti-kunstist, töötamisest laseriga

  8. Estimation of radon and thoron caused dose at extraction and processing sites of mineral sand mining area in Vietnam (HA TINH province)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bui Dac Dung; Trinh Van Giap; Le Dinh Cuong; Tran Khanh Minh; Nguyen Huu Quyet; Nguyen Van Khanh; Tibor Kovacs

    2014-01-01

    Mineral sands are mined in several countries to supply to the titanium and zircon producing industries. Coastal black mineral sands usually contain, besides ilmenite (FeTiO 3 ) and rutile (TiO 2 ), radioactive minerals such as zircon (ZrSiO 4 ) and monazite (RePO 4 ). Radon and thoron activity concentration originated from natural radioactive contents of the black mineral sand was monitored at the extraction and processing for black minerals in the coastal areas of Ha Tinh Province, one of the around 40 coastal mineral sand deposits in Vietnam. The survey was carried out with the Raduet chambers made by Radosys Ltd-Hungary. The obtained results for 25 investigated points show that the measured values are not high in the residential houses and in case of the sand extraction site as well. At the titanium processing plant the measured values were higher than outside the facility (Radon: 18-55 Bq/m 3 with average of 34 Bq/m 3 and Thoron 33-118 Bq/m 3 with average of 58 Bq/m 3 ) but still comparable to the average concentration of the world published by UNSCEAR. The typical outdoor levels of radon and thoron gas are each of the order of 10 Bq/m 3 . Although the radon concentrations were low in the zircon and titanium processing plants, the thoron concentrations in the houses for separating rutile and zircon were very high. At zircon processing factory, the thoron concentration could reach 2,931 Bq/m 3 and the estimated annual effective dose would be 21.4 mSv/a. Intervention has to be taken in order to reduce the thoron level in this factory since the level of thoron and its progenies corresponding to an annual occupational effective dose is beyond the action level of 6 mSv/a. (author)

  9. British firms mark progress off Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    British companies are making more inroads in exploring for oil and gas off Viet Nam. British Gas plc won a 25 year production sharing contract for a license off southern Viet Nam in the South China Sea. Meantime, London independent Lasmo plc started seismic surveys on the block adjoining the British Gas block. Separately, Thailand and Viet Nam have reached agreement to jointly explore for and develop oil and gas found in waters claimed by both countries. Plans call for the two countries to draw up joint development plans covering oil and gas resources in the southeastern fringe of the Gulf of Thailand. Bangkok officials say they would have preferred to delineate maritime boundaries with Hanoi, but opted for the joint development accord, noting that Thailand and Malaysia had taken 12 years to resolve a similar dispute

  10. Deforestation in Viet Nam | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Increased soil erosion, reduced water-storage capacity, changes in microclimates, and loss of nutrients have led to a decline in the productivity of marginal lands and the impoverishment of local communities. In Viet Nam, the situation is particularly urgent. Continuing soil degradation poses an ominous threat to that ...

  11. Reliability analysis of the Red River dikes system in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham Quang, T.

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation presents the applications of probabilistic-based frameworks in geotechnical and hydraulic engineering, for the assessment of the Red River dikes in Viet Nam. Dike along rivers often spread over the deltaic environment and its earthen structures are parts of a long civilian history,

  12. Viet Nam national report: Greenhouse gas limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuong, Le Nguyen; Hieu, Nguyen Khac.

    1998-01-01

    Viet Nam ratified the UNFCCC on 16 November 1994. The Hydro meteorological Service (HMS) has been assigned by the Government to take full responsibility for Climate Change issues and for implementing programs related to the objectives of the UNFCCC. The mount of GHG emission in Viet Nam is 111.7 Tg of CO 2 equivalent. It is expected that the amount will be increased dramatically in the coming decades because of fossil fuel consumption to meet energy demand in the country. Total CO 2 emissions would be increased from 101 Tg in 2000, to 139 Tg, 224 Tg and 433 Tg in 2010, 2020 and 2030 respectively. 13 GHG abatement options including 7 energy options and 6 non-energy options have been developed for this study. (EG)

  13. MesoNAM Verification Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2011-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron Launch Weather Officers use the 12-km resolution North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts to support launch weather operations. In Phase I, the performance of the model at KSC/CCAFS was measured objectively by conducting a detailed statistical analysis of model output compared to observed values. The objective analysis compared the MesoNAM forecast winds, temperature, and dew point to the observed values from the sensors in the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network. In Phase II, the AMU modified the current tool by adding an additional 15 months of model output to the database and recalculating the verification statistics. The bias, standard deviation of bias, Root Mean Square Error, and Hypothesis test for bias were calculated to verify the performance of the model. The results indicated that the accuracy decreased as the forecast progressed, there was a diurnal signal in temperature with a cool bias during the late night and a warm bias during the afternoon, and there was a diurnal signal in dewpoint temperature with a low bias during the afternoon and a high bias during the late night.

  14. North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) [12 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The North American Mesoscale Forecast System (NAM) is one of the major regional weather forecast models run by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction...

  15. A rapid assessment and response approach for socially marketed nutrition commodities in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Tahir; Quang, Nguyen Dinh; Nga, Tran Thuy; Phuong, Huynh; Tung, Le Van Anh; Trang, Vu Hoang

    2017-01-01

    The leading cause of death in children in developing countries is protein-energy malnutrition. In Viet Nam, 25.9% of children under 5 experience stunted growth and 6.6% are moderately wasted. Iron deficiency anaemia and vitamin A deficiency contribute to these and other malnutrition conditions. Given these factors, more evidence based approaches are required to improve understanding of current attitudes, opinions and behaviours of mothers with young children, in order to operationalise social marketing of nutrition commodities in Viet Nam. A literature review supported a rapid assessment and response method involving semi-structured interviews with 77 stakeholders and focus group discussions with 80 program beneficiaries from four geographic locations in the north and south of Viet Nam. Discussion agendas were developed to address key program issues with grounded theory utilized for data analysis. Data analysis highlighted challenges and opportunities within the six Ps of social marketing: Supply and demand side issues included: cost and the quality of products, the limited scale of interventions and promotional activities. Policy issues identified related to current policies that inhibited the broader promotion and distribution of micronutrient products, and opportunities for improved dialogue with policy partners. Partnerships further emphasized the need for public private partnerships to support the social change process. Implications for theory, policy, and practice indicates that rapid assessment and response is a cost-effective, pragmatic method of public health research, in resource constrained settings, to explore policies and behaviours amenable to change and build stakeholder engagement in the program.

  16. Tuberculosis case notification data in Viet Nam, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Viet; Hoa, Nguyen Binh; Khanh, Pham Huyen; Hennig, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and Viet Nam ranks 12 among the 22 high-TB burden countries. This study analyses surveillance data of the National Tuberculosis Control Programme in Viet Nam for the six-year period 2007 to 2012. During the study period, 598,877 TB cases (all forms) were notified, and 313,225 (52.3%) were new smear-positive cases. The case notification rate of new smear-positive cases was decreased, from 65 per 100,000 population in 2007 to 57 per 100,000 population in 2012; this decrease was observed for males and females in all age groups except males aged 0-14 and females aged 15-24 years. The male-to-female ratio of new smear-positive TB cases increased from 2.85 in 2007 to 3.02 in 2012. The average annual cure rate of new smear-positive cases was 90.3%. The high male-to-female ratio for new smear-positive TB cases in this notification data was lower than that from the 2007 TB prevalence survey in Viet Nam, suggesting a lower case detection for males. The decrease in new smear-positive case notification rates may reflect a decline in TB incidence in Viet Nam as several programmatic improvements have been made, although further research is required to increase case detection among young males and children.

  17. Globalization and the Governance of Education in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Jonathan D.

    2010-01-01

    In a globalizing world, local and global governance arrangements are increasingly interdependent, which produces harmonization in some instances and new tensions and contradictions in others. Analysis shows that successive waves of globalization have affected the governance of education in Viet Nam differently. It shows that the globalization of…

  18. Ecological modernisation of industrial estates in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phung Thuy Phuong,

    2002-01-01

    This research provides insights into environmental policy-making and management in Viet Nam, with special reference to industrial estates. It analyses the reasons behind the weaknesses of environmental policy-making and management in dealing

  19. Deforestation in Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Deforestation in Viet Nam reports on a innovative and timely study by a team of Vietnamese and Canadian researchers. It presents a labourious historical analysis of the smallest changes affecting soil use, forest cover, population, and political and socioeconomic characteristics. The book concludes with suggestions for ...

  20. Viet Nam Economic Research Network (VERN) - Phase II | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Over the past decade, Viet Nam has undergone remarkable change, evidenced by significant poverty reduction, sustained high growth, trade liberalization and transition to a market economy. However, changes in ... Dossiers. VERN policy brief : capitalising on the changing role of non-farm household enterprises in Vietna.

  1. All projects related to Viet Nam | Page 3 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-03-16

    The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. Start Date: March 16, 2010. End Date: May 31, 2012. Topic: SMOKING, TOBACCO INDUSTRY, ECONOMIC IMPLICATIONS. Region: Asia, Far East Asia, Viet Nam.

  2. Educating the educators at Hue Medical College, Hue, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pron, A L; Zygmont, D; Bender, P; Black, K

    2008-06-01

    In June 2005, four faculty members from Temple University, Philadelphia, USA, conducted a nursing educator workshop in Hue, Viet Nam. Didactic and clinical instruction addressed paediatric, maternity, psychiatric and surgical nursing content as well as instructional methods and student evaluation techniques. This educator workshop was requested as means of increasing the professionalization of nursing in Viet Nam. Student nurses in Viet Nam are taught by physician-faculty. Between the cultural and economic factors that contribute to the current status and practice of nursing in Viet Nam and the lack of nurse educator role models, the nursing profession has many obstacles to overcome in their quest for increased autonomy. During the workshop, in addition to modelling interactive teaching methods as they taught the classroom and clinical content, these authors also demonstrated the level of knowledge expected of nurses in the USA. Despite much advance planning for this workshop, there were many challenges for the USA faculty. Some of the lessons learned which might help others included having a sense of humour, maintaining flexibility in teaching styles and content, being prepared for the cultural and religious influences on health care, and utilizing all of one's nursing skills to find creative solutions when teaching nursing in another country.

  3. Brain MR image segmentation using NAMS in pseudo-color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Chen, Chuanbo; Fang, Shaohong; Zhao, Shengrong

    2017-12-01

    Image segmentation plays a crucial role in various biomedical applications. In general, the segmentation of brain Magnetic Resonance (MR) images is mainly used to represent the image with several homogeneous regions instead of pixels for surgical analyzing and planning. This paper proposes a new approach for segmenting MR brain images by using pseudo-color based segmentation with Non-symmetry and Anti-packing Model with Squares (NAMS). First of all, the NAMS model is presented. The model can represent the image with sub-patterns to keep the image content and largely reduce the data redundancy. Second, the key idea is proposed that convert the original gray-scale brain MR image into a pseudo-colored image and then segment the pseudo-colored image with NAMS model. The pseudo-colored image can enhance the color contrast in different tissues in brain MR images, which can improve the precision of segmentation as well as directly visual perceptional distinction. Experimental results indicate that compared with other brain MR image segmentation methods, the proposed NAMS based pseudo-color segmentation method performs more excellent in not only segmenting precisely but also saving storage.

  4. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Les directeurs. Peter Boothroyd est directeur du Centre des établissements humains à l'Université de la Colombie-Britannique, à Vancouver, au Canada. Pham Xuan Nam est professeur au Centre national des sciences sociales et humaines à Hanoi, au Vietnam. Il est aussi rédacteur en chef de la Vietnam Social Science ...

  5. Recent increase in sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Z Guilmoto

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Since the 1980s, sex ratio at birth (male births per 100 female births has increased in many Asian countries as a result of selective abortions, but to date there has been no such evidence for Viet Nam. Our aim in this paper is to ascertain the situation with respect to sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam over the past five years. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Original data were obtained from sample population surveys in Viet Nam recording annual birth rates since 2000 of about 450,000 women, as well as from two successive birth surveys conducted for the first time in 2007 (1.1 million births. The annual population surveys include specific information on birth history and mothers' characteristics to be used for the analysis of trends and differentials in sex ratio at birth. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Birth history statistics indicate that the SRB in Viet Nam has recorded a steady growth since 2001. Starting from a level probably close to the biological standard of 105, the SRB reached 108 in 2005 and 112 in 2006, a value significantly above the normal level. An independent confirmation of these results comes from the surveys of births in health facilities which yielded a SRB of 110 in 2006-07. High SRB is linked to various factors such as access to modern health care, number of prenatal visits, level of higher education and employment status, young age, province of residence and prenatal sex determination. These results suggest that prenatal sex determination followed by selective abortion has recently become more common in Viet Nam. This recent trend is a consequence of various factors such as preference for sons, declining fertility, easy access to abortion, economic development as well as the increased availability of ultrasonography facilities.

  6. 31 CFR 500.560 - Bank accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. 500.560... governments in North Korea, North Viet-Nam, Cambodia, or South Viet-Nam. Specific licenses are issued authorizing payments from accounts of official representatives of foreign governments in North Korea, North...

  7. Seismic Interpretation of the Nam Con Son Basin and its Implication for the Tectonic Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Tuan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI:10.17014/ijog.3.2.127-137The Nam Con Son Basin covering an area of circa 110,000 km2 is characterized by complex tectonic settings of the basin which has not fully been understood. Multiple faults allowed favourable migration passageways for hydrocarbons to go in and out of traps. Despite a large amount of newly acquired seismic and well data there is no significant update on the tectonic evolution and history of the basin development. In this study, the vast amount of seismic and well data were integrated and reinterpreted to define the key structural events in the Nam Con Son Basin. The results show that the basin has undergone two extentional phases. The first N - S extensional phase terminated at around 30 M.a. forming E - W trending grabens which are complicated by multiple half grabens filled by Lower Oligocene sediments. These grabens were reactivated during the second NW - SE extension (Middle Miocene, that resulted from the progressive propagation of NE-SW listric fault from the middle part of the grabens to the margins, and the large scale building up of roll-over structure. Further to the SW, the faults of the second extentional phase turn to NNE-SSW and ultimately N - S in the SW edge of the basin. Most of the fault systems were inactive by Upper Miocene except for the N - S fault system which is still active until recent time.

  8. Two Integrator Loop Filters: Generation Using NAM Expansion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Soliman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systematic synthesis method to generate a family of two integrator loop filters based on nodal admittance matrix (NAM expansion is given. Eight equivalent circuits are obtained; six of them are new. Each of the generated circuits uses two grounded capacitors and employs two current conveyors (CCII or two inverting current conveyors (ICCII or a combination of both. The NAM expansion is also used to generate eight equivalent grounded passive elements two integrator loop filters using differential voltage current conveyor (DVCC; six of them are new. Changing the input port of excitation, two new families of eight unity gain lowpass filter circuits each using two CCII or ICCII or combination of both or two DVCC are obtained.

  9. Phylogeography of recently emerged DENV-2 in southern Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia A Rabaa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Revealing the dispersal of dengue viruses (DENV in time and space is central to understanding their epidemiology. However, the processes that shape DENV transmission patterns at the scale of local populations are not well understood, particularly the impact of such factors as human population movement and urbanization. Herein, we investigated trends in the spatial dynamics of DENV-2 transmission in the highly endemic setting of southern Viet Nam. Through a phylogeographic analysis of 168 full-length DENV-2 genome sequences obtained from hospitalized dengue cases from 10 provinces in southern Viet Nam, we reveal substantial genetic diversity in both urban and rural areas, with multiple lineages identified in individual provinces within a single season, and indicative of frequent viral migration among communities. Focusing on the recently introduced Asian I genotype, we observed particularly high rates of viral exchange between adjacent geographic areas, and between Ho Chi Minh City, the primary urban center of this region, and populations across southern Viet Nam. Within Ho Chi Minh City, patterns of DENV movement appear consistent with a gravity model of virus dispersal, with viruses traveling across a gradient of population density. Overall, our analysis suggests that Ho Chi Minh City may act as a source population for the dispersal of DENV across southern Viet Nam, and provides further evidence that urban areas of Southeast Asia play a primary role in DENV transmission. However, these data also indicate that more rural areas are also capable of maintaining virus populations and hence fueling DENV evolution over multiple seasons.

  10. Measuring compliance with Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ha Trong; Passmore, Jonathon; Cuong, Pham Viet; Nguyen, Nam Phuong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this roadside observational study was to monitor helmet wearing among motorcycle riders and passengers in three provinces (Yen Bai, Da Nang and Binh Duong) in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam, before and after a mandatory helmet law took effect on 15 December 2007. A total of 665,428 motorcycle riders and passengers were observed between November 2007 and February 2011 at 45 randomly selected sites covering the entire road network. Across all locations and time periods, correct helmet wearing averaged 40.1% before the law and 92.5% after; however, there were significant differences between time points and locations. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets has been thoroughly implemented nation wide and the results show that high wearing has been sustained. Further study is required on how high helmet wearing has and will translate into a reduction in motorcycle head injuries; however, Viet Nam's motorcycle helmet legislation should be seen as an important policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for personal transport.

  11. Viet Nam National Atomic Energy Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    Vietnam National Atomic Energy Commission (VINATOM) is a governmental body in charge of organizing and coordinating activities related to use of nuclear energy for peaceful purpose. VINATOM in structure consists of the Nuclear Research Institute (Dalat), the Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (Hanoi), the Institute for Technology of Radioactive and Rare Elements (Hanoi), and the Centre for Nuclear Technique Application (Ho Chi Minh City). This catalogue introduces profiles of nuclear R and D activities under management by VINATOM. (N.H.A)

  12. Walking the Line: Quality Assurance Policy Development and Implementation in Vi?t Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Meggan

    2014-01-01

    Although Vi?t Nam's experiences with quality assurance (QA) policy development have been influenced by its relationships with, and funding from, the World Bank and regional organizations, the state-centric values of the Socialist Republic of Vi?t Nam still navigate the implementation process. The development of QA in Vietnamese higher education…

  13. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam: Hanoi et Hô Chi Minh ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    With an annual income of approximately $200 US per capita, the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam is one of the world's poorest countries. It has been repetitively devastated by armed conflicts and frequent large-scale natural disasters for over 50 years. Viet Nam's population is estimated to approximately 70 million, 80% of ...

  14. Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    1999-01-01

    ... Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Book cover Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology. Author(s):. K. Bezanson, J. Annerstedt, K. Chung, D. Hopper, G. Oldham, and F. Sagasti. Publisher(s):. IDRC. January 1, 1999. ISBN: Out of print. 160 pages. e-ISBN: 1552502848.

  15. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H.

    2003-08-01

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development

  16. Cooperation of nuclear manpower development between Viet Nam and Korea in order to enhance establishment of infrastructure in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. J.; Han, K. W.; Park, J. K.; Kim, Y. T.; Nam, Y. M.; Jang, Y. H.; Yang, M. H

    2003-08-15

    Through this project, KAERI provided OJT Programme to 3 nuclear experts of Viet Nam at the KAERI for 3 months as a cooperation of human resource development in the field of nuclear policy, nuclear safety analysis and thermo hydraulic. We could have publicity activities of S/W and H/W then achieve an advantage position of economical and technical in exporting nuclear technology to Viet Nam. Also we have provided a training course and seminar for a high-level delegation of nuclear policy decision makers, which is consisted of 5 deputy ministers and general directors of Viet Nam in Korea. Thus we could have Vietnamese who are favoring Korea. The KAERI will also prepare a data base of trained Vietnamese in Korea for the maximum utilization of them in cooperating with Viet Nam. We accomplished the cooperation of human resource development and providing program and curriculum of the nuclear education and training in Viet Nam. Furthermore, it is expected that the enhancement of nuclear technical cooperation between Viet Nam and Korea and the nuclear human resource development.

  17. My Folkloristic History of the Việt Nam War: A Non-communist Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Long S

    2015-01-01

    Like many families who were on the “wrong” side of the Việt Nam war, my family history has effectively been “displaced” from official discourse in Việt Nam when the country was “reunified” in 1975, as well as in the discourse of public history in the U.S. which has overwhelmingly emphasized the “lessons” of the “American Experience” in Việt Nam. Using my family history as an index of historical processes, I hope to introduce windows on the continuities of what noncommunist Vietnamese do and ...

  18. Time to unsuccessful tuberculosis treatment outcome, Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Sokun, C; Wei, C

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and characteristics of patients with unsuccessful tuberculosis (TB) treatment. METHODS: Random selection of TB case registers among all treatment units in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam. The data of two calendar years were analyzed to assess...... unsuccessful outcomes and their time of occurrence. RESULTS: Among the 33 309 TB patients, treatment was unsuccessful in respectively 10.1%, 3.0% and 9.1% of patients in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam. The risk of death was highest in Cambodia, higher among males than females, increased with age, and was more...... common among retreatment cases than new cases, and among patients with a high than a low sputum smear microscopy grade. Half of all deaths occurred in the first 2 months in Cambodia and within 11 weeks in China and Viet Nam. Median time to default was 3 months in Cambodia and Viet Nam, and about 2 months...

  19. Common perinatal mental disorders in northern Viet Nam: community prevalence and health care use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach; La, Buoi thi; Kriitmaa, Kelsi; Rosenthal, Doreen; Tran, Tuan

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish the prevalence of common perinatal mental disorders their determinants, and their association with preventive health care use among women in one rural and one urban province in northern Viet Nam. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of cohorts of pregnant women and mothers of infants recruited systematically in 10 randomly-selected communes. The women participated in psychiatrist-administered structured clinical interviews and separate structured interviews to assess sociodemographic factors, reproductive health, the intimate partner relationship, family violence and the use of preventive and psychiatric health care. Associations between these variables and perinatal mental disorders were explored through univariate analyses and multivariable logistic regression. Findings Among women eligible for the study (392), 364 (93%) were recruited. Of these, 29.9% (95% confidence interval, CI: 25.20–34.70) were diagnosed with a common perinatal mental disorder (CPMD). The frequency of such disorders during pregnancy and in the postpartum period was the same. Their prevalence was higher among women in rural provinces (odds ratio, OR: 2.17; 95% CI: 1.19–3.93); exposed to intimate partner violence (OR: 2.11; 95% CI: 1.12–3.96); fearful of other family members (OR: 3.36; 95% CI: 1.05–10.71) or exposed to coincidental life adversity (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 2.44–7.93). Fewer women with a CPMD used iron supplements than women without a CPMD, but the results were not statistically significant (P = 0.05). None of the women studied had ever received mental health care. Conclusion Perinatal depression and anxiety are prevalent in women in northern Viet Nam. These conditions are predominantly determined by social factors, including rural residence, poverty and exposure to family violence. At present the needs of women with common perinatal mental disorders are unrecognized and not attended to and their participation in essential

  20. South China sea off Viet Nam to see more exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    British and Japanese operators are posed for exploration campaigns off southern Viet Nam. This paper reports that a 50-50 partnership of Lasmo International Ltd., London, and C. Itoh Exploration Co. of Japan signed a heads of agreement covering Block 04-2, and AEDC Vietnam Oil Development Co. and Teikoku Oil Co. acquired Block 05-3 under a production sharing contract. AEDC is a unit of AOC Energy Development Co., a subsidiary of Arabian Oil Co. (AOC) of Japan. Both tracts are in the Con Son basin in the South China Sea. Site is 15 km north of 500 million bbl Dai Hung (Big Bear) oil field for which state owned Petrovietnam is evaluating bids to place on production. A unit of the Royal Dutch/shell Group acquired a west offset, Block 10, early this year. The Lasmo-C. Itoh acreage is among five blocks offered in Vietnam's second round of offshore licensing. All are in the area that once was reserved entirely for Vietsovpetro, a partnership of Petrovietnam and the former Soviet Union

  1. Family planning in Viet Nam: a vigorous approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, M T

    1994-01-01

    Viet Nam, a country in transition, is vigorously implementing its population and family planning policies and plans, despite the fact that increased government expenditure for family planning only amounts to some US $0.15 per capita, far short of the minimum $0.60 required. An increased range of family planning methods will be offered to the population through a "cafeteria" approach. Genital tract infections will be reduced, as well as the incidence of abortion. Research continues on injectable and implanted contraceptives, and the use of quinacrine nonsurgical female sterilization. In the long term, a mix of imported and locally-produced contraceptives is envisaged to achieve greater sustainability. Family planning will be closely linked to economic development and poverty alleviation, with mass organizations developing family planning-linked credit, savings and income generating schemes. Pilot experience has indicated value if integrated approach linking family planning, nutrition, and parasite control. The health manpower and health services systems are being overhauled, with plans to appoint family planning focal points at commune level, linked to mobile district teams and grassroots motivators. Medical equipment, contraceptives and essential drugs for family planning and reproductive health services are in short supply at an estimated 60% of commune health stations. Both the public sector and the growing private sector will need to face the challenge of providing the population with high-quality reproductive health services and family planning options suited to individual needs and preferences.

  2. Worlds Apart: Nam Le’s The Boat and Ali Alizadeh’s Transactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lachlan Brown

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reads Ali Alizadeh’s transnational book of short stories (Transactions, 2013 as a curious and pointed response to the kind of literary internationalism seen in Nam Le’s The Boat (2008. Le’s work was first published in the same year as Alizadeh’s The New Angel (which was set during the Iranian revolution. There is a sense in which the spectacular success of Le’s book ‘overshadowed’ the publicity for Alizadeh’s novel in the year of its arrival. But Le’s also work contains a story about an American woman visiting Tehran, and his mimicry perhaps signifies a more problematic representational point of comparison. With this in mind, this paper examines Alizadeh’s Transactions exploring the ways in which Alizadeh’s brutally connected global vision is coded through certain aesthetic choices (including structural, tonal and descriptive that offer something very different to the artisanal and paratactic sensibility of The Boat.

  3. Constitution of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam [15 April 1992].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-05-13

    This document reprints Viet Nam's 1992 Constitution, which "stipulates the political, economic, cultural, social, national defense, and security systems; the basic rights and duties of citizens; and the structure and the organizational and operational principles of various state agencies. It institutionalizes the system of relations by which the party is the leader, the people the master, and the state the manager." The first chapter outlines the country's political system, and chapter 2 describes the economic system. Chapter 3 deals with culture, education, science, and technology; while the fourth chapter covers national defense. Chapter 5 sets forth the fundamental rights and duties of citizens and provides that all human rights are respected and that citizens are equal before the law. Citizens also have the right to education and to health care, and discrimination against women is forbidden while pay equity is assured. This chapter also describes families as the "cells of society" and affords state protection to marriage and families while setting reciprocal standards of care for children and parents. Chapter 6 describes the duties and powers of the National Assembly, and chapter 7 those of the president of the state. Chapter 8 describes the role of the governments the executive organ of the National Assembly, and the ninth chapter details the work of People's Councils and People's Committees. Chapter 10 sets up the People's Courts and the People's Organs of Control, while the final chapter explains the legal force of the constitution and the amendment process.

  4. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyen, M N T; Tiemersma, E W; Kremer, K; de Haas, P; Lan, N T N; Buu, T N; Sola, C; Cobelens, F G J; van Soolingen, D

    2013-11-01

    The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests. We quantified the frequency of M. tuberculosis strains lacking IS6110 in rural Viet Nam and studied their epidemiological and clinical characteristics. Consecutively diagnosed adult TB patients in rural Southern Viet Nam submitted two sputum samples for culture, IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) spoligotyping and 15-loci variable number tandem repeat typing. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed to confirm the absence of IS6110 elements in strains lacking IS6110 hybridisation in RFLP. Among 2664 TB patient isolates examined, 109 (4.1%) had no IS6110 element. Compared to other strains, these no-copy strains were less often resistant to anti-tuberculosis drugs, particularly to streptomycin (adjusted OR 0.2, 95%CI 0.1-0.5), and showed significant geographic variation. No associations with TB history or demographic factors were found. Strains without the IS6110 target pose a problem in Viet Nam as regards false-negative molecular TB diagnosis in PCR. Compared to other strains circulating in Viet Nam, no-copy strains are more susceptible to anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  5. Costs of providing tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, H V; Mai, V Q; Nhung, N V; Hoi, L V; Giang, K B; Chung, L H; Kien, V D; Duyen, N T; Ngoc, N B; Anh, T T; Phuong, T B; Ngan, T T; Khanh, P H

    2017-09-01

    To estimate the cost of providing tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis and treatment packages at different levels of health facilities in Viet Nam. This was a retrospective costing study from the providers' perspective using a standard costing approach. We included typical services for TB diagnosis and treatment based on standard protocols. The least expensive TB service was the 6-month isoniazid preventive therapy regimen for latent tuberculous infection provided by district health centres (US$7.20-14.30, accounting for 0.3-0.7% of Viet Nam's per capita gross domestic product [GDP] of US$2052.30 in 2014). The cost of diagnosing and treating a patient with drug-susceptible TB (the most common type of TB) ranged between US$51.20 and US$180.70, and represented 2.5-8.8% of Viet Nam's per capita GDP in 2014. The most expensive TB service was the diagnosis and treatment of a multidrug-resistant TB case (US$1568.20-2391.20), accounting for 76.4-116.5% of Viet Nam's per capita GDP in 2014). The cost of TB diagnosis and treatment services in Viet Nam varied according to level of health facility, type of TB, different costing options, and different staff cost scenarios.

  6. Carbonaceous particles in the atmosphere and precipitation of the Nam Co region, central Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, Jing; Xiao, Cunde; Sun, Junying; Kang, Shichang; Bonasoni, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    A continuous air and precipitation sampling for carbonaceous particles was conducted in a field observatory beside Nam Co, Central Tibetan Plateau during July of 2006 through January of 2007. Organic carbon (OC) was the dominant composition of the carbonaceous particles both in the atmosphere (1660 ng/m3) and precipitation (476 ng/g) in this area, while the average elemental carbon (BC) concentrations in the atmosphere and precipitation were only 82 ng/m3 and 8 ng/g, respectively. Very high OC/BC ratio suggested local secondary organic carbon could be a dominant contribution to OC over the Nam Co region, while BC could be mainly originated from Southern Asia, as indicated by trajectory analysis and aerosol optical depth. Comparison between the BC concentrations measured in Lhasa, those at "Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P)" site on the southern slope of the Himalayas, and Nam Co suggested BC in the Nam Co region reflected a background with weak anthropogenic disturbances and the emissions from Lhasa might have little impact on the atmospheric environment here, while the pollutants from the Indo-Gangetic Basin of Southern Asia could be transported to the Nam Co region by both the summer monsoon and the westerly.

  7. My Folkloristic History of the Việt Nam War: A Non-communist Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long S. Le

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Like many families who were on the “wrong” side of the Việt Nam war, my family history has effectively been “displaced” from official discourse in Việt Nam when the country was “reunified” in 1975, as well as in the discourse of public history in the U.S. which has overwhelmingly emphasized the “lessons” of the “American Experience” in Việt Nam. Using my family history as an index of historical processes, I hope to introduce windows on the continuities of what noncommunist Vietnamese do and think. My family folklore is utilized as a way to create opportunities for other non-communist Vietnamese here and elsewhere to connect, articulate, or remind them of a pattern from the past that can provide a contemporary coherence with an ethic workable for the future.

  8. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Practice, Oxford University Press. Flifel, Kaouther., (2012), Financial Markets between Efficiency and. Persistence : Empirical Evidence on Daily Data, Asian Journal of. Finance and Accounting. Huy, Dinh T.N., (2013), Estimating Beta of Viet Nam Listed Public Utilities,. Natural Gas and Oil Company Groups During and After ...

  9. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M. N. T.; Tiemersma, E. W.; Kremer, K.; de Haas, P.; Lan, N. T. N.; Buu, T. N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F. G. J.; van Soolingen, D.

    2013-01-01

    The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular tests.

  10. Characterisation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates lacking IS6110 in Viet Nam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huyen, M.N.; Tiemersma, E.W.; Kremer, K.; Haas, P. de; Lan, N.T.; Buu, T.N.; Sola, C.; Cobelens, F.G.; Soolingen, D. van

    2013-01-01

    SETTING: The molecular diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in Viet Nam is often based on the detection of insertion sequence (IS) 6110 in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, 8-11% of M. tuberculosis strains in South-East Asia do not contain this target and this undermines the validity of these molecular

  11. Identifying factors for job motivation of rural health workers in North Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieleman, Marjolein; Cuong, Pham Viet; Anh, Le Vu; Martineau, Tim

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Viet Nam, most of the public health staff (84%) currently works in rural areas, where 80% of the people live. To provide good quality health care services, it is important to develop strategies influencing staff motivation for better performance. METHOD: An exploratory qualitative

  12. The formulation and implementation of a national helmet law: a case study from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon W; Nguyen, Lan Huong; Nguyen, Nam Phuong; Olivé, Jean-Marc

    2010-10-01

    Road traffic injuries are a leading cause of death and disability in Viet Nam. In 2008, official data reported 11 243 deaths and 7771 serious injuries on the roads, of which an estimated 60% of fatalities occur in motorcycle riders and passengers. In recognition of this problem, Viet Nam has had partial motorcycle helmet legislation since 1995. However, for a variety of reasons, implementation and enforcement have been limited. On 15 December 2007, Viet Nam's first comprehensive mandatory helmet law came into effect, covering all riders and passengers on all roads nationwide. Penalties increased ten-fold and cohorts of police were mobilized for enforcement. The Viet Nam national helmet legislation was developed and implemented by the National Traffic Safety Committee. Despite past barriers to enforcement, increased policing in 2008 led to 680 000 infringements being issued for non-helmet wearing. While changes in helmet wearing were not nationally observed, significant increases were documented in selected provinces in the first six months of the law's introduction. In Da Nang, helmet wearing increased from 27 to 99%. In the first three months after the law took effect, surveillance data from 20 urban and rural hospitals, found the risk of road traffic head injuries and deaths decreased by 16% and 18% respectively. Political leadership, intensive advanced public education and stringent enforcement have contributed to the successful implementation of the new law. Through continual monitoring of the legislation, loopholes detrimental to the effectiveness of the law have been identified and addressed.

  13. Viet Nam : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Autonomisation des femmes au moyen de lieux de travail humains : Ateliers de confection en Asie du SudEst. Project. En Asie, les ateliers de confection constituent un secteur d'emplois dominant, ... Sujet: MALNUTRITION, INTERVIEWS. Région: Thailand, Viet Nam. Programme: Agriculture and Food Security. Financement ...

  14. A contextual ICA stakeholder model approach for the Namibian spatial data infrastructure (NamSDI)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sinvula, KM

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available , the International Cartographic Association (ICA) model was used to identify the stakeholders in and around NamSDI, which is still at the infancy stage of development. The application of a high-level ICA model proved to be relevant and useful in discriminating...

  15. Root characteristics of some grass species on the sea dikes in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trung, L.H.

    2012-01-01

    Between 2009 and 2011, some grass-covered sea dikes were tested with the Wave Overtopping Simulator in the north of Viet Nam. Slope specifications and grass species of sea and estuary dikes were quantitatively observed and investigated. This report is concerned with expressing main characteristics

  16. Assessing the peel colour behaviour of mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' during cool storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penchaiya, P.; Tijskens, L.M.M.

    2017-01-01

    Mango 'Nam Dok Mai See Thong' recently became the number-one exported mango of Thailand. It has an attractive appearance, with a golden-yellow peel colour at harvest and slight colour development during ripening. Its peel colour could possibly be used as an indicator for ripeness. Assessing the

  17. Viet Nam - Nuclear power for GHG mitigation and sustainable energy development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Doan Phac; Nguyen Tien Nguyen; Le Van Hong; Nguyen Huu Thanh; Nguyen Anh Tuan

    2000-01-01

    The Government of Viet Nam has recently formulated a national energy programme entitled Strategy and Policy of Sustainable Energy Development. Its aim is to define a development policy for the country for the period from 2000 to 2020. The main objectives of the national energy programme are: 1. Increasing energy efficiency and demand side management (DSM) 2. Expanding rural electrification 3. Defining an energy price policy (e.g. pricing such that revenues cover costs) 4. Minimizing environmental impacts 5. Encouraging private investment in the energy and electricity sectors 6. Energy supply security 7. Diversifying energy sources, and 8. Exploring the potential role of nuclear power in Viet Nam. In formulating this programme, one of the objectives has been to minimize environmental impacts, including those caused by the electricity sector. Nevertheless, the shortage of investment capital in Viet Nam and the difficulty of securing favourable financial arrangements are crucial obstacles to the introduction of new technology options to mitigate GHG emissions. Viet Nam views CDM as an opportunity to find ways to overcome such problems and expects that all GHG mitigating technologies will be considered equally under the CDM

  18. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emerging stock market in Viet Nam has been developed since 2006 and was affected by the financial crisis 2007-2009. This study analyzes the impacts of tax policy on market risk for the listed firms in the wholesale and retail industry as it becomes necessary. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods to ...

  19. Cooperative learning vs confucian heritage culture's collectivism. The analysis in Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Phuong-Mai; Terlouw, C.; Pilot, A.

    2005-01-01

    Confucian Heritage Cultures (CHC) such as Viet Nam, China, Korea, Japan, Hong Kong and Singapore are proven to share characteristics of Collectivist society. Researchers agree that this collectivist mentality supports cooperation, that CHC’s learners/workers best perform in groups. Not satisfied

  20. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauritsen Jens M

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all tuberculosis case categories. National tuberculosis programs might utilize such information to identify problems related to referral and access to diagnosis and treatment. Objectives Based on the electronic database we created, our objectives were to provide a detailed description of age and sex characteristics of tuberculosis patients at registration and to provide a comparison of age-specific sex characteristics among incident and prevalent sputum smear-positive cases. Methods A representative sample of tuberculosis case registers from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2005 was selected in Cambodia, two provinces in China and Viet Nam. Age and sex characteristics of cases in the three separate prevalence surveys in the three jurisdictions (Cambodia: year 2002; China: year 2000; and Viet Nam: year 2006-2007 were obtained for comparison. Results A total 37,635 patients had been registered during the period in the selected units in the three countries. Cases were more frequently male in all three countries with 53%, 71%, and 69% in Cambodia, China, and Viet Nam, respectively. The ratios of the female-to-male odds in the notification system to that in the prevalence survey in smear-positive cases in Cambodia, China and Viet Nam were 2.1, 0.9, and 1.8, respectively. Because of the small proportion of extrapulmonary tuberculosis registered in China, we limited the analysis on age and sex distribution for extrapulmonary cases to Cambodia and Viet Nam. The proportion with extrapulmonary tuberculosis among all cases was 18.5% in Cambodia and 15.7% in Viet Nam, decreasing in frequency with increasing age. Conclusions Characteristics of patients

  1. Psychological and social factors associated with late pregnancy iron deficiency anaemia in rural Viet Nam: a population-based prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Duc Tran

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam.Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1. They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2. IDA was defined as Haemoglobin < 11 g/dL and serum ferritin < 15 ng/mL. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders (CMD were assessed by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale-Vietnam (EPDS-V. Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses.A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI: 9.8-16.7. Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7 pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA.Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants.

  2. Psychological and social factors associated with late pregnancy iron deficiency anaemia in rural Viet Nam: a population-based prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Casey, Gerard J; Hanieh, Sarah; Simpson, Julie Anne; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1). They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2). IDA was defined as Haemoglobin Vietnam (EPDS-V). Persistent antenatal CMD was defined as having an EPDS-V score ≥ 4 in both W1 and W2. Hypothesis models were tested by Structural Equation Modeling analyses. A total of 378 women provided complete data at both W1 and W2. The incidence risk of IDA in the third trimester was 13.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 9.8-16.7). Persistent CMD was found in 16.9% (95% CI: 13.1-20.7) pregnant women and predicted by intimate partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants.

  3. A new nidovirus (NamDinh virus NDiV): Its ultrastructural characterization in the C6/36 mosquito cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuy, Nguyen Thanh, E-mail: ngtthuy02@yahoo.com [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huy, Tran Quang, E-mail: huytq@nihe.org.vn [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nga, Phan Thi [National Institute of Hygiene and Epidemiology, 1 Yersin Street, Hai Ba Trung District, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Morita, Kouichi [Department of Virology, Institute of Tropical Medicine, Global COE Program, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki (Japan); Dunia, Irene; Benedetti, Lucio [Institut Jacques Monod, UMR7592 Université Paris Diderot/CNRS, Paris (France)

    2013-09-15

    We describe the ultrastructure of the NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales grown in the C6/36 mosquito cell line. Uninfected and NDiV-infected cells were investigated by electron microscopy 24–48 h after infection. The results show that the viral nucleocapsid-like particles form clusters concentrated in the vacuoles, the endoplasmic reticulum, and are scattered in the cytoplasm. Mature virions of NDiV were released as budding particles on the cell surface where viral components appear to lie beneath and along the plasma membrane. Free homogeneous virus particles were obtained by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients of culture fluids. The size of the round-shaped particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter. This is the first study to provide information on the morphogenesis and ultrastructure of the first insect nidovirus NDiV, a missing evolutionary link in the emergence of the viruses with the largest RNA genomes. - Highlights: • NamDinh virus (NDiV), a new member of the order Nidovirales was tested in cultured cell line. • The morphogenesis and ultrastructure of NDiV were investigated by electron microscopy. • The viral nucleocapsid-like particles clustered and scattered in the cytoplasm. • NDiVs were released as budding particles on the cell surface. • The size of the viral particles with a complete internal structure was 80 nm in diameter.

  4. Viet Nam's mandatory motorcycle helmet law and its impact on children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Aaron; Passmore, Jonathon; Sidik, Mirjam; McKinley, Tyler; Nguyen, Thi Hong Tu; Nguyen, Phuong Nam

    2009-05-01

    To measure the use of motorcycle helmets in children and to determine the reasons why children wear helmets less often than adults. The frequency of helmet wearing among adults and children was ascertained by trained roadside observers, and randomized road user surveys were completed in four major centres in Viet Nam: Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Can Tho and Da Nang. Survey data on key questions were cross tabulated, and chi2 was calculated for significant differences between parents and non-parents (0.05). The frequency of helmet use in the four study locations ranged from 90-99% among adults, from 15-53% among children 7 but helmet. Children wear motorcycle helmets much less often than adults. Legislation to penalize adults whose children do not wear motorcycle helmets has been proposed in Viet Nam. Furthermore, ongoing advocacy and social marketing efforts are being made to disseminate information about the safety benefits of helmets to combat erroneous public perceptions.

  5. Climate change and development responses on agriculture in Quang Nam Province Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Lund, Søren

    2011-01-01

    , forestry and aquaculture and consequently different kinds of adaptations have been introduced. We wanted to study the development in agriculture in order to scrutinize if climate events had major impacts on productivity of the three sectors. An overview of agricultural changes was provided through...... statistics and interviews and important climate impacts and adaptations were identified and assessed. An energy flow method was used to describe the agricultural situation. During the last decade the study showed that farmers in the agricultural field had increased the productivity and they performed strong...... to document the influence of climate change on the agriculture of Quang Nam. Administratively, agriculture in Quang Nam includes the three sectors: farming, forestry and aquaculture. From interviews we found that many Vietnamese authorities and farmers were convinced that today climate changes impact farming...

  6. Health and access to health services of rural-to-urban migrant populations in Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Le, Anh Thi-Kim

    2013-01-01

    Viet Nam has increasing internal migration since the Renovation (Doi Moi) in 1986. Migration flows – particularly rural-to-urban migration – have positive and negative effects to migrants, their family, and socio-economics in their places of origin and of destination. On the one hand, migration is an opportunity for improving wages of migrants, for ensuring economic security of their family, and for contributing to social and economic developments of the country. On the other hand, migration ...

  7. The association of estimated salt intake with blood pressure in a Viet Nam national survey

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Paul N.; Bao, Tran Quoc; Huong, Tran Thi Thanh; Heckbert, Susan R.; Fitzpatrick, Annette L.; LoGerfo, James P.; Ngoc, Truong Le Van; Mokdad, Ali H.

    2018-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. Design and setting Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25–65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was e...

  8. Oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses: surveillance in northern Viet Nam, 2009–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Kim Phuong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antiviral resistance has been reported in seasonal influenza A viruses and avian influenza A(H5N1 viruses in Viet Nam, raising concerns about the efficacy of treatment. Methods: We analysed specimens from two sources during the period 2009–2012: influenza-positive samples from influenza-like illness patients at sentinel clinics in northern Viet Nam and isolates from patients with confirmed A(H5N1 infections. Pyrosequencing was used to detect mutations: H275Y [for A(H1N1 and A(H5N1], E119V [for A(H3N2] and I117V [for A(H5N1]. A neuraminidase inhibition assay was used to determine the Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50 values for all influenza A and B isolates. Results: There were 341 influenza A positive samples identified; influenza A(H1N1pdm09 was identified most frequently (n = 215. In 2009, oseltamivir resistance was observed in 100% (19 of 19 of seasonal A(H1N1 isolates and 1.4% (3/215 of A(H1N1pdm09 isolates. This H275Y mutation was not found in influenza subtypes A(H5N1 or A(H3N2 isolates. Discussion: In Viet Nam, seasonal and A(H5N1 influenza vaccines are not currently available; thus, effective treatment is required. The presence of oseltamivir-resistant viruses is therefore a concern. Active surveillance for oseltamivir resistance among influenza viruses circulating in Viet Nam should be continued.

  9. Criteria for prioritization of HIV programs in Viet Nam: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Pavlova, Milena; Son, Vo Hai; Phuong, Huynh Lan; Groot, Wim

    2017-11-13

    With the decline in funding for Viet Nam's response to the HIV epidemic, there is a need for evidence on the criteria to guide the prioritization of HIV programs. There is a gap in the research on the relative importance of multiple criteria for prioritizing a package of interventions. This study elicits preferences and the trade-offs made between different HIV programs by relevant stakeholders and decision-makers in Viet Nam. It also pays attention to how differences in social and professional characteristics of stakeholders and their agency affiliations shape preferences for HIV program criteria in Viet Nam. This study uses self-explicated ranking and discrete choice experiments to determine the relative importance of five criteria - effectiveness, feasibility, cost-effectiveness, rate of investment and prevention/treatment investment ratio - to stakeholders when they evaluate and select hypothetical HIV programs. The study includes 69 participants from government, civil society, and international development partners. Results of the discrete choice experiment show that overall the feasibility criterion is ranked highest in importance to the participants when choosing a hypothetical HIV program, followed by sustainability, treatment to prevention spending ratio, and effectiveness. The participant's work in management, programming, or decision-making has a significant effect on the importance of some criteria to the participant. In the self-explicated ranking effectiveness is the most important criterion and the cost-effectiveness criterion ranks low in importance across all groups. This study has shown that the preferred HIV program in Viet Nam is feasible, front-loaded for sustainability, has a higher proportion of investment on prevention, saves more lives and prevents more infections. Similarities in government and civil society rankings of criteria can create common grounds for future policy dialogues between stakeholders. Innovative models of planning should

  10. Phylodynamics of Enterovirus A71-Associated Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoghegan, Jemma L; Tan, Le Van; Kühnert, Denise; Halpin, Rebecca A; Lin, Xudong; Simenauer, Ari; Akopov, Asmik; Das, Suman R; Stockwell, Timothy B; Shrivastava, Susmita; Ngoc, Nghiem My; Uyen, Le Thi Tam; Tuyen, Nguyen Thi Kim; Thanh, Tran Tan; Hang, Vu Thi Ty; Qui, Phan Tu; Hung, Nguyen Thanh; Khanh, Truong Huu; Thinh, Le Quoc; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Van, Hoang Minh Tu; Viet, Do Chau; Tuan, Ha Manh; Viet, Ho Lu; Hien, Tran Tinh; Chau, Nguyen Van Vinh; Thwaites, Guy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Stadler, Tanja; Wentworth, David E; Holmes, Edward C; Van Doorn, H Rogier

    2015-09-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) is a major cause of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and is particularly prevalent in parts of Southeast Asia, affecting thousands of children and infants each year. Revealing the evolutionary and epidemiological dynamics of EV-A71 through time and space is central to understanding its outbreak potential. We generated the full genome sequences of 200 EV-A71 strains sampled from various locations in Viet Nam between 2011 and 2013 and used these sequence data to determine the evolutionary history and phylodynamics of EV-A71 in Viet Nam, providing estimates of the effective reproduction number (Re) of the infection through time. In addition, we described the phylogeography of EV-A71 throughout Southeast Asia, documenting patterns of viral gene flow. Accordingly, our analysis reveals that a rapid genogroup switch from C4 to B5 likely took place during 2012 in Viet Nam. We show that the Re of subgenogroup C4 decreased during the time frame of sampling, whereas that of B5 increased and remained >1 at the end of 2013, corresponding to a rise in B5 prevalence. Our study reveals that the subgenogroup B5 virus that emerged into Viet Nam is closely related to variants that were responsible for large epidemics in Malaysia and Taiwan and therefore extends our knowledge regarding its associated area of endemicity. Subgenogroup B5 evidently has the potential to cause more widespread outbreaks across Southeast Asia. EV-A71 is one of many viruses that cause HFMD, a common syndrome that largely affects infants and children. HFMD usually causes only mild illness with no long-term consequences. Occasionally, however, severe infection may arise, especially in very young children, causing neurological complications and even death. EV-A71 is highly contagious and is associated with the most severe HFMD cases, with large and frequent epidemics of the virus recorded worldwide. Although major advances have been made in the development of a potential EV-A71

  11. Antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies: a situation analysis for Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kinh Van; Thi Do, Nga Thuy; Chandna, Arjun; Nguyen, Trung Vu; Pham, Ca Van; Doan, Phuong Mai; Nguyen, An Quoc; Thi Nguyen, Chuc Kim; Larsson, Mattias; Escalante, Socorro; Olowokure, Babatunde; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Gelband, Hellen; Horby, Peter; Thi Ngo, Ha Bich; Hoang, Mai Thanh; Farrar, Jeremy; Hien, Tran Tinh; Wertheim, Heiman F L

    2013-12-10

    Antimicrobial resistance is a major contemporary public health threat. Strategies to contain antimicrobial resistance have been comprehensively set forth, however in developing countries where the need for effective antimicrobials is greatest implementation has proved problematic. A better understanding of patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in emerging economies may permit more appropriately targeted interventions.Viet Nam, with a large population, high burden of infectious disease and relatively unrestricted access to medication, is an excellent case study of the difficulties faced by emerging economies in controlling antimicrobial resistance. Our working group conducted a situation analysis of the current patterns and determinants of antibiotic use and resistance in Viet Nam. International publications and local reports published between 1-1-1990 and 31-8-2012 were reviewed. All stakeholders analyzed the findings at a policy workshop and feasible recommendations were suggested to improve antibiotic use in Viet Nam.Here we report the results of our situation analysis focusing on: the healthcare system, drug regulation and supply; antibiotic resistance and infection control; and agricultural antibiotic use. Market reforms have improved healthcare access in Viet Nam and contributed to better health outcomes. However, increased accessibility has been accompanied by injudicious antibiotic use in hospitals and the community, with predictable escalation in bacterial resistance. Prescribing practices are poor and self-medication is common - often being the most affordable way to access healthcare. Many policies exist to regulate antibiotic use but enforcement is insufficient or lacking.Pneumococcal penicillin-resistance rates are the highest in Asia and carbapenem-resistant bacteria (notably NDM-1) have recently emerged. Hospital acquired infections, predominantly with multi-drug resistant Gram-negative organisms, place additional strain on

  12. Potent L-lactic acid assimilation of the fermentative and heterothallic haploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae NAM34-4C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitaka, Masataka; Taguchi, Hisataka; Matsuoka, Masayoshi; Morimura, Shigeru; Kida, Kenji; Akamatsu, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    We screened an industrial thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, KF7, as a potent lactic-acid-assimilating yeast. Heterothallic haploid strains KF7-5C and KF7-4B were obtained from the tetrads of the homothallic yeast strain KF7. The inefficient sporulation and poor spore viability of the haploid strains were improved by two strategies. The first strategy was as follows: (i) the KF7-5C was crossed with the laboratory strain SH6710; (ii) the progenies were backcrossed with KF7-5C three times; and (iii) the progenies were inbred three times to maintain a genetic background close to that of KF7. The NAM12 diploid between the cross of the resultant two strains, NAM11-9C and NAM11-13A, showed efficient sporulation and exhibited excellent growth in YPD medium (pH 3.5) at 35°C with 1.4-h generation time, indicating thermotolerance and acid tolerance. The second strategy was successive intrastrain crosses. The resultant two strains, KFG4-6B and KFG4-4B, showed excellent mating capacity. A spontaneous mutant of KFG4-6B, KFG4-6BD, showed a high growth rate with a generation time of 1.1 h in YPD medium (pH 3.0) at 35°C. The KFG4-6BD strain produced ascospores, which were crossed with NAM11-2C and its progeny to produce tetrads. These tetrads were crossed with KFG4-4B to produce NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A. The latter strain had a generation time of 1.6 h at 35°C in pH 2.5, thus exhibiting further thermotolerance and acid tolerance. A progeny from a cross of NAM26-14A and NAM26-15A yielded the strain NAM34-4C, which showed potent lactic acid assimilation and high transformation efficiency, better than those of a standard laboratory strain. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Towards a lifelong learning society through reading promotion: Opportunities and challenges for libraries and community learning centres in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-04-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day" - a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its importance for the development of knowledge and skills. Viet Nam also aims to implement lifelong learning (LLL) activities in libraries, museums, cultural centres and clubs. The government of Viet Nam currently operates more than 11,900 Community Learning Centres (CLCs) and is in the process of both renovating and innovating public libraries and museums throughout the country. In addition to the work undertaken by the Viet Nam government, a number of enterprises have been initiated by non-governmental organisations and non-profit organisations to promote literacy and lifelong learning. This paper investigates some government initiatives focused on libraries and CLCs and their impact on reading promotion. Proposing a way forward, the paper confirms that Viet Nam's libraries and CLCs play an essential role in promoting reading and building a LLL Society.

  14. RapidNAM: generative manufacturing approach of nasoalveolar molding devices for presurgical cleft lip and palate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Franz Xaver; Schönberger, Markus; Gattinger, Johannes; Eblenkamp, Markus; Wintermantel, Erich; Rau, Andrea; Güll, Florian Dieter; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich; Loeffelbein, Denys J

    2017-08-28

    Nasoalveolar molding (NAM) is an accepted treatment strategy in presurgical cleft therapy. The major drawbacks of the treatment listed in the literature relate to the time of the treatment and the coordination of the required interdisciplinary team of therapists, parents, and patients. To overcome these limitations, we present the automated RapidNAM concept that facilitates the design and manufacturing process of NAM devices, and that allows the virtual modification and subsequent manufacture of the devices in advance, with a growth prediction factor adapted to the patient's natural growth. The RapidNAM concept involves (i) the prediction of three trajectories that envelope the fragmented alveolar segments with the goal to mimic a harmonic arch, (ii) the extrusion from the larger toward the smaller alveolar segment along the envelope curves toward the harmonic upper alveolar arch, and (iii) the generation of the NAM device with a ventilation hole, fixation pin, and fixation points for the nasal stents. A feasibility study for a vector-based approach was successfully conducted for unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients. A comparison of the modified target models with the reference target models showed similar results. For further improvement, the number of landmarks used to modify the models was increased by a curve-based approach.

  15. The association of estimated salt intake with blood pressure in a Viet Nam national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul N; Bao, Tran Quoc; Huong, Tran Thi Thanh; Heckbert, Susan R; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; LoGerfo, James P; Ngoc, Truong Le Van; Mokdad, Ali H

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption. Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25-65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was estimated from fasting mid-morning spot urine samples. Associations of salt consumption with systolic blood pressure and prevalent hypertension were assessed using adjusted linear and generalized linear models. Interaction terms were tested to assess differences by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and rural/urban status. The analysis included 2,333 participants (mean age: 37 years, 46% male, 33% urban). The average estimated salt consumption was 10g/day. No associations of salt consumption with blood pressure or prevalent hypertension were observed at a national scale in men or women. The associations did not differ in subgroups defined by age, smoking, or alcohol consumption; however, associations differed between urban and rural participants (p-value for interaction of urban/rural status with salt consumption, p = 0.02), suggesting that higher salt consumption may be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in urban residents but lower systolic blood pressure in rural residents. Although there was no evidence of an association at a national level, associations of salt consumption with blood pressure differed between urban and rural residents in Viet Nam. The reasons for this differential association are not clear, and given the large rate of rural to urban migration experienced in Viet Nam, this topic warrants further investigation.

  16. The association of estimated salt intake with blood pressure in a Viet Nam national survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul N Jensen

    Full Text Available To evaluate the association of salt consumption with blood pressure in Viet Nam, a developing country with a high level of salt consumption.Analysis of a nationally representative sample of Vietnamese adults 25-65 years of age who were surveyed using the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to Surveillance protocol. Participants who reported acute illness, pregnancy, or current use of antihypertensive medications were excluded. Daily salt consumption was estimated from fasting mid-morning spot urine samples. Associations of salt consumption with systolic blood pressure and prevalent hypertension were assessed using adjusted linear and generalized linear models. Interaction terms were tested to assess differences by age, smoking, alcohol consumption, and rural/urban status.The analysis included 2,333 participants (mean age: 37 years, 46% male, 33% urban. The average estimated salt consumption was 10g/day. No associations of salt consumption with blood pressure or prevalent hypertension were observed at a national scale in men or women. The associations did not differ in subgroups defined by age, smoking, or alcohol consumption; however, associations differed between urban and rural participants (p-value for interaction of urban/rural status with salt consumption, p = 0.02, suggesting that higher salt consumption may be associated with higher systolic blood pressure in urban residents but lower systolic blood pressure in rural residents.Although there was no evidence of an association at a national level, associations of salt consumption with blood pressure differed between urban and rural residents in Viet Nam. The reasons for this differential association are not clear, and given the large rate of rural to urban migration experienced in Viet Nam, this topic warrants further investigation.

  17. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunford, Linda; Carr, Michael J; Dean, Jonathan; Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Ta Thi, Thu Hong; Nguyen, Binh Thanh; Connell, Jeff; Coughlan, Suzie; Nguyen, Hien Tran; Hall, William W; Thi, Lan Anh Nguyen

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; pa predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; pa' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.

  18. El inefable sendero del budismo zen electrónico: Nam June Paik

    OpenAIRE

    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-01-01

    Nam June Paik conoce en 1958 en Alemania al músico vanguardista John Cage, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Este compositor norteamericano no sólo convencerá al artista coreano para que oriente su carrera musical hacia la vanguardia, sino que impulsará su interés por el budismo zen. También, su temprana unión con Beuys, Maciunas y otros artistas del movimiento Fluxus le dieron la necesaria libertad para introducirse en el arte más experimental desde principios de los a...

  19. Seasonal variability of faecal indicator bacteria numbers and die-off rates in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Huong Thi Mai; Le, Quynh Thi Phuong; Garnier, J.; Janeau, J.-L.; Rochelle-Newall, E.

    2016-02-01

    The Red River is the second largest river in Viet Nam and constitutes the main water source for a large percentage of the population of North Viet Nam. Here we present the results of an annual survey of Escherichia coli (EC) and Total Coliforms (TC) in the Red River basin, North Viet Nam. The objective of this work was to obtain information on faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) numbers over an annual cycle and, secondly, to determine the die-off rates of these bacterial indicators. Monthly observations at 10 stations from July 2013-June 2014 showed that TC and EC reached as high as 39100 cfu (colony forming units) 100 ml-1 and 15300 colonies 100 ml-1, respectively. We observed a significant seasonal difference for TC (p bacteria than for total (free + particle attached) bacteria, suggesting that particle attachment provided a certain level of protection to FIB in this system.

  20. Water Isotope framework for lake water balance monitoring and modelling in the Nam Co Basin, Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichang Kang

    2017-08-01

    New hydrological insights: A water isotope framework for the Nam Co basin, including the Local Meteoric Water Line, limiting isotopic composition of evaporation and two hypothetical evaporation trajectories, is established. We further applied the isotope mass balance model to estimate the overall isotopic composition of input water to the Nam Co, the evaporation over inputs ratios (E/I for three consecutive years, and the water yields (Wy, depth equivalent runoff at a basin scale. Our results clearly suggest a positive water budget (i.e., E/I < 1, providing another line of evidence that the subsurface leakage from Nam Co is likely. The discrepancy between isotope-based water yields estimations and field-based runoff observations suggest that, compared to the well-studied Nyainqentanglha Mountains and southwestern mountains, the ridge-and-valley landscape in the western highlands and northwestern hogbacks are possibly low yields area, which should draw more research attentions in future hydrological investigations.

  1. Foot-and-mouth disease virus typing from foot-and-mouth outbreaks in the central provinces of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Luong Hien

    2000-01-01

    A total of 167 tissue samples were collected from Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected animals from 57 FMD outbreaks to detect the sero-type of the FMD virus by the ELISA technique. The ELISA kit has been prepared and standardised by the World Reference Laboratory (WRL), UK and supplied under a Research Contract as part of an FAO/IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project. Eight tissue samples from cattle and one tissue sample from pig were sent to WRL for further study on the sero-type and to characterize the FMD viruses present in Viet Nam. The study was carried out from March 1996 to May 1998 in the central region of Viet Nam and the FMD type O virus was detected in these outbreaks only. The FMD type O virus from cattle and the FMD type O virus from pig are two distinct FMD type O viruses in Viet Nam. (author)

  2. Drug profiling: a new scientific contribution to law enforcement operations in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, H M; Tien, N D; Truong, N X

    2005-01-01

    Since 1995 heroin sample comparisons have been carried out in Viet Nam to establish links between wholesalers and retailers. To that end, the physical and chemical characteristics of samples are analysed: their colour, the packaging material, including fingerprints, diacetylmorphine (heroin) content and the composition of some main alkaloids. At the beginning of 2002, having acquired expertise on impurity profiling and with the support of new instruments, the Institute of Forensic Sciences of Viet Nam introduced the routine impurity profiling of seized heroin and methamphetamine and later undertook to explain that process to national law enforcement bodies. Since then, 375 heroin and 29 methamphetamine samples have been analysed for major and minor impurities. Substances detected in the analysis of illicit heroin include diacetylmorphine, morphine, codeine, 06-monoacetylmorphine and acetylcodeine as well as adulterants such as paracetamol and caffeine. Since methamphetamine impurity profiling began, 29 samples have so far been analysed, and some samples have been grouped through the application of cluster analysis. In the case of heroin, impurity profiling has established a link between two major trafficking groups suspected of obtaining heroin from the same source of production. Analysis has also revealed a link between one wholesaler and several retailers in one region. In addition, impurity profiling provides new information on the preparation and production of some methamphetamine and fake Ecstasy tablets.

  3. Early marriage and intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong Le, Minh Thi; Tran, Thach Duc; Nguyen, Huong Thanh; Fisher, Jane

    2014-03-01

    Research about the association between early marriage and intimate partner violence (IPV) in low-income countries has yielded conflicting evidence. The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of and associations between early marriage, and IPV among adolescents and young adults in Viet Nam. Secondary analysis of data from the national Survey Assessment of Viet Namese Youth-Round II (SAVY-II) conducted in 2009-2010, which assessed a representative cohort of people aged 14 to 25 years recruited via a systematic household survey was undertaken. Prevalence was established using descriptive statistics. The association between early marriage and IPV was examined using multiple logistic regressions, adjusting for potential risk factors. Of 10,044 participants, 1,701 had ever married and were included in analyses. Early marriage (before age 18), and experiences of verbal, physical, or sexual IPV were more common among females than males. More young married men than women reported experiences of controlling behaviors by their partners. Early marriage, being illiterate, and exposure to sexual abuse were associated with experience of IPV among young females, but not among young males. Poverty and exposure to family violence was associated with IPV in both sexes. Addressing early marriage, low educational opportunities for girls, childhood sexual abuse, family violence, and poverty should be considered in strategies to reduce IPV in Viet Nam.

  4. No evidence for ideological asymmetry in dissonance avoidance : Unsuccessful close and conceptual replications of Nam, Jost, and van Bavel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Collins, Timothy P.; Crawford, Jarret T.; Brandt, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Nam, Jost, and van Bavel (2013) found that conservatives were more likely than liberals to avoid dissonance-arousing situations (viz., writing counter-attitudinal essays in a high-choice situation). A close replication of this original research was unsuccessful, as both liberals and conservatives

  5. A Self-Sustained Education System for a Developing Country: The Case of the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dien Ngoc

    Viet Nam's average annual population growth rate is 2.6%, which accounts for a large youth population: 37.7% of the total population is under age 15, compared with an average of 20% in developed or newly industrialized countries. A free basic education for all children is almost impossible to provide. With consideration of the Vietnamese people's…

  6. Towards a Lifelong Learning Society through Reading Promotion: Opportunities and Challenges for Libraries and Community Learning Centres in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Zakir

    2016-01-01

    The government of Viet Nam has made a commitment to build a Lifelong Learning Society by 2020. A range of related initiatives have been launched, including the Southeast Asian Ministers of Education Organization Centre for Lifelong Learning (SEAMEO CELLL) and "Book Day"--a day aimed at encouraging reading and raising awareness of its…

  7. A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Dunford

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B (HBV infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654 were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs (17.4%, n = 174/1000 and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575 than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001. Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174 and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99. HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49 and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40. Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318 of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187 showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%; genotypes C1 (14.6%, B2 (2.7% and C5 (0.5% were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41% than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001. In the immunodominant 'a' region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187 of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187 and 5.3% (n = 10/187 specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective

  8. Fool’s Gold: Understanding Social, Economic and Environmental Impacts from Gold Mining in Quang Nam Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhi Nguyen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extractive industries are often claimed to contribute to both poverty reduction and economic growth. Yet, there is also a body of research that suggests natural resource dependence can result in limited development, environmental degradation and social upheaval. This paper examines differences in the socioeconomic and environmental state of mining and non-mining communities in rural Vietnam in order to understand the extent to which mining contributes to livelihood development and socioeconomic well-being. In particular, we examine the role that “corporate social responsibility” (CSR plays in supporting community development in Phuoc Son and Phu Ninh districts, Quang Nam province. Content analysis of newspapers, government documents and mining company reports provided a contextual overview of mining operations and community relations in each study area. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect information from local and regional stakeholders to further understand perceived impacts of mining operations on local communities. Our study finds that in comparison to non-mining communities, communities with active mines demonstrated increased job development, decreased poverty rates, enhanced infrastructure and social development along with increased incidences of CSR initiatives. However, a number of adverse effects from mining activities were reported including environmental degradation (e.g., deforestation, water pollution, etc. increased criminal activity and drug addiction. Dependence on mine-related employment in local communities becomes acutely apparent when temporary mine closures result in widespread unemployment. Local governments may be the greatest beneficiaries of mining with increased tax revenues and enhanced management potential of leased land. Non-mining communities without direct benefits from mining activities maintained economic diversity and were therefore more resilient to economic shocks such as nearby mine closures.

  9. Basin classification and tectonic framework of the Nam Pat Group, Uttaradit Province, Thailand: Implications for the Nan Suture Zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kritsada Moonpa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Nam Pat Group of the Nam Pat Basin, Uttaradit Province, Thailand is situated in the Nan Suture Zone. Two contrasting tectonic framework models of the Nan Suture have previously been proposed: as a main Paleo-Tethyan suture and as a remnant of a closed back-arc basin. The goal of this study is to analyze the tectonic framework of the Nan Suture and reevaluate the existing tectonic models. This research infers the tectonic setting of the basin based on basin-filled lithofacies distributions, provenance, and paleocurrents. Three facies groups are identified. Facies A, B, and C are polymictic conglomerate, interbedded sandstone and mudstone, and mudstone with thin-bedded sandstone, respectively. Generally, the strata strike NE-SW, steeply dip NW, and fine toward the SE. Petrographic results of sandstone samples show that the majority of lithic fragments are volcanic rocks with lesser amount of metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. The modal compositions of sandstones are analyzed on QFL, QmFLt, QmPK, LmLvLs, and QpLvmLsm ternary diagrams. The plots indicate that the sandstones of the Nam Pat Group have high proportions of volcanic-arc detritus. Paleocurrents, determined from the orientation of clast imbrications and cross-stratification, are toward the SE. The results suggest that large quantities of sediment traveled southeastward from a nearby volcanic arc into the basin. The Nam Pat Group stratigraphically overlies the Pak Pat Volcanics. The chemical features of the Pak Pat Volcanics, located to the west of the basin, show that they are andesitic volcanic rocks formed as a magmatic arc. Thus, the nearby Pak Pat Volcanics are the main sediment source of the Nam Pat Group, and the basin is best interpreted as back-arc basin rather than as a forearc basin.

  10. Basin classification and tectonic framework of the Nam Pat Group, Uttaradit Province, Thailand: Implications for the Nan Suture Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonpa, Kritsada; Motanated, Kannipa

    2018-01-01

    The Nam Pat Group of the Nam Pat Basin, Uttaradit Province, Thailand is situated in the Nan Suture Zone. Two contrasting tectonic framework models of the Nan Suture have previously been proposed: as a main Paleo-Tethyan suture and as a remnant of a closed back-arc basin. The goal of this study is to analyze the tectonic framework of the Nan Suture and reevaluate the existing tectonic models. This research infers the tectonic setting of the basin based on basin-filled lithofacies distributions, provenance, and paleocurrents. Three facies groups are identified. Facies A, B, and C are polymictic conglomerate, interbedded sandstone and mudstone, and mudstone with thin-bedded sandstone, respectively. Generally, the strata strike NE-SW, steeply dip NW, and fine toward the SE. Petrographic results of sandstone samples show that the majority of lithic fragments are volcanic rocks with lesser amount of metamorphic rocks and sedimentary rocks. The modal compositions of sandstones are analyzed on QFL, QmFLt, QmPK, LmLvLs, and QpLvmLsm ternary diagrams. The plots indicate that the sandstones of the Nam Pat Group have high proportions of volcanic-arc detritus. Paleocurrents, determined from the orientation of clast imbrications and cross-stratification, are toward the SE. The results suggest that large quantities of sediment traveled southeastward from a nearby volcanic arc into the basin. The Nam Pat Group stratigraphically overlies the Pak Pat Volcanics. The chemical features of the Pak Pat Volcanics, located to the west of the basin, show that they are andesitic volcanic rocks formed as a magmatic arc. Thus, the nearby Pak Pat Volcanics are the main sediment source of the Nam Pat Group, and the basin is best interpreted as back-arc basin rather than as a forearc basin.

  11. Private standards and labour productivity in the food sector in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trifkovic, Neda

    A rising number of firms from developing countries have adopted voluntary private standards in the last decade. This has become an area of active research, especially in terms of the impact of private standards on trade, organizational performance, and employee outcomes. This paper analyses how...... standards affect labour productivity of small and medium firms from the food sector in Viet Nam. The results based on a 3-year panel show that the application of private standards improves labour productivity. These gains primarily occur to firms operating above a threshold labour-intensity level. Firms...... with low labour intensity are not likely to experience gains in labour productivity from standards. This implies that employee compensation increase due to standards is a likely mechanism for labour productivity gains. The results are robust to several specification changes and instrumental variable...

  12. On stable ground: Tackling soil erosion with nuclear techniques in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Miklos

    2015-01-01

    Dao Thanh Canh never studied physics or chemistry in school, but he understands a thing or two about nuclear isotopes. Until a couple of years ago, much of his five acre farm on the hills of central Viet Nam was gradually sliding away. Thanks to nuclear techniques used in determining the exact cause and source of soil erosion, his land is now stable, and his coffee plantation profitable. “We were very worried as uncertainty loomed,” he said. “A few centimetres of the soil disappeared every year when we had big hail storms.” Thanh Canh is not alone. Soil degradation affects 1.9 billion hectares of land worldwide, close to two thirds of global soil resources.

  13. Skin disease among farmers using wastewater in rice cultivation in Nam Dinh, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, Thuy Trang; van der Hoek, Wim; Nguyen, Dang Tuan

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the risk of skin disease among farmers occupationally exposed to wastewater. METHODS: One-year follow-up study with monthly assessments of wastewater exposure and skin disease in Nam Dinh, northern Vietnam, in two adjacent communes with contrasting levels of wastewater use....... In each commune, 200 households were randomly selected. RESULTS: Of the 1103 individuals aged > or =15 years, 381 reported a skin problem at baseline or at any of the monthly visits, primarily dermatitis (eczema) and superficial fungal infections. Among the 874 subjects who were free from skin disease...... at baseline and who could be followed up > or =11 months, 183 developed a new skin disease (cumulative incidence 21%). Exposure to wastewater was a major risk factor for skin disease with a relative risk (RR) of 1.89 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39-2.57] in multivariable analysis. Other risk factors...

  14. Foreign Direct Investment and the Survival of Domestic Private Firms in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokko, Ari; Thang, Tran Toan

    2014-01-01

    Foreign direct investment (FDI) may benefit local firms in the host country through various kinds of spillovers, but it may also raise competition and result in the crowding out of domestic firms. Using detailed firm-level data for the period 2001–2008, this paper examines the aggregate effect...... of FDI on the survival of domestic private firms in Viet Nam. We estimate the impact of both horizontal and vertical FDI and explore how the presence of state-owned enterprises (SOEs) influences the exit hazard for private firms. The results suggest that horizontal and upstream FDI raise the exit hazard...... significantly, while downstream FDI may reduce the hazard. The presence of SOEs has a direct negative effect on the survival odds of local private firms in the same industry, but there is also an indirect impact on the exit hazard from FDI. Local firms are more vulnerable to foreign entry in sectors with high...

  15. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment : Examples from Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Per Johan

    with through both detailed discussion and by using simple examples. These examples are mostly based on situations in tropical fisheries and, in particular, experience has been drawn from developing a data collection programme in Viet Nam. The main questions addressed in the manual are which fisheries data...... (artisanal) vessels and a few large (industrial) vessels. The methodology is the "sample-based approach" - the manual does not deal with a methodology that assumes complete enumeration. The data collection methodology presented attempts to utilize whatever information can be obtained in practice......This manual deals with the practical implementation of a routine data collection programme. This programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery. The issues are dealt...

  16. EIA models and capacity building in Viet Nam: an analysis of development aid programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doberstein, Brent

    2004-01-01

    There has been a decided lack of empirical research examining development aid agencies as 'agents of change' in environmental impact assessment (EIA) systems in developing countries, particularly research examining the model of environmental planning practice promoted by aid agencies as part of capacity building. This paper briefly traces a conceptual framework of EIA, then introduces the concept of 'EIA capacity building'. Using Viet Nam as a case study, the paper then outlines the empirical results of the research, focusing on the extent to which aid agency capacity-building programs promoted a Technical vs. Planning Model of EIA and on the coherence of capacity-building efforts across all aid programs. A discussion follows, where research results are interpreted within the Vietnamese context, and implications of research results are identified for three main groups of actors. The paper concludes by calling for development aid agencies to reconceptualise EIA capacity building as an opportunity to transform developing countries' development planning processes

  17. The online measured black carbon aerosol and source orientations in the Nam Co region, Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Ming, Jing; Li, Zhongqin; Wang, Feiteng; Zhang, Guoshuai

    2017-11-01

    Equivalent black carbon (eBC) mass concentrations were measured by an aethalometer (AE-31) in the Nam Co, central Tibet from 2010 to 2014. Different from previous filter-sampling studies (Ming et al., J Environ Sci 22(11):1748-1756, 2010; Zhao et al., Environ Sci Pollut Res 20:5827-5838, 2013), the first high-resolution online eBC measurement conducted in central Tibet is reported here, allowing to discuss the diurnal variations as well as seasonal variabilities of eBC. Average daily eBC concentration was 74 ± 50 ng/m 3 , reflecting a global background level. Meteorological conditions influenced eBC concentrations largely at seasonal scale, which are higher in February-May but lower in June-January. The highest eBC concentrations (greater than 210 ng/m 3 ) were more associated with the W and WSW winds smaller than 6 m/s. The diurnal variations of eBC showed plateaus from 10:00 to 15:00 with seasonal variations, associated with local anthropogenic activities, such as indigenous Tibetan burning animal waste and tourism traffic. The PBLHs showed a co-variance with eBC concentrations, implicating close sources. The aerosol optical depths derived from the MODIS data over the Nam Co Observatory Station (NCOS)-included sub-area (30° N-40° N, 90° E-100° E) showed significant relationship with eBC concentrations. This suggests that nearby or short-distance sources other than long-distance transported pollutants could be important contributors to eBC concentrations at the NCOS, different from the conclusions suggested by previous studies.

  18. La sexualidad en adolescentes de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" Sexuality of adolescent students in "Viet Nam" junior high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Puentes Rizo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: en la actualidad existe en los adolescentes una temprana iniciación de las relaciones sexuales y cambios en la actitud social hacia la sexualidad. Objetivo: identificar las particularidades y conocimientos sobre sexualidad en adolescentes. Métodos: se realizó una investigación descriptiva y transversal en adolescentes entre los 12 y 15 años, de la secundaria básica "Viet Nam" del municipio Arroyo Naranjo, durante los años 2009-2010. El universo estuvo constituido por 296 estudiantes y la muestra por 150, seleccionados mediante sorteo hasta completar 50 estudiantes de cada año. La información se obtuvo de una encuesta validada por el Ministerio de Educación. Todos los seleccionados expresaron su consentimiento para participar en la investigación. Resultados: predominó el sexo masculino y los adolescentes de 15 años. El inicio de las relaciones sexuales fue a los 14 años en los muchachos y a los 15 en las muchachas; 72 (56,69 % adolescentes utilizaron el condón en su "primera vez". Las principales vías de obtención de información fueron los padres, profesores y la información televisiva. Hubo mayor conocimiento sobre VIH-sida, gonorrea y sífilis y menor sobre, herpes simple y clamidia. El condón resultó ser el método anticonceptivo más conocido. Conclusiones: hay un inicio precoz en las relaciones sexuales y poco conocimiento acerca de los métodos anticonceptivos biológicos o naturales, lo que pudiera estar indicando la importancia que tiene la familia, sobre todo los padres, los profesores y médicos de familia, en incrementar y mantener la labor educativa con los jóvenes en relación con la sexualidad.Introduction: there exists an early onset of sexual relations in adolescents at present, together with changes in the social attitude towards sexuality. Objective: to identify the particularities of and the knowledge on sexuality in adolescents. Methods: a cross-sectional and descriptive research study was

  19. Enterovirus D68 in Viet Nam (2009-2015 [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

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    Nguyen Thi Han Ny

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since 1962, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68 has been implicated in multiple outbreaks and sporadic cases of respiratory infection worldwide, but especially in the USA and Europe with an increasing frequency between 2010 and 2014. We describe the detection, associated clinical features and molecular characterization of EV-D68 in central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Methods: Enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory or CSF samples taken from children and adults with respiratory/central nervous system infections in Viet Nam were tested by an EV-D68 specific PCR. The included samples were derived from 3 different observational studies conducted at referral hospitals across central and southern Viet Nam between 2009 and 2015. Whole-genome sequencing was carried out using a MiSeq based approach. Phylogenetic reconstruction and estimation of evolutionary rate and recombination were carried out in BEAST and Recombination Detection Program, respectively. Results: EV-D68 was detected in 21/625 (3.4% enterovirus/rhinovirus PCR positive respiratory samples but in none of the 15 CSF. All the EV-D68 patients were young children (age range: 11.8 – 24.5 months and had moderate respiratory infections. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that the Vietnamese sequences clustered with those from Asian countries, of which 9 fell in the B1 clade, and the remaining sequence was identified within the A2 clade. One intra sub-clade recombination event was detected, representing the second reported recombination within EV-D68. The evolutionary rate of EV-D68 was estimated to be 5.12E-3 substitutions/site/year. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the virus was imported into Viet Nam in 2008. Conclusions: We have demonstrated for the first time EV-D68 has been circulating at low levels in Viet Nam since 2008, associated with moderate acute respiratory infection in children. EV-D68 in Viet Nam is most closely related to Asian viruses, and clusters

  20. Brief behavioural surveys in routine HIV sentinel surveillance: a new tool for monitoring the HIV epidemic in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duong Cong Thanh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a new approach in HIV sentinel surveillance that was piloted in Viet Nam in 2009 and is currently being rolled out in all provinces. It comprises a brief behavioural questionnaire added to the HIV sentinel surveillance surveys conducted routinely among people who inject drugs, female sex workers and men who have sex with men. Timely reporting of data from this system has resulted in improvements to HIV prevention efforts for most at-risk populations.

  1. The effects of minimum wage hikes on employment and wages in Viet Nam's micro, small, and medium enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Dung, Phan Kim

    2017-01-01

    Very little is known about the extent to which wage and employment offsetting behaviours change by firm size to mitigate the detrimental effects of minimum wage regulation. Do micro establishments react more aggressively to minimum wage shocks compared to small and medium establishments? To answer this question, this paper examines the impact of minimum wage hikes on employment and wages in Viet Nam's micro enterprises, and small and medium enterprises (SMEs), respectively. In particular, I e...

  2. Back to the roots? Namíbia, Não!, de Aldri Anunciação

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    Henry Thorau

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the “black comedy” Namíbia, Não!, by the young playwright Aldri Annunciation, from Bahia, elaborates the last consequences of the famous Brazilian racial democracy and of the human rights, and how it goes until the limits of the “politically correct” post-colonialist discourse in Brazil of the XXI century.

  3. Evaluation of the integrated clinic model for HIV/AIDS services in Ho Chi Minh City, Viet Nam, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, V; Nguyen, S T; Tieu, V T T; Nguyen, T T T; Duong, T H; Lyss, S; Oeltmann, J E

    2016-12-21

    Setting: Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC), Viet Nam. Objective: To evaluate a new integrated service model for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) care. Design: In HCMC, co-located services, including voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT), HIV treatment at out-patient clinics (OPC), and methadone maintenance therapy (MMT) for persons who inject drugs, have operated under different administrative structures. In the context of decreasing international financial support, integration of these services into one administrative structure with reduced staff occurred in seven districts in HCMC between October 2013 and June 2014. We used a pre-post study design to compare service-related outcomes from routinely collected data at health facilities 6 months before and 6 months after integration. Results: The proportion of HIV-infected persons linked from VCT to OPCs was unchanged or increased following integration. A higher percentage of patients eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were started on ART. The proportion of ART patients lost to follow-up remained unchanged. The proportions of MMT patients who tested positive for heroin or other substances decreased or were unchanged. Conclusions: VCT, OPC and MMT service delivery quality remained the same or improved during the 6 months following the integration. Expansion of the integrated model should be considered for HIV-related services.

  4. Adapting the Melon Production Model to Climate Change in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngo, AT.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded in a package of climate change adaptation, researchers and farmers tested the melon hybrid variety, Kim Hoang Hau (KHH, for yield and disease resistance during the spring-summer season from March to June 2015 in Giao Thuy district, Nam Dinh province. The results were analysed and subsequently discussed with local farmers in focused groups. Analysis showed that the KHH was suitable to local soil conditions. The farmers preferred this new variety over the local melon, because not only did KHH give higher yield and pest resistance, it also showed less vulnerability to climatic stressors. Farmers decided to grow KHH based on the prevailing good market price at that time. However, farmers only shifted away from the old melon when they could anticipate the possibility of selling the new product. Those who did not continue with the KHH had difficulty in actively accessing the market for this new product. This study suggests that the market information does not solely drive the process of the adaptation itself, but it also provides relevant stimuli to farmers enabling them to successfully shift to new crop varieties. This study also implies that such process-based understanding is crucial in formulating strategies that increase the farmer's capacity to adapt to climate change.

  5. Co-existence of Paragonimus harinasutai and Paragonimus bangkokensis metacercariae in fresh water crab hosts in central Viet Nam with special emphasis on their close phylogenetic relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doanh, Pham Ngoc; Hien, Hoang Van; Nonaka, Nariaki; Horii, Yoichiro; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2012-09-01

    During our epidemiological surveys for Paragonimus species in central Viet Nam, we found four morphologically different Paragonimus metacercariae in mountainous crabs. They were identified as metacercariae of Paragonimus westermani, P. bangkokensis, P. proliferus, and P. harinasutai in the order of their prevalence in crab hosts. This is the first discovery of P. harinasutai in Viet Nam, co-inhabiting with P. bangkokensis and other species. Metacercariae of P. harinasutai were given orally to a cat to obtain adult worms. Then, ITS2 and CO1 sequences of metacercariae and adults of P. harinasutai, and metacercariae of P. bangkokensis collected from the same place were determined for analyses of phylogenetic relationships to other P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis populations as well as related species. The results of molecular analyses showed that P. harinasutai from Quang Binh province of central Viet Nam was almost completely identical with those from Vientiane, Lao PDR; P. bangkokensis from Quang Binh, Viet Nam was also almost completely identical with those from Lao PDR and from Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam. Except for one P. harinasutai isolate from China, all populations of P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis from Thailand, Lao and Viet Nam make a single clade in both ITS2 and CO1 trees. In ITS2 sequences, AT deletion and ATC insertion were observed in some isolates of both species, indicating recent gene flow between P. harinasutai and P. bangkokensis. Moreover, because of their extremely high genetic similarities and their co-inhabitation in the same crab hosts found in Thailand, Lao PDR and Viet Nam, they should be considered as the sister species at the early stage of divergence. In addition, P. microrchis previously described from Yunnan, China should be placed as the synonym of P. harinasutai, because of their morphological and molecular similarities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phytoplankton functional groups for ecological assessment in young sub-tropical reservoirs: case study of the Nam-Theun 2 Reservoir, Laos, South-East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Martinet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The early stages following the creation of reservoirs are typically physical and biological unstable periods due to the conversion from a lotic to a lentic ecosystem. The sub-tropical Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Laos was impounded in 2008. Several limnological parameters were monitored from March 2009 to December 2011 in order to understand the evolution of the phytoplankton community. A strong inter annual variability of hydrodynamic pattern was observed. Rainfall and hydraulic balance were the main physical factors driving the community structure. Periods of highest hydraulic stability led to a phytoplankton biomasses increase. The first assemblages were dominated by the S-C-strategists reaching high biomasses but low diversity. Over the three years, phytoplankton became more diverse due to a diversification of ecological niches, mostly explained by a greater water transparency and a more stable thermal stratification. The applicability of functional groups for biomonitoring in this young sub-tropical reservoir was investigated and compared to a classical taxonomical approach. The dominant functional groups (Lo, A, E, F, N and P characterized the NT2 Reservoir as meso-oligotrophic with a tolerance to low nutrients supply. Our results support the hypothesis that a functional group approach is more informative than a species-based approach to assess trophic level and dissolved organic carbon concentrations in such reservoirs.

  7. John Cage y su influencia en la obra del video artista Nam June Paik

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    Sarriugarte Gómez, Íñigo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In 1958, the Korean artist Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 meets in Germany John Cage (*1912; †1992, avant-garde musician, who was deeply interested in the Zen Buddhism. The meeting with Cage was vital, because the North American composer will convince him to orient his career towards the artistic avant-garde, giving up his facet like classic pianist. The philosophy of Cage is refl ected in compositions like “4’ 33’’, from 1952, where the spectator doesn’t listen the sound of the piano, because this isn’t played, but he listens a silence that is interrupted by the environmental sound. There are several versions of this piece, marking the silences by means of processes at random with the “I Ching”. In this sense, the silence used by John Cage is related to the vacuity of the Zen Buddhism. Also, Paik makes use of silence in numerous works, like “1963 TV Clock”, where 24 colour television sets are manipulated, feeling at the same time the silence, interrupted again by the own momentary circumstances of the spectator. This same infl uence of the Zen Buddhism in the music of Cage is observed when argues that the music composed of melodies has the same value than the sound understood by us like noises. This aspect, among others, infl uenced to Paik, whose video images are defi ned like attributes of traditional works that don’t impress to the audience, but they suggest variable conditions. Some of his works related to Cage’s philosophy have been “Hommage à John Cage” from 1959; “Study for pianoforte” from 1960; and “Global Grove” from 1973, where Paik uses as a collage the images of his avant-garde collaborators John Cage, Allen Ginsberg and Merce Cunningham.

    En 1958, el artista coreano Nam June Paik (*1932; †2006 conoce en Alemania a John Cage (*1912; †1992, músico vanguardista, quien estaba profundamente interesado en el budismo zen. Su encuentro con Cage fue vital, ya que el compositor

  8. Effect of land use change on water discharge in Srepok watershed, Central Highland, Viet Nam

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    Nguyen Thi Ngoc Quyen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Srepok watershed plays an important role in Central Highland in Viet Nam. It impacts to developing social-economic conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to research elements which impact to natural resources in this watershed. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model and Geography Information System (GIS were used to simulate water discharge in the Srepok watershed. The objectives of the research were to apply GIS and SWAT model for simulation water discharge and then, we assessed land use change which impacted on water discharge in the watershed. The observed stream flow data from Ban Don Stream gauge station was used to calibrate for the period from 1981 to 2000 and then validate for the period from 2001 to 2009. After using SWAT-CUP software to calibration, NSI reached 0.63 and R square value achieved 0.64 from 2004 to 2008 in calibration and NSI gained good level at 0.74 and R square got 0.75 from 2009 to 2012 in validation step at Ban Don Station. After that, land cover in 2010 was processed like land cover in 2000 and set up SWAT model again. The simulated water discharge in scenario 1 (land use 2000 was compared with scenario 2 (land use 2010, the simulation result was not significant difference between two scenarios because the change of area of land use was not much enough to affect the fluctuation of water discharge. However, the effect of land cover on water resource could be seen clearly via total water yield. The percentage of surface flow in 2000 was twice times more than in 2010; retard and base flow in 2000 was slightly more than in 2010. Therefore, decreased surface flow, increased infiltration capacity of water and enriched base flow resulted in the growth of land cover.

  9. Breeding for high N2 fixation in groundnut and soybean in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Xuan Hong

    1998-01-01

    Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Mer.) are grown mainly on two types of soil in Viet Nam: coastal-sandy and upland-degraded soils. These soils are deficient in N, and considering that fertilizer N is not only costly to farmers but also a threat to the environment, it is important to maximize productivity by exploiting the ability of these legumes to fix N 2 symbiotically in their root nodules. We initiated programmes of breeding and selection to combine high N 2 fixation and high grain-yielding capacity. In the spring of 1992, breeding lines of groundnut and soybean were tested under greenhouse conditions for varietal differences in the capacity to fix N 2 using the acetylene reduction assay and the 15 N-dilution technique, with upland rice as reference plants. Varietal differences were found in nitrogenase activity, and percent N derived from fixation (%Ndfa) ranged from 11 to 63% for groundnut and from 9 to 79% for soybean. Field experiments in the autumn-winter season of 1992 again revealed significant varietal differences; %Ndfa ranged from 36 to 56% for groundnut and from 28 to 58% for soybean. Gamma-irradiated seeds of soybean were propagated in bulk from M 1 to M 4 . Five high-yielding mutant lines of both species were selected from the M 5 populations, and N 2 fixation was estimated using the 15 N-dilution technique. The average values for %Ndfa of the mutants were 55 and 57%, significant improvements over the parent-cultivar values of 25 and 29% for soybean and groundnut, respectively

  10. Persisting stigma reduces the utilisation of HIV-related care and support services in Viet Nam

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    Thanh Duong Cong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seeking and utilisation of HIV prevention, treatment, care, and support services for people living with HIV is often hampered by HIV-related stigma. The study aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences regarding treatment, care, and support amongst people living with HIV in Viet Nam, where the HIV epidemic is concentrated among injecting drug users, sex workers, and men who have sex with men. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were conducted during September 2007 in 6 districts in Hai Phong with a very high HIV prevalence among injecting drug users. The information obtained was analysed and merged within topic areas. Illustrative quotes were selected. Results Stigma and discrimination against people living with HIV in the community and healthcare settings was commonly reported, and substantially hampered the seeking and the utilisation of HIV-related services. The informants related the high level of stigma to the way the national HIV preventive campaigns played on fear, by employing a “scare tactic” mainly focusing on drug users and sex workers, who were defined as “social evils” in the anti-drug and anti-prostitution policy. There was a strong exclusion effect caused by the stigma, with serious implications, such as loss of job opportunities and isolation. The support and care provided by family members was experienced as vital for the spirit and hope for the future among people living with HIV. Conclusions A comprehensive care and support programme is needed. The very high levels of stigma experienced seem largely to have been created by an HIV preventive scare tactic closely linked to the “social evil“ approach in the national policy on drug and prostitution. In order to reduce the stigma and create more effective interventions, this tactic will have to be replaced with approaches that create better legal and policy environments for drug users and sex workers.

  11. Immunological and viral determinants of dengue severity in hospitalized adults in Ha Noi, Viet Nam.

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    Annette Fox

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between the infecting dengue serotype, primary and secondary infection, viremia and dengue severity remain unclear. This cross-sectional study examined these interactions in adult patients hospitalized with dengue in Ha Noi.158 patients were enrolled between September 16 and November 11, 2008. Quantitative RT-PCR, serology and NS1 detection were used to confirm dengue infection, determine the serotype and plasma viral RNA concentration, and categorize infections as primary or secondary. 130 (82% were laboratory confirmed. Serology was consistent with primary and secondary infection in 34% and 61%, respectively. The infecting serotype was DENV-1 in 42 (32%, DENV-2 in 39 (30% and unknown in 49 (38%. Secondary infection was more common in DENV-2 infections (79% compared to DENV-1 (36%, p<0.001. The proportion that developed dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF was 32% for secondary infection compared to 18% for primary infection (p = 0.14, and 26% for DENV-1 compared to 28% for DENV-2. The time until NS1 and plasma viral RNA were undetectable was shorter for DENV-2 compared to DENV-1 (p≤0.001 and plasma viral RNA concentration on day 5 was higher for DENV-1 (p = 0.03. Plasma viral RNA concentration was higher in secondary infection on day 5 of illness (p = 0.046. We didn't find an association between plasma viral RNA concentration and clinical severity.Dengue is emerging as a major public health problem in Ha Noi. DENV-1 and DENV-2 were the prevalent serotypes with similar numbers and clinical presentation. Secondary infection may be more common amongst DENV-2 than DENV-1 infections because DENV-2 infections resulted in lower plasma viral RNA concentrations and viral RNA concentrations were higher in secondary infection. The drivers of dengue emergence in northern Viet Nam need to be elucidated and public health measures instituted.

  12. Collaborative GIS for flood susceptibility mapping: An example from Mekong river basin of Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, B.

    2016-12-01

    Flooding is one of the most dangerous natural disasters in Vietnam. Floods have caused serious damages to people and made adverse impact on social economic development across the country, especially in lower river basin where there is high risk of flooding as consequences of the climate change and social activities. This paper presents a collaborative platform of a combination of an interactive web-GIS framework and a multi-criteria evaluation (MCE) tool. MCE is carried out in server side through web interface, in which parameters used for evaluation are groups into three major categories, including (1) climatic factor: precipitation, typhoon frequency, temperature, humidity (2) physiographic data: DEM, topographic wetness index, NDVI, stream power index, soil texture, distance to river (3) social factor: NDBI, land use pattern. Web-based GIS is based on open-source technology that includes an information page, a page for MCE tool that users can interactively alter parameters in flood susceptible mapping, and a discussion page. The system is designed for local participation in prediction of the flood risk magnitude under impacts of natural processes and human intervention. The proposed flood susceptibility assessment prototype was implemented in the Mekong river basin, Viet Nam. Index images were calculated using Landsat data, and other were collected from authorized agencies. This study shows the potential to combine web-GIS and spatial analysis tool to flood hazard risk assessment. The combination can be a supportive solution that potentially assists the interaction between stakeholders in information exchange and in disaster management, thus provides for better analysis, control and decision-making.

  13. Le pluralisme médicamenteux face à l’épidémie de VIH/sida au Viêt Nam Drug Pluralism Confronted by HIV/AIDS Epidemic in Viêt Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Ève Blanc

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Cet article traite de la place du pluralisme médicamenteux au Viêt Nam dans le contexte de l’épidémie de VIH/sida et de la mise en place d’une nouvelle politique du médicament qui mène à la régulation du médicament traditionnel. Un des principaux problèmes dans la prise en charge du VIH/sida au Viêt Nam fut l’absence de médicaments appropriés, efficaces et accessibles. Contrairement à la Chine, la médecine traditionnelle au Viêt Nam ne s’est pas adaptée, ni n’a réussi à développer durablement de produits spécifiques. Pourtant, l’OMS favorise et incite les thérapeutes traditionnels à participer et à proposer des solutions et pas seulement dans le cadre de soins complémentaires ou palliatifs. On a pu parfois même observer des attitudes plutôt répressives de la part des autorités vietnamiennes à l’égard d’un médicament traditionnel qui n’était pas passé par l’evidence based medicine. En revanche, contrairement à la Chine, le Viêt Nam s’est orienté vers une production locale de médicaments génériques pour répondre aux besoins locaux et baisser le coût de la prise en charge du VIH.À l’aide d’une analyse de contenu de la presse vietnamienne sur le sujet nous tenterons de comprendre les enjeux politiques, économiques et culturels qui se cachent derrière le faible développement de médicaments traditionnels dans le cadre de la prise en charge du VIH/sida.Nous montrerons que l’occidentalisation pendant la période coloniale, l’ouverture du pays depuis le début des années 1990, la globalisation (vue ici comme la multiplication des échanges avec les pays occidentaux et l’intégration du Viêt Nam au reste du monde et à l’ASEAN et la chaîne de production du médicament pharmaceutique ont modifié les pratiques de pluralisme médicamenteux ainsi que la politique nationale en matière de santé, avec des implications à plus ou moins long terme sur les pratiques

  14. Completeness and reliability of mortality data in Viet Nam: Implications for the national routine health management information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tran Thi; Phuong Hoa, Nguyen; Walker, Sue M; Hill, Peter S; Rao, Chalapati

    2018-01-01

    Mortality statistics form a crucial component of national Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). However, there are limitations in the availability and quality of mortality data at national level in Viet Nam. This study assessed the completeness of recorded deaths and the reliability of recorded causes of death (COD) in the A6 death registers in the national routine HMIS in Viet Nam. 1477 identified deaths in 2014 were reviewed in two provinces. A capture-recapture method was applied to assess the completeness of the A6 death registers. 1365 household verbal autopsy (VA) interviews were successfully conducted, and these were reviewed by physicians who assigned multiple and underlying cause of death (UCOD). These UCODs from VA were then compared with the CODs recorded in the A6 death registers, using kappa scores to assess the reliability of the A6 death register diagnoses. The overall completeness of the A6 death registers in the two provinces was 89.3% (95%CI: 87.8-90.8). No COD recorded in the A6 death registers demonstrated good reliability. There is very low reliability in recording of cardiovascular deaths (kappa for stroke = 0.47 and kappa for ischaemic heart diseases = 0.42) and diabetes (kappa = 0.33). The reporting of deaths due to road traffic accidents, HIV and some cancers are at a moderate level of reliability with kappa scores ranging between 0.57-0.69 (preliability of COD recorded in the A6 death registers, for which VA methods could be effective. Focussed consultation among stakeholders is needed to develop a suitable mechanism and process for integrating VA methods into the national routine HMIS A6 death registers in Viet Nam.

  15. Iodine status in late pregnancy and psychosocial determinants of iodized salt use in rural northern Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach; Biggs, Beverley; Tran, Tuan; Dwyer, Terry; Casey, Gerard; Tho, Dang Hai; Hetzel, Basil

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To establish iodine status among pregnant women in rural northern Viet Nam and explore psychosocial predictors of the use of iodized salt in their households. Methods This prospective study included pregnant women registered in health stations in randomly-selected communes in Ha Nam province. At recruitment (partner relationship, family violence, symptoms of common mental disorders and use of micronutrient supplements were assessed. During a second assessment (> 28 weeks of gestation) a urine specimen was collected to measure urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and iodized salt use was assessed. Predictors were explored through univariable analyses and multivariable linear and logistic regression. Findings The 413 pregnant women who provided data for this study had a median UIC of 70 µg/l; nearly 83% had a UIC lower than the 150 µg/l recommended by the World Health Organization; only 73.6% reported using iodized salt in any form in their households. Iodized salt use was lower among nulliparous women (odds ratio, OR: 0.56; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.32–0.96); less educated women (OR: 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16–0.71); factory workers or small-scale traders (OR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.31–0.86), government workers (OR: 0.35; 95% CI: 0.13–0.89) and women with common mental disorders at recruitment (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.38–0.98). Conclusion The decline in the use of iodized salt in Viet Nam since the National Iodine Deficiency Disorders Control Programme was suspended in 2005 has placed pregnant women and their infants in rural areas at risk of iodine deficiency disorders. PMID:22084527

  16. Violation of Bans on Tobacco Advertising and Promotion at Points of Sale in Viet Nam: Trend from 2009 - 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huong, Le Thi Thanh; Long, Tran Khanh; Son, Phung Xuan; Huyen, Do Phuc; Linh, Phan Thuy; Bich, Nguyen Ngoc; Lam, Nguyen Xuan; Anh, Le Vu; Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi

    2016-01-01

    Comprehensive bans on tobacco advertising and promotion were introduced through tobacco control legislation in Viet Nam, but it has been established that violations of the bans are very common. This study was conducted to explore the trend in violations of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in Viet Nam in the past six years and to explore any differences in the violation situations before and after the Law on Tobacco Control came into effect on 1st May 2013. Quantitative data were collected through observation of violations of the bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale in 10 provinces throughout Viet Nam in four survey rounds (2009, 2010, 2011, and 2015). Variation in violation prevalence over time was examined by chi-square test using a Bonferini method. Binary logistic regression was employed to identify the factors that may have influences on different types of violation. A level of significance of padvertising increased while violations on promotion ban and on displaying tobacco decreased through time. Some factors associated with the tobacco advertising and promotion bans included surveyed years, types of points of sale, regions and areas where the points of sale were located. The enforcement of the bans did not improve even after the issuance and the enactment of the Law on Tobacco Control. This suggests that the monitoring and enforcement of bans on tobacco advertising and promotion at points of sale should be strengthened. Penalties should be strictly applied for violators as indicated in the current tobacco control legislation.

  17. A world-class target for ICDP drilling at Lake Nam Co, Tibetan Plateau, China: progresses and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, L.; Wang, J.; Daut, G.; Spiess, V.; Haberzettl, T.; Schulze, N.; Ju, J.; Lü, X.; Bergmann, F.; Haberkern, J.; Schwalb, A.; Mäusbacher, R.

    2017-12-01

    Lake Nam Co (ca. 2000 km2, 4718 m a.s.l., maximum depth: 100 m) is located at the interaction zone of the Westerlies and the Indian monsoon on the central Tibetan Plateau. It was part of a mega-lake during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 before the Last Glacial Maximum. A long term sedimentary record from Nam Co could therefore provide an excellent paleo-environmental sequence for regional and global comparative studies. This will to deepen our understanding of large scale atmospheric circulation shifts and the environmental links between the Tibetan Plateau at low latitudes and the North Atlantic region at high latitudes. A Nam Co deep drilling will fill the gap in two large scale ICDP/IODP drilling transects (N-S: Lake Baikal, Lake Qinghai, Bay of Bengal; W-E: Lake Van, Lake Issyk-Kul, South China Sea, Lake Towuti), which will show the great significance of monsoon dynamics on a long-term scale. Multidisciplinary researches have been conducted since 2005 by a Sino-German cooperative team. The progresses during the last decade are: 1) Detailed bathymetric surveying, including a shallow sediment profiler investigation (Innomar SES 2000 light, ca. 30 m sediment penetration); 2) Paleo-environmental reconstructions covering the past 24 ka; 3) Modern sediment distribution covering the entire lake; 4) Monitoring including water temperature profiles, sediment traps, seasonal airborne pollen collection; 5) Deep seismic survey penetrating up to 800 meters of lake sediments. Based on sediment rates from reference core NC08/01, seismic results show that an age of 500 ka may be reached at 500 m, and >1 Ma at the observed base. Faulting can be clearly detected in the seismic profiles, especially from MIS 5 to early Holocene, and shows the characteristics of normal faults or strike-slip faults. Both rotation of the layers and the close spacing, along with negative and positive offsets of the faults make a transtensional origin of the basin likely. An ICDP workshop proposal was

  18. Osmanlı Devletinin Son Yıllarında Ağnam Vergisine Yapılan Zamlar Rise In Ağnam (Sheep Tax In The Recent Years Of Ottoman State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ünal TAŞKIN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available People generally known as rayah in Ottoman State had some responsibilities to state. Among these responsibilities there were tax figures to be paid about agricultural and husbandry facilities. Each rayah doing husbandry facilities made payments in certain rates according to animal breed fed. Known as the tax of sheep and goat in the classical time of state, sheep tax gained a more general meaning and was subject to new regulations. It was initiated to be collected with a method called mukataa and expressing a certain amount determined in advance since the XVII. century of Ottoman State. Called as sheep tax mukataa, this income became one the most important figure of central treasury. Since the XIX. by abandoning the collection in kind method additional taxes with various names were also abolished.The price determined as the amount of tax was too much for some regions of the state because of regional differences in sheep prices. Because of this it was initiated to determine how much income was gained from the milk and wool of sheep and goat according to each region with the new regulation since the second part of the XIX. century. Determined by local administrations seperately, the tax figure of these amounts were determined in central office.As the rise in the taxes caused a negative effect on public, they were read justed towards the end of XIX. century. Reasons such as the current social situation of state, the worry of fund raising and political events caused changes in the encashment of taxes called as ağnam group. In ourwork the eight fold rise in ağnam tax which is accepted as one of the most important sources for recovering budget deficit of Ottoman State is goingto be studied. Osmanlı Devleti’nde reaya genel adıyla bilinen halkın, devletekarşı birtakım mükellefiyetleri vardı. Bu mükellefiyetler içerisinde,tarım ve hayvancılık faaliyetlerinden kaynaklı, ödenmesi gereken vergikalemleri mevcuttu. Hayvanc

  19. Dy3+-activated NaM4(VO4)3 (M = Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphor for near-UV solid-state lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Roshani; Dhoble, S J

    2011-01-01

    We report the photoluminescence characterization of Dy(3+)-activated NaM(4)(VO(4))(3) (M = Ca, Ba, Sr) phosphors prepared by a solid-state method. The synthesis was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization and photoluminescence (PL) emission results showed sharp blue and yellow bands for NaM(4)(VO(4))(3) (M = Ca, Ba, Sr):Dy(3+) phosphors at the excitation wavelength of 323 nm, which is near-UV excitation. Thus, these phosphors could be applicable for near-UV excited solid-state lighting devices. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Impact of mandatory motorcycle helmet wearing legislation on head injuries in Viet Nam: results of a preliminary analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passmore, Jonathon; Tu, Nguyen Thi Hong; Luong, Mai Anh; Chinh, Nguyen Duc; Nam, Nguyen Phuong

    2010-04-01

    To compare estimated prevalence of head injuries among road traffic injury patients admitted to hospitals, before and after the introduction of a mandatory helmet law in the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. Before and after study of all road traffic injury patients with head injuries admitted to 20 provincial and central hospitals 3 months before and after the new law came into effect on 15 December 2007. Relative risk was computed and comparison made for the periods of 3 months before and after the new law. The study found a 16 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries (4683 to 3522; relative risk [RR] 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-0.87) and an 18 percent reduction in the risk of road traffic death (deaths in hospital plus injured patients discharged to die at home; 566 to 417; RR 0.82; 95% CI 0.73-0.93). Over the first 3 months of the comprehensive mandatory helmet legislation there has been a significant reduction in the risk of road traffic head injuries among patients admitted to 20 hospitals. The Viet Nam Government's decision to require all motorcycle riders and passengers to wear helmets is suspected of leading to positive road safety benefits and should be seen as a policy example for other low- and middle-income countries with a high utilization of motorcycles for transport.

  1. Detection of potentially novel paramyxovirus and coronavirus viral RNA in bats and rats in the Mekong Delta region of southern Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berto, A.; Anh, P. H.; Carrique-Mas, J. J.; Simmonds, P.; van Cuong, N.; Tue, N. T.; van Dung, N.; Woolhouse, M. E.; Smith, I.; Marsh, G. A.; Bryant, J. E.; Thwaites, G. E.; Baker, S.; Rabaa, M. A.; Kiet, Bach Tuan; Boni, Maciej F.; Phu, Bui Duc; Campbell, James I.; Hung, Dang Manh; Huong, Dang Thao; Oanh, Dang Tram; Day, Jeremy N.; van Tan, Dinh; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Han, Duong An; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Trang, Hau Thi Thu; Nghia, Ho Dang Trung; Long, Hoang Bao; van Duong, Hoang; Thu, Huynh Thi Kim; Cuong, Lam Chi; Hung, Manh; Phuong, Thanh; Phuc, Thi; Phuong, Thi; Luat, Xuan; Ha, Luu Thi Thu; van Chuong, Ly; Loan, Mai Thi Phuoc; Nadjm, Behzad; Bao, Ngo Thanh; Tu, Nguyen Canh; Thuan, Nguyen Dac; Dong, Nguyen; Chuyen, Nguyen Khac; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Vinh, Nguyen Ngoc; Hung, Nguyen Quoc; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Minh, Nguyen Thanh; Binh, Nguyen Thi; Tham, Nguyen Thi Hong; Tien, Nguyen Thi Hong; Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim; Le Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Ha, Nguyen Thi Lien; Lien, Nguyen Thi Nam; Diep, Nguyen Thi Ngoc; Nhung, Nguyen Thi; Chau, Nguyen Thi Song; Chi, Nguyen Thi Yen; Trinh, Nguyen Thieu; van, Nguyen Thu; van Hung, Nguyen; van Kinh, Nguyen; van Minh Hoang, Nguyen; van My, Nguyen; van Thang, Nguyen; van Thanh, Nguyen; van Vinh Chau, Nguyen; van Xang, Nguyen; My, Pham Ha; Khoa, Pham Thi Minh; Tam, Pham Thi Thanh; van Lao, Pham; van Minh, Pham; van Be Bay, Phan; Rahman, Motiur; Thompson, Corinne; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Nhu, Tran Do Hoang; Chau, Tran Hoang Minh; Toan, Tran Khanh; Phuc, Tran My; Hong, Tran Thi Kim; Dung, Tran Thi Ngoc; Thanh, Tran Thi Thanh; Minh, Tran Thi Thuy; Nguyen, Tran Thua; Hien, Tran Tinh; Tri, Trinh Quang; Hien, Vo Be; Tai, Vo Nhut; Cuong, Vo Quoc; Phat, Voong Vinh; Huong, Vu Thi Lan; Hang, Vu thi Ty; Wertheim, Heiman; Bogaardt, Carlijn; Brierley, Liam; Chase-Topping, Margo; Ivens, Al; Lu, Lu; Rambaut, Andrew; Woolhouse, Mark; Cotten, Matthew; Oude Munnink, Bas B.; Kellam, Paul; Phan, My Vu Tra; van der Hoek, Lia; Deijs, Martin; Jebbink, Maarten F.; Farsani, Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri; Saylors, Karen; Wolfe, Nathan

    2018-01-01

    Bats and rodents are being increasingly recognized as reservoirs of emerging zoonotic viruses. Various studies have investigated bat viruses in tropical regions, but to date there are no data regarding viruses with zoonotic potential that circulate in bat and rat populations in Viet Nam. To address

  2. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiscox, A.F.; Kaye, A.; Vongphayloth, K.; Banks, I.; Piffer, M.; Khammanithong, P.; Sananikhom, P.; Kaul, S.; Hill, N.; Lindsay, S.W.; Brey, P.T.

    2013-01-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were

  3. Art as a Political Act: Expression of Cultural Identity, Self-Identity, and Gender by Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Hwa Young Choi

    2005-01-01

    This cross-cultural study explored the lives of two contemporary Korean/Korean American women artists--Suk Nam Yun and Yong Soon Min--who live in Seoul, South Korea, and Los Angeles, California. The author's research focused on the artists' identity formation, artistic expression, professional achievements, and the role of art as a political act.…

  4. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin : A case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, B.; Babel, M.S.; Maskey, S.; Van Griensven, A.; Uhlenbrook, S.; Green, A.; Akkharath, I.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation) from four general circulation models (GCMs) that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS)

  5. The Warming of Large Lakes on the Tibetan Plateau: Evidence From a Lake Model Simulation of Nam Co, China, During 1979-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Wang, Junbo; Zhu, Liping; Ju, Jianting; Daut, Gerhard

    2017-12-01

    Lakes are considered as indicators of climate change on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In the present study, we use the General Lake Model to simulate water temperature changes in Nam Co, the second largest lake on the central TP, for the period 1979-2012. The calibration and validation results demonstrate that this model is well suited for thermal simulation of Nam Co. The simulation results indicate that Nam Co has responded to the recent warming climate. The average summer surface water temperature fluctuated yearly, but its trend is positive at a rate of 0.52 ± 0.25°C per decade. At the same time, the onset of summer stratification advanced by 4.20 ± 2.02 d per decade, and the duration increased at a rate of 6.00 ± 3.54 d per decade. To explore the roles of air temperature and longwave radiation in lake warming, three sensitivity experiments are conducted by removing long-term trends from time series of air temperature and longwave radiation in the forcing data. These experiments prove that both increased air temperature and downward longwave radiation are two driving factors responsible for the warming of Nam Co.

  6. GHG budget in a young subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2 case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Guérin, F.; Serça, D.; Descloux, S.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.

    2012-04-01

    Dynamics of major greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4 and N2O) has been studied in a new subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (impounded in 2009), Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The main pathways of emission were quantified, i.e., ebullition (bubbling), surface diffusion, downstream emissions (diffusion and degassing) and emissions from the drawdown area (up to 370 km2 for a 450km2 in the case of NT2). All presented results are coming from five field campaigns conducted from May 2009 to June 2011, and a monthly monitoring on 35 stations. Additional laboratory work in controlled conditions helped to assess production rates of CH4, CO2 and N2O, and aerobic CH4 oxidation rates. The ebullition of CH4 is in the same order as from other tropical reservoirs, varying with depth and atmospheric pressure. Measured diffusive fluxes of CH4 and CO2 cover the whole range of reported fluxes for other tropical reservoirs, depending on the season. Diffusive fluxes of N2O, and CH4 downstream (degassing and diffusion) emissions are in the lower range as reported before for tropical reservoirs. On the opposite, the drawdown area would represent a significant contribution to N2O emission. Our results for the year 2010 show that diffusive emission from the reservoir surface is the main contributor (46%) to total GHG emissions from the NT2 reservoir. With 25% and 19% of total GHG emissions, bubbling and drawdown area emissions also contributed significantly respectively. Downstream emissions from NT2 reservoir contributed around 10% of total GHG emissions, a percentage lower than reported for other reservoirs. With 963 Gg CO2eq yr-1 and 986 Gg CO2eq yr-1respectively, CH4 and CO2 have almost the same contributions (48 and 49%) of the total GHG budget, N2O accounting for less than 3% with 64 Gg CO2eq yr-1. With a total emissions from NT2 reservoir of 2013 Gg CO2eq yr-1, gross NT2 emission are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 Gg CO2eq yr-1). Net emission

  7. Decreasing In-home Smoking of Adults—Results from a School-based Intervention Program in Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi Thanh Huong

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available It is indicated that children are involuntarily exposed to secondhand smoke from adults, mainly at their home environment. This study aimed at describing the effectiveness of the school-based intervention to decrease the in-home smoking situation of adults so as to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke at home during the year 2011–2012 in a rural district in Hanoi, Viet Nam. This school-based intervention program (intervention and control group involved 804 children aged 8 to 11 years from August 2011 to May 2012 in a rural district of Hanoi, Viet Nam. Children were taught in class about the harmful effects of secondhand smoke and about how to negotiate with fathers not to smoke in-home. Then children applied what they learnt, including staying away from secondhand smoke and persuading fathers not to smoke in-home in order to decrease children’s exposure to secondhand smoke. Chi square test, t-test and multinominal logistic regression were applied in data analysis. The results showed that children’s reported their father’s in-home smoking decreased from 83.0% pre-intervention to 59.8% post-intervention (p < 0.001 in the intervention school while no change happened in the control school. The study found that the better changed smoking location of adult smokers as reported by children associated with the school who received intervention activities (adjusted OR = 2.04; 95% CI: 1.28–3.24. Poorer changed attitudes towards secondhand smoke of children associated with a lower percentage of better change in smoking location of their fathers/other adult smokers (aOR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.28–0.96. Children’s poorer changed knowledge towards secondhand smoke also associated with poorer changed smoking location of adult smokers (aOR = 2.88, 95% CI: 1.07–7.76. It is recommended by this study that similar school based intervention approaches should be applied in primary schools in Viet Nam to increase children’s awareness on the

  8. Completeness and reliability of mortality data in Viet Nam: Implications for the national routine health management information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong Hoa, Nguyen; Walker, Sue M.; Hill, Peter S.; Rao, Chalapati

    2018-01-01

    Background Mortality statistics form a crucial component of national Health Management Information Systems (HMIS). However, there are limitations in the availability and quality of mortality data at national level in Viet Nam. This study assessed the completeness of recorded deaths and the reliability of recorded causes of death (COD) in the A6 death registers in the national routine HMIS in Viet Nam. Methodology and findings 1477 identified deaths in 2014 were reviewed in two provinces. A capture-recapture method was applied to assess the completeness of the A6 death registers. 1365 household verbal autopsy (VA) interviews were successfully conducted, and these were reviewed by physicians who assigned multiple and underlying cause of death (UCOD). These UCODs from VA were then compared with the CODs recorded in the A6 death registers, using kappa scores to assess the reliability of the A6 death register diagnoses. The overall completeness of the A6 death registers in the two provinces was 89.3% (95%CI: 87.8–90.8). No COD recorded in the A6 death registers demonstrated good reliability. There is very low reliability in recording of cardiovascular deaths (kappa for stroke = 0.47 and kappa for ischaemic heart diseases = 0.42) and diabetes (kappa = 0.33). The reporting of deaths due to road traffic accidents, HIV and some cancers are at a moderate level of reliability with kappa scores ranging between 0.57–0.69 (p<0.01). VA methods identify more specific COD than the A6 death registers, and also allow identification of multiple CODs. Conclusions The study results suggest that data completeness in HMIS A6 death registers in the study sample of communes was relatively high (nearly 90%), but triangulation with death records from other sources would improve the completeness of this system. Further, there is an urgent need to enhance the reliability of COD recorded in the A6 death registers, for which VA methods could be effective. Focussed consultation among

  9. Low methane (CH4) emissions downstream of a monomictic subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Labat, David; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Guédant, Pierre; Rode, Wanidaporn; Godon, Arnaud; Chanudet, Vincent; Descloux, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Methane (CH4) emissions from hydroelectric reservoirs could represent a significant fraction of global CH4 emissions from inland waters and wetlands. Although CH4 emissions downstream of hydroelectric reservoirs are known to be potentially significant, these emissions are poorly documented in recent studies. We report the first quantification of emissions downstream of a subtropical monomictic reservoir. The Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (NT2R), located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic, was flooded in 2008 and commissioned in April 2010. This reservoir is a trans-basin diversion reservoir which releases water into two downstream streams: the Nam Theun River below the dam and an artificial channel downstream of the powerhouse and a regulating pond that diverts the water from the Nam Theun watershed to the Xe Bangfai watershed. We quantified downstream emissions during the first 4 years after impoundment (2009-2012) on the basis of a high temporal (weekly to fortnightly) and spatial (23 stations) resolution of the monitoring of CH4 concentration. Before the commissioning of NT2R, downstream emissions were dominated by a very significant degassing at the dam site resulting from the occasional spillway discharge for controlling the water level in the reservoir. After the commissioning, downstream emissions were dominated by degassing which occurred mostly below the powerhouse. Overall, downstream emissions decreased from 10 GgCH4 yr-1 after the commissioning to 2 GgCH4 yr-1 4 years after impoundment. The downstream emissions contributed only 10 to 30 % of total CH4 emissions from the reservoir during the study. Most of the downstream emissions (80 %) occurred within 2-4 months during the transition between the warm dry season (WD) and the warm wet season (WW) when the CH4 concentration in hypolimnic water is maximum (up to 1000 µmol L-1) and downstream emissions are negligible for the rest of the year. Emissions downstream of NT2R are also lower than expected because

  10. Acemetacin cocrystal structures by powder X-ray diffraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geetha Bolla

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cocrystals of acemetacin drug (ACM with nicotinamide (NAM, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, valerolactam (VLM and 2-pyridone (2HP were prepared by melt crystallization and their X-ray crystal structures determined by high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction. The powerful technique of structure determination from powder data (SDPD provided details of molecular packing and hydrogen bonding in pharmaceutical cocrystals of acemetacin. ACM–NAM occurs in anhydrate and hydrate forms, whereas the other structures crystallized in a single crystalline form. The carboxylic acid group of ACM forms theacid–amide dimer three-point synthon R32(9R22(8R32(9 with three different syn amides (VLM, 2HP and caprolactam. The conformations of the ACM molecule observed in the crystal structures differ mainly in the mutual orientation of chlorobenzene fragment and the neighboring methyl group, being anti (type I or syn (type II. ACM hydrate, ACM—NAM, ACM–NAM-hydrate and the piperazine salt of ACM exhibit the type I conformation, whereas ACM polymorphs and other cocrystals adopt the ACM type II conformation. Hydrogen-bond interactions in all the crystal structures were quantified by calculating their molecular electrostatic potential (MEP surfaces. Hirshfeld surface analysis of the cocrystal surfaces shows that about 50% of the contribution is due to a combination of strong and weak O...H, N...H, Cl...H and C...H interactions. The physicochemical properties of these cocrystals are under study.

  11. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus; Ordon, Frank

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  12. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei) and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei) in barley using nested association mapping (NAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatter, Thomas; Maurer, Andreas; Perovic, Dragan; Kopahnke, Doris; Pillen, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM) was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars. PMID:29370232

  13. Identification of QTL conferring resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. hordei and leaf rust (Puccinia hordei in barley using nested association mapping (NAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Vatter

    Full Text Available The biotrophic rust fungi Puccinia hordei and Puccinia striiformis are important barley pathogens with the potential to cause high yield losses through an epidemic spread. The identification of QTL conferring resistance to these pathogens is the basis for targeted breeding approaches aiming to improve stripe rust and leaf rust resistance of modern cultivars. Exploiting the allelic richness of wild barley accessions proved to be a valuable tool to broaden the genetic base of resistance of barley cultivars. In this study, SNP-based nested association mapping (NAM was performed to map stripe rust and leaf rust resistance QTL in the barley NAM population HEB-25, comprising 1,420 lines derived from BC1S3 generation. By scoring the percentage of infected leaf area, followed by calculation of the area under the disease progress curve and the average ordinate during a two-year field trial, a large variability of resistance across and within HEB-25 families was observed. NAM based on 5,715 informative SNPs resulted in the identification of twelve and eleven robust QTL for resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust, respectively. Out of these, eight QTL for stripe rust and two QTL for leaf rust are considered novel showing no overlap with previously reported resistance QTL. Overall, resistance to both pathogens in HEB-25 is most likely due to the accumulation of numerous small effect loci. In addition, the NAM results indicate that the 25 wild donor QTL alleles present in HEB-25 strongly differ in regard to their individual effect on rust resistance. In future, the NAM concept will allow to select and combine individual wild barley alleles from different HEB parents to increase rust resistance in barley. The HEB-25 results will support to unravel the genetic basis of rust resistance in barley, and to improve resistance against stripe rust and leaf rust of modern barley cultivars.

  14. The mangrove's contribution to people: Interdisciplinary pilot study of the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-Salem, Marie-Christine; Van Trai, Nguyen; Burgos, Ariadna; Durand, Jean-Dominique; Bettarel, Yvan; Klein, Judith; Duc Huy, Hoang; Panfili, Jacques

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this pilot study, conducted in June 2015 in the Can Gio Mangrove Biosphere Reserve (Can Gio MBR, Viet Nam), was to develop an interdisciplinary approach to assess some key services provided by reforested mangroves subject to external pressures and varying management policies. We focused on the abundance of viruses, bacteria, endo- and epi- and macrofauna and the diversity of crabs in the mangrove and the exploitation of its resources. The main social finding was that the local inhabitants are aware of the levels of protection of the different zones within the Can Gio MBR and respect them. The core and the buffer zones seem to present a similar ecological status. Genotyping showed a low level of crab diversity although there were many different morphotypes. In the future, we need to understand the stakeholders' general perception of the biodiversity and environment changes by developing an integrated, multi-scale approach.

  15. Introduction : Vingt ans de recherches sur le Việt Nam (1990-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Klein

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Pourquoi Moussons consacre-t-elle un double numéro au Việt Nam ? Simplement parce que depuis les deux dernières décennies, ce champ particulier des sciences sociales que sont les études vietnamiennes a connu à travers le monde et en France en particulier un renouvellement considérable. Il était donc largement temps non pas d’en dresser un bilan, la vague n’ayant pas encore fini de déferler, mais, simplement, de tenter de présenter un bref panorama de ce renouveau en construction.Deux remarque...

  16. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H.; Kim, Sunny S.; Nguyen, Tuan T.; Tran, Lan M.; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2–4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4–4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6–8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3–1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and sustaining use of nutrition services in similar contexts. PMID:26962856

  17. MALACOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE FULLY OPERATIONAL NAM THEUN 2 HYDROELECTRIC DAM PROJECT IN KHAMMOUANE PROVINCE, CENTRAL LAO PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-aroon, Pusadee; Chusongsang, Phiraphol; Chusongsang, Yupa; Limpanont, Yanin; Surinthwong, Pornpimol; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Brey, Paul T

    2015-09-01

    We conducted a malacological investigation in four districts of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric dam project area, Khammouane Province, central Lao PDR (Nakai, Gnommalath, Mahaxai and Xe Bang Fai), after the first and second years of full operation in March 2010 and November 2011 to determine health risks for humans. A total 10,863 snail specimens (10 families/23 species) from 57 sampling stations and 12,902 snail specimens (eight families/21 species) from 66 sampling stations were collected in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Neotricula aperta (gamma race), the intermediate host for Schistosoma mekongi, was found in large numbers (5,853 specimens) in 2010 in Nam Gnom (downstream) at Station 25 (Mueang Gnommalath: Gnommalath District) and in fewer numbers (170 specimens) at Station 26 (Ban Thathod: Gnommalath District). In 2011, significantly fewer numbers (434 specimens) of N. aperta were found at Station 25. No snails were found to be infected with S. mekongi; however, 3.6% and 0.45% of Bithynia (D.). s. goniomphalos specimens collected were found to be infected with Opisthorchis viverrini (human liver fluke) during 2010 and 2011, respectively. Pomacea canaliculata, the rice crop pest, the intermediate host of Angiostrongylus (Parastrongylus) cantonensis, was found in the greatest numbers during 2010 and 2011; the prevalence increased significantly from 1.3% in 2010 to 53.3% in 2011. We also found seasonal variation in snail populations in terms of abundance and diversity. The snail fauna and risk for transmission of parasitic diseases need to be monitored continuously to evaluate the long-term impact of the dam project.

  18. Study design and the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV: lessons from Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safarnejad, Ali; Groot, Wim; Pavlova, Milena

    2018-01-30

    Estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV is a key activity in the surveillance of the HIV epidemic. The existing framework for considering future research needs may provide decision-makers with a basis for a fair process of deciding on the methods of the estimation of the size of key populations at risk of HIV. This study explores the extent to which stakeholders involved with population size estimation agree with this framework, and thus, the study updates the framework. We conducted 16 in-depth interviews with key informants from city and provincial governments, NGOs, research institutes, and the community of people at risk of HIV. Transcripts were analyzed and reviewed for significant statements pertaining to criteria. Variations and agreement around criteria were analyzed, and emerging criteria were validated against the existing framework. Eleven themes emerged which are relevant to the estimation of the size of populations at risk of HIV in Viet Nam. Findings on missing criteria, inclusive participation, community perspectives and conflicting weight and direction of criteria provide insights for an improved framework for the prioritization of population size estimation methods. The findings suggest that the exclusion of community members from decision-making on population size estimation methods in Viet Nam may affect the validity, use, and efficiency of the evidence generated. However, a wider group of decision-makers, including community members among others, may introduce diverse definitions, weight and direction of criteria. Although findings here may not apply to every country with a transitioning economy or to every emerging epidemic, the principles of fair decision-making, value of community participation in decision-making and the expected challenges faced, merit consideration in every situation.

  19. Geostatistical Approach to Estimating the Gold Ore Characteristics and Gold Reserves: A Case Study Daksa Area, Quang Nam Province, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan Truong, Xuan; Luong Le, Van; Quang Truong, Xuan

    2015-04-01

    Daksa gold deposit is the biggest gold deposits in Vietnam. The Daksa geological structure complicated, distributed mainly metamorphosed sedimentary NuiVu formation (PR3-?1nv2). The sulfide gold ore bodies distributed in quartz schist, quartz - biotite related to faut and distribution wing anticline. The gold ore bodies form circuits, network circuits, circuits lenses; fill the cup surface layer of the developing northeast - southwest; is the less than or west longitude north - SE. The results show that, Au and accompanying elements (Ag, Pb and Zn) have correlated pretty closely. All of its consistent with the logarithmic distribution standard, in accordance with the law of distribution of content mineral rare. The structure functions have nugget effect and spherical models with show that Au and accompanying elements special variation are changes. Au contents shown local anisotropy, no clearly anisotropy (K=1,17) and weakly anisotropy (K=1,4). Intensity mineralization of the ore bodies are quite high with demand spherical conversion coefficient ranging from 0.49 to 0.75 and from 0.66 to 0.97 (for other body). With nugget effects, ore bodies shown that it is consistent with mineralization in the ore bodies study, ore erasable, micro vein, infilling fractures in quartz vein. All of variogram presents local anisotropy, indicated gold mineralization at study area has least two-mineralization stages, consistent with the analysis of mineralography samples. By the results of the structure function study, the authors present the system optimization for exploration deposit and used to evaluate gold reserves by Ordinary Kriging. High accuracy of Kriging estimation results are expressed in the minimum Kriging variance, by compare the results calculated by some other methods (such as distance inverse weighting method, ..) and specially compare to the results of a some blocks have been exploited. Key words: Geostat and gold deposits VN. Daksa and gold mineralization. Geostat

  20. Wheat Grain Filling Is Limited by Grain Filling Capacity rather than the Duration of Flag Leaf Photosynthesis: A Case Study Using NAM RNAi Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrill, Philippa; Fahy, Brendan; Smith, Alison M; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that delayed leaf senescence can extend grain filling duration and thus increase yields in cereal crops. We found that wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM RNAi plants with delayed senescence carried out 40% more flag leaf photosynthesis after anthesis than control plants, but had the same rate and duration of starch accumulation during grain filling and the same final grain weight. The additional photosynthate available in NAM RNAi plants was in part stored as fructans in the stems, whereas stem fructans were remobilised during grain filling in control plants. In both genotypes, activity of starch synthase was limiting for starch synthesis in the later stages of grain filling. We suggest that in order to realise the potential yield gains offered by delayed leaf senescence, this trait should be combined with increased grain filling capacity.

  1. Wheat Grain Filling Is Limited by Grain Filling Capacity rather than the Duration of Flag Leaf Photosynthesis: A Case Study Using NAM RNAi Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrill, Philippa; Fahy, Brendan; Smith, Alison M.; Uauy, Cristobal

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that delayed leaf senescence can extend grain filling duration and thus increase yields in cereal crops. We found that wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM RNAi plants with delayed senescence carried out 40% more flag leaf photosynthesis after anthesis than control plants, but had the same rate and duration of starch accumulation during grain filling and the same final grain weight. The additional photosynthate available in NAM RNAi plants was in part stored as fructans in the stems, whereas stem fructans were remobilised during grain filling in control plants. In both genotypes, activity of starch synthase was limiting for starch synthesis in the later stages of grain filling. We suggest that in order to realise the potential yield gains offered by delayed leaf senescence, this trait should be combined with increased grain filling capacity. PMID:26241955

  2. Developing management packages for acid sulphate soils based on farmer and expert knowledge : field study in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Quang Tri, Le

    1996-01-01


    Effective interaction of farmers' expertise and expert knowledge has been a special point of attention for this study. The objectives of the study were to describe the process of interaction between farmers and experts in improving the use of acid sulphate soils and to point out difficulties encountered. Actual conditions for four major areas were described including variabilities. Four representative areas: Tan Thanh, Tri Ton, Phung Hiep, and Hong Dan in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam...

  3. Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E.coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dong Tu

    2006-01-01

    Summary Risk factors associated with diarrhoeal disease and diarrheagenic E. coli disease in Duc Giang Hospital, north-eastern corner of Ha Noi, Viet Nam Background: Diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) disease is more prevalent in infants and children is a very important cause of sporadic diarrhoea cases and diarrhoea outbreaks in many countries. Currently, DEC also stands as a chief causal factor for diarrhoea among travellers. DEC disease is usually transmitted through food or wa...

  4. Supply- and Demand-Side Factors Influencing Utilization of Infant and Young Child Feeding Counselling Services in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong H; Kim, Sunny S; Nguyen, Tuan T; Tran, Lan M; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Frongillo, Edward A; Ruel, Marie T; Rawat, Rahul; Menon, Purnima

    2016-01-01

    Adequate utilization of services is critical to maximize the impact of counselling on infant and young child feeding (IYCF), but little is known about factors affecting utilization. Our study examined supply- and demand-side factors associated with the utilization of IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam. We used survey data from mothers with children counseling into the existing government health system. The frequency of never users, one-time users, repeat users, and achievers of the recommended minimum number of visits at health facilities were 45.1%, 13.0%, 28.4% and 13.5%, respectively. Poisson regression showed that demand-generation strategies, especially invitation cards, were the key factors determining one-time use (Prevalence ratio, PR 3.0, 95% CI: 2.2-4.2), repeated use (PR 3.2, 95% CI: 2.4-4.2), and achievement of minimum visits (PR 5.5, 95% CI: 3.6-8.4). Higher maternal education was associated with higher utilization both for one-time and repeated use. Being a farmer, belonging to an ethnic minority, and having a wasted child were associated with greater likelihood of achieving the minimum recommended number of visits, whereas child stunting or illness were not. Distance to health center was a barrier to repeated visits. Among supply-side factors, good counselling skills (PR: 1.3-1.8) was the most important factor associated with any service use, whereas longer employment duration and greater work pressure of health center staff were associated with lower utilization. Population attributable risk estimations showed that an additional 25% of the population would have achieved the minimum number of visits if exposed to three demand-generation strategies, and further increased to 49% if the health staff had good counseling skills and low work pressure. Our study provides evidence that demand-generation strategies are essential to increase utilization of facility-based IYCF counselling services in Viet Nam, and may be relevant for increasing and

  5. Study of the natural radiation background affected on the human body in some areas of Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ngo Van Thanh

    2008-01-01

    The author had studied the natural radiation background in 68 districts belong 40 provinces and cities of Vietnam from 2002 to 2005. The estimated results clearly show that the average external irradiation dose levels and the average annual external radiation equivalent dose affected on the human body are 0.181± 0.0189 μSv/h and 1599 ± 171.8 μSv/year respectively, both are in normal limit; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Buon Ma Thuot city (DakLak province), Phuoc Son district (Quang Nam province), Tan An district (Long An province). The radon concentration in the human being and the average annual internal inhalation irradiation equivalent dose affected on the human beings are 26.9 ± 15.89 Bq/m 3 and 392.88 ± 231.99 μSv/year respectively; the maximums are in Nha Trang city (Khanh Hoa province), Bac Binh district (Binh Phuoc province); the minimums are in Vung Tau city (Ba Ria- Vung Tau province), Tan An district (Long An province), Rach Gia district (Kien Giang province). The terrestrial radionuclide concentrations in the cereals, foodstuffs (rice, meat, vegetables), water, earth and the average annual internal irradiation equivalent dose are 829.2 ± 38.06 Bq/kg and 229.3 ± 67.70 μSv/year respectively; the highest levels are in Phong Tho district (Lai Chau province), Dien Bien city; the lowest levels are in Dong Xoai district (Binh Phuoc province), Tan An district (Long An province). The average total annual natural radiation background effective equivalent dose level affected on the human body is 2206.9 ± 529.30 μSv/year; the highest levels are in Lai Chau district (Lai Chau province); the lowest levels are in Tan An district (Long An province). The 14 maps of Natural Radiation Background in several localized regions belong 40 provinces and cities of Viet Nam had been set up. These results can reserve for serviceman and public health in the both wartime and peacetime. (author)

  6. Seroprevalence survey of avian influenza A(H5N1 among live poultry market workers in northern Viet Nam, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tham Chi Dung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H5N1 is endemic in poultry in Viet Nam. The country has experienced the third highest number of human infections with influenza A(H5N1 in the world. A study in Hanoi in 2001, before the epizootic that was identified in 2003, found influenza A(H5N1 specific antibodies in 4% of poultry market workers (PMWs. We conducted a seroprevalence survey to determine the seroprevalence of antibodies to influenza A(H5N1 among PMWs in Hanoi, Thaibinh and Thanhhoa provinces. Methods: We selected PMWs from five markets, interviewed them and collected blood samples. These were then tested using a horse haemagglutination inhibition assay and a microneutralization assay with all three clades of influenza A(H5N1 viruses that have circulated in Viet Nam since 2004. Results: The overall seroprevalence was 6.1% (95% confidence interval: 4.6–8.3. The highest proportion (7.2% was found in PMWs in Hanoi, and the majority of seropositive subjects (70.3% were slaughterers or sellers of poultry. Discussion: The continued circulation and evolution of influenza A(H5N1 requires comprehensive surveillance of both human and animal sites throughout the country with follow-up studies on PMWs to estimate the risk of avian–human transmission of influenza A(H5N1 in Viet Nam.

  7. Psychological and Social Factors Associated with Late Pregnancy Iron Deficiency Anaemia in Rural Viet Nam: A Population-Based Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Biggs, Beverley-Ann; Tran, Tuan; Casey, Gerard J.; Hanieh, Sarah; Simpson, Julie Anne; Dwyer, Terence; Fisher, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between psychological and social factors and late pregnancy IDA among pregnant women in rural Viet Nam. Methods Pregnant women from 50 randomly-selected communes within Ha Nam province were recruited and assessed at 12 - 20 weeks gestation (Wave 1, W1). They were followed up in the last trimester (Wave 2, W2). IDA was defined as Haemoglobin partner violence, fear of other family members, experience of childhood abuse, coincidental life adversity, and having a preference for the sex of the baby. There was a significant pathway from persistent CMD to IDA in late pregnancy via the length of time that iron supplements had been taken. Receiving advice to take iron supplements and higher household wealth index were indirectly related to lower risk of late pregnancy IDA. Early pregnancy IDA and being multi-parous also contributed to late pregnancy IDA. Conclusions Antenatal IDA and CMD are prevalent public health problems among women in Viet Nam. The link between them suggests that while direct recommendations to use iron supplements are important, the social factors associated with common mental disorders should be addressed in antenatal care in order to improve the health of pregnant women and their infants. PMID:24167605

  8. Modeling The Hydrology And Water Allocation Under Climate Change In Rural River Basins: A Case Study From Nam Ngum River Basin, Laos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, D. L.; Kaluarachchi, J.; Kim, U.

    2011-12-01

    Rural river basins with sufficient water availability to maintain economic livelihoods can be affected with seasonal fluctuations of precipitation and sometimes by droughts. In addition, climate change impacts can also alter future water availability. General Circulation Models (GCMs) provide credible quantitative estimates of future climate conditions but such estimates are often characterized by bias and coarse scale resolution making it necessary to downscale the outputs for use in regional hydrologic models. This study develops a methodology to downscale and project future monthly precipitation in moderate scale basins where data are limited. A stochastic framework for single-site and multi-site generation of weekly rainfall is developed while preserving the historical temporal and spatial correlation structures. The spatial correlations in the simulated occurrences and the amounts are induced using spatially correlated yet serially independent random numbers. This method is applied to generate weekly precipitation data for a 100-year period in the Nam Ngum River Basin (NNRB) that has a land area of 16,780 km2 located in Lao P.D.R. This method is developed and applied using precipitation data from 1961 to 2000 for 10 selected weather stations that represents the basin rainfall characteristics. Bias-correction method, based on fitted theoretical probability distribution transformations, is applied to improve monthly mean frequency, intensity and the amount of raw GCM precipitation predicted at a given weather station using CGCM3.1 and ECHAM5 for SRES A2 emission scenario. Bias-correction procedure adjusts GCM precipitation to approximate the long-term frequency and the intensity distribution observed at a given weather station. Index of agreement and mean absolute error are determined to assess the overall ability and performance of the bias correction method. The generated precipitation series aggregated at monthly time step was perturbed by the change factors

  9. Correlation analysis between forest carbon stock and spectral vegetation indices in Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung Nguyen, The; Kappas, Martin

    2017-04-01

    In the last several years, the interest in forest biomass and carbon stock estimation has increased due to its importance for forest management, modelling carbon cycle, and other ecosystem services. However, no estimates of biomass and carbon stocks of deferent forest cover types exist throughout in the Xuan Lien Nature Reserve, Thanh Hoa, Viet Nam. This study investigates the relationship between above ground carbon stock and different vegetation indices and to identify the most likely vegetation index that best correlate with forest carbon stock. The terrestrial inventory data come from 380 sample plots that were randomly sampled. Individual tree parameters such as DBH and tree height were collected to calculate the above ground volume, biomass and carbon for different forest types. The SPOT6 2013 satellite data was used in the study to obtain five vegetation indices NDVI, RDVI, MSR, RVI, and EVI. The relationships between the forest carbon stock and vegetation indices were investigated using a multiple linear regression analysis. R-square, RMSE values and cross-validation were used to measure the strength and validate the performance of the models. The methodology presented here demonstrates the possibility of estimating forest volume, biomass and carbon stock. It can also be further improved by addressing more spectral bands data and/or elevation.

  10. Total iron concentrations in waters and fish tissues in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir area (Lao PDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Guédant, Pierre; Godon, Arnaud; Cerdan, Philippe; Vigouroux, Régis

    2015-08-01

    Data on total iron concentrations in waters and freshwater fish tissues in man-made reservoirs are scarce, especially in Southeast Asia. Changes in total iron concentrations in water and in fish tissues were studied after the impoundment of the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (central Lao PDR). Water quality parameters were monitored at 11 stations (reservoir, upstream area and downstream areas) from 2008 to 2010. In 2009 and 2010, total iron concentrations were measured in three different fish tissues (viscera, gills and flesh) from 14 species belonging to the omnivorous and carnivorous feeding groups. The results indicated that iron concentrations in the water were influenced by the reservoir impoundment during the first year after the creation of the reservoir. Intra-annual variations of the total iron concentration in these waters appeared to be driven by the soil leaching processes mainly during the wet season. In fish, total iron accumulated preferentially in viscera, followed by gills and flesh. Iron concentration was highly species dependant and related to the ecology of the species whereas feeding habits (omnivorous or carnivorous) did not influence total iron concentration in fish tissues. Finally, reservoir impoundment did not affect iron concentrations in fish from the reservoir and from both downstream areas.

  11. Three new species of earthworms in the Amynthas (Clitellata: Megascolecidae from Nam Xam National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm specimens collected from the Nam Xam National Protected Area, Laos, belong to three new species of megascolecid earthworms: Amynthas xamtaiensis sp. nov., Amynthas vanhyai sp. nov., and Amynthas multipapillatus sp. nov. The authors provide a new record for Amynthas gracilis (Kinberg, 1867. All three new species key to the gracilis (hawayanus group in Sims and Easton (1972, defined by having three pairs of spermathecal pores in 5/6–7/8. A. xamtaiensis sp. nov. has male pores superficial in thickened areas, containing two genital papillae medial to the male pores. A. vanhyai sp. nov. has male pores equatorial oval pads at sixth setal lines, and shallowly pinnate intestinal ceca having 6–10 lobes on each edge. A. multipapillatus sp. nov. has male pores on small longitudinal shallow invaginations at lateral margins of the ventrum, and more than 100 small genital papillae covering the ventral surface from 16/17 to 17/18.

  12. Historical perspectives on typhoons and tropical storms in the natural and socio-economic system of Nam Dinh (Vietnam)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinen, John

    2007-02-01

    This contribution starts with a brief introduction of the effects of typhoons and tropical storms on Vietnam, focusing in particular on the coastal region of Nam Dinh, a province in the northern part of the country and part of the Red River Delta. The magnitude of damage caused by a natural disaster is not solely determined by the direct physical impact of the event, but also depends on the socio-economic and political circumstances that shape a person or a groups' daily life. Such conditions define where and how people live and work. An overview of the major events since the 19th century shows how important it is to study these events in historical perspective. This paper briefly considers various conceptualizations and definitions of vulnerability. It analyses the destruction caused by a natural disaster in terms of peoples' vulnerability in a deltaic region. A distinction is made between collective vulnerability and individual vulnerability, each leading to different levels of perception of the disaster. The levels overlap in the discussion because they are interwoven and dependent on one another.

  13. The Impact of Para Rubber Expansion on Streamflow and Other Water Balance Components of the Nam Loei River Basin, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winai Wangpimool

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, Para rubber is an economical crop which provides a high priced product and is in demand by global markets. Consequently, the government of Thailand is promoting the expansion of Para rubber plantations throughout the country. Traditionally, Para rubber was planted and grown only in the southern areas of the country. However, due to the Government’s support and promotion as well as economic reasons, the expansion of Para rubber plantations in the northeast has increased rapidly. This support has occurred without accounting for suitable cultivation of Para rubber conditions, particularly in areas with steep slopes and other factors which have significant impacts on hydrology and water quality. This study presents the impacts of Para rubber expansion by applying the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT hydrological model on the hydrology and water balance of the Nam Loei River Basin, Loei Province. The results showed that the displacement of original local field crops and disturbed forest land by Para rubber production resulted in an overall increase of evapotranspiration (ET of roughly 3%. The major factors are the rubber canopy and precipitation. Moreover, the water balance results showed an annual reduction of about 3% in the basin average water yield, especially during the dry season.

  14. The Disruptive Effect of Lysozyme on the Bacterial Cell Wall Explored by an "In-Silico" Structural Outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primo, Emiliano D.; Otero, Lisandro H.; Ruiz, Francisco; Klinke, Sebastián; Giordano, Walter

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial cell wall, a structural unit of peptidoglycan polymer comprised of glycan strands consisting of a repeating disaccharide motif [N-acetylglucosamine (NAG) and N-acetylmuramylpentapeptide (NAM pentapeptide)], encases bacteria and provides structural integrity and protection. Lysozymes are enzymes that break down the bacterial cell wall…

  15. Des habitations à bon marché au Việt Nam. La question du logement social en situation coloniale Public Housing Projects in Việt Nam: the Problem of Habitation in a Colonial Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Herbelin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La crise du logement dans les grandes villes du Việt Nam est récurrente pendant toute la colonisation. Elle touche les Européens, mais surtout les populations locales qui vivent en majorité dans des habitats précaires. A partir des années 1920, face à l’ampleur de la situation, le gouvernement général décide d’adapter dans la colonie les récentes lois françaises en faveur du logement social. Si quelques prototypes d’habitations à bon marché vont être mis en place par la municipalité de Hanoi dans les années 1930, ce n’est que dans les années 1950, pour répondre à la crise sociale que les politiques de logement vont commencer à être significatives. Entre inertie et projets enthousiastes, les politiques de logement révèlent les contradictions du système colonial face à un problème aussi crucial que complexe, mettant en jeu différents acteurs à différents niveaux : le gouvernement général d’Indochine, la résidence supérieure du Tonkin, les municipalités, les associations privées et dans une moindre mesure les sociétés de construction. Du point de vue architectural, les projets mis en place sont des créations hybrides qui montrent une volonté manifeste de s’adapter au style de vie vietnamien.During the colonial period, the main cities of Việt Nam periodically experienced social housing crises. While Europeans did not remain immune from the consequences of a lack of adequate housing, local populations, who constituted the majority in these makeshift constructs, were most deeply affected. Beginning in the 1920s, faced with the urgency of this problem, the general government sought to adapt contemporaneous French laws in favor of social housing to the local colonial situation. Even though some prototypes of affordable housing were constructed by the Hanoi municipality in the 1930s, it was only in the 1950s that government efforts began to have a significant impact. The politics of housing, and

  16. Peinamine, a new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid from arrow tips (pei-namô) of the Upper Orinoco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeffi, C; Scarpetti, P; Marini-Bettolo, G B

    1977-09-01

    A new bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid has been isolated from a curare of the Upper Orinoco region. The curare is made by Indians from an unknown plant (probably Menispermacea) and is kept on arrow tips. The structure of the alkaloid, named peinamine, has been elucidated on the basis of its chemical reactions and spectroscopic data (N.M.R., M.S. and O.R.D.).

  17. Knowing when but not how!--mothers' perceptions and use of antibiotics in a rural area of Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfvarsson, J; Heijne, N; Ljungman, P; Ham, M N; Holmgren, G; Tomson, G

    2000-01-01

    Given the world-wide focus on how to rationally use antibiotics, national drug policy programmes have been developed in many countries in order to minimize the environmental antibiotic pressure and thereby hopefully limit increasing bacterial resistance. This study investigated perceptions of antibiotics in a health system with weak drug regulation. The study was conducted in two rural communes in Viet Nam, with a drug market characterized by the increased accessibility and consumption of pharmaceuticals. The study focused on rural mothers' perceptions and use of antibiotics in the treatment of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in children 5 years and under. A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods were used including key informant interviews, focus group discussions, and interviews with mothers and drug vendors. The study demonstrated that using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods gives a better understanding of the prevailing perceptions and use of antibiotics in communities. The results showed that the mothers recognized well the signs of severe ARI and that antibiotics were reserved for more severe illness episodes, where penicillin V and ampicillin were first drugs of choice. However, the mothers' perceptions and use of antibiotics reflects indigenization of antibiotics into traditional Vietnamese thinking and medical practice. This resulted in self-medication and a respect for antibiotics from the mothers' point of view. A first step towards the rational use of antibiotics is already taken where mothers, as the health decision-maker, know when to initiate antibiotic treatment and try to limit unnecessary use of antibiotics. The next step is to develop a well-functioning health education programme in order to promote the correct use of antibiotics for a successful clinical outcome. This requires acknowledgement of the mothers' culture based behaviour.

  18. Factors Influencing Blood Cadmium and Mercury Concentrations in Residents of Agro-Industries along Nam Phong River, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wannanapa Srathonghon

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This cross-sectional analytical study aimed to determine the blood levels of cadmium (B-Cd and mercury (B-Hg and identify the factors influencing heavy metal accumulation in residents of Agro-Industries along the Nam Phong River. Quantitative data were collected, and systematic random sampling was used to obtain 420 samples for questionnaire interview and serum heavy metal testing for B-Cd and B-Hg. Multiple regression analysis was used to identify factors influencing the accumulation of heavy metals in the population and report mean differences, 95% confidence intervals and p-values. The results indicated that B-Cd levels were within the recommended safety limits for human health (5 µg/dL. However, 4.29% of respondents had Hg levels higher than the recommended safety limits for human health (10 µg/dL. Factors influencing Cd levels included sex (mean difference=0.13 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.24, p-value=0.02 and smoking (mean difference=0.14 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.09-0.19, p-value<0.001. Factors influencing Hg levels included smoking (mean difference=1.06 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.52-1.61, p-value<0.001, fish consumption (mean difference=1.11 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.22-2.01, p-value=0.01 and river snail consumption (mean difference=0.56 µg/L, 95% CI: 0.03-0.19, p-value=0.03.

  19. Evidence for the Convergence Model: The Emergence of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (H5N1 in Viet Nam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Saksena

    Full Text Available Building on a series of ground breaking reviews that first defined and drew attention to emerging infectious diseases (EID, the 'convergence model' was proposed to explain the multifactorial causality of disease emergence. The model broadly hypothesizes disease emergence is driven by the co-incidence of genetic, physical environmental, ecological, and social factors. We developed and tested a model of the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI H5N1 based on suspected convergence factors that are mainly associated with land-use change. Building on previous geospatial statistical studies that identified natural and human risk factors associated with urbanization, we added new factors to test whether causal mechanisms and pathogenic landscapes could be more specifically identified. Our findings suggest that urbanization spatially combines risk factors to produce particular types of peri-urban landscapes with significantly higher HPAI H5N1 emergence risk. The work highlights that peri-urban areas of Viet Nam have higher levels of chicken densities, duck and geese flock size diversities, and fraction of land under rice or aquaculture than rural and urban areas. We also found that land-use diversity, a surrogate measure for potential mixing of host populations and other factors that likely influence viral transmission, significantly improves the model's predictability. Similarly, landscapes where intensive and extensive forms of poultry production overlap were found at greater risk. These results support the convergence hypothesis in general and demonstrate the potential to improve EID prevention and control by combing geospatial monitoring of these factors along with pathogen surveillance programs.

  20. TLALOCNet continuous GPS-Met Array in Mexico supporting the 2017 NAM GPS Hydrometeorological Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral-Cano, E.; Salazar-Tlaczani, L.; Adams, D. K.; Vivoni, E. R.; Grutter, M.; Serra, Y. L.; DeMets, C.; Galetzka, J.; Feaux, K.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    TLALOCNet is a network of continuous GPS and meteorology stations in Mexico to study atmospheric and solid earth processes. This recently completed network spans most of Mexico with a strong coverage emphasis on southern and western Mexico. This network, funded by NSF, CONACyT and UNAM, recently built 40 cGPS-Met sites to EarthScope Plate Boundary Observatory standards and upgraded 25 additional GPS stations. TLALOCNet provides open and freely available raw GPS data, and high frequency surface meteorology measurements, and time series of daily positions. This is accomplished through the development of the TLALOCNet data center (http://tlalocnet.udg.mx) that serves as a collection and distribution point. This data center is based on UNAVCO's Dataworks-GSAC software and also works as part of UNAVCO's seamless archive for discovery, sharing, and access to GPS data. The TLALOCNet data center also contains contributed data from several regional GPS networks in Mexico for a total of 100+ stations. By using the same protocols and structure as the UNAVCO and other COCONet regional data centers, the scientific community has the capability of accessing data from the largest Mexican GPS network. This archive provides a fully queryable and scriptable GPS and Meteorological data retrieval point. In addition, real-time 1Hz streams from selected TLALOCNet stations are available in BINEX, RTCM 2.3 and RTCM 3.1 formats via the Networked Transport of RTCM via Internet Protocol (NTRIP) for real-time seismic and weather forecasting applications. TLALOCNet served as a GPS-Met backbone for the binational Mexico-US North American Monsoon GPS Hydrometeorological Network 2017 campaign experiment. This innovative experiment attempts to address water vapor source regions and land-surface water vapor flux contributions to precipitation (i.e., moisture recycling) during the 2017 North American Monsoon in Baja California, Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona. Models suggest that moisture recycling is

  1. Physical controls on CH4 emissions from a newly flooded subtropical freshwater hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serça, D.; Delon, C.; Tardif, R.; Demarty, M.; Jarnot, C.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Chanudet, V.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Descloux, S.; Guérin, F.

    2014-08-01

    In the present study, we measured independently CH4 ebullition and diffusion in the footprint of an eddy covariance system (EC) measuring CH4 emissions in the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, a recently impounded (2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir located in the Lao People's Democratic Republic (PDR), Southeast Asia. The EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + ebullition = EC fluxes), indicating that the EC system picked up both diffusive fluxes and ebullition from the reservoir. We showed a diurnal bimodal pattern of CH4 emissions anti-correlated with atmospheric pressure. During daytime, a large atmospheric pressure drop triggers CH4 ebullition (up to 100 mmol m-2 d-1), whereas at night, a more moderate peak of CH4 emissions was recorded. As a consequence, fluxes during daytime were twice as high as during nighttime. Additionally, more than 4800 discrete measurements of CH4 ebullition were performed at a weekly/fortnightly frequency, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems. Methane ebullition varies significantly seasonally and depends mostly on water level change during the warm dry season, whereas no relationship was observed during the cold dry season. On average, ebullition was 8.5 ± 10.5 mmol m-2 d-1 and ranged from 0 to 201.7 mmol m-2 d-1. An artificial neural network (ANN) model could explain up to 46% of seasonal variability of ebullition by considering total static pressure (the sum of hydrostatic and atmospheric pressure), variations in the total static pressure, and bottom temperature as controlling factors. This model allowed extrapolation of CH4 ebullition on the reservoir scale and performance of gap filling over four years. Our results clearly showed a very high seasonality: 50% of the yearly CH4 ebullition occurs within four months of the warm dry season. Overall, ebullition contributed 60-80% of total emissions from the surface of the

  2. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: Moving toward effective harm reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Duong

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. Methods This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. Results The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. Conclusion HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.

  3. The context of HIV risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users in Viet Nam: moving toward effective harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Duong Cong; Moland, Karen Marie; Fylkesnes, Knut

    2009-04-06

    Injection drug users represent the largest proportion of all HIV reported cases in Viet Nam. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of risk and risk behaviours among HIV-positive injection drug users, and their experiences related to safe injection and safe sex practices. This study used multiple qualitative methods in data collection including in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation with HIV-positive injection drug users. The informants described a change in the sharing practices among injection drug users towards more precautions and what was considered 'low risk sharing', like sharing among seroconcordant partners and borrowing rather than lending. However risky practices like re-use of injection equipment and 'syringe pulling' i.e. the use of left-over drugs in particular, were frequently described and observed. Needle and syringe distribution programmes were in place but carrying needles and syringes and particularly drugs could result in being arrested and fined. Fear of rejection and of loss of intimacy made disclosure difficult and was perceived as a major obstacle for condom use among recently diagnosed HIV infected individuals. HIV-positive injection drug users continue to practice HIV risk behaviours. The anti-drug law and the police crack-down policy appeared as critical factors hampering ongoing prevention efforts with needle and syringe distribution programmes in Viet Nam. Drastic policy measures are needed to reduce the very high HIV prevalence among injection drug users.

  4. Diversity and uses of Zingiberaceae in Nam Nao National Park, Chaiyaphum and Phetchabun provinces, Thailand, with a new record for Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surapon Saensouk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Three tribes, 12 genera and 38 species of the ginger family (Zingiberaceae along five routes in Nam Nao National Park were surveyed between January 2012 and December 2013 to determine their diversity, ecological data, phenology, uses and conservation status. The highest diversity was found in the tribe Zingibereae (6 genera and 21 species, of which the genera Curcuma and Zingiber comprised the highest number species (eight species each. A species key was constructed based on morphology. The ginger family was found in four forest-types—deciduous dipterocarp forest, mixed deciduous forest, dry evergreen forest and pine forest. The most flowering bloom of the ginger family in Nam Nao National Park was during March to August and the most fruiting bloom was during June to September. The popular uses of Zingiberaceae were as a food, spice, in medicine, as ornamentation and in rituals. Eight species have been evaluated as of least concern and are presented in the IUCN Red List, while two rare species were reported in Thailand Red Data: Plants, while six rare Zingiberaceae species were identified based on the evaluation criteria of Saensouk (2011. Four species were endemic to Thailand. Moreover, Etlingera yunnanensis (T. L. Wu & S. J. Chen R. M. Smith was a new record for Thailand.

  5. Deforestation in Viet Nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This being said, it must be remembered that the major providers of forest products on the world market are by far Canada, Russian Federation, and the United States. ... Only fairly recently, during the 1920s, under the French colonial administration, did planned-colonization programs contribute, with very limited success ...

  6. Where "Sign Language Studies" Has Led Us in Forty Years: Opening High School and University Education for Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, James; Hoa, Nguyen Thi

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Nippon Foundation-funded project "Opening University Education to Deaf People in Viet Nam through Sign Language Analysis, Teaching, and Interpretation," also known as the Dong Nai Deaf Education Project, has been implemented through sign language studies from 2000 through 2012. This project has provided deaf…

  7. Impacts on Breastfeeding Practices of At-Scale Strategies That Combine Intensive Interpersonal Counseling, Mass Media, and Community Mobilization: Results of Cluster-Randomized Program Evaluations in Bangladesh and Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Purnima; Nguyen, Phuong Hong; Saha, Kuntal Kumar; Tran, Lan Mai; Sanghvi, Tina; Hajeebhoy, Nemat; Afsana, Kaosar; Haque, Raisul; Frongillo, Edward A.; Ruel, Marie T.; Rawat, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite recommendations supporting optimal breastfeeding, the number of women practicing exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) remains low, and few interventions have demonstrated implementation and impact at scale. Alive & Thrive was implemented over a period of 6 y (2009–2014) and aimed to improve breastfeeding practices through intensified interpersonal counseling (IPC), mass media (MM), and community mobilization (CM) intervention components delivered at scale in the context of policy advocacy (PA) in Bangladesh and Viet Nam. In Bangladesh, IPC was delivered through a large non-governmental health program; in Viet Nam, it was integrated into government health facilities. This study evaluated the population-level impact of intensified IPC, MM, CM, and PA (intensive) compared to standard nutrition counseling and less intensive MM, CM, and PA (non-intensive) on breastfeeding practices in these two countries. Methods and Findings A cluster-randomized evaluation design was employed in each country. For the evaluation sample, 20 sub-districts in Bangladesh and 40 communes in Viet Nam were randomized to either the intensive or the non-intensive group. Cross-sectional surveys (n ~ 500 children 0–5.9 mo old per group per country) were implemented at baseline (June 7–August 29, 2010, in Viet Nam; April 28–June 26, 2010, in Bangladesh) and endline (June 16–August 30, 2014, in Viet Nam; April 20–June 23, 2014, in Bangladesh). Difference-in-differences estimates (DDEs) of impact were calculated, adjusting for clustering. In Bangladesh, improvements were significantly greater in the intensive compared to the non-intensive group for the proportion of women who reported practicing EBF in the previous 24 h (DDE 36.2 percentage points [pp], 95% CI 21.0–51.5, p evaluation lacked a “pure control” area with no MM or national/provincial PA. Conclusions At-scale interventions combining intensive IPC with MM, CM, and PA had greater positive impacts on

  8. Risk factors for the presence of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus in domestic water-holding containers in areas impacted by the Nam Theun 2 hydroelectric project, Laos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiscox, Alexandra; Kaye, Angela; Vongphayloth, Khamsing; Banks, Ian; Piffer, Michele; Khammanithong, Phasouk; Sananikhom, Pany; Kaul, Surinder; Hill, Nigel; Lindsay, Steven W; Brey, Paul T

    2013-06-01

    We assessed risk factors for vectors of dengue and chikungunya viruses near a new hydroelectric project, Nam Theun 2, in Laos. Immature stages of Aedes aegypti were found only in sites within 40 km of the urban provincial capital, but Aedes albopictus was found throughout. Aedes aegypti pupae were most common in water storage jars (odds ratio [OR] = 4.72) and tires (OR = 2.99), and Ae. albopictus pupae were associated with tires in 2009 (OR = 10.87) and drums, tires, and jars in 2010 (drums OR = 3.05; tires OR = 3.45, jars OR = 6.59). Compared with water storage vessels, containers used for hygiene, cooking, and drinking were 80% less likely to harbor Ae. albopictus pupae in 2010 (OR = 0.20), and discarded waste was associated with a 3.64 increased odds of infestation. Vector control efforts should focus on source reduction of water storage containers, particularly concrete jars and tires.

  9. Removal of emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds from industrial wastewaters using nature and synthesized (Na A and Nam) zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modirshahla, N.; Tabatabaii, S.

    2004-01-01

    The main object of this study was to compare the natural and synthetic (Na A and Nam) zeolites as absorbents in removing emulsified and dissolved traces of organic compounds, which appear in the wastewater of power plants, refinery and petrochemical complexes. The specific objections of the work was: a) to select the best species that have the highest amount of absorption; b) to measure the rate of absorption of traces organic compounds and emulsions on the natural and synthesized zeolites; c) to establish the absorption isotherms for the organics and emulsions with selected samples; d) to select readily available regenerants, and e ) to examine the ph dependence of the process and to establish a simple and practical method to detect and to measure the pollution after the treatment process. The BOD and COD of the treated and feed waters were compared

  10. Use of eschar swabbing for the molecular diagnosis and genotyping of Orientia tsutsugamushi causing scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nhiem Le Viet

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Scrub typhus is a rickettsiosis which is caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi and occurs throughout the Asia-Pacific region. Molecular diagnosis of rickettsioses using eschar swabs has recently emerged, and may be very useful for the diagnosis of these diseases in tropical settings.Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to detect O. tsutsugamushi DNA in whole blood and eschar swab specimens of 67 patients who were clinically suspected of scrub typhus in Quang Nam province, Vietnam. Among the 20 patients for whom both eschar and whole blood were obtained, 17 (85% of the eschar specimens and 5 (25% of the whole blood specimens tested positive for O. tsutsugamushi. Genetic analysis of the 56-kDa TSA gene sequences demonstrated that the 14 sequences obtained in this study, including 12 eschar swabs and 2 whole blood specimens, were related to 4 groups: Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam (JG-v and TG-v and TA716. The majority (9/14; 64.4% of contemporary O. tsutsugamushi genotypes in Quang Nam province were related to the Karp group.These results suggest that polyclonal antigen pools used for serological testing in the future should contain at least Karp, Kawasaki, Gilliam and TA716 antigens for Vietnamese patients, as well as patients who have traveled to Vietnam. qPCR after eschar swabbing should be considered for molecular diagnosis of scrub typhus in endemic patients as well as in travelers, since it is easy to perform and appears very useful for the rapid detection of Orientia tsutsugamushi in the early phase of infection.

  11. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met

  12. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [fr

  13. Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 6 March 2007. It was signed on 10 August 2007 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 17 September 2012, the date on which the Agency received from the Socialist Republic of Viet Nam written notification that Vietnam's statutory and constitutional requirements for entry into force had been met [es

  14. High-resolution OSL chronology of a sediment core from Lake Nam Co on the southern Tibetan Plateau: Comparison with radiocarbon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Haberzettl, Torsten; Fuchs, Markus; Frechen, Manfred; Wang, Junbo

    2013-04-01

    Numerous studies on lake sediment cores from the Tibetan Plateau aimed to reconstruct spatial and temporal changes of the late Glacial and Holocene monsoon variations, which are characterized by fluctuations in precipitation and expansion of monsoonal air masses across the Plateau. Accurate and reliable dating of lacustrine deposits is of crucial importance in both the reconstruction of palaeolake and palaeoclimate evolution and the understanding of the mechanisms for climate changes, especially abrupt changes of regional-hemispheric hydrological circulation. Radiocarbon dating is the most commonly used method for establishing chronologies of lake sediments. However, 14C dating of such sediments could be problematic due to the lack of organic matter or a reservoir effect, which appears common in radiocarbon dating of lacustrine sediments from the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, ca. 10.5 m long core (NC core) was retrieved from the water depth of 93 m at Nam Co Lake, which is the second largest saline lake in China, located on the southern Tibetan Plateau. For this core, high-resolution samples (23 samples) were obtained for optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Quartz of fine-grain (4-11 μm) fraction were extracted from this samples for OSL dating, which is compared with the 14C chronology of NC core based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating of bulk organic matter of 22 samples. The sample from the top of NC core was dated to approximate zero age, indicating the sediments bleached well before deposition. Luminescence behaviors of the study samples further confirmed the robustness of OSL ages. Comparison between OSL and 14C ages suggested that: (1) two kinds of ages are in agreement within error from top to 1.8 m, (2) from 1.8 m to the base of NC core, the 14C ages show a general trend to ca. 4 ka higher ages than the OSL ages. Although 14C dating overestimate the ages from 1.8 m to base, they still show the general trend in sedimentation rate

  15. Carbon dioxide emissions from the flat bottom and shallow Nam Theun 2 Reservoir: drawdown area as a neglected pathway to the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Deshmukh

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater reservoirs are a significant source of CO2 to the atmosphere. CO2 is known to be emitted at the reservoir surface by diffusion at the air–water interface and downstream of dams or powerhouses by degassing and along the river course. In this study, we quantified total CO2 emissions from the Nam Theun 2 Reservoir (Lao PDR in the Mekong River watershed. The study started in May 2009, less than a year after flooding and just a few months after the maximum level was first reached and lasted until the end of 2013. We tested the hypothesis that soils from the drawdown area would be a significant contributor to the total CO2 emissions.Total inorganic carbon, dissolved and particulate organic carbon and CO2 concentrations were measured in 4 pristine rivers of the Nam Theun watershed, at 9 stations in the reservoir (vertical profiles and at 16 stations downstream of the monomictic reservoir on a weekly to monthly basis. CO2 bubbling was estimated during five field campaigns between 2009 and 2011 and on a weekly monitoring, covering water depths ranging from 0.4 to 16 m and various types of flooded ecosystems in 2012 and 2013. Three field campaigns in 2010, 2011 and 2013 were dedicated to the soils description in 21 plots and the quantification of soil CO2 emissions from the drawdown area. On this basis, we calculated total CO2 emissions from the reservoir and carbon inputs from the tributaries. We confirm the importance of the flooded stock of organic matter as a source of carbon (C fuelling emissions. We show that the drawdown area contributes, depending on the year, from 40 to 75 % of total annual gross emissions in this flat and shallow reservoir. Since the CO2 emissions from the drawdown zone are almost constant throughout the years, the large interannual variations result from the significant decrease in diffusive fluxes and downstream emissions between 2010 and 2013. This overlooked pathway in terms of gross emissions would require

  16. Turbulent flux modelling with a simple 2-layer soil model and extrapolated surface temperature applied at Nam Co Lake basin on the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Gerken

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a surface model with two soil-layers for use in a high-resolution circulation model that has been modified with an extrapolated surface temperature, to be used for the calculation of turbulent fluxes. A quadratic temperature profile based on the layer mean and base temperature is assumed in each layer and extended to the surface. The model is tested at two sites on the Tibetan Plateau near Nam Co Lake during four days during the 2009 Monsoon season. In comparison to a two-layer model without explicit surface temperature estimate, there is a greatly reduced delay in diurnal flux cycles and the modelled surface temperature is much closer to observations. Comparison with a SVAT model and eddy covariance measurements shows an overall reasonable model performance based on RMSD and cross correlation comparisons between the modified and original model. A potential limitation of the model is the need for careful initialisation of the initial soil temperature profile, that requires field measurements. We show that the modified model is capable of reproducing fluxes of similar magnitudes and dynamics when compared to more complex methods chosen as a reference.

  17. Physical and chemical properties of Nam Prig Noom, a Thai green-chili paste, following ultra-high pressure and thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apichartsrangkoon, Arunee; Srisajjalertwaja, Siriwan; Chaikham, Pittaya; Hirun, Sathira

    2013-03-01

    A study of processing green-chili pastes (Nam Prig Noom) by pressurization (100-600 MPa/30-50°C/20 min), pasteurization (90°C/3-5 min) or sterilization (121°C/4 min), subsequently, their physical, biochemical and microbiological qualities as well as the sensory acceptance were assessed. It was found that pressure at low levels (100-300 MPa) could improve activities of enzyme peroxidase (POD), polyphenoloxidase (PPO) and lypoxygenase (LOX) in the chili paste by more than 100%, while pressures above 500 or 300 MPa combined with heat would significantly inactivate these enzyme activities. Both color parameters and enzyme activities illustrated that though some enzymatic browning occurred with the pressurized products indicated by b* (yellowish) parameter, the magnitude of these browning was still milder than those thermally treated products indicated by-a* (greenness) and L (lightness) parameters, presumably as a consequence of the Maillard reaction. Moreover, the sensory scores were found in accordance with color parameters, firmness and capsaicin contents.

  18. Simulating the Impact of Future Land Use and Climate Change on Soil Erosion and Deposition in the Mae Nam Nan Sub-Catchment, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Kumar Tripathi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the possible impacts of climate change and land use change and its combined effects on soil loss and net soil loss (erosion and deposition in the Mae Nam Nan sub-catchment, Thailand. Future climate from two general circulation models (GCMs and a regional circulation model (RCM consisting of HadCM3, NCAR CSSM3 and PRECIS RCM ware downscaled using a delta change approach. Cellular Automata/Markov (CA_Markov model was used to characterize future land use. Soil loss modeling using Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE and sedimentation modeling in Idrisi software were employed to estimate soil loss and net soil loss under direct impact (climate change, indirect impact (land use change and full range of impact (climate and land use change to generate results at a 10 year interval between 2020 and 2040. Results indicate that soil erosion and deposition increase or decrease, depending on which climate and land use scenarios are considered. The potential for climate change to increase soil loss rate, soil erosion and deposition in future periods was established, whereas considerable decreases in erosion are projected when land use is increased from baseline periods. The combined climate and land use change analysis revealed that land use planning could be adopted to mitigate soil erosion and deposition in the future, in conjunction with the projected direct impact of climate change.

  19. Report of year 2000 version on feasibility study. Feasibility study on the diffusion of fluidized bed cement kiln system in Socialist Republic of Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Evaluations were given on the possibility of saving energies and reducing CO2 emission by renewing the shaft kilns operated in four factories in Viet Nam into fluidized bed kilns. The feasibility study is intended to be linked to the clean development mechanism (CDM) in the future. The fluidized bed kiln is a most advanced technology developed to deal with social, economic and technological demands such as global environment preservation, energy conservation, effective utilization of resources, enhancement of economic performance, and diversification of cement needs. The technology is capable of largely reducing greenhouse effect gases, eliminating the problem of dust scattering from sintering facilities, producing stabilized and high-quality clinker, making possible of using inexpensive fuels including low-order coal, using less installation space, and reducing the production cost. The amount of energy reduction in all of the four factories is calculated 8,101 to 9,551 toe/year at an energy saving effect rate of 37 to 44%. CO2 emission is reduced as a result of reduction in fuel for sintering furnaces and in electric power consumption. The reduction amount would be 24,393 to 38,794 tons/year (converted into CO2), and the reduction effect rate would be 36 to 44%. The investment effect looks sufficient as payout of 10 to 12 years if the environment special Yen loan is used. Trial calculation was also performed for the nation-wide proliferation effect. (NEDO)

  20. Bērnu ar uzvedības traucējumiem problēmu risinājums bērnu namā

    OpenAIRE

    Degterjova, Ella

    2012-01-01

    Izvēlētā diplomdarba tēma ir „Bērnu ar uzvedības traucējumiem problēmu risinājums bērnu namā”. Izvirzītais diplomdarba mērķis ir pētīt uzvedības traucējumu problēmu risināšanas veidus ilgstošās sociālās aprūpes un sociālās rehabilitācijas institūcijās dzīvojošiem bērniem ar uzvedības traucējumiem. Diplomdarbs sastāv no četrām darba nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā ir teorētiski analizēti bērnu uzvedības traucējumu veidi un bērnu uzvedības traucējumu jēdziens. Otrajā nodaļā autore analizē bērnu uz...

  1. The use of public participation and economic appraisal for public involvement in large-scale hydropower projects: Case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirumachi, Naho; Torriti, Jacopo

    2012-01-01

    Gaining public acceptance is one of the main issues with large-scale low-carbon projects such as hydropower development. It has been recommended by the World Commission on Dams that to gain public acceptance, public involvement is necessary in the decision-making process (). As financially-significant actors in the planning and implementation of large-scale hydropower projects in developing country contexts, the paper examines the ways in which public involvement may be influenced by international financial institutions. Using the case study of the Nam Theun 2 Hydropower Project in Laos, the paper analyses how public involvement facilitated by the Asian Development Bank had a bearing on procedural and distributional justice. The paper analyses the extent of public participation and the assessment of full social and environmental costs of the project in the Cost-Benefit Analysis conducted during the project appraisal stage. It is argued that while efforts were made to involve the public, there were several factors that influenced procedural and distributional justice: the late contribution of the Asian Development Bank in the project appraisal stage; and the issue of non-market values and discount rate to calculate the full social and environmental costs. - Highlights: ► Public acceptance in large-scale hydropower projects is examined. ► Both procedural and distributional justice are important for public acceptance. ► International Financial Institutions can influence the level of public involvement. ► Public involvement benefits consideration of non-market values and discount rates.

  2. Situation analysis of quality of abortion care in the main maternity hospital in Hai Phòng, Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, My H Ng; Gammeltoft, Tine; Rasch, Vibeke

    2007-01-01

    cultural values influenced quality of care. A quantitative and qualitative approach was employed: a three-part structured survey with 748 women before and after they had an abortion, 20 in-depth interviews with women just after abortion, seven informal interviews with health care staff and 100 participant...

  3. The net GHG (CO2, CH4 and N2O) footprint of a newly impounded subtropical hydroelectric reservoir: Nam Theun 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Guérin, Frédéric; Delon, Claire; Pighini, Sylvie; Vongkhamsao, Axay; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Tardif, Raphael; Godon, Arnaud; Guédant, Pierre; Galy-Lacaux, Corinne; Zouiten, Cyril; Oliva, Priscia; Audry, Stéphane; Serça, Dominique

    2013-04-01

    There is a rising concern over the contribution of hydroelectric reservoirs to global anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions. We present here the first comprehensive assessment of GHGs footprint associated with the creation of the Nam Theun 2 (NT2) hydroelectric reservoir in subtropical region of the Lao People's Democratic Republic. This assessment is the results of a monthly monitoring that have been conducted over 4 year (2008-to date). The carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) sources and sinks were quantified before and after impoundment, which began in May 2008. Before impoundment, the landscape to be flooded was a sink of carbon dioxide (-73 ± 225 Gg CO2eq yr-1),roughly neutral in terms of methane (7 ± 11 Gg CO2eq yr-1), and a source of nitrous oxide (345 ± 158 Gg CO2eq yr-1). After impoundment, total CO2 and CH4 emissions increased and N2O emissions decreased. For the year 2010, CO2 (791 ± 54 Gg CO2eq yr-1) and CH4 (644 ± 124 Gg CO2eq yr-1) contributed equally to the total gross GHG emissions from NT2 (54 and 43% for CO2 and CH4, respectively) whereas N2O contributed only 3% (47 ± 29 Gg CO2eq yr-1). The GHG emissions remained constant in 2011. Our results indicate that most of the GHG (around 90%) were emitted from reservoir water surface and the drawdown area, and only 10% were emitted by degassing at the turbines and from diffusive emissions downstream of the turbines and the dam, a percentage lower than reported for other hydroelectric reservoirs. With a total emissions of 1482 ± 207 and 1298 ± 200 Gg CO2eq yr-1 for year 2010 and 2011, gross NT2 emissions are about an order of magnitude higher than pre-impoundment emissions (276 ± 393 Gg CO2eq yr-1). With a net GHG emissions of 1203 ± 601 (2010) and 1022 ± 594 (2011) Gg CO2eq yr-1, and an annual power generation of about 6 TWh, GHG emission factor equal to 0.20 (2010) and 0.17 (2011) Mg CO2eq MWh-1 for NT2 which is up to five times lower than the emission factor

  4. Semidiurnal and seasonal variations in methane (CH4) emissions from a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir) measured by eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Chandrashekhar; Serça, Dominique; Tardif, Raphael; Demarty, Maud; Descloux, Stéphane; Chanudet, Vincent; Guédant, Pierre; Guérin, Frédéric

    2013-04-01

    Hydroelectric reservoirs have globally been identified as a significant source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere, especially in the tropics. Assessing these emissions and their variations at small and large time scale represent important scientific challenges. In this context, the objectives of this work are (i) to compare different methodologies used to assess CH4 emissions. (ii) to determine the temporal variations in these emissions at different scales i.e. from daily to seasonal, and link these variations to environmental controlling factors. Measurements of CH4 emissions were made in a recently impounded (May 2008) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir, Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The sampling strategy included three different types of flux measurement techniques: floating chambers (FC), submerged funnels (SF), and the eddy covariance technique (EC). Flux measurements were carried out during four field campaigns conducted between May 2009 and June 2011. Eddy covariance system, composed by a 3D sonic anemometer coupled with a DLT-100 fast methane analyzer (Los Gatos Inc®), was deployed on a mast erected in a large surface of open water. Diffusive and bubbling fluxes were measured using respectively the FC and the SF techniques within the footprint of the EC station. Results from the four field campaigns show individual EC fluxes (30min) varying over 4 orders of magnitude (from 0.01 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1). Individual diffusive fluxes measured by floating chambers ranged between 0.2 and 3.2 mmol.m-2.day-1. Bubbling fluxes were found to be highly sporadic, with individual daily flux values varying from 0 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1. For all field campaigns, EC fluxes were very consistent with the sum of the two terms measured independently (diffusive fluxes + bubbling fluxes = EC fluxes), indicating that the eddy covariance system picked-up both diffusive and bubbling emissions from the reservoir, which is a very new and encouraging result for further studies

  5. Managing Hotel’s Operation in Viet Nam in Global Economic Crisis : A case study on cost reduction in hotel

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Son

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the research for this thesis is to find out the costs which can be reduced in hotels in Vietnam to copes with difficulties and challenges from the global economic crisis. The idea is to find out what kinds of cost can be reduced and how they are reduced to minimize expenditures of hotel, how the costs reduction affect quality of hotel’s products and services. In order to achieve goals of the research, two structure telephone interviews were conducted in a case study in the Huu Ngh...

  6. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019) has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN) susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146) while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p 95%) thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world. PMID:21669011

  7. Polymorphism of Plasmodium falciparum Na+/H+ exchanger is indicative of a low in vitro quinine susceptibility in isolates from Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Nguyen

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Plasmodium falciparum NA+/H+ exchanger (pfnhe1, gene PF13_0019 has recently been proposed to influence quinine (QN susceptibility. However, its contribution to QN resistance seems to vary geographically depending on the genetic background of the parasites. Here, the role of this gene was investigated in in vitro QN susceptibility of isolates from Viet Nam. Method Ninety-eight isolates were obtained from three different regions of the Binh Phuoc and Dak Nong bordering Cambodia provinces during 2006-2008. Among these, 79 were identified as monoclonal infection and were genotyped at the microsatellite pfnhe1 ms4760 locus and in vitro QN sensitivity data were obtained for 51 isolates. Parasite growth was assessed in the field using the HRP2 immunodetection assay. Results Significant associations were found between polymorphisms at pfnhe1 microsatellite ms4760 and susceptibility to QN. Isolates with two or more DNNND exhibited much lower susceptibility to QN than those harbouring zero or one DNNND repeats (median IC50 of 682 nM versus median IC50 of 300 nM; p = 0.0146 while isolates with one NHNDNHNNDDD repeat presented significantly reduced QN susceptibility than those who had two (median IC50 of 704 nM versus median IC50 of 375 nM; p pfcrt76T and wild-type pfmdr1 (> 95% thus preventing analysis of associations with these mutations. Interestingly, area with the highest median QN IC50 showed also the highest percentage of isolates carrying the pfnhe1 haplotype 7. Conclusions The haplotype 7 which is the typical Asian profile is likely well-adapted to high drug pressure in this area and may constitute a good genetic marker to evaluate the dissemination of QNR in this part of the world.

  8. Prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients treated within and outside the National Tuberculosis Programme in Pham Ngoc Thach hospital, Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Khanh, Pham H; Chinh, Nguyen V; Hennig, Cornelia M

    2014-09-01

    To describe and analyse the prescription patterns and treatment outcomes of MDR-TB patients managed within Green Light Committee (GLC) and outside (non-GLC) the National TB programme in Viet Nam. Retrospective cohort study with two elements: (i) in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with clinical doctors, hospital pharmacists, and the non-GLC patients with MDR-TB; (ii) review of treatment cards and patients' charts of all GLC and non-GLC patients with MDR-TB put on treatment during 2010. Of 282 patients with MDR-TB, comprising 79 (28%) GLC patients MDR-TB and 203 (72%) non-GLC patients with MDR-TB, were enrolled in the study. Treatment delay was significantly higher in the GLC group (12.8 days) than the non-GLC group (2.3 days), (P = 0.004). The success rate was significantly better in GLC patients (84.8%) than in non-GLC patients (53.7%) (P < 0.001). The default rate was significantly higher in non-GLC patients than in GLC patients (25.6% vs. 6.3%), (P < 0.001). The risk of unsuccessful outcome was higher in non-GLC patients (Hazard ratio = 4.6, 95% CI: 1.8-11.8). The treatment outcomes of patients with MDR-TB in the GLC group were significantly better than in the non-GLC group. Reasons for the high default rate in non-GLC patients with MDR-TB must be further investigated. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Preharvest bagging with wavelength-selective materials enhances development and quality of mango (Mangifera indica L.) cv. Nam Dok Mai #4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonhenchob, Vanee; Kamhangwong, Damrongpol; Kruenate, Jittiporn; Khongrat, Krittaphat; Tangchantra, Nantavat; Wichai, Uthai; Singh, S Paul

    2011-03-15

    Preharvest bagging has been shown to improve development and quality of fruits. Different light transmittance bags showed different effects on fruit quality. This study presents the benefits of using newly developed plastic bagging materials with different wavelength-selective characteristics for mangoes (cv. Nam Dok Mai #4). Mangoes were bagged at 45 days after full bloom (DAFB) and randomly harvested at 65, 75, 85, 95, and 105 DAFB. The bags were removed on the harvest days. The wavelength-selective bags (no pigment, yellow, red, blue/violet, blue) were compared with the Kraft paper bag with black paper liner, which is currently used commercially for several fruits, and with non-bagging as a control. Bagging significantly (p⩽0.05) reduced diseases and blemishes. Mango weight at 95 DAFB was increased approximately 15% by VM and V plastic bagging, as compared to paper bagging and control. Plastic bagging accelerated mango ripening as well as growth. Plastic-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 95 DAFB, while non-bagged mangoes reached maturity stage at 105 DAFB. Paper bagging resulted in a pale-yellow peel beginning at 65 DAFB, while plastic bagging improved peel glossiness. Preharvest bagging with different wavelength-selective materials affected mango development and quality. Bagging mangoes with VM and V materials could reduce peel defects and diseases, increase weight, size, and sphericity, improve peel appearance, and shorten the development periods of mangoes. The results suggest a favorable practice using the newly developed VM and V plastic bags in the production of mangoes, and possibly other fruits as well. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Modelling Niche Differentiation of Co-Existing, Elusive and Morphologically Similar Species: A Case Study of Four Macaque Species in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area, Laos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille N. Z. Coudrat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Species misidentification often occurs when dealing with co-existing and morphologically similar species such as macaques, making the study of their ecology challenging. To overcome this issue, we use reliable occurrence data from camera-trap images and transect survey data to model their respective ecological niche and potential distribution locally in Nakai-Nam Theun National Protected Area (NNT NPA, central-Eastern Laos. We investigate niche differentiation of morphologically similar species using four sympatric macaque species in NNT NPA, as our model species: rhesus Macaca mulatta (Taxonomic Serial Number, TSN 180099, Northern pig-tailed M. leonina (TSN not listed; Assamese M. assamensis (TSN 573018 and stump-tailed M. arctoides (TSN 573017. We examine the implications for their conservation. We obtained occurrence data of macaque species from systematic 2006–2011 camera-trapping surveys and 2011–2012 transect surveys and model their niche and potential distribution with MaxEnt software using 25 environmental and topographic variables. The respective suitable habitat predicted for each species reveals niche segregation between the four species with a gradual geographical distribution following an environmental gradient within the study area. Camera-trapping positioned at many locations can increase elusive-species records with a relatively reduced and more systematic sampling effort and provide reliable species occurrence data. These can be used for environmental niche modelling to study niche segregation of morphologically similar species in areas where their distribution remains uncertain. Examining unresolved species' niches and potential distributions can have crucial implications for future research and species' management and conservation even in the most remote regions and for the least-known species.

  11. Arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and human urine in Ha Nam province, the Northern Vietnam: contamination characteristics and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Long Hai; Nguyen, Hue Thi; Van Tran, Cuong; Nguyen, Ha Manh; Nguyen, Tung Hoang; Tu, Minh Binh

    2017-06-01

    The contamination characteristics of arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater and the potential risks of arsenic from the groundwater were investigated. Elevated contamination of arsenic, barium and manganese was observed in tube-well water of two villages (Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang) in Ha Nam province in the Northern Vietnam. Concentrations of As in the groundwater ranged from 12.8 to 884 µg/L with mean values in Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 614.7 and 160.1 µg/L, respectively. About 83 % of these samples contained As concentrations exceeding WHO drinking water guideline of 10 μg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in groundwater from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were 300 and 657 μg/L and 650 and 468 μg/L, respectively. The mean value of Ba concentration in groundwater in both Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang was about 22 % of the samples exceeded the WHO guideline (700 µg/L). Arsenic concentrations in human urine of residents from Chuyen Ngoai and Chau Giang were the range from 8.6 to 458 µg/L. The mean values of Mn and Ba in human urine of local people from Chuyen Ngoai were 46.9 and 62.8 μg/L, respectively, while those in people from Chau Giang were 25.9 and 45.9 μg/L, respectively. The average daily dose from ingesting arsenic for consuming both untreated and treated groundwater is from 0.02 to 11.5 and 0.003 to 1.6 μg/kg day, respectively. Approximately, 57 % of the families using treated groundwater and 64 % of the families using untreated groundwater could be affected by elevated arsenic exposure.

  12. Impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Mekong River basin: a case study of the Nam Ou basin, Lao PDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the impact of climate change on sediment yield in the Nam Ou basin located in northern Laos. Future climate (temperature and precipitation from four general circulation models (GCMs that are found to perform well in the Mekong region and a regional circulation model (PRECIS are downscaled using a delta change approach. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT is used to assess future changes in sediment flux attributable to climate change. Results indicate up to 3.0 °C shift in seasonal temperature and 27% (decrease to 41% (increase in seasonal precipitation. The largest increase in temperature is observed in the dry season while the largest change in precipitation is observed in the wet season. In general, temperature shows increasing trends but changes in precipitation are not unidirectional and vary depending on the greenhouse gas emission scenarios (GHGES, climate models, prediction period and season. The simulation results show that the changes in annual stream discharges are likely to range from a 17% decrease to 66% increase in the future, which will lead to predicted changes in annual sediment yield ranging from a 27% decrease to about 160% increase. Changes in intra-annual (monthly discharge as well as sediment yield are even greater (−62 to 105% in discharge and −88 to 243% in sediment yield. A higher discharge and sediment flux are expected during the wet seasons, although the highest relative changes are observed during the dry months. The results indicate high uncertainties in the direction and magnitude of changes of discharge as well as sediment yields due to climate change. As the projected climate change impact on sediment varies remarkably between the different climate models, the uncertainty should be taken into account in both sediment management and climate change adaptation.

  13. Effect of the mGluR5-NAM Basimglurant on Behavior in Adolescents and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial: FragXis Phase 2 Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Eriene A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Czech, Christian; Hagerman, Randi J; Hessl, David; Wong, Chin Y; Rabbia, Michael; Deptula, Dennis; John, Amy; Kinch, Russell; Drewitt, Philip; Lindemann, Lothar; Marcinowski, Moritz; Langland, Rachel; Horn, Carsten; Fontoura, Paulo; Santarelli, Luca; Quiroz, Jorge A

    2018-02-01

    Preclinical data suggest that inhibition of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5) receptor might hold therapeutic benefits in Fragile X syndrome (FXS). Treatment of Fmr1 knockout mice with mGluR5-negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) has been reported to correct a broad range of phenotypes related to FXS. The early short-term clinical trials with mGluR5 NAMs, including basimglurant, assessing the effects in individuals with FXS, were supportive of further exploration in larger, well-controlled trials. We evaluated basimglurant, a potent and selective mGluR5 NAM, in a 12-week, double-blind, parallel-group study of 183 adults and adolescents (aged 14-50, mean 23.4 years) with FXS. Individuals with an FMR1 full mutation were randomized to placebo or one of two doses of basimglurant. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change from baseline in behavioral symptoms using the Anxiety Depression and Mood Scale (ADAMS) total score. All treatment arms showed marked behavioral improvements from baseline to week 12 with less improvement in the basimglurant 1.5 mg arm than placebo; however, basimglurant 0.5 mg was inferior to placebo in the ADAMs total score. Treatment with basimglurant was overall well-tolerated. A higher incidence of adverse events classified as psychiatric disorders were reported in patients treated with basimglurant, including three patients with hallucinations or psychosis. In this phase 2 clinical trial, basimglurant did not demonstrate improvement over placebo. Evaluation of the overall risk-benefit in younger patient populations is an important consideration for the design of potential further investigations of efficacy with this class of medications.

  14. Bui Tran Phuong, Viêt Nam 1918-1945, genre et modernité : Émergence de nouvelles perceptions et expérimentations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Tran Phuong

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Pourquoi ce sujet ?D’abord pour combler un vide. Si l’on ne considère que l’historiographie vietnamienne, ce dont dispose le public vietnamien dans le pays, malgré une abondance apparente à un certain moment, l’histoire contemporaine reste déplorablement pauvre sur le plan cognitif. Elle renseigne peu sur les hommes (et encore moins sur les femmes en société, dans l’espace et dans le temps. Dans la recherche internationale sur le Viêt Nam, jusqu’à très récemment les femmes ne figuraient pas ...

  15. Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thach Tran D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency, anemia and hookworm disease are important public health problems for women of reproductive age living in developing countries and affect the health of newborns and infants. Iron supplementation and deworming treatment are effective in addressing these problems in both pregnant and non-pregnant women. Daily iron supplementation and deworming after the first trimester is recommended for pregnant women although these programs usually do not operate efficiently or effectively. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation and regular deworming for non-pregnant women may be a viable approach for improving iron status and preventing anemia during the reproductive years. Addressing these diseases at a population level before women become pregnant could significantly improve women's health before and during pregnancy, as well as their infants' growth and development. Methods and Results This paper describes the major processes undertaken in a demonstration intervention of preventive weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming for all 52,000 women aged 15–45 years in two districts of Yen Bai province, in northern Viet Nam. The intervention strategy included extensive consultation with community leaders and village, commune, district and provincial health staff, and training for village health workers. Distribution of the drugs was integrated with the existing health service infrastructure and the village health workers were the direct point of contact with women. Iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment were provided free of charge from May 2006. An independent Vietnamese NGO was commissioned to evaluate compliance and identify potential problems. The program resulted in effective distribution of iron-folic acid tablets and deworming treatment to all villages in the target districts, with full or partial compliance of 85%. Conclusion Training for health staff, the strong commitment of all partners

  16. Effect of sporadic destratification, seasonal overturn and artificial mixing on CH4 emissions at the surface of a subtropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guérin, F.; Deshmukh, C.; Labat, D.; Pighini, S.; Vongkhamsao, A.; Guédant, P.; Rode, W.; Godon, A.; Chanudet, V.; Descloux, S.; Serça, D.

    2015-07-01

    Inland waters in general and specifically freshwater reservoirs are recognized as source of CH4 to the atmosphere. Although the diffusion at the air-water interface is the most studied pathway, its spatial and temporal variations are poorly documented. We measured fortnightly CH4 concentrations and physico-chemical parameters at nine stations in a subtropical monomictic reservoir which was flooded in 2008 (Nam Theun 2 Reservoir, Lao PDR). Based on these results, we quantified CH4 storage in the water column and diffusive fluxes from June 2009 to December 2012. We also compared emissions with aerobic methane oxidation calculated from Deshmukh et al. (2015). In this monomictic reservoir, the seasonal variations of CH4 concentration and storage were highly dependant of the thermal stratification. Hypolimnic CH4 concentration and CH4 storage reached their maximum in the warm dry season (WD) when the reservoir was stratified. They decreased during the warm wet (WW) season and reached its minimum after the reservoir overturned in the cool dry season (CD). The sharp decreases of the CH4 storage were concomitant with sporadic extreme diffusive fluxes (up to 200 mmol m-2 d-1). These hot moments of emissions occurred mostly in the inflow region in the WW season and during the overturn in the CD season in the area of the reservoir that has the highest CH4 storage. Although they corresponded to less than 10 % of the observations, these CH4 extreme emissions (> 5 mmol m-2 d-1) contributed up to 50 % of total annual emissions by diffusion. Based on our fortnightly monitoring, we determined that accurate estimation of the emissions can be determined from measurements made at least at a monthly frequency. During the transition between the WD and WW seasons, a new hotspot of emissions was identified upstream of the water intake where diffusive fluxes peaked at 600 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2010 down to 200 mmol m-2 d-1 in 2012. In the CD season, diffusive fluxes from this area were the

  17. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Tran Ngoc; Seposo, Xerxes T.; Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Thang, Tran Binh; An, Do Dang; Hang, Lai Thi Minh; Long, Tran Thanh; Loan, Bui Thi Hong; Honda, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC) rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model). Results High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52), females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21), people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63), and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28). Conclusions In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases). These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City. PMID:26781954

  18. Characterizing the relationship between temperature and mortality in tropical and subtropical cities: a distributed lag non-linear model analysis in Hue, Viet Nam, 2009–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Ngoc Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The relationship between temperature and mortality has been found to be U-, V-, or J-shaped in developed temperate countries; however, in developing tropical/subtropical cities, it remains unclear. Objectives: Our goal was to investigate the relationship between temperature and mortality in Hue, a subtropical city in Viet Nam. Design: We collected daily mortality data from the Vietnamese A6 mortality reporting system for 6,214 deceased persons between 2009 and 2013. A distributed lag non-linear model was used to examine the temperature effects on all-cause and cause-specific mortality by assuming negative binomial distribution for count data. We developed an objective-oriented model selection with four steps following the Akaike information criterion (AIC rule (i.e. a smaller AIC value indicates a better model. Results: High temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with short lags, whereas low temperature-related mortality was more strongly associated with long lags. The low temperatures increased risk in all-category mortality compared to high temperatures. We observed elevated temperature-mortality risk in vulnerable groups: elderly people (high temperature effect, relative risk [RR]=1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI]=1.11–1.83; low temperature effect, RR=2.0, 95% CI=1.13–3.52, females (low temperature effect, RR=2.19, 95% CI=1.14–4.21, people with respiratory disease (high temperature effect, RR=2.45, 95% CI=0.91–6.63, and those with cardiovascular disease (high temperature effect, RR=1.6, 95% CI=1.15–2.22; low temperature effect, RR=1.99, 95% CI=0.92–4.28. Conclusions: In Hue, the temperature significantly increased the risk of mortality, especially in vulnerable groups (i.e. elderly, female, people with respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. These findings may provide a foundation for developing adequate policies to address the effects of temperature on health in Hue City.

  19. Radiation accident in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheatley, J.

    1998-01-01

    In November 1992 a Vietnamese research physicist was working with a microtron accelerator when he received a radiation overexposure that required the subsequent amputation of his right hand. A team from the International Atomic Energy Agency visited Hanoi in March 1993 to carry out an investigation. It was concluded that the accident occurred primarily due to a lack of safety systems although the lack of both written procedures and training in basic radiation safety were also major contributors. (author)

  20. VIET NAM at the CROSSROADS

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For example, companies will invest in research in one country, industrial design and engineering development in another, production in a third, initial sales in a fourth, and the headquarters of .... Deregulation — The core element of deregulation is the abolition of national controls over the cross-border movement of capital.

  1. Social entrepreneurship in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phi, Giang

    2017-01-01

    Despite its rapid growth, tourism has shown only modest success in addressing the issues of poverty and hunger in Asia and the Pacific. Community-based tourism (CBT) is a type of social entreprise that fosters cross-sectoral partnerships between government, business and the community. This chapter...

  2. K nam prijezzhajet "Tramvai "Zhelanije""...

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    5.-7. juulini toimuvad Estonia teatris Moskva Mossoveti-nim. Teatri külalisetendused. Juri Jerjomini lavastus Tennessee Williamsi järgi "Tramm nimega Iha" : Blanche - Jevgenija Krjukova ja Stella - Jekaterina Gusseva,

  3. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    For a long time, the real motivations behind the record growth rate in the rural economy following the land reform were not thoroughly researched, analyzed, ...... Private house construction companies are not sufficiently mature to take the initiatives required to supply the property market with housing for sale or rent.

  4. Biomass Business Opportunities Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwebe, D. [SNV Netherlands Development Organisation, Ha Noi (Viet Nam)

    2012-03-15

    The goal of this survey is to provide a more specific and integral perspective in which niches, relevant policy development by the Vietnamese government, legislation and sustainability criteria are clearly addressed to benefit both the Dutch Private sector as well as to stimulate Dutch-Vietnamese cooperation and support the Vietnamese government in its search for tangible options to develop the desired enabling environment for a sustainable biomass/biofuel market. The following activities are defined to be executed to reach the goal of the project: Biomass availability in Vietnam (Chapter 2); Government of Vietnam and Energy (Chapter 3); The opportunities and barriers to enter the market in Vietnam (Chapter 4 and 5); Stakeholder analysis of the bio-energy sector (Chapter 6); and Recommendations (Chapter 7)

  5. Ne nuzhen nam bereg Turetskii

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tallinna Tehnikaülikooli õppejõu Lembo Tanningu raamat "Armeenia probleem" ja Hollandi välisministri Bernard Rudolf Boti välisministeeriumi pressikeskuses peetud loeng "Estonia, the Netherlands and our common European Future" seonduvad mõlemad Türgiga

  6. Review of monograph of Doctor of Medicine, Professor Prokopov V.O. «Drinking water of Ukraine: medical-ecologic and sanitary-hygiene aspects» edited by Doctor of Medicine, Academician of NAMS of Ukraine A.M. Serdiuk. – K.: Academic Press «Medicine», 2016.

    OpenAIRE

    Shevchenko, O. A.

    2017-01-01

    Review of monograph of Doctor ofMedicine, Professor Prokopov V.O. «Drinking water ofUkraine: medical-ecologic and sanitary-hygiene aspects»edited by Doctor of Medicine, Academician of NAMS ofUkraine A.M. Serdiuk. – K.: Academic Press «Medicine»,2016. – 400 p.

  7. Semidiurnal and seasonal variations in methane emissions from a sub-tropical hydroelectric reservoir (Nam Theun 2, Laos) measured by eddy covariance technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, C.; Serca, D.; Guerin, F.; Meyerfeld, Y.; Descloux, S.; Chanudet, V.; Pighini, S.; Godon, A.; Guedant, P.

    2012-12-01

    The quantification of sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHG) have become an important scientific issue. Hydroelectric reservoirs have been identified as considerable methane (CH4) sources to the atmosphere, especially in the tropics. Assessing these emissions and their variations on small and large time scale represent important challenges in our understanding of water-atmosphere exchange. In this context, objectives of this study are (i) to quantify the CH4 emissions, (ii) to determine the variations in the emissions on daily and seasonal time scale, and link these variations to environmental driving forces (iii) to compare different methodologies to assess CH4 emissions. Measurements of CH4 emissions were made in a recently impounded (in 2009) subtropical hydroelectric reservoir, Nam Theun 2 (NT2), in Lao PDR, Asia. The sampling strategy included three different types of flux measurement techniques: floating chambers, submerged funnels, and a micrometeorological station allowing for flux determination based on the eddy covariance technique (EC). We carried out flux measurements during four intensive field campaigns conducted in between May 2009 and June 2011. Eddy covariance system, composed by a 3D sonic anemometer coupled with a cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) analyzer, was deployed on the mast in a large surface of open water corresponding to an homogeneous ecosystem (floodplain). Diffusive and bubbling fluxes were measured using respectively floating chambers and submerged funnel techniques around the mast. Our results from the all four field campaigns show that individual 30-min EC fluxes varied by 4 order of magnitude (from 0.01 to 102 mmol.m-2.day-1). Average EC fluxes of individual campaigns varied inversely with water depth, from 5±3.5 to 28±16 mmol.m-2.day-1 for respectively from 10.5 to 2 m of water depths. Diffusive fluxes measured by floating chambers ranged between 0.2 and 3.2 mmol.m-2.day-1. Bubbling fluxes were found to be highly

  8. French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam Les politiques françaises envers les Chinois du Viêt Nam : études des migrations et des réponses du colonisateur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramses Amer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the patterns of Chinese migration to and from Vietnam as well as the demographic changes relating to the Chinese residing in the country. It also outlines how the French authorities responded to the arrival of the Chinese and how they treated them. The focus is on the period of French control over the whole of Vietnam from 1883 to 1954. The French authorities did pay considerable attention to the Chinese migration to Vietnam. The policies of the French aimed at keeping a close surveillance on the Chinese. To administer the Chinese communities the French opted to maintain the system of indirect control introduced by the Vietnamese Emperors. During the period of French rule the Chinese population grew considerably. Chinese migration to and from Vietnam was influenced by the political evolution in China and by repercussions of international economic developments. Thus, the French authorities could influence the migrants when they arrived or departed, but the decision to migrate was primarily due to other factors.Cette étude examine les modèles de la migration chinoise à destination et en provenance du Viêt Nam de même que les changements démographiques concernant les Chinois résidant dans le pays. Elle précise également les réponses des autorités françaises à l’arrivée des Chinois et le traitement qui leur était réservé. Elle traite tout spécialement la période du contrôle français sur le Viêt Nam de 1883 à 1954. Car les autorités françaises ont porté un intérêt considérable à la migration des Chinois au Viêt Nam. La politique française consistait à surveiller de près les Chinois. Pour l’administration des communautés chinoises les Français ont choisi de conserver le système de contrôle indirect mis en place par les empereurs vietnamiens. La population chinoise connut une croissance considérable pendant la période française. La migration vers et depuis le Viêt Nam était influenc

  9. The Magnetic Field Structure of Mercury's Magnetotail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Z. J.; Ding, Y.; Slavin, J. A.; Zhong, J.; Poh, G.; Sun, W. J.; Wei, Y.; Chai, L. H.; Wan, W. X.; Shen, C.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we use the magnetic field data measured by MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging from 2011 to 2015 to investigate the average magnetic field morphology of Mercury's magnetotail in the down tail 0-3 RM (RM = 2,440 km, Mercury's radius). It is found that Mercury has a terrestrial-like magnetotail; the magnetic field structure beyond 1.5 RM down tail is stretched significantly with typical lobe field 50 nT. A cross-tail current sheet separating the antiparallel field lines of lobes is present in the equatorial plane. The magnetotail width in north-south direction is about 5 RM, while the transverse width is about 4 RM. Thus, the magnetotail shows elongation along the north-south direction. At the cross-tail current sheet center, the normal component of magnetic field (10-20 nT) is much larger than the cross-tail component. The lobe-field-aligned component of magnetic field over current sheet can be well fitted by Harris sheet model. The curvature radius of field lines at sheet center usually reaches a minimum around midnight (100-200 km) with stronger current density (40-50 nA/m2), while the curvature radius increases toward both flanks (400-600 km) with the decreased current density (about 20 nA/m2). The half-thickness of current sheet around midnight is about 0.25 RM or 600 km, and the inner edge of current sheet is located at the down tail about 1.5 RM. Our results about the field structure in the near Mercury's tail show an evident dawn-dusk asymmetry as that found in the Earth's magnetotail, but reasons should be different. Possible reasons are discussed.

  10. Local structures around the substituted elements in mixed layered oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akama, Shota; Kobayashi, Wataru; Amaha, Kaoru; Niwa, Hideharu; Nitani, Hiroaki; Moritomo, Yutaka

    2017-03-02

    The chemical substitution of a transition metal (M) is an effective method to improve the functionality of a material, such as its electrochemical, magnetic, and dielectric properties. The substitution, however, causes local lattice distortion because the difference in the ionic radius (r) modifies the local interatomic distances. Here, we systematically investigated the local structures in the pure (x = 0.0) and mixed (x = 0.05 or 0.1) layered oxides, Na(M 1-x M' x )O 2 (M and M' are the majority and minority transition metals, respectively), by means of extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis. We found that the local interatomic distance (d M-O ) around the minority element approaches that around the majority element to reduces the local lattice distortion. We further found that the valence of the minority Mn changes so that its ionic radius approaches that of the majority M.

  11. Diversity of Stomoxys spp. (Diptera: Muscidae and diurnal variations of activity of Stomoxys indicus and S. Calcitrans in a farm, in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon ratchasima Province, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keawrayup S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A study of species diversity of Stomoxys spp. and diurnal variations of activity of the most abundant was performed during a one year period at a local dairy cattle farm in Wang Nam Khiao District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Four species of stomoxyine flies were morphologically identified, including Stomoxys indicus Picard 1908, S. calcitrans (Linnaeus 1758, S. sitiens Rondani 1873 and S. uruma Shinonaga and Kanao 1966. The most common species were S. indicus (50.2% and S. calcitrans (49.5%. S. sitiens and S. uruma were found in small proportions (< 1%. The number of flies captured was significantly different among the three seasons with the greatest number in the rainy season (mean = 66%; df = 2, P < 0.05. The variations of diurnal activity were observed during different period of times (06:00 to 18:00 during three seasons. Both sexes of S. indicus and males of S. calcitrans showed unimodal activity pattern in cool and summer seasons. But a bimodal activity pattern was recorded in rainy season. For females S. calcitrans, a unimodal peak of activity was observed in cool season and a constant variation of activity all along the day in summer and rainy seasons, with an increase from the morning to the evening. A better understanding of stomoxyine fly behavior, especially the daily flight activity, can assist in prioritization and design of appropriate vector prevention and control strategies.

  12. Namık Kemal’in Sanat/Sanatçı Algısında Romantizm ve Victor Hugo Etkisi Influence of Romanticism and Victor Hugo on Namık Kemal’s Perception of Art/Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhalim AYDIN

    2012-09-01

    ağdaşlaşma, yenilenme ihtiyacıyla yüzünü Batı’ya çevirdiği bir yapılanma dönemidir. Tanzimat edebiyatı da bu sürecin edebi tarafını oluşturmuştur. Dönemin diğer yazarları gibi bu edebiyatın en büyük simalarından N. Kemal’in üzerinde de romantizmin ve özellikle Hugo’nun etkilerinin büyük boyutlarda olduğu bilinen bir şeydir. Hugo’nun şiirlerini de okumakla beraber tiyatroları ve romanlarına daha büyük ilgi duyan N. Kemal’de bu ilginin sonuçları kendini göstermekte gecikmez. Eserlerinde, büyük bir Hugo hayranlığı sonucu, romantizmin ve şefinin etkileri aslında artık herkesin bildiği “Hernani-Zavallı Çocuk” ve “Cromwell Önsözü-Celaleddin Önsözü” ile sınırlı değildir. Ama bu çalışmada asıl üzerinde durmak istediğimiz şey, N. Kemal’in sanat ve sanatçı algısında romantizm ve Hugo’nun etki veya katkısının mahiyetidir. Klasik okulun akılcılığı, kuralcılığı ve hitapta benimsediği seçkinciliğine karşı bir devrim gerçekleştiren romantik okulla, edebiyatı geniş bir perspektife yaymakla beraber bir tezin savunulması (litterature engagée biçiminde de algılayan Hugo’nun yazarımız üzerindeki etki ve/ya yönlendirmelerin ne kadar etkin olduğu çalışmamızın cevabını bulmaya çalıştığı temel soru olacaktır. Çalışmada da üzerinde durduğumuz gibi, esasen Hugo tarzı sanat ve edebiyat yapma biçimi Namık Kemal’in edebiyattan beklentilerine büyük ölçüde uyuyordu. Ne de olsa o da Hugo gibi, kemal de yeni bir toplum oluşturmada sanat ve edebiyatın büyük rolüne inanıyordu. Bu bağlamda, “Realizme ve temsilcilerine yönelseydi acaba bu gün karşımızda yine aynı Kemal’i bulur muyduk? Kemal’in gür halkçı sesiyle romantik bireyciliği nasıl bağdaştırmalı?” gibi sorular çalışmada bizi meşgul edecek sorulardır.

  13. Progress report on research of nuclear data and applied nuclear physics at nuclear research institute Viet Nam. For the period January 1 - December 31 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuong Huu Tan

    1997-03-01

    This report contains information on activities of nuclear data and applied physics at the Nuclear Research Institute, Dalat, Vietnam for the period January 1st-December 31st 1996. The specific topics covered are the following: Development of filtered neutron beams. Investigation of average characteristics of nuclei in the unresolved enrgy region, Nuclear structure, Nuclear data for applications, Neutron beam utilization for applications, Nuclear analytical techniques and sedimentology

  14. Senescence-associated barley NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2, CUC) transcription factor interacts with radical-induced cell death 1 through a disordered regulatory domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaersgaard, Trine; Jensen, Michael K; Christiansen, Michael W

    2011-01-01

    Senescence in plants involves massive nutrient relocation and age-related cell death. Characterization of the molecular components, such as transcription factors (TFs), involved in these processes is required to understand senescence. We found that HvNAC005 and HvNAC013 of the plant-specific NAC...... as a transcriptional activator suggesting that an involvement of HvNAC013 and HvNAC005 in senescence will be different. HvNAC013 interacted with barley radical-induced cell death 1 (RCD1) via the very C-terminal part of its TRD, outside of the region containing the LP motif. No significant secondary structure...

  15. Access to Anti-smoking Information among School Children and its Potential Impact on Preventing Smoking Initiation: Results from the Global Youth Tobacco Use Survey (GYTS) 2014 in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Hoang Van; Minh, Hoang Van; Giang, Kim Bao; Hai, Phan Thi; Hoang, Trinh Dinh; Huyen, Doan Thu; Khue, Luong Ngoc; Linh, Nguyen Thuy; Lam, Nguyen Tuan; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh

    2016-01-01

    Scientific evidence on all aspects of smoking amongst youth is very important for designing appropriate interventions to reduce smoking among this vulnerable population. This paper describes current access to antismoking information among school children aged 13 to 15 years in Vietnam in 2014 and examines its potential impact on preventing smoking initiation. The data used in this paper were obtained from the 2014 Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in Vietnam. Students were asked questions about their level of awareness of anti-smoking information from various sources in the past 30 days and about lessons in school regarding the dangers of tobacco use during the last 12 months. Those who have never smoked were asked "whether or not they thought about avoiding cigarettes because of health warnings on cigarette packages" and answers were analyzed in combination with data on access to anti-smoking information from other sources. The prevalence of exposure to antismoking campaigns was high among school children in Viet Nam: 55.3% of current smokers reported thoughts of smoking cessation because of health warnings on cigarette packages; 60.5% of never smokers avoided initiating smoking because of the same health warnings. The potential impact of graphic health warnings to prevent school-aged children from smoking initiation would be stronger if there was concurrent access to anti-smoking programs on the dangers of tobacco use in schools. However, school education for tobacco prevention and control has not been as strong as expected. A more comprehensive school curriculum on tobacco prevention and control is recommended to reinforce antismoking messages among school children.

  16. Išreikštinės ir neišreikštinės žinios pasyviųjų namų statyboje, žinių modeliai pasaulyje ir Lietuvoje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevgenija Rutė

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lietuvoje ypač aktualus tampa pastato eksploatacinių išlaidų optimizavimas. Žmonės renkasi šiltesnį būstą, domisi naujausiais inžinerinių sistemų sprendimais. Išlaidų šildymui sumažinti ne 10–20 %, bet bent kelis kartus, ieškomas geriausias šildymo išlaidų optimizavimo būdas. Straipsnyje aptarti pasaulyje atlikti pasyvaus būsto moksliniai tyrimai, bei pasyvaus namo modeliai. Išaiškinti ir palyginti įvairių šalių pasyvių namų statybos ypatumai, priklausomai nuo klimato sąlygų. Daugelyje šalių yra palaikomos ankstesnės statybų tradicijos. Puikių pasyviojo namo šiluminės varžos ir ekonomiškumo rezultatų galima pasiekti kompleksiškai taikant optimalius architektūrinius, statybinius ir inžinerinius sprendimus, siekti geresnių medžiagų panaudojimo, tobulinti ir kaupti praktikos įgūdžius statyboje. Jei rinkos sąlygos leidžia, turimas žinias reikia struktūrinti. Pastebima, kad Lietuvoje ir pasaulyje statybos pramonės viduje išreikštinių ir neišreikštinių žinių sąvokos vis dar stokoja pakankamo dėmesio, neatsižvelgiant į tai, kad tinkamas supratimas ir turimų išteklių vadyba turi didžiulę reikšmę siekiant geresnių tendencijų projektavime, o taip pat neišreikštų žinių generavime ir panaudojime statyboje.Straipsnis lietuvių kalba

  17. Emergence of the Asian 1 genotype of dengue virus serotype 2 in viet nam: in vivo fitness advantage and lineage replacement in South-East Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi Ty Hang Vu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A better description of the extent and structure of genetic diversity in dengue virus (DENV in endemic settings is central to its eventual control. To this end we determined the complete coding region sequence of 187 DENV-2 genomes and 68 E genes from viruses sampled from Vietnamese patients between 1995 and 2009. Strikingly, an episode of genotype replacement was observed, with Asian 1 lineage viruses entirely displacing the previously dominant Asian/American lineage viruses. This genotype replacement event also seems to have occurred within DENV-2 in Thailand and Cambodia, suggestive of a major difference in viral fitness. To determine the cause of this major evolutionary event we compared both the infectivity of the Asian 1 and Asian/American genotypes in mosquitoes and their viraemia levels in humans. Although there was little difference in infectivity in mosquitoes, we observed significantly higher plasma viraemia levels in paediatric patients infected with Asian 1 lineage viruses relative to Asian/American viruses, a phenotype that is predicted to result in a higher probability of human-to-mosquito transmission. These results provide a mechanistic basis to a marked change in the genetic structure of DENV-2 and more broadly underscore that an understanding of DENV evolutionary dynamics can inform the development of vaccines and anti-viral drugs.

  18. Na koi nam "Nokia" / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2008-01-01

    OÜ Krimelte, AS-i Estonia Klaverivabrik, AS-i Silbet, AS-i Standard, AS-i Wendre, BLRT Grupi ja Viru Keemia Grupi kui Eesti olulisemate ettevõtete majandusnäitajatest ning kohast Eestis ja maailmaturul. Lisa: Juhtivate eksportijate mitteametlik reiting

  19. Gaz nam ne ukaz / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Valitsuse eitavast otsusest Vene-Saksa gaasijuhtme uuringute taotlusele, välisminister Urmas Paeti kommentaaridest pressikonverentsil. Välisminister leiab, et antud olukorras oli valitsuse otsus ainuõige

  20. Livan ne po nam / Josef Kats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kats, Josef, 1977-

    2006-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet tutvustas ÜRO Julgeolekunõukogu Liibanoni resolutsiooni täitmise käiku. Eestil puudub hetkel ressurss sõjaväelaste saatmiseks pingekoldesse, kuid ollakse valmis osutama humanitaarabi

  1. Finnõ nam pomogut / Andrei Sharomov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sharomov, Andrei

    2005-01-01

    Narva linnavolikogu esimees Mihhail Stalnuhhin, linnavolikogu liige Vladimir Homjakov, Riigikogu liige Eldar Efendijev ja energeetika ekspert Lev Kelman tutvusid Helsingis soojusenergiat tootva ettevõtte tööga

  2. Sladkaja zhizn oboidjotsja nam dorogo / Jekaterina Rodina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rodina, Jekaterina

    2006-01-01

    Kui pärast Nõukogude Liidu lagunemist oldi mures ajude äravoolu pärast, siis praegu teeb muret töökäte lahkumine ja kvalifitseeritud spetsialistide puudus. Mitteametlikel andmetel töötavad ligi 30 000 Eesti elanikku välisriikides. Töökäte puudus on kaasa toonud kiire palgatõusu, millega omakorda kaasneb tarbimise kasv. Välistööjõud Eesti turul

  3. Fish marketing and credit in Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lem, Audun

    2004-01-01

    .... State-owned financial institutions play a major role in financing capital expenditure while working capital requirements are mainly met by informal sources of credit. However, future investment requirements and credit needs are greater than currently available.

  4. Tshto god grjadushtshii nam... / Lev Golub

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Golub, Lev

    2008-01-01

    Autor analüüsib Eesti majanduse hetkeolukorda ja tulevikku. Ta leiab, et meie valitsus ja peaminister ei näe riigi majanduses mingeid erilisi probleeme ja raskusi, räägitakse nn. pehmest maandumisest

  5. Distribution of freshwater snails in family-based VAC ponds and associated waterbodies with special reference to intermediate hosts of fish-borne zoonotic trematodes in Nam Dinh Province, Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dung, Bui Thi; Madsen, Henry; The, Dang Tat

    2010-10-01

    Fish-borne zoonotic trematodes, such as Clonorchis sinensis, heterophyids and others, constitute a public health concern in parts of northern Vietnam and infections with these trematodes are often thought to be linked to fish culture. One common fish culture system is the integrated fish-livestock (VAC) ponds where individual households have 1 or more ponds. Fish fry, mainly of various carp species, produced in hatcheries, not necessarily local, are introduced into nursery ponds and after approximately 6 weeks, juvenile fishes are transferred to household ponds, referred to as grow-out ponds. Grow-out ponds are usually fertilized with organic debris, including animal excreta, to stimulate algal growth and subsequently fish growth. This paper describes the distribution of freshwater snails and occurrence of trematode infections in these in VAC ponds and associated habitats as part of a major study on risk factors of FZT infections in cultured fish in two communes, Nghia Lac and Nghia Phu, Nghia Hung District, Nam Dinh Province. The area is under intense rice cultivation with an extensive canal network supplying fields and also household VAC ponds. A total of 16 snail species was found and four were widely distributed i.e. Angulyagra polyzonata, Melanoides tuberculata, Bithynia fuchsiana and Pomacea insularum. Snail diversity and counts were higher in nursery ponds than in grow-out ponds. Species of the families Thiaridae and Viviparidae were more abundant than other species in VAC ponds while species of the Bithyniidae, Stenothyridae and Planorbidae dominated in rice fields and small canals. Trematode infections were found in eight snail species and among these M. tuberculata had the highest overall prevalence of infection (13.28%). No trematode infections were found in species of the Viviparidae and Ampullaridae except for metacercariae. Parapleurolophocercous and pleurolophocercous cercariae constituted the most common type of cercariae recovered, contributing 40

  6. Some properties of tetravalent actinide phosphates of M1M42(PO4)3 type and peculiarities of their structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnaeva, A.A.; Volkov, Yu.F.; Kryukova, A.I.; Skiba, O.V.; Spiryakov, V.I.; Korshunov, I.A.; Samojlova, T.K.

    1987-01-01

    Generalizing analysis of data on crystallographic and IR spectral properties of double phosphates of actinide and alkali elements of M (1) M 2 (4) (PO 4 ) 3 type is conducted. It is shown, that Li - , Na - , K - , Rb - , CsTh 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , Li - , Na - , KU 2 (PO 4 ) 3 , NaNp 2 (PO 4 ) 3 compounds crystallize in a monoclinic type structure and form an isostructural phosphate series. It is ascertained, that in rubidium-uranium, uranium-cesium systems double salt formation is not observed. Plutonium-sodium phosphate has a rhombic-type structure, which points out to the existence of a morphotropic transition in NaM 2 4 (PO 4 ) 3 phosphate series at the Np-Pu boundary. Some regularities of structure and effect of M 1 and M 4 nature on the double phosphate structure are revealed

  7. Theoretical study of the structural stability for fcc-CHx phases using density functional theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Dadsetani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Recently, a new carbon modification, namly n-diamond, have been reported, whose structure is still a matter of debate. It is important to note that the synthesis of n-diamond was carried out in the presence of hydrogen or methan. In this work we evaluate the structural stability of five fcc-CHx phases by means of first-principle calculation. The total energy is obtained as a function of the isotropic, tetragonal and rhombohedral deformations for the bulk structures. First, we analyze the C2H (cuprite, CH (zincblende, CH (rocksalt and CH2 (fluorite structures.It is found that the four systems show a minimum in the total energy for the isotropic and rhombohedral deformations, but are unstable against tetragonal deformation. In the second part, we explore the structural stability of CH2 in the pyrite structure. We find that CH2 (pyrite with the hydrogen atoms defined by the internal parameter u=0.35 and a lattice parameter of 3.766 Å is elastically stable, providing a possible explanation for the experimental observation of fcc-carbon in materials prepared in the presence of hydrogen or methan. In final, we calculate density of states, band structure and EELS spectrum of CH2 (pyrite and compare them with n-diamond.

  8. Structural cladding /clad structures:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2013-01-01

    tendencies, which can be traced in the use of materials, the structural features and the construction details of building systems in selected architectural works. With a particular focus at heavy constructions made of solid wood and masonry, and light weight constructions made of wooden frame structures...

  9. Anti- and Pro-Lipase Activity of Selected Medicinal, Herbal and Aquatic Plants, and Structure Elucidation of an Anti-Lipase Compound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Abubakar Ado

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants that help in slowing down the digestion of triacylglycerols (TAGs in the pancreas and small intestine of humans play an important role in the reduction of obesity. On the other hand, there may be plants or plant parts that stimulate intestinal lipolytic activity, thus contributing to greater TAG assimilation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the aqueous methanolic extracts of ninety eight (98 medicinal, herbal and aquatic plant materials from Malaysia for their effect on porcine pancreatic lipase (PPL activity and to identify the structure of an anti-lipase compound from one of the sources. The degree of inhibition was also quantified as relative to orlistat activity against PPL (orlistat equivalents. Results revealed that while 19.4% of the extracts were found to have anti-lipase activity ≥80%, 12% were actually found to promote PPL activity. Twenty two percent (22.4% exhibited moderate inhibition (41%–80% and 2% were neutral toward PPL activity. The ripe fruit of Averrhoa carambola and the leaves of Archidendron jiringa (Jack I.C Nielsen L. (jering, Cynometra cauliflora (nam-nam and Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd (candle nut/buah keras had the highest (100% anti-lipase activity and are equivalent to 0.11 µg orlistat/mL. Plants that stimulated lipase activity included Pimpinella anisum L. (aniseed/jintan manis, activating the enzyme by 186.5%. Kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of C. cauliflora leaves and found to be an active lipase inhibitor. The structure was elucidated using 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and 2D-NMR analyses.

  10. Analýza naměřených vibračních projevů v kostelní věži

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lednická, Markéta; Kaláb, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 3 (2011), s. 53-61 ISSN 1803-1447 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2007 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : resonant vibration * wavelet decomposition * seismic record Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure www.caag.cz

  11. Structural modeling of HTS tapes and cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, N. C.; Chiesa, L.; Takayasu, M.

    2016-12-01

    Structural finite element analysis (FEA) has been used as an insightful tool to investigate the electromechanical behavior of HTS REBCO tapes and twisted stacked-tape cables under tension, torsion, bending and combined loads. A novel technique was developed for modeling the layered composite structure of the 2G tapes with structural solid-shell elements in ANSYS®. The FEA models produced detailed strain information for the REBCO superconducting layer which was then paired with an analytical model to predict the critical current performance of the 2G HTS tapes under various loads. Two commercially available HTS tapes (SuperPower and SuNAM) under tension, torsion and combined tension-torsion were first analyzed with FEA and compared with available experimental results at 77 K. A sharp critical current degradation was experienced at the yield strength of the tapes under tension and below a 100 mm twist-pitch under torsion. Combined tension-torsion loads had a more gradual degradation of critical current for twist-pitches of 115 mm or shorter but had a negligible difference compared to pure tension for longer twist-pitches. Using the structural solid-shell technique for modeling 2G tapes in ANSYS®, an FEA methodology for simulating full scale three-dimensional HTS stacked-tape cables under pure bending was created. A model of a Twisted-Stacked Tape Cable (TSTC), a configuration first proposed at MIT, was initially developed and then adapted to the slotted-core HTS Cable-In-Conduit Conductor produced by the ENEA laboratory in Italy. The numerical axial strain of the HTS REBCO tapes within the cables as calculated by FEA were found to agree with an analytical model for two cases: perfect-slip (frictionless) and no-slip (bonded). The ENEA CICC model was also compared with recent experimental critical current data at 77 K and was found to match best using a low friction coefficient of 0.02 indicating that the tapes within the cable freely slide with respect to each other

  12. Bajorų namų ūkis Lietuvos Didžiojoje Kunigaikštystėje XVI a. – XVII a. I pusėje

    OpenAIRE

    Dambrauskaitė, Neringa

    2017-01-01

    The household understood as both a space – the house – and its residents, is an extremely important issue revealing in multiple aspects the significance of the basic unit of society as well as the basic economic unit. The goal of the dissertation is to explore the structure and development of noble household in the GDL in the 16th century and the first half of the 17th century. Tasks for the research: 1) to examine the aspects of the development and differentiation of noble manor homesteads t...

  13. Phylogenomic analyses of Tsukamurella: reclassification of Tsukamurella spongiae Olson et al. 2007, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans Park et al. 2009 and Tsukamurella sunchonensis Seong et al. 2008 as later heterotypic synonyms of Tsukamurella pulmonis Yassin et al. 1996, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens Yassin et al. 1997 and Tsukamurella pseudospumae Nam et al. 2004, respectively

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade LL Teng

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the highly similar phenotypic profiles, protein spectra and 16S rRNA gene sequences observed between three pairs of Tsukamurella species (Tsukamurella pulmonis/Tsukamurella spongiae, Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens/Tsukamurella carboxydivorans and Tsukamurella pseudospumae/Tsukamurella sunchonensis, we hypothesize that and the six Tsukamurella species may have been misclassified and that there may only be three Tsukamurella species. In this study, we characterized the type strains of these six Tsukamurella species by tradition DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH and digital DDH after genome sequencing to determine their exact taxonomic positions. Traditional DDH showed 81.2±0.6% to 99.7±1.0% DNA-DNA relatedness between the two Tsukamurella species in each of the three pairs, which was above the threshold for same species designation. Digital DDH based on Genome-To-Genome Distance Calculator (GGDC and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI for the three pairs also showed similarity results in the range of 82.3-92.9% and 98.1-99.1% respectively, in line with results of traditional DDH. Based on these evidence and according to Rules 23a and 42 of the Bacteriological Code, we propose that T. spongiae Olson et al. 2007 should be reclassified as a later heterotypic synonym of T. pulmonis Yassin et al. 1996, T. carboxydivorans Park et al. 2009 as a later heterotypic synonym of T. tyrosinosolvens Yassin et al. 1997, and T. sunchonensis Seong et al. 2008 as a later heterotypic synonym of T. pseudospumae Nam et al. 2004. With the advancement of genome sequencing technologies, classification of bacterial species can be readily achieved by digital DDH than traditional DDH.

  14. Structural cladding /clad structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beim, Anne

    2012-01-01

    the question of how materials are understood, handled and manifested when dealt with in architectural work and thus in building constructions. The question of ma-terial nature, the embedded properties and how materials perform when applied and transformed into constructions have been a central guiding rule...... or shared premise across architectural form making and building practices throughout centuries. However – today quite different regimes of thought define how building construction are to be designed and constructed. These are primarily driven by economic interest or environmental considerations dealt...... of materials, the structural features and the construction details of building systems in selected architectural works. With a particular focus at heavy constructions made of solid wood and masonry, and light weight constructions made of wooden frame structures and steel profiles, it is the intention...

  15. Structural insights into binding of STAC proteins to voltage-gated calcium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong King Yuen, Siobhan M.; Campiglio, Marta; Tung, Ching-Chieh

    2017-01-01

    Excitation–contraction (EC) coupling in skeletal muscle requires functional and mechanical coupling between L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (CaV1.1) and the ryanodine receptor (RyR1). Recently, STAC3 was identified as an essential protein for EC coupling and is part of a group of three proteins that can bind and modulate L-type voltage-gated calcium channels. Here, we report crystal structures of tandem-SH3 domains of different STAC isoforms up to 1.2-Å resolution. These form a rigid interaction through a conserved interdomain interface. We identify the linker connecting transmembrane repeats II and III in two different CaV isoforms as a binding site for the SH3 domains and report a crystal structure of the complex with the STAC2 isoform. The interaction site includes the location for a disease variant in STAC3 that has been linked to Native American myopathy (NAM). Introducing the mutation does not cause misfolding of the SH3 domains, but abolishes the interaction. Disruption of the interaction via mutations in the II–III loop perturbs skeletal muscle EC coupling, but preserves the ability of STAC3 to slow down inactivation of CaV1.2. PMID:29078335

  16. Magnetocaloric effect across the coupled structural and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wintec

    Sande P, Hueso L E, Miguens D R, Rivas J,. Rivadulla F and Lopez Quintela M A 2001 Appl. Phys. Lett. 79 2040. 13. Pecharsky V K, Gschneidner Jr K A and Tsokol A O. 2005 Rep. Prog. Phys. 68 1479. 14. Sheng-Bo Tian, Manh-Huong Phan, Seong-Cho Yu and Nam Hwi Hur 2003 Physica B327 221. 15. de Oliveira N A ...

  17. Magnetic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oles, A.

    1976-01-01

    Description of progress in magnetic neutron diffraction gives an idea of its comtemporary possibilities. The most typical and interesting magnetic structures are presented. Magnetic structures symmetry is mentioned

  18. Structure of the O-polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide produced by Taylorella asinigenitalis type strain (ATCC 700933).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinogradov, Evgeny; MacLean, Leann L; Brooks, Brian W; Lutze-Wallace, Cheryl; Perry, Malcolm B

    2008-06-01

    Taylorella asinigenitalis sp. nov is a nonpathogenic gram-negative bacterium recently isolated from the genital tract of male donkeys. The bacterium is phenotypically indistinguishable from Taylorella equigenitalis, a pathogen that is the cause of contagious equine metritis, a highly communicable venereal disease of horses. The structural analysis of the lipopolysaccharide produced by T. asinigenitalis sp. nov (ATCC 700933) demonstrated that its O-polysaccharide (O-PS) component is a linear unbranched polymer of repeating disaccharide units composed of 1,3-linked pyranosyl residues of 2,4-diacetamido-2,4-dideoxy-beta-D-quinovose (bacillosamine) and 2-acetamidino-2-deoxy-beta-D-glucuronic acid, and has the structure [-->3)-beta-D-QuipNAc4NAc-(1-->3)-beta-D-GlcpNAmA-(1-->]n. The chemical structure and serological characteristics of the T. asinigenitalis O-PS are distinct from those of the O-PS of the T. equigenitalis type strain, thus providing a cell-surface target macromolecule that can be used to distinguish pathogenic from nonpathogenic Taylorella sp. clinical isolates.

  19. Le Recul de la Forêt au Viet Nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La voie de recherche et les outils d'analyse utilisés dans le cadre de ce projet étaient nouveaux pour les Vietnamiens, et les conditions sur le terrain étaient nouvelles pour les Canadiens; c'est donc dire que tous les participants ont réalisé un apprentissage important. L'expérience a démontré l'efficacité et l'utilité de telles ...

  20. Nam garantirujut zashtshitu i pokrovitelstvo / Juri Mishin ; interv. Jekaterina Moskalenko

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Mishin, Juri

    2002-01-01

    Eesti delegatsioon koosseisus külastasid J. Mishin, J. Tomberg, A. Jakushev, P. Rozhok, E. Shur, V. Ivanov, S. Kalinkin ja L. Kashnova Venemaa Riigiduumat, kus arutati kaasmaalaste probleeme SRÜ riikides ja Baltimaades

  1. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam : The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    En 1986, le Vietnam a commencé à libéraliser de façon générale tous les secteurs de son économie auparavant rigide, centralisée et fermée. Appelée doi moi, cette " rénovation " a modifié du tout au tout la vie des agriculteurs et des travailleurs vietnamiens, de même que celle de leur famille. La production agricole a ...

  2. Socioeconomic Renovation in Viet Nam: The Origin, Evolution, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    They examine how the policy shift of doi moi has affected rural development, urban housing, household economy, and social welfare. Collaborating with Canadian scholars, they draw upon original field surveys, historical documents, and census material to study the evolution of doi moi and its implications for the future ...

  3. Ljudi, kotorõhh nam opredelili / Andrei Hvostov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hvostov, Andrei, 1963-

    2002-01-01

    Autor analüüsib president Arnold Rüütli, välisminister Kristiina Ojulandi, sotsiaalminister Siiri Oviiri ja kaitseminister Sven Mikseri tööd. Pealk. ajalehes Molodjozh Estonii (2002/Oct/12) lk. 15: "Tsõpljat po oseni stshitajut". Tõlgitud ajalehest Eesti Ekspress (2002/Oct/3): "Inimesed, kes on meile määratud"

  4. Tshto nam dast Jevroparlament? / Siiri Oviir ; interv. Nelli Kuznetsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Oviir, Siiri, 1947-

    2004-01-01

    Siiri Oviir vastab küsimustele, mis puudutavad tema eesmärke ja töösuundi Euroopa Parlamendis, kuulumist liberaalide fraktsiooni, Toomas Hendrik Ilvese valimist europarlamenti, migratsioonilaine võimalikkust, Eesti vene saadikute kõrvalejäämist europarlamendist,

  5. Dorogi, kotorõje nam võbirajut / Eteri Kekelidze

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kekelidze, Eteri, 1944-

    2005-01-01

    Eestis jätkub aktiivne elamu- ja tee-ehitus, suuri probleeme ehitusmaterjalide tarnimisega elamuehituse või tee-ehituse tarbeks sel aastal ei ole olnud. Ehitusmaterjalide tootmise probleemideks on kujunemas loodusressursside kaevandamise perspektiivid ja planeeritav keskkonnamaksude tõus

  6. Nam ljubõje dorogi dorogi / Sergei Kolikov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kolikov, Sergei

    2004-01-01

    Tänavu on remonditakse Tallinn-Tartu maanteed 183 miljoni krooni eest, 60 kilomeetrise Tallinn-Peterburi maanteelõigu rekonstrueerimiseks määras Euroopa Komisjon küll 392 miljonit krooni, kuid töö lükkub järgmisse aastasse. Teetööde vähenemine võib mõned ettevõtted viia pankroti piirile

  7. Vse teatrõ v gosti k nam / Irina Butjajeva

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Butjajeva, Irina

    2005-01-01

    25.-27. märtsini toimub Vene Kultuurikeskuses esimene rahvusvaheline festival "Baltiiski bereg" (Balti kallas). Tutvustatakse festivalil osalevaid lasteteatreid. Ürituse organisaatoriks on Teater Grotesk

  8. Kto s ognjom k nam prijedjet... / Vladimir Fridljand

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Fridljand, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    22. septembril Tallinnas Tõnismäe pronkssõduri juures kavandatavast fašismi ohvritele pühendatud üritusest, mille initsiaatoriteks on Eesti neonatsismi ja rahvustevahelise vaenu vastane komitee ning Venemaa partei Ühtne Venemaa Peterburi regionaalne osakond. Eesti poliitikute reageeringutest

  9. Rossiiskije artistõ objavili nam boikot? / Nikolai Karajev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Karajev, Nikolai, 1978-

    2007-01-01

    Venemaa artistid ei soovi tulla Eestisse külalisesinemistele poliitilistel põhjustel ja väidetavalt valmistub Venemaa suurejooneliseks propagandasõjaks, kaitstes pronkssõduri jäämist samale kohale

  10. Synthesis of Cascadable DDCC-Based Universal Filter Using NAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Duy Tran

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel systematic approach for synthesizing DDCC-based voltage-mode biquadratic universal filters is proposed. The DDCCs are described by infinity-variables’ models of nullor-mirror elements which can be used in the nodal admittance matrix expansion process. Applying the proposed method, the obtained 12 equivalent filters offer the following features: multi-input and two outputs, realization of all five standard filter functions, namely lowpass, bandpass, highpass, notch and allpass, high-input impedance, employing only grounded capacitors and resistors, orthogonal controllability between pole frequency and quality factor, and cascadable, low active and passive sensitivities. The workability of some synthesized filters is verified by HSPICE simulations to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  11. Adequacy of anti-tuberculosis drug prescriptions in Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, N B; Lauritsen, J M; Rieder, H L

    2012-01-01

    -39 kg weight bracket received insufficient dosages. This was almost entirely attributable to patients at the end of the weight bracket. Nevertheless, no significant association was found between treatment failure and death, body weight and insufficient RMP dosage. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to national...

  12. Tshto nesjot nam mirnõi atom / Julia Zalutskaja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Zalutskaja, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Kui Eestisse otsustatakse rajada tuumaelektrijaam, ei lähe see ekspluatatsiooni enne 2025. aastat. Eesti Energia juhi Sandor Liive hinnangul ei asendaks tuumaelektrijaam ei põlevkivienergeetikat, vaid need täiendaksid teineteist

  13. Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. This is largely due to less systematic maintenance of medical records, and death and disease registries, and lower levels of chronic care services than in higher income ...

  14. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viêt-nam

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    La pollution peut être identifiée à trois sources : les rejets industriels, les rejets des hôpitaux et les rejets domestiques. ...... et la malnutrition n'a pas été au-delà du maintien et du respect de la sécurité publique et de l'ordre social à rencontre des pauvres qui travaillent comme porteurs aux stations de bus et au marché.

  15. V Kieve vesna, snova nam ne do sna... / Dmitri Bõkov

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bõkov, Dmitri

    2006-01-01

    Võrreldes 2004. a. nn oranzhi revolutsiooniga on Ukraina sisepoliitiline olukord rahunenud, Venemaa osa protsessides, sisepoliitilisest olukorrast riigis enne 26. märtsil toimuvaid parlamendivalimisi

  16. Improving natural resource management in Viet Nam's Hong Ha ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-15

    Jul 15, 2011 ... During the war, however, the region was a frequent target of chemical defoliants and bombs, which destroyed much of its natural forest cover. ... limited education; rapid population growth (six people per household, on average); decreasing natural resources; severe flooding and unstable water resources.

  17. The energy and electric development in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Khac, Nhan

    2015-11-01

    After a description of the Vietnamese geography and economy, this report presents the Vietnamese energy system, comments the status and origin of electricity production in this country (shares of hydraulic, gas turbine, coal production, and imports). Then, the author presents the various aspects defined within the electric energy development plan for 2011-2020 with a projection until 2030: development principles, objectives, instructions for production plants and for grids, and investments. He proposes a focus on hydroelectricity (meteorological data regarding precipitations, status and power of existing dams, situation and negotiation about the Mekong, problems associated with the development of hydroelectricity in Vietnam), and a focus on the relationship between nuclear energy and climate change (safety issues due to climate change, nuclear plant projects are postponed, the only strategic choice is a massive exploitation of renewable energies). In the last part, the author discusses predictions regarding energy demand, and the associated planning and programming to face this increasing demand

  18. Structured cabling

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez Martin, Jesus Alberto

    2012-01-01

    This thesis discusses the design and implementation of a structured cabling system. A structured cabling is the way of standardizing the communications like telephony and ISDN in the buildings and facilitate the future scalability. In our case, we study the structured cabling system for a certain University building (in cooperation with Technical Services of University of Patras (Planning & Networks Directorate), University of Patras). The study of structured cabling is base...

  19. Phenylacetic acid co-crystals with acridine, caffeine, isonicotinamide and nicotinamide: Crystal structures, thermal analysis, FTIR spectroscopy and Hirshfeld surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amombo Noa, Francoise M.; Jacobs, Ayesha

    2017-07-01

    Co-crystals of phenylacetic acid (PAA) with acridine (ACR), caffeine (CAF), isonicotinamide (INM) and nicotinamide (NAM) have been successfully prepared and characterised by single crystal X-ray diffraction, FTIR spectroscopy, thermal analysis and Hirshfeld surface analysis. The ACR, INM and NAM co-crystals with PAA exhibit the carboxylic acid-pyridine heterosynthon. Furthermore the amide-amide supramolecular homosynthon is observed in the PAA co-crystals with INM and NAM as well as Nsbnd H⋯O interactions between the acid and the respective base. The CAF co-crystal exhibits hydrogen bonding between the imidazole nitrogen and the COOH group of the PAA. The compounds demonstrate different stoichiometries; for PAA·ACR and PAA·INM a 1:1 ratio is displayed, a 2:1 in 2PAA·CAF and a 2:2 in the case of 2PAA·2NAM.

  20. On Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Henry

    Structure as an aspect of educational setting is discussed and illustrated in the course of an argument indicating that efforts to change schools, including Project Follow Through, should aim to change structures rather than people. It is asserted that educational reform in America usually attempts to change people, especially children, and that…

  1. STRUCTURAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tea Ya. Danelyan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article states the general principles of structural modeling in aspect of the theory of systems and gives the interrelation with other types of modeling to adjust them to the main directions of modeling. Mathematical methods of structural modeling, in particular method of expert evaluations are considered.

  2. Organisational Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    An understanding of organisational structure can provide guidance for organisations that want to change and innovate. Many writers agree that this understanding allows organisations to shape how their work is done to ultimately achieve their business goals--and that too often structure is given little consideration in business strategy and…

  3. Building structures

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrose, James

    2011-01-01

    James Ambrose is Editor of the Parker/Ambrose Series of Simplified Design Guides. He practiced as an architect in California and Illinois and as a structural engineer in Illinois. He was a professor of architecture at the University of Southern California. Patrick Tripeny is an Associate Professor, former director of the School of Architecture, and the current Director of the Center for Teaching and Learning Excellence at the University of Utah. He is a licensed architect in California. He has been the recipient of a number of teaching awards at the local and national level for his work in teaching structures and design. With James Ambrose, he is the coauthor of Simplified Engineering for Architects and Builders, Eleventh Edition; Simplified Design of Steel Structures, Eighth Edition; Simplified Design of Concrete Structures, Eighth Edition; and Simplified Design of Wood Structures, Sixth Edition, all published by Wiley.

  4. Structural Behaviour of Reciprocal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2013-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures.......The present paper focuses on the comparison of several two-dimensional and three-dimensional reciprocal configurations. The goal of such comparison is to analyse the structural behaviour when changing the geometric parameters used to describe the geometry of reciprocal structures....

  5. Penser le nationalisme révolutionnaire au Việt Nam : Identités politiques et itinéraires singuliers à la recherche d’une hypothétique « Troisième voie » Conceptualizing Vietnam’s Revolutionary Nationalism: Political Identities and Singular Itineraries in Search of a Hypothetical « Third Way »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Guillemot

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Principalement à partir des sources vietnamiennes, cet article se propose de présenter succinctement les différents courants politiques non communistes qui ont marqué le xxe siècle au Viêt-Nam. Plus particulièrement, il s’attache à rendre compte de la vigueur du courant nationaliste révolutionnaire incarné principalement par les mouvements nationalistes VNQDĐ, Đại Việt ou Cần Lao, d’en identifier les fondateurs (Trương Tử Anh, Lý Đông A, Ngô Đình Diệm ou les acteurs et de les replacer dans le processus historique de la révolution vietnamienne. L’étude de ces personnages et mouvements oubliés de l’historiographie officielle est une des clés de compréhension majeure de l’histoire politique du Viêt-Nam au xxe siècle. L’article présente un volet historiographique, un volet identification (mouvements, doctrines, fondateurs, acteurs et se termine par une mise en perspective sur un près d’un siècle de luttes des années vingt jusqu’à nos jours. Il apparaît ainsi nettement que les nouveaux mouvements politiques clandestins d’aujourd’hui s’inscrivent dans une certaine continuité historique. La conclusion interroge l’échec de cette élite révolutionnaire dans ses tentatives d’instauration d’une « Troisième voie » de type national progressiste qui plonge ses racines dans le nationalisme révolutionnaire de Phan Bội Châu.Primarily from Vietnamese sources, this article aims to briefly introduce the various non-communist political movements that marked the 20th century in Vietnam. More particularly, it focuses on the vitality of revolutionary nationalist movements mainly embodied by nationalist groups such as VNQDD, Dai Viet or Can Lao to identify the founders (Truong Tu Anh, Ly Dong A, Ngo Dinh Diem and actors, as well as to situate them in the historical process of the Vietnamese revolution. The study of these political figures and movements, forgotten by official

  6. Hydraulic Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This table is required whenever hydraulic structures are shown in the flood profile. It is also required if levees are shown on the FIRM, channels containing the...

  7. Hydraulic structures

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Sheng-Hong

    2015-01-01

    This book discusses in detail the planning, design, construction and management of hydraulic structures, covering dams, spillways, tunnels, cut slopes, sluices, water intake and measuring works, ship locks and lifts, as well as fish ways. Particular attention is paid to considerations concerning the environment, hydrology, geology and materials etc. in the planning and design of hydraulic projects. It also considers the type selection, profile configuration, stress/stability calibration and engineering countermeasures, flood releasing arrangements and scouring protection, operation and maintenance etc. for a variety of specific hydraulic structures. The book is primarily intended for engineers, undergraduate and graduate students in the field of civil and hydraulic engineering who are faced with the challenges of extending our understanding of hydraulic structures ranging from traditional to groundbreaking, as well as designing, constructing and managing safe, durable hydraulic structures that are economical ...

  8. Organizational structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, P.H.J.; Schwartz, D.; Te'eni, D.

    2011-01-01

    For many decades, organization scientists have paid considerable attention to the link between knowledge and organization structure. An early contributor to these discussions was Max Weber (1922), who elaborated his concepts of professional bureaucracy. History shows a multitude of other

  9. Structural Origami

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 5. Structural Origami - A Geodesic Dome from Five Postcards. Subramania Ranganathan. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Subramania Ranganathan1. Discovery Laboratory Indian Institute of Chemical Technology Hyderabad 500 007, India.

  10. Structural Dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Du Gi

    2005-08-01

    This book introduces summary of structural dynamics, the reason of learning of structural dynamics, single-degree of freedom system, simple harmonic vibration and application, numerical analysis method, such as time domain and frequency domain and nonlinear system, multi-degree of freedom system random vibration over discrete distribution, continuous distribution and extreme value distribution, circumstance vibration, earth quake vibration, including input earthquake, and earthquake-resistant design and capacity spectrum method, wind oscillation wave vibration, vibration control and maintenance control.

  11. Unemployment - Structural

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1999-01-01

    Structural unemployment differs from cyclical unemployment by not disappearing in cyclical booms. In economic theory, structural unemployment is usually analysed in terms of the concept of equilibrium unemployment (the "natural unemployment rate" in Friedman’s terminology). Two elaborate concepts of equilibrium unemployment – the non-accelerating inflation rate of unemployment (the NAIRU) and the unemployment rate that induces firms and workers to accept the same real wage (the PS-WS-model) a...

  12. Nuclear structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eastham, D.A.; Joy, T.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on 'nuclear structure' is the Appendix to the Daresbury (United Kingdom) Annual Report 1985/86, and contains the research work carried out at the Nuclear Structure Facility, Daresbury, within that period. During the year a total of 74 experiments were scheduled covering the main areas of activity including: nuclear collective motion, nuclei far from stability, and nuclear collisions. The Appendix contains brief reports on these experiments and associated theory. (U.K.)

  13. Foundation structure of structural member

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohara, Ryoichi.

    1995-01-01

    Unevennesses are formed at the outer surface of a foundations of structural components to be buried underground. Pressure-receiving surfaces are disposed to the unevennesses at the periphery of the foundations for receiving vertically downwarding loads due to gravitational force of burying soils. Since the unevennesses are formed, slight gaps are formed between the foundations and the burying soils upon occurrence of earthquakes, and when the structural components undergo rising force, the weight of the soils at the periphery of the foundations exerts by way of the unevennesses to prevent the rising of the foundations of the structural components. As a result, rising of the foundations of the structural components can be prevented. (N.H.)

  14. Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoodi, Pooya

    -dimensional range minimum queries. In the dynamic setting, we present data structures for the path minima problem that support optimal query time for various types of update operations. One of the results presents a comparison-based data structure which answers path minima queries in sub-logarithmic time......We study data structures for variants of range query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the range minimum problem: given a multidimensional array, find the position of the minimum element in a query rectangle; (2) the path minima problem: given a weighted tree, find the edge with minimum...... weight in a query path; (3) the range diameter problem: given a point set in the plane, find two points that are farthest away in a query rectangle. These and similar problems arise in various applications including document retrieval, genome sequence analysis, OLAP data cubes, network flows, shape...

  15. Microcavity structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kustom, R.L.; Grudzien, D.; Feinerman, A.D.

    1994-01-01

    The feasibility of building mm-wave cavities using deep x-ray lithography techniques is being investigated. These cavities could be considered for linac accelerating structures, undulators, free electron lasers, or mm-wave amplifiers. The construction process includes making precision x-ray masks, x-ray exposure of poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA), removal of PMMA, and electroplating a metal. Highly precise two-dimensional features can be machined onto wafers by this technique. The challenge is to fabricate the wafers onto three-dimensional rf structures. Rectangular cavity geometry is best suited to this fabrication technique. Status of wafer manufacture, fabrication and alignment techniques using capillaries bonded in precision grooves, 2π/3 120-GHz linac structures, heat extraction analysis, and beam dynamics in a 5-meter-long 50-MeV linac will be discussed. Measurements made on 10X larger scale models that were built with conventional techniques will also be discussed

  16. Structural biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. The structural biophysics group explores the high-resolution structure of biological macromolecules and cell organelles. Specific subject areas include: the basic characteristics of photosynthesis in plants; the chemical composition of individual fly ash particles at the site of their damaging action in tissues; direct analysis of frozen-hydrated biological samples by scanning electron microscopy; yeast genetics; the optical activity of DNA aggregates; measurement and characterization of lipoproteins; function of lipoproteins; and the effect of radiation and pollutants on mammalian cells

  17. Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oumeraci, H.; Burcharth, H. F.; Rouck, J. De

    1995-01-01

    The paper attempts to present an overview of five research projects supported by the Commission of the European Communities, Directorate General XII, under the MAST 2- Programme (Marine Sciences and Technology), with the overall objective of contributing to the development of improved rational me...... methods for the design of coastal structures....

  18. Structural parsing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Zhang, Lei

    2000-01-01

    Parsing is an essential part of natural language processing. In this paper, structural parsing, which is based on the theory of knowledge graphs, is introduced. Under consideration of the semantic and syntactic features of natural language, both semantic and syntactic word graphs are formed. Grammar

  19. Structural Discrimination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Mira Skadegård

    In this article, I discuss structural discrimination, an underrepresented area of study in Danish discrimination and intercultural research. It is defined here as discursive and constitutive, and presented as a central element of my analytical approach. This notion is employed in the with which t...

  20. Nanocrystal structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisler, Hans J [Stoneham, MA; Sundar, Vikram C [Stoneham, MA; Walsh, Michael E [Everett, MA; Klimov, Victor I [Los Alamos, NM; Bawendi, Moungi G [Cambridge, MA; Smith, Henry I [Sudbury, MA

    2008-12-30

    A structure including a grating and a semiconductor nanocrystal layer on the grating, can be a laser. The semiconductor nanocrystal layer can include a plurality of semiconductor nanocrystals including a Group II-VI compound, the nanocrystals being distributed in a metal oxide matrix. The grating can have a periodicity from 200 nm to 500 nm.

  1. Vcsel structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    .5, and wherein an index of refraction of low-index sections of the grating structure is less than 2. The core grating region defines a projection in a direction normal to the grating layer. The grating reflector further comprises a cap layer abutting the grating layer, and an index of refraction of the cap layer...

  2. Structural optimization

    CERN Document Server

    MacBain, Keith M

    2009-01-01

    Intends to supplement the engineer's box of analysis and design tools making optimization as commonplace as the finite element method in the engineering workplace. This title introduces structural optimization and the methods of nonlinear programming such as Lagrange multipliers, Kuhn-Tucker conditions, and calculus of variations.

  3. Structural Adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Julianne; Titmus, Morgan

    2016-01-01

    This article explores an alternative conception held by high school and first-year university biology students regarding the structure of the left and right ventricles of the heart and the significance of the left ventricular wall being thicker than the right. The left ventricular wall of the heart is thicker than the right ventricular wall due to…

  4. Structural region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Structural region. The two groups had 4 substitutions similar to Yawat strain. The Yawat strain had 5 unique mutations. 3 in the E2 region and 2 in the E1 region. The mutation, I702V (E2), though different from all the recent Indian and Reunion sequences was similar ...

  5. Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, John; Frankel, Kurt L.

    2011-05-01

    Structural geology and continental tectonics were ushered in to the modern quantitative age of geosciences with the arrival of the global plate tectonics paradigm (circa 1968), derived using new data from the oceans' depths, and John Ramsay's 1967 seminal work, Folding and Fracturing of Rocks. Fossen is to be applauded for crafting a unique, high-caliber, and accessible undergraduate textbook on structural geology that faithfully reflects this advance and the subsequent evolution of the discipline. This well-written text draws on Fossen's wealth of professional experience, including his broad and diverse academic research and experience in the petroleum industry. This book is beautifully illustrated, with excellent original color diagrams and with impressive color field photographs that are all keyed to locations and placed into geologic context.

  6. Foundation Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    Method of installing a bucket foundation structure comprising one, two, three or more skirts, into soils in a controlled manner. The method comprises two stages: a first stage being a design phase and the second stage being an installation phase. In the first stage, design parameters are determined...... relating to the loads on the finished foundation structure; soil profile on the location; allowable installation tolerances, which parameters are used to estimate the minimum diameter and length of the skirts of the bucket. The bucket size is used to simulate load situations and penetration into foundation...... soil, in order to predict necessary penetration force, required suction inside the bucket and critical suction pressures, which penetration force, required suction, and critical suction pressures are used as input for a control system in the second stage, in which second stage the parameters determined...

  7. Concrete structures

    CERN Document Server

    Setareh, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This revised, fully updated second edition covers the analysis, design, and construction of reinforced concrete structures from a real-world perspective. It examines different reinforced concrete elements such as slabs, beams, columns, foundations, basement and retaining walls and pre-stressed concrete incorporating the most up-to-date edition of the American Concrete Institute Code (ACI 318-14) requirements for the design of concrete structures. It includes a chapter on metric system in reinforced concrete design and construction. A new chapter on the design of formworks has been added which is of great value to students in the construction engineering programs along with practicing engineers and architects. This second edition also includes a new appendix with color images illustrating various concrete construction practices, and well-designed buildings. The ACI 318-14 constitutes the most extensive reorganization of the code in the past 40 years. References to the various sections of the ACI 318-14 are pro...

  8. Syllable structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakobsen Per

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In traditional structuralist understanding, language is a system of signs i.e. an inseparable unity of content and expression. According to glossematic linguistic theory, the dichotomy of form and substance in the content has its parallel in the expression. The present paper shows that in one language certain consonant clusters within the syllable are allowed, in other languages they are not. The phonotactic structure, i.e. the rules of forming syllables decide the forming of new words and identify the language at the same time. This fundamental syllable structure shows that it is scientifically untenable to maintain that the Serbo-Croatian language has split up in several new languages. .

  9. Galactic structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The occurrence of hot, apparently normal, massive stars far from the galactic plane has been a major puzzle in an understanding of galactic structure and evolution. Such stars have been discovered and studied at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO) over a number of years. During 1989 further evidence has been obtained indicating that these stars are normal, massive objects. Other studies of galactic structure conducted by the SAAO have included research on: the central bulge region of our galaxy; populations of M giants in the galaxy; a faint blue object survey; a survey of the galactic plane for distant Cepheid variables; interstellar reddening, and K-type dwarfs as tracers for the gravitational force perpendicular to the galactic plane. 1 fig

  10. Structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Strømmen, Einar N

    2014-01-01

    This book introduces to the theory of structural dynamics, with focus on civil engineering structures that may be described by line-like beam or beam-column type of systems, or by a system of rectangular plates. Throughout this book the mathematical presentation contains a classical analytical description as well as a description in a discrete finite element format, covering the mathematical development from basic assumptions to the final equations ready for practical dynamic response predictions. Solutions are presented in time domain as well as in frequency domain. Structural Dynamics starts off at a basic level and step by step brings the reader up to a level where the necessary safety considerations to wind or horizontal ground motion induced dynamic design problems can be performed. The special theory of the tuned mass damper has been given a comprehensive treatment, as this is a theory not fully covered elsewhere. For the same reason a chapter on the problem of moving loads on beams has been included.

  11. Structural damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, R.E.; Bruhn, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    Virtually all structures show some signs of distress due to deterioration of the building components, to changed loads, or to changed support conditions. Changed support conditions result from ground movements. In mining regions many cases of structural distress are attributed to mining without considering alternative causes. This is particularly true of coal mining since it occurs under extensive areas. Coal mining is estimated to have already undermined more than eight million acres and may eventually undermine 40 million acres in the United States. Other nonmetal and metal underground mines impact much smaller areas. Although it is sometimes difficult, even with careful study, to identify the actual cause of damage, persons responsible for underground coal mining should at least be aware of possible causes of building stress other than mine subsidence. This paper presents information on distress to structures and briefly reviews a number of causes of ground movements other than subsidence: Mass movements, dissolution, erosion, frost action, shrinking and swelling, yield into excavations and compressibility

  12. Armor structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Henry Shiu-Hung [Idaho Falls, ID; Lacy, Jeffrey M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2008-04-01

    An armor structure includes first and second layers individually containing a plurality of i-beams. Individual i-beams have a pair of longitudinal flanges interconnected by a longitudinal crosspiece and defining opposing longitudinal channels between the pair of flanges. The i-beams within individual of the first and second layers run parallel. The laterally outermost faces of the flanges of adjacent i-beams face one another. One of the longitudinal channels in each of the first and second layers faces one of the longitudinal channels in the other of the first and second layers. The channels of the first layer run parallel with the channels of the second layer. The flanges of the first and second layers overlap with the crosspieces of the other of the first and second layers, and portions of said flanges are received within the facing channels of the i-beams of the other of the first and second layers.

  13. Nuclear analyses in biology and medical science. Measuring on nucleii in stead of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Goeij, J.J.M.

    1996-01-01

    A brief overview is given of the use of nuclear analyses in life sciences. Features of nuclear analytical methods (NAMs) are grouped into four categories: physical basis, isotopic analyses rather than elemental analyses, no interference of electronic and molecular structure, and penetrating character of nuclear radiation. Obstacles in applying NAMs in the life sciences are outlined. 1 tab

  14. Acquiring Structural Knowledge from Semantically Structured Hypertext.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassen, David H.; Wang, Sherwood

    Hypertext researchers and designers contend that the hypertext information structures may reflect the semantic structures of human memory. Further, they believe that mapping the semantic structure of an expert onto hypertext information structure and explicitly illustrating that structure in the hypertext will result in improved comprehension…

  15. Structural Analysis of Plate Based Tensegrity Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Frederik; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Damkilde, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Plate tensegrity structures combine tension cables with a cross laminated timber plate and can then form e.g. a roof structure. The topology of plate tensegrity structures is investigated through a parametric investigation. Plate tensegrity structures are investigated, and a method...

  16. Thermal expansion of the nuclear fuel-sodium reaction product Na3(U0.84(2),Na0.16(2))O4 - Structural mechanism and comparison with related sodium-metal ternary oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illy, Marie-Claire; Smith, Anna L.; Wallez, Gilles; Raison, Philippe E.; Caciuffo, Roberto; Konings, Rudy J. M.

    2017-07-01

    Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 is obtained from the reaction of sodium with uranium dioxide under oxygen potential conditions typical of a sodium-cooled fast nuclear reactor. In the event of a breach of the steel cladding, it would be the dominant reaction product forming at the rim of the mixed (U,Pu)O2 fuel pellets. High-temperature X-ray diffraction measurements show that a distortion of the uranium environment in Na3.16(2)UV,VI0.84(2)O4 results in a strongly anisotropic thermal expansion. A comparison with several related sodium metallates Nan-2Mn+On-1 - including Na3SbO4 and Na3TaO4, whose crystal structures are reported for the first time - has allowed us to assess the role played in the lattice expansion by the Mn+ cation radius and the Na/M ratio. On this basis, the thermomechanical behavior of the title compound is discussed, along with those of several related double oxides of sodium and actinide elements, surrogate elements, or fission products.

  17. Lightweight Materials and Structures (LMS): Inflatable Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration —  Current inflatable structures are designed on the restraint layer’s short term properties with a Factor of Safety of 4 due to lack of long-term data on structural...

  18. Organisational StructureStructures for Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ramskill, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Summary Rexam Plc has articulated that part of the company’s strategy is to make a carefully managed expansion into the emerging markets. In this report I suggest an alternative structure for Rexam to enable implementation of such a strategy and propose a business process for designing effective organisational structures. The work of Chandler (1962) charts the evolution of company organisational structures from the early centralised structures of the 1920s to the multidivisional str...

  19. Factor structure of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) with an offender sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, J K; Barnett, R W; Wallbrown, F H

    1989-01-01

    One thousand two hundred inmates were given the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) in a midwestern reception and diagnostic center. Two groups of 600 were randomly divided, and their test results were subjected to a principal components factor analysis. Four factors were derived in both groups and were similar, indicating successful cross-validation. Three of the four factors bore similarity to factors found in other samples (drug abusers, psychiatric population, Viet Nam veterans), and the fourth was unique to the offender population.

  20. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  1. Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Composite Structures Manufacturing Facility specializes in the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of advanced composite structures and materials for both...

  2. Structural behaviour of super-light structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2010-01-01

    A new structural concept, called Super-light Structures (SLS), has recently been invented and patented at the Technical University of Denmark. The basic concept of SLS is to construct a skeleton of a stiff and strong material, such as ordinary or high strength concrete, and stabilize this skeleton...... with a lighter and softer material, such as lightweight concrete. The combined use of stiff and light material in SLS results in structures of high stiffness and low weight. The applied technology and the advantages of SLS are elaborated upon in [1] in these proceedings. The present paper focuses...... on the structural correlation between the stiff material and the light material. The shape of the skeleton can be optimized for the primary load on the structure, and it will take up the majority of the load. The lighter material forms the outer geometry of the structural component (e.g. a wall), and has several...

  3. Crystal structure and prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R

    2015-04-01

    The notion of structure is central to the subject of chemistry. This review traces the development of the idea of crystal structure since the time when a crystal structure could be determined from a three-dimensional diffraction pattern and assesses the feasibility of computationally predicting an unknown crystal structure of a given molecule. Crystal structure prediction is of considerable fundamental and applied importance, and its successful execution is by no means a solved problem. The ease of crystal structure determination today has resulted in the availability of large numbers of crystal structures of higher-energy polymorphs and pseudopolymorphs. These structural libraries lead to the concept of a crystal structure landscape. A crystal structure of a compound may accordingly be taken as a data point in such a landscape.

  4. Structure-soil-structure interaction of nuclear structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, M.D.; Shaw, D.E.; Hall, J.R. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Structure-to-structure interaction resulting from coupling of the foundations through the soil has traditionally been neglected in the seismic analysis of nuclear power plants. This paper examines the phenomenon and available methods of analytical treatment, including finite element and lumped parameter methods. Finite element techniques have lead to the treatment of through soil coupling of structural foundations using two dimensional plane strain models owing to the difficulty of considering three dimensional finite element models. The coupling problem is treated by means of a lumped parameter model derived from elastic half-space considerations. Consequently, the method is applicable to the interaction of any number of foundations and allows the simultaneous application of tri-directional excitation. The method entails the idealization of interacting structures as lumped mass/shear beams with lumped soil springs and dampers beneath each foundation plus a coupling matrix between the interacting foundations. Utilizing classical elastic half-space methods, the individual foundation soil springs and dampers may be derived, accounting for the effects of embedment and soil layering, analogous to the methods used for single soil-structure, interaction problems. The coupling matrix is derived by generating influence coefficients based on the geometric relationship of the structures using classical half-space solutions. The influence coefficients form the coupling flexibility matrix which is inverted to yield the coupling matrix for the lumped parameter model

  5. Strategy implemented through structuring and new structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    Research objective: With the purpose of generating a new understanding of how development in organisations take place, an interpretive perspective at continuous processes in organisations will be applied: more specifically at how organisational interpretation forms an organisation's strategy...... and how the strategy is implemented through structuring, new structures and routines....

  6. Task structure, need for structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Slijkhuis, Marjette; Van Yperen, Nico W.

    2014-01-01

    Although creativity is often seen as requiring spontaneity and flexibility, recent work suggests that there is creative potential in a structured and systematic approach as well. In a series of four experiments, we show that when Personal Need for Structure (PNS) is high, either chronic (Study 1) or

  7. Multifunctional Structural Composite Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Conference held in Dallas, Texas on 6-9 November 2006. We are developing structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store...structural polymeric composites that both carry structural loads and store electrochemical energy. These multifunctional batteries could replace inert...solid-state goal, and is compatible with our PEO -based resin electrolytes . The metal substrate provides structural support while acting as a

  8. Building a Structural Model: Parameterization and Structurality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Mouchart

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific concept of structural model is used as a background for discussing the structurality of its parameterization. Conditions for a structural model to be also causal are examined. Difficulties and pitfalls arising from the parameterization are analyzed. In particular, pitfalls when considering alternative parameterizations of a same model are shown to have lead to ungrounded conclusions in the literature. Discussions of observationally equivalent models related to different economic mechanisms are used to make clear the connection between an economically meaningful parameterization and an economically meaningful decomposition of a complex model. The design of economic policy is used for drawing some practical implications of the proposed analysis.

  9. Band structure of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Tsidilkovski, I M

    2013-01-01

    Band Structure of Semiconductors provides a review of the theoretical and experimental methods of investigating band structure and an analysis of the results of the developments in this field. The book presents the problems, methods, and applications in the study of band structure. Topics on the computational methods of band structure; band structures of important semiconducting materials; behavior of an electron in a perturbed periodic field; effective masses and g-factors for the most commonly encountered band structures; and the treatment of cyclotron resonance, Shubnikov-de Haas oscillatio

  10. The Structural Integrity Centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomkins, B.

    1987-01-01

    The paper concerns the development and work of the Structural Integrity Centre (SIC) at Risley Nuclear Laboratories, United Kingdom. The centre was set up to provide authoritative advice to plant designers and operators on the integrity and life assessment of structures and components across the reactor projects in the United Kingdom. A description is given of the structure and role of the SIC, as well as the Structural Integrity Assessment work. The assessment methods are described for thermally loaded structures and welded structures. Finally, defect significance assessment and environmental effects are outlined. (U.K.)

  11. Quyen Duoc Gan Bo. Mot bai giang ve tam quan trong cua khai niem ‘huong’ trong Phap luat So sanh ve Xu huong Tinh duc [The right to relate. On the importance of "orientation" in comparative sexual orientation law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waaldijk, C.

    2013-01-01

    The right to establish and develop relationships with other human beings was first articulated - as an aspect of the right to respect for private life - by the European Commission of Human Rights in 1976. Since then such a right has been recognized in similar words by national and international

  12. Neutron structural biology. Beyond the folding structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms and water molecules around proteins and nucleic acids play a crucial role in many physiological functions. Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms. (a) Since almost all the H atom positions can be identified experimentally, the geometrical details of certain types of H-bonds can be visualized and (b) as far as mechanistic implications are concerned, the identification of protonation and deprotonation states of certain important amino acid residues can be carried out. (c) The hydration structure around proteins and the hydration networks around DNA oligomers have been successfully characterized in several outstanding cases. These will open the new field beyond the folding structure of bio-macromolecules such as: 1) Recognition of proteins and nucleic acids through the network structure of water molecules surrounding bio-macromolecules, and 2) The nature of chemical bond in proteins and nucleic acids elucidated by the accumulation of accurate structural information of hydrogen atoms. (author)

  13. Structural system identification: Structural dynamics model validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Red-Horse, J.R.

    1997-04-01

    Structural system identification is concerned with the development of systematic procedures and tools for developing predictive analytical models based on a physical structure`s dynamic response characteristics. It is a multidisciplinary process that involves the ability (1) to define high fidelity physics-based analysis models, (2) to acquire accurate test-derived information for physical specimens using diagnostic experiments, (3) to validate the numerical simulation model by reconciling differences that inevitably exist between the analysis model and the experimental data, and (4) to quantify uncertainties in the final system models and subsequent numerical simulations. The goal of this project was to develop structural system identification techniques and software suitable for both research and production applications in code and model validation.

  14. STRUCTURAL STABILITY AND ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-31

    Dec 31, 2012 ... of YCu for B1, B2, B3, and L10 phase, and elastic constants Cij (in GPa) for B2 phase. We calculated band structure of YCu compound in the B2 phase at equilibrium volume using the FP-LAPW method within DFT along the higher symmetry directions is presented in Fig. 2. The band structure of this phase ...

  15. Structural health monitoring for ship structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Angel, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Salvino, Liming [NSWC, CADEROCK

    2009-01-01

    Currently the Office of Naval Research is supporting the development of structural health monitoring (SHM) technology for U.S. Navy ship structures. This application is particularly challenging because of the physical size of these structures, the widely varying and often extreme operational and environmental conditions associated with these ships missions, lack of data from known damage conditions, limited sensing that was not designed specifically for SHM, and the management of the vast amounts of data that can be collected during a mission. This paper will first define a statistical pattern recognition paradigm for SHM by describing the four steps of (1) Operational Evaluation, (2) Data Acquisition, (3) Feature Extraction, and (4) Statistical Classification of Features as they apply to ship structures. Note that inherent in the last three steps of this process are additional tasks of data cleansing, compression, normalization and fusion. The presentation will discuss ship structure SHM challenges in the context of applying various SHM approaches to sea trials data measured on an aluminum multi-hull high-speed ship, the HSV-2 Swift. To conclude, the paper will discuss several outstanding issues that need to be addressed before SHM can make the transition from a research topic to actual field applications on ship structures and suggest approaches for addressing these issues.

  16. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric...

  17. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the availability of structural measures at that hospital. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients....

  18. Growing Timber Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Evers, Henrik Leander; Stasiuk, David

    2013-01-01

    The contemporary design of timber structures has to answer questions concerning structural stability, production impact and energy implications in ever earlier stages. The interrelation of these levels creates a complexity that is difficult to resolve through contemporary linear parametric comput...

  19. Structural Biology Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beta sheets (blue; thinner, tangled strands). Credit: RCSB Protein Data Bank. Even though proteins are strings of amino acids, ... structure of more than 122,000 proteins. The Protein Data Bank stores these structures and gives scientists access to ...

  20. Advanced structural inorganic chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Wai-Kee; Mak, Thomas C W

    2008-01-01

    An English edition of a textbook based on teaching at the final year undergraduate and graduate level. It presents structure and bonding, generalizations of structural trends, crystallographic data, as well as highlights from the recent literature.

  1. Structural Static Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural testing is performed to verify the structural integrity of space flight and ground test hardware. Testing is also performed to verify the finite element...

  2. Extended icosahedral structures

    CERN Document Server

    Jaric, Marko V

    1989-01-01

    Extended Icosahedral Structures discusses the concepts about crystal structures with extended icosahedral symmetry. This book is organized into six chapters that focus on actual modeling of extended icosahedral crystal structures. This text first presents a tiling approach to the modeling of icosahedral quasiperiodic crystals. It then describes the models for icosahedral alloys based on random connections between icosahedral units, with particular emphasis on diffraction properties. Other chapters examine the glassy structures with only icosahedral orientational order and the extent of tra

  3. Fundamentals of structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Craig, Roy R

    2006-01-01

    From theory and fundamentals to the latest advances in computational and experimental modal analysis, this is the definitive, updated reference on structural dynamics.This edition updates Professor Craig's classic introduction to structural dynamics, which has been an invaluable resource for practicing engineers and a textbook for undergraduate and graduate courses in vibrations and/or structural dynamics. Along with comprehensive coverage of structural dynamics fundamentals, finite-element-based computational methods, and dynamic testing methods, this Second Edition includes new and e

  4. HIV Structural Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  5. Structural Ceramics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  6. Structural dynamic modification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    for are lumped masses, springs, dampers and dynamic absorbers. Keywords. Structural dynamic modification; structural design; dynamic design; SDM using FRF. 1. Introduction. The problem of varying the dynamic behaviour of structures to reduce the vibration response or control the noise radiated by vibrating surfaces is ...

  7. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) together with Working Commission (WC) 1 of the International Association of Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABSE) organized a workshop on robustness of structures. Two important decisions resulted from this workshop, namely the developm...

  8. Conformal Dirac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, A.

    2000-07-01

    The Courant bracket defined originally on the sections of a vector bundle TM +T*M → M is extended to the direct sum of the 1-jet vector bundle and its dual. The extended bracket allows one to interpret many structures encountered in differential geometry, in terms of Dirac structures. We give a new approach to conformal Jacobi structures. (author)

  9. Smart Structures and Materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A structure is an assembly that serves an engineering function. It is reasonable to expect that all engineering design should be smart, and not dumb. But one can still make a distinction between smartly designed structures and smart structures. The latter term has acquired a specific technical meaning over the last few ...

  10. Neutrality in bipolar structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, Javier; Rodríguez, J. Tinguaro; Franco, Camilo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we want to stress that bipolar knowledge representation naturally allows a family of middle states which define as a consequence different kinds of bipolar structures. These bipolar structures are deeply related to the three types of bipolarity introduced by Dubois and Prade, but our...... approach offers a systematic explanation of how such bipolar structures appear and can be identified....

  11. Socio-Technical Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Lindgren, Rikard; Henfridsson, Ole

    2004-01-01

    perspective relates to social theories (principally structuration theory), the second to linguistic theories (principally the structural linguistics of Chomsky), and the last to science studies (principally actor-network theory). The objective is to study areas of agreement and contention around the structure...

  12. Shell-like structures

    CERN Document Server

    Altenbach, Holm

    2011-01-01

    In this volume, scientists and researchers from industry discuss the new trends in simulation and computing shell-like structures. The focus is put on the following problems: new theories (based on two-dimensional field equations but describing non-classical effects), new constitutive equations (for materials like sandwiches, foams, etc. and which can be combined with the two-dimensional shell equations), complex structures (folded, branching and/or self intersecting shell structures, etc.) and shell-like structures on different scales (for example: nano-tubes) or very thin structures (similar

  13. PRODUCT STRUCTURE DIGITAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Sineglazov

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available  Research results of representation of product structure made by means of CADDS5 computer-aided design (CAD system, Product Data Management Optegra (PDM system and Product Life Cycle Management Wind-chill system (PLM, are examined in this work. Analysis of structure component development and its storage in various systems is carried out. Algorithms of structure transformation required for correct representation of the structure are considered. Management analysis of electronic mockup presentation of the product structure is carried out for Windchill system.

  14. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  15. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... be an inspiration to structural morphologists and other dealing with the shaping of structures for buildings and other objects. Often the patterns appear in "dual" materializations, which indicate two radically different structural types of action. Randomness as a generator for optimal and basic structural action...

  16. Basic structural dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, James C

    2012-01-01

    A concise introduction to structural dynamics and earthquake engineering Basic Structural Dynamics serves as a fundamental introduction to the topic of structural dynamics. Covering single and multiple-degree-of-freedom systems while providing an introduction to earthquake engineering, the book keeps the coverage succinct and on topic at a level that is appropriate for undergraduate and graduate students. Through dozens of worked examples based on actual structures, it also introduces readers to MATLAB, a powerful software for solving both simple and complex structural d

  17. Computers boost structural technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noor, Ahmed K.; Venneri, Samuel L.

    1989-01-01

    Derived from matrix methods of structural analysis and finite element methods developed over the last three decades, computational structures technology (CST) blends computer science, numerical analysis, and approximation theory into structural analysis and synthesis. Recent significant advances in CST include stochastic-based modeling, strategies for performing large-scale structural calculations on new computing systems, and the integration of CST with other disciplinary modules for multidisciplinary analysis and design. New methodologies have been developed at NASA for integrated fluid-thermal structural analysis and integrated aerodynamic-structure-control design. The need for multiple views of data for different modules also led to the development of a number of sophisticated data-base management systems. For CST to play a role in the future development of structures technology and in the multidisciplinary design of future flight vehicles, major advances and computational tools are needed in a number of key areas.

  18. Structural NMR assignment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procter, J.B.; Torda, A.E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: General automated NMR assignment approaches are aimed at full heteronuclear assignment, which is needed for structure determination. Usually, full assignment requires at least as much spectral information as is used for structure generation. For large proteins, obtaining sufficient spectral information may require a number of sample preparations and many spectra, resulting in a significant overhead for the use of NMR in biochemical investigation. For a protein of biochemical interest one may already have an x-ray crystal structure, but spectral assignment is still needed to use NMR as a structural probe for ligand binding studies. In this situation it may be possible to use much less spectral information to make an assignment based purely on the correspondence of structural data to the measurements contained in a few simple spectra. We introduce a framework to accomplish this 'structural assignment', and give some observations on the practical requirements for a structural assignment to succeed

  19. Exotic cluster structures on

    CERN Document Server

    Gekhtman, M; Vainshtein, A

    2017-01-01

    This is the second paper in the series of papers dedicated to the study of natural cluster structures in the rings of regular functions on simple complex Lie groups and Poisson-Lie structures compatible with these cluster structures. According to our main conjecture, each class in the Belavin-Drinfeld classification of Poisson-Lie structures on \\mathcal{G} corresponds to a cluster structure in \\mathcal{O}(\\mathcal{G}). The authors have shown before that this conjecture holds for any \\mathcal{G} in the case of the standard Poisson-Lie structure and for all Belavin-Drinfeld classes in SL_n, n<5. In this paper the authors establish it for the Cremmer-Gervais Poisson-Lie structure on SL_n, which is the least similar to the standard one.

  20. Antibacterial Structural Color Hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhuoyue; Mo, Min; Fu, Fanfan; Shang, Luoran; Wang, Huan; Liu, Cihui; Zhao, Yuanjin

    2017-11-08

    Structural color hydrogels with lasting survivability are important for many applications, but they still lack anti-biodegradation capability. Thus, we herein present novel antibacterial structural color hydrogels by simply integrating silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in situ into the hydrogel materials. Because the integrated AgNPs possessed wide and excellent antibacterial abilities, the structural color hydrogels could prevent bacterial adhesion, avoid hydrogel damage, and maintain their vivid structural colors during their application and storage. It was demonstrated that the AgNP-tagged poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) structural color hydrogels could retain their original thermal-responsive color transition even when the AgNP-free hydrogels were degraded by bacteria and that the AgNP-integrated self-healing structural color protein hydrogels could save their self-repairing property instead of being degraded by bacteria. These features indicated that the antibacterial structural color hydrogels could be amenable to a variety of practical biomedical applications.

  1. Decoupling structure and metallogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong Hangshou

    1993-01-01

    The decoupling structure is, at present, a hot spot for the study in geoscience. A study on the decoupling structure is not only of great theoretical significance, but also of more economic importance. The author briefly discusses the study of the decoupling structure in terms of its present status, implication, characteristics, formation mechanism and theoretical significance, in addition, with emphasis on the expounding of the decoupling structure over endogenic metallic deposits such as oil and gas, coal, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc and iron etc. At last reconsideration is made on the ore control theory of the decoupling structure to the ore control structure in the uranium ore field in South China. The author proposes a superficial idea in order to provide a basis of geological structures for expanding old mining areas, opening up new areas(bases), and prospecting for large and rich uranium deposits

  2. Structures in sculptures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanggaard, Ole

    the different concepts and find a final synthesis, but the problem is known. Large sculptures represent structural challenges. The design of the supports inside the structures reveals often a very different world from the outside view of the sculpture. The piece of art and its structure may have two very...... different lives. A sculpture of today may be very dissimilar from what we have seen earlier. The structure becomes sometimes a visual part of the art. Ultimately, there may not be any distinction between structure and art. The technical demand, the durability and the safety are just as important for a large...... sculpture as in all other structures. The problem presented by the artist involves sometimes quite new structural themes. The dialog between the engineer and the artist brings the engineer close into the creative work of the artist. Neither the artist nor the engineer can rely upon any tradition...

  3. Structural realism beyond physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulodziecki, Dana

    2016-10-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to test structural realism against (one example from) the historical record. I begin by laying out an existing challenge to structural realism - that of providing an example of a theory exhibiting successful structures that were abandoned - and show that this challenge can be met by the miasma theory of disease. However, rather than concluding that this is an outright counterexample to structural realism, I use this case to show why it is that structural realism, in its current form, has trouble dealing with theories outside physics. I end by making some concrete suggestions for structural realists to pursue if, indeed, they are serious about extending structural realism to other domains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Investigating Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 Allosteric Modulator Cooperativity, Affinity, and Agonism: Enriching Structure-Function Studies and Structure-Activity Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Karen J.; Noetzel, Meredith J.; Rook, Jerri M.; Vinson, Paige N.; Stauffer, Shaun R.; Rodriguez, Alice L.; Emmitte, Kyle A.; Zhou, Ya; Chun, Aspen C.; Felts, Andrew S.; Chauder, Brian A.; Lindsley, Craig W.; Niswender, Colleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Drug discovery programs increasingly are focusing on allosteric modulators as a means to modify the activity of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) targets. Allosteric binding sites are topographically distinct from the endogenous ligand (orthosteric) binding site, which allows for co-occupation of a single receptor with the endogenous ligand and an allosteric modulator that can alter receptor pharmacological characteristics. Negative allosteric modulators (NAMs) inhibit and positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) enhance the affinity and/or efficacy of orthosteric agonists. Established approaches for estimation of affinity and efficacy values for orthosteric ligands are not appropriate for allosteric modulators, and this presents challenges for fully understanding the actions of novel modulators of GPCRs. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGlu5) is a family C GPCR for which a large array of allosteric modulators have been identified. We took advantage of the many tools for probing allosteric sites on mGlu5 to validate an operational model of allosterism that allows quantitative estimation of modulator affinity and cooperativity values. Affinity estimates derived from functional assays fit well with affinities measured in radioligand binding experiments for both PAMs and NAMs with diverse chemical scaffolds and varying degrees of cooperativity. We observed modulation bias for PAMs when we compared mGlu5-mediated Ca2+ mobilization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation data. Furthermore, we used this model to quantify the effects of mutations that reduce binding or potentiation by PAMs. This model can be applied to PAM and NAM potency curves in combination with maximal fold-shift data to derive reliable estimates of modulator affinities. PMID:22863693

  5. Structure - Riverine Flow Structure (Dike/Wingdam)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — A natural or man-made flow (or sediment) control structure in a water course or water body such as a dike or weir. This feature should not be used to model a levee....

  6. Implications of social structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask, Josefine Bohr

    and evolution of behaviour, and for individual fitness. In this thesis I investigated implications of social structure for fitness and behaviour, with focus on three main areas: social structure & fitness, social structure & communication, and social structure & cooperation. These areas were investigated...... in four separate studies. In the first study, we propose a simple framework that may be used as a base when studying the link between social structure and fitness. We furthermore review current evidence for fitness effects of social structure, and find good support for such effects. In the second study......, we investigate empirically the role of the social environment of individuals for their communication patterns. Our study species is a song bird, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus). The results suggest that individual communication in this species is influenced by features of the local...

  7. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  8. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  9. Advance in structural bioinformatics

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Dongqing; Zhao, Tangzhen; Dai, Hao

    2014-01-01

    This text examines in detail mathematical and physical modeling, computational methods and systems for obtaining and analyzing biological structures, using pioneering research cases as examples. As such, it emphasizes programming and problem-solving skills. It provides information on structure bioinformatics at various levels, with individual chapters covering introductory to advanced aspects, from fundamental methods and guidelines on acquiring and analyzing genomics and proteomics sequences, the structures of protein, DNA and RNA, to the basics of physical simulations and methods for conform

  10. Collateral and Capital Structure

    OpenAIRE

    S. Viswanathan; Adriano Rampini

    2009-01-01

    This paper develops a dynamic model of the capital structure based on the need to collateralize loans with tangible assets. The model provides a unified theory of optimal firm financing in terms of the optimal capital structure, investment, leasing, and risk management policy. Tangible assets are a key determinant of the cross section and dynamic behavior of the capital structure. Firms with low tangible capital are constrained longer, lease more of their physical capital, and borrow less. Le...

  11. Photon structure function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1980-11-01

    Theoretical understanding of the photon structure function is reviewed. As an illustration of the pointlike component, the parton model is briefly discussed. However, the systematic study of the photon structure function is presented through the framework of the operator product expansion. Perturbative QCD is used as the theoretical basis for the calculation of leading contributions to the operator product expansion. The influence of higher order QCD effects on these results is discussed. Recent results for the polarized structure functions are discussed

  12. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...... of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature...

  13. A study on soil structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuylenborgh, van J.

    1947-01-01

    As soils differ in capacity to form a structure, it is necessary to distinguish between intrinsic structure and actual structure. Intrinsic structure is the capacity of a soil to form a certain structure. Actual structure is the structure of the soil at a certain moment.

    Using experiments and

  14. Structure of graphane polymorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenkova, T. E.; Greshyakov, V. A.; Chernov, V. M.; Belenkov, E. A.

    2017-11-01

    Calculations of the structure and electronic properties for five structural variations of graphane were performed within the framework of density functional theory (DFT) with generalized gradient approximations (GGA). The electron densities of states and band structure of graphene crystals have been calculated. It has been established that the band gap for graphane polymorphs varies from 5.50 eV to 5.65 eV. Sublimation energy of graphane layers with different structure was varying from 11.33 to 11.48 eV per C-H molecular group.

  15. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  16. Multifunctional Composite Structure

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project is developing a Composite Sandwich Habitable Pressurized Structure for deep space travel. Permeability, radiation, & micrometeoroids and orbital...

  17. Structures and infrastructures series

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2008-01-01

    "Research, developments, and applications...on the most advanced techonologies for analyzing, predicting, and optimizing the performance of structures and infrastructures such as buildings, bridges, dams...

  18. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  19. Structural building response review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The integrity of a nuclear power plant during a postulated seismic event is required to protect the public against radiation. Therefore, a detailed set of seismic analyses of various structures and equipment is performed while designing a nuclear power plant. This report describes the structural response analysis method, including the structural model, soil-structure interaction as it relates to structural models, methods for seismic structural analysis, numerical integration methods, methods for non-seismic response analysis approaches for various response combinations, structural damping values, nonlinear response, uncertainties in structural properties, and structural response analysis using random properties. The report describes the state-of-the-art in these areas for nuclear power plants. It also details the past studies made at Sargent and Lundy to evaluate different alternatives and the conclusions reached for the specific purposes that those studies were intended. These results were incorporated here because they fall into the general scope of this report. The scope of the present task does not include performing new calculations

  20. Structure and stoichiometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, P.L.

    1992-01-01

    Structural and stoichiometric variations and their role in superconducting properties of bulk cuprate ceramics are elucidated. Atomic structure and chemistry of defect microstructures, including vacancy and interstitial defects, weak-link problems, structural modulations and coherent intergrowths leading to new structures are studies and quantitatively interpreted. They are shown to play a critical role in controlling hole concentration, critical currents and flux pinning. These phenomena underpin the solid state chemistry which determines the physical properties of the nonstoichiometric oxide superconductors. In this paper technological implications, synthesis of related novel materials and recent developments are discussed

  1. Linguistic Structure Prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Noah A

    2011-01-01

    A major part of natural language processing now depends on the use of text data to build linguistic analyzers. We consider statistical, computational approaches to modeling linguistic structure. We seek to unify across many approaches and many kinds of linguistic structures. Assuming a basic understanding of natural language processing and/or machine learning, we seek to bridge the gap between the two fields. Approaches to decoding (i.e., carrying out linguistic structure prediction) and supervised and unsupervised learning of models that predict discrete structures as outputs are the focus. W

  2. Structure of hadrons. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmeier, H.; Knoll, J.; Noerenberg, W.; Wambach, J.

    2001-01-01

    The following topics were dealt with: Hadronic reactions and resonances, structure of mesons, baryons, glueballs, and hybrids, physics with strange and charmed quarks, future projects and facilities. (HSI)

  3. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2004-01-01

    It seems that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structural action and sometimes not - but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analyses of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  4. Flexible Volumetric Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagle, Christopher M. (Inventor); Schlecht, Robin W. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A flexible volumetric structure has a first spring that defines a three-dimensional volume and includes a serpentine structure elongatable and compressible along a length thereof. A second spring is coupled to at least one outboard edge region of the first spring. The second spring is a sheet-like structure capable of elongation along an in-plane dimension thereof. The second spring is oriented such that its in-plane dimension is aligned with the length of the first spring's serpentine structure.

  5. Structural Materials: 95. Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naus, Dan J.

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures and their materials of construction are described, and their operating experience noted. Aging and environmental factors that can affect the durability of the concrete structures are identified. Basic components of a program to manage aging of these structures are identified and described. Application of structural reliability theory to devise uniform risk-based criteria by which existing facilities can be evaluated to achieve a desired performance level when subjected to uncertain demands and to quantify the effects of degradation is outlined. Finally, several areas are identified where additional research is desired.

  6. Structural Dynamics Laboratory (SDL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Structural dynamic testing is performed to verify the survivability of a component or assembly when exposed to vibration stress screening, or a controlled simulation...

  7. Component nuclear containment structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described is intended for use primarily as a nuclear containment structure. Such structures are required to surround the nuclear steam supply system and to contain the effects of breaks in the nuclear steam supply system, or i.e. loss of coolant accidents. Nuclear containment structures are required to withstand internal pressure and temperatures which result from loss of coolant accidents, and to provide for radiation shielding during operation and during the loss of coolant accident, as well as to resist all other applied loads, such as earthquakes. The nuclear containment structure described herein is a composite nuclear containment structure, and is one which structurally combines two previous systems; namely, a steel vessel, and a lined concrete structure. The steel vessel provides strength to resist internal pressure and accommodate temperature increases, the lined concrete structure provides resistance to internal pressure by having a liner which will prevent leakage, and which is in contact with the concrete structure which provides the strength to resist the pressure

  8. Laboratory for Structural Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Supports experimental research where acoustic radiation, scattering, and surface vibration measurements of fluid-loaded and non-fluid-loaded structures are...

  9. Robustness of Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Michael Havbro; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2011-01-01

    the development of a joint European project on structural robustness under the COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme and the decision to develop a more elaborate document on structural robustness in collaboration between experts from the JCSS and the IABSE. Accordingly, a project titled...... ‘COST TU0601: Robustness of Structures’ was initiated in February 2007, aiming to provide a platform for exchanging and promoting research in the area of structural robustness and to provide a basic framework, together with methods, strategies and guidelines enhancing robustness of structures...

  10. Deployable Soft Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Rodrigue, Hugo; Ahn, Sung-Hoon

    2016-02-01

    Deployable structure composed of smart materials based actuators can reconcile its inherently conflicting requirements of low mass, good shape adaptability, and high load-bearing capability. This work describes the fabrication of deployable structures using smart soft composite actuators combining a soft matrix with variable stiffness properties and hinge-like movement through a rigid skeleton. The hinge actuator has the advantage of being simple to fabricate, inexpensive, lightweight and simple to actuate. This basic actuator can then be used to form modules capable of different types of deformations, which can then be assembled into deployable structures. The design of deployable structures is based on three principles: design of basic hinge actuators, assembly of modules and assembly of modules into large-scale deployable structures. Various deployable structures such as a segmented triangular mast, a planar structure comprised of single-loop hexagonal modules and a ring structure comprised of single-loop quadrilateral modules were designed and fabricated to verify this approach. Finally, a prototype for a deployable mirror was developed by attaching a foldable reflective membrane to the designed ring structure and its functionality was tested by using it to reflect sunlight onto to a small-scale solar panel.

  11. Valency and molecular structure

    CERN Document Server

    Cartmell, E

    1977-01-01

    Valency and Molecular Structure, Fourth Edition provides a comprehensive historical background and experimental foundations of theories and methods relating to valency and molecular structures. In this edition, the chapter on Bohr theory has been removed while some sections, such as structures of crystalline solids, have been expanded. Details of structures have also been revised and extended using the best available values for bond lengths and bond angles. Recent developments are mostly noted in the chapter on complex compounds, while a new chapter has been added to serve as an introduction t

  12. Structure of human adenovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemerow, Glen R.; Stewart, Phoebe L.; Reddy, Vijay S. (Scripps); (Vanderbilt)

    2012-07-11

    A detailed structural analysis of the entire human adenovirus capsid has been stymied by the complexity and size of this 150 MDa macromolecular complex. Over the past 10 years, the steady improvements in viral genome manipulation concomitant with advances in crystallographic techniques and data processing software has allowed structure determination of this virus by X-ray diffraction at 3.5 {angstrom} resolution. The virus structure revealed the location, folds, and interactions of major and minor (cement proteins) on the inner and outer capsid surface. This new structural information sheds further light on the process of adenovirus capsid assembly and virus-host cell interactions.

  13. Manual on sample-based data collection for fisheries assessment: examples from Viet Nam

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sparre, Per

    2000-01-01

    .... The data collection programme is developed through a top-down approach, from the identification of the objectives down to the practical recording and management of data obtained from the fishery...

  14. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo [University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Kwang Soon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages.

  15. Kokes Awards for the 21st NAM Meeting (San Francisco, CA, 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katz, Alex [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-08-31

    The PI in this project Alexander Katz, UC Berkeley (askatz@berkeley.edu), in conjunction with the Kokes Awards subcommittee and conference organizing committee, used DOE grant DE-FG-02-08ER15993 to partially offset costs of attending the 21st North American Catalysis Society in San Francisco, California, for 30 graduate students from the United States.

  16. Habitat et environnement urbain au Viet-Nam : Hanoi et Hô Chi ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    L'enquête a d'abord tenté d'identifier et de qualifier la pauvreté urbaine à Hanoi et à Hô Chi Minh-Ville. Elle est plus diffuse et moins reconnue à Hanoi; elle est concentrée sur les canaux à Hô Chi Minh-Ville où existe depuis longtemps une " culture de la pauvreté ". L'apport le plus important des recherches a été la mise en ...

  17. Economics of Nuclear Power Plant and the development of nuclear power in Viet Nam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thanh, Thuy Nguyen Thi; Song, JinHo; Ha, Kwang Soon

    2015-01-01

    There are many factors affecting the capital costs like: increased plant size, multiple unit construction, improved construct methods, increase the lifetime of plant and so on, and beside is technical to enhancing the safety for NPPs. For the question that whether building a NPP is really economic than other energy resources or not, we will find the answer by comparing the USD per kWh of different energy sources as: nuclear power, coal, oil, hydro natural energy sources. The situation of energy in Vietnam was also mentioned in this paper. Vietnam has an abundant natural resources likes: coal, gas, hydro power etc, but from year 2013 to now Vietnam facing of electricity shortage and to solve the problem, Vietnam Government has chosen nuclear power energy to achieve energy balance between the rate of energy consumption and the ability to energy supply. Eight units will be built in Vietnam and in October 2014 Vietnamese officials have chosen Rosatom's AES-2006 design with VVER-1200/v-491 reactors for country's first nuclear power plant at Ninh Thuan and a second plant should follow based on a partnership with Japan. In this paper, the breakdown of NPP costs is considered. All the costs for building a NPP includes: the investment costs are the largest components (about 60%), fuel costs (15%), O and M costs (25%) and external costs are lower than 1% of the kWh costs. The situation for energy in Vietnam was mentioned with increase annually by 5.5 %, and now the shortage electricity is the big problem in power section. The purpose of this report is to give a general picture to consider the cost of nuclear power. It includes all the costs for building a nuclear power plant like total capital investment costs, production costs, external costs in which the capital investment costs is the largest component of the kWh cost. Nuclear energy Power was chosen to deal with situation of diminishing resources shortages

  18. Culture and cooperation: cooperative learning in Asian Confucian heritage cultures. The case of Viet Nam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, P.M.

    2008-01-01

    The study is concerned with the influence of western educational approaches upon non-western societies and cultural groups. In applying western educational approaches, often a detailed consideration of its consequences to the culture and heritage of a non-western civilization is neglected. This is

  19. Tax Rates Effects on the Risk Level of Listed Viet Nam Wholesale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    will have budget to finance public expenditures but the income tax burden could reduce both demand and supply, as well as the output, jobs and compensation. Our calculations give the results of two betas: equity and asset beta which can be used in the CAPM model and in WACC formula to estimate cost of equity.

  20. SOME SOLUTIONS TO RESPOND CLIMATE CHANGE FOR THE MEKONG DELTA, VIET NAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades, the Mekong River Delta has suffered quite significant impacts of climate change. Fluctuations of weather elements and sea level rises have caused adverse changes, namely: the appearance of unusual high and low levels of annual floods, more and more intense storms, more severe droughts, forest fires, river erosion, cyclones, and tidal surges appear increasingly more dangerous. Traditional adaptation measures to the environmental conditions may be unsuitable in the context of climate change in the Mekong River Delta. This paper summarizes some of the new adaptation measures that scientists and policy planners have proposed for the area to cope with the negative impacts of climate change.

  1. Livelihood strategies under the constraints of climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most.......This chapter examines how vulnerability can be measured in quantitative terms. Households whose livelihoods are based on economic activities like acacia production and shrimp farming suffered the most....

  2. Le recul de la forêt au Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Un débat d'experts organisé par le CRDI s'attaque au mariage précoce lors du forum sur la condition des femmes à l'ONU. Des chercheurs appuyés par le CRDI parlent de leurs expériences au Comité sur les ONG lors du forum de la Commission de la condition de la femme. Voir davantageUn débat d'experts organisé par ...

  3. Võ k nam, a mõ k vam... / Nelli Kuznetsova

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kuznetsova, Nelli

    2008-01-01

    Vene Kunstnike Ühenduse 10. aastapäevale pühendatud kevadnäitus toimus Würthi galeriis ja Kohtla-Järve Linnagaleriis. Filmi näituste avamistest, eksponeeritud töödest ja aruteludest näidati Vene kultuurikeskuses. Slava Semerikovi, Anatoli Strahhovi ja Valeri Smirnovi maalidest. Vene Kunstnike Ühenduse tegemisi kommenteerib Valeri Smirnov

  4. Skoro nam pjatnadtsat. Mõ belõje i pushistõje? / Arvo Sirendi ; interv. Tatjana Opekina

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sirendi, Arvo, 1939-

    2006-01-01

    Põllumajandusdoktor, ERL-i liige vastab küsimustele, mis on seotud Eesti taasiseseisvumisega, toimunud muutustega maaelus ja põllumajanduses ning tervishoius viimasel viieteistkümnel aastal, Eesti-Vene suhetega

  5. Paet : "Nam ne vsjo ravno, kto investirujet v ER" / Aivar Reinap

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Reinap, Aivar, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Välisminister Urmas Paet viitas välispoliitika arutelul Riigikogus vajadusele kontrollida Vene välisinvesteeringute julgeolekuriske, seda peamiselt tundlikes valdkondades nagu energeetika ja infrastruktuurid

  6. Kak eto nam poljubitsa, ili Ljubov i nenavist Timofeja Sopoleva / Timofei Sopoljov ; interv. Boris Tuch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sopoljov, Timofei

    2006-01-01

    William Shakespeare'i "Kuidas teile meeldib", lavastaja Timofei Sopoljov, muusika autor helilooja Aleksei Shelõgin. Lavastaja meenutab ka oma teatriõpinguid lavastaja ja teatripedagoogi Andrei Gontsharovi käe all

  7. Alcohol Use and HIV Risk Behaviors among Rural Adolescents in Khanh Hoa Province Viet Nam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaljee, L. M.; Genberg, B. L.; Minh, T. T.; Tho, L. H.; Thoa, L. T. K.; Stanton, B.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that youth are consuming more alcohol and at younger ages than in the past. Data also indicate that alcohol consumption is associated with participation in other risk behaviors including aggression and sexual behaviors. As part of a randomized control effectiveness trial for an HIV prevention program, 480 Vietnamese youth (15-20…

  8. Characteristics of tuberculosis patients at intake in Cambodia, two provinces in China, and Viet Nam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoa, Nguyen B; Wei, Chen; Sokun, Chay

    2011-01-01

    The tuberculosis register is a critical data source for the information system of national tuberculosis control programs. From the information in the tuberculosis case register, it is possible to extend the standard analysis of age and sex characteristics among sputum smear-positive cases to all ...

  9. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Viet Nam. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Nguyen Ba; Long, Vu Van; Tam, Phan Thanh; Sinh, Nguyen Thi

    Vietnam started market reforms earlier than other countries in Southeast Asia and is used as a role model by the Asian Development Bank. Nevertheless, complicated bureaucracy and regional differences hinder improvements in financial management in education. The budgeting process, in particular, is cumbersome. This book presents a report of a…

  10. CASE STUDY: Viet Nam — Emphasis on people, not things, calms ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-15

    Dec 15, 2010 ... Aquaculture boom threatens livelihoods and the environment The unregulated expansion of aquaculture in a huge coastal lagoon was making it impossible for poor mobile fishers to make a living, and threatening the environment of the lagoon itself. With local government officials unable or unwilling to act, ...

  11. Nam et al., Afr J Tradit Complement Altern Med. (2018) 15 (1): 183 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-12-29

    , compared to that of 2- aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB, 100 µM), a known agonist of TRPV3. Conclusion: Our results suggest that PC and BC extracts have therapeutic potential to improve skin barrier abnormalities in ...

  12. Vietnamese Refugee. Orientation Handbook. (Nguoi Ti Nan Viet Nam. Sach Chi Dan.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC. Office of Family Assistance.

    This is a bilingual orientation handbook for Vietnamese refugees in the United States. The handbook provides information on refugee status, its legal definition and obligations. General information presented about the United States includes a description of the land, climate, people, government, and a list of national holidays. Living conditions…

  13. Livelihood strategies under climate change vulnerability in Quang Nam province, Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casse, Thorkil

    Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability......Analysis of the transformation of primary to plantation forest under risk of severe natural disasters in central Vietnam. The articles argues that the process could be seen as an example of government induced vulnerability...

  14. Samozvantsev nam ne nado, komandirom budu ja / Maksim Shmeljov, Aleksandr Tshaplõgin, Leivi Sher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Shmeljov, Maksim

    2007-01-01

    Kas Konstitutsioonipartei nimekirjas parlamendivalimistel kandideeriv Dmitri Linter ja tema kaaslased võivad kasutada liikumise Notshnoi dozor brändi ND omakasupüüdlikel eesmärkidel, küsivad autorid

  15. Karkasinių namų šiluminės izoliacijos savybių tyrimas

    OpenAIRE

    Gailiušis, Šarūnas

    2016-01-01

    In final master degree work I research thermal insulation characteristics for wooden frame house. The final master degree work consist three main parts. In the first one I explain the conception of wooden frame house and main thermal insulation used in wooden frame house are detailed in it. In the second part I analyze thermal insulations fire proof properties, density and the absorption of the water. In the third part I examine properties of three main thermal insulation brand companies: ...

  16. Viet Nam at the Crossroads: The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Interested readers will include government officials and policymakers in science and technology; academics, researchers, professors,and university students in development studies, policy studies, and Asian studies; public and private businesses involved, or interested in becoming involved, in the changing economy of Viet ...

  17. Uranium leaching and recovery from sandstone ores of Nong Son Basin (Viet Nam)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, H.T.; Le, Q.T.; Dinh, M.T.; Than, V.L.; Le, K.D.

    2002-01-01

    Sandstone ores containing uranium in Nong Son area were treated to recover uranium in the form of MDU. These ores are classified into 3 categories depending on the weathering degree, giving different chemical composition as shown. The amount of calcium carbonate (g CaCO 3 /100g of ore) reacted with HCI under different conditions of temperature and time shows that stirring method requires high acid consumption. The results obtained from static leaching of the 3 ore categories shows that leaching efficiency largely depends on the weathering degree and particle size of ore. The lowest leaching efficiency was observed for non-weathered ore. In order to increase uranium extraction this ore was ground to the size of max. 2.5mm, and then incubated by 40% H 2 SO 4 for 48 hours with the addition of KCIO 3 (3 kg/tone of ore) as oxidant. The results of acid pugging showed that uranium extraction efficiency reached min. 92%. The proposed flow-sheet for obtaining yellowcake is presented. The leaching experiments were carried out under the following conditions: Particle size of ore: Weathered: max. 30mm, Semi-weathered: max. 10mm, Non-weathered: max. 2.5mm (incubated by 40% H 2 SO 4 ); Temperature 25-30 deg. C; Redox potential; pH1, acid consumption: 40-50 kg/ore tone. Leaching efficiency reached 90%. Uranium concentration in the solution after 8-stage counter-current leaching was min. 4 g/L, uranium content in solid waste 0.01%. Leaching solution was filtered and directly neutralized through two stages to precipitate yellowcake. Experimental data showed that the uranium recovery reached 90%. Yellowcake product met the relevant specifications and had U 3 O 8 content of minimum 76%

  18. Globos namų auklėtinių adaptacijos mokykloje ypatumai

    OpenAIRE

    Samašonok, Kristina; Gudonis, Vytautas; Žukauskienė, Rita

    2005-01-01

    Factors determining undesirable adaptation of children living in foster homes, such as unfavourable conditions of self-development in the family, living conditions at foster homes, negative influence of school and peer groups are analysed in the paper. The research aims to determine the differences of evaluation levels of emotional problems, social status in the same age group and academic achievements of teenagers living in foster homes and teenagers living with both parents. Besides, the re...

  19. Health Costs Attributable to Smoking in Viet Nam | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The burden of disease caused by smoking, and the medical and social costs associated with it, are not well quantified in low- and middle income countries. This is largely due to less systematic maintenance of medical records, and death and disease registries, and lower levels of chronic care services than in higher income ...

  20. Viet Nam at the Crossroads : The Role of Science and Technology ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Le CRDI et l' ACDI ont répondu en confiant à une équipe de spécialistes une mission qui avait les objectifs suivants : évaluer l'impact que les politiques sur les sciences et la technologie en vigueur au Vietnam ont sur le développement économique et social du pays;. comparer l'expérience du Vietnam dans le domaine des ...

  1. Explaining tourists satisfaction and intention to revisit Nha Trang, Viet Nam

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Thi Ai Cam

    2011-01-01

    The first purpose of the thesis is to find how visitors evaluate the quality of different facets or attributes of a destination image of Nha Trang, how satisfied they are with Nha Trang, loyalty intention to revisit and willingness to recommend Nha Trang to others. The second is to investigate what “image” is most important to explain global satisfaction with visiting Nha Trang. The third is to investigate how perceived quality, satisfaction and other motivational or dismotivational factors ...

  2. Neoliberalizm polskich 'gender studies'. Czy to 'backlash' odbiera nam słuchaczki/słuchaczy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Duda

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available "Neoliberalism of Polish 'gender studies'. Is 'backlash' a reaction, which collects our students?" In this text I present today’s condition of Polish gender studies that are conducted as postgraduate studies. In most of the cities it is impossible to form groups of students. It is believed that “responsible” for this state are backlash and campaign called “gender ideology”. Unfortunately these problems with enrollment have appeared earlier. In my presentation I describe the neoliberal shape of chargeable postgraduate studies that are conducted in large cities. Joining these groups depends on economic factors and free time of the students. An important aspect is also practical dimension of gender studies – students should develop themselves and their abilities. In accordance with the guidelines of postgraduate studies students should improve their professional skills. There is also a problem with the language of information/promotion campaign, as we use it as an instrument to encourage people to take part in these group activities. The language very often uses capitalist and stereotypical concepts profit and investment in yourself. The presentation is the critical voice of lecturer, who was teaching gender studies in Warsaw and was participating in forming “genders” in Poznan and Szczecin.

  3. Radiation shielding structure for concrete structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Crack inducing members for inducing cracks in a predetermined manner are buried in a concrete structure. Namely, a crack-inducing member comprises integrally a shielding plate and extended plates situated at the center of a wall and inducing plates vertically disposed to the boundary portion between them with the inducing plates being disposed each in a direction perforating the wall. There are disposed integrally a pair of the inducing plate spaced at a predetermined horizontal distance on both sides of the shielding plate so as to form a substantially crank-shaped cross section and extended plates formed in the extending direction of the shielding plate, and the inducing plates are disposed each in a direction perforating the wall. Then, cracks generated when stresses are exerted can be controlled, and generation of cracks passing through the concrete structure can be prevented reliably. The reliability of a radiation shielding effect can be enhanced remarkably. (N.H.)

  4. Acemetacin cocrystals and salts: structure solution from powder X-ray data and form selection of the piperazine salt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palash Sanphui

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Acemetacin (ACM is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID, which causes reduced gastric damage compared with indomethacin. However, acemetacin has a tendency to form a less soluble hydrate in the aqueous medium. We noted difficulties in the preparation of cocrystals and salts of acemetacin by mechanochemical methods, because this drug tends to form a hydrate during any kind of solution-based processing. With the objective to discover a solid form of acemetacin that is stable in the aqueous medium, binary adducts were prepared by the melt method to avoid hydration. The coformers/salt formers reported are pyridine carboxamides [nicotinamide (NAM, isonicotinamide (INA, and picolinamide (PAM], caprolactam (CPR, p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA, and piperazine (PPZ. The structures of an ACM–INA cocrystal and a binary adduct ACM–PABA were solved using single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Other ACM cocrystals, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR, and the piperazine salt ACM–PPZ were solved from high-resolution powder X-ray diffraction data. The ACM–INA cocrystal is sustained by the acid...pyridine heterosynthon and N—H...O catemer hydrogen bonds involving the amide group. The acid...amide heterosynthon is present in the ACM–PAM cocrystal, while ACM–CPR contains carboxamide dimers of caprolactam along with acid–carbonyl (ACM hydrogen bonds. The cocrystals ACM–INA, ACM–PAM and ACM–CPR are three-dimensional isostructural. The carboxyl...carboxyl synthon in ACM–PABA posed difficulty in assigning the position of the H atom, which may indicate proton disorder. In terms of stability, the salts were found to be relatively stable in pH 7 buffer medium over 24 h, but the cocrystals dissociated to give ACM hydrate during the same time period. The ACM–PPZ salt and ACM–nicotinamide cocrystal dissolve five times faster than the stable hydrate form, whereas the ACM–PABA adduct has 2.5 times faster dissolution rate. The pharmaceutically acceptable

  5. Languages for structural calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, J.B.; Chambon, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    The differences between human and computing languages are recalled. It is argued that they are to some extent structured in antagonistic ways. Languages in structural calculation, in the past, present, and future, are considered. The contribution of artificial intelligence is stressed [fr

  6. Buckling of Ship Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Shama, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Buckling of Ship Structures presents a comprehensive analysis of the buckling problem of ship structural members. A full analysis of the various types of loadings and stresses imposed on ship plating and primary and secondary structural members is given. The main causes and consequences of the buckling mode of failure of ship structure and the methods commonly used to control buckling failure are clarified. This book contains the main equations required to determine the critical buckling stresses for both ship plating and the primary and secondary stiffening structural members. The critical buckling stresses are given for ship plating subjected to the induced various types of loadings and having the most common boundary conditions encountered in ship structures.  The text bridges the gap existing in most books covering the subject of buckling of ship structures in the classical analytical format, by putting the emphasis on the practical methods required to ensure safety against buckling of ship structur...

  7. Sub-structure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sub-structure generally refers to those components of the building that are constructed below ground, although there are circumstances when sub-structure can also include components above ground such as supporting columns on steeply sloping ground...

  8. Photonic band structure computations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermann, D; Frank, M; Busch, K; Wolfle, P

    2001-01-29

    We introduce a novel algorithm for band structure computations based on multigrid methods. In addition, we demonstrate how the results of these band structure calculations may be used to compute group velocities and effective photon masses. The results are of direct relevance to studies of pulse propagation in such materials.

  9. Structural Dynamics, Vol. 9

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren R.K.

    This book has been prepared for the course on Computational Dynamics given at the 8th semester at the structural program in civil engineering at Aalborg University.......This book has been prepared for the course on Computational Dynamics given at the 8th semester at the structural program in civil engineering at Aalborg University....

  10. Robustness of structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrouwenvelder, T.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2009-01-01

    robustness is still an issue of controversy and poses difficulties in regard to interpretation as well as regulation. Typically modern structural design codes require that ‘the consequence of damages to structures should not be disproportional to the causes of the damages'. However, despite the importance...

  11. The Dividend Term Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragt, Jac; de Jong, Frank; Driessen, Joost

    Dividend derivatives contain information about the expectations that investors have of stock dividends. We employ a state space model to estimate a term structure of discounted risk adjusted dividend growth enclosed in dividend derivative prices. A two state model of the term structure capturing

  12. Hierarchical Porous Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.

  13. Freedom, structure, and creativity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietzschel, Eric; Reiter-Palmon, Roni; Kaufman, James

    2018-01-01

    Creativity is commonly thought to depend on freedom and a lack of constraints. While this is true to a large extent, it neglects the creative potential of structure and constraints. In this chapter, I will address the relation between freedom, structure, and creativity. I will explain that freedom,

  14. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  15. Structural Precast Concrete Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly.......Structural concept for precast concrete systems. Design og precast reinforced concrete components. Design of precast concrete connections. Illustrations on design of precast concrete buildings. Precast concrete assembly....

  16. Describing migration spatial structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, A; Willekens, F; Little, J; Raymer, J

    The age structure of a population is a fundamental concept in demography and is generally depicted in the form of an age pyramid. The spatial structure of an interregional system of origin-destination-specific migration streams is, however, a notion lacking a widely accepted definition. We offer a

  17. Structural and Material Instability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes

    This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...

  18. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.; Soetens, F.

    2005-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  19. Fire exposed aluminium structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maljaars, J.; Fellinger, J.H.H.; Soetens, F.

    2006-01-01

    Material properties and mechanical response models for fire design of steel structures are based on extensive research and experience. Contrarily, the behaviour of aluminium load bearing structures exposed to fire is relatively unexplored. This article gives an overview of physical and mechanical

  20. Homogeneous Poisson structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafei Deh Abad, A.; Malek, F.

    1993-09-01

    We provide an algebraic definition for Schouten product and give a decomposition for any homogenenous Poisson structure in any n-dimensional vector space. A large class of n-homogeneous Poisson structures in R k is also characterized. (author). 4 refs

  1. Organisational Structure & Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Structural change is seen as a way to meet the challenges of the future that face many organisations. While some writers agree that broad-ranging structural change may not always transform an organisation or enhance its performance, others claim that innovation will be a major source of competitive advantage to organisations, particularly when…

  2. Wave scour around structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    This review (of scour around marine structures) is organized in seven main sections: Basic concepts; Tunnel erosion; Two- and three-dimensional scour around pipelines; Scour around piles (slender bodies), including pile groups; Scour around complex structures; Scour around large, vertical cylinde...

  3. Nonlinear Structural Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This special issue of Sadhana is a collection of five papers selected from those presented at the Eighth National Seminar on Aerospace Structures (8th NASAS) organised by and held at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai, on 9±10 October 1998. The Structures Panel of the Aeronautics Research and ...

  4. Structure sensitivity in adsorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Bjørk; Nielsen, Ole Holm; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    1997-01-01

    The structure sensitivity of CO adsorption on different flat, stepped, kinked and reconstructed Pt surfaces is studied using large-scale density-functional calculations. We find an extremely strong structure sensitivity in the adsorption energy with variations up to 1 eV (or 100%) from one...

  5. Structure of simple liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blain, J.F.

    1969-01-01

    The results obtained by application to argon and sodium of the two important methods of studying the structure of liquids: scattering of X-rays and neutrons, are presented on one hand. On the other hand the principal models employed for reconstituting the structure of simple liquids are exposed: mathematical models, lattice models and their derived models, experimental models. (author) [fr

  6. Tapered structure construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eric D.; Takata, Rosalind K.; Slocum, Alexander H.; Nayfeh, Samir A.

    2016-04-05

    Feeding stock used to form a tapered structure into a curving device such that each point on the stock undergoes rotational motion about a peak location of the tapered structure; and the stock meets a predecessor portion of stock along one or more adjacent edges.

  7. The Cambridge Structural Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groom, Colin R; Bruno, Ian J; Lightfoot, Matthew P; Ward, Suzanna C

    2016-04-01

    The Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) contains a complete record of all published organic and metal-organic small-molecule crystal structures. The database has been in operation for over 50 years and continues to be the primary means of sharing structural chemistry data and knowledge across disciplines. As well as structures that are made public to support scientific articles, it includes many structures published directly as CSD Communications. All structures are processed both computationally and by expert structural chemistry editors prior to entering the database. A key component of this processing is the reliable association of the chemical identity of the structure studied with the experimental data. This important step helps ensure that data is widely discoverable and readily reusable. Content is further enriched through selective inclusion of additional experimental data. Entries are available to anyone through free CSD community web services. Linking services developed and maintained by the CCDC, combined with the use of standard identifiers, facilitate discovery from other resources. Data can also be accessed through CCDC and third party software applications and through an application programming interface.

  8. Elements of structural optimization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Haftka, Raphael T; Gürdal, Zafer

    1992-01-01

    ... formulations; computational mechanics; statics, kinematics and dynamics of rigid and elastic bodies; vibrations of solids and structures; dynamical systems and chaos; the theories of elasticity, plasticity and viscoelasticity; composite materials; rods, beams, shells and membranes; structural control and stability; soils, rocks and geomechanic...

  9. Wind Loads on Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrbye, Claes; Hansen, Svend Ole

    Wind loads have to be taken into account when designing civil engineering structures. The wind load on structures can be systematised by means of the wind load chain: wind climate (global), terrain (wind at low height), aerodynamic response (wind load to pressure), mechanical response (wind...... pressure to structural response) and design criteria. Starting with an introduction of the wind load chain, the book moves on to meteorological considerations, atmospheric boundary layer, static wind load, dynamic wind load and scaling laws used in wind-tunnel tests. The dynamic wind load covers vibrations...... induced by wind turbulence, vortex shedding, flutter and galloping. The book gives a comprehensive treatment of wind effects on structures and it will be useful for consulting engineers designing wind-sensitive structures. It will also be valuable for students of civil engineering as textbook...

  10. Nonlinear dynamics of structures

    CERN Document Server

    Oller, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    This book lays the foundation of knowledge that will allow a better understanding of nonlinear phenomena that occur in structural dynamics.   This work is intended for graduate engineering students who want to expand their knowledge on the dynamic behavior of structures, specifically in the nonlinear field, by presenting the basis of dynamic balance in non‐linear behavior structures due to the material and kinematics mechanical effects.   Particularly, this publication shows the solution of the equation of dynamic equilibrium for structure with nonlinear time‐independent materials (plasticity, damage and frequencies evolution), as well as those time dependent non‐linear behavior materials (viscoelasticity and viscoplasticity). The convergence conditions for the non‐linear dynamic structure solution  are studied, and the theoretical concepts and its programming algorithms are presented.  

  11. Ligands in PSI structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Abhinav; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Morse, Andrew; Elsliger, Marc-André; Wilson, Ian A.; Deacon, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    A survey of the types and frequency of ligands that are bound to PSI structures is analyzed as well as their utility in functional annotation of previously uncharacterized proteins. Approximately 65% of PSI structures report some type of ligand(s) that is bound in the crystal structure. Here, a description is given of how such ligands are handled and analyzed at the JCSG and a survey of the types, variety and frequency of ligands that are observed in the PSI structures is also compiled and analyzed, including illustrations of how these bound ligands have provided functional clues for annotation of proteins with little or no previous experimental characterization. Furthermore, a web server was developed as a tool to mine and analyze the PSI structures for bound ligands and other identifying features

  12. Regularized Structural Equation Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobucci, Ross; Grimm, Kevin J.; McArdle, John J.

    2016-01-01

    A new method is proposed that extends the use of regularization in both lasso and ridge regression to structural equation models. The method is termed regularized structural equation modeling (RegSEM). RegSEM penalizes specific parameters in structural equation models, with the goal of creating easier to understand and simpler models. Although regularization has gained wide adoption in regression, very little has transferred to models with latent variables. By adding penalties to specific parameters in a structural equation model, researchers have a high level of flexibility in reducing model complexity, overcoming poor fitting models, and the creation of models that are more likely to generalize to new samples. The proposed method was evaluated through a simulation study, two illustrative examples involving a measurement model, and one empirical example involving the structural part of the model to demonstrate RegSEM’s utility. PMID:27398019

  13. Structural dynamics in FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.

    2003-01-01

    In view of thin walled large diameter shell structures with associated fluid effects, structural dynamics problems are very critical in a fast breeder reactor. Structural characteristics and consequent structural dynamics problems in typical pool type Fast Breeder Reactor are highlighted. A few important structural dynamics problems are pump induced as well as flow induced vibrations, seismic excitations, pressure transients in the intermediate heat exchangers and pipings due to a large sodium water reaction in the steam generator, and core disruptive accident loadings. The vibration problems which call for identification of excitation forces, formulation of special governing equations and detailed analysis with fluid structure interaction and sloshing effects, particularly for the components such as PSP, inner vessel, CP, CSRDM and TB are elaborated. Seismic design issues are presented in a comprehensive way. Other transient loadings which are specific to FBR, resulting from sodium-water reaction and core disruptive accident are highlighted. A few important results of theoretical as well as experimental works carried out for 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), in the domain of structural dynamics are presented. (author)

  14. Fundamentals of Structural Geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, David D.; Fletcher, Raymond C.

    2005-09-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Geology provides a new framework for the investigation of geological structures by integrating field mapping and mechanical analysis. Assuming a basic knowledge of physical geology, introductory calculus and physics, it emphasizes the observational data, modern mapping technology, principles of continuum mechanics, and the mathematical and computational skills, necessary to quantitatively map, describe, model, and explain deformation in Earth's lithosphere. By starting from the fundamental conservation laws of mass and momentum, the constitutive laws of material behavior, and the kinematic relationships for strain and rate of deformation, the authors demonstrate the relevance of solid and fluid mechanics to structural geology. This book offers a modern quantitative approach to structural geology for advanced students and researchers in structural geology and tectonics. It is supported by a website hosting images from the book, additional colour images, student exercises and MATLAB scripts. Solutions to the exercises are available to instructors. The book integrates field mapping using modern technology with the analysis of structures based on a complete mechanics MATLAB is used to visualize physical fields and analytical results and MATLAB scripts can be downloaded from the website to recreate textbook graphics and enable students to explore their choice of parameters and boundary conditions The supplementary website hosts color images of outcrop photographs used in the text, supplementary color images, and images of textbook figures for classroom presentations The textbook website also includes student exercises designed to instill the fundamental relationships, and to encourage the visualization of the evolution of geological structures; solutions are available to instructors

  15. Cell packing structures

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2015-03-03

    This paper is an overview of architectural structures which are either composed of polyhedral cells or closely related to them. We introduce the concept of a support structure of such a polyhedral cell packing. It is formed by planar quads and obtained by connecting corresponding vertices in two combinatorially equivalent meshes whose corresponding edges are coplanar and thus determine planar quads. Since corresponding triangle meshes only yield trivial structures, we focus on support structures associated with quad meshes or hex-dominant meshes. For the quadrilateral case, we provide a short survey of recent research which reveals beautiful relations to discrete differential geometry. Those are essential for successfully initializing numerical optimization schemes for the computation of quad-based support structures. Hex-dominant structures may be designed via Voronoi tessellations, power diagrams, sphere packings and various extensions of these concepts. Apart from the obvious application as load-bearing structures, we illustrate here a new application to shading and indirect lighting. On a higher level, our work emphasizes the interplay between geometry, optimization, statics, and manufacturing, with the overall aim of combining form, function and fabrication into novel integrated design tools.

  16. Urban structures and substructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mierzejewska Lidia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In urban geography, a traditional but always important research problem has been the spatial-functional structure of towns and changes that occur in this field. Two approaches can be distinguished here: the sociological and the geographical. The former follows in the steps of the so-called Chicago school, i.e. Park, Burgess and Hoyt, and the other of Ullman and Harris. It seems, however, that those two approaches do not exhaust the range of spatial-structural studies which may be conducted in modern towns since there are areas within them endowed with specific properties that can be called their substructures. This paper will present the general characteristics of such substructures and identify factors responsible for their appearance and development. It will also propose an empirical research pattern. The term ‘substructures’ is taken to denote relatively autonomous, highly uniform wholes standing out in the spatial-functional structure of a town, distinguished on the basis of spatial relations generated by people. While structural elements of towns in the approach of the Chicago school or that of Harris and Ullman can be identified with structural regions, urban substructures show a similarity to functional regions in their organisation, structure and operation. Thus, towns with identified substructures have a polycentric spatial- functional structure, favourable in terms of both the level of service of their inhabitants and their sustainable development.

  17. Selective structural source identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    In the field of acoustic source reconstruction, the inverse Patch Transfer Function (iPTF) has been recently proposed and has shown satisfactory results whatever the shape of the vibrating surface and whatever the acoustic environment. These two interesting features are due to the virtual acoustic volume concept underlying the iPTF methods. The aim of the present article is to show how this concept of virtual subsystem can be used in structures to reconstruct the applied force distribution. Some virtual boundary conditions can be applied on a part of the structure, called virtual testing structure, to identify the force distribution applied in that zone regardless of the presence of other sources outside the zone under consideration. In the present article, the applicability of the method is only demonstrated on planar structures. However, the final example show how the method can be applied to a complex shape planar structure with point welded stiffeners even in the tested zone. In that case, if the virtual testing structure includes the stiffeners the identified force distribution only exhibits the positions of external applied forces. If the virtual testing structure does not include the stiffeners, the identified force distribution permits to localize the forces due to the coupling between the structure and the stiffeners through the welded points as well as the ones due to the external forces. This is why this approach is considered here as a selective structural source identification method. It is demonstrated that this approach clearly falls in the same framework as the Force Analysis Technique, the Virtual Fields Method or the 2D spatial Fourier transform. Even if this approach has a lot in common with these latters, it has some interesting particularities like its low sensitivity to measurement noise.

  18. Kernels for structured data

    CERN Document Server

    Gärtner, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    This book provides a unique treatment of an important area of machine learning and answers the question of how kernel methods can be applied to structured data. Kernel methods are a class of state-of-the-art learning algorithms that exhibit excellent learning results in several application domains. Originally, kernel methods were developed with data in mind that can easily be embedded in a Euclidean vector space. Much real-world data does not have this property but is inherently structured. An example of such data, often consulted in the book, is the (2D) graph structure of molecules formed by

  19. Multiplicative Galois module structure

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, A

    1996-01-01

    This book is the result of a short course on the Galois structure of S-units that was given at The Fields Institute in the fall of 1993. Offering a new angle on an old problem, the main theme is that this structure should be determined by class field theory, in its cohomological form, and by the behavior of Artin L-functions at s=0. A proof of this-or even a precise formulation-is still far away, but the available evidence all points in this direction. The work brings together the current evidence that the Galois structure of S-units can be described.

  20. Structural Reliability Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Madsen, H. O.

    of structural reliability, including the theoretical basis for these methods. Partial safety factor codes under current practice are briefly introduced and discussed. A probabilistic code format for obtaining a formal reliability evaluation system that catches the most essential features of the nature......The structural reliability methods quantitatively treat the uncertainty of predicting the behaviour and properties of a structure given the uncertain properties of its geometry, materials, and the actions it is supposed to withstand. This book addresses the probabilistic methods for evaluation...

  1. Product Structuring, an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tichem, Marcel; Storm, Ton; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of two WDK Workshops on Product Structuring. Product structuring plays an important role in creating products which have good functional and life-cycle related properties, in design process management, and in several other company functions like production control.......In the paper, the field of product structuring is defined and broken down into topics. For each of the topics, results of research are presented. Issues for further research are identified. The references in the paper refer to papers in the proceedings of the workshops....

  2. Structural patterns in nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2003-01-01

    It seemens that some very basic randomly produced geometric/topological patterns are commonly found in Nature and have often very distinctive structural qualities. In Nature we find the same pattern in all scales from the universe to molecules, from solar systems to packing of cells, from glaciers...... to sea shells, from river systems to trees etc. Sometimes this seeming archetypical morphology involve structrual action and sometimes not-but the fact that it often posses efficient structural action opens a tool for evaluation and analysis of structures in nature and at the same time might...

  3. Programming language structures

    CERN Document Server

    Organick, Elliott Irving; Plummer, Robert P

    1978-01-01

    Programming Language Structures deals with the structures of programming languages and introduces the reader to five important programming languages: Algol, Fortran, Lisp, Snobol, and Pascal. The fundamental similarities and differences among these languages are discussed. A unifying framework is constructed that can be used to study the structure of other languages, such as Cobol, PL/I, and APL. Several of the tools and methodologies needed to construct large programs are also considered.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with a summary of the relevant concepts and principles about al

  4. Chromatin Structure and Function

    CERN Document Server

    Wolffe, Alan P

    1999-01-01

    The Third Edition of Chromatin: Structure and Function brings the reader up-to-date with the remarkable progress in chromatin research over the past three years. It has been extensively rewritten to cover new material on chromatin remodeling, histone modification, nuclear compartmentalization, DNA methylation, and transcriptional co-activators and co-repressors. The book is written in a clear and concise fashion, with 60 new illustrations. Chromatin: Structure and Function provides the reader with a concise and coherent account of the nature, structure, and assembly of chromatin and its active

  5. Manipulating structured light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available stream_source_info Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 4579 Content-Encoding UTF-8 stream_name Dudley_2016a.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 10/10/2016 1 Manipulating Structured... The City College of New York, New York, USA 5 July 2016 We are tied together by Structured Light Classical Quantum Resonators TweezingFibres Structured Light 10/10/2016 2 Bright Dark Reference beam Hologram Object Light reflected from object Conventional...

  6. Structures and their analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, Maurice Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Addressing structures, this book presents a classic discipline in a modern setting by combining illustrated examples with insights into the solutions. It is the fruit of the author’s many years of teaching the subject and of just as many years of research into the design of optimal structures. Although intended for an advanced level of instruction it has an undergraduate course at its core. Further, the book was written with the advantage of having massive computer power in the background, an aspect which changes the entire approach to many engineering disciplines and in particular to structures. This paradigm shift has dislodged the force (flexibility) method from its former prominence and paved the way for the displacement (stiffness) method, despite the multitude of linear equations it spawns. In this book, however, both methods are taught: the force method offers a perfect vehicle for understanding structural behavior, bearing in mind that it is the displacement method which does the heavy number crunch...

  7. Verification of ceramic structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behar-Lafenetre, S.; Cornillon, L.; Rancurel, M.; Graaf, D. de; Hartmann, P.; Coe, G.; Laine, B.

    2012-01-01

    In the framework of the "Mechanical Design and Verification Methodologies for Ceramic Structures" contract [1] awarded by ESA, Thales Alenia Space has investigated literature and practices in affiliated industries to propose a methodological guideline for verification of ceramic spacecraft and

  8. Introduction to structure functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiecinski, J.

    1996-07-01

    The theory of deep inelastic scattering structure functions is reviewed with an emphasis put on the QCD expectations of their behaviour in the region of small values of Bjorken parameter x. (author). 56 refs

  9. Sensemaking, structuring and strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Renate

    With the purpose of generating a new understanding of how organisations develop, an interpretive perspective at continuous processes in organisations will be applied: more specifically at sensemaking, structuring and strategising....

  10. Extremely deformable structures

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new research stimulus has derived from the observation that soft structures, such as biological systems, but also rubber and gel, may work in a post critical regime, where elastic elements are subject to extreme deformations, though still exhibiting excellent mechanical performances. This is the realm of ‘extreme mechanics’, to which this book is addressed. The possibility of exploiting highly deformable structures opens new and unexpected technological possibilities. In particular, the challenge is the design of deformable and bi-stable mechanisms which can reach superior mechanical performances and can have a strong impact on several high-tech applications, including stretchable electronics, nanotube serpentines, deployable structures for aerospace engineering, cable deployment in the ocean, but also sensors and flexible actuators and vibration absorbers. Readers are introduced to a variety of interrelated topics involving the mechanics of extremely deformable structures, with emphasis on ...

  11. Textures and ores structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author made conclusion that structural-texture particularities reflect the physical and chemical conditions, velocity of minerals crystallization, further tectonic situation, presence appearances of meta-somatic substitution, second decomposition and minerals leaching

  12. Fundamentals of Structural Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome J

    2013-01-01

    Fundamentals of Structural Engineering provides a balanced, seamless treatment of both classic, analytic methods and contemporary, computer-based techniques for conceptualizing and designing a structure. The book’s principle goal is to foster an intuitive understanding of structural behavior based on problem solving experience for students of civil engineering and architecture who have been exposed to the basic concepts of engineering mechanics and mechanics of materials. Making it distinct from many other undergraduate textbooks, the authors of this text recognize the notion that engineers reason about behavior using simple models and intuition they acquire through problem solving. The approach adopted in this text develops this type of intuition  by presenting extensive, realistic problems and case studies together with computer simulation, which allows rapid exploration of  how a structure responds to changes in geometry and physical parameters. This book also: Emphasizes problem-based understanding of...

  13. STRUCTURE OF ECONOMIC MECHANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Podderegina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers and analyzes scientific approaches of economists to the essence and contents of the economic mechanism. Proposals for methodological formation of economic mechanism structure are substantiated in the paper.

  14. Territorial Administrative Budgetary Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Risti

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Local budget structure is a consequence of the way the country’s venues are organized from the territorial administrative point of view, in communes, towns, municipalities and the capital, Bucharest, in districts.

  15. Bioinspired structured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    2012-01-24

    Nature has evolved objects with desired functionality using commonly found materials. Nature capitalizes on hierarchical structures to achieve functionality. The understanding of the functions provided by objects and processes found in nature can guide us to produce nanomaterials, nanodevices, and processes with desirable functionality. Various natural objects which provide functionality of commercial interest have been characterized to understand how a natural object provides functionality. We have modeled and fabricated structures in the lab using nature's route and developed optimum structures. Once it is understood how nature does it, optimum structures have been fabricated using smart materials and fabrication techniques. This feature article provides an overview of four topics: Lotus effect, rose petal effect, gecko feet, and shark skin.

  16. Modeling Structural Brain Connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambrosen, Karen Marie Sandø

    The human brain consists of a gigantic complex network of interconnected neurons. Together all these connections determine who we are, how we react and how we interpret the world. Knowledge about how the brain is connected can further our understanding of the brain’s structural organization, help...... improve diagnosis, and potentially allow better treatment of a wide range of neurological disorders. Tractography based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging is a unique tool to estimate this “structural connectivity” of the brain non-invasively and in vivo. During the last decade, brain connectivity...... has increasingly been analyzed using graph theoretic measures adopted from network science and this characterization of the brain’s structural connectivity has been shown to be useful for the classification of populations, such as healthy and diseased subjects. The structural connectivity of the brain...

  17. Structural Identification Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvorov Aleksei

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The identification problem of the existing structures though the Quasi-Newton and its modification, Trust region algorithms is discussed. For the structural problems, which could be represented by means of the mathematical modelling of the finite element code discussed method is extremely useful. The nonlinear minimization problem of the L2 norm for the structures with linear elastic behaviour is solved by using of the Optimization Toolbox of Matlab. The direct and inverse procedures for the composition of the desired function to minimize are illustrated for the spatial 3D truss structure as well as for the problem of plane finite elements. The truss identification problem is solved with 2 and 3 unknown parameters in order to compare the computational efforts and for the graphical purposes. The particular commands of the Matlab codes are present in this paper.

  18. Modeling Fluid Structure Interaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Benaroya, Haym

    2000-01-01

    The principal goal of this program is on integrating experiments with analytical modeling to develop physics-based reduced-order analytical models of nonlinear fluid-structure interactions in articulated naval platforms...

  19. Transparent Armor Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rene G

    2004-01-01

    ... of tempered silica glass bonded to form a laminated bullet resisting structure and also having a bracket member adapted to hold a second transparent spall resisting layer parallel to and slightly spaced...

  20. Neutron structural biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimura, Nobuo

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen atoms and water molecules around proteins and nucleic acids play a crucial role in many physiological functions. Neutron diffraction provides an experimental method of directly locating hydrogen atoms. (a) Since almost all the H atom positions can be identified experimentally, the geometrical details of certain types of H-bonds can be visualized and (b) as far as mechanistic implications are concerned, the identification of protonation and deprotonation states of certain important amino acid residues can be carried out. (c) The hydration structure around proteins and the hydration networks around DNA oligomers have been successfully characterized in several outstanding cases. These will open the new field beyond the folding structure of bio-macromolecules such as: 1) Recognition of proteins and nucleic acids through the network structure of water molecules surrounding bio-macromolecules, and 2) The nature of chemical bond in proteins and nucleic acids elucidated by the accumulation of accurate structural information of hydrogen atoms. (author)

  1. Nature teaching structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture

    2002-01-01

    -living nature a number of striking statical and kinematical peculiarities have been observed. The paper will try to isolate and describe some of these observations and their relation to our engineered structures based on human thinking. The paper will deal with basic aspects as geometry, topology, redundancy...... and rare piece of fine architecture - or a common organism in Nature. That is why Nature makes an excellent object for architectural students to study structures from a conceptual and a morphological point of view. And that is why Nature - who has developed her structural systems by trial-and-error through...... millions of years - acts as an excellent teacher of these topics. At the same time, the idiom of Nature seems to possess a considerable attraction for students and is able to convey inspiration and imagination to the creative process of shaping architectural structures. In our surrounding living and non...

  2. Robustness of Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canisius, T.D.G.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Baker, J.W.

    2007-01-01

    The importance of robustness as a property of structural systems has been recognised following several structural failures, such as that at Ronan Point in 1968,where the consequenceswere deemed unacceptable relative to the initiating damage. A variety of research efforts in the past decades have ...... will be proposed. The document adopts a probabilistic risk assessment framework and includes guidance for decision-making related to robustness....... attempted to quantify aspects of robustness such as redundancy and identify design principles that can improve robustness. This paper outlines the progress of recent work by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety (JCSS) to develop comprehensive guidance on assessing and providing robustness in structural...... systems. Guidance is provided regarding the assessment of robustness in a framework that considers potential hazards to the system, vulnerability of system components, and failure consequences. Several proposed methods for quantifying robustness are reviewed, and guidelines for robust design...

  3. Grounding of space structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosela, P. A.; Fertis, D. G.; Shaker, F. J.

    1992-01-01

    Space structures, such as the Space Station solar arrays, must be extremely light-weight, flexible structures. Accurate prediction of the natural frequencies and mode shapes is essential for determining the structural adequacy of components, and designing a controls system. The tension pre-load in the 'blanket' of photovoltaic solar collectors, and the free/free boundary conditions of a structure in space, causes serious reservations on the use of standard finite element techniques of solution. In particular, a phenomenon known as 'grounding', or false stiffening, of the stiffness matrix occurs during rigid body rotation. This paper examines the grounding phenomenon in detail. Numerous stiffness matrices developed by others are examined for rigid body rotation capability, and found lacking. A force imbalance inherent in the formulations examined is the likely cause of the grounding problem, suggesting the need for a directed force formulation.

  4. Silicon Carbide Printed Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The plan is to design a process that will allow precision fabrication of SiC structures using a sterolithographty printer and an oven process to sinter the material...

  5. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  6. Unequal by Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Lotte

    2018-01-01

    This article applies classical concepts of organizational structure and extends them to contemporary challenges of diversity to explore why unequal opportunity structures persist in an organization despite its commitment to diversity and employing highly skilled ethnic minority employees. Based...... on a study of the team-based municipal center CityBiz, the article inquires as to how inequality is embedded in two structural features: first, the differentiation of roles accelerates in response to continuous change, which results in similar workers being attracted to collaborating with one another, which...... generates inequality. Second, inequality is sustained by inadequate integration methods that merge a formal–informal hierarchy, which results in peer competition and majority elites. The structural approach to organizational diversity developed in this article nuances the current research on diversity...

  7. Earth retaining structures manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-29

    The objectives of this policy are to obtain statewide uniformity, establish standard : procedures and delineate responsibility for the preparation and review of plans, : design and construction control of earth retaining structures. In addition, it i...

  8. Differential geometric structures

    CERN Document Server

    Poor, Walter A

    2007-01-01

    This introductory text defines geometric structure by specifying parallel transport in an appropriate fiber bundle and focusing on simplest cases of linear parallel transport in a vector bundle. 1981 edition.

  9. Capital Structure Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart C. Myers

    1984-01-01

    This paper contrasts the "static tradeoff" and "pecking order" theories of capital structure choice by corporations. In the static tradeoff theory, optimal capital structure is reached when the tax advantage to borrowing is balanced, at the margin, by costs of financial distress. In the pecking order theory, firms preferinternal to external funds, and debt to equity if external funds are needed. Thus the debt ratio reflects the cumulative requirement for external financing. Pecking order beha...

  10. Renovation of Roof Structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbye, Per Oluf H

    1997-01-01

    A 30 year old not-watertight roof based on wooden boards with roofing felt have been changed to a pitched structure with cementos plates. At the same time more thermal insulation has been placed.......A 30 year old not-watertight roof based on wooden boards with roofing felt have been changed to a pitched structure with cementos plates. At the same time more thermal insulation has been placed....

  11. Adaptive structures flight experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Maurice

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: adaptive structures flight experiments; enhanced resolution using active vibration suppression; Advanced Controls Technology Experiment (ACTEX); ACTEX program status; ACTEX-2; ACTEX-2 program status; modular control patch; STRV-1b Cryocooler Vibration Suppression Experiment; STRV-1b program status; Precision Optical Bench Experiment (PROBE); Clementine Spacecraft Configuration; TECHSAT all-composite spacecraft; Inexpensive Structures and Materials Flight Experiment (INFLEX); and INFLEX program status.

  12. Phosphor scintillator structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cusano, D.A.; Prener, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    A method of fabricating scintillators is described in which the phosphor is distributed within the structure in such a way as to enhance the escape of the visible wavelength radiation that would otherwise be dissipated within the scintillator body. Two embodiments of the present invention are disclosed: one in which the phosphor is distributed in a layered structure and another in which the phosphor is dispersed throughout a transparent matrix. (U.K.)

  13. Structure of Silicon Clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Jun; Bahel, Atul; Ramakrishna, Mushti V.

    1995-01-01

    We determined the structures of silicon clusters in the 11-14 atom size range using the tight-binding molecular dynamics method. These calculations reveal that \\Si{11} is an icosahedron with one missing cap, \\Si{12} is a complete icosahedron, \\Si{13} is a surface capped icosahedron, and \\Si{14} is a 4-4-4 layer structure with two caps. The characteristic feature of these clusters is that they are all surface.

  14. Categories without structures

    OpenAIRE

    Rodin, Andrei

    2009-01-01

    The popular view according to which Category theory provides a support for Mathematical Structuralism is erroneous. Category-theoretic foundations of mathematics require a different philosophy of mathematics. While structural mathematics studies invariant forms (Awodey) categorical mathematics studies covariant transformations which, generally, don t have any invariants. In this paper I develop a non-structuralist interpretation of categorical mathematics and show its consequences for history...

  15. Patchworking Network Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    analyzes fourdifferent managerial strategies of how to create network structures to deal with theinterfaces between industry, university and public institutions. The research-orientedstrategy, the incubator strategy, the industrial-partnering strategy, and the policyorientedstrategy. The research......-oriented strategyfocuses on the problem of having products approved by the public authorities. The aimof the article is to demonstrate how SBFs over time develop network structures throughpatchwork-like activities, ongoing and overlapping activities, that serve as a blueprintfor the management...

  16. Purely Functional Structured Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Obua, Steven

    2010-01-01

    The idea of functional programming has played a big role in shaping today's landscape of mainstream programming languages. Another concept that dominates the current programming style is Dijkstra's structured programming. Both concepts have been successfully married, for example in the programming language Scala. This paper proposes how the same can be achieved for structured programming and PURELY functional programming via the notion of LINEAR SCOPE. One advantage of this proposal is that m...

  17. Nuclear structure studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walters, W.B.

    1992-01-01

    New results are reported for the decay and nuclear orientation of 114,116 I and 114 Sb as well as data for the structure of daughter nuclides 114,116 Te. New results for IBM-2 calculations for the structure of 126 Xe are also reported. A new approach to the problem of the underproduction of A = 120 nuclides in the astrophysical r-process is reported

  18. Trajectory grouping structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maike Buchin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The collective motion of a set of moving entities like people, birds, or other animals, is characterized by groups arising, merging, splitting, and ending. Given the trajectories of these entities, we define and model a structure that captures all of such changes using the Reeb graph, a concept from topology. The trajectory grouping structure has three natural parameters that allow more global views of the data in group size, group duration, and entity inter-distance. We prove complexity bounds on the maximum number of maximal groups that can be present, and give algorithms to compute the grouping structure efficiently. We also study how the trajectory grouping structure can be made robust, that is, how brief interruptions of groups can be disregarded in the global structure, adding a notion of persistence to the structure. Furthermore, we showcase the results of experiments using data generated by the NetLogo flocking model and from the Starkey project. The Starkey data describe the movement of elk, deer, and cattle. Although there is no ground truth for the grouping structure in this data, the experiments show that the trajectory grouping structure is plausible and has the desired effects when changing the essential parameters. Our research provides the first complete study of trajectory group evolvement, including combinatorial,algorithmic, and experimental results.

  19. Structures and semiotic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Somov, Georgij Yu

    2007-01-01

    A model of interrelations between various types of mentation and semiotic systems is suggested. The relations of structures, forms, and signs in different mentation processes and their effect on semiotic systems are discussed. Major features of these systems are examined from the viewpoint of simulation of changes in physical objects and human environment. Most are multilateral and are clearly structures of various systems. Their organizing role in semiotic systemity are evinced through the a...

  20. SSI and structural benchmarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philippacopoulos, A.J.; Miller, C.A.; Costantino, C.J.; Graves, H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the latest results of the ongoing program entitled, Standard Problems for Structural Computer Codes, currently being worked on at BNL for the USNRC, Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research. During FY 1986, efforts were focussed on three tasks, namely, (1) an investigation of ground water effects on the response of Category I structures, (2) the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop and (3) studies on structural benchmarks associated with Category I structures. The objective of the studies on ground water effects is to verify the applicability and the limitations of the SSI methods currently used by the industry in performing seismic evaluations of nuclear plants which are located at sites with high water tables. In a previous study by BNL (NUREG/CR-4588), it has been concluded that the pore water can influence significantly the soil-structure interaction process. This result, however, is based on the assumption of fully saturated soil profiles. Consequently, the work was further extended to include cases associated with variable water table depths. In this paper, results related to cut-off depths beyond which the pore water effects can be ignored in seismic calculations, are addressed. Comprehensive numerical data are given for soil configurations typical to those encountered in nuclear plant sites. These data were generated by using a modified version of the SLAM code which is capable of handling problems related to the dynamic response of saturated soils. Further, the paper presents some key aspects of the Soil-Structure Interaction Workshop (NUREG/CP-0054) which was held in Bethesda, MD on June 1, 1986. Finally, recent efforts related to the task on the structural benchmarks are described

  1. Structural prediction in aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Warren

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence that young healthy comprehenders predict the structure of upcoming material, and that their processing is facilitated when they encounter material matching those predictions (e.g., Staub & Clifton, 2006; Yoshida, Dickey & Sturt, 2013. However, less is known about structural prediction in aphasia. There is evidence that lexical prediction may be spared in aphasia (Dickey et al., 2014; Love & Webb, 1977; cf. Mack et al, 2013. However, predictive mechanisms supporting facilitated lexical access may not necessarily support structural facilitation. Given that many people with aphasia (PWA exhibit syntactic deficits (e.g. Goodglass, 1993, PWA with such impairments may not engage in structural prediction. However, recent evidence suggests that some PWA may indeed predict upcoming structure (Hanne, Burchert, De Bleser, & Vashishth, 2015. Hanne et al. tracked the eyes of PWA (n=8 with sentence-comprehension deficits while they listened to reversible subject-verb-object (SVO and object-verb-subject (OVS sentences in German, in a sentence-picture matching task. Hanne et al. manipulated case and number marking to disambiguate the sentences’ structure. Gazes to an OVS or SVO picture during the unfolding of a sentence were assumed to indicate prediction of the structure congruent with that picture. According to this measure, the PWA’s structural prediction was impaired compared to controls, but they did successfully predict upcoming structure when morphosyntactic cues were strong and unambiguous. Hanne et al.’s visual-world evidence is suggestive, but their forced-choice sentence-picture matching task places tight constraints on possible structural predictions. Clearer evidence of structural prediction would come from paradigms where the content of upcoming material is not as constrained. The current study used self-paced reading study to examine structural prediction among PWA in less constrained contexts. PWA (n=17 who

  2. Interactions among alcohol dependence, perinatal common mental disorders and violence in couples in rural Vietnam: a cross-sectional study using structural equation modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition that perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are prevalent in women in low and lower-middle income countries and emerging evidence that PCMDs and alcohol abuse occur in men in these settings. Domestic violence is associated with PCMDs in both women and men. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PCMDs, alcohol abuse and domestic violence in couples in a rural, low-income setting. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken in randomly selected communes in Ha Nam and Hanoi, Vietnam. All women in the selected study sites who were at least 28 weeks pregnant or were mothers of 4 – 6 week old babies in the recruitment period were eligible. The husbands of the women who consented to join the study were also invited to participate. Data sources were study-specific questions and standardised measures: PCMDs were assessed by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM IV disorders, and alcohol dependence (AD) by the CAGE questionnaire (cut-off of ≥ 2). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test direct, indirect and mutual relationships simultaneously in the hypothesised model. Results In total 364/392 (93%) eligible women agreed to participate. Of these, 360 were married, and 230 (64%) of their husbands also participated to yield a sample of 230 couples for analyses. Overall, in 7.4% (95% CI: 4.6-11.6) of couples both wife and husband were diagnosed with a PCMD; and 41.2% (95% CI: 35.1-47.8) of couples at least one member had a PCMD. Comorbid PCMD and AD were observed in 6.9% (95% CI: 4.3-11.0) of men, but did not occur in women. After controlling for other psychosocial risk factors comorbid PCMD and AD in husbands increased by 4.7 times the probability of PCMDS in their wives via intimate partner violence. PCMDS in wives did not increase the probability of PCMDS or AD in husbands. Conclusions These data provide evidence that comorbid PCMD and AD in

  3. Interactions among alcohol dependence, perinatal common mental disorders and violence in couples in rural Vietnam: a cross-sectional study using structural equation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thach Duc; Tran, Tuan; Wynter, Karen; Fisher, Jane

    2012-09-19

    There is increasing recognition that perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs) are prevalent in women in low and lower-middle income countries and emerging evidence that PCMDs and alcohol abuse occur in men in these settings. Domestic violence is associated with PCMDs in both women and men. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PCMDs, alcohol abuse and domestic violence in couples in a rural, low-income setting. A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken in randomly selected communes in Ha Nam and Hanoi, Vietnam. All women in the selected study sites who were at least 28 weeks pregnant or were mothers of 4 - 6 week old babies in the recruitment period were eligible. The husbands of the women who consented to join the study were also invited to participate. Data sources were study-specific questions and standardised measures: PCMDs were assessed by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM IV disorders, and alcohol dependence (AD) by the CAGE questionnaire (cut-off of ≥ 2). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test direct, indirect and mutual relationships simultaneously in the hypothesised model. In total 364/392 (93%) eligible women agreed to participate. Of these, 360 were married, and 230 (64%) of their husbands also participated to yield a sample of 230 couples for analyses. Overall, in 7.4% (95% CI: 4.6-11.6) of couples both wife and husband were diagnosed with a PCMD; and 41.2% (95% CI: 35.1-47.8) of couples at least one member had a PCMD. Comorbid PCMD and AD were observed in 6.9% (95% CI: 4.3-11.0) of men, but did not occur in women. After controlling for other psychosocial risk factors comorbid PCMD and AD in husbands increased by 4.7 times the probability of PCMDS in their wives via intimate partner violence. PCMDS in wives did not increase the probability of PCMDS or AD in husbands. These data provide evidence that comorbid PCMD and AD in husbands have a significant adverse effect on

  4. Interactions among alcohol dependence, perinatal common mental disorders and violence in couples in rural Vietnam: a cross-sectional study using structural equation modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Thach

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing recognition that perinatal common mental disorders (PCMDs are prevalent in women in low and lower-middle income countries and emerging evidence that PCMDs and alcohol abuse occur in men in these settings. Domestic violence is associated with PCMDs in both women and men. The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among PCMDs, alcohol abuse and domestic violence in couples in a rural, low-income setting. Methods A cross-sectional, population-based study was undertaken in randomly selected communes in Ha Nam and Hanoi, Vietnam. All women in the selected study sites who were at least 28 weeks pregnant or were mothers of 4 – 6 week old babies in the recruitment period were eligible. The husbands of the women who consented to join the study were also invited to participate. Data sources were study-specific questions and standardised measures: PCMDs were assessed by psychiatrist-administered Structured Clinical Interviews for DSM IV disorders, and alcohol dependence (AD by the CAGE questionnaire (cut-off of ≥ 2. Structural Equation Modeling was used to test direct, indirect and mutual relationships simultaneously in the hypothesised model. Results In total 364/392 (93% eligible women agreed to participate. Of these, 360 were married, and 230 (64% of their husbands also participated to yield a sample of 230 couples for analyses. Overall, in 7.4% (95% CI: 4.6-11.6 of couples both wife and husband were diagnosed with a PCMD; and 41.2% (95% CI: 35.1-47.8 of couples at least one member had a PCMD. Comorbid PCMD and AD were observed in 6.9% (95% CI: 4.3-11.0 of men, but did not occur in women. After controlling for other psychosocial risk factors comorbid PCMD and AD in husbands increased by 4.7 times the probability of PCMDS in their wives via intimate partner violence. PCMDS in wives did not increase the probability of PCMDS or AD in husbands. Conclusions These data provide evidence that comorbid

  5. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Garcia-Martin

    Full Text Available Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs. However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  6. RNA Thermodynamic Structural Entropy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Conformational entropy for atomic-level, three dimensional biomolecules is known experimentally to play an important role in protein-ligand discrimination, yet reliable computation of entropy remains a difficult problem. Here we describe the first two accurate and efficient algorithms to compute the conformational entropy for RNA secondary structures, with respect to the Turner energy model, where free energy parameters are determined from UV absorption experiments. An algorithm to compute the derivational entropy for RNA secondary structures had previously been introduced, using stochastic context free grammars (SCFGs). However, the numerical value of derivational entropy depends heavily on the chosen context free grammar and on the training set used to estimate rule probabilities. Using data from the Rfam database, we determine that both of our thermodynamic methods, which agree in numerical value, are substantially faster than the SCFG method. Thermodynamic structural entropy is much smaller than derivational entropy, and the correlation between length-normalized thermodynamic entropy and derivational entropy is moderately weak to poor. In applications, we plot the structural entropy as a function of temperature for known thermoswitches, such as the repression of heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element, we determine that the correlation between hammerhead ribozyme cleavage activity and total free energy is improved by including an additional free energy term arising from conformational entropy, and we plot the structural entropy of windows of the HIV-1 genome. Our software RNAentropy can compute structural entropy for any user-specified temperature, and supports both the Turner'99 and Turner'04 energy parameters. It follows that RNAentropy is state-of-the-art software to compute RNA secondary structure conformational entropy. Source code is available at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAentropy/; a full web server is available at http

  7. Integrated smart structures wingbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Solomon H.

    1993-09-01

    One objective of smart structures development is to demonstrate the ability of a mechanical component to monitor its own structural integrity and health. Achievement of this objective requires the integration of different technologies, i.e.: (1) structures, (2) sensors, and (3) artificial intelligence. We coordinated a team of experts from these three fields. These experts used reliable knowledge towards the forefront of their technologies and combined the appropriate features into an integrated hardware/software smart structures wingbox (SSW) test article. A 1/4 in. hole was drilled into the SSW test article. Although the smart structure had never seen damage of this type, it correctly recognized and located the damage. Based on a knowledge-based simulation, quantification and assessment were also carried out. We have demonstrated that the SSW integrated hardware & software test article can perform six related functions: (1) identification of a defect; (2) location of the defect; (3) quantification of the amount of damage; (4) assessment of performance degradation; (5) continued monitoring in spite of damage; and (6) continuous recording of integrity data. We present the successful results of the integrated test article in this paper, along with plans for future development and deployment of the technology.

  8. Hierarchically Structured Electrospun Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole E. Zander

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional electrospun nanofibers have a myriad of applications ranging from scaffolds for tissue engineering to components of biosensors and energy harvesting devices. The generally smooth one-dimensional structure of the fibers has stood as a limitation to several interesting novel applications. Control of fiber diameter, porosity and collector geometry will be briefly discussed, as will more traditional methods for controlling fiber morphology and fiber mat architecture. The remainder of the review will focus on new techniques to prepare hierarchically structured fibers. Fibers with hierarchical primary structures—including helical, buckled, and beads-on-a-string fibers, as well as fibers with secondary structures, such as nanopores, nanopillars, nanorods, and internally structured fibers and their applications—will be discussed. These new materials with helical/buckled morphology are expected to possess unique optical and mechanical properties with possible applications for negative refractive index materials, highly stretchable/high-tensile-strength materials, and components in microelectromechanical devices. Core-shell type fibers enable a much wider variety of materials to be electrospun and are expected to be widely applied in the sensing, drug delivery/controlled release fields, and in the encapsulation of live cells for biological applications. Materials with a hierarchical secondary structure are expected to provide new superhydrophobic and self-cleaning materials.

  9. Expert Cold Structure Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, T.; Demuysere, P.

    2011-05-01

    The EXPERT Program is funded by ESA. The objective of the EXPERT mission is to perform a sub-orbital flight during which measurements of critical aero- thermodynamic phenomena will be obtained by using state-of-the-art instrumentation. As part of the EXPERT Flight Segment, the responsibility of the Cold Structure Development Design, Manufacturing and Validation was committed to the Belgian industrial team SONACA/SABCA. The EXPERT Cold Structure includes the Launcher Adapter, the Bottom Panel, the Upper Panel, two Cross Panels and the Parachute Bay. An additional Launcher Adapter was manufactured for the separation tests. The selected assembly definition and manufacturing technologies ( machined parts and sandwich panels) were dictated classically by the mass and stiffness, but also by the CoG location and the sensitive separation interface. Used as support for the various on-board equipment, the Cold Structure is fixed to but thermally uncoupled from the PM 1000 thermal shield. It is protect on its bottom panel by a thermal blanket. As it is a protoflight, analysis was the main tool for the verification. Low level stiffness and modal analysis tests have also been performed on the Cold Structure equipped with its ballast. It allowed to complete its qualification and to prepare SONACA/SABCA support for the system dynamic tests foreseen in 2011. The structure was finally coated with a thermal control black painting and delivered on time to Thales Alenia Space-Italy end of March 201.

  10. Carbon Structure Hazard Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoder, Tommy; Greene, Ben; Porter, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Carbon composite structures are widely used in virtually all advanced technology industries for a multitude of applications. The high strength-to-weight ratio and resistance to aggressive service environments make them highly desirable. Automotive, aerospace, and petroleum industries extensively use, and will continue to use, this enabling technology. As a result of this broad range of use, field and test personnel are increasingly exposed to hazards associated with these structures. No single published document exists to address the hazards and make recommendations for the hazard controls required for the different exposure possibilities from damaged structures including airborne fibers, fly, and dust. The potential for personnel exposure varies depending on the application or manipulation of the structure. The effect of exposure to carbon hazards is not limited to personnel, protection of electronics and mechanical equipment must be considered as well. The various exposure opportunities defined in this document include pre-manufacturing fly and dust, the cured structure, manufacturing/machining, post-event cleanup, and post-event test and/or evaluation. Hazard control is defined as it is applicable or applied for the specific exposure opportunity. The carbon exposure hazard includes fly, dust, fiber (cured/uncured), and matrix vapor/thermal decomposition products. By using the recommendations in this document, a high level of confidence can be assured for the protection of personnel and equipment.

  11. Structure and biophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Puglisi, Joseph D

    2007-01-01

    This volume is a collection of articles from the proceedings of the ISSBMR 7th Course: Structure and Biophysics - New Technologies for Current Challenges in Biology and Beyond. This NATO Advanced Institute (ASI) was held in Erice at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture on 22 June through 3 July 2005. The ASI brought together a diverse group of experts in the fields of Structural Biology, Biophysics and Physics. Prominent lecturers, from seven different countries, and students from around the world participated in the NATO ASI organized by Professors Joseph Puglisi (Stanford University, USA) and Alexander Arseniev (Moscow, RU). Advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and x-ray crystallography have allowed the three-dimensional structures of many biological macromolecules and their complexes, including the ribosome and RNA polymerase to be solved. Fundamental principles of NMR spectroscopy and dynamics, x-ray crystallography, computation and experimental dynamics we...

  12. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  13. Structural analysis of DAEs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mikael Zebbelin

    2002-01-01

    , by the implementation of the Simpy tool box. This is an object oriented system implemented in the Python language. It can be used for analysis of DAEs, ODEs and non-linear equation and uses e.g. symbolic representations of expressions and equations. The presentations of theory and algorithms for structural index...... analysis of DAE is original in the sense that it is based on a new matrix representation of the structural information of a general DAE system instead of a graph oriented representation. Also the presentation of the theory is found to be more complete compared to other presentations, since it e.g. proves....... The methodology is mainly based on strutural index analysis which is not limited by the index of the DAE as other methodologies. As a result of structural index analysis one can perform index reduction of the DAE and obtain the so-called augmented underlying ODE. It is also described, how to use the augmented...

  14. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2015-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree structures that separate a data set recursively into subsets with significantly different parameter estimates in a SEM. SEM Trees provide means for finding covariates and covariate interactions that predict differences in structural parameters in observed as well as in latent space and facilitate theory-guided exploration of empirical data. We describe the methodology, discuss theoretical and practical implications, and demonstrate applications to a factor model and a linear growth curve model. PMID:22984789

  15. Structure of tellurium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, J.A.; Henry, R.G.; Lee, C.S.

    1991-01-01

    The tellurium nuclei with two protons outside of the Z = 50 shell closure exhibit a complicated structure with signatures of collective vibrational, two-quasiparticle, possibly moderately deformed intruder configurations. To study further the structure of the tellurium nuclei the authors made extensive measurements of the (α,xnγ) reactions on even Sn targets, populating excitations in even- and odd-mass Te nuclei up to moderate angular momenta. By examining limits on possible intraband transitions, results suggest that a possible rotational band structure is not supported by the data, since intraband transitions are of comparable E2 strength to interband transitions. In the odd-A isotopes they concentrated on identifying the higher angular momentum negative-parity states (which probe the role of the h 11/2 neutron in the core), and the search for non-yrast negative-parity states, which are a sensitive measure of the shape of the collective excitations

  16. Graphene heat dissipating structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Cody M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Wheeler, David R.; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Railkar, Tarak A.

    2017-08-01

    Various technologies presented herein relate to forming one or more heat dissipating structures (e.g., heat spreaders and/or heat sinks) on a substrate, wherein the substrate forms part of an electronic component. The heat dissipating structures are formed from graphene, with advantage being taken of the high thermal conductivity of graphene. The graphene (e.g., in flake form) is attached to a diazonium molecule, and further, the diazonium molecule is utilized to attach the graphene to material forming the substrate. A surface of the substrate is treated to comprise oxide-containing regions and also oxide-free regions having underlying silicon exposed. The diazonium molecule attaches to the oxide-free regions, wherein the diazonium molecule bonds (e.g., covalently) to the exposed silicon. Attachment of the diazonium plus graphene molecule is optionally repeated to enable formation of a heat dissipating structure of a required height.

  17. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  18. Dynamic Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejlberg-Rasmussen, Casper

    statements about our data structure, which are based on the structure of the underlying problem, that we are trying to solve. We can rely on the properties of the invariants when performing queries, and in return we need to ensure that the invariants remain true after we perform updates. When designing data......In this thesis I will address three dynamic data structure problems using the concept of invariants. The first problem is maintaining a dynamically changing set of keys – a dictionary – where the queries we can ask are: does it contain a given key? and what is the preceding (or succeeding) key...... to a given key? The updates we can do are: inserting a new key or deleting a given key. Our dictionary has the working set property, which means that the running time of a query depends on the query distribution. Specifically the time to search for a key depends on when we last searched for it. Our data...

  19. Dynamic Data Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakalidis, Konstantinos

    We study dynamic data structures for different variants of orthogonal range reporting query problems. In particular, we consider (1) the planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting problem: given a set of points in the plane, report the points that lie within a given 3-sided rectangle with one....... Dynamic problems like the above arise in various applications of network optimization, VLSI layout design, computer graphics and distributed computing. For the first problem, we present dynamic data structures for internal and external memory that support planar orthogonal 3-sided range reporting queries......, and insertions and deletions of points efficiently over an average case sequence of update operations. The external memory data structures find applications in constraint and temporal databases. In particular, we assume that the coordinates of the points are drawn from different probabilistic distributions...

  20. Structural Sparse Tracking

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Tianzhu

    2015-06-01

    Sparse representation has been applied to visual tracking by finding the best target candidate with minimal reconstruction error by use of target templates. However, most sparse representation based trackers only consider holistic or local representations and do not make full use of the intrinsic structure among and inside target candidates, thereby making the representation less effective when similar objects appear or under occlusion. In this paper, we propose a novel Structural Sparse Tracking (SST) algorithm, which not only exploits the intrinsic relationship among target candidates and their local patches to learn their sparse representations jointly, but also preserves the spatial layout structure among the local patches inside each target candidate. We show that our SST algorithm accommodates most existing sparse trackers with the respective merits. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluations on challenging benchmark image sequences demonstrate that the proposed SST algorithm performs favorably against several state-of-the-art methods.