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Sample records for tinea versicolor numbered

  1. Mycological study of tinea versicolor

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    Sankara Rao I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycological study of 100 cases of tinea versicolor was undertaken. Skin scrapings from 100 cases were subjected for culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar, out of which 60 positive cultures (60% were obtained.

  2. Oral fluconazole in tinea versicolor

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    Sankara Rao I

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available 25 patients with extensive tinea versicolor were treated with single oral dose of 400 mg of fluconazole. 25 patients returned for follow-up. Follow-up at 3 weeks, 6 weeks and 8 weeks showed 100% clinical cure rate and 92% mycological cure rate. No significant side effects were noticed. The majority of patients found the treatment effective, safe and convenient.

  3. Tinea versicolor, tinea nigra, white piedra, and black piedra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gómez-Daza, Fernando; Paredes, Vanessa; Ponce, Rosa María

    2010-03-04

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections limited to the stratum corneum and its adnexal structures. The most frequent types are dermatophytoses or tineas. Tinea versicolor involves the skin in the form of hypochromic or hyperchromic plaques, and tinea nigra affects the skin of the palms with dark plaques. White piedra and black piedra are parasitic infections of scalp hairs in the form of concretions caused by fungal growth. Diagnosis of these mycoses is made from mycologic studies, direct examination, stains, and isolation, and identification of the fungi. Treatment includes systemic antifungals, topical antifungals, and keratolytics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi de; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries.

  5. White piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra: contribution to the diagnosis of superficial mycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, John Verrinder; de Avila, Ricardo Bertozzi; Miguel, Barbara Arruda Fraletti; Muramatu, Laura Hitomi

    2017-01-01

    Superficial mycoses are fungal infections restricted to the stratum corneum and to the hair shafts, with no penetration in the epidermis; they are: white piedra, black piedra, tinea versicolor, and tinea nigra. This study presents images of mycological tests performed in the laboratory, as well as exams performed at the authors office, in order to improve the dermatologist's knowledge about the diagnosis of these dermatoses, which are common in many countries. PMID:29186263

  6. Clinical Trial Of Ketoconazole 2% + Zinc Pyrithione 1% Shampoo In The Management Of Tinea Versicolor

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    Ramesh M

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An open uncontrolled trial, to assess the efficacy of ketoconazole 2%+zinc pyrithione 1% shampoo was conducted in patients with extensive tinea versicolor. The results show that this is an effective and well tolerated combination in the management of tinea versicolor.

  7. Tinea Versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Registration General information Housing & travel Education Exhibit hall Mobile app 2019 Annual Meeting Derm Exam Prep Course ... SkinPAC State societies Scope of practice Truth in advertising NP/PA laws Action center Public and patients ...

  8. A Comparative Study of Efficacy and Safety of Eberconazole versus Terbinafine in Patients of Tinea Versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jyoti; Kaushal, Jyoti; Aggarwal, Kamal

    2018-01-01

    Tinea versicolor (TV) is characterised by the appearance of maculosquamous lesions sometimes associated with mild erythema and pruritus in characteristic areas of the body. Eberconazole and terbinafine though drugs of different classes provide both mycological and clinical cure. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of eberconazole versus terbinafine in patients of TV. An open-label, randomised, comparative clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients. The patients were randomly divided into two study groups. Group A: Eberconazole 1% cream once daily and Group B: Terbinafine 1% cream once daily for 2 weeks. Efficacy assessment was done by observing signs and symptoms, i.e., Physician assessment 4-point scale, microscopic KOH examination, Wood's lamp examination, global clinical response assessment, and patient's assessment on visual analog scale at the end of 2 weeks and subsequently patients were reassessed at the end of 4 and 8 weeks to check any relapse. Safety assessment was also done. There was a significant improvement in all the parameters in both groups over a period of 2 weeks. Both the treatment groups, i.e., eberconazole and terbinafine were found to be safe and efficacious at the end of 2 weeks, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding complete cure, i.e., mycological and clinical cure (80% vs. 63.33%), respectively. However, early response (at the end of week 1) was observed with eberconazole. No relapse was seen with eberconazole, but one patient had relapse at 8 weeks with terbinafine. Both drugs had similar safety profile. Although both the drugs cured the disease, eberconazole showed better response as clinical cure and mycological cure were observed earlier and no patient relapsed in the follow-up.

  9. A comparative study of efficacy and safety of eberconazole versus terbinafine in patients of tinea versicolor

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    Jyoti Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tinea versicolor (TV is characterised by the appearance of maculosquamous lesions sometimes associated with mild erythema and pruritus in characteristic areas of the body. Eberconazole and terbinafine though drugs of different classes provide both mycological and clinical cure. Aim: This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of eberconazole versus terbinafine in patients of TV. Materials and Methods: An open-label, randomised, comparative clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients. The patients were randomly divided into two study groups. Group A: Eberconazole 1% cream once daily and Group B: Terbinafine 1% cream once daily for 2 weeks. Efficacy assessment was done by observing signs and symptoms, i.e., Physician assessment 4-point scale, microscopic KOH examination, Wood's lamp examination, global clinical response assessment, and patient's assessment on visual analog scale at the end of 2 weeks and subsequently patients were reassessed at the end of 4 and 8 weeks to check any relapse. Safety assessment was also done. Results: There was a significant improvement in all the parameters in both groups over a period of 2 weeks. Both the treatment groups, i.e., eberconazole and terbinafine were found to be safe and efficacious at the end of 2 weeks, and no statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups regarding complete cure, i.e., mycological and clinical cure (80% vs. 63.33%, respectively. However, early response (at the end of week 1 was observed with eberconazole. No relapse was seen with eberconazole, but one patient had relapse at 8 weeks with terbinafine. Both drugs had similar safety profile. Conclusion: Although both the drugs cured the disease, eberconazole showed better response as clinical cure and mycological cure were observed earlier and no patient relapsed in the follow-up.

  10. Single dose (400 mg) versus 7 day (200 mg) daily dose itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahab, M A; Ali, M E; Rahman, M H; Chowdhury, S A; Monamie, N S; Sultana, N; Khondoker, L

    2010-01-01

    Tinea (pityriasis) versicolor is a superficial fungal infection and one of the most commonly found pigmentary disorders of skin caused by the yeast Malassezia. Multiple topical as well as systemic therapies are available for treatment. Systemic therapies are used for extensive disease, frequent relapse or where topical agents have failed. The aim that translates the rationale of the study was to compare the efficacy, safety, tolerability and cost effectiveness of single dose 400mg versus 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of tinea versicolor. A clinical study was done to compare the efficacy of single dose (400 mg) of itraconazole and 7 day 200 mg daily dose of itraconazole in the treatment of extensive tinea versicolor. Total 60 patients (aged 18-50 years) were selected for the study during the period of June 2007 to May 2008 in the department of Dermatology of three different hospitals in Bangladesh. Cases having with extensive involvement, diagnosed clinically and confirmed by wood's lamp and KOH microscopy were taken. Patients were randomly allocated into equal groups. Group A was given single dose 400 mg itraconazole and Group B was given 7 day 200 mg daily itraconazole. Fifty three (88%) male and 7(12%) female were included in the study. The mean age of group A was 32.37+/-9 years and in group B 33.23+/-8 years. The mean duration of the disease in group A was 2.63+/-2 months and 2.76+/-2 months in group B. In group A clinical responders was found cure 22(73.33%) and improvement 5(16.33%) and in group B it was found cure 24(79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). The measure at the End point (EP1) equals to 90% response and in-group B it was found cure 24 (79.99%) and improvement 4(13.33%). (Here the End point EP2) equals to 93.33%. The EP clinical analysis however shows 91.66% response. Both single dose and 7 day daily dose of itraconazole can be effective in the treatment of tinea versicolor with extensive involvement but single dose appears

  11. Tinea incognito: Case series

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    Mikail Yılmaz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tinea incognito is a dermatophytic infection which has lost its typical clinical appearance because of inappropriate use of topical or systemic corticosteroids. The clinical manifestations of tinea incognito can mimic many dermatoses such as eczema, psoriasis, allergic contact dermatitis, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis and atopic dermatitis. The diagnosis of tinea incognito is confirmed by direct KOH (potassium hydroxide examination ( native preparation, making the fungal cultures from the lesion and histopathological examination in some cases. Systemic antifungal therapy is recommended in the treatment of tinea incognito. Herein, 10 cases of tinea incognito which mimicking various dermatoses were diagnosed and treated in our clinic in 2014 is presented.

  12. Tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea nigra, and piedra.

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    Gupta, Aditya K; Chaudhry, Maria; Elewski, Boni

    2003-07-01

    Tinea infections are among the most common dermatologic conditions throughout the world. To avoid a misdiagnosis, identification of dermatophyte infections requires both a fungal culture on Sabouraud's agar media, and a light microscopic mycologic examination from skin scrapings. Topical antifungals may be sufficient for treatment of tinea corporis and cruris and tinea nigra, and the shaving of hair infected by piedra may also be beneficial. Systemic therapy, however, may be required when the infected areas are large, macerated with a secondary infection, or in immunocompromised individuals. Preventative measures of tinea infections include practicing good personal hygiene; keeping the skin dry and cool at all times; and avoiding sharing towels, clothing, or hair accessories with infected individuals.

  13. The frequency of Tinea Pedis in patients with Tinea Cruris

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    Farivar M

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The frequency of tinea pedis in patients with tinea cruris has not been elucidated. The main objective of this study is to define this frequency all patients referred to the Mycological Laboratory of Razi Hospital, Tehran, during a 3-month period in 1997, who had a positive KOH smear for dermatophyte in the groin area were included in the study. A culture from this site, and a smear and culture from the foot (regardless of the presence of any lesion, were performed. Sixty patients (46 males and 14 females entered the study .Epidermophyton floccosum was the most frequent isolated fungus in tinea cruris. Four patients (6.4% had concurrent tinea pedis proved by smear and culture; and the sole isolate form the foot, was Trichophyton mentagrophtes. In three of them, the corresponding dermatophyte in the groin was E. floccosum. In this study, the frequency of tinea pedis in patients with tinea cruris was low

  14. Treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, S M; Nahata, M C

    1997-03-01

    To review the epidemiology, pathogenesis, mycology, clinical presentation, and pharmacotherapy of tinea capitis, and describe the role of newer antimycotic agents. A MEDLINE search restricted to English-language articles published from 1966 through 1996 and journal references were used in preparing this review. The data on mycology, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, and drug interactions were obtained from controlled studies and case reports appearing in the literature. Both open-label and comparative studies were evaluated to assess the efficacy of antimycotics in the treatment of this infection. Griseofulvin is the drug of choice in the treatment of tinea capitis. Newer agents with greater efficacy or shorter treatment durations continue to be explored. Ketoconazole, the first azole studied for efficacy in tinea capitis, has not demonstrated any clinical advantage over griseofulvin in several controlled clinical trials. Itraconazole is effective, but the available data are limited to case reports and a single uncontrolled study. Terbinafine similarly has shown promise in the treatment of tinea capitis, but the oral formulation was only recently approved in the US. Existing studies reflect the results in infection with pathogens not seen in the US. Both itraconazole and terbinafine achieve high concentrations in the hair and stratum corneum that persist for several weeks following drug administration. This may enable shorter courses of therapy; however, comparative studies need to be conducted in the US. Tinea capitis remains the most common dermatophyte infection in young urban children. Oral antifungal therapy is required for effective treatment, often for several months. The combination of griseofulvin with a selenium sulfide shampoo continues to be the mainstay of therapy until more experience is gained with the newer antimycotics.

  15. Tinea on a Tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oanţă, Alexandru; Irimie, Marius

    2016-08-01

    In the last twenty years, the prevalence of individuals with tattoos in the general population has increased in Europe (1) as well as in Australia (2) and the United States of America (3). A series of complications such as acute inflammatory reactions, allergic contact dermatitis (4,5), photoinduced, lichenoid, and granulomatous reactions (6, 7), pseudolymphoma (8), pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia (9), skin infections (6), and skin cancers (10) may occur on tattoos. Infectious complications on tattoos include bacterial infections (pyoderma, leprosy, syphilis, cutaneous tuberculosis, mycobacteriosis) (11-14), viral infections (molluscum contagiosum, warts, herpes simplex, hepatitis B and C) (15-17), and fungal infections (sporotrichosis, dermatophytosis) (18,19). We present the case of a 29-year-old immunocompetent female patient who was consulted for the development of an erythematous-squamous placard that appeared on a tattoo about 18 days after tattooing. Dermatological examination revealed a circular, erythematous, scaly plaque, with centrifugal growth and central resolution, presenting an active, raised, erythematous, vesiculopustular edge, giving the appearance of tinea corporis. The lesion's starting point was on the tattoo in two colors located on the middle third of the left calf and subsequently evolved to beyond the surface of tattoo (Figure 1). No other skin, scalp, or nail lesions were observed. Mycological examination of the material obtained by scraping of the scales and the vesicles from the edges and the surface of the plaque revealed numerous hyphae on direct microscopy examination, and white, flat colonies with a cottony surface and radial grooves developed in Sabouraud dextrose agar culture (Figure 2). Spindle-shaped, thick-walled macroconidia and a few pyriform microconidia were observed on microscopic examinations of the colonies. Based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics, Microsporum canis was identified. Gram stain and bacterial

  16. Prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo for tinea capitis in a high-risk pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Watson, Holly J; Winters, Shauna D; Carlson, Adrian L; Schulz, Richard M

    2011-07-01

    Although topical agents for the treatment of tinea capitis decrease viable fungal elements and reduce shedding, their use as a prophylactic agent has not been investigated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a prophylactic ketoconazole shampoo (Nizoral 2%) protocol to reduce the number of clinically evident tinea capitis infections in a high-risk African American, urban population. We conducted a retrospective analysis of a ketoconazole prophylaxis protocol that was implemented at an urban pediatric clinic for medically fragile children. Patients at high risk for tinea capitis received twice-weekly ketoconazole shampoo. The primary outcome of the study was a reduction in the number of documented tinea capitis infections between the 12-month preprotocol and 12-month postprotocol periods. A secondary outcome included the evaluation of predisposing risk factors for acquiring tinea infections. Ninety-seven patients, with a mean age of 8.06 years, were included. Most patients (78%) were African American. There were a total of 13 tinea capitis infections during the 12-month preprotocol period. During the 12-month postprotocol period, 41 infections were documented: 37 (90.2%) in the prophylaxis group and 4 (9.8%) in the nonprophylaxis group. The average numbers of per-patient infections in the postprotocol period were 0.79 and 0.08 in the prophylaxis and nonprophylaxis groups, respectively. Initiation of prophylaxis did not reduce tinea capitis infections (p=NS). Previous history of infection and a high level of care were significant predictors of infections (pshampoo) prophylaxis protocol.

  17. Novos aspectos na evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor New aspects in the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor

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    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: A pitiríase versicolor é uma doença infecciosa causada por várias espécies de Malassezia com uma tendência a se tornar recidivante ou crônica. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho foi conduzido na tentativa de conhecer a evolução clínica da pitiríase versicolor em relação ao número de recidivas após um tratamento adequado no período de 12 meses e correlacionar o número de recidivas com as espécies de Malassezia isoladas. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Cento e dois pacientes com diagnóstico clínico e laboratorial de pitiríase versicolor foram acompanhados por um período de 12 meses para observarmos o número de recidivas da doença. RESULTADOS: A pitiríase versicolor, após um tratamento adequado, apresentou três tipos de evolução clínica num período de 12 meses: pitiríase versicolor sem nenhum episódio de recidiva (32,35%; pitiríase versicolor recidivante, com um a quatro episódios de recidiva (52,94% devidos a fatores de predisposição relacionados; e pitiríase versicolor crônica, com mais de quatro episódios de recidiva (14,70% sem nenhuma relação com fatores de predisposição. CONCLUSÕES: A pitiríase versicolor apresentou uma evolução clínica de acordo com o número de episódios de recidiva da doença analisados durante um período de 12 meses que pode ser considerada da seguinte maneira: pitiríase versicolor com cura clínica e micológica, pitiríase versicolor recidivante e pitiríase versicolor crônica.BACKGROUND: Pytiriasis versicolor is an infectious disease caused by several Malassezia species which has a tendency to become relapsing or chronic. OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted in an attempt to investigate the clinical course of pityriasis versicolor with regard to the number of relapses after a 12-month therapy and correlate this number with isolates of Malassezia species. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 102 patients with clinical and laboratory diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor were monitored for 12

  18. Tinea capitis in Botswana

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    Thakur R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rameshwari ThakurDepartment of Microbiology, Muzaffarnagar Medical College, Muzaffarnagar, IndiaBackground: Tinea capitis (TC is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp that can also involve the eyebrows and eyelashes.Aim: This study aimed to find the causative fungus responsible for TC in Botswana and determine its association with the clinical types of TC.Methods: Samples for potassium hydroxide 10% mounts and fungal cultures were collected in a microbiology laboratory at the National Health Laboratory, Gaborone, Botswana. Dermasel agar and Sabouraud dextrose agar were inoculated with the samples. Lactophenol cotton blue mounts were prepared from the culture-positive samples to study the morphological characteristics.Results: Trichophyton violaceum was found to be the predominant causative organism of TC. Trichophyton tonsurans was isolated from one patient. Both are anthropophilic species.Conclusion: TC was found to be most common in those aged 1–15 years (81%. Of 17 patients in this age group, 16 were younger than 10 years old and one was 14 years old. T. violaceum was the most common dermatophyte species isolated.Keywords: Trichophyton violaceum, Trichophyton violaceum white variant, Trichophyton tonsurans, dermatophyte

  19. Blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Cheng; Zhu, Wen-Yuan; Min, Zhong-Sheng

    2010-07-01

    A 31-year-old male patient complained of having follicular and brownish red maculopapules along the Blaschko's lines on the right chest for 2 days. On examination, follicular brownish maculopapules were present on the chest with a uniform size of about 3 mm in diameter. The lesions were isolated without a tendency to merge, giving several S-shaped, band-like appearances. Direct mycological examination of the skin flakes revealed many pseudomycelial hyphae and yeast cells with typical spaghetti and meatball appearance. Wood's light examination of the lesion revealed a golden yellow fluorescence. A diagnosis of blaschkoid pityriasis versicolor was suggested because of blaschkoid distribution of the lesions in this new variant of PV.

  20. Malassezia Species and Pityriasis Versicolor

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    Gulin Rodoplu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malassezia species are found in part of the normal human cutaneous commensal flora, however it has been known for many years that the Malassezia yeasts are associated with a number of different human diseases ranging from pityriasis versicolor to seborrhoeic dermatitis. In addition, since the 1980s, they have been reported as causing opportunistic systemic infections. The taxonomy of Malassezia spp. has recently been modified to include 13 obligatorily lipophilic species, plus one non-obligatorily lipophilic species, which only rarely colonizes human hosts and currently the genus consist 14 species as M. furfur, M. pachydermatis, M. sympodialis, M. globosa, M. obtusa, M. slooffiae, M. restricta, M. dermatis, M. japonica, M. nana, M. yamatoensis, M. caprae, M. equina, M. cuniculi. Fastidious growth requirements of Malassezia yeasts defied the initial attempts to culture these organisms and their true identification and the relationship between different species only became apparent with the application of modern molecular techniques. The causative fungus is seen especially in such seborrheic areas as the scalp, face, trunk and upper back. Under the influence of various exogenous or endogenous predisposing factors, these yeasts change from the blastospore form to the mycelial form and become pathogenic. Diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor which is caused by Malassezia species is generally easy and lies on the basis of its clinical appearance and can be confirmed by mycological examination. The diagnosisis is mainly based on direct examination with potassium hydroxide (KOH and demonstration that represents pseudohyphae and blastoconidia as the typical %u201Cspaghetti and meatballs%u201D pattern. Characteristic features of the genus Malassezia include a distinctive morphology and an affinity for lipids in culture. Culture is necessary to recover the infecting strain, especially for epidemiologic purposes and also to test its antifungal susceptibility

  1. Toxicity effects of ethanol extract of Simarouba versicolor on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    usuario

    2016-02-24

    Feb 24, 2016 ... versicolor (Sv-EtOH) on the reproductive system of rats were investigated; also the influence of ... The following constituted the chemicals and drugs used in this ... dilution vehicle, n = number of animals; o.a = oral admnistration; im = intramuscular. .... Birth delivery, birth rates and viability were determined.

  2. Chemical constituents of Simarouba versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Mesquita, Aldenor C. de; Pouliquen, Yvone B.M.; Lima, Roberto A. de; Cavalcante, Sergio H.; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Siqueira, Jose A. de; Alegrio, Leila V.; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2002-01-01

    From the roots, stems and fruits of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) were isolated quassinoids (3, 5-7), triterpenoids (8-14), a mixture of steroids (15-17), the flavonoid kaempferol (18) and the squalene derivative 11,14-diacetoxy-7,10; 15,18-diepoxy-6,19-dihidroxy-6,7,10,11,14,15,18,19-octahydrosqualene (19). Spectral data were used for structural characterization. (author)

  3. Chemical constituents of Simarouba versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arriaga, Angela M.C.; Mesquita, Aldenor C. de; Pouliquen, Yvone B.M. [Ceara Univ., Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Lima, Roberto A. de; Cavalcante, Sergio H. [Alagoas Univ., Maceio, AL (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Carvalho, Mario G. de; Siqueira, Jose A. de; Alegrio, Leila V. [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Setor de Quimica de Produtos Naturais]. E-mail: braz@uenf.br

    2002-09-01

    From the roots, stems and fruits of Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae) were isolated quassinoids (3, 5-7), triterpenoids (8-14), a mixture of steroids (15-17), the flavonoid kaempferol (18) and the squalene derivative 11,14-diacetoxy-7,10; 15,18-diepoxy-6,19-dihidroxy-6,7,10,11,14,15,18,19-octahydrosqualene (19). Spectral data were used for structural characterization. (author)

  4. Triterpenoid saponins from Dianthus versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Gu, Yu-Cheng; Luo, Jian-Guang; Wang, Jun-Song; Huang, Xue-Feng; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2009-04-01

    Seven new pentacyclic triterpenoid saponins, named dianversicosides A-G (1-7), together with nine known compounds, were isolated from the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence. The absolute configuration of the 3-hydroxyl-3-methylglutaryl (HMG) group in 1-4 was ascertained by chemical analysis combined with a chiral HPLC method. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against a small panel of cancer and other cell lines.

  5. An outbreak of tinea gladiatorum in Lanzarote.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pique, E; Copado, R; Cabrera, A; Olivares, M; Fariña, M C; Escalonilla, P; Soriano, M L; Requena, L

    1999-01-01

    Canary Islands wrestling is a variant of the sport played exclusively in that region, and is associated with close participant contact. An outbreak of a fungal infection, so-called tinea gladiatorum, amongst such wrestlers in Lanzarote, one island in the archipelago is now described. 102 wrestlers from the eight teams on the island were examined; some of the clubs are 50 km apart; 45 wrestlers (44.1% of those examined) were noted to be affected. To our knowledge, this is the largest reported series of patients with tinea gladiatorum and the only one to demonstrate such infection in a variety of geographical locations.

  6. Responses of Meteorus Versicolor Wesm. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) to the Population Density of Tephrina Arenacearia Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera. Geomatridae)

    OpenAIRE

    GUDRAT, Kerimova Ilhama; AKHMED, Abdinbekova Arifa

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this research was the determination of the effectiveness of Meteorus versicolor Wesm. in the control of Tephrina arenacearia Den. et Schiff. We studied the behavioral responses of this braconid to changes the number of hosts in laboratory conditions. It was revealed that this parasitoid is distributed proportionally to host population density. M. versicolor can parasitize both the single and accumulated larvae of the host.

  7. Successive potassium hydroxide testing for improved diagnosis of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Bilge F; Topal, Suhan G; Aksungur, Varol L; Ünal, İlker; İlkit, Macit

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of successive potassium hydroxide (KOH) tests for the diagnosis of tinea pedis with different clinical presentations. The study included 135 patients with 200 lesions that were clinically suspicious for tinea pedis. Three samples of skin scrapings were taken from each lesion in the same session and were examined using a KOH test. This study offers an inexpensive, rapid, and useful technique for the daily practice of clinicians and mycologists managing patients with clinically suspected tinea pedis.

  8. Fluconazole in the therapy of Pityriasis versicolor

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    Poljački Mirjana N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the results of the systemic application of flukonazole in therapy of Pityriasis versicolor. It was arranged for the total number of 38 patients, 18 females and 20 males. The diagnosis of diseases was established on the base of the clinical examination, the native mycological examination and by the using of Wood lamps. The therapy was passed by the using of 300 mg flukonazole in a single dose, once weekly, during two weeks. The following period amounted to one week after the passed therapy. The therapeutic efficacy was assessed with regard to the clinical and mycological healing. The clinical efficacy was assessed semiquantitative on the base of increasing of the percentage rates of the total score of disease that was computed by collecting of the numeric values for every clinical argument typical for the disease, and the mycological efficacy on the base of the mycological findings and the fluorescence finding after lightening with the Wood's lamp. The controlling examinations were performed on day 0, 14 and 22. The results of investigations have shown that the complete clinical healing was achieved after two weeks of therapy in 94,74%, and the mycological healing in 92,11% patients. The rate of the mycological healing was evaluated after 1 week of following period equal to the rate of the clinical healing and it was also 94,74%. The undesirable effects of the drug applications weren't by any patient.

  9. Atypical pityriasis versicolor case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection caused by mycelial form of Malassezia spp, which is confined to stratum corneum. It usually present in the trunk as either hypo or hyperpigmented, aymptomatic, round to oval macules of varying sizes, which may merged to form geographic shape. Diagnosis is usually done clinically, or KOH examination which shows typical spagetti and meat balls appearances, or even by wood’s lamp which shows orange to yellow fluorescence. The case series had been recording in between 2012 to 2013. Within that period, we had recorded 32 cases. All the patients which we had recorded presented with multiple, asymptomatic macules of small sizes varying from 1-2 cm in diameter to 3-4mm in diameter, usually round to oval, hypopigmented, non scaly lesions. 26 patients had lesions on forearms, 3 patients had lesions on dorsa of hands bilaterally, 3 patients had similar kind of lesions on thigh. Besnier’s test was positive in 14 (43.75% patients. KOH examinations showed fungal hyphae in 14 (33.33% patients with typical spagetti and meat balls appearances in 9 (8.13% patients. All of them were given and all of them got response and healed within 2-4 months.

  10. TERAPI DENYUT ITRAKONAZOL PADA KASUS TINEA UNGUIUM

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    Kadek Yuda Sujana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophytosis is a superficial fungal infection on skin, hair, and nail which caused bydermatophyt. Onicomycosis refers to nail infection which caused by fungal dermatophyt,fungal nondermatophyt, or yeast. Dermatophyt that infected the nail called tinea unguium.Diagnosis for tinea unguium based on the microscopic test with KOH 20%, cultureSaboraud’s dextrose agar (SDA and histopathologic. In this case reported male, 28 years oldwith changed of the color of nail since four years ago. Dermatologic states is located on tenhand’s fingers and ten foot’s fingers which looked like the nail is thickening, there are keratindebris on the distal part of nail with rough end and nail plate looked like picked up. KOH20% test from nail’s scratch founded long hypha and branched. This patient gives treatmentwith Itraconazol dose 200 mg twice a day for one week in one month and repeated for threemonths. The prognosis is good.

  11. Tinea Corporis: Five-year Retrospective Evaluation

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    Aslı Günaydın

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Desgin: Tinea corporis is an cutaneous infection due to dermatophytes, excluding palms-soles, nails and groins.The distributation of agents varies with geographic and socio-economic factors. In thıs study we aimed to analyse the agents seen in tinea corporis and their relationship with the patients’ age, gender and lesion location. Material and Method: In thıs study, between January 2007 and December 2011, 62 patients referred to our dermatology policlinic and diagnosed as tinea corporis, restrospectively analyzed. Results compared with patients’ age, sex and location of lesions for the statistical significance. Results: The avarage age of the patiesnts was 40,5 and accounted for 62,9% of them were female, 37,1% were male. Trichophyton rubrum was the most frequent species in both gender (56,5 %, followed by Microsporum canis (35,5 %, Trichophyton violaceum (4,8 % and Trichophyton mentagrophytes (3,2 %. The incidence of Microsporum canis 46,5 % in women and 17,3 % in men and the diffrence attributed to the contact of women with pets which are an important source of contamination for he zoophilic dermatophyte Microsporum canis more than men. Conclusion: In our study, the frequency and the species of tinea corporis were detected similiar to the literatüre. There was no statistically significant difference between the variables of agent species, localization, gender and age. However, epidemiological data can be an important factor in the conditions that mycological culture can not be considered.

  12. Aspectos clínicos de pacientes com pitiríase versicolor atendidos em um centro de referência em dermatologia tropical na cidade de Manaus (AM, Brasil Clinical aspects of patients with pityriasis versicolor seen at a referral center for tropical dermatology in Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Motta de Morais

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor (tinha versicolor é uma micose superficial crônica, causada por leveduras do gênero Malassezia spp. comensais das camadas queratinizadas da pele e que, sob determinadas condições ainda não esclarecidas, se torna patogênica, determinando as manifestações clínicas da doença. É uma dermatose recidivante e, mesmo após tratamento, pode deixar hipopigmentação persistente, causando problemas sociais aos indivíduos acometidos. OBJETIVO: Descrever as características clínicas e epidemiológicas de pacientes com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor atendidos em uma unidade de referência em Dermatologia (Fundação Alfredo da Matta. MÉTODOS: Estudo de série de casos em que foram detalhadas as manifestações cutâneas e as características epidemiológicas de pacientes atendidos na Fundação Alfredo da Matta com diagnóstico de tinha versicolor. RESULTADOS: Cento e dezesseis pacientes foram incluídos no estudo no período de janeiro a agosto de 2008. A maioria dos indivíduos é do sexo masculino, de cor parda, da faixa etária jovem e formada por estudantes, que apresentavam fatores predisponentes ao surgimento das manchas. Também a maioria apresentava lesões extensas e história passada da doença. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo mostrou alta proporção de indivíduos com quadros extensos e de longa duração da doença.BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (tinea versicolor is a chronic superficial mycosis caused by yeasts of the Malassezia spp. genus commensal of the keratinized layers of the skin. Under conditions not yet understood, it becomes pathogenic determining the clinical manifestations of the disease. It is a recurrent skin condition and persistent hypopigmentation may remain after treatment, causing social problems to those affected. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and epidemiological features of patients diagnosed with tinea versicolor treated at a referral center for dermatology (Alfredo da

  13. Fluconazole and itraconazole in pityriasis versicolor

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    Jaswal Ritu

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia species. It has a high incidence and prevalence in tropical climates. Although it responds well to treatment, relapses and recurrences are frequent. In the present study the therapeutic response of single dose fluconazole (400 mg with itraconazole (100mg twice daily ? 7 days was compared in sixty patients of pityriasis versicolor. No significant statistical difference (p>0.05% was observed between efficacy of two drugs. Therapy with fluconazole is preferable in view of single dose administration and lesser cost as compared to itraconazole.

  14. Steroids isolated from Millettia versicolor Baker (Fabaceae)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-06-03

    Jun 3, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (11), pp. ... Full Length Research Paper ... of Millettia versicolor Baker, a medicinal plant used in the traditional ... The spectral analysis enabled us to identify 4 known .... evidence for participation of protein kinase C and protein kinase A ... Neoplasma 51(6): 407-414.

  15. PITYRIASIS VERSICOLOR – POSSIBLE GENETIC BASIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Non-occurrence of Pityriasis versicolor (PV) in spouses of individuals with this superficial fungal infection despite several years of cohabitation suggests that heredity might play an important role in those affected. Forty subjects who were married were studied in two phases. The first phase involved using a detailed ...

  16. Arthroderma benhamiae jako původce tinea capitis produnda a tinea corporis u dětských pacientů

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mallátová, N.; Janatová, H.; Kocourková, K.; Hubka, Vít; Dobiášová, S.; Širůček, P.; Nováková, J.; Šimečková, K.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 199-204 ISSN 1803-6597 Grant - others:Karlova Universita(CZ) 1344214 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : tinea corporis * tinea capitis * children * zoofilic dermatophytes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  17. Clinicomycological profile of pityriasis versicolor in Assam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ajanta; Rabha, Debajit; Choraria, Saveta; Hazarika, Debeeka; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Hazarika, Naba Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Geographical variation in the distribution of Malassezia species associated with pityriasis versicolor (PV) has led to the necessity of studying epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV. To study the epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV in a tertiary care hospital. The study was carried out with a cross-sectional design. Two hundred and sixty-two consecutive PV patients were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and investigations. Skin scrapings were processed by direct microscopy and culture. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of Malassezia species with clinical and epidemiological characteristics was studied. Statistical analysis of the data was done using statistical software. Maximum number of PV cases (33.9%) belonged to the age group of 21-30 years with a male preponderance. 61.4% of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle, 70.2% showed the gradual onset of the disease, 51.1% presented with pruritus and in 66.4% of the patients symptoms were continuous. Most commonly involved body site was neck (27.8%), 77.09% of the lesions were bilaterally asymmetrical, 87.4% were macular, and 89.3% were hypopigmented. Malassezia furfur (77.3%) was the predominant species. Sedentary lifestyle (61.4%) and increased sweating (48%) were the most commonly associated predisposing factors. PV is more common in males. Distribution of Malassezia species varies significantly from those reported in other parts of India. M. furfur was the most common species responsible for PV in our region. Hence, further studies are required to evaluate the exact cause of this variation.

  18. Clinicomycological profile of pityriasis versicolor in Assam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajanta Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Geographical variation in the distribution of Malassezia species associated with pityriasis versicolor (PV has led to the necessity of studying epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV. Aims: To study the epidemiological, mycological, and clinical characteristics of PV in a tertiary care hospital. Settings and Design: The study was carried out with a cross-sectional design. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and sixty-two consecutive PV patients were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and investigations. Skin scrapings were processed by direct microscopy and culture. Isolates were identified by phenotypic characteristics and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Association of Malassezia species with clinical and epidemiological characteristics was studied. Statistical analysis of the data was done using statistical software. Results: Maximum number of PV cases (33.9% belonged to the age group of 21–30 years with a male preponderance. 61.4% of the patients had a sedentary lifestyle, 70.2% showed the gradual onset of the disease, 51.1% presented with pruritus and in 66.4% of the patients symptoms were continuous. Most commonly involved body site was neck (27.8%, 77.09% of the lesions were bilaterally asymmetrical, 87.4% were macular, and 89.3% were hypopigmented. Malassezia furfur (77.3% was the predominant species. Sedentary lifestyle (61.4% and increased sweating (48% were the most commonly associated predisposing factors. Conclusion: PV is more common in males. Distribution of Malassezia species varies significantly from those reported in other parts of India. M. furfur was the most common species responsible for PV in our region. Hence, further studies are required to evaluate the exact cause of this variation.

  19. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPLICATIONS AND POTENTIAL USES OF THE MUSHROOM TRAMESTES VERSICOLOR

    OpenAIRE

    CÓRDOBA M., Ketty A.; RÍOS H., Alicia

    2012-01-01

    The use of products obtained from fungi (particularly mushrooms) has increased lately due to their broad applicability in different scientific and industrial fields. The genus Trametes comprises a group of white rot producing ligninolytic fungi, with medicinal properties, biotechnological importance and environmental applications. One of the most potentially useful species is T. versicolor, formerly known as Coriolus versicolor or Polyporus versicolor. Also known as Yun Zhi in China, is a fun...

  20. Outbreak of tinea gladiatorum in wrestlers in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassiri-Jahromi Shahindokht

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, skin diseases in wrestling have finally received the attention they deserve. Outbreaks of tinea corporis are often associated with sports involving extensive bodily contact; such sports include wrestling. Tinea corporis gladiatorum is primarily caused by Trichophyton tonsurans , infecting wrestlers at alarming rates. The management of skin infections in wrestlers and other athletes in sports involving skin-to-skin contact entails numerous challenges, from making an accurate diagnosis to determining eligibility for playing the sports. To control outbreaks, we conducted an epidemiologic investigation. The purpose of this article is to determine the prevalence of tinea corporis gladiatorum in wrestlers in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: A study of dermatophytosis was carried out during the period of March 2004 to December 2005 on 612 mycological proven cases of dermatophytosis found in male wrestlers in Tehran. Mycological examination consisted of culturing of pathologic material followed by direct microscopic observation. Diagnosis was based on macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of the colonies. Results: T. tonsurans was the predominant dermatophyte, accounting for> 90% of all tinea corporis gladiatorum isolates during the 2 year analysis. Tinea corporis gladiatorum was found to be more frequent in individuals between the ages of 10 and 20 years of age (72.7%. Wrestlers with tinea corporis gladiatorum were predominantly from wrestling clubs in southern and southeastern Tehran. Transmission of tinea corporis is primarily through skin-to-skin contact. Conclusion: Rapid identification and treatment of tinea corporis gladiatorum is required to minimize the disruption of team practices and competitions. Infection with dermatophytes can disqualify a wrestler from competing in matches, and thus, vigilant surveillance and rapid initiation of treatment is important to prevent the suspension of team practices and

  1. Topical undecylenic acid in tinea pedis: a new look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E B; Powell, R P; Graham, J L; Ulrich, J A

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and four patients with mycologically confirmed tinea pedis took part in a controlled clinical trial to determine the efficacy of undecylenic acid powder preparations in the treatment of their fungal infections. Clinical and mycological cures were obtained in 53% of those subjects treated with undecylenic acid powders as compared with 7% of those treated with the talc vehicle or left untreated. Undecylenic acid in a powder vehicle appears to be a safe and effective agent in the treatment of tinea pedis.

  2. Tinea manuum misdiagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris: A case of tinea incognito

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    Funda Tamer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea incognito is a dermatophyte infection with altered clinical appearance which is usually caused by the use of immunosuppressive agents such as topical corticosteroids. Hereby, we present a 59-year-old Caucasian male patient with tinea manuum on the dorsum of his left hand. The lesion was formerly misdiagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris and treated with topical corticosteroids. However, the symptoms were worsened. Moreover, new papules and pustules appeared within the lesion. The past medical history was remarkable for psoriasis vulgaris and he had an erythematous and squamous plaque on his lower back resembling psoriasis vulgaris. In order to reach a definitive diagnosis, the skin lesion on the dorsum of the patient’s left hand was examined by light microscopy after the application of 10% potassium hydroxide solution. Detection of septate hyphae confirmed dermatophytosis. The lesion was completely healed with oral terbinafine 250 mg daily for four weeks. Dermatophyte infections in early stages may be misdiagnosed as psoriasis vulgaris and thus, prolonged use of corticosteroids can lead to tinea incognito. Therefore, cutaneous lesions unresponsive to topical corticosteroid treatment should be evaluated with microscopic examination and fungal culture to confirm a suspected dermatophyte infection. Past medical history can provide useful information but a complete dermatological examination should be performed before the final diagnosis is made.

  3. [Evolution of tinea capitis observed in mycology laboratory of institute Pasteur of Algeria from1995 to 2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamroune, Z; Mazouz, A; Benelmouffok, A-B; Kellou, D

    2016-12-01

    Tinea capitis are common in Algeria and are a frequent reason for consultation. This mycosis affects children and rarely adults. This is a retrospective study over a period of 20 years from 1995 to 2015 at the mycology laboratory of the Pasteur institute of Algeria. Observe the evolution of these tinea over the years, to study the epidemiological aspects and identify the responsible agents. This study concerned patients of all ages and sexes living in the region of Algiers and the environs, consultant for various scalp lesions. For each patient, a completed information sheet is developed in insisting on the presence of animals and people with similar lesions. For each sampling, direct examination and culture on Sabouraud medium and antibiotics are utilized. The cultures are put at T° 27 to 28°C and controlled regularly during 3 to 4 weeks. A total of 2664 samples were collected, 892 examinations were positive corresponding to a frequency of 33.48%. The age group 0-10 years is the most affected 710 cases (79.60%), with a slight predominance for male sex 502 cases (56.27%) and 390 cases (43.72%) for female sex. Eight hundred and fifty-five dermatophytes strains were isolated. Among the species found, Trichophyton violaceum is the most species isolated (59.41%), followed by Microsporum canis to 35.08%. In our series, the number of cases of tinea has increased slightly over the years, the rate of 26% in 2001 has progressed to 41.02% in 2015. From 1995 to 2011, T. violaceum was the predominant species, but from the year 2011 we see an increase of M. canis and decreased of T. violaceum. Tinea capitis remains frequent in Algeria and affects preferentially the children. T. violaceum and M. canis dominate the dermatophytic flora. Tinea trichophytic anthropophiles have progressively decreased in favor of tinea microsporic zoophiles who saw their number increased. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Micosis superficiales: Candidiasis y pitiriasis versicolor

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    Rubén José Larrondo Muguercia

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Se exponen las características clínicas de las lesiones cutáneas en las candidiasis y la pitiriasis versicolor. Se hace hincapié en las medidas de educación, prevención y control de estas afecciones a nivel primario de atención médica. Se exponen además las diferentes maniobras terapéuticas, tanto tópicas como sistémicas, con las que se cuenta para su tratamiento, y se hace referencia a las medidas terapéuticas alternativas que brinda la medicina natural y tradicional para estas afecciones.The clinical characteristics of the skin lesions in candidiasis and pityriasis versicolor are dealth with. Emphasis is made on the measures of education, prevention and control of these affections at the primary health care level. The different topic and systematic therapeutic maneuvers to be used in the treatment are explained. Reference is made to the alternative therapeutic measures offered by traditional and natural medicine for these affections.

  5. Pityriasis versicolor in primary school children in Medan Labuhan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriyanti; Paramita, DA; Eyanoer, P.

    2018-03-01

    Personal hygiene is an activity in which done by someone, directly and indirectly, to keep healthy to prevent the risk of diseases. Personal hygiene is also a factor that plays a role in the occurrence of skin diseases and one of them is Pityriasis versicolor. Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection caused by Malassezia furfur which is a saprophytic organism in the skin. Activation of M. furfur into a pathogenic form due to changes in the normal flora of the skin that caused by several factors and one of them is poor personal hygiene. A cross-sectional study consist of 115 eligible students is done to determine the relationship between personal hygiene with the occurrence of Pityriasis versicolor among students in primary school in Medan Labuhan district. The result showed that 59.8% of the subject with poor personal hygiene and there is a significant association between personal hygiene with Pityriasis versicolor (p<0.05).

  6. Ketoconazole 2% shampoo in pityriasis versicolor: An open trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi S

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a common superficial fungal infection caused by a lipophilic yeast. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of ketoconazole 2% shampoo in the treatment of pityriasis versicolor, for which thirty patients were included. The shampoo was applied daily for 3 days and found to be very effective in clearing the signs and symptoms of the disease. There was no serious adverse effects.

  7. Pityriasis versicolor in the pediatric age group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jena Deepak

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a mild chronic infection of the skin caused by Malassezia yeasts. Although it is primarily seen in adults, children are often affected in the tropics . METHODS: Over a period of 2 years, children (up to the age of 14 years who were clinically and mycologically diagnosed as PV were included in the study. The clinical and epidemiological pattern in different age groups was noted. RESULTS: PV in this age group formed about 31% of the total cases of PV; 4.8% cases presented in infancy. The commonest site of involvement was the face in 39.9% of the cases. Most of the cases presented in summer months. CONCLUSIONS: PV is not an uncommon disease among children in the tropics. There is a sudden resurgence of cases in the hot monsoons and even infants are not spared.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of tinea capitis in children from Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham William Doss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytic fungi of genera Trichophyton and Microsporum are the most important fungal species causing tinea capitis. Choice of treatment for tinea capitis is determined by the species of fungus. Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the most prevalent fungal species causing tinea capitis in children from Egypt and the most useful antifungal agent for treatment. Patients and Methods: A total of 100 patients diagnosed clinically with tinea capitis were included in the study. Samples were collected and sent to the microbiology and immunology laboratory for sample processing and fungal identification by routine laboratory techniques. A study of antifungal susceptibility to chosen antifungal medications (fluconazole, ketoconazole, clotrimazole, miconazole, amphotericin, caspofungin, itraconazole, terbinafine, and griseofulvin was done by minimum inhibitory concentration technique. Results: Our analysis revealed that Microsporum canis is the most commonly isolated strain. Amphotericin was the most effective antifungal agent followed by terbinafine. The most sensitive strain to fluconazole and griseofulvin is Microsporum gypseum, while Microsporum audouinii was mostly responsive to terbinafine. Conclusion: Identification and evaluation of the antifungal susceptibility of the pathogenic species in a certain geographic region is important to achieve a good clinical response.

  9. Tinea capitis in the form of concentric rings in an HIV positive adult on antiretroviral treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirti Narang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatophyte infection may present in the form of concentric rings caused by Trichophyton concentricum, known as Tinea Imbricata. In immunosuppressed patients, there are reports of lesions in the form of concentric rings caused by dermatophytes other than Trichophyton concentricum too, mostly by Trichophyton tonsurans, known as Tinea indesiciva or Tinea pseudoimbricata. We report a case of tinea capitis in a HIV-positive adult woman on antiretroviral therapy, who presented with concentric rings of papules and pustules with slight scaling on the scalp along with diffuse thinning of hair. Both Potassium hydroxide mount and culture showed the presence of Dermatophytes. Tinea capitis is considered rare in adults, but new cases are being reported in immunocompromised as well as in immunocompetent patients. The pertinent features of this case are: HIV-positive adult female on antiretroviral therapy, presenting with tinea capitis in the form of concentric rings; culture from the lesion grew Microsporum audouinii; responding to oral Terbinafine.

  10. Leaf removal by sesarmid crabs in Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand; with emphasis on the feeding ecology of Neoepisesarma versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongtham, Nalinee; Kristensen, Erik; Puangprasan, Som-Ying

    2008-12-01

    Field measurements on leaf removal by populations of sesarmid crabs at different locations in the Bangrong mangrove forest, Phuket, Thailand, indicated that crabs on average can remove 87% of the daily leaf litter fall by ingestion or burial. The removal rate is correlated positively with the number of crab burrows and negatively with tidal inundation time. The results from the field were supplemented with observations on the behavior of Neoepisesarma versicolor in laboratory microcosms and a mangrove mesocosm. N. versicolor feeds primarily at night and total time spent feeding was up to an order of magnitude higher in the artificial microcosms than under simulated in situ conditions in the mesocosm. Most of the time during both day and night was spent resting near the entrance or inside burrows. N. versicolor mainly feeds on mangrove leaves and scraps of food material from the sediment surface. This is supported by examinations of stomach content, which showed that 62% is composed of higher plant material and 38% of detritus and mineral particles from the sediment. The nutritive value of leaves and detritus is insufficient to maintain crab growth. Sesarmid crabs may instead obtain the needed nutrients by occasional consumption of nitrogen-rich animal tissues, such as carcasses of fish and crustaceans, as indicated by the presence of animal remains in the stomach and the willingness of crabs to consume fish meat. Laboratory experiments on leaf consumption and leaf preferences of N. versicolor indicate that they preferentially feed on brown leaves, if available, followed by green and yellow leaves. If all species of sesarmid crabs in the Bangrong mangrove forest consume leaves at the same rate as N. versicolor, they could potentially ingest 52% of the total litter fall.

  11. Tinea pedis due to Cylindrocarpon lichenicola beginning onycholysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadim Diongue

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A 33 year old woman presented with both feet, humid and white Tinea pedis at the second, third and fourth inter-toes areas associated with a beginning onycholysis of the nails lasting for 18 months. KOH mount of the samples was positive for fungal hyphae. The fungus was isolated on Sabouraud-chlorampphenicol agar and identified as Cylindrocarpon lichenicola. The patient was treated with an association of terbinafine tablet and terbinafine cream and presented clinical cure after three months.

  12. Acral pityriasis versicolor – A rare clinical presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasleem Arif

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial fungal infection of the skin caused by the yeast of the genus Malassezia and presents as hypo or hyper pigmented scaly macules. The most commonly affected sites include upper trunk, upper arms, neck and the abdomen. Lesions confined to the acral parts like hands and feet have rarely been reported. In this article the author reports a 40 year old male who presented with multiple hypo pigmented scaly macules confined to the acral parts (hands and wrist. The acral variant of pityriasis versicolor is considered to be a very rare clinical entity which prompted the author to report this case.

  13. Activity enhancement of ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspended cultures of white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, supplemented with bagasse powder showed a concentration dependent enhancement in the ligninolytic enzymes activity in liquid shake cultures. 2% (w/v) bagasse powder improved greater stability to the enzymes. The optimum pH is 3.5 and the optimum ...

  14. The effect of surfactant on pollutant biosorption of Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gül, Ülküye Dudu; Silah, Hülya; Akbaş, Halide; Has, Merve

    2016-04-01

    The major problem concerning industrial wastewater is treatment of dye and heavy metal containing effluents. Industrial effluents are also contained surfactants that are used as levelling, dispersing and wetting agents. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of surfactant on textile dye biosorption properties of a white rot fungus named Trametes versicolor. Reactive dyes are commonly used in textile industry because of their advantages such as brightness and excellent color fastness. A recative textile dye, called Everzol Black, was used in this study. The low-cost mollasses medium is used for fungal growth. The usage of mollases, the sugar refinery effluent as a source of energy and nutrients, gained importance because of reducing the cost and also reusing another waste. In biosorption process the effect of surfactant on dye removal properties of T. versicolor was examined as a function of pH, dye consentration and surfactant concentration. The results of this study showed that the surfactant enhanced the dye removal capacity of Trametes versicolor. The dye and surfactant molecules were interacted electrostatically and these electrostatic interactions improved dye removal properties of filamentous fungus T. versicolor. The results of this study recommended the use of surfactants as an inducer in textile wastewater treatment technologies.

  15. Cytotoxic activities of Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extracts on human ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-08-06

    Aug 6, 2007 ... four human liver cancer (7703, HepG2, 7721, PLC) and four human breast cancer (Bcap37, ZR75-30,. MCF-7, T-47D) cell lines ... Key words: Coriolus versicolor, fruit body, polysaccharide, anti-tumor. INTRODUCTION. Coriolus ... somewhat in structure, composition, and physiological activity. The present ...

  16. A study on the antioxidant effect of Coriolus versicolor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SOD, MDA and GSH-Px levels in rat brain tissues were determined with SD rats as the animal model. The results showed that Coriolus versicolor polysaccharide can reduce the lipid peroxidation level in brain tissues during exhaustive exercise in rats, and can accelerate the removal of free radicals. The study concluded ...

  17. Biological Control of Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. cumini with Aspergillus versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Israel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A native heat-tolerant strain of Aspergillus versicolor (Vuill. Tirab. highly antagonistic to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cumini (Foc was isolated from arid soils. In tests performed to ascertain its antagonistic activity against Foc as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, a 99.2 and 96.4% reduction in Foc propagules was achieved in A. versicolor and T. harzianum infested soil respectively. The reduction of Foc propagules in Foc and A. versicolorinfested soil was also determined. In a liquid-culture test, even at a low concentration of 0.5 ml cell-free filtrate, A. versicolor inhibited mycelial growth of Foc. Population changes of A. versicolor were examined at different soil moisture gradients, where maximum survival and multiplication of A. versicolor was estimated at 50% of moisture holding capacity. In general, with increasing concentrations of A. versicolor inoculum, soil population densities of Foc went down. Studies on thermal resistance showed that A. versicolor survived and multiplied even at 65°C. Soil amended with A. versicolor alone, or with a combination of T. harzianum and Verbisina enceloides residues was significantly better at reducing Foc than was non-amended control soil. A marked increase in the root length of cumin was observed in soil amended with A. versicolor or T. harzianum or both. The results suggest that A. versicolor has a potential value for use against Fusarium in hot arid soils because it can survive under dry and high-temperature conditions.

  18. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

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    Xin Ran

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  19. Tinea profunda of atypical location – case report

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    Anna Tchórzewska

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Tinea profunda typically involves the scalp and beard. Infection within the mons pubis is rare. Objective . To present a case of tinea profunda in a rare location. Case report . A 19-year-old female, the owner of a hamster, noticed a nodule on her mons pubis. She had shaved this part of the skin some days before. The skin surrounding the nodule became erythematous and slightly scaly soon. She was treated with topical corticosteroids and oral antibiotics after consultation at an outpatient clinic. Despite the treatment, exacerbation of skin lesions was observed. The patient was admitted to the Department of Gynecology and, after consultation, was referred to the Department of Dermatology with the preliminary diagnosis of bacterial skin infection of the mons pubis and vulval area. Bacteriological tests were negative twice. Fungal mycelium was demonstrated on direct mycological examination and Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. granulosum was cultured. The patient was successfully treated with terbinafine, then fluconazole. Conclusions . Atypical location of fungal infection may cause a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma.

  20. Comparative histopathology of Pityriasis versicolor and Pityrosporum folliculitis

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    Mittal R

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty five cases each of pityriasis versicolor (PV and pityrosporum folliculitis (PF were selected for this study. Histopathologically in PV, spores and hyphae in spaghetti and meatball appearance in stratum corneum, and perivascular mononuclear infiltrate were seen. In PF, spores were inside the dilated hair follicles filled with keratin, perifollicular and perivascular mononuclear infiltration were seen. Basket weave hyperkeratosis, edema and disruption of collagen were seen in 88% cases of PF and have not been reported earlier.

  1. [Tinea capitis in department of dermatology and venerology in the University hospital of Donka at Conakry, Guinea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cisse, M; Diare, F S; Kaba, A; Magassouba, E; Keïta, M; Ecra, E J

    2006-03-01

    The authors report the results of a study carried out on tinea capitis, in the Department of Dermatology and Venerology at the University Hospital of Donka in Conakry, during one year In this department, the tinea capitis represents 3.2% of the consultations and remains the second mycosis. Out of 414 consulted children, a male predominance of 75% was noted especially regarding the Trichophytic tinea. School children aged of 6-14 years old are the most affected by the disease. The trichophytic tinea is widely spread with 65.5% more than the microsporic 17% and inflammatory tinea 16.5%. The mixed tinea is exceptional and no case of favus has been found. The Trichophyton violaceum is the most dermatophyte to be found 56.70% whereas a survey carried out in 1959 showed the predominance of T. soudanense and M. audouini. The Microsporum canis and an association of M. canis and T. violaceum are also to be found.

  2. Clinical study of Tinea capitis in Northern Karnataka: A three-year experience at a single institute

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    Varadraj V Pai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tinea capitis is a superficial fungal infection of the hair follicle of scalp. Most of the dermatophytosis do not have such age propensity as tinea capitis which almost invariably involves the paediatric age group. The exact incidence of tinea capitis is not known. This study is done in order to isolate the species variation in an area, to know the changing patterns of occurrence of different species and their association with clinical pattern Materials and Methods: All clinically diagnosed cases of tinea capitis which presented to our out patient department over a period of one year were included in the study. Results: 70 cases of Tinea capitis were studied. Discussion: Tinea capitis is a disease of prepubertal children with common in age group of 5- 15 years. The incidence varies from 0.5% to 10%. Most common presenting feature was alopecia.

  3. Spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor filogenetic and genetic in Lombok waters, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia

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    Pranata B.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify the phylogenetic spiny lobster Panulirus versicolor in Lombok waters, Indonesia and its association with P. versicolor spiny lobster from several regions of the Indian Ocean based on the cytochrome oxidase I (COI gene. The researchers collected tissue samples from 13 P. versicolor spiny lobster in Lombok waters. 9 haplotypes were identified with haplotype diversity values (Hd and nucleotides (Pi respectively Hd = 0.859 and Pi = 0.00509. Research results exhibit P. versicolor spiny lobster population from the waters of Lombok is closely related to the spiny lobster population in some regions of the Indian Ocean. In general, P. versicolor spiny lobster population formed a monophyletic clone with spiny lobsters from several regions of the Indian Ocean with genetic distance values (P-distance from 0.001 to 0.004. The reconstruction of the haplotype network exhibited no genetic structure, which means that each population is not genetically isolated from others.

  4. [Tinea capitis etiology in Ibn Sina Hospital in Rabat (Morocco)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmaataoui, A; Zeroual, Z; Lyagoubi, M; Aoufi, S

    2012-09-01

    Tinea capitis (TC) is a contagious infection that affects mainly children and teenagers. A retrospective study was realized at the mycology-parasitology department of the Ibn Sina hospital in Rabat, Morocco. The study includes 125 cases of TC. The mean age is 12.73 ± 11.61 year. The isolation of TC is dominated by two species Trichophyton violaceum 76 (60.8%) and Microsporum canis 27 (21.6%). Trichophyton verrucosum was isolated only in male and all of rural origin. In adults over 18 years, the most isolated species is T. violaceum (six cases) in females. For the last thirty years, the epidemiological profile of TC remains almost the same in Morocco. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. [Epidemiological profile of Tinea capitis in Dakar (Senegal). A 6-year retrospective study (2008-2013)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, M; Diongue, K; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Diallo, M A; Deme, A B; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Diallo, S; Ndoye, N W; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-06-01

    Tinea capitis is considered as a public health problem in Senegal. The aim of this study was to investigate trends in the incidence, the mycological and epidemiological aspects of tinea capitis diagnosed at Le Dantec Hospital in Dakar. Our work is a retrospective study concerning all scalp samples taken by the parasitology laboratory, over a 6-year period (2008-2013). A total of 1640 specimens were examined. Of these, 566 were positive with direct examination and after culture. We noted the reduction of patients and of the incidence of tineas during 6 years with variations of 147 (46.82%) to 37 (22.02%). The average incidence of the tineas during six years was 34.51%. Patients' age varied between 1 to 83 years with a mean of 27.33 years. Prevalence varied between age groups, with 10.61 % in adults between 20 to 29 years, 7.19% in children between 0 to 9 years, 6.04% between 10 to 19 years, and 5.91% in adults between 30 to 39 years. Women were more infected 469 (82.9%) than men 97 (17.1%). The main dermatophytes isolated were: T. soudanense in 318 cases (56.18%), T. rubrum in 104 cases (18.37%), M. langeronii in 72 cases (12.72%), M. canis in 36 cases (6.36%), and T. mentagrophytes in 26 cases (4.60%). Our study showed a decrease in the annual incidence of tinea capitis over the study period with an evident increase in trichophytic tinea. This study showed that tinea is endemic in Senegal mainly among women between 20 and 29 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Tinea faciei in a central Portuguese hospital: A 9-year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Ana; Brasileiro, Ana; Galhardas, Célia; Apetato, Margarida

    2018-04-01

    Tinea faciei is a relatively uncommon dermatophytosis that affects the glabrous skin of the face. The aim of this study was to analyse the epidemiologic, clinical and mycological features of tinea faciei cases diagnosed at the Dermatology and Venereology Department of Hospital Santo António dos Capuchos (Lisbon, Portugal). Consecutive cases diagnosed between 2008 and 2016 were studied retrospectively. A total of 72 tinea faciei cases have been diagnosed, involving 37 male and 35 female, aged between 8 months and 86 years. The majority were observed in patients younger than 12 years of age (59.72%). Anthropophilic isolates (mainly Microsporum audouinii, Trichophyton soudanense and Trichophyton rubrum) accounted for 75.7% of the identified dermatophytes. One quarter of the patients were also affected by dermatophytosis in other areas, such as the scalp. Only 10 cases were previously treated with topical steroids due to misdiagnosis. Most patients were treated with topical and systemic antifungal therapy with total resolution of skin lesions, without relapse or side effects. In contrast to other European studies, anthropophilic dermatophytes were the main causative agents of tinea faciei. As previously described to tinea capitis, this result is probably due to changes in the epidemiology of dermatophytes worldwide. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. KERION TYPE OF TINEA CAPITIS TREATED WITH DOUBLE PULSE DOSE TERBINAFINE

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    Franky Chandra

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection affecting hair and skin which always requires systemic treatment to get a clinical and mycologic cure, preventing relapse, and infection spread. Griseofulvin has been the antifungal therapy of choice for tinea capitis, but it often requires higher doses and a longer duration than recommended. Thus, effective alternative antifungal with good oral tolerability and shorter course of treatment are therefore required. The objective of this report is to evaluate the effectiveness of double pulse dose terbinafine for tinea capitis alternative therapy. Method: A case of kerion type of tinea capitis in a two-year-old girl was reported. Diagnosis was established based on clinical manifestations of alopecia, presented as erythematous macule with pustules, hemorrhagic crusts, and scales on the scalp, accompanied with occipital lymphadenopathy. Fungal culture showed growth of Microsporum canis (M. canis colonies. Patient was treated with doubled pulse dose terbinafine 125 mg/day and 2% ketoconazole shampoo for two months. Result: Clinical improvements were found on 35th day of follow up, while mycologic cure was achieved on 60th day of follow up. Tolerability was excellent and no side effects observed. Conclusion: Double pulse dose terbinafine is effective for kerion type of tinea capitis.

  8. Pattern Of Tinea Capitis In A Hospital-based Clinic In Alkhobar, Saudi Arabia

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    Aldayel Maha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection of the scalp the purpose of this study was to define the demographic features, clinical patterns and associated symptoms and signs of tinea capitis in Saudi Arabia. All patients who attended the dermatology clinic of king Fahad Hospital of the University (KFHU at Al-Khobar, Saudi Arabia and who were diagnosed as tinea capitis between January 1991 and December 2001 were reviewed. The collected data were analyzed using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered as the statistical level of significance. The patients with tinea capitis composed 0.14% of the study population and male to female ratio was 1.8:1. The mean age at presentation was 6.4 + 5.2 years. The most frequent sign was alopecia and the predominant morphological type was the non inflammatory tinea capitis. Micorporum canis was the predominant dermatophyte followed by Trichophyton violaceum.

  9. Mental function following scalp X irradiation for tinea capitis in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silverman, C.

    1980-01-01

    One of the populations available for study of long-term radiation effects is comprised of persons given x-ray epilation therapy in childhood for ringworm of the scalp (a method for treatment no longer used). Groups of irradiated tinea capitis patients and controls have been identified and followed for an average post-treatment time of 20 to 25 years at two locations: New York University Medical Center and Chaim Sheba Medical Center in Israel. The Bureau of Radiological Health has supported both of these investigations. The principal endpoints under investigation have been neoplasms and central nervous system effects, as reported in a number of publications. With regard to neoplasms, an excess of tumors of the head and neck was found in the irradiated individuals of both groups but in New York the excess tumors were benign (except for skin cancer), whereas in Israel there was also a marked excess of cancers of the brain, thyroid and parotid. With respect to nervous, mental and behavioral effects, the New York investigators found a higher incidence of treated psychiatric disorders among the irradiated which persisted during an observation period of about 30 years. The excess was seen only in white study subjects; no difference between irradiated and controls was observed among blacks with regard to treated mental illness or psychologic testing and psychiatric evaluation

  10. Tinea Pedis Presenting as Asymmetric Purpuric Papules on the Sole of the Foot: A Case Report

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    Jennifer Yan Fei Chen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this report we describe a unique case of tinea pedis. A 29-year-old man presented with a 3-day history of asymptomatic purpuric papules predominantly on his left foot. Potassium hydroxide preparation demonstrated fungal hyphae and culture yielded Trichophyton mentagrophytes. This patient presented unusually with purpuric papules, unlike the three commonly described types of tinea pedis. Given the morphology, positive potassium hydroxide slide preparation, T. mentagrophytes on fungal culture and clinical response to ketoconazole cream, we conclude that this represents a unique variant of tinea pedis. We recognize that even common dermatological diagnoses can have unique presentations, and it is important for clinicians to maintain a broad differential for new dermatologic cases.

  11. Dermatitis herpetiformis misdiagnosed and treated as tinea cutis glabrae

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    Marta Stawczyk-Macieja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction . Dermatitis herpetiformis is a rare bullous disorder. Autoimmunological disturbances associated with hypersensitivity to gluten play the main role in the etiopathogenesis of the disease. Clinical manifestations include polymorphic skin lesions which may cause diagnostic difficulties. Objective. To present a case of dermatitis herpetiformis diagnosed and treated without any clinical improvement as tinea cutis glabrae. Case report . A 20-year-old male patient was admitted for the evaluation of polymorphic skin lesions of 7-month duration distributed symmetrically on the skin of elbows, knees, face and the gluteal and sacral region. The patient was previously treated with systemic and topical antimycotic drugs. Due to a typical distribution of skin lesions as well as symptoms reported by the patient, we started to suspect Duhring’s disease. The diagnosis was confirmed by direct immunofluorescence of skin biopsy and serological tests. Systemic treatment with dapsone and a gluten-free diet led to clinical improvement. Conclusions . The morphology and localization of skin lesions in Duhring’s disease may be similar to the clinical presentation of fungal infection of the skin, which in equivocal cases should be excluded by a mycological test.

  12. [Interdigital tinea pedis resulting from Fusarium spp. in Dakar, Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Diallo, M A; Ndiaye, M; Seck, M C; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, D

    2018-03-01

    Fungal interdigital tinea pedis (ITP) is a common pathology mainly due to dermatophytes and yeasts. Fusarium sp. is rarely incriminated in the genesis of intertrigo. In Dakar, a recent study conducted in 2016 on fungal ITP showed that Fusarium were more involved in the etiology of ITP than dermatophytes, coming just after yeasts dominated by Candida. Following this, we wanted to draw attention to the increasing incidence of ITP resulting from Fusarium spp., in Dakar, Senegal, and to analyze the epidemiological and mycological particularities of these ITP due to Fusarium spp. A retrospective study including all patients received at the laboratory for suspicion of ITP between January 1st, 2014 and June 30th, 2017 was conducted. Diagnosis was based on mycological examination, including direct examination and culture. Mycological analysis was considered positive when direct examination and culture were positive after at least one repeat. Twenty-nine cases of Fusarium ITP accounting for 44.6% of all ITP in the study period were diagnosed in 15 men and 14 women. The mean age of the patients was 48.4 years. Fusarium ITP were diagnosed in immunocompetent patients except in two diabetics. The mean duration of the lesions was 6.83 years. The most frequent species isolated belonged to the Fusarium solani complex with 19 cases. Fusarium ITP in a healthy subject requires regular monitoring because any subsequent decrease in immune defenses could lead to fatal hematogenous spread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Study of oral Ketoconazole on recurrent & extensive Pityriasis Versicolor

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    Moghaddami M

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Several topical agents have been used for treating Pityriasis versicolor. But the main problem is recurrence. In this study 82 patients with recurrent and/or extensive from of infection were treated with oral Ketoconazole. 200 mg once daily for a maximum of 4 weeks. Seventeen patients have been infected for the first time and sixty five for the several times. The duration of disease in most cases (35.4% were between 1-3 years. Out of 82 studied patients only 60 cases were referred for follow up. The clinical and mycological cure were seen in 54 cases (90% after 15 days therapy. In other 6 patients after 15 days the lesions have not cured completely so the treatment was continued for other 2 weeks, but after that, only one of them referred to the clinic, which treatment extended with topical therapy.

  14. Efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream vs eberconazole nitrate 1% cream in localised tinea corporis and tinea cruris

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    Sanjiv V Choudhary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To study and compare the efficacy and safety of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and eberconazole nitrate 1% cream in localized tinea corporis and cruris. Methods and Materials: Patients were randomized after considering various inclusion and exclusion criteria into two groups. Group A (treated with terbinafine 1% cream for 3 weeks and group B (treated with eberconazole 1% cream for 3 weeks. The sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in each group. Assessment of clinical improvement, KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to assess complete cure. Results: On comparison between the two groups, it was observed that eberconazole nitrate 1% cream was as effective as terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream at the end of first (Non-sisgnificant (NS; P = 0.608, 1.00, second (NS; P = 0.291,0.55, and third (P = 1.00, 1.00 weeks with statistically nonsignificant clinical and mycological values. In both the groups, clinically no significant local side effects were noticed. Conclusions: The newer fungistatic eberconazole nitrate 1% cream was as effective as the fungicidal terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream. Both the drugs showed good tolerability with no adverse effects.

  15. Epidemiological changes in tinea capitis over the sixty years of economic growth in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Chong; Sun, Jiufeng; Geng, Chengfang; Xiong, Zhiwei; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the scalp occurring commonly in children. Historical data indicate that clinical manifestations and the spectrum of etiologic agents vary greatly with geography, as well as socioeconomic affected populations. OBJECTIVE: To study the possible

  16. Comparison between undecylenic acid and tolnaftate in the treatment of tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuerst, J F; Cox, G F; Weaver, S M; Duncan, W C

    1980-05-01

    A double-blind parallel study comparing tolnaftate cream with undecylenic acid ointment and a placebo ointment in the treatment of symptomatic tinea pedis was conducted on the warm, humid Texas Gulf Coast. In one hundred and three patients studied, both the clinical and mycological effects of the two antifungal agents were indistinguishable. Both were significantly more effective than the placebo.

  17. Pathogenic Dermatophytes Survive in Nail Lesions During Oral Terbinafine Treatment for Tinea Unguium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanaga, Tomoyuki; Ushigami, Tsuyoshi; Anzawa, Kazushi; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2017-08-01

    Tinea unguium caused by dermatophyte species are usually treated with oral antimycotic, terbinafine (TBF). To understand the mechanisms of improvement and recalcitrance of tinea unguium by oral TBF treatment, a method of quantifying dermatophyte viability in the nail was developed, and the viability of dermatophytes was analyzed in toenail lesions of 14 patients with KOH-positive tinea unguium treated with oral TBF 125 mg/day for up to 16 weeks. Mycological tests, including KOH examination and fungal culture, and targeted quantitative real-time PCR for internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, including rRNA, were demonstrated at the initial visit and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Assays in eight patients showed that average ITS DNA amount significantly decreased, to 44% at 8 weeks and 36% at 16 weeks compared with 100% at initial visit. No significant difference was observed between at 8 and 16 weeks, despite the TBF concentration in the nail supposedly more than 10-fold higher than the minimum fungicidal concentration for dermatophytes. This finding suggests the pathogenic dermatophytes in nail lesions could survive in a dormant form, such as arthroconidia, during oral TBF treatment. Both antimycotic activity and nail growth are important factors in treatment of tinea unguium.

  18. A multivariate analysis of genetic variation in the advertisement call of the gray treefrog, Hyla versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Allison M; Smith, Michael J; Gerhardt, H Carl

    2014-06-01

    Genetic variation in sexual displays is crucial for an evolutionary response to sexual selection, but can be eroded by strong selection. Identifying the magnitude and sources of additive genetic variance underlying sexually selected traits is thus an important issue in evolutionary biology. We conducted a quantitative genetics experiment with gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor) to investigate genetic variances and covariances among features of the male advertisement call. Two energetically expensive traits showed significant genetic variation: call duration, expressed as number of pulses per call, and call rate, represented by its inverse, call period. These two properties also showed significant genetic covariance, consistent with an energetic constraint to call production. Combining the genetic variance-covariance matrix with previous estimates of directional sexual selection imposed by female preferences predicts a limited increase in call duration but no change in call rate despite significant selection on both traits. In addition to constraints imposed by the genetic covariance structure, an evolutionary response to sexual selection may also be limited by high energetic costs of long-duration calls and by preferences that act most strongly against very short-duration calls. Meanwhile, the persistence of these preferences could be explained by costs of mating with males with especially unattractive calls. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. Pretreatment of radiata pine using two white rot fungal strains Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirkavand, Ehsan; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel J.; Young, Brent R.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fungal pretreatment by two New Zealand native white rot fungi was proposed. • Trametes versicolor was more efficient in selective degradation of pine wood chips. • Both fungal strains significantly decreased crystallinity index of biomass only after week 7 of degradation. • Structural analysis showed that Trametes versicolor and Stereum hirsutum increased porous surface area of woody biomass. - Abstract: Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor, were studied over a period of 3–7 weeks for pretreatment of radiata pine wood chips. Chemical analysis of pretreated biomass showed that the two studied strains were able to selectively degrade lignin. Selective lignin degradation was greater in week 3 of the pretreatment by Trametes versicolor compared to the other strain. Lengthening pretreatment time increased both lignin and cellulose losses which caused a reduction in selective lignin degradation for both strains. X-ray diffractometry showed that after seven weeks of pretreatment, the crystallinity of the woody biomass was decreased significantly. It decreased from 46% for untreated wood chips to 37% and 44% for Stereum hirsutum and Trametes versicolor treated biomass, respectively. The pretreatment with these two white rot fungi showed that 3-week pretreatment provided a cellulose rich biomass with the minimum cellulose loss compared to the other time of pretreatment.

  20. Bioremediation of zirconium from aqueous solution by coriolus versicolor: process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.; Bhatti, H. N.; Sadaf, S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the potential of live mycelia of Coriolus versicolor was explored for the removal of zirconium from simulated aqueous solution. Optimum experimental parameters for the bioremediation of zirconium using C. versicolor biomass have been investigated by studying the effect of mycelia dose, concentration of zirconium, contact time and temperature. The isothermal studies indicated that the ongoing bioremediation process was exothermic in nature and obeyed Langmuir adsorption isotherm model. The Gibbs free energy (ΔG), entropy (ΔS) and enthalpy (ΔH) of bioremediation were also determined. The result showed that bioremediation of zirconium by live C. versicolor was feasible and spontaneous at room temperature. The equilibrium data verified the involvement of chemisorption during the bioremediation. The kinetic data indicated the operation of pseudo-second order process during the biosorption of zirconium from aqueous solution. Maximum bioremediation capacity (110.75 mg/g) of C. versicolor was observed under optimum operational conditions: pH 4.5, biomass dose 0.05 mg/100 mL, contact time 6 h and temperature 30 degree C. The results showed that C. versicolor could be used for bioremediation of heavy metal ions from aqueous systems. (author)

  1. Direct human DNA protection by Coriolus versicolor (Yunzhi) extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeto, Yim Tong; Lau, Po Chun; Kalle, Wouter; Pak, Sok Cheon

    2013-07-01

    Scientific evidence has shown Coriolus versicolor (L. ex Fr.) Quel (also known as Yunzhi) has the role of immunomodulator in therapeutic effect. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the antioxidative effect of Yunzhi and to explore the mechanisms behind its DNA protection. Commercial Yunzhi extract was dissolved in water and diluted in five concentrations (10(1)-10(5) μg/L) with appropriate buffers. Lymphocytes harvested from three healthy subjects were incubated with Yunzhi extract for 30 min. Cells were then subjected to 5 min oxidant challenge by 45 μM hydrogen peroxide. The standard alkaline comet (SAC) assay and lysed cell comet (LCC) assay were performed in parallel. DNA damage of each treatment was scored under a fluorescence microscope and compared with the cells without Yunzhi pretreatment. U-shaped dose-response was seen in both versions of the comet assay. Yunzhi at 10(4) μg/L demonstrated a genoprotective effect against oxidative damage in the SAC assay (25% decrease in comet score). In the LCC assay, a trend of protection in lymphocytes was observed but it did not reach statistical significance. A direct antioxidant effect of Yunzhi against oxidant challenge on the DNA of lymphocytes was evidenced. The active component in Yunzhi was likely to be membrane permeable.

  2. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinello, Elena; Piaserico, Stefano; Alaibac, Mauro

    2017-01-18

    Pityriasis versicolor is one of the most frequent epidermal mycotic infections in the world, but its atrophic variant is rarely described. The aetiology of the atrophy is still unknown, and two main hypotheses have been formulated, one suggesting a correlation with long-term use of topical steroids and the other a delayed type hypersensitivity to epicutaneous antigens derived from components of the fungus. Atrophic pityriasis versicolor is a benign disease, but needs to be distinguished from other more severe skin diseases manifesting with cutaneous atrophy. The diagnosis can be easily confirmed by direct microscopic observation of the scales soaked in 15% potassium hydroxide, which reveals the typical 'spaghetti and meatball' appearance, or by a skin biopsy in doubtful cases. Here, we describe a case of extensive atrophic pityriasis versicolor occurring in a woman affected by Sjögren's syndrome which completely resolved after topical antifungal treatment. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  3. Effect of Aspergillus versicolor strain JASS1 on low density polyethylene degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendiran, A.; Subramani, S.; Abraham, J.

    2017-11-01

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) waste disposal remains one of the major environmental concerns faced by the world today. In past decades, major focus has been given to enhance the biodegradation of LDPE by microbial species. In this present study, Aspergillus versicolor with the ability to degrade LDPE was isolated from municipal landfill area using enrichment technique. Based on 18S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed its identity as Aspergillus versicolor. The biodegradation study was carried out for 90 d in M1 medium. The degradation behaviour of LDPE films by Aspergillus versicolor strain JASS1 were confirmed by weight loss, CO2 evolution, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) technique. From current investigation, it can be concluded that our isolated strain JASS1 had the potential to degrade LDPE films and it can be useful in solving the problem caused by polyethylene in the environment.

  4. The Tinea Hospital in Granada, 1679-1923: an institution with a long history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girón, F; Lozano, C; Serrano-Ortega, S

    2015-10-01

    The Tinea hospital in Granada, Spain, was a charitable health facility founded in the 17th century and still treating patients well into the 20th century. The hospital accepted patients from anywhere, not only those residing in the surrounding area. We describe the hospital's founding and the characteristics of the patients and caregivers. We also discuss how tinea was considered at the time, including the typology and treatment protocols applied as well as diet and hygiene measures used. It is striking that a hospital so focused on treating a single disease did not produce studies on the condition or on the application of contemporary knowledge to guide treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of Tinea capitis in school going children from Mathare, informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moto, Jedidah Ndunge; Maingi, John Muthini; Nyamache, Anthony Kebira

    2015-06-27

    Tinea capitis is a common infection especially in poor resource settings. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence Tinea capitis in children from selected schools from an urban slum in Nairobi city of Kenya. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 150 school going children during the period between May and September 2013. A questionnaire was administered and cultures of scalps, skin scrapping/hair stubs samples were performed and the etiological agents identified and confirmed. In a total of one hundred and fifty (150) children recruited 89 (59.3%) were males and 61 (40.7%) females aged between 3 and 14 years. The overall prevalence rates in dermatophytes infection was 81.3% (122/150) with etiological agents consisting Trichophyton spp. (61.3%), Microsporum spp. (13.3%) and Epidermophyton spp. (7.3%) infections with infections occurring either singly (56%), duo (38%) or tipple co-infections (6%). This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Tinea infections with Trichophyton tonsurans as the predominant etiological agent in school going children of the urban slums of Nairobi.

  6. Recent updates in oral terbinafine: its use in onychomycosis and tinea capitis in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Duyn Graham, Lauren; Elewski, Boni E

    2011-11-01

    Onychomycosis and tinea capitis are prevalent fungal diseases that are difficult to cure and usually require systemic treatment. Onychomycosis has high recurrence rates and can significantly affect a patient's quality of life. Oral terbinafine has been approved for onychomycosis for 20 years in Europe and 15 years in the United States. Over these past 20 years, numerous studies show that oral terbinafine is a safe and efficacious treatment for onychomycosis. More recently, oral terbinafine also has been approved for tinea capitis. Once difficult to treat, terbinafine has revolutionised treatment of these fungal diseases. It has minimal side effects and its limited drug interactions make it an excellent treatment option for patients with co-morbidities. This review discusses oral terbinafine and new insights into the treatment of onychomycosis and tinea capitis. Recent publications have enhanced our knowledge of the mechanisms of oral terbinafine and its efficacy in treating onychomycosis. Oral terbinafine vs. other antifungal therapeutic options are reviewed. Overall, terbinafine remains a superior treatment for dermatophyte infections because of its safety, fungicidal profile, once daily dosing, and its ability to penetrate the stratum corneum. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Comparison of Oral Terbinafine with Itraconazole in the Treatment of Tinea Pedis

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    Memet Bilgili

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of oral terbinafine and itraconazole in the treatment of the patients with interdigital tinea pedis. Material and Method: A total 60 patients with clinically and mycologically diagnosed as interdigital tinea pedis were enrolled to the study. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group received oral terbinafine 250 mg/day for two weeks (n:30. The second group received itraconazole 200 mg daily for 7 days (n:30. At the first visit and 15, 30, 60 days after the start of the study, signs and symptoms were assessed clinically and scales were taken for mycological assessments. Results: Six patients who did not return after the first visit were excluded from the study (2 on terbinafine, 4 on itraconazole. The effectiveness of therapy was evaluated at day 15, 30, 60. Symptoms were absent in 57.1% of terbinafine group and 46.1% of the itraconazole group in the first control. The effectiveness of the terbinafine group was 82.1% and 73.1% of the itraconazole group in second control. At day 60, the cure rates were similar (89.3% for terbinafine, 84.6% for itraconazole. No statistical significant differences between the two groups was observed (p>0.05. Discussion: Oral terbinafine and itraconazole have the same effectiveness and tolerability in the treatment of interdigital tinea pedis.

  8. Pitiríase versicolor circinada: isolamento de Malassezia sympodialis - Relato de caso Pityriasis versicolor circinata: isolation of Malassezia sympodialis - Case report

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    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem caso de pitiríase versicolor circinada, cujo agente etiológico isolado foi Malassezia sympodialis em uma mulher de 34 anos. O isolamento e identificação da Malassezia sympodialis foi em ágar Dixon modificado e o método molecular para confirmação da espécie foi PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.The authors report a case of pityriasis versicolor circinata whose isolated etiologic agent was Malassezia sympodialis in a 34-year-old woman. The isolation and identification of Malassezia sympodialis were accomplished with modified Dixon's agar, and the molecular method used to confirm the species was polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (PCR-RFLP.

  9. Tinea capitis: study of asymptomatic carriers and sick adolescents, adults and elderly who live with children with the disease

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    BERGSON Christiane Loureiro

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Tinea capitis is a dermatophyte infection that occurs mainly in childhood; there are few reports, in Brazil, in adolescents and adults. The detection of asymptomatic carriers is of great importance in the disease control. From February 1998 to February 1999, a study was performed at the outpatient Dermatologic Unit of Instituto de Puericultura e Pediatria Martagão Gesteira (Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil to verify the frequency of asymptomatic carriers and tinea capitis between 79 adolescents, adults and elderly who lived in the same household of 56 children (0-12 years with tinea capitis. Of these, one female and one male adults (2.5% were asymptomatic carriers and the cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans and Microsporum canis respectively. One female adolescent and two female adults (3.8% had tinea capitis and all cultures revealed Trichophyton tonsurans. The study has shown that adolescents and adults who live in the same household of children with tinea capitis may be sick or asymptomatic carriers.

  10. Safety and efficacy of tinea pedis and onychomycosis treatment in people with diabetes: a systematic review

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    Matricciani Lisa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective treatment of tinea pedis and onychomycosis is crucial for patients with diabetes as these infections may lead to foot ulcers and secondary bacterial infections resulting in eventual lower limb amputation. Although numerous studies have assessed the effectiveness of antifungal drug and treatment regimens, most exclude patients with diabetes and examine otherwise healthy individuals. While these studies are useful, results cannot necessarily be extrapolated to patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to therefore identify the best evidence-based treatment interventions for tinea pedis or onychomycosis in people with diabetes. Methods The question for this systemic review was: 'what evidence is there for the safety and/or efficacy of all treatment interventions for adults with tinea pedis and/or onychomycosis in people with diabetes'? A systematic literature search of four electronic databases (Scopus, EbscoHost, Ovid, Web of Science was undertaken (6/1/11. The primary outcome measure for safety was self-reported adverse events likely to be drug-related, while the primary outcome measures assessed for 'efficacy' were mycological, clinical and complete cure. Results The systematic review identified six studies that examined the safety and/or efficacy of treatment interventions for onychomycosis in people with diabetes. No studies were identified that examined treatment for tinea pedis. Of the studies identified, two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs and four were case series. Based on the best available evidence identified, it can be suggested that oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as oral itraconazole therapy for the treatment of onychomycosis in people with diabetes. However, efficacy results were found to be poor. Conclusions This review indicates that there is good evidence (Level II to suggest oral terbinafine is as safe and effective as itraconazole therapy for the treatment of

  11. Exploitation of Trametes versicolor for bioremediation of endocrine disrupting chemicals in bioreactors.

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    Cinzia Pezzella

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs are environmental contaminants causing increasing concerns due to their toxicity, persistence and ubiquity. In the present study, degradative capabilities of Trametes versicolor, Pleurotus ostreatus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium to act on five EDCs, which represent different classes of chemicals (phenols, parabens and phthalate and were first applied as single compounds, were assessed. T. versicolor was selected due to its efficiency against target EDCs and its potentialities were exploited against a mixture of EDCs in a cost-effective bioremediation process. A fed-batch approach as well as a starvation strategy were applied in order to reduce the need for input of 'fresh' biomass, and avoid the requirement for external nutrients. The fungus was successfully operated in two different bioreactors over one week. Semi-batch cultures were carried out by daily adding a mixture of EDCs to the bioreactors in a total of five consecutive degradation cycles. T. versicolor was able to efficiently remove all compounds during each cycle converting up to 21 mg L-1 day-1 of the tested EDCs. The maintained ability of T. versicolor to remove EDCs without any additional nutrients represents the main outcome of this study, which enables to forecast its application in a water treatment process.

  12. Pitiríase versicolor e síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (SIDA

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    Roza Marlon Soares

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é uma infecção crônica recorrente da camada córnea causada pela Malassezia furfur, geralmente assintomática, podendo ser causa de fungemia. A síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida caracteriza-se por uma importante depressão celular, o que propicia a ocorrência de infecções oportunistas. OBJETIVOS: Dados a imunodepressão causada pelo HIV e o risco da presença de M. furfur em sua forma patogênica no imunocomprometido, realizou-se este trabalho comparativo buscando as reais diferenças da pitiríase versicolor no imunocompetente e no imunodeprimido pelo HIV. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados, no período de julho de 1998 a junho de 1999, 50 pacientes HIV positivos do Hospital Universitário da UFJF. Como grupo controle, foram examinados de forma aleatória 50 pacientes soronegativos para HIV. Para cada paciente foi preenchido um protocolo constando de identificação e exames clínicos e laboratoriais. RESULTADOS: A pitiríase versicolor foi diagnosticada clinicamente no grupo HIV positivo em sete (14% pacientes, resultado coincidente no grupo controle. Quanto ao passado para a pitiríase versicolor, 12 (24% pacientes já haviam apresentado tal doença no grupo HIV positivo, e igual incidência ocorreu no grupo controle. CONCLUSÕES: A pitiríase versicolor não se mostrou mais freqüente e nem mais agressiva na população imunodeprimida pelo HIV em relação ao grupo controle, enquanto a dermatite seborréica apresentou-se mais freqüente no grupo infectado pelo HIV.

  13. Identification and speciation of Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having pityriasis versicolor

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    Avani Shah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Malassezia is a lipid-dependent yeast known to cause Pityriasis versicolor, a chronic, recurrent superficial infection of skin and present as hypopigmented or hyperpigmented lesions on areas of skin. If not diagnosed and treated, it may lead to disfigurement of the areas involved and also result in deep invasive infections. Aim: The aim of the present study was to identify and speciate Malassezia in patients clinically suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor. Materials and Methods: Total 139 patients suspected of having Pityriasis versicolor were evaluated clinically and diagnosis was done by Wood′s lamp examination, confirmed mycologically by using KOH, cultivation on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar and modified Dixon agar at a tertiary care hospital in Mumbai. The total duration of study was 12 months. Results: Majority of the patients were males (59.71% in the age group of 21-30 years (33.81% who were students (30.21% by profession. The incidence of Malassezia in Pityriasis versicolor was 50.35%. The most common isolate was M. globosa (48.57%, followed by M. furfur (34.28%. Majority of the patients had hypopigmented lesions, with M. globosa as the predominant isolate. Neck was the most common site affected; 88.48% were Wood′s lamp positive of which 56.91% of Malassezia isolates grew on culture. KOH mount was positive in 82.01% of which 61.40% Malassezia isolates grew on culture. Conclusions: The procedure of culture and antifungal testing is required to be performed as different species of Malassezia are involved in Pityriasis versicolor and susceptibility is different among different species. Thus, it would help to prevent recurrences and any systemic complications.

  14. DESTRUCTION OF ASPERGILLUS VERSICOLOR, PENICILLIUM CRYSOGENUM, STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM, AND CLADOSPORIUM CLADOSPORIDES SPORES USING CHEMICAL OXIDATION TREATMENT PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The survival of aqueous suspensions of Penicillium chrysogenum, Stachybotrys chartarum, Aspergillus versicolor, and Cladosporium cladosporioides spores was evaluated using various combinations of hydrogen peroxide and iron (II) as catalyst. Spores were suspended in water and trea...

  15. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz; Pałecz, Bartłomiej; Długoński, Jerzy

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L −1 ) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring- 14 C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of 14 CO 2 , proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate

  16. Biodegradation and utilization of 4-n-nonylphenol by Aspergillus versicolor as a sole carbon and energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupiński, Mariusz; Janicki, Tomasz [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland); Pałecz, Bartłomiej [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Lodz, Pomorska 165, 90-236 Łódź (Poland); Długoński, Jerzy, E-mail: jdlugo@biol.uni.lodz.pl [Department of Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Łódź (Poland)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • A. versicolor is able to degrade 4-n-NP as the sole source of carbon and energy. • 4-n-NP removal by A. versicolor was accompanied by the formation of metabolites. • Radioactive experiments show complete 4-n-NP mineralization by A. versicolor. • 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the A. versicolor spores. - Abstract: 4-n-Nonylphenol (4-n-NP) is an environmental pollutant with endocrine-disrupting activities that is formed during the degradation of nonylphenol polyethoxylates, which are widely used as surfactants. Utilization of 4-n-NP by the filamentous fungus Aspergillus versicolor as the sole carbon and energy source was investigated. By means of gas chromatography–mass spectrometry, we showed that in the absence of any carbon source other than 4-n-NP in the medium, A. versicolor completely removed the xenobiotic (100 mg L{sup −1}) after 3 d of cultivation. Moreover, mass spectrometric analysis of intracellular extracts led to the identification of eight intermediates. The mineralization of the xenobiotic in cultures supplemented with 4-n-NP [ring-{sup 14}C(U)] as a growth substrate was also assessed. After 3 d of incubation, approximately 50% of the initially applied radioactivity was recovered in the form of {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, proving that this xenobiotic was completely metabolized and utilized by A. versicolor as a carbon source. Based on microscopic analysis, A. versicolor is capable of germinating spores under such conditions. To confirm these observations, a microcalorimetric method was used. The results show that even the highest amount of 4-n-NP initiates heat production in the fungal samples, proving that metabolic processes were affected by the use of 4-n-NP as an energetic substrate.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of Terbinafine Hydrochloride 1% Cream vs. Sertaconazole Nitrate 2% Cream in Tinea Corporis and Tinea Cruris: A Comparative Therapeutic Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Sv; Bisati, S; Singh, Al; Koley, S

    2013-11-01

    To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream) and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream). A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud's dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological) showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1(st) and 2(nd) week, statistically non-significant results were observed (P = 0.461 and P = 0.679 respectively). However, at the end of 2(nd) week

  18. Efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream vs. sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in tinea corporis and tinea cruris: A comparative therapeutic trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S V Choudhary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: To the best of our knowledge, till date no study comparing the efficacy and safety of terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream has been done in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris. Aims: This clinical trial was carried out to study and compare the efficacy of topical terbinafine hydrochloride 1% cream and sertaconazole nitrate 2% cream in localized tinea corporis and tinea cruris and to know the adverse effects of these antifungal creams. Settings and Design: In this prospective, single blind, randomized control trial with two arms, patient were randomized into two groups Group A (treatment with terbinafine cream and Group B (treatment with sertaconazole cream. A total of 38 patients were enrolled for the study, 20 patients in group A and 18 patients in group B. But five patients of group A and three patients of group B were lost for follow-ups. Therefore sample size was of 30 patients with 15 patients in group A and group B each. Materials and Methods: Patients in group A and B were treated with twice daily topical 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 2% sertaconazole nitrate cream respectively for a total duration of three weeks. Clinical improvement in signs and symptoms of each clinical parameter, namely itching, erythema, papules, pustules, vesicles, and scaling were graded weekly and clinical cure was assessed. KOH mount and culture was done weekly up to 3 weeks to access mycological cure. Fungal culture was done on Sabouraud′s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using students paired and unpaired t-tests from the data obtained. Results: Comparison between Group A and Group B for complete cure (clinical and mycological showed that at the end of 3 weeks both terbinafine and sertaconazole groups had 100% complete cure. When the two groups were compared for complete cure, at the end of 1 st and 2 nd week, statistically non

  19. A random comparative study of terbinafine versus griseofulvin in patients with tinea capitis in Western China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, S; Hu, H; Abliz, P; Wan, Z; Wang, A; Cheng, W; Li, R

    2011-11-01

    To compare the efficacy and safety of terbinafine with griseofulvin in the treatment of tinea capitis in Western China. Children (2-14 years of age) with clinically diagnosed and potassium hydroxide microscopy-confirmed tinea capitis were randomized into three groups: group GRI4 received 4 weeks of griseofulvin; group TBF2 received 2 weeks of terbinafine; and Group TBF4 received 4 weeks of terbinafine. Clinical and mycological evaluations were done in 0, 2, 4, and 8 weeks and 1 year after therapy started. The isolated pathogenic fungi were evaluated for in vitro susceptibility by detecting the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) against terbinafine, griseofulvin, itraconazole, and ketoconazole. The clinical effectiveness rate of GRI4, TBF2, and TBF4 were 100% (95% CI-confidence interval: 82-100%), 96.3% (95% CI: 81-100%), and 100%(95% CI: 85-100%), respectively, at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for the 3 groups; clinical cure rates were 84.2%(95% CI: 77-99%), 85.2%(95% CI: 71-98%), and 78.3%(95% CI: 61-95%), respectively, at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for all agents; mycological cure rates were 100%(95% CI: 74-100%), 95.0%(95% CI: 74-100%), and 94.1%(95% CI: 50-93%) at week 8 and 100% after 1 year for the 3 groups. In vitro, all patient-derived cultures were sensitive to the four antifungal agents. Data from the clinical trial and in vitro antifungal activity indicated that terbinafine is efficacious and well tolerated in the treatment for Trichophyton infections (T. violaceum; Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii; and T. tonsurans) of the scalp, i.e., a 2- to 4-week course of terbinafine is as effective as a 4-week course of griseofulvin; in fact, a 2-week course of terbinafine is sufficient. Terbinafine is an effective alternative to griseofulvin against tinea capitis of Trichophyton infections.

  20. Treatment of Signs and Symptoms (Pruritus) of Interdigital Tinea Pedis With Econazole Nitrate Foam, 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren K; Raymond, Isabelle; Kircik, Leon

    2018-02-01

    Tinea pedis is the most common dermatophyte infection. Treatment is critical to alleviate pruritic symptoms, to reduce the risk for secondary bacterial infection, and to limit the spread of infection to other body sites or other individuals. The objective of this study was to compare the abilities of econazole nitrate topical foam, 1% and ketoconazole cream (2%) to reduce pruritus, thus improving quality of life, and to determine patient preference for the foam product versus the cream product in patients with interdigital tinea pedis. A single-center, investigator-blinded, observational pilot study was conducted to compare econazole nitrate topical foam (1%) to ketoconazole cream (2%). In this split-body study, 20 subjects received both econazole nitrate topical foam and ketoconazole cream and applied the medications daily to either the right or left foot for 14 days. Improvements in patient quality of life (pruritus) and patient preference were measured using the pruritus visual analog scale (VAS), Skindex-16, and patient preference questionnaires. Nineteen subjects completed the study and one subject was lost to follow-up. Reductions in VAS scores of econazole nitrate topical foam were significantly greater than those of ketoconazole cream, indicating the superiority of the econazole nitrate foam in reducing pruritus. Skindex-16 data showed significant reductions in total scores and individual domains, including patient symptom, emotional, and functional domains, by the final visit. Since each subject received both medications the questionnaire was not medication-specific. Responses to patient preference questionnaires showed that econazole nitrate topical foam,1% was rated as "good" or "excellent" in all measures assessed. One adverse event was noted. In patients with interdigital tinea pedis, application of econazole nitrate topical foam 1% twice daily for two weeks was clinically effective and significantly superior to ketoconazole cream 2% in reducing

  1. Pityriasis versicolor: clinical-epidemiological characterization of patients in the urban area of Buerarema-BA , Brazil Pitiríase versicolor: caracterização clínico-epidemiológica em pacientes da área urbana de Buerarema-BA, Brasil

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    Juliano Oliveira Santana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a cutaneous pigmentation disorder caused by a lipophilic yeast of the genus Malassezia sp. It is a superficial mycosis characterized by well-defined, slightly scaly skin lesions of variable color. In Brazil, the number of reported cases is small, and there are few epidemiological studies. OBJECTIVES: to assess incidence, characteristics of the lesions, effectiveness of the Zileri's Sign procedure, and the epidemiological profile of PV in the urban area of Buerarema - Bahia. METHODS: Biological samples were collected on pre-established days at Basic Health Care Units from July to September 2010. Sample collection was followed by laboratory diagnosis using Porto's Method. RESULTS: Of the 158 patients with suspected PV participating in the study, 105 (66.5% were positive; 72 (68.6% were female and 33 (31.4% were male. Sex and location of lesions showed statistically significant differences (p FUNDAMENTOS: A pitiríase versicolor é um distúrbio de pigmentação cutânea causada pela levedura lipofílica do gênero Malassezia sp. É uma micose superficial caracterizada por produzir lesões delimitadas, com descamação fina e de cor variável. No Brasil, o relato do número de casos e de estudos é restrito. OBJETIVOS: Analisar a incidência, as características das lesões, a eficácia do Sinal de Zileri e o perfil epidemiológico da pitiríase versicolor na área urbana do município de Buerarema-BA. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras biológicas no período de julho a setembro de 2010, em dias pré-establecidos, nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde. O Método de Porto foi utilizado como diagnóstico laboratorial. RESULTADOS: Dos 158 pacientes cadastrados com suspeita de pitiríase versicolor, 105 (66,5% mostraram-se positivos, sendo 72 (68,6% do sexo feminino e 33 (31,4% do sexo oposto. Ocorreu diferença estatisticamente significante entre sexo e localização das lesões (p<0,05. A região com maior

  2. Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of a Tinea Capitis Outbreak Among Novice Buddhist Monks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Leeyaphan, Charussri; Rujitharanawong, Chuda; Muanprasat, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita

    2017-05-01

    Sixty novice Buddhist monks with tinea capitis confirmed according to clinical presentation and mycological laboratory finding were included in this study. Mixed-type clinical presentation was observed in approximately half of all cases, together with scarring alopecia (95%) and superficial fungal skin infection at locations other than the scalp (43.3%). The major isolated organism was Trichophyton violaceum, and mixed-organism infection was found in 27 cases (45%). Slow-onset presentation and an extensive area of infection were significantly associated with mixed-type clinical presentation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Basal cell carcinoma of the scalp after radiation therapy for tinea capitis: 33 patients; Carcinomes basocellulaires du cuir chevelu secondaires a une radiotherapie pour teigne: une serie de 33 malades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mseddi, M.; Bouassida, S.; Marrekchi, S.; Khemakhem, M.; Gargouri, N.; Turki, H.; Zahaf, A. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Hedi Chaker, Service de Dermatologie, Sfax (Tunisia)

    2004-08-01

    Occurrence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) following radiotherapy for tinea capitis is well known. The aim of this study was to specify the clinical and histological features of these BCC seen in 33 patients (1995 000). Twenty seven men and six women were diagnosed with BCC. The age of onset varied between 32 an 62 years. Radiotherapy was received between 5 and 17 years of age. The interval between irradiation and the onset of carcinoma varied between 21 and 51 years. Total number of lesions was 55. Forty percent of BCC occurred on the occipital area, the number varied from 1 to 5 and the size from 2 to 45 mm. Clinically, the nodular type was found in 51% of cases. Pigment was present in 64% of cases. Histological study showed a nodular aspect in 76% and pigmentation in 63% of cases. Nodular and pigmented type were the predominant BCC occurring after radiotherapy for tinea capitis in our series. In the literature, BCC are the most frequent carcinomas occurring after radiotherapy (70-100%). Pigmentation was not described in other series. The nodular histological form was the most frequent. (author)

  4. Role of Laccase and Low Molecular Weight Metabolites from Trametes versicolor in Dye Decolorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Moldes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The studies regarding decolorization of dyes by laccase may not only inform about the possible application of this enzyme for environmental purposes, but also may provide important information about its reaction mechanism and the influence of several factors that could be involved. In this paper, decolorization of crystal violet and phenol red was carried out with different fractions of extracellular liquids from Trametes versicolor cultures, in order to describe the role of laccase in this reaction. Moreover, the possible role of the low molecular weight metabolites (LMWMs also produced by the fungus was evaluated. The results confirm the existence of a nonenzymatic decolorization factor, since the nonprotein fraction of the extracellular liquids from cultures of T. versicolor has shown decolorization capability. Several experiments were performed in order to identify the main compounds related to this ability, which are probably low molecular weight peroxide compounds.

  5. Aroma Characterization and Safety Assessment of a Beverage Fermented by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanyan; Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Müller, Julia; Schmitz, Hans-Joachim; Birk, Florian; Schrenk, Dieter; Zorn, Holger

    2015-08-12

    A cereal-based beverage was developed by fermentation of wort with the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor. The beverage possessed a fruity, fresh, and slightly floral aroma. The volatiles of the beverage were isolated by liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and additionally by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The aroma compounds were analyzed by a gas chromatography system equipped with a tandem mass spectrometer and an olfactory detection port (GC-MS/MS-O) followed by aroma (extract) dilution analysis. Thirty-four different odor impressions were perceived, and 27 corresponding compounds were identified. Fifteen key odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors ranging from 8 to 128 were quantitated, and their respective odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated. Six key odorants were synthesized de novo by T. versicolor. Furthermore, quantitative changes during the fermentation process were analyzed. To prepare for the market introduction of the beverage, a comprehensive safety assessment was performed.

  6. Comparative study of oral and topical ketoconazole therapy in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagpal V

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Both topical and systemic ketoconazole are reported to be effective against pityriasis versicolor. Material and Methods: Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated either with oral ketoconazole 200 mg per day or 2% ketoconazole cream topically once daily for 2 weeks. Results: On global assessment, after 2 weeks of start of therapy, 18 (90% out of 20 patients treated with oral ketoconazole were cured while 2 patients had considerable residual disease. In the ketoconazole cream group, 16 (80% out of 20 patients were cured and 4 patients had considerable residual disease. Conclusion: No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in two patients of the systemic ketoconazole group and six patients of the topical ketoconazole group during the follow-up period of three months.

  7. Sociogenetic structure of Polistes (Aphanilopterus versicolor Olivier, 1791 colonies (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Polistini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keize Nagamati Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The observation of two distinct, well-defined oviposition areas in nests of the primitively eusocial wasp Polistes versicolor suggests the presence of multiple egg-layers and territorial behaviors. Electrophoretic analysis of enzyme loci in pupae from 35 colonies revealed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.10 and the existence of private polymorphisms, thereby indicating a low dispersion in this species. No evidence of diploid males was found. Phenotypic segregation analysis revealed the presence of more than one egg-laying female in 15 out of 35 colonies, as well as spatially preferential oviposition in 2 out of 13 nests, with distinct oviposition areas. Genetic relatedness estimates for brood were lower than expected for haplodiploid species under monogynous conditions (r = 0.75 for female broods and r = 0.5 for male in 4 of those 13 nests, thereby inferring complex sociogenetic structuring in Polistes versicolor colonies.

  8. Cyclo-(trp-phe diketopiperazines from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor isolated from Piper aduncum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana R. Gubiani

    Full Text Available Six known compounds, three peptide derivatives: cyclo-(tryptophyl-phenylalanyl (2, diketopiperazine dimer WIN 64821 (3 and 3-hydroxy-15H-tryptophenaline (4, one adenine derivative: 2-hydroxy-6-N-isopentenyl-adenine (5, one phtalide derivative: 4-methoxyphtalide (1 and one benzoic acid derivative: 3-hydroxy-4-(1-hydroxy-1,5-dimethyl-hexyl benzoic acid (6, were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus versicolor associated with the Piper aduncum plant. Their structures were determined on the basis of detailed interpretation of 1 D and 2D NMR spectra and in comparison with works reported in the literature. This paper, in effect, deals with the first report of these compounds in A. versicolor.

  9. The Evolution of Personally Disadvantageous Punishment among Cofoundresses of the Ant Acromyrmex Versicolor

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrales, Antonio; Pollock, Gregory B.; Rissing, Steven W.

    1998-01-01

    Cofoundresses of the desert fungus garden ant Acromyrmex versicolor exhibit a forager specialist who subsumes all foraging risk prior to first worker eclosion (Rissing et al. 1989). In an experiment designed to mimic a "cheater" who refuses foraging assignment when her lot, cofoundresses delayed/failed to replace their forager, often leading to demise of their garden (Rissing et al. 1996). The cheater on task assignment is harmed, but so too is the punisher, as all will die without a healthy ...

  10. Symbiosis initiation in the bacterially luminous sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, P V; Gould, A L; Wittenrich, M L; Nakamura, M

    2012-09-01

    To determine how each new generation of the sea urchin cardinalfish Siphamia versicolor acquires the symbiotic luminous bacterium Photobacterium mandapamensis, and when in its development the S. versicolor initiates the symbiosis, procedures were established for rearing S. versicolor larvae in an aposymbiotic state. Under the conditions provided, larvae survived and developed for 28 days after their release from the mouths of males. Notochord flexion began at 8 days post release (dpr). By 28 dpr, squamation was evident and the caudal complex was complete. The light organ remained free of bacteria but increased in size and complexity during development of the larvae. Thus, aposymbiotic larvae of the fish can survive and develop for extended periods, major components of the luminescence system develop in the absence of the bacteria and the bacteria are not acquired directly from a parent, via the egg or during mouth brooding. Presentation of the symbiotic bacteria to aposymbiotic larvae at 8-10 dpr, but not earlier, led to initiation of the symbiosis. Upon colonization of the light organ, the bacterial population increased rapidly and cells forming the light-organ chambers exhibited a differentiated appearance. Therefore, the light organ apparently first becomes receptive to colonization after 1 week post-release development, the symbiosis is initiated by bacteria acquired from the environment and bacterial colonization induces morphological changes in the nascent light organ. The abilities to culture larvae of S. versicolor for extended periods and to initiate the symbiosis in aposymbiotic larvae are key steps in establishing the experimental tractability of this highly specific vertebrate and microbe mutualism. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  11. Comparative Efficacy Of 1% Terbinafine Hydrochloride And 1% Butenafine Hydrochloride Cream In The Treatment Of Tinea Cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rathi Sanjay K

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the comparative efficacy of 1% terbinafine hydrochloride and 1% butenafine hydrochloride cream in the treatment of Tinea cruris, was done taking with ten patients in each study group. They were found to be equipotent in one and two weeks treatment respectively.

  12. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. SCC, Bowen's disease and BCC arising on chronic radiation dermatitis due to radiation therapy for tinea pedis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Eri; Aoki, Mikako; Ikemura, Akiko; Igarashi, Tsukasa; Suzuki, Kayano; Kawana, Seiji

    2000-01-01

    We reported a case who developed three different types of skin cancers: SCC, BCC, and Bowen's disease, on the chronic radiation dermatitis. He had been treated for his tinea pedis et palmaris with radiotherapy in 1940's. It is very ratre that three different types of skin cancers arise in the same patient. This is a second case reported in Japan. (author)

  14. Changes in frequency of agents of tinea capitis in school children from Western China suggest slow migration rates in dermatophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deng, S.; Bulmer, G.S.; Summerbell, R.C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Hui, Y.; Gräser, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Tinea capitis is a common dermatophyte infection of the scalp of children in Western China, with the gray-patch from being the most prevalent. Twenty years ago, the most widespread etiologic agent was reported to be Trichophyton violaceum, which was later succeeded by Microsporum ferrugineum and

  15. Tramesan, a novel polysaccharide from Trametes versicolor. Structural characterization and biological effects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Scarpari

    Full Text Available Mushrooms represent a formidable source of bioactive compounds. Some of these may be considered as biological response modifiers; these include compounds with a specific biological function: antibiotics (e.g. plectasin, immune system stimulator (e,g, lentinan, antitumor agents (e.g. krestin, PSK and hypolipidemic agents (e.g. lovastatin inter alia. In this study, we focused on the Chinese medicinal mushroom "yun zhi", Trametes versicolor, traditionally used for (cit. "replenish essence and qi (vital energy". Previous studies indicated the potential activity of extracts from culture filtrate of asexual mycelia of T. versicolor in controlling the growth and secondary metabolism (e.g. mycotoxins of plant pathogenic fungi. The quest of active principles produced by T. versicolor, allowed us characterising an exo-polysaccharide released in its culture filtrate and naming it Tramesan. Herein we evaluate the biological activity of Tramesan in different organisms: plants, mammals and plant pathogenic fungi. We suggest that the bioactivity of Tramesan relies mostly on its ability to act as pro antioxidant molecule regardless the biological system on which it was applied.

  16. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Rahul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Aim: Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. Methods: In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud′s dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests. Results: In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon′s agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5% were M. globosa, 15 (17.2% were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0% were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9% each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4% isolates were M. restricta. Conclusion: M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  17. Prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor in central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Rahul; Singh, Sanjay; Banerjee, Tuhina; Tilak, Ragini

    2010-01-01

    In the last 10 years, different studies have shown interesting geographical variations in the prevalence of different Malassezia species in pityriasis versicolor. Identification of Malassezia species isolated from patients with pityriasis versicolor. In 100 patients with pityriasis versicolor, Malassezia species were identified by culture in Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing cycloheximide with olive oil overlay and modified Dixon agar and by doing biochemical tests (catalase reaction, assimilation of glycine, and Tween utilisation tests). In 10 patients, 10% KOH smear was negative, while in 90 patients the smear showed characteristic "spaghetti and meatball" appearance. Of these 90 cases, growth was obtained on modified Dixon's agar in 87 cases. Fifty of the isolates (57.5%) were M. globosa, 15 (17.2%) were M. sympodialis, seven (8.0%) were suspected M. sympodialis, 6 (6.9%) each of the isolates were M. furfur and M. obtusa, and three (3.4%) isolates were M. restricta. M. globosa was the most common species, followed by M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. obtusa, and M. restricta.

  18. Genetic diversity of Begonia versicolor (Begoniaceae, a narrow endemic species in southeast Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Begonia versicolor Irmscher, a narrow endemic Begonia species in southeast Yunnan of China, is a wonderful ornamental plant with huge diversity in colored foliage. To investigate its variations, the genetic diversity and population structure were studied based on 56 individuals sampled from four localities using 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci transferred from other species of Begonia. The results showed a relatively low level of genetic diversity in B. versicolor comparing with other species of Begonia using microsatellite. Positive inbreeding coefficient (FIS values were found in three populations (SWC, XPZ and DSD. AMOVA analysis indicated that genetic variations occurred mainly within populations (55.9% rather than among populations (9.7% and among groups (34.4%. Four populations were grouped into two clusters based on STRUCTURE. AMOVA and STRUCTURE analysis showed a high level and significant genetic differentiation in the populations of B. versicolor. Based on its genetic status and rarity in the wild, the sustainable in-situ and ex-situ conservation strategies should be urgently carried out to protect this species with high horticultural and scientific values.

  19. Transcriptional Responses in the Hemiparasitic Plant Triphysaria versicolor to Host Plant Signals1[w

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko, Marta; Torres, Manuel J.; Yoder, John I.

    2001-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Scrophulariaceae use chemicals released by host plant roots to signal developmental processes critical for heterotrophy. Haustoria, parasitic plant structures that attach to and invade host roots, develop on roots of the hemiparasitic plant Triphysaria versicolor within a few hours of exposure to either maize (Zea mays) root exudate or purified haustoria-inducing factors. We prepared a normalized, subtractive cDNA library enriched for transcripts differentially abundant in T. versicolor root tips treated with the allelopathic quinone 2,6-dimethoxybenzoquinone (DMBQ). Northern analyses estimated that about 10% of the cDNAs represent transcripts strongly up-regulated in roots exposed to DMBQ. Northern and reverse northern analyses demonstrated that most DMBQ-responsive messages were similarly up-regulated in T. versicolor roots exposed to maize root exudates. From the cDNA sequences we assembled a unigene set of 137 distinct transcripts and assigned functions by homology comparisons. Many of the proteins encoded by the transcripts are predicted to function in quinone detoxification, whereas others are more likely associated with haustorium development. The identification of genes transcriptionally regulated by haustorium-inducing factors provides a framework for dissecting genetic pathways recruited by parasitic plants during the transition to heterotrophic growth. PMID:11553755

  20. Flavonoids Promote Haustoria Formation in the Root Parasite Triphysaria versicolor1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Huguette; Yoder, John I.; Phillips, Donald A.

    1999-01-01

    Parasitic plants in the Scrophulariaceae develop infective root structures called haustoria in response to chemical signals released from host-plant roots. This study used a simple in vitro assay to characterize natural and synthetic molecules that induce haustoria in the facultative parasite Triphysaria versicolor. Several phenolic acids, flavonoids, and the quinone 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone induced haustoria in T. versicolor root tips within hours after treatment. The concentration at which different molecules were active varied widely, the most active being 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone and the anthocyanidin peonidin. Maize (Zea mays) seeds are rich sources of molecules that induce T. versicolor haustoria in vitro, and chromatographic analyses indicated that the active molecules present in maize-seed rinses include anthocyanins, other flavonoids, and simple phenolics. The presence of different classes of inducing molecules in seed rinses was substantiated by the observation that maize kernels deficient in chalcone synthase, a key enzyme in flavonoid biosynthesis, released haustoria-inducing molecules, although at reduced levels compared with wild-type kernels. We discuss these results in light of existing models for host perception in the related parasitic plant Striga. PMID:9952454

  1. Případ tinea corporis vyvolaný Microsporum incurvatum, geofilním druhem příbuzným M. gypseum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lysková, P.; Hubka, Vít; Bodnárová, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 4 (2014), s. 187-191 ISSN 0009-0514 Grant - others:Universita Karlova(CZ) 1344214 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : tinea corporis * Microsporum incurvatum * Arthroderma Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  2. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tertiary Care Hospital, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Pityriasis versicolor (PV is a chronic superficial fungal disease caused by Malassezia species. Our aim was to identify Malassezia species from PV patients and healthy individuals in Punjab. Materials and Methods: Modified Dixon agar was used as isolation culture medium. Identification was based on morphological observation and biochemical evaluation. The biochemical evaluation consisted of culture onto Sabouraud dextrose agar, catalase reaction, Tween assimilation, Cremophor EL assimilation, splitting of esculin and growth at 38 0 C. Results: Out of 58 microscopically diagnosed cases of PV, growth was obtained from 54 (93.10% cases. The most frequently isolated species were M. globosa, M. sympodialis and M. furfur which made up 51.79%, 31.42% and 18.51% of the isolated etiological agents respectively. However, the major isolate from the back of healthy individuals was M. sympodialis (47.61%, followed by M.obtusa (19.04%, M. globosa (14.20%, M. furfur (9.52%, M. pachydermatis (4.76% and M. slooffiae (4.76%. Conclusions: M. globosa in its mycelial phase was the main etiological agent, but as normal flora from the back of healthy subjects, it was found in significantly less number (P = 0.01, suggesting that the higher pathogenicity of M. globosa in terms of enzymatic endowment, might be the cause of its predominance in PV lesions.

  3. Study of the distribution of Malassezia species in patients with pityriasis versicolor and healthy individuals in Tehran, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati Hojjat

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pityriasis versicolor is a superficial infection of the stratum corneum which caused by a group of yeasts formerly named pityrosporium. The taxonomy of these lipophilic yeasts has recently been modified and includes seven species referred as Malassezia. The aim of this study is to compare the distribution of Malassezia species isolated from pityriasis versicolor lesions and those isolated from healthy skins. Methods Differentiation of all malassezia species performed using morphological features and physiological test including catalase reaction, Tween assimilation test and splitting of esculin. Results In pityriasis versicolor lesions, the most frequently isolated species was M. globosa (53.3%, followed by M. furfur (25.3%, M. sympodialis(9.3%, M. obtusa (8.1% and M. slooffiae (4.0%. The most frequently isolated species in the skin of healthy individuals were M. globosa, M. sympodialis, M. furfur, M. sloofiae and M. restricta which respectively made up 41.7%, 25.0%, 23.3%, 6.7% and 3.3% of the isolated species. Conclusions According to our data, M. globosa was the most prevalent species in the skin of healthy individuals which recovered only in the yeast form. However, the Mycelial form of M. globosa was isolated as the dominant species from pityriasis versicolor lesions. Therefore, the role of predisposing factors in the conversion of this yeast to mycelium and its subsequent involvement in pityriasis versicolor pathogenicity should be considered.

  4. [A case of Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urano, Shoko; Shirai, Shigeko; Suzuki, Yoko; Sugaya, Keiko; Takigawa, Masahiro; Mochizuki, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    A 10-year-old Peruvian girl, living in Japan since 1996, visited our hospital in August 2000 complaining of alopecia which had been present on her scalp for one year. The bald areas appeared as multiple small, scattered, angular patches with indistinct margins. Follicular pustules, erythemic nodules and lymphadenopathy were also seen. In the culture of the affected hair, a tan surface with wiry undulations grew on Sabouraud's media. The colony reverse had reddish-brown central pigmentation. Slide cultured fungi produced great numbers of round and short club-shaped microconidia, hyphae and intercalary chlamydospores. These fungi showed the following characteristics: positive urease test, no pigment production on cornmeal agar and positive thiamine dependency. The restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern and the nucleotide sequences of ribosomal-DNA internal transcribed spacer region of the causative fungus was compatible with Trichophyton tonsurans. Daily administration of 125 mg of terbinafine resulted in a satisfactory response and the lesion healed almost completely.

  5. Epidemiological changes in tinea capitis over the sixty years of economic growth in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Wang, Chong; Sun, Jiufeng; Geng, Chengfang; Xiong, Zhiwei; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Liu, Weida; de Hoog, G Sybren

    2015-09-01

    Tinea capitis is a fungal infection of the scalp occurring commonly in children. Historical data indicate that clinical manifestations and the spectrum of etiologic agents vary greatly with geography, as well as socioeconomic affected populations. To study the possible connection between socioeconomic status, the disease patterns and the variability of etiological agents. We reviewed tinea capitis in China through literature since 1956. The disease pattern was correlated with economic and public health management protocols. Historical data on fungal identification were mostly obtained by morphology. The accuracy of these historical results was further confirmed by use of both morphological and ITS identification on a control set of 90 isolates collected recently from local hospital. Full agreement of the two identification methods implies that data from the literature were sufficiently reliable to allow comparison across reported cases. In sum, 88 papers involving 25 administrative provinces and municipalities with 38,962 clinical strains met the inclusion criteria of this review. Zoophilic species Microsporum canis is the most prevalent agent within large, modernized cities in China today accounting for over 80% of infections. In contrast, anthropophilic dermatophytes, particularly Trichophyton violaceum, are geographically endemic only in some southeastern and northwestern regions. Economic development and urbanization of cities favor a shift of etiological agents from anthroponoses to zoonoses in contemporary China. Pets are becoming the most likely sources of infection in modern lifestyles, replacing the earlier human-to-human transmission mode. However, the latter transmission mode is still prevalent in less developed areas lacking adequate social and public health facilities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e

  6. Heterologous expression of trametes versicolor laccase in pichia pastoris and aspergillus niger

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bohlin, C

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available primarily for screening purposes. With A. niger, high levels of laccase (2700 U/L) were produced using a min- imal medium containing sucrose and yeast extract. Recombinant laccase from A. niger harboring the lcc2 cDNA was purified to homogeneity...). Methods Microbial Strains and Recombinant DNA The lcc1 and lcc2 cDNA genes from T. (Coriolus, Polyporus) versicolor (9–11) were used in the construction of plasmids for expression of laccases in P. pastoris and A. niger. For the expression in P...

  7. Gravimetric screening method for fungal decay of paper: inoculation with Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Råberg, Ulrika; Hafrén, Jonas

    2009-10-01

    The European standard test EN 113 for fungal degradation of solid wood has been adapted for degradation of paper by white rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). Fungal degradation of paper sheets may potentially be used for screening different wood preservatives on paper instead of solid wood. The paper samples showed higher relative mass losses compared to wood, and samples pretreated with boric acid, copper sulfate and polymerized linseed oil were successfully tested for biodegradation using the paper sheet method. The results on paper degradation were compared with wood, both as wood blocks (according to standard test) and wood cut in sections forming layered structures mimicking paper layers.

  8. Trichophyton violaceum is the dominant cause of tinea capitis in children in Tripoli, Libya: results of a two year survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabib, Mohamed S; Agaj, Muna; Khalifa, Zinab; Kavanagh, Kevin

    2002-01-01

    The causative agents of tinea capitis in Libyan nationals attending the out patient Dermatology Clinic of the Tripoli Medical Centre over the period December 1997 to December 1999 were investigated. Samples (hair and scalp scrapings) were taken from 940 patients who presented with suspected tinea capitis. The etiological agents were identified in 584 cases. Trichophyton violaceum was found to be the most prevalent organism isolated being responsible for 64.4% (376/584) of culture positive cases, followed by Microsporum canis at 24.7% (144/584) and T. mentagrophytes at 5.5% (32/584). The majority of infections (380/584) occurred in females and in children with ages less than 12 years (554/584).

  9. Tinea capitis caused by Trichophyton tonsurans presenting as an obscure patchy hair loss due to daily antifungal shampoo use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sombatmaithai, Alita; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Tuchinda, Papapit; Surawan, Theetat; Muanprasart, Chanai; Matthapan, Lalita; Bunyaratavej, Sumanas

    2015-04-01

    Tinea capitis is unusual and often misdiagnosed in healthy adults. We report a case of a healthy woman with a several-year history of asymptomatic, bizarre-shaped, non-scarring alopecia. She had used over-the-counter ketoconazole shampoo regularly for a long time. An initial potassium hydroxide preparation showed negative result for fungal organism. The scalp biopsy revealed endothrix infection, and dermoscopic examination demonstrated the comma hair and corkscrew hair signs. The fungal culture showed Trichophyton tonsurans. The daily use of antifungal shampoo could be the important factor to conceal clinical and laboratory findings for diagnosis of T. tonsurans tinea capitis in our case, which required high clinical suspicion and histopathology and dermoscopic examinations.

  10. Study On Selenium Accumulation In Turkey Tail Fungus (Trametes Versicolor) By Using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Xuam Tham; Ho Van Hai; Bui Thi Minh Hai; Nguyen Giang; Nguyen Thi Dieu Hanh

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal mushroom Kawaratake Trametes versicolor strain obtained from Chiba University, Japan, was fermented at stationary Erlenmayer flasks 250 ml, containing PG media with Se (10 ppm as selenate) and without Se (control) supplement, incubated at 32-34 o C (room temperature in Ho Chi Minh City). Selenium was added as dissolve selenate Na 2 SeO 4 , in which Se was enriched with 74 Se. Under neutron fluxes in nuclear reactor 74 Se will be activated into 75 Se emitted gamma rays (n-γ reaction), recorded for calculations of Se contents in the samples. Cultivation of Kawaratake on mixed substrates based sawdusts supplemented with Se by injecting directly into center region of the substrate based on rubber tree sawdust. Analysis of Se contents in fungal biomass harvested by using INAA with neutron flux at 10 12 cm -2 .s -1 in Nuclear Reactor at Dalat City, Vietnam. The results obtained with Trametes versicolor showed Se levels in mycelial biomass up to 600-1500 ppm, while in the control (without Se supplement), only trace of Se (1 ppm more or less) was found. It would be related to the researches on configurations of complex of polysaccharides and proteins in biomass with high bioactivities. Se would substitute S for some due structures and enhance their antioxydant activities. (author)

  11. Corolla morphology influences diversification rates in bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mazuecos, Mario; Blanco-Pastor, José Luis; Gómez, José M.; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The role of flower specialization in plant speciation and evolution remains controversial. In this study the evolution of flower traits restricting access to pollinators was analysed in the bifid toadflaxes (Linaria sect. Versicolores), a monophyletic group of ∼30 species and subspecies with highly specialized corollas. Methods A time-calibrated phylogeny based on both nuclear and plastid DNA sequences was obtained using a coalescent-based method, and flower morphology was characterized by means of morphometric analyses. Directional trends in flower shape evolution and trait-dependent diversification rates were jointly analysed using recently developed methods, and morphological shifts were reconstructed along the phylogeny. Pollinator surveys were conducted for a representative sample of species. Key Results A restrictive character state (narrow corolla tube) was reconstructed in the most recent common ancestor of Linaria sect. Versicolores. After its early loss in the most species-rich clade, this character state has been convergently reacquired in multiple lineages of this clade in recent times, yet it seems to have exerted a negative influence on diversification rates. Comparative analyses and pollinator surveys suggest that the narrow- and broad-tubed flowers are evolutionary optima representing divergent strategies of pollen placement on nectar-feeding insects. Conclusions The results confirm that different forms of floral specialization can lead to dissimilar evolutionary success in terms of diversification. It is additionally suggested that opposing individual-level and species-level selection pressures may have driven the evolution of pollinator-restrictive traits in bifid toadflaxes. PMID:24142920

  12. Advanced oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene isomers (BTEX) by Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Elisabet; Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Caminal, Gloria; Arias, María E; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Guillén, Francisco

    2010-09-15

    Advanced oxidation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o-, m-, and p-xylene (BTEX) by the extracellular hydroxyl radicals (*OH) generated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor is for the first time demonstrated. The production of *OH was induced by incubating the fungus with 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe3+-EDTA. Under these conditions, *OH were generated through DBQ redox cycling catalyzed by quinone reductase and laccase. The capability of T. versicolor growing in malt extract medium to produce *OH by this mechanism was shown during primary and secondary metabolism, and was quantitatively modulated by the replacement of EDTA by oxalate and Mn2+ addition to DBQ incubations. Oxidation of BTEX was observed only under *OH induction conditions. *OH involvement was inferred from the high correlation observed between the rates at which they were produced under different DBQ redox cycling conditions and those of benzene removal, and the production of phenol as a typical hydroxylation product of *OH attack on benzene. All the BTEX compounds (500 microM) were oxidized at a similar rate, reaching an average of 71% degradation in 6 h samples. After this time oxidation stopped due to O2 depletion in the closed vials used in the incubations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect Of Metal Ions On Triphenylmethane Dye Decolorization By Laccase From Trametes Versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmelová Daniela

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was investigate the influence of different metal ions on laccase activity and triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Laccase activity was inhibited by monovalent ions (Li+, Na+, K+ and Ag+ but the presence of divalent ions increased laccase activity at the concentration of 10 mmol/l. The effect of metal ions on decolorization of triphenylmethane dyes with different structures namely Bromochlorophenol Blue, Bromophenol Blue, Bromocresol Blue and Phenol Red was tested. The presence of metal ions (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Ba2+, Mn2+, Zn2+ slightly decreased triphenylmethane dye decolorization by laccase from T. versicolor except Na+ and Mg2+, which caused the increase of decolorization for all tested dyes. Decolorization of selected dyes showed that the presence of low-molecular-weight compounds is necessary for effective decolorization. Hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT is the most frequently used. Although HBT belongs to most frequently used redox mediator and generally increase decolorization efficiency, so its presence decreased decolorization percentage of Bromophenol Blue and Bromochlorophenol Blue, the influence of metal ions to dye decolorization by laccase has the similar course with or without presence of redox mediator HBT.

  14. Real-time PCR analysis of carbon catabolite repression of cellobiose gene transcription in Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapleton, P. C.; O' Mahoney, J.; Dobson, A. D. W. [National University of Ireland, Microbiology Department, Cork (Ireland)

    2004-02-01

    Previous reports indicate that in white rot fungi such as Trametes versicolor, the production of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH), an extracellular haemo-flavo-enzyme, is subject to carbon catabolite repression by both glucose and maltose, and that the repression is mediated at the transcriptional level. This paper describes the results of an investigation of CDH gene transcription in cellulolytic cultures of T. versicolor, in the presence of other additional carbon sources such as glucose, arabinose, and xylose. Using real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay methods in the presence of these other additional carbon sources, the levels of repression observed are quantitatively determined in an effort to obtain more accurate measurements of carbon catabolite repression of CDH production in this ligninolytic fungus. Ninety-six hours after addition, results of the analysis showed reduction in CDH transcript levels of 19-fold for galactose, 92-fold for arabinose and 114-fold for xylose. The greatest repressive effect was exhibited by glucose. In this case the reduction in CDH transcript levels was 3400-fold. CDH plays an important role in lignin degradation, and there is also substantial interest in the biotechnological applications of CDH, most particularly in the pulp and paper industry. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Proteomics investigation reveals cell death-associated proteins of basidiomycete fungus Trametes versicolor treated with Ferruginol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Han; Yeh, Ting-Feng; Chu, Fang-Hua; Hsu, Fu-Lan; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2015-01-14

    Ferruginol has antifungal activity against wood-rot fungi (basidiomycetes). However, specific research on the antifungal mechanisms of ferruginol is scarce. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and fluorescent image analysis were employed to evaluate the differential protein expression of wood-rot fungus Trametes versicolor treated with or without ferruginol. Results from protein identification of tryptic peptides via liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS/MS) analyses revealed 17 protein assignments with differential expression. Downregulation of cytoskeleton β-tubulin 3 indicates that ferruginol has potential to be used as a microtubule-disrupting agent. Downregulation of major facilitator superfamily (MFS)–multiple drug resistance (MDR) transporter and peroxiredoxin TSA1 were observed, suggesting reduction in self-defensive capabilities of T. versicolor. In addition, the proteins involved in polypeptide sorting and DNA repair were also downregulated, while heat shock proteins and autophagy-related protein 7 were upregulated. These observations reveal that such cellular dysfunction and damage caused by ferruginol lead to growth inhibition and autophagic cell death of fungi.

  16. Biomarker analysis of American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles following exposure to atrazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of the current study was to use a biomarker-based approach to investigate the influence of atrazine exposure on American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) and grey tree frog (Hyla versicolor) tadpoles. Atrazine is one of the most frequently detected herbicides in environme...

  17. Meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials comparing griseofulvin and terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tey, Hong Liang; Tan, Andy Soon Leong; Chan, Yuin Chew

    2011-04-01

    Griseofulvin has been the standard treatment for tinea capitis but newer antifungal agents, particularly terbinafine, are increasingly being used because of their shorter duration of treatment and more consistent absorption rates. We sought to compare the efficacy of oral griseofulvin and oral terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis. A search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials, and the Cochrane Skin Group Ongoing Skin Trials Register was performed up to January 2010 for randomized controlled trials comparing griseofulvin and terbinafine in the treatment of tinea capitis in immunocompetent patients. The primary outcome measure was the complete cure rate. The mycological and clinical cure rates and adverse effects were secondary outcome measures. Pooling of treatment effect was accomplished using a random effects model and the I(2) test was used to check for heterogeneity among the studies. Seven studies involving 2163 subjects were included. There was no significant difference in efficacy between griseofulvin (mean duration of treatment 8 weeks, range 6-12 weeks) and terbinafine (mean duration of treatment 4 weeks, range 2-6 weeks); odds ratio = 1.22 favoring terbinafine (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.785-1.919; P = .37). In the pooled analysis of 5 studies in which Trichophyton species were the predominant (≥65%) pathogenic dermatophyte, terbinafine showed a trend toward greater efficacy (odds ratio 1.49; 95% CI = 0.975-2.277; P = .065). Subgroup analysis revealed that terbinafine was more efficacious than griseofulvin in treating Trichophyton species (1.616; 95% CI = 1.274-2.051; P terbinafine in treating Microsporum species (0.408; 95% CI = 0.254-0.656; P terbinafine demonstrated good safety profiles in the studies. Data on efficacy of griseofulvin and terbinafine for separate groups of Trichophyton and Microsporum species were not available from every study. In the subgroup analysis of Microsporum species, data from only

  18. Tinea corporis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... under a microscope using a special test Skin culture for fungus Skin biopsy Treatment Keep your skin ... do not share clothes. If you play contact sports, shower right away afterward. Infected pets should also ...

  19. A randomized, double-blind study comparing the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Catherine; Koch, Laine H; Dice, James E; Dempsey, Kimberly K; Moskowitz, Alan B; Barnes-Eley, Myra L; Hubbard, Thomas W; Williams, Judith V

    2010-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the efficacy of selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children. Forty children aged 1-11 years with clinically diagnosed tinea capitis were randomized to receive selenium sulfide shampoo 1% or ciclopirox shampoo 1% twice a week as adjuncts to an 8-week course of ultramicronized griseofulvin dosed at 10-12 mg/kg/day. At weeks 2, 4, and 8, subjects returned to the clinic for evaluation and scalp cultures. Subjects then returned for follow-up visits 4 weeks after completing treatment. Overall, by 8 weeks, 30 of 33 (90.9%) treated children demonstrated mycological cure. Selenium sulfide shampoo 1% and ciclopirox shampoo 1% were equally effective as adjunctive treatments for tinea capitis in children in our study. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Efficacy of undecylenic acid-zinc undecylenate powder in culture positive tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chretien, J H; Esswein, J G; Sharpe, L M; Kiely, J J; Lyddon, F E

    1980-01-01

    One hundred fifty-one patients with tinea pedis participated in a double-blind study to assess the efficacy and safety of a powder containing undecylenic acid 2% and zinc undecylenate 20% versus a placebo powder. Patients were assigned to apply twice-daily applications of either active powder or placebo for a period of 4 weeks. Trichophyton rubrum or Trichophyton mentagrophytes were isolated from pretreatment cultures of 85 patients. Of these, 88% treated with active powder had negative cultures after 4 weeks compared with 17% of those treated with placebo powder (p less than 0.001). Fungus was identified in potassium hydroxide (KOH) treated skin scrapings of all 151 patients before treatment. Of those treated with active powder, 80% were KOH negative after 4 weeks compared with 49% of those treated with placebow powder (p = 0.001). Erythema and scaling were significantly improved by therapy with active powder, as were subjective evaluations of itching and burning. There were no side-effects or adverse reactions to undecylenic acid and its zinc salt.

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of AS2077715 against experimental tinea pedis in guinea pigs in comparison with terbinafine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohsumi, Keisuke; Murai, Hidetsugu; Nakamura, Ikko; Watanabe, Masato; Fujie, Akihiko

    2014-10-01

    AS2077715 is a novel antifungal metabolite produced by the newly isolated fungal strain Capnodium sp. 339855. This compound has potent inhibitory activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex (complex III) and potent fungicidal activity against T. mentagrophytes, as measured in vitro. Here, we compared the effects of AS2077715 and terbinafine in a guinea pig model of tinea pedis. In a treatment regimen started from the day 7 after infection, 10 daily oral doses of 10 and 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 and 20 mg kg(-1) of terbinafine significantly decreased fungal colony-forming units (CFUs) in foot pad skin. In a treatment regimen started from the day 11 after infection, 20 mg kg(-1) AS2077715 significantly reduced fungal CFUs in foot pad skin after 7 daily doses in comparison with 20 mg kg(-1) terbinafine-treated guinea pigs. Our findings suggest that in vivo potency and efficacy of AS2077715 are equal to or greater than that of terbinafine, positioning AS2077715 as a good candidate for use in treating trichophytosis.

  2. Aspergoterpenins A–D: Four New Antimicrobial Bisabolane Sesquiterpenoid Derivatives from an Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Guo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Aspergoterpenins A–D (1–4, four new bisabolane sesquiterpenoid derivatives, were obtained from the endophytic fungus, Aspergillus versicolor, together with eight known compounds (5–12, and their structures were elucidated by a comprehensive analysis of their NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, MS (Mass Spectrum and CD (Circular Dichroism spectra. Aspergoterpenin A (1 was the first example with a characteristic ketal bridged-ring part in the degraded natural bisabolane-type sesquiterpene structures. The compounds 1–12 displayed no significant activities against four cancer cell lines (A549, Caski, HepG2 and MCF-7. Further, the antimicrobial activities to Erwinia carotovora sub sp. Carotovora were evaluated, and the results showed that compounds 1–12 displayed antimicrobial activities with MIC values ranging from 15.2 to 85.2 μg/mL.

  3. Comparative study of ketoconazole versus selenium sulphide shampoo in pityriasis versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal K

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Forty patients suffering from pityriasis versicolor were treated with either 2% ketoconazole shampoo (20 patients or 2.5% selenium sulphide shampoo (20 patients, once a week for three weeks. On global assessment after one month of start of therapy, 19 (95% out of 20 patients treated with ketoconazole shampoo were cured while one case had mild residual disease. In selenium sulphide shampoo group, 17 (85% out of 20 patients were cured, one had mild residual disease and two had considerable residual disease. No significant difference was observed in the response rates in the two groups. Relapse occurred in one patient of ketoconazole group and two patients of selenium sulphide group during the follow - up period of three months.

  4. Degradation of selected agrochemicals by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir-Tutusaus, Josep Anton; Masís-Mora, Mario; Corcellas, Cayo; Eljarrat, Ethel; Barceló, Damià; Sarrà, Montserrat; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E

    2014-12-01

    Use of agrochemicals is a worldwide practice that exerts an important effect on the environment; therefore the search of approaches for the elimination of such pollutants should be encouraged. The degradation of the insecticides imiprothrin (IP) and cypermethrin (CP), the insecticide/nematicide carbofuran (CBF) and the antibiotic of agricultural use oxytetracycline (OTC) were assayed with the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Experiments with fungal pellets demonstrated extensive degradation of the four tested agrochemicals, at rates that followed the pattern IP>OTC>CP>CBF. In vitro assays with laccase-mediator systems showed that this extracellular enzyme participates in the transformation of IP but not in the cases of CBF and OTC. On the other hand, in vivo studies with inhibitors of cytochrome P450 revealed that this intracellular system plays an important role in the degradation of IP, OTC and CBF, but not for CP. The compounds 3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane carboxylic acid (DCCA) and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) were detected as transformation products of CP, as a result of the breakdown of the molecule. Meanwhile, 3-hydroxycarbofuran was detected as a transformation product of CBF; this metabolite tended to accumulate during the process, nonetheless, the toxicity of the system was effectively reduced. Simultaneous degradation of CBF and OTC showed a reduction in toxicity; similarly, when successive additions of OTC were done during the slower degradation of CBF, the fungal pellets were able to degrade both compounds. The simultaneous degradation of the four compounds successfully took place with minimal inhibition of fungal activity and resulted in the reduction of the global toxicity, thus supporting the potential use of T. versicolor for the treatment of diverse agrochemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tinea capitis-like infection caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in a shelter for African Refugee Children in Northern Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peretz, Avi; Nitzan, Orna; Freidus, Victoria; Kassem, Riad

    2018-03-01

    Rhodotorula is a genus of unicellular pigmented yeasts, part of the division Basidiomycota. In this article, we report three cases of refugee children in a day care shelter in northern Israel who were clinically diagnosed and treated empirically as with ringworm infection but with clean and exclusive growth of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in repeated cultures of several skin samples. Skin infections caused by this yeast are rare and there are few reports in the literature, mainly in patients who are immunocompromised. Here we report an infectious process of the scalp in immunocompetent children, caused by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa mimicking tinea capitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Ensaio terapêutico com o Ketoconazol na pitiríase versicolorTherapeutic trial with Ketoconazole in PV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Dagher

    1982-11-01

    Full Text Available Experimentação terapêutico-laboratorial com o Ketoconazol na Pitiríase Versicolor, obtendo os seguintes resultados: - Curados, 16 (88,88% pacientes; Melhorados, 2 pacientes (11,11%, Inalterados e Piorados, nenhum caso (0,00%, no total de 18 doentes estudados. Do ponto de vista laboratorial, houve negativação dos exames micológicos em 100,00% dos casos.Eighteen patients with pityriasis versicolor were treated with a single daily dose of 200mg of Ketoconazole administered with a meal, for a period of 30 days. Evaluation was based on clinical and mycological responses. Clinical and parasitoligical cure was obtained in 16 (88,88% patients and marked clinical improvement in 2(11,11%. No undesirable side effects were observed in the treatment.

  7. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E.; Jesús García-Galán, Ma.; Blánquez, Paqui; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Barceló, Damià; Caminal, Glòria; Vicent, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. ► The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. ► Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). ► A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L −1 , although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  8. Detection of Malassezia Species Isolated From Patients With Pityriasis Versicolor and Seborrheic Dermatitis Using Nested-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarei Mahmoudabadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The species of the genus Malassezia are lipophilic and dimorphic yeasts that are regarded as part of the normal flora of the skin of humans and warm-blooded animals. These organisms are the cause of superficial mycosis in humans and other animals, and are common in pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis. Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of common Malassezia species in patients affected by pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis using of the nested PCR method, in the city of Ahvaz. Patients and Methods In the present study, 85 samples from patients with pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis were analyzed by the nested-PCR method. During the first stage, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS region from the ribosomal DNA was reproduced using primers ITS4-R and ITS1F-N. During the second stage, the product of the first step was used as DNA and using three special primer pairs, including Mf-F, 5.8SR and M.gl-F, 5.8SR and M.rt-F and M.rt-R, the inner part of the first phase was detected. Results The most common isolate was Malassezia furfur (51.3% followed by M. globosa (35.2% and M. restricta (13.5%. Amongst the 30 patients with seborrheic dermatitis, in 15 cases (65.2% M. restricta, in six cases (26.1% M. globosa and in two cases (8.7% M. furfur was detected and in seven patients no isolate was detected. Conclusions The nested-PCR is a rapid and repeatable method for identification of important Malassezia species and this method is recommended for use on more patients. In addition the most common agents of pityriasis versicolor and seborrheic dermatitis were M. furfur and M. restricta, respectively.

  9. Mating tests among geographically separated collections of the Trametes versicolor (Fr.) Pilát (Basidiomycetes, Polyporales) group

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomšovský, Michal; Homolka, Ladislav

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 79, 3-4 (2004), s. 425-431 ISSN 0029-5035 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/02/1216; GA ČR GD206/03/H137 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : trametes versicolor * mating tests Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.594, year: 2004

  10. Continuous degradation of a mixture of sulfonamides by Trametes versicolor and identification of metabolites from sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E., E-mail: CarlosEsteban.Rodriguez@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Jesus Garcia-Galan, Ma. [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Blanquez, Paqui [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034, Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona, C/Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Vicent, Teresa [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2012-04-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation of sulfapyridine and sulfathiazole by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The role of laccase and cytochrome P450 was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Degradation metabolites were identified for sulfapyridine (8) and sulfathiazole (5). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A mixture of three sulfonamides was degraded in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. - Abstract: In this study, we assessed the degradation of the sulfonamides sulfapyridine (SPY) and sulfathiazole (STZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Complete degradation was accomplished in fungal cultures at initial pollutant concentrations of approximately 10 mg L{sup -1}, although a longer period of time was needed to completely remove STZ in comparison to SPY. When cytochrome P450 inhibitors were added to the fungal cultures, STZ degradation was partially suppressed, while no additional effect was observed for SPY. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase mediators caused the removal of greater than 75% of each antibiotic. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography-quadupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqTOF-MS) analyses allowed the identification of a total of eight degradation intermediates of SPY in both the in vivo and the laccase experiments, being its desulfonated moiety the commonly detected product. For STZ, a total of five products were identified. A fluidized bed reactor with T. versicolor pellets degraded a mixture of sulfonamides (SPY, STZ and sulfamethazine, SMZ) by greater than 94% each at a hydraulic residence time of 72 h. Because wastewater contains many diverse pollutants, these results highlight the potential of T. versicolor as a bioremediation agent not only for the removal of antibiotics but also for the elimination of a wide range of contaminants.

  11. Geographic variation in body size and its relationship with environmental gradients in the Oriental Garden Lizard, Calotes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaomei; Yan, Linmiao; Zhao, Chengjian; Zhang, Yueyun; Xu, Yongli; Cai, Bo; Jiang, Ni; Huang, Yong

    2018-05-01

    Patterns of geographic variation in body size are predicted to evolve as adaptations to local environmental gradients. However, many of these clinal patterns in body size, such as Bergmann's rule, are controversial and require further investigation into ectotherms such as reptiles on a regional scale. To examine the environmental variables (temperature, precipitation, topography and primary productivity) that shaped patterns of geographic variation in body size in the reptile Calotes versicolor , we sampled 180 adult specimens (91 males and 89 females) at 40 locations across the species range in China. The MANOVA results suggest significant sexual size dimorphism in C. versicolor ( F 23,124  = 11.32, p  body size of C. versicolor differed for males and females, but mechanisms related to heat balance and water availability hypotheses were involved in both sexes. Temperature seasonality, precipitation of the driest month, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the driest quarter were the most important predictors of variation in body size in males, whereas mean precipitation of the warmest quarter, mean temperature of the wettest quarter, precipitation seasonality, and precipitation of the wettest month were most important for body size variation in females. The discrepancy between patterns of association between the sexes suggested that different selection pressures may be acting in males and females.

  12. ABILITY OF Phanerochaete chrysosporium AND Trametes versicolor TO REMOVE Zn2+, Cr3+, Pb2+ METAL IONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josué Solís Pacheco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of fungal biomass as an alternative for removing heavy metals has become increasingly important in recent years, replacing conventional methods based on chemical physical processes. In this study, we evaluated the biosorption of Zn2+, Cr3+ and Pb2+, which were analyzed to determine their effect on growth kinetic parameters of Phanerochaete chrysosporium strain ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 1267. Growth kinetics were performed in four liquid culture media: 1 Yeast Nitrogen Base (YNB used as control, 2 YNB medium plus Pb2+ (0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1, 3 YNB medium plus Zn2+ (5, 10 and 20 mg L-1 and 4 YNB medium plus Cr3+ (0.5, 1 and 2 mg L-1. The flasks were incubated at 25 °C with shaking at 150 rpm. Metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES with prior acid digestion of the sample. The results demonstrated that Phanerochaete chrysosporium ATCC 32629 and Trametes versicolor ATCC 12679 are able to grow in the culture medium with Pb2+, Zn2+ and Cr3+ ions at different concentrations. However, P. chrysosporium ATCC 32629 showed greater adaptability and ability to adsorb Cr3+ in the culture medium at concentrations of 0.5 and 1 mg L-1, whereas T. versicolor ATCC 12679 was capable of Pb2+ biosorption at concentrations of 0.25, 1 and 2 mg L-1.

  13. Degradation of the drug sodium diclofenac by Trametes versicolor pellets and identification of some intermediates by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Escola d' Enginyeria (Estonia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Perez-Trujillo, Miriam [Servei de Ressonancia Magnetica Nuclear, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Cruz-Morato, Carles [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Escola d' Enginyeria (Estonia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: gloria.caminal@uab.es [Unitat de Biocatalisis Aplicada associada al IQAC (CSIC-UAB), EE, UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Spain); Vicent, Teresa [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica and Institut de Ciencia i Tecnologia Ambiental, Escola d' Enginyeria (Estonia), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    Degradation of diclofenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely found in the aquatic environment, was assessed using the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Almost complete diclofenac removal ({>=}94%) occurred the first hour with T. versicolor pellets when the drug was added at relatively high (10 mg L{sup -1}) and environmentally relevant low (45 {mu}g L{sup -1}) concentrations in a defined liquid medium. In vivo and in vitro experiments using the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole and purified laccase, respectively, suggested at least two different mechanisms employed by T. versicolor to initiate diclofenac degradation. Two hydroxylated metabolites, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac, were structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance as degradation intermediates in fungal cultures spiked with diclofenac. Both parent compound and intermediates disappeared after 24 h leading to a decrease in ecotoxicity calculated by the Microtox test. Laccase-catalyzed transformation of diclofenac led to the formation of 4-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-1,3-benzenedimethanol, which was not detected in in vivo experiments probably due to the low laccase activity levels observed through the first hours of incubation.

  14. Degradation of the drug sodium diclofenac by Trametes versicolor pellets and identification of some intermediates by NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Perez-Trujillo, Miriam; Cruz-Morato, Carles; Caminal, Gloria; Vicent, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Degradation of diclofenac sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely found in the aquatic environment, was assessed using the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor. Almost complete diclofenac removal (≥94%) occurred the first hour with T. versicolor pellets when the drug was added at relatively high (10 mg L -1 ) and environmentally relevant low (45 μg L -1 ) concentrations in a defined liquid medium. In vivo and in vitro experiments using the cytochrome P450 inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole and purified laccase, respectively, suggested at least two different mechanisms employed by T. versicolor to initiate diclofenac degradation. Two hydroxylated metabolites, 4'-hydroxydiclofenac and 5-hydroxydiclofenac, were structurally elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance as degradation intermediates in fungal cultures spiked with diclofenac. Both parent compound and intermediates disappeared after 24 h leading to a decrease in ecotoxicity calculated by the Microtox test. Laccase-catalyzed transformation of diclofenac led to the formation of 4-(2,6-dichlorophenylamino)-1,3-benzenedimethanol, which was not detected in in vivo experiments probably due to the low laccase activity levels observed through the first hours of incubation.

  15. Adsorption of Trametes versicolor laccase to soil iron and aluminum minerals: enzyme activity, kinetics and stability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yue; Jiang, Ying; Jiao, Jiaguo; Liu, Manqiang; Hu, Feng; Griffiths, Bryan S; Li, Huixin

    2014-02-01

    Laccases play an important role in the degradation of soil phenol or phenol-like substance and can be potentially used in soil remediation through immobilization. Iron and aluminum minerals can adsorb extracellular enzymes in soil environment. In the present study, we investigated the adsorptive interaction of laccase, from the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor, with soil iron and aluminum minerals and characterized the properties of the enzyme after adsorption to minerals. Results showed that both soil iron and aluminum minerals adsorbed great amount of laccase, independent of the mineral specific surface areas. Adsorbed laccases retained 26-64% of the activity of the free enzyme. Compared to the free laccase, all adsorbed laccases showed higher Km values and lower Vmax values, indicating a reduced enzyme-substrate affinity and a lower rate of substrate conversion in reactions catalyzed by the adsorbed laccase. Adsorbed laccases exhibited increased catalytic activities compared to the free laccase at low pH, implying the suitable application of iron and aluminum mineral-adsorbed T. versicolor laccase in soil bioremediation, especially in acid soils. In terms of the thermal profiles, adsorbed laccases showed decreased thermal stability and higher temperature sensitivity relative to the free laccase. Moreover, adsorption improved the resistance of laccase to proteolysis and extended the lifespan of laccase. Our results implied that adsorbed T. versicolor laccase on soil iron and aluminum minerals had promising potential in soil remediation. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E. [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Baron, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jelic, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farre, Marinella; Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Petrovic, Mira [Institucio Catalana de Reserca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA), Passeig Lluis Companys 23, 80010 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: Gloria.Caminal@uab.cat [Unitat Asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA), Spanish Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), H2O Building, Scientific and Technological Park of the University of Girona, 101-E-17003 Girona (Spain); King Saud University (KSU), P.O. Box 2455, 11451 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia); and others

    2012-09-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sludge from a WWTP was treated in a fungal slurry reactor with Trametes versicolor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Twenty-four pharmaceuticals were removed at important extents. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer UV-filters and brominated flame retardants were also degraded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overall toxicity of sludge increased despite the pollutant removal. - Abstract: Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16-53% and 22-100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase.

  17. Discovery of novel xylosides in co-culture of basidiomycetes Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum by integrated metabolomics and bioinformatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lu; Zhu, Li-Ping; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Tan, Ling-Ling; Sadilek, Martin; Fan, Huan; Hu, Bo; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2016-09-01

    Transcriptomic analysis of cultured fungi suggests that many genes for secondary metabolite synthesis are presumably silent under standard laboratory condition. In order to investigate the expression of silent genes in symbiotic systems, 136 fungi-fungi symbiotic systems were built up by co-culturing seventeen basidiomycetes, among which the co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum demonstrated the strongest coloration of confrontation zones. Metabolomics study of this co-culture discovered that sixty-two features were either newly synthesized or highly produced in the co-culture compared with individual cultures. Molecular network analysis highlighted a subnetwork including two novel xylosides (compounds 2 and 3). Compound 2 was further identified as N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-β-D-xyloside and was revealed to have the potential to enhance the cell viability of human immortalized bronchial epithelial cell line of Beas-2B. Moreover, bioinformatics and transcriptional analysis of T. versicolor revealed a potential candidate gene (GI: 636605689) encoding xylosyltransferases for xylosylation. Additionally, 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were detected for the first time in G. applanatum, which may be ascribed to response against T.versicolor stress. In general, the described co-culture platform provides a powerful tool to discover novel metabolites and help gain insights into the mechanism of silent gene activation in fungal defense.

  18. Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E.; Barón, Enrique; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Jelić, Aleksandra; Llorca, Marta; Farré, Marinella; Díaz-Cruz, M. Silvia; Eljarrat, Ethel; Petrović, Mira; Caminal, Glòria; Barceló, Damià

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sludge from a WWTP was treated in a fungal slurry reactor with Trametes versicolor. ► Twenty-four pharmaceuticals were removed at important extents. ► UV-filters and brominated flame retardants were also degraded. ► Overall toxicity of sludge increased despite the pollutant removal. - Abstract: Conventional wastewater treatments are inefficient in the removal of many organic pollutants. The presence of these contaminants in the final sludge represents a source of environmental pollution due to the increasing use of biosolids in land application. A biotechnological approach which employed the fungus Trametes versicolor in a sludge-bioslurry reactor was assessed in order to remove several groups of emerging pollutants. Biological fungal activity was monitored by means of ergosterol and laccase determinations. Fifteen out of 24 detected pharmaceuticals were removed at efficiencies over 50% after the treatment, including eight completely degraded. Removal ranged between 16–53% and 22–100% for the brominated flame retardants and the UV-filters, respectively. Only two of all the detected compounds remained unchanged after the treatment. Although elimination results are promising, the toxicity of the final sludge increased after the treatment. This finding is contrary to the toxicity results obtained in similar treatments of sludge with T. versicolor in solid-phase.

  19. The sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide smear and fungal culture relative to clinical assessment in the evaluation of tinea pedis: a pooled analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Jacob Oren; Levitt, Barrie H; Akhavan, Arash; Yanofsky, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH) smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5%) and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%), respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5%) and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%). Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  20. The Sensitivity and Specificity of Potassium Hydroxide Smear and Fungal Culture Relative to Clinical Assessment in the Evaluation of Tinea Pedis: A Pooled Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Oren Levitt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There are relatively few studies published examining the sensitivity and specificity of potassium hydroxide (KOH smear and fungal culture examination of tinea pedis. Objective. To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture for diagnosing tinea pedis. Methods. A pooled analysis of data from five similarly conducted bioequivalence trials for antifungal drugs was performed. Data from 460 patients enrolled in the vehicle arms of these studies with clinical diagnosis of tinea pedis supported by positive fungal culture were analyzed 6 weeks after initiation of the study to determine the sensitivity and specificity of KOH smear and fungal culture. Results. Using clinical assessment as the gold standard, the sensitivities for KOH smear and culture were 73.3% (95% CI: 66.3 to 79.5% and 41.7% (34.6 to 49.1%, respectively. The respective specificities for culture and KOH smear were 77.7% (72.2 to 82.5% and 42.5% (36.6 to 48.6%. Conclusion. KOH smear and fungal culture are complementary diagnostic tests for tinea pedis, with the former being the more sensitive test of the two, and the latter being more specific.

  1. DECREASEMENT OF COLOUR AND COD CONTENT OF THE LIQUID WASTE PRODUCT FROM THE JEANS WASHING INDUSTRY BY CHITOSAN AND Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumondang Bulan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chitosan and Trametes versicolor were used as the material for processing liquid waste product from the jeans washing industry in this study as they were more economics and no negative damage in the environmental life. This research is to find out the chitosan and Trametes versicolor effect as the coagulant in decreasing the colour and the COD content of the liquid waste product from the jeans washing industry using the coagulation method and floculation. The dosage of chitosan and Trametes versicolor were 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/L of the liquid waste product whereas the combination of chitosan and Trametes versicolor were 4:1, 3:2, 2:3 and 1:4. The data resulted from the analysis were shown as a graphics. The research results show that the optimum dosage of chitosan as coagulant was 800 mg/L which was able to decrease the colour intensity. For blue colour, the intensity decreased from 1.2 to 0.1%; the yellow colour intensity decreased from 0.9 to 0.0% and the COD 91.23%. The optimum dosage of Trametes versicolor of 600 mg/L was able to decrease the blue colour intensity from 1.2 to 0.11%; the yellow colour intensity from 0.9 to 0.1% and the COD was 91.37%. By using the combinationof chitosan and Trametes versicolor it was shown that the best result was using the 3:2 ratio which was able to decrease the blue colour intensity from 0.9 to 0.1% and the yellow colour intensity from 0.9 to 0.0% and the COD was 86.68%.   Keywords: colour intensity, COD, liquid waste product of the jeans washing, chitosan, Trametes versicolor

  2. Mycology of Cutaneous Fungal Infections in Ambajogai: a Rural Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Damle

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and eithteen cases of fungal skin infections were studied. Tinea cruris was most common (34.4%, followed by tinea corporis (23.8% znd tinea pedis (21.6%. Tinea versicolor (8.7% tinea manum (4.6% tinea ungaium (3.7% and tinea capitis (3.2% were also seen. The male: female ratio was 4:1. The total isolates were 117. Trichophyton rubrum was the most common isolate (35%. closely followed by Epidermophyton floccosum (31.6%. Trichphyton mentagrophytes (17.9%, Malassezia furfur (13.7% and Microsporum audouini (1.7% were the only other isolates.

  3. Determination of co-metabolism for 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) degradation with enzymes from Trametes versicolor U97.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Ajeng Arum; Tachibana, Sanro; Itoh, Kazutaka

    2012-08-01

    Trametes versicolor U97 isolated from nature degraded 73% of the 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDT) in a malt extract liquid medium after a 40-d incubation period. This paper presents a kinetic study of microbial growth using the Monod equation. T. versicolor U97 degraded DDT during an exponential growth phase, using glucose as a carbon source for growth. The growth of T. versicolor U97 was not affected by DDT. DDT was degraded by T. versicolor U97 only when the secondary metabolism coincided with the production of several enzymes. Furthermore, modeling of several inhibitors using the partial least squares function in Minitab 15, revealed lignin peroxidase (98.7 U/l) plays a role in the degradation of DDT. T. versicolor U97 produced several metabolites included a single-ring aromatic compound, 4-chlorobenzoic acid. Copyright © 2012 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Dellafiora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage.

  5. Treatment of a Textile Effluent from Dyeing with Cochineal Extracts Using Trametes versicolor Fungus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Arroyo-Figueroa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Trametes versicolor (Tv fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1 of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3. High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04 for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  6. Flavonoid C- and O-glycosides from the Mongolian medicinal plant Dianthus versicolor Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Werner, Ingrid; Presser, Armin; Zehl, Martin; Swoboda, Zita; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2011-09-27

    Eighteen flavonoids were identified from an aqueous extract of the aerial parts of Dianthus versicolor, a plant used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver diseases. The flavonoid C- and O-glycosides isoorientin-7-O-rutinoside, isoorientin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isovitexin-7-O-rutinoside, isovitexin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isoscoparin-7-O-rutinoside, isoscoparin-7-O-rhamnosyl-galactoside, isoscoparin-7-O-galactoside, and isoorientin-7-O-galactoside were isolated and structurally elucidated. Their structures were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic techniques including LC-UV-DAD, LC-MS(n), LC-HRMS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by GC-MS analysis after hydrolysis. Flavonoids with such a high glycosylation pattern are rare within the genus Dianthus. Furthermore, isovitexin-7-O-glucoside (saponarin), isovitexin-2″-O-rhamnoside, apigenin-6-glucoside (isovitexin), luteolin-7-O-glucoside, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, as well as the aglycons luteolin, apigenin, chrysoeriol, diosmetin, and acacetin were identified by TLC and LC-DAD-MS(n) in comparison to reference substances or literature data. The NMR data of seven structures have not been reported in the literature to date. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enzyme-Catalyzed Oxidation of 17β-Estradiol Using Immobilized Laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal-Watkins, Chantale; Nicell, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    Many natural and synthetic estrogens are amenable to oxidation through the catalytic action of oxidative enzymes such as the fungal laccase Trametes versicolor. This study focused on characterizing the conversion of estradiol (E2) using laccase that had been immobilized by covalent bonding onto silica beads contained in a bench-scale continuous-flow packed bed reactor. Conversion of E2 accomplished in the reactor declined when the temperature of the system was changed from room temperature to just above freezing at pH 5 as a result of a reduced rate of reaction rather than inactivation of the enzyme. Similarly, conversion increased when the system was brought to warmer temperatures. E2 conversion increased when the pH of the influent to the immobilized laccase reactor was changed from pH 7 to pH 5, but longer-term experiments showed that the enzyme is more stable at pH 7. Results also showed that the immobilized laccase maintained its activity when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a low mean residence time over a 12-hour period and when treating a constant supply of aqueous E2 at a high mean residence time over a period of 9 days. PMID:21869925

  8. Treatment of a textile effluent from dyeing with cochineal extracts using Trametes versicolor fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Figueroa, Gabriela; Ruiz-Aguilar, Graciela M L; López-Martínez, Leticia; González-Sánchez, Guillermo; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Refugio

    2011-05-05

    Trametes versicolor (Tv) fungus can degrade synthetic dyes that contain azo groups, anthraquinone, triphenylmethane polymers, and heterocyclic groups. However, no references have been found related to the degradation of natural dyes, such as the carminic acid that is contained in the cochineal extract. Experiments to determine the decolorization of the effluent used in the cotton dyeing process with cochineal extract by means of Tv fungus were done. Treatments to determine decolorization in the presence or absence of Kirk's medium, glucose, and fungus, with an addition of 50% (v v-1) of nonsterilized effluent were performed. Physicochemical characterization was performed at the start and end of the treatment. Degradation kinetics were determined. A direct relationship was found between the dry weight of fungi, pH, and the decolorization system, with higher decolorization at lower pH levels (pH ~4.3). High decolorization (81% ± 0.09; 88% ± 0.17; and 99% ± 0.04) for three of the eight treatments (Kirk's medium without glucose, Kirk's medium with glucose, and without medium with glucose, respectively) was found. Toxicity tests determined an increase in the initial effluent toxicity (7.33 TU) compared with the final treatment (47.73 TU) in a period of 11 days. For this system, a degradation sequence of the carminic acid structure present in the effluent by the Tv fungus is suggested, in which it is seen that metabolites still containing aromatic structures are generated.

  9. Phase 1 Clinical Trial of Trametes versicolor in Women with Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkelson, Carolyn J; Sweet, Erin; Martzen, Mark R; Sasagawa, Masa; Wenner, Cynthia A; Gay, Juliette; Putiri, Amy; Standish, Leanna J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction. Orally administered preparations from the Trametes versicolor (Tv) mushroom have been hypothesized to improve immune response in women with breast cancer after standard chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods. A phase I, two-center, dose escalation study was done to determine the maximum tolerated dose of a Tv preparation when taken daily in divided doses for 6 weeks after recent completion of radiotherapy. Eleven participants were recruited and nine women completed the study. Each cohort was comprised of three participants given one of three doses of Tv (3, 6, or 9 grams). Immune data was collected pre- and postradiation, at 3 on-treatment time points and after a 3-week washout. Results. Nine adverse events were reported (7 mild, 1 moderate, and 1 severe), suggesting that Tv was well tolerated. Immunological results indicated trends in (1) increased lymphocyte counts at 6 and 9 grams/day; (2) increased natural killer cell functional activity at 6 grams/day; (3) dose-related increases in CD8(+) T cells and CD19(+) B cells , but not CD4(+) T cells or CD16(+)56(+) NK cells. Conclusion. These findings show that up to 9 grams/day of a Tv preparation is safe and tolerable in women with breast cancer in the postprimary treatment setting. This Tv preparation may improve immune status in immunocompromised breast cancer patients following standard primary oncologic treatment.

  10. Degradation of anthracene by laccase of Trametes versicolor in the presence of different mediator compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, C; Majcherczyk, A; Hüttermann, A

    1996-10-01

    Laccase of Trametes versicolor was generally able to oxidize anthracene in vitro. After 72 h incubation about 35% of the anthracene was transformed stoichiometrically to 9,10-anthraquinone. Transformation of anthracene increased rapidly in the presence of different mediators that readily generate stable radicals: 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 1-hydroxybenzotriazole. For the reaction, the presence of both the laccase and the mediator was necessary. In the presence of 0.005 mM 1-hydroxybenzotriazole this conversion had removed 47% of the anthracene after 72 h; 75% of the substrate was oxidized during this period when ABTS (1 mM) was used as mediator. In contrast to reactions without or with only low concentrations of a mediator, there was a discrepancy between the disappearance of anthracene and the formation of 9,10-anthraquinone in mediator-forced reactions. Coupling-products of mediators with anthracene degradation products were found. Anthracene disappeared nearly completely after incubation for 72 h with laccase in a 0.1 mM solution of 1-hydroxybenzotriazole and was transformed to 9,10-anthraquinone in about 80% yield; 90% of the substrate was transformed in the presence of ABTS (2.0 mM) resulting again in 80% quinone. Phenothiazine was not effective in this system.

  11. Efficient removal of disperse dye by mixed culture of ganoderma lucidum and coriolus versicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadaf, S.; Bhatti, H.N.; Bibi, I.

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, an attempt was made to check the potential of aerobic mixed culture of two indigenous white rot fungi for the decolorization of different disperse dyes in batch culture mode and optimization of different conditions to enhance the biotransformation of dyes. Initial screening trial with six disperse dyes, viz. (Foron Yellow RD5GL, Foron Red RDRBLS, Foron Rubine RDGFL, Foron Black RD3GRN, Foron Blue RDGLN and Foron Turquoise SBLN), was carried out using mixed culture of Ganoderma lucidum and Coriolus versicolor. From all the tested dyes, the mixed culture showed better removal efficiency (93 %) with Foron Turquoise SBLN dye after 8 days of incubation period as compared to other tested dyes. Enhanced color removal (98 %) was observed when the medium was amended by ammonium tartarate, maltose, MnSO/sub 4/ at pH 4.5 and 30 degree C with 2 mL fungal culture during 2nd day of incubation period. Enzyme profile showed that the mixed culture produced three liginolytic enzymes like lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganase peroxidase (MnP) and laccase but MnP was found to be the major enzyme. The results indicated that white rot fungi (WRF) could be used to treat wastewater containing disperse dyes. (author)

  12. In vitro reduction of coplanar PCB congeners by ABTS oxidases from the culture of Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoki, S. [High-Tech Research Center, Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Sue, T.; Hisamatsu, S. [Graduate School of Environmental Health, Azabu Univ., Kanagawa (Japan); Nagasaka, H. [Inst. of Environmental Ecology, Shin-Nippon Meteorological and Oceanographical Consultant Co., Ltd., Shizuoka (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    In recent years, the environmental contamination by the harmful polluted chemicals becomes more serious. Among them, especially, the dioxins such as coplanar PCBs (Co-PCBs) and PCDDs are hard to be decomposed due to their stability and hydrophobic nature, leading to the world-wide contamination. To clean up the polluted environment, bioremediation using a microorganism is expected to solve the environmental pollution problem because of cost-effective alternative to the more established engineering method. There are some reports on the biodegradation of dioxins using various organisms, in which basidiomycetes, so-called white-rot fungi, have been extensively studied in the process of lignin degradation. As a result unique extracellular oxidative lignindegrading enzymes, such as lignin peroxidase, manganese-dependent peroxidase and laccase were supposed to be responsible for degrading dioxins. Overall many studies on biodegradation of dioxins or other chlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons have focused on using white-rot fungi; however, few reports referred to the metabolism of these environmental pollutants in the in vitro reaction by use of lignin-degrading enzymes produced by white-rot fungi. In this study, we reported the reduction of levels of Co-PCBs in the in vitro incubation with the fractions which had the oxidase activity toward 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) in the culture fluid of white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor.

  13. Functional morphology of the luminescence system of Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes: Apogonidae), a bacterially luminous coral reef fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, Paul V; Nakamura, Masaru

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies of the luminescence system of Siphamia versicolor (Perciformes: Apogonidae) identified a ventral light organ, reflector, lens, duct, and a ventral diffuser extending from the throat to the caudal peduncle. The control and function of luminescence in this and other species of Siphamia, however, have not been defined. Morphological examination of fresh and preserved specimens identified additional components of the luminescence system involved in control and ventral emission of luminescence, including a retractable shutter over the ventral face of the light organ, contiguity of the ventral diffuser from the caudal peduncle to near the chin, and transparency of the bones and other tissues of the lower jaw. The shutter halves retract laterally, allowing the ventral release of light, and relax medially, blocking ventral light emission; topical application of norepinephrine to the exposed light organ resulted in retraction of the shutter halves, which suggests that operation of the shutter is under neuromuscular control. The extension of the diffuser to near the chin and transparency of the lower jaw allow a uniform emission of luminescence over the entire ventrum of the fish. The live aquarium-held fish were found to readily and consistently display ventral luminescence. At twilight, the fish left the protective association with their longspine sea urchin, Diadema setosum, and began to emit ventral luminescence and to feed on zooplankton. Ventral luminescence illuminated a zone below and around the fish, which typically swam close to the substrate. Shortly after complete darkness, the fish stopped feeding and emitting luminescence. These observations suggest that S. versicolor uses ventral luminescence to attract and feed on zooplankton from the reef benthos at twilight. Ventral luminescence may allow S. versicolor to exploit for feeding the gap at twilight in the presence of potential predators as the reef transitions from diurnally active to

  14. Studies on comparison of the efficacy of terbinafine 1% cream and butenafine 1% cream for the treatment of Tinea cruris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Das

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In this study, 76 male patients aged between 18 and 61 years affected with Tinea cruris attending the outpatient department of NRS Medical College during a 1-year period were selected. Materials and Methods: The patients were divided into two groups as Regimen I (n 37 and Regimen II (n 39 who were treated with Terbinafine (gr I cream and Butenafine (gr II cream, respectively. Results: The predominant pathogen was found to be Trichophyton rubrum in 99% of cases. Mycological cure, overall cure and effective treatment were evaluated on 7, 14 and 42 days. Conclusions: From the study, it was found that Butenafine produced the quickest result and primary efficacy end points were much higher with Butenafine cream than that of Terbinafine cream and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01.

  15. Pitiríase versicolor: isolamento e identificação das principais espécies de Malassezia Pityriasis versicolor: isolation and identification of the main species

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    Valéria Maria de Souza Framil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As espécies do gênero Malassezia isoladas foram: Malassezia sympodialis (16,66%, Malassezia furfur (12,50%, Malassezia globosa (11,45% e Malassezia slooffiae (2,10%. A Malassezia sympodialis foi a espécie que predominou em nosso estudo. As espécies de Malassezia identificadas não mostraram correlação com as variantes clínicas e com a distribuição das lesões de pitiríase versicolor quanto às regiões do corpo.Species of the genus Malassezia isolated were: Malassezia sympodialis (16.66%, Malassezia furfur (12.50%, Malassezia globosa (11.45%, and Malassezia slooffiae (2.10%. Malassezia sympodialis predominated in the study. The species of Malassezia identified did not show correlation with clinical variants and with the distribution of pityriasis versicolor lesions in relation to areas of the body.

  16. Anti-dermatophytic activity of bakuchiol: in vitro mechanistic studies and in vivo tinea pedis-inhibiting activity in a guinea pig model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Kit-Man; Wong, Jack Ho; Wu, Yu-On; Cheng, Ling; Wong, Chun-Wai; To, Ming-Ho; Lau, Ching-Po; Yew, David Tai-Wai; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Hui, Mamie; Ng, Tzi-Bun; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-06-15

    Bakuchiol was an active antifungal compound isolated from Psoraleae Fructus by means of bioassay-guided fractionation in our previous study. The present work aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms and the therapeutic effect of bakuchiol in Trichophyton mentagrophytes-induced tinea pedis. After exposure to bakuchiol at 0.25-fold, 0.5-fold and 1-fold of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) (3.91 μg/ml) for 24h, the fungal conidia of T. mentagrophytes demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in membrane permeability. Moreover, bakuchiol at 1-fold MIC elicited a 187% elevation in reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in fungal cells after a 3-h incubation. However, bakuchiol did not induce DNA fragmentation. In a guinea pig model of tinea pedis, bakuchiol at 1%, 5% or 10% (w/w) concentration in aqueous cream could significantly reduce the fungal burden of infected feet (p<0.01-0.05). In conclusion, this is the first report to demonstrate that bakuchiol is effective in relieving tinea pedis and in inhibiting the growth of the dermatophyte T. mentagrophytes by increasing fungal membrane permeability and ROS generation, but not via induction of DNA fragmentation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. High Laccase Expression by Trametes versicolor in a Simulated Textile Effluent with Different Carbon Sources and PHs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ottoni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents are highly polluting and have variable and complex compositions. They can be extremely complex, with high salt concentrations and alkaline pHs. A fixed-bed bioreactor was used in the present study to simulate a textile effluent treatment, where the white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, efficiently decolourised the azo dye Reactive Black 5 over 28 days. This occurred under high alkaline conditions, which is unusual, but advantageous, for successful decolourisation processes. Active dye decolourisation was maintained by operation in continuous culture. Colour was eliminated during the course of operation and maximum laccase (Lcc activity (80.2 U∙L−1 was detected after glycerol addition to the bioreactor. Lcc2 gene expression was evaluated with different carbon sources and pH values based on reverse transcriptase-PCR (polymerase chain reaction. Glycerol was shown to promote the highest lcc2 expression at pH 5.5, followed by sucrose and then glucose. The highest levels of expression occurred between three and four days, which corroborate the maximum Lcc activity observed for sucrose and glycerol on the bioreactor. These results give new insights into the use of T. versicolor in textile dye wastewater treatment with high pHs.

  18. Metabolization and degradation kinetics of the urban-use pesticide fipronil by white rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfand, Jordyn M; LeFevre, Gregory H; Luthy, Richard G

    2016-10-12

    Fipronil is a recalcitrant phenylpyrazole-based pesticide used for flea/tick treatment and termite control that is distributed in urban aquatic environments via stormwater and contributes to stream toxicity. We discovered that fipronil is rapidly metabolized (t 1/2 = 4.2 d) by the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor to fipronil sulfone and multiple previously unknown fipronil transformation products, lowering fipronil concentration by 96.5%. Using an LC-QTOF-MS untargeted metabolomics approach, we identified four novel fipronil fungal transformation products: hydroxylated fipronil sulfone, glycosylated fipronil sulfone, and two compounds with unresolved structures. These results are consistent with identified enzymatic detoxification pathways wherein conjugation with sugar moieties follows initial ring functionalization (hydroxylation). The proposed pathway is supported by kinetic evidence of transformation product formation. Fipronil loss by sorption, hydrolysis, and photolysis was negligible. When T. versicolor was exposed to the cytochrome P450 enzyme inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole, oxidation of fipronil and production of hydroxylated and glycosylated transformation products significantly decreased (p = 0.038, 0.0037, 0.0023, respectively), indicating that fipronil is metabolized intracellularly by cytochrome P450 enzymes. Elucidating fipronil transformation products is critical because pesticide target specificity can be lost via structural alteration, broadening classes of impacted organisms. Integration of fungi in engineered natural treatment systems could be a viable strategy for pesticide removal from stormwater runoff.

  19. Influence of xylem ray integrity and degree of polymerization on bending strength of beech wood decayed by Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsan Bari; Reza Oladi; Olaf Schmidt; Carol A. Clausen; Katie Ohno; Darrel D. Nicholas; Mehrdad Ghodskhah Daryaei; Maryam Karim

    2015-01-01

    The scope of this research was to evaluate the influence of xylem ray (XR) and degree of polymerization (DP) of holocellulose in Oriental beech wood (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) on impact bending strength against two white-rot fungi. Beech wood specimens, exposed to Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor, were evaluated for...

  20. The Behavioural Abilities of Meteorus versicolor Wesm. and Rogas rossicus Kok. (Hymenoptera, Branconidae) Parasitoids of Tephrina arenacearia Den. Et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae)

    OpenAIRE

    KERIMOVA, Ilhama Gudrat Gizi

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the behavioural abilities of Meteorus versicolor Wesm. and Rogas rossicus Kok. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae)-internal parasitoids of Thephrina arenacearia Den. et Schiff. (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) as well. Periods of development phases and searching, ovipositional and mating behaviour of both parasitoids have been investigated.

  1. Antioxidative activities and chemical characterization of polysaccharide extracts from the widely used mushrooms Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kozarski, M.; Klaus, A.; Niksic, M.; Vrvic, M.M.; Todorovic, N.; Jakovljevic, D.; Griensven, van L.J.L.D.

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidant activities of polysaccharide extracts of four of the most widely known mushrooms often used in medicinal applications as well as in tea and food, namely Ganoderma applanatum, Ganoderma lucidum, Lentinus edodes and Trametes versicolor, were studied. G. applanatum and L edodes extracts

  2. Effects of onion (Allium cepa L.) and garlic (Allium sativum L.) essential oils on the Aspergillus versicolor growth and sterigmatocystin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić-Tanackov, Sunčica; Dimić, Gordana; Lević, Jelena; Tanackov, Ilija; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vujičić, Biserka; Gvozdanović-Varga, Jelica

    2012-05-01

    In the present study the effects of individual and combined essential oils (EOs) extracted from onion (Allium cepa L.) bulb and garlic (Allium sativum L.) clove on the growth of Aspergillus versicolor and sterigmatocystin (STC) production were investigated. The EOs obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty one compounds were identified in onion EO. The major components were: dimethyl-trisulfide (16.64%), methyl-propyl-trisulfide (14.21%), dietil-1,2,4-tritiolan (3R,5S-, 3S,5S- and 3R,5R- isomers) (13.71%), methyl-(1-propenyl)-disulfide (13.14%), and methyl-(1-propenyl)-trisulfide (13.02%). The major components of garlic EO were diallyl-trisulfide (33.55%), and diallyl-disulfide (28.05%). The mycelial growth and the STC production were recorded after 7, 14, and 21 d of the A. versicolor growth in Yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth containing different EOs concentrations. Compared to the garlic EO, the onion EO showed a stronger inhibitory effect on the A. versicolor mycelial growth and STC production. After a 21-d incubation of fungi 0.05 and 0.11 μg/mL of onion EO and 0.11 μg/mL of garlic EO completely inhibited the A. versicolor mycelial growth and mycotoxins biosynthesis. The combination of EOs of onion (75%) and garlic (25%) had a synergistic effect on growth inhibition of A. versicolor and STC production. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Comparison of two laccases from Trametes versicolor for application in the decolorization of dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Ge, Lin; Cai, Junli; Pei, Jianjun; Xie, Jingcong; Zhao, Linguo

    2014-04-01

    It has been previously demonstrated that laccases exhibit great potential for use in several industrial and environmental applications. In this paper, two laccase isoenzyme genes, lccB and lccC, were cloned and expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115. The sequence analysis indicated that the lccB and lccC genes consisted of 1,563 and 1,584 bp, and their open reading frames encoded 520 and 527 amino acids, respectively. They had 72.7% degree of identity in nucleotides and 86.7% in amino acids. The expression levels of LccB and LccC were up to 32,479 and 34,231 U/l, respectively. The recombinant laccases were purified by ultrafiltration and (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, showing a single band on SDS-PAGE, which had a molecular mass of 58 kDa. The optimal pH and temperature for LccB were 2.0 and 55°C with 2,2'-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzthiazolinesulfonic acid (ABTS) as a substrate, whereas LccC exhibited optimal pH and temperature at 3.0 and 60°C. The apparent kinetic parameters of LccB were 0.43 mM for ABTS with a Vmax value of 51.28 U/mg, and the Km and Vmax values for LccC were 0.29 mM and 62.89 U/mg. The recombinant laccases were able to decolorize five types of dyes. Acid Violet 43 (100 g/ml) was completely decolorized by LccB or LccC (2 U/ml), and the decolorization of Reactive Blue KN-R (100 g/ml) was 91.6% by LccC (2 U/ml). Thus, the study characterizes useful laccase isoenzymes from T. versicolor that have the capability of being incorporated into the treatment of similar azo and anthraquinone dyes from dyeing industries.

  4. Long term effects of exposure to ionizing irradiation on periodontal health status – the Tinea Capitis cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies among long term survivors of childhood cancer who had received high dose irradiation therapy of 4-60 Gy, demonstrated acute and chronic dental effects including periodontal diseases. However, the possible effects of low to moderate doses of radiation on dental health are sparse. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation and periodontal health following 50 years from the exposure. The study population included 253 irradiated subjects (treated for Tinea Capitis in the 1950s and, 162 non-irradiated subjects, treated for Tinea Capitis in the 1950s. The estimated dose to the teeth was 0.2-0.4Gy. Dental examination was performed according to the Community Periodontal Index (CPI. Socio-economic and health behavior variables were obtained through a personal questionnaire. Periodontal disease was operationally defined as deep periodontal pockets. A multivariate logistic regression model was used for the association of irradiation status and other independent variables with periodontal status.The results showed that among the irradiated subjects, 23% (95% CI 18%-28% demonstrated complete edentulousness or insufficient teeth for CPI scoring as compared to 13% (95% CI 8%-19% among the non-irradiated subjects (p=0.01. Periodontal disease was detected among 54% of the irradiated subjects as compared to 40% of the non-irradiated (p=0.008. Controlling for education and smoking, the ORs for the association between radiation and periodontal disease were 1.61 (95% CI 1.01-2.57 and 1.95 (95% CI 1.1-3.5 for ever never and per 1 Gy absorbed in the salivary gland, respectively. In line with other studies, a protective effect for periodontal diseases among those with high education and an increased risk for ever smokers were observed. In conclusion, childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of ionizing radiation might be associated with later outcomes of dental health. The

  5. Intoxicação experimental por Simarouba versicolor (Simaroubaceae em ovinos e indução de resistência ao consumo da planta

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    Ariany C. Santos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Simarouba versicolor é uma árvore semidecídua pertencente à família Simaroubaceae. Um surto de intoxicação por S. versicolor em bovinos por brotos da planta presente no pasto em Mato Grosso do Sul e sua reprodução experimental foram descritos. Esse estudo teve por objetivos verificar experimentalmente se os ovinos podem ser utilizados como modelo clínico-patológico no estudo da intoxicação por Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (fam. Simaroubaceae, determinar se há indução de resistência pela ingestão de pequenas e repetidas doses e, se a planta mantém sua toxicidade quando dessecada. Foram realizados dois experimentos, sendo o primeiro com folhas verdes ou folhas dessecadas e trituradas de S. versicolor em doses únicas de 5g/kg, 5g/kg e 3g/kg a três ovinos (Ovino 1, 2 e 3 respectivamente. O experimento 2, foi realizado com diferentes doses diárias de folhas dessecadas e trituradas de S. versicolor em quatro ovinos que receberam 1,5g/kg, 0,75g/kg, 0,6g/kg e 0,3g/kg e, com um ovino que recebeu 3g/kg como controle positivo (Ovino 4. A administração foi suspensa quando os ovinos apresentaram sinais clínicos da intoxicação. Após doze dias de recuperação, os animais sobreviventes foram desafiados com a mesma dose diária da planta ingerida anteriormente para avaliar o desenvolvimento de resistência. Os sinais clínicos observados nos dois experimentos caracterizaram-se por anorexia, mucosas oculares congestas, polidipsia, sialorreia, fezes pastosas que evoluíram para diarreia líquida fétida esverdeada, decúbito lateral e morte para os Ovinos 1 a 7. As principais lesões histológicas observadas foram necrose do tecido linfoide (linfonodos, baço, placas de Peyer e enterite necrosante. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que os ovinos podem ser utilizados como modelo experimental clínico-patológico na intoxicação por S. versicolor. Com o método utilizado, não houve resistência ao consumo diário de folhas

  6. Extracts from the Mongolian traditional medicinal plants Dianthus versicolorFisch. and Lilium pumilum Delile stimulate bile flow in an isolated perfused rat liver model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Tsendayush, Damba; Thalhammer, Theresia; Zehl, Martin; Vo, Thanh Phuong Nha; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Natsagdorj, Damdinsuren; Narantuya, Samdan; Kletter, Christa; Glasl, Sabine

    2010-10-05

    Dianthus versicolor (Caryophyllaceae) and Lilium pumilum (Liliaceae) are two medicinal plants used in traditional Mongolian medicine to treat hepatic and gastrointestinal disorders. In this study aqueous (AE) and methanolic (ME) extracts of Dianthus versicolor and Lilium pumilum were investigated for their influence on the bile flow. The aqueous extracts of both plants were tested in absence and presence of 10 μM taurocholic acid at three different concentrations (100, 250, and 500 mg/L). The aqueous extract of Dianthus versicolor was further purified in order to locate the active principles. Two resulting fractions, one enriched in flavonoids and the other in sugars, were investigated for their influence on the bile flow in absence of taurocholic acid at 10, 20, and 40 mg/L. The aqueous extracts of both plants were analysed qualitatively by LC-MS(n) and quantitatively by UV-spectrophotometry. The bile flow experiments were performed in the isolated perfused rat liver. The compounds were identified by LC-DAD-MS(n) and TLC using references. The UV-spectrophotometric analysis was based on the monograph "Passiflorae herba" of the European Pharmacopoeia, and the total flavonoid contents were calculated and expressed as vitexin. AE and ME of both plants increased the bile flow dose-dependently (between 9% and 30%), and no hepatotoxic effect was seen even during longer perfusions. Stimulation of bile secretion was comparable in the presence and in the absence of taurocholic acid. The flavonoid fraction of Dianthus versicolor increased the bile flow by 18% (pDianthus versicolor AE (total flavonoid content 1.78%) revealed the presence of the isovitexin derivative saponarin. In the AE of Lilium pumilum (total flavonoid content 1.04%) the flavonoids rutoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside were detected. The results show that choleresis under extract application is due to a stimulation of the bile-salt-independent bile flow which might be caused

  7. Metabolomics Investigation of an Association of Induced Features and Corresponding Fungus during the Co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao-Yan; Shen, Xiao-Ting; Yuan, Xiao-Jie; Zhou, Yuan-Ming; Fan, Huan; Zhu, Li-Ping; Du, Feng-Yu; Sadilek, Martin; Yang, Jie; Qiao, Bin; Yang, Song

    2018-01-01

    The co-culture of Trametes versicolor and Ganoderma applanatum is a model of intense basidiomycete interaction, which induces many newly synthesized or highly produced features. Currently, one of the major challenges is an identification of the origin of induced features during the co-culture. Herein, we report a 13C-dynamic labeling analysis used to determine an association of induced features and corresponding fungus even if the identities of metabolites were not available or almost nothing was known of biochemical aspects. After the co-culture of T. versicolor and G. applanatum for 10 days, the mycelium pellets of T. versicolor and G. applanatum were sterilely harvested and then mono-cultured in the liquid medium containing half fresh medium with 13C-labeled glucose as carbon source and half co-cultured supernatants collected on day 10. 13C-labeled metabolome analyzed by LC-MS revealed that 31 induced features including 3-phenyllactic acid and orsellinic acid were isotopically labeled in the mono-culture after the co-culture stimulation. Twenty features were derived from T. versicolor, 6 from G. applanatum, and 5 features were synthesized by both T. versicolor and G. applanatum. 13C-labeling further suggested that 12 features such as previously identified novel xyloside [N-(4-methoxyphenyl)formamide 2-O-beta-D-xyloside] were likely induced through the direct physical interaction of mycelia. Use of molecular network analysis combined with 13C-labeling provided an insight into the link between the generation of structural analogs and producing fungus. Compound 1 with m/z 309.0757, increased 15.4-fold in the co-culture and observed 13C incorporation in the mono-culture of both T. versicolor and G. applanatum, was purified and identified as a phenyl polyketide, 2,5,6-trihydroxy-4, 6-diphenylcyclohex-4-ene-1,3-dione. The biological activity study indicated that this compound has a potential to inhibit cell viability of leukemic cell line U937. The current work sets

  8. HPLC determination of flavonoid glycosides in Mongolian Dianthus versicolor Fisch. (Caryophyllaceae) compared with quantification by UV spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Astrid; Purevsuren, Sodnomtseren; Zehl, Martin; Kletter, Christa; Reznicek, Gottfried; Narantuya, Samdan; Glasl, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Dianthus versicolor is used in traditional Mongolian medicine against liver impairment. Fractions enriched in flavone-di- and triglycosides were shown to enhance bile secretion. Therefore, reliable and accurate analytical methods are needed for the determination of these flavonoids in the crude drug and extracts thereof. To provide a validated HPLC-DAD (diode array detector) method especially developed for the separation of polar flavonoids and to compare the data obtained with those evaluated by UV spectrophotometry. Separations were carried out on an Aquasil® C₁₈-column (4.6 mm × 250.0 mm, 5 µm) with a linear gradient of acetonitrile and water (adjusted to pH 2.8 with trifluoroacetic acid) as mobile phase. Rutoside was employed as internal standard with linear behavior in a concentration range of 0.007-3.5 mg/mL. Accuracy was determined by spiking the crude drug with saponarin resulting in recoveries between 92% and 102%. The method allows the quantification of highly polar flavonoid glycosides and the determination of their total content. For saponarin a linear response was evaluated within the range 0.007-3.5 mg/mL (R²  > 0.9999). It was proven that threefold sonication represents a time-saving, effective and cheap method for the extraction of the polar flavonoid glycosides. The contents determined by HPLC were shown to be in agreement with those obtained employing UV spectrophotometry. The study has indicated that the newly developed HPLC method represents a powerful technique for the quality control of D. versicolor. Ultraviolet spectrophotometry may be used alternatively provided that the less polar flavonoids are removed by purification. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Enzymatic removal of estrogenic activity of nonylphenol and octylphenol aqueous solutions by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catapane, Maria [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Nicolucci, Carla; Menale, Ciro; Mita, Luigi [National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Sergio [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); Mita, Damiano G., E-mail: mita@igb.cnr.it [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy); Diano, Nadia [Institute of Genetics and Biophysics “ABT”, Via P. Castellino, 111, 80131 Naples (Italy); National Institute of Biostructures and Biosystems (INBB), Viale Medaglie d’Oro, 305, 00136 Rome (Italy); Department of Experimental Medicine, Second University of Naples, Via S. M. di Costantinopoli, 16, 80138 Naples (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    Highlights: ► Endocrine disruptors cause adverse effects in living organisms. ► Nonylphenol and Octylphenol are alkylphenols recognized as endocrine disruptors. ► It is necessary to remove or reduce their presence in the environment. ► Waters polluted by these pollutants have been bioremediated by immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor. ► Laccase treated solutions were found to have lost any estrogenic activity. -- Abstract: A fluidized bed reactor, filled with laccase-based beads, has been employed to bioremediate aqueous solutions polluted by endocrine disruptors belonging to the alkylphenols (APs) class. In particular Octylphenol and Nonylphenol have been studied. The catalytic activity of free and immobilized laccase from Trametes versicolor has been characterized as a function of pH, temperature and substrate concentration in the reaction medium. In view of practical applications for each substrate concentration the removal efficiency (RE), the time to halve the initial concentration (τ{sub 50}), and the t{sub c=0}, i.e. the time to reach complete pollutant removal, have been calculated. The immobilized laccase exhibited a lower affinity for octylphenol (K{sub m} = 1.11 mM) than for Nonylphenol (K{sub m} = 0.72 mM), but all the other parameters of applicative interest resulted more significant for octylphenol. For example, the times to reach the complete removal of octylphenol compared to those for nonylphenol at the same concentration is shorter of about 15% (at low concentrations) up to 40% (at high concentrations). The study of cell proliferation with MPP89 cells, a human mesothelioma cell line, and the assay with the YES test indicated the loss of estrogenic activity of the APs solutions after laccase treatment.

  10. Clinical types of tinea capitis and species identification in children: an experience from tertiary care centres of karachi, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooqi, M.; Tabassum, S.; Rizvi, D.B.; Rahman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical types of Tinea Capitis and identify species in children reporting to two tertiary care centres of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The escriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dermatology Outpatients' Department, PNS Shifa Hospital and the Institute of Skin Diseases, Karachi, from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. It comprised 202 children with clinical diagnosis of tineacapitis, confirmed by skin scrapings, showing fungal hyphae and spores in 10% potassium hydroxide on direct microscopy. Wood's lamp examination was carried out and the scrapings were cultured on Sabouraud's agar. A detailed dermatological examination was performed for evidence of fungal infection elsewhere in the body. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1 and age ranged from 1 to 14 years. The commonest clinical type gray patch was observed in 71 (35.1%) of the patients, black dot in 63 (31.2%), kerion in 50 (24.8%), favus in 10 (5.0%), diffuse pustular in 6 (3.0%), and diffuse scale in 2 (1.0%) patients. The most frequent species grown on culture was Trichophyton(T).Soudanense, followed by T.Tonsurans, T. Schoenleinii, and T.Mentagrophytes respectively. Conclusion: Most of the patients of Tineacapitis presented with gray patch and black dot variety. The most common species identified by culture was Trichophyton Soudanense. Disease was equal in both gender and predominantly affected the population belonging to low and middle socioeconomic class. (author)

  11. Clinical types of tinea capitis and species identification in children: an experience from tertiary care centres of karachi, pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooqi, M. [Ohud Hospital (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Dermatology; Tabassum, S. [Aga Khan Univ. Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Medicine; Rizvi, D. B. [Combined Military Hospital, Multan (Pakistan). Dept. of Dermatology; Rahman, A. [Combined Military Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Dermatology

    2014-03-15

    Objective: To study the clinical types of Tinea Capitis and identify species in children reporting to two tertiary care centres of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods: The escriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Dermatology Outpatients' Department, PNS Shifa Hospital and the Institute of Skin Diseases, Karachi, from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009. It comprised 202 children with clinical diagnosis of tineacapitis, confirmed by skin scrapings, showing fungal hyphae and spores in 10% potassium hydroxide on direct microscopy. Wood's lamp examination was carried out and the scrapings were cultured on Sabouraud's agar. A detailed dermatological examination was performed for evidence of fungal infection elsewhere in the body. SPSS 19 was used for data analysis. Results: Male-to-female ratio was 1.1:1 and age ranged from 1 to 14 years. The commonest clinical type gray patch was observed in 71 (35.1%) of the patients, black dot in 63 (31.2%), kerion in 50 (24.8%), favus in 10 (5.0%), diffuse pustular in 6 (3.0%), and diffuse scale in 2 (1.0%) patients. The most frequent species grown on culture was Trichophyton(T).Soudanense, followed by T.Tonsurans, T. Schoenleinii, and T.Mentagrophytes respectively. Conclusion: Most of the patients of Tineacapitis presented with gray patch and black dot variety. The most common species identified by culture was Trichophyton Soudanense. Disease was equal in both gender and predominantly affected the population belonging to low and middle socioeconomic class. (author)

  12. IL6-174 G>C Polymorphism (rs1800795 Association with Late Effects of Low Dose Radiation Exposure in the Portuguese Tinea Capitis Cohort.

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    Paula Boaventura

    Full Text Available Head and neck cancers, and cardiovascular disease have been described as late effects of low dose radiation (LDR exposure, namely in tinea capitis cohorts. In addition to radiation dose, gender and younger age at exposure, the genetic background might be involved in the susceptibility to LDR late effects. The -174 G>C (rs1800795 SNP in IL6 has been associated with cancer and cardiovascular disease, nevertheless this association is still controversial. We assessed the association of the IL6-174 G>C SNP with LDR effects such as thyroid carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and carotid atherosclerosis in the Portuguese tinea capitis cohort. The IL6-174 G>C SNP was genotyped in 1269 individuals formerly irradiated for tinea capitis. This sampling group included thyroid cancer (n = 36, basal cell carcinoma (n = 113 and cases without thyroid or basal cell carcinoma (1120. A subgroup was assessed for atherosclerosis by ultrasonography (n = 379 and included matched controls (n = 222. Genotypes were discriminated by real-time PCR using a TaqMan SNP genotyping assay. In the irradiated group, we observed that the CC genotype was significantly associated with carotid plaque risk, both in the genotypic (OR = 3.57, CI = 1.60-7.95, p-value = 0.002 and in the recessive (OR = 3.02, CI = 1.42-6.42, p-value = 0.004 models. Irradiation alone was not a risk factor for carotid atherosclerosis. We did not find a significant association of the IL6-174 C allele with thyroid carcinoma or basal cell carcinoma risk. The IL6-174 CC genotype confers a three-fold risk for carotid atherosclerotic disease suggesting it may represent a genetic susceptibility factor in the LDR context.

  13. Tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (molecular type Arthroderma benhamiae ) mimics impetigo : a case report and literature review of cases in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Utako; Yokoyama, Kae; Hiruma, Masataro; Kano, Rui; Takamori, Kenji; Suga, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    A 36-year-old female elementary schoolteacher presented with aggregated serous papules surrounded by mild erythema, extending from both nasal wings/nostrils down to the upper lip. No improvement was seen following treatment of the lesions with topical antibiotics for impetigo. Potassium hydroxide (KOH) direct microscopy confirmed the presence of mycelia, and the infection was diagnosed as tinea faciei. The isolate was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes using morphological analysis and as Arthroderma benhamiae using genetic analysis. Here we describe that case and summarize the clinical features of other cases of A. benhamiae infection in Japan that have been reported in the literature.

  14. In vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents against dermatophyte isolates from patients with tinea pedis Atividade in vitro de antifúngicos e anti-sépticos frente a dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com tinea pedis

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    Maria Magali Stelato Rocha Soares

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro activity of antifungal and antiseptic agents were evaluated against dermatophytes isolated from patients with tinea pedis. The antifungals studied were: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazole, tolciclate and terbinafine, and the antiseptics were: povidine iodine (PVPI, propolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®, and boric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC or the minimal dilution concentration (MDC was determined by an agar dilution method using modified yeast nitrogen agar base, and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC or minimum fungicidal dilution (MFD was determined with subcultures on Sabouraud dextrose agar. All drugs studied were active against the dermatophytes at lower concentrations than those used in products and/or pharmaceutical preparations for topical use. Some antifungal agents, mainly terbinafine and tolciclate, presented higher efficacy than the other drugs, with lower MICs and MFCs values. It was concluded that the use of these antiseptic drugs represent an excellent alternative for the topical treatment of tinea pedis. For the treatment of severe cases these are the antifungal agents of choice.A atividade in vitro de antifúngicos e anti-sépticos foram avaliadas frente a dermatófitos isolados de pacientes com tinea pedis. Os antifúngicos estudados foram: ciclopirox olamine, cetoconazol, tolciclato e terbinafina, e os anti-sépticos foram: iodo povidine (PVPI, própolis, Fungol®, Andriodermol®e ácido bórico. A concentração inibitória mínima (CIM ou a diluição inibitória mínima (DIM foi determinada pelo método de diluição em ágar utilizando "yeast nitrogen" base modificado, e a concentração fungicida mínima (CFM ou diluição fungicida mínima (DFM foi determinada por subcultura em Saboraud dextrose ágar. Todas as drogas estudadas foram ativas frente aos dermatófitos em concentrações menores do que as utilizadas em produtos e/ou preparações farmacêuticas para uso tópico. Alguns

  15. DNA Damage and DNA Damage Responses in THP-1 Monocytes after Exposure to Spores of either Stachybotrys chartarum or Aspergillus versicolor or to T-2 toxin

    OpenAIRE

    Rakkestad, Kirsten E.; Skaar, Ida; Ansteinsson, Vibeke E.; Solhaug, Anita; Holme, Jørn A.; Pestka, James J.; Samuelsen, Jan T.; Dahlman, Hans J.; Hongslo, Jan K.; Becher, Rune

    2010-01-01

    We have characterized cell death in THP-1 cells after exposure to heat-treated spores from satratoxin G–producing Stachybotrys chartarum isolate IBT 9631, atranone-producing S. chartarum isolate IBT 9634, and sterigmatocystin-producing Aspergillus versicolor isolate IBT 3781, as well as the trichothecenes T-2 and satratoxin G. Spores induced cell death within 3–6 h, with Stachybotrys appearing most potent. IBT 9631 induced both apoptosis and necrosis, while IBT 9634 and IBT 3781 induced mostl...

  16. A Novel Contrast Stain for the Rapid Diagnosis of Pityriasis Versicolor: A Comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B Stain, Potassium Hydroxide Mount and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodha, Nikita; Poojary, Shital Amin

    2015-01-01

    The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH) mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB) is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain) with KOH mount and culture. Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1) KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2) culture using Sabouraud's dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen's Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement) among the different modalities. Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%), 92 (92%) and 56 (56%) patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%). Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001). Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001) as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107). CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  17. A novel contrast stain for the rapid diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor: A comparison of Chicago Sky Blue 6B stain, potassium hydroxide mount and culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikita Lodha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mycological study of pityriasis versicolor is usually done by potassium hydroxide (KOH mount and culture. However, KOH mount lacks a color contrast and requires a trained eye to interpret, while culture is difficult to perform, time consuming and has low sensitivity. Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CSB is a new contrast stain that highlights the fungal hyphae and spores, blue against a purplish background. Aims and Objectives: This study was done to compare the utility of a novel contrast stain (CSB stain with KOH mount and culture. Materials and Methods: Skin scrapings from the lesions of 100 clinically diagnosed cases of P. versicolor were subjected to (1 KOH mount and CSB stain for direct microscopic examination and (2 culture using Sabouraud′s dextrose agar. The statistical analysis of CSB stain and culture was done using KOH mount as the reference method, as it is the most commonly performed and practical diagnostic test available for P. versicolor. An interrater reliability analysis using the Cohen′s Kappa statistic was performed to determine consistency (agreement among the different modalities. Observations and Results: Direct microscopy with CSB stain, KOH mount and mycological culture showed positive results in 98 (98%, 92 (92% and 56 (56% patients, respectively. Using KOH mount as the reference method, CSB stain had a sensitivity of 100% which was significantly higher than culture (60.9%. Statistically significant fair agreement was found between CSB stain and KOH mount (94% with κ=0.38, P < 0.001. Negligible agreement was found between CSB stain and culture (66%, κ=0.199, P = 0.001 as well as between KOH mount and culture (64%, κ=0.051, P = 0.107. Conclusion: CSB staining of skin scrapings is the most sensitive method for the diagnosis of pityriasis versicolor. Due to the distinct contrast provided by CSB, it is easy to perform, rapid and qualitatively superior to KOH mount.

  18. Biodegradation of sulfamethazine by Trametes versicolor: Removal from sewage sludge and identification of intermediate products by UPLC-QqTOF-MS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Galan, Ma. Jesus, E-mail: mggqam@cid.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Carlos E., E-mail: CarlosEsteban.Rodriguez@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Centro de Investigacion en Contaminacion Ambiental, Universidad de Costa Rica, 2060 San Jose (Costa Rica); Vicent, Teresa, E-mail: Teresa.Vicent@uab.cat [Departament d' Enginyeria Quimica, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Caminal, Gloria, E-mail: Gloria.Caminal@uab.cat [Unitat asociada de Biocatalisi Aplicada IQAC-CSIC, Escola d' Enginyeria, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Diaz-Cruz, M. Silvia, E-mail: sdcqam@cid.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Barcelo, Damia, E-mail: dbcqam@cid.csic.es [Departament de Quimica Ambiental, IDAEA-CSIC, C/Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Catalan Institute for Water Research (ICRA), Parc Cientific i Tecnologic de la Universitat de Girona. C/Emili Grahit, 101 Edifici H2O, E-17003 Girona (Spain); King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-11-15

    Degradation of the sulfonamide sulfamethazine (SMZ) by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor was assessed. Elimination was achieved to nearly undetectable levels after 20 h in liquid medium when SMZ was added at 9 mg L{sup -1}. Experiments with purified laccase and laccase-mediators resulted in almost complete removal. On the other hand, inhibition of SMZ degradation was observed when piperonilbutoxide, a cytochrome P450-inhibitor, was added to the fungal cultures. UPLC-QqTOF-MS analysis allowed the identification and confirmation of 4 different SMZ degradation intermediates produced by fungal cultures or purified laccase: desulfo-SMZ, N{sup 4}-formyl-SMZ, N{sup 4}-hydroxy-SMZ and desamino-SMZ; nonetheless SMZ mineralization was not demonstrated with the isotopically labeled sulfamethazine-phenyl-{sup 13}C{sub 6} after 7 days. Inoculation of T. versicolor to sterilized sewage sludge in solid-phase systems showed complete elimination of SMZ and also of other sulfonamides (sulfapyridine, sulfathiazole) at real environmental concentrations, making this fungus an interesting candidate for further remediation research. - Highlights: {yields}Degradation of sulfamethazine by Trametes versicolor was evaluated. {yields}The laccase enzymatic system and cytochrome P-450 were involved in the degradation. {yields}Four different degradation products of sulfamethazine were identified and confirmed. {yields}The molecular structures and masses of the metabolites were accurately calculated. {yields}Full elimination of sulfamethazine was observed in regular sewage sludge.

  19. Caries experience among adults exposed to low to moderate doses of ionizing irradiation in childhood - the Tinea Capitis Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuval eVered

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available While the impact of therapeutic levels of ionizing radiation during childhood on dental defects has been documented, the possible effect of low doses on dental health is unknown. The study aims were to assess the association between childhood exposure to low-moderate doses of therapeutic radiation and caries experience among a cohort of adults 50 years following the exposure.The analysis was based on a sample of 253 irradiated (in the treatment of Tinea Capitis and 162 non-irradiated subjects. The DMFT (Decayed, Missing, and Filled Teeth index was assessed during a clinical dental examination and questions regarding dental care services utilization, oral hygiene behavior, current self-perceived mouth dryness, socio-demographic parameters and health behavior variables were obtained through a face to face interview.An ordered multivariate logistic regression model was used to assess the association of the main independent variable (irradiation status and other relevant independent variables on the increase in DMFT.Mean caries experience levels (DMFT were 18.6+7.5 for irradiated subjects compared to 16.4+7.2 for the non-irradiated (p=0.002. Controlling for gender, age, education, income, smoking, dental visit in the last year and brushing teeth behavior, irradiation was associated with a 72% increased risk for higher DMFT level (95% CI 1.19-2.50. A quantification of the risk by dose absorbed in the salivary gland and in the thyroid gland showed adjusted ORs of 2.21 per 1Gy (95% CI 1.40-3.50 and 1.05 per 1cGy (95% CI 1.01-1.09, respectively.Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation (0.2-0.4Gy might be associated with late outcomes of dental health. In line with the guidelines of the American Dental Association, these results call for caution when using dental radiographs.

  20. Evaluation of local trace element status and 8-Iso-prostaglandin F2α concentrations in patients with Tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miraloglu, Meral; Kurutas, Ergul Belge; Ozturk, Perihan; Arican, Ozer

    2016-01-01

    Tinea pedis (TP) is an infection of the feet caused by fungi. The infectious diseases caused by dermatophytes are mainly related to the enzymes produced by these fungi. Up to the now, the local 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α), concentration as oxidative stress biomarker and trace elements status have not been published in patients with TP. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between oxidative stress and trace elements (Cu, Zn, Se), and to evaluate the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se in this disorder. Forty-three consecutive patients with a diagnosis of unilateral interdigital TP were enrolled in this study. The samples were obtained by scraping the skin surface. 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in scraping samples were determined by ELISA. In addition, the levels of Se, Zn and Cu in scraping samples were determined on flame and furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer using Zeeman background correction. Oxidative stress was confirmed by the significant elevation in 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations (p iso-PGF2α parameters, but negative correlations between Se-Cu; Se-8-iso-PGF2α parameters in lesional area. Furthermore, the ratios of Cu/Zn and Cu/Se were significantly higher on the lesional area than the non-lesional area (p iso-PGF2α and trace elements in patients with TP (p > 0.05). Our results showed that there is a possible link between oxidative stress (increased 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations) and imbalanced of trace elements status in lesional area of TP patients. The use of antifungal agents together with both Zn and Se drugs could be helpful in the both regression of disease and in shortening the duration of disease.

  1. Adherence to oral and topical medication in 445 patients with tinea pedis as assessed by the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunemi, Yuichiro; Abe, Shinya; Kobayashi, Miwa; Kitami, Yuki; Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Murota, Hiroyuki; Sugaya, Makoto; Masuda, Koji; Hiragun, Takaaki; Kaneko, Sakae; Saeki, Hidehisa; Shintani, Yoichi; Tanioka, Miki; Imafuku, Shinichi; Abe, Masatoshi; Inomata, Naoko; Morisky, Donald E; Furue, Masutaka; Katoh, Norito

    2015-01-01

    Adherence is defined as the extent to which a person's behavior corresponds with recommendations from health care providers. Adherence to treatment is an important factor for a good therapeutic outcome. This study aimed to examine the adherence of patients with tinea pedis and to clarify the factors related to it. We assessed medication adherence for oral and topical drugs using a translated version of the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-8 (MMAS-8) together with other background factors in 445 Japanese patients with tinea pedis, using a questionnaire in a web-based monitoring system. Overall, high, medium and low adherence rates as assessed by MMAS-8 were 8.7%, 31.7% and 59.6% for oral medication, and 8.6%, 17.4% and 74.0% for topical medication, respectively. The adherence level was significantly higher for oral medication than for topical medication. Subgroup analyses showed that the adherence level for topical medication was significantly higher when topical and oral medications were used in combination than when topical medication was used alone. A low adherence level was shown in employed patients, those for whom their oral medication had not been effective and those with topical medication who had visited their hospital less often than once every six months. Patient adherence to therapy can be effectively improved by selecting highly effective medication while considering the prescription of topical and oral antifungal medications concomitantly, by carefully selecting a therapy plan for employed patients and by encouraging patients to visit their doctor regularly.

  2. Skin dose and response for the head and neck in patients irradiated with x-ray for tinea capitis: implications for environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Kolber, A.B.; Shore, R.E.; Albert, R.E.; Altman, S.M.; Pasternack, B.S.

    1983-01-01

    The dose delivered to the skin of the head and neck in patients treated with x-ray irradiation for childhood tinea capitis was reconstructed. This was possible by utilizing a phantom made from the skull of a seven year old child and irradiating it with the same technique and x-ray machine used in tinea capitis therapy two to four decades ago. Seventy-eight basal cell carcinomas (BCC) have appeared so far in 40 of 1727 irradiated white children and none in 500 irradiated black children. The dose distribution over the face and scalp is used to estimate the risk of BCC per person per rad. These results must be considered preliminary due to the relatively young age of the irradiated group (<50 years) at the present time. From the decreased risk per rad for the portion of the scalp that is hair covered, it appears that environmental ultraviolet radiation may play a key role in the expression of BCC. A cumulative hazard plot is utilized to tentatively extend the data to lifetime risk of 0.003 per rad with an upper limit of 0.006 per rad. Environmental radiation dose to the skin possibly account for 20% of observed BCC if this tentative risk estimate is valid

  3. Superficial fungal infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Robert A

    Superficial fungal infections arise from a pathogen that is restricted to the stratum corneum, with little or no tissue reaction. In this Seminar, three types of infection will be covered: tinea versicolor, piedra, and tinea nigra. Tinea versicolor is common worldwide and is caused by Malassezia spp, which are human saprophytes that sometimes switch from yeast to pathogenic mycelial form. Malassezia furfur, Malassezia globosa, and Malassezia sympodialis are most closely linked to tinea versicolor. White and black piedra are both common in tropical regions of the world; white piedra is also endemic in temperate climates. Black piedra is caused by Piedraia hortae; white piedra is due to pathogenic species of the Trichosporon genus. Tinea nigra is also common in tropical areas and has been confused with melanoma.

  4. Activation of dormant secondary metabolite production by introducing neomycin resistance into the deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yuan; Cui, Cheng-Bin; Li, Chang-Wei; Hua, Wei; Wu, Chang-Jing; Zhu, Tian-Jiao; Gu, Qian-Qun

    2014-07-29

    A new ultrasound-mediated approach has been developed to introduce neomycin-resistance to activate silent pathways for secondary metabolite production in a bio-inactive, deep-sea fungus, Aspergillus versicolor ZBY-3. Upon treatment of the ZBY-3 spores with a high concentration of neomycin by proper ultrasound irradiation, a total of 30 mutants were obtained by single colony isolation. The acquired resistance of the mutants to neomycin was confirmed by a resistance test. In contrast to the ZBY-3 strain, the EtOAc extracts of 22 of the 30 mutants inhibited the human cancer K562 cells, indicating that these mutants acquired a capability to produce antitumor metabolites. HPLC-photodiode array detector (PDAD)-UV and HPLC-electron spray ionization (ESI)-MS analyses of the EtOAc extracts of seven bioactive mutants and the ZBY-3 strain indicated that diverse secondary metabolites have been newly produced in the mutant extracts in contrast to the ZBY-3 extract. The followed isolation and characterization demonstrated that six metabolites, cyclo(D-Pro-D-Phe) (1), cyclo(D-Tyr-D-Pro) (2), phenethyl 5-oxo-L-prolinate (3), cyclo(L-Ile-L-Pro) (4), cyclo(L-Leu-L-Pro) (5) and 3β,5α,9α-trihydroxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (6), were newly produced by the mutant u2n2h3-3 compared to the parent ZBY-3 strain. Compound 3 was a new compound; 2 was isolated from a natural source for the first time, and all of these compounds were also not yet found in the metabolites of other A. versicolor strains. Compounds 1-6 inhibited the K562 cells, with inhibition rates of 54.6% (1), 72.9% (2), 23.5% (3), 29.6% (4), 30.9% (5) and 51.1% (6) at 100 μg/mL, and inhibited also other human cancer HL-60, BGC-823 and HeLa cells, to some extent. The present study demonstrated the effectiveness of the ultrasound-mediated approach to activate silent metabolite production in fungi by introducing acquired resistance to aminoglycosides and its potential for discovering new compounds from silent fungal

  5. The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sanaz Rostami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Pityriasis versicolor is a chronic, recurrent and often asymptomatic infection of stratum corneum, Which is caused by lipophilic yeasts of Malassezia. Human to human transmission through direct contact is possible. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of pityriasis versicolor in the dormitories of the Lorestan University of Medical Sciences by the three methods: skin scraping, use of scotch tape and wood’s lamp was perfumed. Materials and Methods: In this descriptive cross-sectional study,115 students in the dormitories of the university of medical sciences were studied with the three methods:skin scraping, using  scotch tape and wood’s lamp. Results: Among 115 patients, 66.94% were female and 33.05% were male. The mean age was 21.38 years.25% of boys and 11.1% of girls were affected.The prevalence of  Pityriasis versicolor by  the three methods was determined 15.7%. In this study, the  most common site of infection was shoulder and neck. Conclusion: The recent study showed a high prevalence of Pityriasis versicolor in Lorestan University of  Medical Sciences students . The prevalence of pityriasis versicolor had a statistically significant difference between males and females, and was more common in females .  The pairwise comparison results obtained  from the three methods using the Kappa coefficient, scotch tape method  was the most consistent results than the other two methods.

  6. DECOLORIZATION OF TEXTILE DYES BY NEWLY ISOLATED TRAMETES VERSICOLOR STRAIN Sevil PİLATİN, Buket KUNDUHOĞLU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket KUNDUHOĞLU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this century, the amount of industrial produces and their consumption has increased tremendously. Along with this increase, accumulation of industrial waste and its effect on nature has causedserious problems. Because of including various chemicals and especially dye, textile waste water is one of the most hazardous industrial wastes. Color is the most important pollutant in waste water and it should be decolorized. Decolorization is more important than degradation of organic substances from waste water. Even a small amount of dye found changes the color of rivers, lakes and other waterresources, and reduces the penetration of light and solubility of gases. White rot fungus are used as a biological system in degradation and decolorizing of textile dyes.In this study, parameters for decolorization of several textile dyes (Blue 49, Orange 12, Orange 13, Red 31, Black 5, RBBR by newly isolated Trametes versicolor M96was studied.It has been determined that pH, amount of inoculum, shaking speed (rpm, dye concentration and temperature are important factors in decolorization of the studied dyes. The maximum decolorization was found pH 4.5, amount of inoculums 50 ml, shaking speed 200 rpm, dye concentration 50 mg/l and heat 30 °C.

  7. Pomegranate peels: A novel ago-residue for tannate production by gamma irradiated aspergillus versicolor under solid state fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalaf, M.A.; Khalaf, S.A.

    2005-01-01

    Pomegranate peels were tested as a substrate for the production of tannate and gallic acid (GA) under solid state fermentation (SSF) using Aspergillus versicolor-g3B (highly potent gamma irradiated tannate producer isolate). The fungal strain was grown on the substrate without any pre-treatment. Different parameters for maximum production of tannate by this strain under SSF method were optimized. The maximum tannate yield (12.45μg-1ds) and GA (94%) were obtained when SSF was carried out at ph 5.0, 30 degree C, 60% initial substrate moisture, 20% inoculum size, 3% tannic acid and 1% ammonium nitrate as additional carbon and nitrogen sources, after 96 h of fermentation. The crude tannate from this isolate showed ph and temperature optima of 5.0 and 50 degree C, respectively. Also, the enzyme was stable in a broad ph range of 3-8 for 24 h and was also heat stable as it retained 65% activity at 70 degree C after 1 hour

  8. Hupa Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    An introduction to the Hupa number system is provided in this workbook, one in a series of numerous materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. The book is written in English with Hupa terms used only for the names of numbers. The opening pages present the numbers from 1-10, giving the numeral, the Hupa word, the English word, and…

  9. Triangular Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Triangular number, figurate num- ber, rangoli, Brahmagupta–Pell equation, Jacobi triple product identity. Figure 1. The first four triangular numbers. Left: Anuradha S Garge completed her PhD from. Pune University in 2008 under the supervision of Prof. S A Katre. Her research interests include K-theory and number theory.

  10. Proth Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarzweller Christoph

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this article we introduce Proth numbers and prove two theorems on such numbers being prime [3]. We also give revised versions of Pocklington’s theorem and of the Legendre symbol. Finally, we prove Pepin’s theorem and that the fifth Fermat number is not prime.

  11. Tinea capitis: epidemiologia e ecologia dos casos observados entre 1983 e 2003 na Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil Tinea capitis: epidemiological and ecological aspects of cases observed from 1983 to 2003 in the Botucatu Medical School, state of São Paulo-Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio Alencar Marques

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Tinea capitis é importante infecção fúngica de interesse dermatológico e pediátrico. No Brasil sua prevalência é desconhecida, e os agentes causais principais são o Trichophyton tonsurans nas regiões Norte-Nordeste e o Microsporum canis no Sul-Sudeste do país. Conhecimento sobre gênero e espécies mais prevalentes tem importância sanitária e terapêutica. OBJETIVOS: Identificar espécies de dermatófitos, causa de Tinea capitis, em serviço universitário que atende clientela do Sistema Único de Saúde, de procedência urbana e rural, no interior do Estado de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Amostras de casos clínicos suspeitos de Tinea capitis, procedentes da área de abrangência da Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu-Unesp, foram investigadas por exame direto e cultivo visando ao diagnóstico e isolamento do agente causal. RESULTADOS: De 1.055 suspeitas, 594 foram confirmadas por exame direto, em 364 (61,1% isolou-se o agente: M. canis em 88,2%, seguindo-se T. tonsurans (4,7%, T. rubrum (3,3%, M. gypseum (1,9%, T. mentagrophytes (1,6%. O sexo masculino correspondeu a 55,7% dos casos, e a faixa etária entre 0-5 anos predominou com 62,6% (p BACKGROUND: Tinea capitis is an important fungal infection of both pediatrical and dermatological interest. In Brazil, its prevalence is unknown, and main causal agents are Trichophyton tonsurans n northern and northeastern regions and Microsporum canis in southern and southeastern regions of the country. Knowledge on the most prevalent geni and species has sanitary and therapeutical importance. OBJECTIVE: To identify dermatophyte species causing Tinea capitis, in a University Hospital that sees patients of the Public Health System (SUS, coming from both urban and rural areas in the interior of State of São Paulo. METHODS: Samples of clinical cases with suspicion of Tinea capitis, coming from the area under Boucatu Medical School - Unesp’s responsibility, were investigated by means of

  12. Sagan numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Mendonça, J. Ricardo G.

    2012-01-01

    We define a new class of numbers based on the first occurrence of certain patterns of zeros and ones in the expansion of irracional numbers in a given basis and call them Sagan numbers, since they were first mentioned, in a special case, by the North-american astronomer Carl E. Sagan in his science-fiction novel "Contact." Sagan numbers hold connections with a wealth of mathematical ideas. We describe some properties of the newly defined numbers and indicate directions for further amusement.

  13. Eulerian numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, T Kyle

    2015-01-01

    This text presents the Eulerian numbers in the context of modern enumerative, algebraic, and geometric combinatorics. The book first studies Eulerian numbers from a purely combinatorial point of view, then embarks on a tour of how these numbers arise in the study of hyperplane arrangements, polytopes, and simplicial complexes. Some topics include a thorough discussion of gamma-nonnegativity and real-rootedness for Eulerian polynomials, as well as the weak order and the shard intersection order of the symmetric group. The book also includes a parallel story of Catalan combinatorics, wherein the Eulerian numbers are replaced with Narayana numbers. Again there is a progression from combinatorics to geometry, including discussion of the associahedron and the lattice of noncrossing partitions. The final chapters discuss how both the Eulerian and Narayana numbers have analogues in any finite Coxeter group, with many of the same enumerative and geometric properties. There are four supplemental chapters throughout, ...

  14. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transfinite Numbers. What is Infinity? S M Srivastava. In a series of revolutionary articles written during the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the great Ger- man mathematician Georg Cantor removed the age-old mistrust of infinity and created an exceptionally beau- tiful and useful theory of transfinite numbers. This is.

  15. Co-composting of spent coffee ground with olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure and effect of Trametes versicolor inoculation on the compost maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha, Ridha; Rekik, Olfa; Hachicha, Salma; Ferchichi, Mounir; Woodward, Steve; Moncef, Nasri; Cegarra, Juan; Mechichi, Tahar

    2012-07-01

    The co-composting of spent coffee grounds, olive mill wastewater sludge and poultry manure was investigated on a semi-industrial scale. In order to reduce the toxicity of the phenolic fraction and to improve the degree of composting humification, composts were inoculated with the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor in the early stages of the maturation phase. During composting, a range of physico-chemical parameters (temperature and both organic matter and C/N reduction), total organic carbon, total nitrogen, elemental composition, lignin degradation and spectroscopic characteristics of the humic acids (HAs) were determined; impacts of the composting process on germination index of Hordeum vulgare and Lactuca sativa were assessed. The coffee waste proved to be a highly compostable feedstock, resulting in mature final compost with a germination index of 120% in less than 5 months composting. In addition, inoculation with T. versicolor led to a greater degree of aromatization of HA than in the control pile. Moreover, in the inoculated mixture, lignin degradation was three times greater and HA increased by 30% (P<0.05), compared to the control pile. In the T. versicolor inoculated mixture, the averages of C and N were significantly enhanced in the HA molecules (P<0.05), by 26% and 22%, respectively. This improvement in the degree of humification was confirmed by the ratio of optical densities of HA solutions at 465 and 665 nm which was lower for HA from the treated mixture (4.5) than that from the control pile (5.4). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Follow-up study of patients treated by x-ray epilation for Tinea capitis. Resurvey of post-treatment illness and mortality experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shore, R.E.; Albert, R.E.; Pasternack, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    This is the second follow-up study of 2,215 persons who during childhood between 1940 and 1959 had been given x-ray therapy for tinea capitis and of 1,395 persons well matched for age, sex, and race who were treated for the same disease during the same period without the use of x-ray therapy. The major finding of the study was an excess incidence in the irradiated cases of tumors of the head and neck including the skin, brain, thyroid, and parotid. However, between the groups there was no difference in death due to malignant neoplasms or any other cause. Among white patients, a 40 percent excess of treated psychiatric disorders was observed in the irradiated group, but there was no difference among blacks

  17. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  18. Number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George E

    1994-01-01

    Although mathematics majors are usually conversant with number theory by the time they have completed a course in abstract algebra, other undergraduates, especially those in education and the liberal arts, often need a more basic introduction to the topic.In this book the author solves the problem of maintaining the interest of students at both levels by offering a combinatorial approach to elementary number theory. In studying number theory from such a perspective, mathematics majors are spared repetition and provided with new insights, while other students benefit from the consequent simpl

  19. Nice numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, John

    2016-01-01

    In this intriguing book, John Barnes takes us on a journey through aspects of numbers much as he took us on a geometrical journey in Gems of Geometry. Similarly originating from a series of lectures for adult students at Reading and Oxford University, this book touches a variety of amusing and fascinating topics regarding numbers and their uses both ancient and modern. The author intrigues and challenges his audience with both fundamental number topics such as prime numbers and cryptography, and themes of daily needs and pleasures such as counting one's assets, keeping track of time, and enjoying music. Puzzles and exercises at the end of each lecture offer additional inspiration, and numerous illustrations accompany the reader. Furthermore, a number of appendices provides in-depth insights into diverse topics such as Pascal’s triangle, the Rubik cube, Mersenne’s curious keyboards, and many others. A theme running through is the thought of what is our favourite number. Written in an engaging and witty sty...

  20. Number names and number understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper concerns the results from the first year of a three-year research project involving the relationship between Danish number names and their corresponding digits in the canonical base 10 system. The project aims to develop a system to help the students’ understanding of the base 10 syste...... the Danish number names are more complicated than in other languages. Keywords: A research project in grade 0 and 1th in a Danish school, Base-10 system, two-digit number names, semiotic, cognitive perspectives....

  1. Funny Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore M. Porter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The struggle over cure rate measures in nineteenth-century asylums provides an exemplary instance of how, when used for official assessments of institutions, these numbers become sites of contestation. The evasion of goals and corruption of measures tends to make these numbers “funny” in the sense of becoming dis-honest, while the mismatch between boring, technical appearances and cunning backstage manipulations supplies dark humor. The dangers are evident in recent efforts to decentralize the functions of governments and corporations using incen-tives based on quantified targets.

  2. Transcendental numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Murty, M Ram

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to the topic of transcendental numbers for upper-level undergraduate and graduate students. The text is constructed to support a full course on the subject, including descriptions of both relevant theorems and their applications. While the first part of the book focuses on introducing key concepts, the second part presents more complex material, including applications of Baker’s theorem, Schanuel’s conjecture, and Schneider’s theorem. These later chapters may be of interest to researchers interested in examining the relationship between transcendence and L-functions. Readers of this text should possess basic knowledge of complex analysis and elementary algebraic number theory.

  3. UV laser radiation alters the embryonic protein profile of adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex and gonadal differentiation in the lizard, Calotes Versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodnapur, Bharati S; Inamdar, Laxmi S; Nindi, Robertraj S; Math, Shivkumar A; Mulimani, B G; Inamdar, Sanjeev R

    2015-02-01

    To examine the impact of ultraviolet (UV) laser radiation on the embryos of Calotes versicolor in terms of its effects on the protein profile of the adrenal-kidney-gonadal complex (AKG), sex determination and differentiation, embryonic development and hatching synchrony. The eggs of C. versicolor, during thermo-sensitive period (TSP), were exposed to third harmonic laser pulses at 355 nm from a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser for 180 sec. Subsequent to the exposure they were incubated at the male-producing temperature (MPT) of 25.5 ± 0.5°C. The AKG of hatchlings was subjected to protein analysis by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and to histology. The UV laser radiation altered the expression of the protein banding pattern in the AKG complex of hatchlings and it also affected the gonadal sex differentiation. SDS-PAGE of AKG of one-day-old hatchlings revealed a total of nine protein bands in the control group whereas UV laser irradiated hatchlings expressed a total of seven protein bands only one of which had the same Rf as a control band. The UV laser treated hatchlings have an ovotestes kind of gonad exhibiting a tendency towards femaleness instead of the typical testes. It is inferred that 355 nm UV laser radiation during TSP induces changes in the expression of proteins as well as their secretions. UV laser radiation had an impact on the gonadal differentiation pathway but no morphological anomalies were noticed.

  4. Box-Behnken design for extraction optimization of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian Phormidium versicolor cyanobacteria (NCC 466): Partial characterization, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belhaj, Dalel; Frikha, Donyez; Athmouni, Khaled; Jerbi, Bouthaina; Ahmed, Mohammad Boshir; Bouallagui, Zouhaier; Kallel, Monem; Maalej, Sami; Zhou, John; Ayadi, Habib

    2017-12-01

    In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design (BBD) was employed to optimize the aqueous extraction of crude polysaccharides from Tunisian cyanobacteria Phormidium versicolor (NCC 466). The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.56±0.92% were as follows: extraction temperature at 81.05°C, extraction time of 3.99h, and water to raw material ratio of 21.52mLg -1 . Crude Phormidium versicolor polysaccharides (CPv-PS) are found to be a hetero-sulfated-anionic polysaccharides that contained carbohydrate (79.37±1.58%), protein (0.45±0.11%), uronic acids (4.37±0.19%) and sulfate (6.83±0.28%). The carbohydrate fraction was composed of arabinose, xylose, ribose, rhamnose, N-acetyl glucosamine, galactose, glucose, mannose, glucuronic acid and saccharose with corresponding mole percentages of 2.41, 14.58, 2.18, 6.23, 7.04, 28.21, 26.04, 3.02, 0.86 and 5.07, respectively. Evaluation of the antioxidant activity in vitro suggested that CPv-PS strongly scavenged radicals, prevented bleaching of β-carotene and reduced activity. Furthermore, the CPv-PS exhibited effective antimicrobial properties. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Transfinite Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    this is a characteristic difference between finite and infinite sets and created an immensely useful branch of mathematics based on this idea which had a great impact on the whole of mathe- matics. For example, the question of what is a number (finite or infinite) is almost a philosophical one. However Cantor's work turned it ...

  6. Characterization of purified and Xerogel immobilized Novel Lignin Peroxidase produced from Trametes versicolor IBL-04 using solid state medium of Corncobs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asgher Muhammad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cost-effective production of industrially important enzymes is a key for their successful exploitation on industrial scale. Keeping in view the extensive industrial applications of lignin peroxidase (LiP, this study was performed to purify and characterize the LiP from an indigenous strain of Trametes versicolor IBL-04. Xerogel matrix enzyme immobilization technique was applied to improve the kinetic and thermo-stability characteristics of LiP to fulfil the requirements of the modern enzyme consumer sector of biotechnology. Results A novel LiP was isolated from an indigenous T. versicolor IBL-04 strain. T. versicolor IBL-04 was cultured in solid state fermentation (SSF medium of corn cobs and maximum LiP activity of 592 ± 6 U/mL was recorded after five days of incubation under optimum culture conditions. The crude LiP was 3.3-fold purified with specific activity of 553 U/mg after passing through the DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-G-100 chromatography columns. The purified LiP exhibited a relatively low molecular weight (30 kDa homogenous single band on native and SDS-PAGE. The LiP was immobilized by entrapping in xerogel matrix of trimethoxysilane (TMOS and proplytetramethoxysilane (PTMS and maximum immobilization efficiency of 88.6% was achieved. The free and immobilized LiPs were characterized and the results showed that the free and immobilized LiPs had optimum pH 6 and 5 while optimum temperatures were 60°C and 80°C, respectively. Immobilization was found to enhance the activity and thermo-stability potential of LiP significantly and immobilized LiP remained stable over broad pH and temperature range as compare to free enzyme. Kinetic constants Km and Vmax were 70 and 56 μM and 588 and 417 U/mg for the free and immobilized LiPs, respectively. Activity of this novel extra thermo-stable LiP was stimulated to variable extents by Cu2+, Mn2+ and Fe2+ whereas, Cystein, EDTA and Ag+ showed inhibitory effects

  7. The use of Trametes versicolor laccase for the polymerization of aniline in the presence of vesicles as templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Katja; Kissner, Reinhard; Rakvin, Boris; Guo, Zengwei; Willeke, Martin; Busato, Stephan; Weber, Thomas; Walde, Peter

    2014-02-05

    The enzymatic polymerization of aniline to polyaniline (PANI) with Trametes versicolor laccase (TvL) as catalyst and dioxygen (O₂) as oxidant was investigated in an aqueous medium containing unilamellar vesicles with an average diameter of about 80 nm formed from AOT (=sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate). Compared to the same reaction carried out with horseradish peroxidase isoenzyme C (HRPC) as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) as oxidant, notable differences were found in the kinetics of the reaction, as well as in the characteristics of the PANI obtained. Under comparable optimal conditions, which are pH 3.5 for TvL/O₂ and pH 4.3 for HRPC/H₂O₂, the reaction with TvL/O₂ was much slower than with HRPC/H₂O₂, i.e. ≈27 days vs. 1 day reaction time to reach equilibrium with >90% yield at 25 °C. Although in both cases, aniline monomer coupling occurred mainly via the carbon atom in para position of aniline, UV-vis-NIR absorption and EPR measurements indicate that the reaction with TvL/O₂ yielded mainly overoxidized products (with λ(max)=730 nm). These products had a lower amount of unpaired electrons if compared with the products obtained with HRPC/H₂O₂ (with λ(max)≈1000 nm, which is characteristic for the polaron state of PANI-ES, the emeraldine salt form of PANI). Similarly to previous findings with HRPC/H₂O₂, enzyme inactivation occurred during the polymerization also in the case of TvL/O₂. Since the aqueous PANI-vesicle suspensions obtained are of high colloidal stability, they can be used directly as ink in a conventional thermal inkjet printer for printing on paper or on surface treated polyimide films. Printed PANI-ES patterns on paper changed colour from green (emeraldine salt) to blue (emeraldine base) upon exposure to ammonia gas, demonstrating the expected ammonia sensing properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fungus Infections: Tinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... JAOCD Information for Authors Information for Reviewers Human & Animal Rights Job Postings Sections of the JAOCD JAOCD Archive ... up with appropriate creams. If due to an animal, even if it has no signs of a ... moth-eaten but with the right treatment the hair will grow back normally and ...

  9. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major infection agent of tuberculosis that is controlled by the response of cell-mediated immunity. It is macrophages and cytolytic T lymphocytes. Activated macrophages will produce free radicals. Excessive free radicals cause tissue damage. Polysaccharide krestin contains β-glucan. It is a scavenger of free radicals. This research aimed to identify the influence of polysaccharide krestin from C. versicolor on nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations of mice serum exposed by M. tuberculosis. Nitrite concentration was determined by nitrite assay. Malondialdehyde concentration was determined by TBARS assay. The result showed that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure (P1 and adding polysaccharide krestin before-after exposure (P3 had the best potential to decrease nitrite concentration. Nitrite concentrations of P1 and P3 were 1.364 ± 0.523 M and 1.456 ± 0.712 M respectively. Meanwhile, P1 group and adding polysaccharide krestin after exposure (P2 had the best potential to decrease malondialdehyde concentration. Malondialdehyde concentrations of P1 and P2 were 1125.86 ± 97.96 µM and 953.86 ± 328.16 µM respectively. Their nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations decreased, compared to K and K- groups. The research conclusion was that adding polysaccharide krestin before exposure could decrease both nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations.How to CiteWahyuningsih, S., Pramudya, M., & Sugiharto, S. (2016. Influence of Polysaccharide Krestin from Coriolus versicolor Extract on Nitrite and Malondialdehyde Concencentrations of Mus musculus Serum Exposed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(1, 12-17.

  10. Treatment of pityriasis versicolor with topical application of essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf - therapeutic pilot study Tratamento de pitiríase versicolor com aplicação tópica do óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus (DC Stapf - estudo terapêutico piloto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egberto Santos Carmo

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pityriasis versicolor is a fungal infection caused by Malassezia spp. that has frequent relapses. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this research was to perform phase I and II clinical studies, using formulations containing essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus in patients with pityriasis versicolor. METHODS: Phase I study included twenty volunteers to ascertain the safety of the formulations. In phase II, 47 volunteers randomly received essential oil formulations at 1.25 μL/mL concentration, for forty days. The shampoo should be applied three times a week and the cream twice a day. A control group in phase II, consisting of 29 volunteers, received the same formulations but with 2% ketoconazole as the active ingredient. RESULTS: No significant adverse events were observed in volunteers during Phase I. In Phase II, 30 (63.83% volunteers using essential oil and 18 (62.07% using ketoconazole remained until the end of the study. We observed a predominance of lesions in disseminated form, with M. sympodialis detected as the predominant agent identified in cultures. After 40 days of treatment, the rate of mycological cure was 60% (p FUNDAMENTOS: Pitiríase versicolor é uma micose causada pela Malassezia spp., e que apresenta frequentes recidivas. OBJETIVOS: Este trabalho objetivou realizar estudos clínicos de fase I e II, para essa patologia, com óleo essencial de Cymbopogon citratus. MÉTODOS: Na fase I, participaram vinte voluntários para averiguar a segurança das formulações. Na fase II, 47 voluntários receberam as formulações do óleo essencial a 1,25 μL/mL, as quais deveriam ser utilizadas por quarenta dias, sendo o xampu três vezes por semana e o creme duas vezes ao dia. Um grupo controle na fase II, constituído por 29 voluntários recebeu as mesmas formulações, com cetoconazol a 2%. RESULTADOS: Verificada a segurança das formulações com a finalização da fase I, onde nenhuma reação adversa significativa foi

  11. Is antifungal resistance a cause for treatment failure in dermatophytosis: A study focused on tinea corporis and cruris from a tertiary centre?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabir Sardana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophytoses are one of the most common skin diseases that have been largely simple to treat. However, in recent years, these infections have become recalcitrant to treatment which can possibly be due to antifungal resistance. Aim: To analyze the resistance pattern of patients with recalcitrant dermatophytoses. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional evaluation was undertaken of 40 consecutive patients with recalcitrant tinea corporis/cruris/both who had taken systemic antifungal treatment and did not respond completely to therapy or had recurrent lesion within 1 month of stopping the therapy. Terbinafine, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, amphotericin B, and voriconazole were the antifungals tested using broth microdilution assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of dermatophytes, and MIC50, 90 values were recorded. Results: KOH mount was positive in 18 (45% patients, culture was positive in 28 (70% patients. Trichophyton mentagrophytes (35% and T. rubrum (27.5% were the predominant isolates. Overall, activity of terbinafine and itraconazole were significantly higher than the other drugs tested. For terbinafine, both T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum were inhibited at MIC90of 0.125 μg/ml. Itraconazole-inhibited T. mentagrophytes and T. rubrum at MIC90of 0.0625 and 0.25 μg/ml, respectively. All isolates had reduced susceptibility to fluconazole. Conclusion: While MIC seen were higher than western data, in-vitro resistance (>1 μg/ml to antifungals was not seen and probably may not be a cause of treatment failure. Possibly, treatment failure lies in the intricate host fungal interaction and virulence of species which help it to evade host immune response.

  12. Enhanced biodegradation of antibiotic combinations via the sequential treatment of the sludge resulting from pharmaceutical wastewater treatment using white-rot fungi Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Sevcan

    2016-07-01

    While anaerobic treatment is capable of treating pharmaceutical wastewater and removing antibiotics in liquid phases, solid phases may still contain significant amounts of antibiotics following this treatment. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the use of white-rot fungi to remove erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline combinations from biosolids. The degradation potential of Trametes versicolor and Bjerkandera adusta was evaluated via the sequential treatment of anaerobic sludge. Polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses were used to identify competition between the autochthonous microbial communities and white-rot fungi. Solid-phase treatment using white-rot fungi substantially reduced antibiotic concentrations and toxicity in sludge. According to PCR-DGGE results, there is an association between species of fungus and antibiotic type as a result of the different transformation pathways of fungal strains. Fungal post-treatment of sludge represents a promising method of removing antibiotic combinations, therefore holding a significant promise as an environmentally friendly means of degrading the antibiotics present in sludge.

  13. Oxidation of atenolol, propranolol, carbamazepine and clofibric acid by a biological Fenton-like system mediated by the white-rot fungus Trametes versicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; Radjenović, Jelena; Caminal, Gloria; Petrović, Mira; Vicent, Teresa; Barceló, Damià

    2010-01-01

    Biological advanced oxidation of the pharmaceuticals clofibric acid (CA), carbamazepine (CBZP), atenolol (ATL) and propranolol (PPL) is reported for the first time. Extracellular oxidizing species were produced through a quinone redox cycling mechanism catalyzed by an intracellular quinone reductase and any of the ligninolytic enzymes of Trametes versicolor after addition of the lignin-derived quinone 2,6-dimethoxy-1,4-benzoquinone (DBQ) and Fe(3+)-oxalate in the medium. Time-course experiments with approximately 10mg L(-1) of initial pharmaceutical concentration resulted in percent degradations above 80% after 6h of incubation. Oxidation of pharmaceuticals was only observed under DBQ redox cycling conditions. A similar degradation pattern was observed when CBZP was added at the environmentally relevant concentration of 50 microg L(-1). Depletion of DBQ due to the attack of oxidizing agents was assumed to be the main limiting factor of pharmaceutical degradation. The main degradation products, that resulted to be pharmaceutical hydroxylated derivatives, were structurally elucidated. The detected 4- and 7-hydroxycarbamazepine intermediates of CBZP degradation were not reported to date. Total disappearance of intermediates was observed in all the experiments at the end of the incubation period. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Number Sense on the Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Dawn Marie; Ketterlin Geller, Leanne; Basaraba, Deni

    2018-01-01

    A strong foundation in early number concepts is critical for students' future success in mathematics. Research suggests that visual representations, like a number line, support students' development of number sense by helping them create a mental representation of the order and magnitude of numbers. In addition, explicitly sequencing instruction…

  15. The Super Patalan Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Thomas M.

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the super Patalan numbers, a generalization of the super Catalan numbers in the sense of Gessel, and prove a number of properties analagous to those of the super Catalan numbers. The super Patalan numbers generalize the super Catalan numbers similarly to how the Patalan numbers generalize the Catalan numbers.

  16. Estudo da descoloração do corante FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina pelo tratamento combinado do fungo Trametes versicolor e processo de filtração lenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Margareth Gonçalves Lopes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O uso de fungos na descoloração de corantes com métodos economicamente viáveis de produção de água bacteriologicamente segura há muito vem sendo descrito por diversos autores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a eficiência da remoção de corante artificial FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina, com uso do fungo de degradação branca Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta. Para a realização dos trabalhos, foram instalados dois protótipos de filtros lentos denominados FL-A e FL-B - no sobrenadante do filtro FL-A foi inoculado o referido fungo, e o filtro FL-B foi utilizado como controle (sem inoculação do microrganismo. O melhor percentual de remoção do corante pelo fungo Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta foi de 44,74% 24 horas após a atividade máxima registrada de lacase. Os resultados mostraram que a filtração lenta combinada com o tratamento com o fungo T. versicolor não apresenta grande potencial para remoção de cor em 21 dias de tratamento, visto que os produtos microbianos gerados interferem no processo de filtração, diminuindo a eficiência do processo físico. Entretanto, restringindo o tempo de tratamento a 24 horas após a atividade enzimática máxima, o tratamento combinado apresentou boa eficiência.

  17. Beneficial effects of a Coriolus versicolor-based vaginal gel on cervical epithelization, vaginal microbiota and vaginal health: a pilot study in asymptomatic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios, Santiago; Losa, Fernando; Dexeus, Damián; Cortés, Javier

    2017-03-16

    To assess the effect of a 12-day treatment using a vaginal gel based on niosomes containing hyaluronic acid, ß-glucan, alpha-glucan oligosaccharide, Coriolus versicolor, Asian centella, Azadirachta indica and Aloe vera on vaginal microbiota, cervical epithelization and vaginal health. Open-label, prospective pilot study conducted in asymptomatic women in daily practice. Cervical epithelization was evaluated by colposcopy using an ectopy epithelization score (from 5: no ectopy to 1: severe ectopy and bleeding), vaginal microbiota using the VaginaStatus-Diagnostic test (Instiüt für Mikroökologie, Herborn, Germany) and further rated by the investigator using a 5-point Liker scale (from 5: normal to 1: very severe deterioration in which all evaluated species were altered), and vaginal health using the Vaginal Health Index. In 21 women, a positive effect to improve epithelization of the cervical mucosa, with a mean score of 4.42 at the final visit as compared to 3.09 at baseline (P vaginal microbiota status, with a mean score of 4.0 at the final visit vs. 3.3 at baseline (P = NS) (21.2% improvement). In 11 women, the Vaginal Health Index increased from 19.0 at baseline to 22.3 at the final visit (P = 0.007). The concentration of Lactobacillus spp. increased 54.5% of women and pH decreased from 4.32 to 4.09. These encouraging preliminary results provide the basis for designing a randomized controlled study, and for potential use in human papilloma virus infection. ISRCTN77955077 . Registration date: February 15, 2017. Retrospectively registered.

  18. Efficacy and safety of 1 % terbinafine film-forming solution in Chinese patients with tinea pedis: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter, parallel-group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruo Yu; Wang, A P; Xu, J H; Xi, L Y; Fu, M H; Zhu, M; Xu, M L; Li, X Q; Lai, W; Liu, W D; Lu, X Y; Gong, Z Q

    2014-03-01

    Superficial fungal skin infections are treated using topical antifungals. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of a single application of 1 % terbinafine film-forming solution (FFS) versus placebo for the treatment of tinea pedis in the Chinese population. Six centers in China randomized 290 patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive either 1 % terbinafine FFS or FFS vehicle (placebo) once on the affected foot/feet. Efficacy assessments included microscopy and mycologic culture, and assessing clinical signs and symptoms at baseline, and at weeks 1 and 6 after the topical treatment. All adverse events were recorded. At week 6, 1 % terbinafine FFS was superior to placebo for effective treatment rate (63 vs. 8 %); clinical cure (30 vs. 6 %); mycological cure (86 vs. 12 %); negative microscopy (90 vs. 24 %); and negative mycological culture (90 vs. 27 %): all p ≤ 0.001 and clinically relevant. At week 6, 1 % terbinafine FFS was clinically superior to placebo for the absence of: erythema (69 vs. 29 %); desquamation (33 vs. 8 %); and pruritus (70 vs. 30 %): all p ≤ 0.001 and clinically relevant. At week 6, differences in the average total signs and symptoms scores were significantly lower for 1 % terbinafine FFS versus placebo (p ≤ 0.001). Both 1 % terbinafine FFS and placebo were safe and well tolerated based on adverse events and investigator and patient assessments. This double-blind, randomized, multicenter study demonstrated one single topical application of 1 % terbinafine FFS was safe and effective in the treatment of tinea pedis in the Chinese population.

  19. Number words and number symbols a cultural history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Menninger, Karl

    1992-01-01

    Classic study discusses number sequence and language and explores written numerals and computations in many cultures. "The historian of mathematics will find much to interest him here both in the contents and viewpoint, while the casual reader is likely to be intrigued by the author's superior narrative ability.

  20. Experimental analysis of multivariate female choice in gray treefrogs (Hyla versicolor): evidence for directional and stabilizing selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, H Carl; Brooks, Robert

    2009-10-01

    Even simple biological signals vary in several measurable dimensions. Understanding their evolution requires, therefore, a multivariate understanding of selection, including how different properties interact to determine the effectiveness of the signal. We combined experimental manipulation with multivariate selection analysis to assess female mate choice on the simple trilled calls of male gray treefrogs. We independently and randomly varied five behaviorally relevant acoustic properties in 154 synthetic calls. We compared response times of each of 154 females to one of these calls with its response to a standard call that had mean values of the five properties. We found directional and quadratic selection on two properties indicative of the amount of signaling, pulse number, and call rate. Canonical rotation of the fitness surface showed that these properties, along with pulse rate, contributed heavily to a major axis of stabilizing selection, a result consistent with univariate studies showing diminishing effects of increasing pulse number well beyond the mean. Spectral properties contributed to a second major axis of stabilizing selection. The single major axis of disruptive selection suggested that a combination of two temporal and two spectral properties with values differing from the mean should be especially attractive.

  1. Solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake for optimization of lipase, protease and detoxification of anti-nutrients in Jatropha seed cake using Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerabhadrappa, Mohankumar Bavimane; Shivakumar, Sharath Belame; Devappa, Somashekar

    2014-02-01

    This study focused on the solid-state fermentation of Jatropha seed cake (JSC), a byproduct generated after biodiesel production. Presence of anti-nutritional compounds and toxins restricts its application in livestock feed. The disposal of the JSC is a major environmental problem in the future, due to the generation of huge quantity of JSC after biodiesel extraction. Hence the JSC was assessed for its suitability as substrate for production and optimization of lipase and protease from Aspergillus versicolor CJS-98 by solid-state fermentation (SSF). The present study was also focused on the biodetoxification of anti-nutrients and toxins in JSC. The SSF parameters were optimized for maximum production of lipase and protease. Under the optimized conditions, the JSC supplemented with maltose and peptone (2%), adjusted to pH 7.0, moisture content 40%, inoculated with 1 × 10(7) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 25°C, produced maximum lipase, 1288 U/g and protease, 3366 U/g at 96 h. The anti-nutrients like phytic acid (6.08%), tannins (0.37%), trypsin inhibitors (697.5 TIU/g), cyanogenic glucosides (692.5 μg/100 g), and lectins (0.309 mg/ml), were reduced to 1.70%, 0.23%, 12.5 TIU/g, 560.6 μg/100 g and 0.034 mg/ml respectively. The main toxic compound phorbol esters content in the JSC was reduced from 0.083% to 0.015% after SSF. Our results indicate that viability of SSF to utilize the huge amount of seed cake generated after extraction of biodiesel, for production of industrial enzymes and biodetoxification of anti-nutrients, toxins. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Diamond Fuzzy Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pathinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we define diamond fuzzy number with the help of triangular fuzzy number. We include basic arithmetic operations like addition, subtraction of diamond fuzzy numbers with examples. We define diamond fuzzy matrix with some matrix properties. We have defined Nested diamond fuzzy number and Linked diamond fuzzy number. We have further classified Right Linked Diamond Fuzzy number and Left Linked Diamond Fuzzy number. Finally we have verified the arithmetic operations for the above mentioned types of Diamond Fuzzy Numbers.

  3. Those fascinating numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Koninck, Jean-Marie De

    2009-01-01

    Who would have thought that listing the positive integers along with their most remarkable properties could end up being such an engaging and stimulating adventure? The author uses this approach to explore elementary and advanced topics in classical number theory. A large variety of numbers are contemplated: Fermat numbers, Mersenne primes, powerful numbers, sublime numbers, Wieferich primes, insolite numbers, Sastry numbers, voracious numbers, to name only a few. The author also presents short proofs of miscellaneous results and constantly challenges the reader with a variety of old and new n

  4. Building Numbers from Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhart, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    Prime numbers are often described as the "building blocks" of natural numbers. This article shows how the author and his students took this idea literally by using prime factorizations to build numbers with blocks. In this activity, students explore many concepts of number theory, including the relationship between greatest common factors and…

  5. Introduction to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Vazzana, Anthony; Garth, David

    2007-01-01

    One of the oldest branches of mathematics, number theory is a vast field devoted to studying the properties of whole numbers. Offering a flexible format for a one- or two-semester course, Introduction to Number Theory uses worked examples, numerous exercises, and two popular software packages to describe a diverse array of number theory topics.

  6. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    without loss of any generality to be the first k primes), then the equation a + b = c has .... This is an elementary exercise in partial summation (see [12]). Thus ... This is easily done by inserting a stronger form of the prime number theorem into the.

  7. p-adic numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Grešak, Rozalija

    2015-01-01

    The field of real numbers is usually constructed using Dedekind cuts. In these thesis we focus on the construction of the field of real numbers using metric completion of rational numbers using Cauchy sequences. In a similar manner we construct the field of p-adic numbers, describe some of their basic and topological properties. We follow by a construction of complex p-adic numbers and we compare them with the ordinary complex numbers. We conclude the thesis by giving a motivation for the int...

  8. On the number of special numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We now apply the theory of the Thue equation to obtain an effective bound on m. Indeed, by Lemma 3.2, we can write m2 = ba3 and m2 − 4 = cd3 with b, c cubefree. By the above, both b, c are bounded since they are cubefree and all their prime factors are less than e63727. Now we have a finite number of. Thue equations:.

  9. Number projection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, K.

    1987-01-01

    A relationship between the number projection and the shell model methods is investigated in the case of a single-j shell. We can find a one-to-one correspondence between the number projected and the shell model states

  10. Numbers and brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-12-01

    The representation of discrete and continuous quantities appears to be ancient and pervasive in animal brains. Because numbers are the natural carriers of these representations, we may discover that in brains, it's numbers all the way down.

  11. Estudo da descoloração do corante FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina pelo tratamento combinado do fungo Trametes versicolor e processo de filtração lenta

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Maria Margareth Gonçalves; Sales, Paulo de Tarso Ferreira; Campos, Luiza Cintra; Schimidt, Fernando; Santiago, Mariângela Fontes

    2014-01-01

    O uso de fungos na descoloração de corantes com métodos economicamente viáveis de produção de água bacteriologicamente segura há muito vem sendo descrito por diversos autores. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar a eficiência da remoção de corante artificial FD&C azul no 2 Indigotina, com uso do fungo de degradação branca Trametes versicolor em combinação com a filtração lenta. Para a realização dos trabalhos, foram instalados dois protótipos de filtros lentos denominados FL-A e FL-B - ...

  12. Number in Dinka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben

    2014-01-01

    had a marked singular and an unmarked plural. Synchronically, however, the singular is arguably the basic member of the number category as revealed by the use of the two numbers. In addition, some nouns have a collective form, which is grammatically singular. Number also plays a role...

  13. Safety-in-numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elvik, Rune; Bjørnskau, Torkel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights •26 studies of the safety-in-numbers effect are reviewed. •The existence of a safety-in-numbers effect is confirmed. •Results are consistent. •Causes of the safety-in-numbers effect are incompletely known....

  14. Discovery: Prime Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mestre, Neville

    2008-01-01

    Prime numbers are important as the building blocks for the set of all natural numbers, because prime factorisation is an important and useful property of all natural numbers. Students can discover them by using the method known as the Sieve of Eratosthenes, named after the Greek geographer and astronomer who lived from c. 276-194 BC. Eratosthenes…

  15. Asymptotic numbers: Pt.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1980-01-01

    The set of asymptotic numbers A as a system of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R, as well as infinitely small (infinitesimals) and infinitely large numbers, is introduced. The detailed algebraic properties of A, which are unusual as compared with the known algebraic structures, are studied. It is proved that the set of asymptotic numbers A cannot be isomorphically embedded as a subspace in any group, ring or field, but some particular subsets of asymptotic numbers are shown to be groups, rings, and fields. The algebraic operation, additive and multiplicative forms, and the algebraic properties are constructed in an appropriate way. It is shown that the asymptotic numbers give rise to a new type of generalized functions quite analogous to the distributions of Schwartz allowing, however, the operation multiplication. A possible application of these functions to quantum theory is discussed

  16. Applied number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Niederreiter, Harald

    2015-01-01

    This textbook effectively builds a bridge from basic number theory to recent advances in applied number theory. It presents the first unified account of the four major areas of application where number theory plays a fundamental role, namely cryptography, coding theory, quasi-Monte Carlo methods, and pseudorandom number generation, allowing the authors to delineate the manifold links and interrelations between these areas.  Number theory, which Carl-Friedrich Gauss famously dubbed the queen of mathematics, has always been considered a very beautiful field of mathematics, producing lovely results and elegant proofs. While only very few real-life applications were known in the past, today number theory can be found in everyday life: in supermarket bar code scanners, in our cars’ GPS systems, in online banking, etc.  Starting with a brief introductory course on number theory in Chapter 1, which makes the book more accessible for undergraduates, the authors describe the four main application areas in Chapters...

  17. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Claus Bjørn; Suetens, Sigrid; Tyran, Jean-Robert

    numbers based on recent drawings. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week without regards of numbers drawn or anything else, we find that those who do change, act on average in the way predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular......We investigate the “law of small numbers” using a unique panel data set on lotto gambling. Because we can track individual players over time, we can measure how they react to outcomes of recent lotto drawings. We can therefore test whether they behave as if they believe they can predict lotto......, on average they move away from numbers that have recently been drawn, as suggested by the “gambler’s fallacy”, and move toward numbers that are on streak, i.e. have been drawn several weeks in a row, consistent with the “hot hand fallacy”....

  18. Invitation to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    2017-01-01

    Number theory is the branch of mathematics concerned with the counting numbers, 1, 2, 3, … and their multiples and factors. Of particular importance are odd and even numbers, squares and cubes, and prime numbers. But in spite of their simplicity, you will meet a multitude of topics in this book: magic squares, cryptarithms, finding the day of the week for a given date, constructing regular polygons, pythagorean triples, and many more. In this revised edition, John Watkins and Robin Wilson have updated the text to bring it in line with contemporary developments. They have added new material on Fermat's Last Theorem, the role of computers in number theory, and the use of number theory in cryptography, and have made numerous minor changes in the presentation and layout of the text and the exercises.

  19. The adventure of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Godefroy, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Numbers are fascinating. The fascination begins in childhood, when we first learn to count. It continues as we learn arithmetic, algebra, geometry, and so on. Eventually, we learn that numbers not only help us to measure the world, but also to understand it and, to some extent, to control it. In The Adventure of Numbers, Gilles Godefroy follows the thread of our expanding understanding of numbers to lead us through the history of mathematics. His goal is to share the joy of discovering and understanding this great adventure of the mind. The development of mathematics has been punctuated by a n

  20. Predicting Lotto Numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jørgensen, Claus B.; Tyran, Jean-Robert Karl

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ‘law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows us to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers...... as formalized in recent behavioral theory. In particular, players tend to bet less on numbers that have been drawn in the preceding week, as suggested by the ‘gambler’s fallacy’, and bet more on a number if it was frequently drawn in the recent past, consistent with the ‘hot-hand fallacy’....

  1. Beurling generalized numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Diamond, Harold G; Cheung, Man Ping

    2016-01-01

    "Generalized numbers" is a multiplicative structure introduced by A. Beurling to study how independent prime number theory is from the additivity of the natural numbers. The results and techniques of this theory apply to other systems having the character of prime numbers and integers; for example, it is used in the study of the prime number theorem (PNT) for ideals of algebraic number fields. Using both analytic and elementary methods, this book presents many old and new theorems, including several of the authors' results, and many examples of extremal behavior of g-number systems. Also, the authors give detailed accounts of the L^2 PNT theorem of J. P. Kahane and of the example created with H. L. Montgomery, showing that additive structure is needed for proving the Riemann hypothesis. Other interesting topics discussed are propositions "equivalent" to the PNT, the role of multiplicative convolution and Chebyshev's prime number formula for g-numbers, and how Beurling theory provides an interpretation of the ...

  2. Intuitive numbers guide decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Peters

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Measuring reaction times to number comparisons is thought to reveal a processing stage in elementary numerical cognition linked to internal, imprecise representations of number magnitudes. These intuitive representations of the mental number line have been demonstrated across species and human development but have been little explored in decision making. This paper develops and tests hypotheses about the influence of such evolutionarily ancient, intuitive numbers on human decisions. We demonstrate that individuals with more precise mental-number-line representations are higher in numeracy (number skills consistent with previous research with children. Individuals with more precise representations (compared to those with less precise representations also were more likely to choose larger, later amounts over smaller, immediate amounts, particularly with a larger proportional difference between the two monetary outcomes. In addition, they were more likely to choose an option with a larger proportional but smaller absolute difference compared to those with less precise representations. These results are consistent with intuitive number representations underlying: a perceived differences between numbers, b the extent to which proportional differences are weighed in decisions, and, ultimately, c the valuation of decision options. Human decision processes involving numbers important to health and financial matters may be rooted in elementary, biological processes shared with other species.

  3. Numbers, sequences and series

    CERN Document Server

    Hirst, Keith

    1994-01-01

    Number and geometry are the foundations upon which mathematics has been built over some 3000 years. This book is concerned with the logical foundations of number systems from integers to complex numbers. The author has chosen to develop the ideas by illustrating the techniques used throughout mathematics rather than using a self-contained logical treatise. The idea of proof has been emphasised, as has the illustration of concepts from a graphical, numerical and algebraic point of view. Having laid the foundations of the number system, the author has then turned to the analysis of infinite proc

  4. Templates, Numbers & Watercolors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemesha, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how a second-grade class used large templates to draw and paint five-digit numbers. The lesson integrated artistic knowledge and vocabulary with their mathematics lesson in place value. Students learned how draftspeople use templates, and they studied number paintings by Charles Demuth and Jasper Johns. (KM)

  5. Random number generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coveyou, R.R.

    1974-01-01

    The subject of random number generation is currently controversial. Differing opinions on this subject seem to stem from implicit or explicit differences in philosophy; in particular, from differing ideas concerning the role of probability in the real world of physical processes, electronic computers, and Monte Carlo calculations. An attempt is made here to reconcile these views. The role of stochastic ideas in mathematical models is discussed. In illustration of these ideas, a mathematical model of the use of random number generators in Monte Carlo calculations is constructed. This model is used to set up criteria for the comparison and evaluation of random number generators. (U.S.)

  6. Algebraic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Edwin

    1998-01-01

    Careful organization and clear, detailed proofs characterize this methodical, self-contained exposition of basic results of classical algebraic number theory from a relatively modem point of view. This volume presents most of the number-theoretic prerequisites for a study of either class field theory (as formulated by Artin and Tate) or the contemporary treatment of analytical questions (as found, for example, in Tate's thesis).Although concerned exclusively with algebraic number fields, this treatment features axiomatic formulations with a considerable range of applications. Modem abstract te

  7. Advanced number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cohn, Harvey

    1980-01-01

    ""A very stimulating book ... in a class by itself."" - American Mathematical MonthlyAdvanced students, mathematicians and number theorists will welcome this stimulating treatment of advanced number theory, which approaches the complex topic of algebraic number theory from a historical standpoint, taking pains to show the reader how concepts, definitions and theories have evolved during the last two centuries. Moreover, the book abounds with numerical examples and more concrete, specific theorems than are found in most contemporary treatments of the subject.The book is divided into three parts

  8. The emergence of number

    CERN Document Server

    Crossley, John N

    1987-01-01

    This book presents detailed studies of the development of three kinds of number. In the first part the development of the natural numbers from Stone-Age times right up to the present day is examined not only from the point of view of pure history but also taking into account archaeological, anthropological and linguistic evidence. The dramatic change caused by the introduction of logical theories of number in the 19th century is also treated and this part ends with a non-technical account of the very latest developments in the area of Gödel's theorem. The second part is concerned with the deve

  9. Professor Stewart's incredible numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Stewart, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Ian Stewart explores the astonishing properties of numbers from 1 to10 to zero and infinity, including one figure that, if you wrote it out, would span the universe. He looks at every kind of number you can think of - real, imaginary, rational, irrational, positive and negative - along with several you might have thought you couldn't think of. He explains the insights of the ancient mathematicians, shows how numbers have evolved through the ages, and reveals the way numerical theory enables everyday life. Under Professor Stewart's guidance you will discover the mathematics of codes,

  10. Fundamentals of number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    1996-01-01

    This excellent textbook introduces the basics of number theory, incorporating the language of abstract algebra. A knowledge of such algebraic concepts as group, ring, field, and domain is not assumed, however; all terms are defined and examples are given - making the book self-contained in this respect.The author begins with an introductory chapter on number theory and its early history. Subsequent chapters deal with unique factorization and the GCD, quadratic residues, number-theoretic functions and the distribution of primes, sums of squares, quadratic equations and quadratic fields, diopha

  11. Numbers and computers

    CERN Document Server

    Kneusel, Ronald T

    2015-01-01

    This is a book about numbers and how those numbers are represented in and operated on by computers. It is crucial that developers understand this area because the numerical operations allowed by computers, and the limitations of those operations, especially in the area of floating point math, affect virtually everything people try to do with computers. This book aims to fill this gap by exploring, in sufficient but not overwhelming detail, just what it is that computers do with numbers. Divided into two parts, the first deals with standard representations of integers and floating point numb

  12. Elementary theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Sierpinski, Waclaw

    1988-01-01

    Since the publication of the first edition of this work, considerable progress has been made in many of the questions examined. This edition has been updated and enlarged, and the bibliography has been revised.The variety of topics covered here includes divisibility, diophantine equations, prime numbers (especially Mersenne and Fermat primes), the basic arithmetic functions, congruences, the quadratic reciprocity law, expansion of real numbers into decimal fractions, decomposition of integers into sums of powers, some other problems of the additive theory of numbers and the theory of Gaussian

  13. On powerful numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mollin

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available A powerful number is a positive integer n satisfying the property that p2 divides n whenever the prime p divides n; i.e., in the canonical prime decomposition of n, no prime appears with exponent 1. In [1], S.W. Golomb introduced and studied such numbers. In particular, he asked whether (25,27 is the only pair of consecutive odd powerful numbers. This question was settled in [2] by W.A. Sentance who gave necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such pairs. The first result of this paper is to provide a generalization of Sentance's result by giving necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of pairs of powerful numbers spaced evenly apart. This result leads us naturally to consider integers which are representable as a proper difference of two powerful numbers, i.e. n=p1−p2 where p1 and p2 are powerful numbers with g.c.d. (p1,p2=1. Golomb (op.cit. conjectured that 6 is not a proper difference of two powerful numbers, and that there are infinitely many numbers which cannot be represented as a proper difference of two powerful numbers. The antithesis of this conjecture was proved by W.L. McDaniel [3] who verified that every non-zero integer is in fact a proper difference of two powerful numbers in infinitely many ways. McDaniel's proof is essentially an existence proof. The second result of this paper is a simpler proof of McDaniel's result as well as an effective algorithm (in the proof for explicitly determining infinitely many such representations. However, in both our proof and McDaniel's proof one of the powerful numbers is almost always a perfect square (namely one is always a perfect square when n≢2(mod4. We provide in §2 a proof that all even integers are representable in infinitely many ways as a proper nonsquare difference; i.e., proper difference of two powerful numbers neither of which is a perfect square. This, in conjunction with the odd case in [4], shows that every integer is representable in

  14. Brief history of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Corry, Leo

    2015-01-01

    The world around us is saturated with numbers. They are a fundamental pillar of our modern society, and accepted and used with hardly a second thought. But how did this state of affairs come to be? In this book, Leo Corry tells the story behind the idea of number from the early days of the Pythagoreans, up until the turn of the twentieth century. He presents an overview of how numbers were handled and conceived in classical Greek mathematics, in the mathematics of Islam, in European mathematics of the middle ages and the Renaissance, during the scientific revolution, all the way through to the

  15. Elementary number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Dudley, Underwood

    2008-01-01

    Ideal for a first course in number theory, this lively, engaging text requires only a familiarity with elementary algebra and the properties of real numbers. Author Underwood Dudley, who has written a series of popular mathematics books, maintains that the best way to learn mathematics is by solving problems. In keeping with this philosophy, the text includes nearly 1,000 exercises and problems-some computational and some classical, many original, and some with complete solutions. The opening chapters offer sound explanations of the basics of elementary number theory and develop the fundamenta

  16. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  17. High Reynolds Number Turbulence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Smits, Alexander J

    2007-01-01

    The objectives of the grant were to provide a systematic study to fill the gap between existing research on low Reynolds number turbulent flows to the kinds of turbulent flows encountered on full-scale vehicles...

  18. Crunching the Numbers

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Operating a Demographic Surveillance System (DSS) like this one requires a blend of high-tech number-crunching ability and .... views follow a standardized format that takes several ... general levels of health and to the use of health services.

  19. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-05-10

    A quantum random number generator (QRNG) and a photon generator for a QRNG are provided. The photon generator may be operated in a spontaneous mode below a lasing threshold to emit photons. Photons emitted from the photon generator may have at least one random characteristic, which may be monitored by the QRNG to generate a random number. In one embodiment, the photon generator may include a photon emitter and an amplifier coupled to the photon emitter. The amplifier may enable the photon generator to be used in the QRNG without introducing significant bias in the random number and may enable multiplexing of multiple random numbers. The amplifier may also desensitize the photon generator to fluctuations in power supplied thereto while operating in the spontaneous mode. In one embodiment, the photon emitter and amplifier may be a tapered diode amplifier.

  20. Solar Indices - Sunspot Numbers

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of indices related to solar activity contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide. This...

  1. Really big numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, Richard Evan

    2014-01-01

    In the American Mathematical Society's first-ever book for kids (and kids at heart), mathematician and author Richard Evan Schwartz leads math lovers of all ages on an innovative and strikingly illustrated journey through the infinite number system. By means of engaging, imaginative visuals and endearing narration, Schwartz manages the monumental task of presenting the complex concept of Big Numbers in fresh and relatable ways. The book begins with small, easily observable numbers before building up to truly gigantic ones, like a nonillion, a tredecillion, a googol, and even ones too huge for names! Any person, regardless of age, can benefit from reading this book. Readers will find themselves returning to its pages for a very long time, perpetually learning from and growing with the narrative as their knowledge deepens. Really Big Numbers is a wonderful enrichment for any math education program and is enthusiastically recommended to every teacher, parent and grandparent, student, child, or other individual i...

  2. The Congruent Number Problem

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    One could endlessly churn out congruent numbers following the method in Box 1 without being certain when a given number n (or n x m 2, for some integer m) will ap- pear on the list. Continuing in this way ·would exhaust one's computing resources, not to mention one's patience! Also, this procedure is of no avail if n is not ...

  3. The Brothel Phone Number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsby, Trine Mygind

    2017-01-01

    Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro-infrastructure in......Taking a point of departure in negotiations for access to a phone number for a brothel abroad, the article demonstrates how a group of pimps in Eastern Romania attempt to extend their local business into the rest of the EU. The article shows how the phone number works as a micro...... in turn cultivate and maximize uncertainty about themselves in others. When making the move to go abroad into unknown terrains, accessing the infrastructure generated by the phone number can provide certainty and consolidate one’s position within criminal networks abroad. However, at the same time......, mishandling the phone number can be dangerous and in that sense produce new doubts and uncertainties....

  4. Report number codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, R.N. (ed.)

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name.

  5. Report number codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.N.

    1985-05-01

    This publication lists all report number codes processed by the Office of Scientific and Technical Information. The report codes are substantially based on the American National Standards Institute, Standard Technical Report Number (STRN)-Format and Creation Z39.23-1983. The Standard Technical Report Number (STRN) provides one of the primary methods of identifying a specific technical report. The STRN consists of two parts: The report code and the sequential number. The report code identifies the issuing organization, a specific program, or a type of document. The sequential number, which is assigned in sequence by each report issuing entity, is not included in this publication. Part I of this compilation is alphabetized by report codes followed by issuing installations. Part II lists the issuing organization followed by the assigned report code(s). In both Parts I and II, the names of issuing organizations appear for the most part in the form used at the time the reports were issued. However, for some of the more prolific installations which have had name changes, all entries have been merged under the current name

  6. A Numbers Game

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Bruce R; McCall, Ingrid C.; Perrot, Veronique

    2017-01-01

    We postulate that the inhibition of growth and low rates of mortality of bacteria exposed to ribosome-binding antibiotics deemed bacteriostatic can be attributed almost uniquely to these drugs reducing the number of ribosomes contributing to protein synthesis, i.e., the number of effective......-targeting bacteriostatic antibiotics, the time before these bacteria start to grow again when the drugs are removed, referred to as the post-antibiotic effect (PAE), is markedly greater for constructs with fewer rrn operons than for those with more rrn operons. We interpret the results of these other experiments reported...... here as support for the hypothesis that the reduction in the effective number of ribosomes due to binding to these structures provides a sufficient explanation for the action of bacteriostatic antibiotics that target these structures....

  7. Quantum random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soubusta, Jan; Haderka, Ondrej; Hendrych, Martin

    2001-03-01

    Since reflection or transmission of a quantum particle on a beamsplitter is inherently random quantum process, a device built on this principle does not suffer from drawbacks of neither pseudo-random computer generators or classical noise sources. Nevertheless, a number of physical conditions necessary for high quality random numbers generation must be satisfied. Luckily, in quantum optics realization they can be well controlled. We present an easy random number generator based on the division of weak light pulses on a beamsplitter. The randomness of the generated bit stream is supported by passing the data through series of 15 statistical test. The device generates at a rate of 109.7 kbit/s.

  8. The LHC in numbers

    CERN Multimedia

    Alizée Dauvergne

    2010-01-01

    What makes the LHC the biggest particle accelerator in the world? Here are some of the numbers that characterise the LHC, and their equivalents in terms that are easier for us to imagine.   Feature Number Equivalent Circumference ~ 27 km   Distance covered by beam in 10 hours ~ 10 billion km a round trip to Neptune Number of times a single proton travels around the ring each second 11 245   Speed of protons first entering the LHC 299 732 500 m/s 99.9998 % of the speed of light Speed of protons when they collide 299 789 760 m/s 99.9999991 % of the speed of light Collision temperature ~ 1016 °C ove...

  9. Algebraic theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Samuel, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Algebraic number theory introduces students not only to new algebraic notions but also to related concepts: groups, rings, fields, ideals, quotient rings and quotient fields, homomorphisms and isomorphisms, modules, and vector spaces. Author Pierre Samuel notes that students benefit from their studies of algebraic number theory by encountering many concepts fundamental to other branches of mathematics - algebraic geometry, in particular.This book assumes a knowledge of basic algebra but supplements its teachings with brief, clear explanations of integrality, algebraic extensions of fields, Gal

  10. Analytic number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Iwaniec, Henryk

    2004-01-01

    Analytic Number Theory distinguishes itself by the variety of tools it uses to establish results, many of which belong to the mainstream of arithmetic. One of the main attractions of analytic number theory is the vast diversity of concepts and methods it includes. The main goal of the book is to show the scope of the theory, both in classical and modern directions, and to exhibit its wealth and prospects, its beautiful theorems and powerful techniques. The book is written with graduate students in mind, and the authors tried to balance between clarity, completeness, and generality. The exercis

  11. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    he area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service

  12. CONFUSION WITH TELEPHONE NUMBERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Telecom Service

    2002-01-01

    The area code is now required for all telephone calls within Switzerland. Unfortunately this is causing some confusion. CERN has received complaints that incoming calls intended for CERN mobile phones are being directed to private subscribers. This is caused by mistakenly dialing the WRONG code (e.g. 022) in front of the mobile number. In order to avoid these problems, please inform your correspondents that the correct numbers are: 079 201 XXXX from Switzerland; 0041 79 201 XXXX from other countries. Telecom Service  

  13. Earthquake number forecasts testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Yan Y.

    2017-10-01

    We study the distributions of earthquake numbers in two global earthquake catalogues: Global Centroid-Moment Tensor and Preliminary Determinations of Epicenters. The properties of these distributions are especially required to develop the number test for our forecasts of future seismic activity rate, tested by the Collaboratory for Study of Earthquake Predictability (CSEP). A common assumption, as used in the CSEP tests, is that the numbers are described by the Poisson distribution. It is clear, however, that the Poisson assumption for the earthquake number distribution is incorrect, especially for the catalogues with a lower magnitude threshold. In contrast to the one-parameter Poisson distribution so widely used to describe earthquake occurrences, the negative-binomial distribution (NBD) has two parameters. The second parameter can be used to characterize the clustering or overdispersion of a process. We also introduce and study a more complex three-parameter beta negative-binomial distribution. We investigate the dependence of parameters for both Poisson and NBD distributions on the catalogue magnitude threshold and on temporal subdivision of catalogue duration. First, we study whether the Poisson law can be statistically rejected for various catalogue subdivisions. We find that for most cases of interest, the Poisson distribution can be shown to be rejected statistically at a high significance level in favour of the NBD. Thereafter, we investigate whether these distributions fit the observed distributions of seismicity. For this purpose, we study upper statistical moments of earthquake numbers (skewness and kurtosis) and compare them to the theoretical values for both distributions. Empirical values for the skewness and the kurtosis increase for the smaller magnitude threshold and increase with even greater intensity for small temporal subdivision of catalogues. The Poisson distribution for large rate values approaches the Gaussian law, therefore its skewness

  14. Colour by Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This is an edited extract from the keynote address given by Dr. Chris Wetherell at the 26th Biennial Conference of the Australian Association of Mathematics Teachers Inc. The author investigates the surprisingly rich structure that exists within a simple arrangement of numbers: the times tables.

  15. The magic of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Eric Temple

    1991-01-01

    From one of the foremost interpreters for lay readers of the history and meaning of mathematics: a stimulating account of the origins of mathematical thought and the development of numerical theory. It probes the work of Pythagoras, Galileo, Berkeley, Einstein, and others, exploring how ""number magic"" has influenced religion, philosophy, science, and mathematics

  16. ALARA notes, Number 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, T.A.; Baum, J.W.; Beckman, M.C.

    1993-10-01

    This document contains information dealing with the lessons learned from the experience of nuclear plants. In this issue the authors tried to avoid the 'tyranny' of numbers and concentrated on the main lessons learned. Topics include: filtration devices for air pollution abatement, crack repair and inspection, and remote handling equipment

  17. Uniform random number generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farr, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    Methods are presented for the generation of random numbers with uniform and normal distributions. Subprogram listings of Fortran generators for the Univac 1108, SDS 930, and CDC 3200 digital computers are also included. The generators are of the mixed multiplicative type, and the mathematical method employed is that of Marsaglia and Bray.

  18. Key numbers: Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The key numbers of energy give statistical data related to production, consumption, and to foreign trade of each energy in the World and in France. A chapter is dedicated to environment and brings quantitative elements on pollutant emissions connected to energy uses

  19. The numbers game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oli Brown

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Estimates of the potential number of ‘climate changemigrants’ vary hugely. In order to persuade policymakers ofthe need to act and to provide a sound basis for appropriateresponses, there is an urgent need for better analysis, betterdata and better predictions.

  20. Introducing Complex Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudgian, Timothy

    2009-01-01

    One of the difficulties in any teaching of mathematics is to bridge the divide between the abstract and the intuitive. Throughout school one encounters increasingly abstract notions, which are more and more difficult to relate to everyday experiences. This article examines a familiar approach to thinking about negative numbers, that is an…

  1. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  2. Littlewood and Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    improved by Selberg [4] in 1941 who showed that a pos- ... be seen by entries of his first letter to G H Hardy in ... tary in the technical sense of the word, employed com- ..... III: On the expression of a number as a sum of primes, Acta Math.,.

  3. EFECTO DE LA GLUCOSA Y NITRATO DE AMONIO SOBRE LAS ENZIMAS LIGNINOLÍTICAS PRODUCIDAS POR Trametes versicolor INMOVILIZADO EN ESPUMA Y LA DECOLORACIÓN DE UN EFLUENTE PAPELERO EN UN BIORREACTOR DE LECHO FLUIDIZADO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Martínez-Salgado

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En Colombia se han realizado varios estudios para el tratamiento de aguas residuales de la industria papelera a escala de laboratorio, con el hongo Trametes versicolor inmovilizado en espuma de poliuretano; este hongo ha sido ampliamente estudiado por la producción de enzimas ligninolíticas y su potencial uso en la decoloración de efluentes. En este trabajo, se estudió el efecto de una fuente de carbono (glucosa y una de nitrógeno (nitrato de amonio en un biorreactor de lecho fluidizado, con adición al medio de cultivo de 0.02% (v/v de Tween 80, 12 ppm de MnSO4 y 1 mM de CuSO4, desarrollando un diseño factorial 22 con dos diferentes concentraciones de los nutrientes, siendo éstos las variables independientes y las variables dependientes fueron la actividad enzimática, las unidades de color y el consumo de sustrato los cuales fueron determinados por métodos colorimétricos, además de la biomasa y pH. El uso del biorreactor de lecho fluidizado con entrada de aire constante, arrojó datos importantes sobre la decoloracióny la producción de enzimas en el agua residual no estéril. Los máximos valores de la enzima Mnperoxidasa fueron hallados en las concentraciones altas y bajas de glucosa y nitrato de amonio con valores de 9.257U y 6.502U; para la enzima Lacasa, al adicionar separadamente las dos variables se obtuvo valores de 8.618U y 8.341U. Las enzimas fueron relacionadas con la disminución de las unidades de color hasta 481.06UC, junto con el aumento de la biomasa del hongo Trametes versicolor hasta 3.365 g junto con flora nativa del agua residual. Los resultados encontrados, determinaron que las variables de consumo de sustrato y biomasa, tienen una gran importancia debido a que el aumento de la biomasa genera un aumento en la actividad de la enzima MnP y en la reducción de las unidades de color.

  4. Low Reynolds Number Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    of the blade. The Darrieus VAWT has more complex aerodynamics. This type of wind turbine produces power as a result of the tangential thrust as...Horizontal Axis Propeller-Type b) Verticle Axis Darrieus -Type Figure 78. Wind Turbine Configurations 0 6 Q K [_ 2 -, C 4 UJ UJ...Sailplanes 23 5.2 Wind Turbines 23 6. CONCLUDING REMARKS 24 7. RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH 24 REFERENCES 25 FIGURES 32 yv/ LOW REYNOLDS NUMBER

  5. Composition of minerals and trace elements at Mamasani thermal source: A possible preventive treatment for some skin diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamidizadeh, Nasrin; Simaeetabar, Shima; Handjani, Farhad; Ranjbar, Sara; Moghadam, Mohammad Gohari; Parvizi, Mohammad Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Some skin diseases are incurable and modern medicine can only control them. In addition, alternative treatment remedies including balneotherapy can be effective in improving skin conditions. However, there are only a limited number of studies on particular mineral or trace elements of mineral sources that have been identified in Iran. In this respect, the amount of minerals and trace elements in Mamasani thermal source, Fars Province, Iran, was measured using electrochemical, titration, and spectrophotometric methods and evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The amount of minerals and trace elements in Mamasani thermal source, Fars Province, Iran, was measured using electrochemical, titration, and spectrophotometric methods. RESULTS: The concentrations of natural gases such as H2S and NO3 in Mamasani thermal source were measured to be 22.10 mg/L and 42.79 mg/L, respectively. The source also contained major ions such as chloride, sulfate, sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and carbonate. Due to the high concentration of chloride, sulfate, and sodium ions in comparison with other major ions, the water source is also classified as sulfide water. The existing trace elements in this thermal water source are iron, zinc, copper, selenium, cobalt, chromium, boron, silisium, aluminum, magnesium, and molybdenum. CONCLUSION: We concluded that bathing in this source could be beneficial. As nitrate concentration is close to the highest standard concentration for drinking water, it can be used in chronic dermatitis, psoriasis, burns, and allergy. Furthermore, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of sulfur-containing water in this source can be helpful in the treatment of leg ulcers, tinea versicolor, tinea corporis, and tinea capitis. PMID:29296611

  6. Pretreatment of vinasse from the sugar refinery industry under non-sterile conditions by Trametes versicolor in a fluidized bed bioreactor and its effect when coupled to an UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    España-Gamboa, Elda; Vicent, Teresa; Font, Xavier; Dominguez-Maldonado, Jorge; Canto-Canché, Blondy; Alzate-Gaviria, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    During hydrous ethanol production from the sugar refinery industry in Mexico, vinasse is generated. Phenolic compounds and melanoidins contribute to its color and make degradation of the vinasse a difficult task. Although anaerobic digestion (AD) is feasible for vinasse treatment, the presence of recalcitrant compounds can be toxic or inhibitory for anaerobic microorganism. Therefore, this study presents new data on the coupled of the FBR (Fluidized Bed Bioreactor) to the UASB (Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket) reactor under non-sterile conditions by T. versicolor . Nevertheless, for an industrial application, it is necessary to evaluate the performance in this kind of proposal system. Therefore, this study used a FBR for the removal of phenolic compounds (67%) and COD (38%) at non-sterile conditions. Continuous operation of the FBR was successfully for 26 days according to the literature. When the FBR was coupled to the UASB reactor, we obtained a better quality of effluent, furthermore methane content and yield were 74% and 0.18 m 3 CH 4 / kg COD removal respectively. This study demonstrated the possibility of using for an industrial application the coupled of the FBR to the UASB reactor under non-sterile conditions. Continuous operation of the FBR was carried out successfully for 26 days, which is the highest value found in the literature.

  7. Topics in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    LeVeque, William J

    2002-01-01

    Classic two-part work now available in a single volume assumes no prior theoretical knowledge on reader's part and develops the subject fully. Volume I is a suitable first course text for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Volume II requires a much higher level of mathematical maturity, including a working knowledge of the theory of analytic functions. Contents range from chapters on binary quadratic forms to the Thue-Siegel-Roth Theorem and the Prime Number Theorem. Includes numerous problems and hints for their solutions. 1956 edition. Supplementary Reading. List of Symb

  8. Drawing a random number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wanscher, Jørgen Bundgaard; Sørensen, Majken Vildrik

    2006-01-01

    Random numbers are used for a great variety of applications in almost any field of computer and economic sciences today. Examples ranges from stock market forecasting in economics, through stochastic traffic modelling in operations research to photon and ray tracing in graphics. The construction...... distributions into others with most of the required characteristics. In essence, a uniform sequence which is transformed into a new sequence with the required distribution. The subject of this article is to consider the well known highly uniform Halton sequence and modifications to it. The intent is to generate...

  9. [The power of numbers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gijn, J

    2000-01-01

    The round figure for the current year has stirred people's minds in anticipation. Numbers have acquired great significance also in today's medical science. The Paris physician Pierre Charles Alexandre Louis (1787-1872) is considered the founding father of the numerical method in medicine. At first the principle of aggregating data from different individuals aroused much resistance and even disgust: Claude Bernard was a leading figure among those who warned that one will never find a mean in nature, and that grouping findings together obscures the true relationship between biological phenomena. True enough, statistical significance is not a characteristic of nature itself. Significant differences or risk reductions do not necessarily imply clinical relevance, and results obtained in a group of patients are rarely applicable to an individual patient in the consultation room. Likewise, the health of a human being cannot be captured in biochemical, radiological or other technical measures, nor in disease-specific scales that reduce well-being to one or two digits. The editors of this journal will remain keen on publishing numerical studies that contribute to evidence-based medicine, but at the same time they will continue to foster the art of reporting illness from the point of view of the sick person.

  10. Lepton family number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herczeg, P.

    1999-01-01

    At present there is evidence from neutrino oscillation searches that the neutrinos are in fact massive particles and that they mix. If confirmed, this would imply that the conservation of LFN is not exact. Lepton family number violation (LFNV) has been searched for with impressive sensitivities in many processes involving charged leptons. The present experimental limits on some of them (those which the author shall consider here) are shown in Table 1. These stringent limits are not inconsistent with the neutrino oscillation results since, given the experimental bounds on the masses of the known neutrinos and the neutrino mass squared differences required by the oscillation results, the effects of LFNV from neutrino mixing would be too small to be seen elsewhere (see Section 2). The purpose of experiments searching for LFNV involving the charged leptons is to probe the existence of other sources of LFNV. Such sources are present in many extensions of the SM. In this lecture the author shall discuss some of the possibilities, focusing on processes that require muon beams. Other LFNV processes, such as the decays of the kaons and of the τ, provide complementary information. In the next Section he shall consider some sources of LFNV that do not require an extension of the gauge group of the SM (the added leptons or Higgs bosons may of course originate from models with extended gauge groups). In Section 3 he discusses LFNV in left-right symmetric models. In Section 4 he considers LFNV in supersymmetric models, first in R-parity conserving supersymmetric grand unified models, and then in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with R-parity violation. The last section is a brief summary of the author's conclusions

  11. Straight flavor of Binary Number in Decimal Number System

    OpenAIRE

    MD. Abdul Awal Ansary; Sushanta Acharjee

    2012-01-01

    Different number systems are available on the basis of their base numbers. For instance, decimal number system is of base 10, hexadecimal number system which base is 16 and, Binary number system which base is 2 etc. Some numbers systems are easy to understand by the human being and some are easy to understand by electronics machine for instance digital computers. Computers only can understand data and instructions that are stored in binary form, though we input the data and instruction in dec...

  12. Neutrino number of the universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of grand unified theories on the lepton number of the universe is reviewed. A scenario is presented for the generation of a large (>> 1) lepton number and a small (<< 1) baryon number. 15 references

  13. [Intel random number generator-based true random number generator].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Shen, Hong

    2004-09-01

    To establish a true random number generator on the basis of certain Intel chips. The random numbers were acquired by programming using Microsoft Visual C++ 6.0 via register reading from the random number generator (RNG) unit of an Intel 815 chipset-based computer with Intel Security Driver (ISD). We tested the generator with 500 random numbers in NIST FIPS 140-1 and X(2) R-Squared test, and the result showed that the random number it generated satisfied the demand of independence and uniform distribution. We also compared the random numbers generated by Intel RNG-based true random number generator and those from the random number table statistically, by using the same amount of 7500 random numbers in the same value domain, which showed that the SD, SE and CV of Intel RNG-based random number generator were less than those of the random number table. The result of u test of two CVs revealed no significant difference between the two methods. Intel RNG-based random number generator can produce high-quality random numbers with good independence and uniform distribution, and solves some problems with random number table in acquisition of the random numbers.

  14. Bell numbers, determinants and series

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this article, we study Bell numbers and Uppuluri Carpenter numbers. We obtain various expressions and relations between them. These include polynomial recurrences and expressions as determinants of certain matrices of binomial coefficients. Keywords. p-adic series; Bell numbers. 1. Introduction. Bell numbers, Bn [2] ...

  15. Cosmic numbers the numbers that define our universe

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, James D

    2011-01-01

    Our fascination with numbers begins when we are children and continues throughout our lives. We start counting our fingers and toes and end up balancing checkbooks and calculating risk. So powerful is the appeal of numbers that many people ascribe to them a mystical significance. Other numbers go beyond the supernatural, working to explain our universe and how it behaves. In Cosmic Numbers , mathematics professor James D. Stein traces the discovery, evolution, and interrelationships of the numbers that define our world. Everyone knows about the speed of light and absolute zero, but numbers lik

  16. Fermion number in supersymmetric models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainland, G.B.; Tanaka, K.

    1975-01-01

    The two known methods for introducing a conserved fermion number into supersymmetric models are discussed. While the introduction of a conserved fermion number often requires that the Lagrangian be massless or that bosons carry fermion number, a model is discussed in which masses can be introduced via spontaneous symmetry breaking and fermion number is conserved at all stages without assigning fermion number to bosons. (U.S.)

  17. The Mental Number Line in Dyscalculia: Impaired Number Sense or Access from Symbolic Numbers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafay, Anne; St-Pierre, Marie-Catherine; Macoir, Joël

    2017-01-01

    Numbers may be manipulated and represented mentally over a compressible number line oriented from left to right. According to numerous studies, one of the primary reasons for dyscalculia is related to improper understanding of the mental number line. Children with dyscalculia usually show difficulty when they have to place Arabic numbers on a…

  18. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN NUMBER NAMES AND NUMBER CONCEPTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye; Misfeldt, Morten

    Different countries have different names for numbers. These names are often related in a regular way to the base-10 place value system used for writing numbers as digits. However, in several languages, this regularity breaks down (e.g., between 10 and 20), and there is limited knowledge of how th......, a second, regular set of number names is introduced in primary school. The study’s findings suggest that the regularity of number names influences the development of number concepts and creates a positive impact on the understanding of the base-10 system....

  19. The theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Pollard, Harry

    1998-01-01

    An excellent introduction to the basics of algebraic number theory, this concise, well-written volume examines Gaussian primes; polynomials over a field; algebraic number fields; and algebraic integers and integral bases. After establishing a firm introductory foundation, the text explores the uses of arithmetic in algebraic number fields; the fundamental theorem of ideal theory and its consequences; ideal classes and class numbers; and the Fermat conjecture. 1975 edition. References. List of Symbols. Index.

  20. Elementary number theory with programming

    CERN Document Server

    Lewinter, Marty

    2015-01-01

    A successful presentation of the fundamental concepts of number theory and computer programming Bridging an existing gap between mathematics and programming, Elementary Number Theory with Programming provides a unique introduction to elementary number theory with fundamental coverage of computer programming. Written by highly-qualified experts in the fields of computer science and mathematics, the book features accessible coverage for readers with various levels of experience and explores number theory in the context of programming without relying on advanced prerequisite knowledge and con

  1. Distribution theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Chung-Chun

    2008-01-01

    The book timely surveys new research results and related developments in Diophantine approximation, a division of number theory which deals with the approximation of real numbers by rational numbers. The book is appended with a list of challenging open problems and a comprehensive list of references. From the contents: Field extensions Algebraic numbers Algebraic geometry Height functions The abc-conjecture Roth''s theorem Subspace theorems Vojta''s conjectures L-functions.

  2. Random Numbers and Quantum Computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartney, Mark; Glass, David

    2002-01-01

    The topic of random numbers is investigated in such a way as to illustrate links between mathematics, physics and computer science. First, the generation of random numbers by a classical computer using the linear congruential generator and logistic map is considered. It is noted that these procedures yield only pseudo-random numbers since…

  3. Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ônishi, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  4. Türkiye’nin Farklı Coğrafik Bölgelerinden Toplanan Propolis Örneklerinin Aspergillus versicolor ve Penicillium aurantiogriseum’e Karşı Antifungal Aktiviteleri (İngilizce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayhan Temiz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye’nin çeşitli coğrafik bölgelerinden toplanan 10 propolis örneğinin mikotoksin üreticisi olan, gıda kaynaklı iki küf (Aspergillus versicolor ve Penicillium aurantiogriseum suşuna karşı antifungal aktivitelerini araştırmaktır. Propolis örneklerinin etil alkol ekstraktlarının (EEP kimyasal kompozisyonları kütle spektorometresine birleştirilmiş gaz kromatografisi ile belirlenmiştir. EEP örneklerinin antifungal aktiviteleri %1, %5 ve %10 olacak şekilde üç farklı konsantrasyonda test edilmiştir. EEP örneklerinin antifungal aktiviteleri, incelenen küf suşunun Patates Dekstroz Agar besiyeri yüzeyindeki misel gelişiminde meydana gelen inhibisyonun yüzdesi şeklinde belirlenmiştir. EEP örneklerinin ana bileşenleri flavonoitler, aromatik alkoller, aromatik asit esterler, alifatik asit esterler, aromatik asitler, alkoller ve aromatik hidrokarbonlar olarak tespit edilmiştir. EEP örneklerinin tümü %10 konsantrasyonda her iki küf suşunun misel gelişimi üzerinde %100 inhibisyon sağlamıştır. EEP örneklerinin iki küf suşu üzerindeki antifungal etkisi %1 ve %5 konsantrasyonlarında değişkenlik göstermiştir. Araştırma sonuçları, P. aurantiogriseum suşunun misel gelişimi üzerinde inhibisyon etkisi yaratması için A. versicolor’a kıyasla daha yüksek bir EEP konsantrasyonuna gereksinim olduğuna işaret etmektedir. Küf suşları üzerinde etkin olan propolis örneklerinin flavonoit yüzdesi diğer bileşenlerin yüzdesinden oldukça daha yüksektir. Bu sonuçlar, propolis örneklerinin EEP konsantrasyonuna ve kimyasal kompozisyonuna bağlı olarak iki küf suşu üzerinde de belirgin kuvvette bir antifungal etki yarattığına işaret etmektedir.

  5. 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Garvan, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Gathered from the 2016 Gainesville Number Theory Conference honoring Krishna Alladi on his 60th birthday, these proceedings present recent research in number theory. Extensive and detailed, this volume features 40 articles by leading researchers on topics in analytic number theory, probabilistic number theory, irrationality and transcendence, Diophantine analysis, partitions, basic hypergeometric series, and modular forms. Readers will also find detailed discussions of several aspects of the path-breaking work of Srinivasa Ramanujan and its influence on current research. Many of the papers were motivated by Alladi's own research on partitions and q-series as well as his earlier work in number theory.  Alladi is well known for his contributions in number theory and mathematics. His research interests include combinatorics, discrete mathematics, sieve methods, probabilistic and analytic number theory, Diophantine approximations, partitions and q-series identities. Graduate students and researchers will find th...

  6. Photon number projection using non-number-resolving detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohde, Peter P; Webb, James G; Huntington, Elanor H; Ralph, Timothy C

    2007-01-01

    Number-resolving photo-detection is necessary for many quantum optics experiments, especially in the application of entangled state preparation. Several schemes have been proposed for approximating number-resolving photo-detection using non-number-resolving detectors. Such techniques include multi-port detection and time-division multiplexing. We provide a detailed analysis and comparison of different number-resolving detection schemes, with a view to creating a useful reference for experimentalists. We show that the ideal architecture for projective measurements is a function of the detector's dark count and efficiency parameters. We also describe a process for selecting an appropriate topology given actual experimental component parameters

  7. Bernoulli numbers and zeta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Arakawa, Tsuneo; Kaneko, Masanobu

    2014-01-01

    Two major subjects are treated in this book. The main one is the theory of Bernoulli numbers and the other is the theory of zeta functions. Historically, Bernoulli numbers were introduced to give formulas for the sums of powers of consecutive integers. The real reason that they are indispensable for number theory, however, lies in the fact that special values of the Riemann zeta function can be written by using Bernoulli numbers. This leads to more advanced topics, a number of which are treated in this book: Historical remarks on Bernoulli numbers and the formula for the sum of powers of consecutive integers; a formula for Bernoulli numbers by Stirling numbers; the Clausen–von Staudt theorem on the denominators of Bernoulli numbers; Kummer's congruence between Bernoulli numbers and a related theory of p-adic measures; the Euler–Maclaurin summation formula; the functional equation of the Riemann zeta function and the Dirichlet L functions, and their special values at suitable integers; various formulas of ...

  8. Compendium of Experimental Cetane Numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanowitz, Janet [Ecoengineering, Sharonville, OH (United States); Ratcliff, Matthew A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McCormick, Robert L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Taylor, J. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Murphy, M. J. [Battelle, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2017-02-22

    This report is an updated version of the 2014 Compendium of Experimental Cetane Number Data and presents a compilation of measured cetane numbers for pure chemical compounds. It includes all available single-compound cetane number data found in the scientific literature up until December 2016 as well as a number of previously unpublished values, most measured over the past decade at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. This version of the compendium contains cetane values for 496 pure compounds, including 204 hydrocarbons and 292 oxygenates. 176 individual measurements are new to this version of the compendium, all of them collected using ASTM Method D6890, which utilizes an Ignition Quality Tester (IQT) a type of constant-volume combustion chamber. For many compounds, numerous measurements are included, often collected by different researchers using different methods. The text of this document is unchanged from the 2014 version, except for the numbers of compounds in Section 3.1, the Appendices, Table 1. Primary Cetane Number Data Sources and Table 2. Number of Measurements Included in Compendium. Cetane number is a relative ranking of a fuel's autoignition characteristics for use in compression ignition engines. It is based on the amount of time between fuel injection and ignition, also known as ignition delay. The cetane number is typically measured either in a single-cylinder engine or a constant-volume combustion chamber. Values in the previous compendium derived from octane numbers have been removed and replaced with a brief analysis of the correlation between cetane numbers and octane numbers. The discussion on the accuracy and precision of the most commonly used methods for measuring cetane number has been expanded, and the data have been annotated extensively to provide additional information that will help the reader judge the relative reliability of individual results.

  9. Dynamic Virtual Credit Card Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Ian; Li, Jiangtao; Li, Ninghui

    Theft of stored credit card information is an increasing threat to e-commerce. We propose a dynamic virtual credit card number scheme that reduces the damage caused by stolen credit card numbers. A user can use an existing credit card account to generate multiple virtual credit card numbers that are either usable for a single transaction or are tied with a particular merchant. We call the scheme dynamic because the virtual credit card numbers can be generated without online contact with the credit card issuers. These numbers can be processed without changing any of the infrastructure currently in place; the only changes will be at the end points, namely, the card users and the card issuers. We analyze the security requirements for dynamic virtual credit card numbers, discuss the design space, propose a scheme using HMAC, and prove its security under the assumption the underlying function is a PRF.

  10. Number-unconstrained quantum sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2017-12-01

    Quantum sensing is commonly described as a constrained optimization problem: maximize the information gained about an unknown quantity using a limited number of particles. Important sensors including gravitational wave interferometers and some atomic sensors do not appear to fit this description, because there is no external constraint on particle number. Here, we develop the theory of particle-number-unconstrained quantum sensing, and describe how optimal particle numbers emerge from the competition of particle-environment and particle-particle interactions. We apply the theory to optical probing of an atomic medium modeled as a resonant, saturable absorber, and observe the emergence of well-defined finite optima without external constraints. The results contradict some expectations from number-constrained quantum sensing and show that probing with squeezed beams can give a large sensitivity advantage over classical strategies when each is optimized for particle number.

  11. Schmidt number for quantum operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Siendong

    2006-01-01

    To understand how entangled states behave under local quantum operations is an open problem in quantum-information theory. The Jamiolkowski isomorphism provides a natural way to study this problem in terms of quantum states. We introduce the Schmidt number for quantum operations by this duality and clarify how the Schmidt number of a quantum state changes under a local quantum operation. Some characterizations of quantum operations with Schmidt number k are also provided

  12. Random number generation and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, William

    2008-01-01

    A previous paper suggested that humans can generate genuinely random numbers. I tested this hypothesis by repeating the experiment with a larger number of highly numerate subjects, asking them to call out a sequence of digits selected from 0 through 9. The resulting sequences were substantially non-random, with an excess of sequential pairs of numbers and a deficit of repeats of the same number, in line with previous literature. However, the previous literature suggests that humans generate random numbers with substantial conscious effort, and distractions which reduce that effort reduce the randomness of the numbers. I reduced my subjects' concentration by asking them to call out in another language, and with alcohol - neither affected the randomness of their responses. This suggests that the ability to generate random numbers is a 'basic' function of the human mind, even if those numbers are not mathematically 'random'. I hypothesise that there is a 'creativity' mechanism, while not truly random, provides novelty as part of the mind's defence against closed programming loops, and that testing for the effects seen here in people more or less familiar with numbers or with spontaneous creativity could identify more features of this process. It is possible that training to perform better at simple random generation tasks could help to increase creativity, through training people to reduce the conscious mind's suppression of the 'spontaneous', creative response to new questions.

  13. Unsolved problems in number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Richard K

    1994-01-01

    Unsolved Problems in Number Theory contains discussions of hundreds of open questions, organized into 185 different topics. They represent numerous aspects of number theory and are organized into six categories: prime numbers, divisibility, additive number theory, Diophantine equations, sequences of integers, and miscellaneous. To prevent repetition of earlier efforts or duplication of previously known results, an extensive and up-to-date collection of references follows each problem. In the second edition, not only extensive new material has been added, but corrections and additions have been included throughout the book.

  14. Complex numbers in n dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Olariu, Silviu

    2002-01-01

    Two distinct systems of hypercomplex numbers in n dimensions are introduced in this book, for which the multiplication is associative and commutative, and which are rich enough in properties such that exponential and trigonometric forms exist and the concepts of analytic n-complex function, contour integration and residue can be defined. The first type of hypercomplex numbers, called polar hypercomplex numbers, is characterized by the presence in an even number of dimensions greater or equal to 4 of two polar axes, and by the presence in an odd number of dimensions of one polar axis. The other type of hypercomplex numbers exists as a distinct entity only when the number of dimensions n of the space is even, and since the position of a point is specified with the aid of n/2-1 planar angles, these numbers have been called planar hypercomplex numbers. The development of the concept of analytic functions of hypercomplex variables was rendered possible by the existence of an exponential form of the n-complex numbe...

  15. A Research on a Certain Family of Numbers and Polynomials Related to Stirling Numbers, Central Factorial Numbers, and Euler Numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Kang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, many mathematicians have studied different kinds of the Euler, Bernoulli, and Genocchi numbers and polynomials. In this paper, we give another definition of polynomials Ũn(x. We observe an interesting phenomenon of “scattering” of the zeros of the polynomials Ũn(x in complex plane. We find out some identities and properties related to polynomials Ũn(x. Finally, we also derive interesting relations between polynomials Ũn(x, Stirling numbers, central factorial numbers, and Euler numbers.

  16. BKP and projective Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natanzon, Sergey M.; Orlov, Aleksandr Yu.

    2017-06-01

    We consider d-fold branched coverings of the projective plane RP^2 and show that the hypergeometric tau function of the BKP hierarchy of Kac and van de Leur is the generating function for weighted sums of the related Hurwitz numbers. In particular, we get the RP^2 analogues of the CP^1 generating functions proposed by Okounkov and by Goulden and Jackson. Other examples are Hurwitz numbers weighted by the Hall-Littlewood and by the Macdonald polynomials. We also consider integrals of tau functions which generate Hurwitz numbers related to base surfaces with arbitrary Euler characteristics sc {e}, in particular projective Hurwitz numbers sc {e}=1.

  17. Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.

    1993-06-01

    Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author)

  18. Tinea granulomatosa de Majocchi Majocchi's granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bressan

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se o caso de um homem de 45 anos com dermatofitose superficial de longa data, tratado, inadvertidamente, com corticoide e antibiótico, com progressão subsequente para a forma profunda, conhecida como granuloma de Majocchi. O tratamento com terbinafina VO foi curativoWe report the case of a man of 45 with superficial dermatophytosis longtime inadvertently treated with antibiotics and corticosteroids with subsequent progression to the deep form, known as granuloma Majocchi. Treatment with orally terbinafine was successful

  19. Tinea Infections (Ringworm, Athlete's Foot, Jock Itch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... using a special blue light called a Wood’s lamp, it will have a fluorescent appearance. Not all ... Give your youngster clean socks and underwear every day. Last Updated 11/21/2015 Source Immunizations & Infectious ...

  20. Kandungan Saponin Buah, Daun dan Tangkai Daun Belimbing Wuluh (Averrhoa Bilimbi L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Fahrunnida, Fahrunnida

    2015-01-01

    In Indonesia, belimbing wuluh (Averrhoa bilimbi L.) has been used for traditional medicine, especially to heal stiff, mumps, rheumatism, ulcers, acne, tinea versicolor, high blood pressure, and dental pain and cough. This property is predicted comes from its secondary metabolites. Saponin is a compound group of secondary metabolites which is known to have antitussives and expectorants effect, antiinflammatory, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activity for cancer therapy. However, scientific infor...

  1. Generalized r-Lah numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    016-0309-0. Generalized r-Lah numbers. MARK SHATTUCK. Department of ...... of Dowling lattices, Discrete Math. 312. (2012) 2337–2348. [7] Hsu L C and Shiue P J-S, A unified approach to generalized Stirling numbers, Adv. Appl. Math.

  2. Number theory and its history

    CERN Document Server

    Ore, Oystein

    1988-01-01

    A prominent mathematician presents the principal ideas and methods of number theory within a historical and cultural framework. Oystein Ore's fascinating, accessible treatment requires only a basic knowledge of algebra. Topics include prime numbers, the Aliquot parts, linear indeterminate problems, congruences, Euler's theorem, classical construction problems, and many other subjects.

  3. Investigating the Randomness of Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Kenn L.

    2009-01-01

    The use of random numbers is pervasive in today's world. Random numbers have practical applications in such far-flung arenas as computer simulations, cryptography, gambling, the legal system, statistical sampling, and even the war on terrorism. Evaluating the randomness of extremely large samples is a complex, intricate process. However, the…

  4. Fractions, Number Lines, Third Graders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Kathleen; Ahrendt, Sue; Monson, Debra; Wyberg, Terry; Colum, Karen

    2017-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards for Mathematics (CCSSM) (CCSSI 2010) outlines ambitious goals for fraction learning, starting in third grade, that include the use of the number line model. Understanding and constructing fractions on a number line are particularly complex tasks. The current work of the authors centers on ways to successfully…

  5. Pseudo-Random Number Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, L. W.; Rheinfurth, M. H.

    1984-01-01

    Package features comprehensive selection of probabilistic distributions. Monte Carlo simulations resorted to whenever systems studied not amenable to deterministic analyses or when direct experimentation not feasible. Random numbers having certain specified distribution characteristic integral part of simulations. Package consists of collector of "pseudorandom" number generators for use in Monte Carlo simulations.

  6. On Counting the Rational Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almada, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we show how to construct a function from the set N of natural numbers that explicitly counts the set Q[superscript +] of all positive rational numbers using a very intuitive approach. The function has the appeal of Cantor's function and it has the advantage that any high school student can understand the main idea at a glance…

  7. Core Knowledge, Language, and Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2017-01-01

    The natural numbers may be our simplest, most useful, and best-studied abstract concepts, but their origins are debated. I consider this debate in the context of the proposal, by Gallistel and Gelman, that natural number system is a product of cognitive evolution and the proposal, by Carey, that it is a product of human cultural history. I offer a…

  8. The Algebra of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LePage, Wilbur R.

    This programed text is an introduction to the algebra of complex numbers for engineering students, particularly because of its relevance to important problems of applications in electrical engineering. It is designed for a person who is well experienced with the algebra of real numbers and calculus, but who has no experience with complex number…

  9. Path-fan Ramsey numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.

    2003-01-01

    For two given graphs $G$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(G,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $F$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $F$ contains $G$ as a subgraph or the complement of $F$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers

  10. Path-fan Ramsey numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.

    For two given graphs $F$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(F,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $G$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $G$ contains $F$ as a subgraph or the complement of $G$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers

  11. Path-kipas Ramsey numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salman, M.; Broersma, Haitze J.

    2007-01-01

    For two given graphs $F$ and $H$, the Ramsey number $R(F,H)$ is the smallest positive integer $p$ such that for every graph $G$ on $p$ vertices the following holds: either $G$ contains $F$ as a subgraph or the complement of $G$ contains $H$ as a subgraph. In this paper, we study the Ramsey numbers

  12. From natural numbers to quaternions

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Jürg

    2017-01-01

    This textbook offers an invitation to modern algebra through number systems of increasing complexity, beginning with the natural numbers and culminating with Hamilton's quaternions. Along the way, the authors carefully develop the necessary concepts and methods from abstract algebra: monoids, groups, rings, fields, and skew fields. Each chapter ends with an appendix discussing related topics from algebra and number theory, including recent developments reflecting the relevance of the material to current research. The present volume is intended for undergraduate courses in abstract algebra or elementary number theory. The inclusion of exercises with solutions also makes it suitable for self-study and accessible to anyone with an interest in modern algebra and number theory.

  13. Generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers and the universal Bernoulli numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yoshihiro [Faculty of Education Human Sciences, University of Yamanashi, Takeda, Kofu (Japan)

    2011-10-31

    The three fundamental properties of the Bernoulli numbers, namely, the von Staudt-Clausen theorem, von Staudt's second theorem, and Kummer's original congruence, are generalized to new numbers that we call generalized Bernoulli-Hurwitz numbers. These are coefficients in the power series expansion of a higher-genus algebraic function with respect to a suitable variable. Our generalization differs strongly from previous works. Indeed, the order of the power of the modulus prime in our Kummer-type congruences is exactly the same as in the trigonometric function case (namely, Kummer's own congruence for the original Bernoulli numbers), and as in the elliptic function case (namely, H. Lang's extension for the Hurwitz numbers). However, in other past results on higher-genus algebraic functions, the modulus was at most half of its value in these classical cases. This contrast is clarified by investigating the analogue of the three properties above for the universal Bernoulli numbers. Bibliography: 34 titles.

  14. Low energy fermion number violation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peccei, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    After a brief aside on charge quantization in the standard electroweak theory, I concentrate on various aspects of anomaly induced fermion number violation in the standard model. A critical analysis of the role of sphalerons for the universe's baryon asymmetry is presented and the importance of calculating directly fermion number violating Green's functions is stressed. A physical interpretation of the recent observation of Ringwald, that coherent effects in the electroweak theory lead to catastrophic fermion number violation at 100 TeV, is discussed. Possible quantum effects which might spoil this semi-classical picture are examined

  15. Finding numbers in the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallistel, C R

    2017-02-19

    After listing functional constraints on what numbers in the brain must do, I sketch the two's complement fixed-point representation of numbers because it has stood the test of time and because it illustrates the non-obvious ways in which an effective coding scheme may operate. I briefly consider its neurobiological implementation. It is easier to imagine its implementation at the cell-intrinsic molecular level, with thermodynamically stable, volumetrically minimal polynucleotides encoding the remembered numbers, than at the circuit level, with plastic synapses encoding them.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The origins of numerical abilities'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  16. Fundamental number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    An update of the most accessible introductory number theory text available, Fundamental Number Theory with Applications, Second Edition presents a mathematically rigorous yet easy-to-follow treatment of the fundamentals and applications of the subject. The substantial amount of reorganizing makes this edition clearer and more elementary in its coverage. New to the Second Edition           Removal of all advanced material to be even more accessible in scope           New fundamental material, including partition theory, generating functions, and combinatorial number theory           Expa

  17. Classical theory of algebraic numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Ribenboim, Paulo

    2001-01-01

    Gauss created the theory of binary quadratic forms in "Disquisitiones Arithmeticae" and Kummer invented ideals and the theory of cyclotomic fields in his attempt to prove Fermat's Last Theorem These were the starting points for the theory of algebraic numbers, developed in the classical papers of Dedekind, Dirichlet, Eisenstein, Hermite and many others This theory, enriched with more recent contributions, is of basic importance in the study of diophantine equations and arithmetic algebraic geometry, including methods in cryptography This book has a clear and thorough exposition of the classical theory of algebraic numbers, and contains a large number of exercises as well as worked out numerical examples The Introduction is a recapitulation of results about principal ideal domains, unique factorization domains and commutative fields Part One is devoted to residue classes and quadratic residues In Part Two one finds the study of algebraic integers, ideals, units, class numbers, the theory of decomposition, iner...

  18. Microcomputer Unit: Generating Random Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haigh, William E.

    1986-01-01

    Presents an activity, suitable for students in grades 6-12, on generating random numbers. Objectives, equipment needed, list of prerequisite experiences, instructional strategies, and ready-to-copy student worksheets are included. (JN)

  19. Number theory via Representation theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-11-09

    Number theory via Representation theory. Eknath Ghate. November 9, 2014. Eightieth Annual Meeting, Chennai. Indian Academy of Sciences1. 1. This is a non-technical 20 minute talk intended for a general Academy audience.

  20. SEVIS By the Numbers 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...

  1. SEVIS By the Numbers 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — SEVIS by the Numbers is a quarterly report that highlights nonimmigrant student and exchange visitor trends, values and information using data from the Student and...

  2. Additive theory of prime numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Hua, L K

    2009-01-01

    Loo-Keng Hua was a master mathematician, best known for his work using analytic methods in number theory. In particular, Hua is remembered for his contributions to Waring's Problem and his estimates of trigonometric sums. Additive Theory of Prime Numbers is an exposition of the classic methods as well as Hua's own techniques, many of which have now also become classic. An essential starting point is Vinogradov's mean-value theorem for trigonometric sums, which Hua usefully rephrases and improves. Hua states a generalized version of the Waring-Goldbach problem and gives asymptotic formulas for the number of solutions in Waring's Problem when the monomial x^k is replaced by an arbitrary polynomial of degree k. The book is an excellent entry point for readers interested in additive number theory. It will also be of value to those interested in the development of the now classic methods of the subject.

  3. Advanced number theory with applications

    CERN Document Server

    Mollin, Richard A

    2009-01-01

    Algebraic Number Theory and Quadratic Fields Algebraic Number Fields The Gaussian Field Euclidean Quadratic Fields Applications of Unique Factorization Ideals The Arithmetic of Ideals in Quadratic Fields Dedekind Domains Application to Factoring Binary Quadratic Forms Basics Composition and the Form Class Group Applications via Ambiguity Genus Representation Equivalence Modulo p Diophantine Approximation Algebraic and Transcendental Numbers Transcendence Minkowski's Convex Body Theorem Arithmetic Functions The Euler-Maclaurin Summation Formula Average Orders The Riemann zeta-functionIntroduction to p-Adic AnalysisSolving Modulo pn Introduction to Valuations Non-Archimedean vs. Archimedean Valuations Representation of p-Adic NumbersDirichlet: Characters, Density, and Primes in Progression Dirichlet Characters Dirichlet's L-Function and Theorem Dirichlet DensityApplications to Diophantine Equations Lucas-Lehmer Theory Generalized Ramanujan-Nagell Equations Bachet's Equation The Fermat Equation Catalan and the A...

  4. Integral Presentations of Catalan Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana-Picard, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    We compute in three different ways the same definite parametric integral. By-products are the derivation of a combinatorial identity and two integral presentations of Catalan numbers. One of them leads to a presentation using the [gamma] function.

  5. Numbers their history and meaning

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, Graham

    2003-01-01

    Readable, jargon-free book examines the earliest endeavors to count and record numbers, initial attempts to solve problems by using equations, and origins of infinite cardinal arithmetic. "Surprisingly exciting." - Choice.

  6. Poison control center - emergency number

    Science.gov (United States)

    For a POISON EMERGENCY call: 1-800-222-1222 ANYWHERE IN THE UNITED STATES This national hotline number will let you ... is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this ...

  7. Women In Numbers - Europe workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Bucur, Alina; Feigon, Brooke; Schneps, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Covering topics in graph theory, L-functions, p-adic geometry, Galois representations, elliptic fibrations, genus 3 curves and bad reduction, harmonic analysis, symplectic groups and mould combinatorics, this volume presents a collection of papers covering a wide swath of number theory emerging from the third iteration of the international Women in Numbers conference, “Women in Numbers - Europe” (WINE), held on October 14–18, 2013 at the CIRM-Luminy mathematical conference center in France. While containing contributions covering a wide range of cutting-edge topics in number theory, the volume emphasizes those concrete approaches that make it possible for graduate students and postdocs to begin work immediately on research problems even in highly complex subjects.

  8. Digital random-number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocker, D. H.

    1973-01-01

    For binary digit array of N bits, use N noise sources to feed N nonlinear operators; each flip-flop in digit array is set by nonlinear operator to reflect whether amplitude of generator which feeds it is above or below mean value of generated noise. Fixed-point uniform distribution random number generation method can also be used to generate random numbers with other than uniform distribution.

  9. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian; Chng, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  10. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  11. Random numbers from vacuum fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Yicheng; Kurtsiefer, Christian, E-mail: christian.kurtsiefer@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, 2 Science Drive 3, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore); Chng, Brenda [Center for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543 (Singapore)

    2016-07-25

    We implement a quantum random number generator based on a balanced homodyne measurement of vacuum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. The digitized signal is directly processed with a fast randomness extraction scheme based on a linear feedback shift register. The random bit stream is continuously read in a computer at a rate of about 480 Mbit/s and passes an extended test suite for random numbers.

  12. Banner prints social security numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA

    2014-01-01

    No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1). The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pion...

  13. Higher-order Nielsen numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saveliev Peter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose , are manifolds, are maps. The well-known coincidence problem studies the coincidence set . The number is called the codimension of the problem. More general is the preimage problem. For a map and a submanifold of , it studies the preimage set , and the codimension is . In case of codimension , the classical Nielsen number is a lower estimate of the number of points in changing under homotopies of , and for an arbitrary codimension, of the number of components of . We extend this theory to take into account other topological characteristics of . The goal is to find a "lower estimate" of the bordism group of . The answer is the Nielsen group defined as follows. In the classical definition, the Nielsen equivalence of points of based on paths is replaced with an equivalence of singular submanifolds of based on bordisms. We let , then the Nielsen group of order is the part of preserved under homotopies of . The Nielsen number of order is the rank of this group (then . These numbers are new obstructions to removability of coincidences and preimages. Some examples and computations are provided.

  14. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  15. Grammatical typology and frequency analysis: number availability and number use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunstan Brown

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Smith-Stark hierarchy, a version of the Animacy Hierarchy, offers a typology of the cross-linguistic availability of number. The hierarchy predicts that the availability of number is not arbitrary. For any language, if the expression of plural is available to a noun, it is available to any noun of a semantic category further to the left of the hierarchy. In this article we move one step further by showing that the structure of the hierarchy can be observed in a statistical model of number use in Russian. We also investigate three co-variates: plural preference, pluralia tantum and irregularity effects; these account for an item's behaviour being different than that solely expected from its animacy position.

  16. From Natural Numbers to Numbers and Curves in Nature - II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    line grows from C towards both left and right. Suppose ... Let there be n steps of growth to the left, and n-l to the right. Then n .... right-hand spirals is 8 and that of left-hand .... [4] I Stewart, Nature's Numbers - Discovering Order and Pattern in the.

  17. Number Meaning and Number Grammar in English and Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Kathryn; Carreiras, Manuel; Meseguer, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Grammatical agreement makes different demands on speakers of different languages. Being widespread in the languages of the world, the features of agreement systems offer valuable tests of how language affects deep-seated domains of human cognition and categorization. Number agreement is one such domain, with intriguing evidence that typological…

  18. The MIXMAX random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidy, Konstantin G.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we study the randomness properties of unimodular matrix random number generators. Under well-known conditions, these discrete-time dynamical systems have the highly desirable K-mixing properties which guarantee high quality random numbers. It is found that some widely used random number generators have poor Kolmogorov entropy and consequently fail in empirical tests of randomness. These tests show that the lowest acceptable value of the Kolmogorov entropy is around 50. Next, we provide a solution to the problem of determining the maximal period of unimodular matrix generators of pseudo-random numbers. We formulate the necessary and sufficient condition to attain the maximum period and present a family of specific generators in the MIXMAX family with superior performance and excellent statistical properties. Finally, we construct three efficient algorithms for operations with the MIXMAX matrix which is a multi-dimensional generalization of the famous cat-map. First, allowing to compute the multiplication by the MIXMAX matrix with O(N) operations. Second, to recursively compute its characteristic polynomial with O(N2) operations, and third, to apply skips of large number of steps S to the sequence in O(N2 log(S)) operations.

  19. Experimental determination of Ramsey numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhengbing; Chudak, Fabian; Macready, William G; Clark, Lane; Gaitan, Frank

    2013-09-27

    Ramsey theory is a highly active research area in mathematics that studies the emergence of order in large disordered structures. Ramsey numbers mark the threshold at which order first appears and are extremely difficult to calculate due to their explosive rate of growth. Recently, an algorithm that can be implemented using adiabatic quantum evolution has been proposed that calculates the two-color Ramsey numbers R(m,n). Here we present results of an experimental implementation of this algorithm and show that it correctly determines the Ramsey numbers R(3,3) and R(m,2) for 4≤m≤8. The R(8,2) computation used 84 qubits of which 28 were computational qubits. This computation is the largest experimental implementation of a scientifically meaningful adiabatic evolution algorithm that has been done to date.

  20. Stream ciphers and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Cusick, Thomas W; Renvall, Ari R

    2004-01-01

    This is the unique book on cross-fertilisations between stream ciphers and number theory. It systematically and comprehensively covers known connections between the two areas that are available only in research papers. Some parts of this book consist of new research results that are not available elsewhere. In addition to exercises, over thirty research problems are presented in this book. In this revised edition almost every chapter was updated, and some chapters were completely rewritten. It is useful as a textbook for a graduate course on the subject, as well as a reference book for researchers in related fields. · Unique book on interactions of stream ciphers and number theory. · Research monograph with many results not available elsewhere. · A revised edition with the most recent advances in this subject. · Over thirty research problems for stimulating interactions between the two areas. · Written by leading researchers in stream ciphers and number theory.

  1. Sequences, groups, and number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Rigo, Michel

    2018-01-01

    This collaborative book presents recent trends on the study of sequences, including combinatorics on words and symbolic dynamics, and new interdisciplinary links to group theory and number theory. Other chapters branch out from those areas into subfields of theoretical computer science, such as complexity theory and theory of automata. The book is built around four general themes: number theory and sequences, word combinatorics, normal numbers, and group theory. Those topics are rounded out by investigations into automatic and regular sequences, tilings and theory of computation, discrete dynamical systems, ergodic theory, numeration systems, automaton semigroups, and amenable groups.  This volume is intended for use by graduate students or research mathematicians, as well as computer scientists who are working in automata theory and formal language theory. With its organization around unified themes, it would also be appropriate as a supplemental text for graduate level courses.

  2. Negative numbers and antimatter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsan, Ung Chan

    2012-01-01

    Dirac's equation states that an electron implies the existence of an antielectron with the same mass (more generally same arithmetic properties) and opposite charge (more generally opposite algebraic properties). Subsequent observation of antielectron validated this concept. This statement can be extended to all matter particles; observation of antiproton, antineutron, antideuton … is in complete agreement with this view. Recently antihypertriton was observed and 38 atoms of antihydrogen were trapped. This opens the path for use in precise testing of nature's fundamental symmetries. The symmetric properties of a matter particle and its mirror antimatter particle seem to be well established. Interactions operate on matter particles and antimatter particles as well. Conservation of matter parallels addition operating on positive and negative numbers. Without antimatter particles, interactions of the Standard Model (electromagnetism, strong interaction and weak interaction) cannot have the structure of group. Antimatter particles are characterized by negative baryonic number A or/and negative leptonic number L. Materialization and annihilation obey conservation of A and L (associated to all known interactions), explaining why from pure energy (A = 0, L = 0) one can only obtain a pair of matter particle antimatter particle — electron antielectron, proton and antiproton — via materialization where the mass of a pair of particle antiparticle gives back to pure energy with annihilation. These two mechanisms cannot change the difference in the number of matter particles and antimatter particles. Thus from pure energy only a perfectly symmetric (in number) universe could be generated as proposed by Dirac but observation showed that our universe is not symmetric, it is a matter universe which is nevertheless neutral. Fall of reflection symmetries shattered the prejudice that there is no way to define in an absolute way right and left or matter and antimatter

  3. Generation of photon number states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waks, Edo; Diamanti, Eleni; Yamamoto, Yoshihisa

    2006-01-01

    The visible light photon counter (VLPC) has the capability to discriminate photon number states, in contrast to conventional photon counters which can only detect the presence or absence of photons. We use this capability, along with the process of parametric down-conversion, to generate photon number states. We experimentally demonstrate generation of states containing 1, 2, 3 and 4 photons with high fidelity. We then explore the effect the detection efficiency of the VLPC has on the generation rate and fidelity of the created states

  4. Kaempferol glycosides from Albizia Versicolor | M. Rukunga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how to print, save, and work with PDFs, Highwire Press provides a helpful Frequently Asked Questions about PDFs.

  5. Kaempferol glycosides from Albizia Versicolor | M. Rukunga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Geoffrey M. Rukunga, Peter G. Waterman. Abstract. Bull. Chem. Soc. Ethiop. 1996, 10(1), 47-51. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More ...

  6. World Epidemiology Review, Number 105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-13

    respectively last year. Not Siberian The official stated that the Soviet virus is not related to the famous pathogenic agent which appeared in the Siberian...numbers of aphids are due to appear on the alfalfa in the near future. The infestation has approached and even exceeded the extent at which serious

  7. Counting problems for number rings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakenhoff, Johannes Franciscus

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we look at three counting problems connected to orders in number fields. First we study the probability that for a random polynomial f in Z[X] the ring Z[X]/f is the maximal order in Q[X]/f. Connected to this is the probability that a random polynomial has a squarefree

  8. Linking numbers and variational method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, I.; Yahikozawa, S.

    1989-09-01

    The ordinary and generalized linking numbers for two surfaces of dimension p and n-p-1 in an n dimensional manifold are derived. We use a variational method based on the properties of topological quantum field theory in order to derive them. (author). 13 refs, 2 figs

  9. From Calculus to Number Theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Raghuram

    2016-11-04

    Nov 4, 2016 ... diverges to infinity. This means given any number M, however large, we can add sufficiently many terms in the above series to make the sum larger than M. This was first proved by Nicole Oresme (1323-1382), a brilliant. French philosopher of his times.

  10. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SLUDGE DEWATERABILITY NUMBER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A representative of a sludge sample collected from the same source was filtered under the same environmental condition and the result analysed with two different concepts. One method of analysis uses Sludge Dewaterability Number, while the second employed the Carman's Specific resistance concept in sludge ...

  11. Materiales. Numbers 17-20.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materiales, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Four booklets present articles on Spanish language and culture aimed at teachers of Spanish in the United States for student use in their classes. Number 17, "Los Jovenes Espanoles" (Spanish Youth), includes articles on Spanish youth sports, music, gangs, thoughts, and t-shirt slogans: (1) "Young Spanish Athletes"; (2)…

  12. Materiales. Numbers 21-23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materiales, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These three journals of contemporary cultural, historical, and social interest contain activities designed to enhance the awareness of students of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the entire panorama of daily life in Spain. Number 21 focuses on the role of modern Spanish women; their career status; female authors; and the changing place of…

  13. On badly approximable complex numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esdahl-Schou, Rune; Kristensen, S.

    We show that the set of complex numbers which are badly approximable by ratios of elements of , where has maximal Hausdorff dimension. In addition, the intersection of these sets is shown to have maximal dimension. The results remain true when the sets in question are intersected with a suitably...

  14. Models for Rational Number Bases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Jean J.; Armbruster, Frank O.

    1975-01-01

    This article extends number bases to negative integers, then to positive rationals and finally to negative rationals. Methods and rules for operations in positive and negative rational bases greater than one or less than negative one are summarized in tables. Sample problems are explained and illustrated. (KM)

  15. Residual number processing in dyscalculia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia - a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts - is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  16. Residual number processing in dyscalculia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinella Cappelletti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia.

  17. Residual number processing in dyscalculia☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and categorical colour-decision tasks with numerical and non-numerical stimuli, with adults with dyscalculia performing slower than controls in the number semantic tasks only. Structural imaging showed less grey-matter volume in the right parietal cortex in people with dyscalculia relative to controls. Functional MRI showed that accurate number semantic judgements were maintained by parietal and inferior frontal activations that were common to adults with dyscalculia and controls, with higher activation for participants with dyscalculia than controls in the right superior frontal cortex and the left inferior frontal sulcus. Enhanced activation in these frontal areas was driven by people with dyscalculia who made faster rather than slower numerical decisions; however, activation could not be accounted for by response times per se, because it was greater for fast relative to slow dyscalculics but not greater for fast controls relative to slow dyscalculics. In conclusion, our results reveal two frontal brain regions that support efficient number processing in dyscalculia. PMID:24266008

  18. Learning Potentials in Number Blocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard, Gunver; Misfeldt, Morten; Nielsen, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an initial exploration of how an interactive cubic user-configurable modular robotic system can be used to support learning about numbers and how they are pronounced. The development is done in collaboration with a class of 7-8 year old children and their mathematics teacher....

  19. An introduction to Catalan numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Steven

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides an introduction to the Catalan numbers and their remarkable properties, along with their various applications in combinatorics.  Intended to be accessible to students new to the subject, the book begins with more elementary topics before progressing to more mathematically sophisticated topics.  Each chapter focuses on a specific combinatorial object counted by these numbers, including paths, trees, tilings of a staircase, null sums in Zn+1, interval structures, partitions, permutations, semiorders, and more.  Exercises are included at the end of book, along with hints and solutions, to help students obtain a better grasp of the material.  The text is ideal for undergraduate students studying combinatorics, but will also appeal to anyone with a mathematical background who has an interest in learning about the Catalan numbers. “Roman does an admirable job of providing an introduction to Catalan numbers of a different nature from the previous ones.  He has made an excellent choice o...

  20. Strouhal number for free swimming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadat, Mehdi; van Buren, Tyler; Floryan, Daniel; Smits, Alexander; Haj-Hariri, Hossein

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we present experimental results to explore the implications of free swimming for Strouhal number (as an outcome) in the context of a simple model for a fish that consists of a 2D virtual body (source of drag) and a 2D pitching foil (source of thrust) representing cruising with thunniform locomotion. The results validate the findings of Saadat and Haj-Hariri (2012): for pitching foils thrust coefficient is a function of Strouhal number for all gaits having amplitude less than a certain critical value. Equivalently, given the balance of thrust and drag forces at cruise, Strouhal number is only a function of the shape, i.e. drag coefficient and area, and essentially a constant for high enough swimming speeds for which the mild dependence of drag coefficient on the speed vanishes. Furthermore, a dimensional analysis generalizes the findings. A scaling analysis shows that the variation of Strouhal number with cruising speed is functionally related to the variation of body drag coefficient with speed. Supported by ONR MURI Grant N00014-14-1-0533.

  1. Higher-order Nielsen numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Saveliev

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Suppose X, Y are manifolds, f,g:X→Y are maps. The well-known coincidence problem studies the coincidence set C={x:f(x=g(x}. The number m=dim X−dim Y is called the codimension of the problem. More general is the preimage problem. For a map f:X→Z and a submanifold Y of Z, it studies the preimage set C={x:f(x∈Y}, and the codimension is m=dim X+dim Y−dim Z. In case of codimension 0, the classical Nielsen number N(f,Y is a lower estimate of the number of points in C changing under homotopies of f, and for an arbitrary codimension, of the number of components of C. We extend this theory to take into account other topological characteristics of C. The goal is to find a “lower estimate” of the bordism group Ωp(C of C. The answer is the Nielsen group Sp(f,Y defined as follows. In the classical definition, the Nielsen equivalence of points of C based on paths is replaced with an equivalence of singular submanifolds of C based on bordisms. We let Sp'(f,Y=Ωp(C/∼N, then the Nielsen group of order p is the part of Sp'(f,Y preserved under homotopies of f. The Nielsen number Np(F,Y of order p is the rank of this group (then N(f,Y=N0(f,Y. These numbers are new obstructions to removability of coincidences and preimages. Some examples and computations are provided.

  2. Gaussian distribution of LMOV numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mironov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in knot polynomial calculus allowed us to obtain a huge variety of LMOV integers counting degeneracy of the BPS spectrum of topological theories on the resolved conifold and appearing in the genus expansion of the plethystic logarithm of the Ooguri–Vafa partition functions. Already the very first look at this data reveals that the LMOV numbers are randomly distributed in genus (! and are very well parameterized by just three parameters depending on the representation, an integer and the knot. We present an accurate formulation and evidence in support of this new puzzling observation about the old puzzling quantities. It probably implies that the BPS states, counted by the LMOV numbers can actually be composites made from some still more elementary objects.

  3. Number-theory dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, Kazunori [Theory Center, KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Takahashi, Fuminobu, E-mail: fumi@tuhep.phys.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Yanagida, Tsutomu T. [Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8568 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-05-23

    We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry, Z{sub 2}(B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1){sub B-L} in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1){sub B-L} gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z{sub 2}(B-L).

  4. Number-theory dark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Kazunori; Takahashi, Fuminobu; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2011-01-01

    We propose that the stability of dark matter is ensured by a discrete subgroup of the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry, Z 2 (B-L). We introduce a set of chiral fermions charged under the U(1) B-L in addition to the right-handed neutrinos, and require the anomaly-cancellation conditions associated with the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry. We find that the possible number of fermions and their charges are tightly constrained, and that non-trivial solutions appear when at least five additional chiral fermions are introduced. The Fermat theorem in the number theory plays an important role in this argument. Focusing on one of the solutions, we show that there is indeed a good candidate for dark matter, whose stability is guaranteed by Z 2 (B-L).

  5. More Sets, Graphs and Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Gyori, Ervin; Lovasz, Laszlo

    2006-01-01

    This volume honours the eminent mathematicians Vera Sos and Andras Hajnal. The book includes survey articles reviewing classical theorems, as well as new, state-of-the-art results. Also presented are cutting edge expository research papers with new theorems and proofs in the area of the classical Hungarian subjects, like extremal combinatorics, colorings, combinatorial number theory, etc. The open problems and the latest results in the papers are sure to inspire further research.

  6. Large number discrimination by mosquitofish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies have demonstrated that fish display rudimentary numerical abilities similar to those observed in mammals and birds. The mechanisms underlying the discrimination of small quantities (<4 were recently investigated while, to date, no study has examined the discrimination of large numerosities in fish. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subjects were trained to discriminate between two sets of small geometric figures using social reinforcement. In the first experiment mosquitofish were required to discriminate 4 from 8 objects with or without experimental control of the continuous variables that co-vary with number (area, space, density, total luminance. Results showed that fish can use the sole numerical information to compare quantities but that they preferentially use cumulative surface area as a proxy of the number when this information is available. A second experiment investigated the influence of the total number of elements to discriminate large quantities. Fish proved to be able to discriminate up to 100 vs. 200 objects, without showing any significant decrease in accuracy compared with the 4 vs. 8 discrimination. The third experiment investigated the influence of the ratio between the numerosities. Performance was found to decrease when decreasing the numerical distance. Fish were able to discriminate numbers when ratios were 1:2 or 2:3 but not when the ratio was 3:4. The performance of a sample of undergraduate students, tested non-verbally using the same sets of stimuli, largely overlapped that of fish. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Fish are able to use pure numerical information when discriminating between quantities larger than 4 units. As observed in human and non-human primates, the numerical system of fish appears to have virtually no upper limit while the numerical ratio has a clear effect on performance. These similarities further reinforce the view of a common origin of non-verbal numerical systems in all

  7. DISCRETE MATHEMATICS/NUMBER THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Mrs. Manju Devi*

    2017-01-01

    Discrete mathematics is the study of mathematical structures that are fundamentally discrete rather than continuous. In contrast to real numbers that have the property of varying "smoothly", the objects studied in discrete mathematics such as integers, graphs, and statements do not vary smoothly in this way, but have distinct, separated values. Discrete mathematics therefore excludes topics in "continuous mathematics" such as calculus and analysis. Discrete objects can often be enumerated by ...

  8. Number systems and combinatorial problems

    OpenAIRE

    Yordzhev, Krasimir

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been designed for students in secondary school and their teachers in mathematics. We will show how with the help of our knowledge of number systems we can solve problems from other fields of mathematics for example in combinatorial analysis and most of all when proving some combinatorial identities. To demonstrate discussed in this article method we have chosen several suitable mathematical tasks.

  9. World Epidemiology Review, Number 109.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-10-11

    infantilism, "lung color," monale, followed by cardiac deficiency, cyanosis, intestinal stenosis ; glomerulonephritis and neurological symptoms. Many...Bursa were infected by rabid dogs and cats. The following breakdown was given for the number of persons infected during the succeeding 7 months of...area it is much more difficult to save his life. One of the six dogs taken into custody under the suspicion of being rabid during the past 8 months

  10. Number theory meets Higgs physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by results from modern number theory and algebraic geometry, a lot of progress has recently been made regarding the computation of multi-loop integrals and scattering amplitudes. I will discuss various new approaches to the computation of loop integrals, and illustrate them on the first computation of a quantity at N3LO in perturbative QCD, the soft-virtual part of the inclusive Higgs-boson cross section in gluon fusion at N3LO.

  11. Residual number processing in dyscalculia ?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Price, Cathy J.

    2013-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia – a congenital learning disability in understanding numerical concepts – is typically associated with parietal lobe abnormality. However, people with dyscalculia often retain some residual numerical abilities, reported in studies that otherwise focused on abnormalities in the dyscalculic brain. Here we took a different perspective by focusing on brain regions that support residual number processing in dyscalculia. All participants accurately performed semantic and ca...

  12. Secular Love number of Phobos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bursa, M.

    1988-01-01

    The secular Love number of Phobos was estimated k s =10.4. It only deviates by one order of magnitude from that corresponding to the ideal equilibrium state. It is not in contradiction with the theory of the origin of Phobos as a result of the accretion around Mars. In its early history, the rotation period of Phobos had been estimated to be approx. 2.4 hours. (author). 1 tab., 4 refs

  13. When a number is not only a number

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj; Roepstorff, Andreas; Saddy, Douglas

    at. 1999, 2004). Furthermore, lesions studies have shown that damage to the posterior inferior parietal cortex leads to severe difficulties with performing simple calculation, such as stepwise computation (Joseph 2000: 463). The same frontal-parietal network is also involved in working memory (WM......MRI study which involves numerical processing as well as WM and error detection. Three types of stimuli: (a) repeated chunks (x, y, z, x, y, z…), (b) smaller structured chunks requiring minimal calculation (x, x+1, y, y+1, z, z+1…), and (c) strings with an increased calculation requirement (x = x+3......). The control condition consists of simple x = x+1 strings (e.g. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6…). The subjects have to press a button when they detect error to the general patterns, i.e., when a number does not conform to the numerical string. Using a block design to investigate the numerical processing, all three...

  14. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafi, Ali; Golestanian, Ramin

    2005-01-01

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium

  15. Propulsion at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najafi, Ali [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Faculty of Science, Zanjan University, Zanjan 313 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golestanian, Ramin [Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences, Zanjan 45195-159 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2005-04-13

    We study the propulsion of two model swimmers at low Reynolds number. Inspired by Purcell's model, we propose a very simple one-dimensional swimmer consisting of three spheres that are connected by two arms whose lengths can change between two values. The proposed swimmer can swim with a special type of motion, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry. We also show that an ellipsoidal membrane with tangential travelling wave on it can also propel itself in the direction preferred by the travelling wave. This system resembles the realistic biological animals like Paramecium.

  16. Fedosov differentials and Catalan numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeffler, Johannes, E-mail: j.j.loeffler@web.d [Muehlgasse 19, 78549 Spaichingen (Germany)

    2010-06-11

    The aim of the paper is to establish a non-recursive formula for the general solution of Fedosov's 'quadratic' fixed-point equation (Fedosov 1994 J. Diff. Geom. 40 213-38). Fedosov's geometrical fixed-point equation for a differential is rewritten in a form similar to the functional equation for the generating function of Catalan numbers. This allows us to guess the solution. An adapted example for Kaehler manifolds of constant sectional curvature is considered in detail. Also for every connection on a manifold a familiar classical differential will be introduced.

  17. Fedosov differentials and Catalan numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Johannes

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the paper is to establish a non-recursive formula for the general solution of Fedosov's 'quadratic' fixed-point equation (Fedosov 1994 J. Diff. Geom. 40 213-38). Fedosov's geometrical fixed-point equation for a differential is rewritten in a form similar to the functional equation for the generating function of Catalan numbers. This allows us to guess the solution. An adapted example for Kaehler manifolds of constant sectional curvature is considered in detail. Also for every connection on a manifold a familiar classical differential will be introduced. Dedicated to the memory of Nikolai Neumaier.

  18. Phalanx. Volume 47, Number 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    at $23,200 an hour. So that’s another $1.2M a day. Pete: Don’t they shoot at you? Joe: Well, we usually wire together a bunch of microwave ovens we...Officer, to break his vow never to sail on a “ bird farm.” MORS welcomes Kevin Williams as the new AF sponsor. He became the Director of...person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number

  19. Random Generators and Normal Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, David H.; Crandall, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    Pursuant to the authors' previous chaotic-dynamical model for random digits of fundamental constants, we investigate a complementary, statistical picture in which pseudorandom number generators (PRNGs) are central. Some rigorous results are achieved: We establish b-normality for constants of the form $\\sum_i 1/(b^{m_i} c^{n_i})$ for certain sequences $(m_i), (n_i)$ of integers. This work unifies and extends previously known classes of explicit normals. We prove that for coprime $b,c>1$ the...

  20. On the intriguing number 1001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Born in 1936 I was a schoolboy on the threshold of the secondary school when a knapsack-type game was played with a class mate around 1946–1947. To play the game well and fascinated by numbers in general since my early childhood, however, I realized soon the usefulness of knowing that 1001 = 7 × 11...... × 13. Today, about 70 years later, the game has been passed to some of my grandchildren who also should convince themselves that simple, arithmetic calculations do not necessarily require a pocket computer. As a side effect of the recent revival of the game I felt motivated to seek more insight...

  1. Nielsen number and differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andres Jan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In reply to a problem of Jean Leray (application of the Nielsen theory to differential equations, two main approaches are presented. The first is via Poincaré's translation operator, while the second one is based on the Hammerstein-type solution operator. The applicability of various Nielsen theories is discussed with respect to several sorts of differential equations and inclusions. Links with the Sharkovskii-like theorems (a finite number of periodic solutions imply infinitely many subharmonics are indicated, jointly with some further consequences like the nontrivial -structure of solutions of initial value problems. Some illustrating examples are supplied and open problems are formulated.

  2. Cryptography and computational number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Shparlinski, Igor; Wang, Huaxiong; Xing, Chaoping; Workshop on Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, CCNT'99

    2001-01-01

    This volume contains the refereed proceedings of the Workshop on Cryptography and Computational Number Theory, CCNT'99, which has been held in Singapore during the week of November 22-26, 1999. The workshop was organized by the Centre for Systems Security of the Na­ tional University of Singapore. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Singapore National Science and Technology Board under the grant num­ ber RP960668/M. The idea for this workshop grew out of the recognition of the recent, rapid development in various areas of cryptography and computational number the­ ory. The event followed the concept of the research programs at such well-known research institutions as the Newton Institute (UK), Oberwolfach and Dagstuhl (Germany), and Luminy (France). Accordingly, there were only invited lectures at the workshop with plenty of time for informal discussions. It was hoped and successfully achieved that the meeting would encourage and stimulate further research in information and computer s...

  3. Signals of lepton number violation

    CERN Document Server

    Panella, O; Srivastava, Y N

    1999-01-01

    The production of like-sign-dileptons (LSD), in the high energy lepton number violating ( Delta L=+2) reaction, pp to 2jets+l/sup +/l /sup +/, (l=e, mu , tau ), of interest for the experiments to be performed at the forthcoming Large Hadron Collider (LHC), is reported, taking up a composite model scenario in which the exchanged virtual composite neutrino is assumed to be a Majorana particle. Numerical estimates of the corresponding signal cross-section that implement kinematical cuts needed to suppress the standard model background, are presented which show that in some regions of the parameter space the total number of LSD events is well above the background. Assuming non-observation of the LSD signal it is found that LHC would exclude a composite Majorana neutrino up to 700 GeV (if one requires 10 events for discovery). The sensitivity of LHC experiments to the parameter space is then compared to that of the next generation of neutrinoless double beta decay ( beta beta /sub 0 nu /) experiment, GENIUS, and i...

  4. Number theory III Diophantine geometry

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    From the reviews of the first printing of this book, published as Volume 60 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences: "Between number theory and geometry there have been several stimulating influences, and this book records of these enterprises. This author, who has been at the centre of such research for many years, is one of the best guides a reader can hope for. The book is full of beautiful results, open questions, stimulating conjectures and suggestions where to look for future developments. This volume bears witness of the broad scope of knowledge of the author, and the influence of several people who have commented on the manuscript before publication ... Although in the series of number theory, this volume is on diophantine geometry, and the reader will notice that algebraic geometry is present in every chapter. ... The style of the book is clear. Ideas are well explained, and the author helps the reader to pass by several technicalities. Reading and rereading this book I noticed that the topics ...

  5. Banner prints social security numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. The Monday edition of the Arizona Republic contained a story with potential interest to our readers. On the most recent address labels of Banner Health's magazine, Smart & Healthy, the addressee's Social Security or Medicare identification numbers, which are often identical to their Social Security numbers (1. The magazine was mailed to more than 50,000 recipients in Arizona late last week. The recipients are members of the Medicare Pioneer Accountable Care Organization, a government health-care plan that Banner serves. Banner generated its mailing list from information it received from the U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, which is an agency within the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services (HHS responsible for administration of several federal health-care programs. Although medical information has been protected by the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA since 1996, penalties were recently increased. Civil monetary penalties were increased from a maximum of $100 ...

  6. Intersection numbers of spectral curves

    CERN Document Server

    Eynard, B.

    2011-01-01

    We compute the symplectic invariants of an arbitrary spectral curve with only 1 branchpoint in terms of integrals of characteristic classes in the moduli space of curves. Our formula associates to any spectral curve, a characteristic class, which is determined by the laplace transform of the spectral curve. This is a hint to the key role of Laplace transform in mirror symmetry. When the spectral curve is y=\\sqrt{x}, the formula gives Kontsevich--Witten intersection numbers, when the spectral curve is chosen to be the Lambert function \\exp{x}=y\\exp{-y}, the formula gives the ELSV formula for Hurwitz numbers, and when one chooses the mirror of C^3 with framing f, i.e. \\exp{-x}=\\exp{-yf}(1-\\exp{-y}), the formula gives the Marino-Vafa formula, i.e. the generating function of Gromov-Witten invariants of C^3. In some sense this formula generalizes ELSV, Marino-Vafa formula, and Mumford formula.

  7. Topics in Number Theory Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Andrews, George; Ono, Ken

    1999-01-01

    From July 31 through August 3,1997, the Pennsylvania State University hosted the Topics in Number Theory Conference. The conference was organized by Ken Ono and myself. By writing the preface, I am afforded the opportunity to express my gratitude to Ken for beng the inspiring and driving force behind the whole conference. Without his energy, enthusiasm and skill the entire event would never have occurred. We are extremely grateful to the sponsors of the conference: The National Sci­ ence Foundation, The Penn State Conference Center and the Penn State Depart­ ment of Mathematics. The object in this conference was to provide a variety of presentations giving a current picture of recent, significant work in number theory. There were eight plenary lectures: H. Darmon (McGill University), "Non-vanishing of L-functions and their derivatives modulo p. " A. Granville (University of Georgia), "Mean values of multiplicative functions. " C. Pomerance (University of Georgia), "Recent results in primality testing. " C. ...

  8. Use of number by fish.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Agrillo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Research on human infants, mammals, birds and fish has demonstrated that rudimentary numerical abilities pre-date the evolution of human language. Yet there is controversy as to whether animals represent numbers mentally or rather base their judgments on non-numerical perceptual variables that co-vary with numerosity. To date, mental representation of number has been convincingly documented only for a few mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we used a training procedure to investigate whether mosquitofish could learn to discriminate between two and three objects even when denied access to non-numerical information. In the first experiment, fish were trained to discriminate between two sets of geometric figures. These varied in shape, size, brightness and distance, but no control for non-numerical variables was made. Subjects were then re-tested while controlling for one non-numerical variable at a time. Total luminance of the stimuli and the sum of perimeter of figures appeared irrelevant, but performance dropped to chance level when stimuli were matched for the cumulative surface area or for the overall space occupied by the arrays, indicating that these latter cues had been spontaneously used by the fish during the learning process. In a second experiment, where the task consisted of discriminating 2 vs 3 elements with all non-numerical variables simultaneously controlled for, all subjects proved able to learn the discrimination, and interestingly they did not make more errors than the fish in Experiment 1 that could access non-numerical information in order to accomplish the task. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mosquitofish can learn to discriminate small quantities, even when non-numerical indicators of quantity are unavailable, hence providing the first evidence that fish, like primates, can use numbers. As in humans and non-human primates, genuine counting appears to be a 'last resort' strategy in fish, when no other

  9. Galaxy number counts: Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metcalfe, N.; Shanks, T.; Fong, R.; Jones, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Prime Focus CCD Camera at the Isaac Newton Telescope we have determined the form of the B and R galaxy number-magnitude count relations in 12 independent fields for 21 m ccd m and 19 m ccd m 5. The average galaxy count relations lie in the middle of the wide range previously encompassed by photographic data. The field-to-field variation of the counts is small enough to define the faint (B m 5) galaxy count to ±10 per cent and this variation is consistent with that expected from galaxy clustering considerations. Our new data confirm that the B, and also the R, galaxy counts show evidence for strong galaxy luminosity evolution, and that the majority of the evolving galaxies are of moderately blue colour. (author)

  10. Polynomials formalism of quantum numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazakov, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical aspects of the recently suggested perturbation formalism based on the method of quantum number polynomials are considered in the context of the general anharmonicity problem. Using a biatomic molecule by way of example, it is demonstrated how the theory can be extrapolated to the case of vibrational-rotational interactions. As a result, an exact expression for the first coefficient of the Herman-Wallis factor is derived. In addition, the basic notions of the formalism are phenomenologically generalized and expanded to the problem of spin interaction. The concept of magneto-optical anharmonicity is introduced. As a consequence, an exact analogy is drawn with the well-known electro-optical theory of molecules, and a nonlinear dependence of the magnetic dipole moment of the system on the spin and wave variables is established [ru

  11. The european emergency number 112 - the questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Goniewicz

    2017-07-01

    Conclusions. Most of the respondents (92% identify the 112 number as an emergency number that allows them to connect to emergency services from anywhere in the European Union. A significant number of respondents (47% identify the 112 number as an emergency number in Poland. One in three respondents will use the 999 number to contact the emergency services as a witness to an emergency in Poland. Non-medical university students more often (63% will use the 112 emergency number than medical college students (41%. Respondents (98% confirmed the usefulness of a unified emergency number throughout Europe, but decided that they were not sufficiently informed about 112 as the European emergency number.

  12. Essays on the theory of numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Dedekind, Richard

    1963-01-01

    Two classic essays by great German mathematician: one provides an arithmetic, rigorous foundation for the irrational numbers, the other is an attempt to give the logical basis for transfinite numbers and properties of the natural numbers.

  13. How to be Brilliant at Numbers

    CERN Document Server

    Webber, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    How to be Brilliant at Numbers will help students to develop an understanding of numbers, place value, fractions and decimals. They will develop the language of number, and of the relationships between numbers. They will also use mathematics to solve problems and will develop mathematical reasoning. Using the worksheets in this book, pupils will learn about: ancient Greek numbers; coins; digits; consecutive numbers; magic ladders; fractions; matching pairs; multiples of 10; rounding; decimal un

  14. Some relations between entropy and approximation numbers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志明

    1999-01-01

    A general result is obtained which relates the entropy numbers of compact maps on Hilbert space to its approximation numbers. Compared with previous works in this area, it is particularly convenient for dealing with the cases where the approximation numbers decay rapidly. A nice estimation between entropy and approximation numbers for noncompact maps is given.

  15. Visuospatial Priming of the Mental Number Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoianov, Ivilin; Kramer, Peter; Umilta, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2008-01-01

    It has been argued that numbers are spatially organized along a "mental number line" that facilitates left-hand responses to small numbers, and right-hand responses to large numbers. We hypothesized that whenever the representations of visual and numerical space are concurrently activated, interactions can occur between them, before response…

  16. Fluorescence digital photography of acne using a light-emitting diode illuminator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Soo Nam; Kye, Young Chul

    2006-11-01

    The fluorescence findings of several dermatological diseases, such as erythrasma, tinea versicolor, and acne are helpful for diagnosis and follow-up. However, many experience difficulty taking photographic images of fluorescence. The aim of this study was to develop a 405 nm light-emitting diode (LED) system for fluorescence digital photography of acne and to determine whether such a diode can be used to evaluate acne. Eight healthy acne patients were compared with controls by fluorescence digital photography using a digital camera equipped with a 405 nm LED illuminator. Digital photographs were taken by two different ways of exposure, i.e. appropriate exposure level and longer exposure. One side of the nose, cheek, and glabella was compared. The numbers and extents of fluorescence dots were counted and measured. As normal controls, seven individuals with apparent oiliness and no acne were enrolled. Red fluorescent facial dots were observed and photographed digitally using the 405 nm LED illuminator. These were more numerous and extensive on the glabella and cheeks of acne patients. Fluorescence digital photography of acne was successfully performed using a 405 nm LED illuminator. This illuminator could be used for acne evaluations.

  17. Fast integration using quasi-random numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.

    2006-01-01

    Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples

  18. Fast integration using quasi-random numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, J.; Feindt, M.; Kerzel, U.

    2006-04-01

    Quasi-random numbers are specially constructed series of numbers optimised to evenly sample a given s-dimensional volume. Using quasi-random numbers in numerical integration converges faster with a higher accuracy compared to the case of pseudo-random numbers. The basic properties of quasi-random numbers are introduced, various generators are discussed and the achieved gain is illustrated by examples.

  19. On domination multisubdivision number of unicyclic graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Raczek

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper continues the interesting study of the domination subdivision number and the domination multisubdivision number. On the basis of the constructive characterization of the trees with the domination subdivision number equal to 3 given in [H. Aram, S.M. Sheikholeslami, O. Favaron, Domination subdivision number of trees, Discrete Math. 309 (2009, 622-628], we constructively characterize all connected unicyclic graphs with the domination multisubdivision number equal to 3. We end with further questions and open problems.

  20. [Superficial mycoses: comparative study between type 2 diabetic patients and a non-diabetic control group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Humbría, Leila; Richard-Yegres, Nicole; Pérez-Blanco, Maigualida; Yegres, Francisco; Mendoza, Mireya; Acosta, Arnaldo; Hernández, Rosaura; Zárraga, Eluz

    2005-03-01

    Superficial mycoses are considered to affect more frequently patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM-2), specially onychomycosis and Tinea pedis. The purpose of this study was to compare the dermatophytoses, candidiasis and Pitiriasis versicolor frequency between 40 patients with DM-2 and 40 healthy persons of either sex, 40 years old or more. Clinical, metabolic, mycologic and inmunologic studies against Candida albicans, were carried out. Both diabetics 75% (30/40) and controls 65% (26/40) presented a high frequency of superficial mycoses (no significant difference p = 0.329). Pitiriasis versicolor was not detected in diabetic patients. They presented Tinea unguium, concomitant with Tinea pedis, with a higher frequency. The predominant dermatophyte was Trichophyton rubrum 18/23 (78%) in diabetics and 8/16 (50%) in non diabetics. Candida was isolated as commensal from oral mucous: 23/40 (58%) in diabetics and 21/40 (52%) in non diabetics (serotipo A was the more frequent), and from onychomycosis: 11/40 (28%) in diabetics and 12/40 (30%) in non diabetics. The immunological response was the same in both groups: celular 100%, humoral 20%. No statistical correlation among superficial mycoses, blood glucose level, glycosylated hemoglobin values or the time suffering the disease was observed. The high susceptibility to dermatophytes and Candida sp. infection showed to be associated with age and no with the diabetic type 2 condition in those patients.

  1. The magic of a number system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmasry, Amr Ahmed Abd Elmoneim; Jensen, Claus; Katajainen, Jyrki

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a new number system that supports increments with a constant number of digit changes. We also give a simple method that extends any number system supporting increments to support decrements using the same number of digit changes. In the new number system the weight of the ith digit i...... is 2 i-1, and hence we can implement a priority queue as a forest of heap-ordered complete binary trees. The resulting data structure guarantees O(1) worst-case cost per insert and O(lg n) worst-case cost per delete, where n is the number of elements stored....

  2. Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotmianto Mohamad

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially for a librarian as classifier. This paper is a literature study about Dewey Decimal Classification Edition 23, to describe about optional numbers, particularly the number in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.

  3. Some functional equations originating from number theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Moreover, we will also study some stability problems of those equations. ... Wisconsin in which he discussed a number of important unsolved problems [18]. ... According to a well-known theorem in number theory, a positive integer of the form.

  4. Nielsen number of a covering map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jezierski Jerzy

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a finite regular covering over a compact polyhedron and a map admitting a lift . We show some formulae expressing the Nielsen number as a linear combination of the Nielsen numbers of its lifts.

  5. Some inequalities for the Bell numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Feng Qi

    2017-08-19

    Aug 19, 2017 ... Bell number determinant; product; inequality; generating function; derivative; absolutely monotonic function; completely monotonic func- tion; logarithmically absolutely monotonic function; logarithmically completely monotonic function; Stirling number of the second kind; induction; Faà di Bruno formula;.

  6. A new definition of Bejan number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awad Mohamed M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new definition of Bejan number will be generated by replacing the thermal diffusivity with the mass diffusivity. For example, the Schmidt number is the mass transfer analog of the Prandtl number. For the case of Reynolds analogy (Sc = Pr = = 1, both current and new definitions of Bejan number are the same. This new definition is useful and needed for diffusion of mass (mass diffusion.

  7. Hyperreal Numbers for Infinite Divergent Series

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Jonathan

    2018-01-01

    Treating divergent series properly has been an ongoing issue in mathematics. However, many of the problems in divergent series stem from the fact that divergent series were discovered prior to having a number system which could handle them. The infinities that resulted from divergent series led to contradictions within the real number system, but these contradictions are largely alleviated with the hyperreal number system. Hyperreal numbers provide a framework for dealing with divergent serie...

  8. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall...

  9. Developmental Changes in the Whole Number Bias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braithwaite, David W.; Siegler, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    Many students' knowledge of fractions is adversely affected by whole number bias, the tendency to focus on the separate whole number components (numerator and denominator) of a fraction rather than on the fraction's magnitude (ratio of numerator to denominator). Although whole number bias appears early in the fraction learning process and under…

  10. Altermatic number of categorical product of graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alishahi, Meysam; Hajiabolhassan, Hossein

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we prove some relaxations of Hedetniemi's conjecture in terms of altermatic number and strong altermatic number of graphs, two combinatorial parameters introduced by the present authors Alishahi and Hajiabolhassan (2015) providing two sharp lower bounds for the chromatic number of ...

  11. Thermal convection for large Prandtl numbers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2001-01-01

    The Rayleigh-Bénard theory by Grossmann and Lohse [J. Fluid Mech. 407, 27 (2000)] is extended towards very large Prandtl numbers Pr. The Nusselt number Nu is found here to be independent of Pr. However, for fixed Rayleigh numbers Ra a maximum in the Nu(Pr) dependence is predicted. We moreover offer

  12. Graphing Powers and Roots of Complex Numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embse, Charles Vonder

    1993-01-01

    Using De Moivre's theorem and a parametric graphing utility, examines powers and roots of complex numbers and allows students to establish connections between the visual and numerical representations of complex numbers. Provides a program to numerically verify the roots of complex numbers. (MDH)

  13. Combinatorial Interpretation of General Eulerian Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Tingyao Xiong; Jonathan I. Hall; Hung-Ping Tsao

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950s, mathematicians have successfully interpreted the traditional Eulerian numbers and $q-$Eulerian numbers combinatorially. In this paper, the authors give a combinatorial interpretation to the general Eulerian numbers defined on general arithmetic progressions { a, a+d, a+2d,...}.

  14. Number to finger mapping is topological.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plaisier, M.A.; Smeets, J.B.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has been shown that humans associate fingers with numbers because finger counting strategies interact with numerical judgements. At the same time, there is evidence that there is a relation between number magnitude and space as small to large numbers seem to be represented from left to right. In

  15. 20 CFR 404.1220 - Identification numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The special number will also be assigned to an interstate instrumentality if pre-1987 coverage is obtained and SSA will send a Form SSA-214-CD to the interstate instrumentality to notify it of the number.... SSA will send the State a Form SSA-214-CD, “Notice of Identifying Number,” to inform the State of the...

  16. 46 CFR Sec. 2 - Voyage numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... voyage No. 1 having the prefixed designation NSA and followed by the General Agents' abbreviated designation and voyage number, as NSA-1/ABC-1. (b) The continuity of NSA voyage numbers shall not change with... General Agent shall affix his abbreviated designation and initial voyage numbers, as NSA-13/XYZ-1. ...

  17. An adventurer's guide to number theory

    CERN Document Server

    Friedberg, Richard

    1995-01-01

    In this delightful guide, a noted mathematician and teacher offers a witty, historically oriented introduction to number theory, dealing with properties of numbers and with numbers as abstract concepts. Written for readers with an understanding of arithmetic and beginning algebra, the book presents the classical discoveries of number theory, including the work of Pythagoras, Euclid, Diophantus, Fermat, Euler, Lagrange and Gauss.Unlike many authors, however, Mr. Friedberg encourages students to think about the imaginative, playful qualities of numbers as they consider such subjects as primes

  18. Fibonacci and Catalan Numbers An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Grimaldi, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    In this one-of-a-kind book, Ralph Grimaldi uses his extensive experience from the classroom and as a leader of mini-courses to present an accessible, single resource on the topics of Fibonacci Numbers and Catalan Numbers . The book first embarks on a complete treatment of Fibonacci numbers. Starting with a historical background on the topic, the author goes on to present the properties of Fibonacci numbers, a slew of introductory-level examples, and in-depth discussion of related topics including compositions and palindromes; tiling and Fibonacci numbers

  19. Defense Horizons. Number 79, April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB...79, April 2015 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...aggression. Even more issues emerged following the downing of Malaysian Airlines Flight 17 over Ukraine in July 2014, and cross-border ar- tillery renewed

  20. What Do Numbers Do in Transnational Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause Hansen, Hans; Porter, Tony

    2012-01-01

    processes. Numbers have properties that differ from words, and shifts from one to the other in governance, for instance in the displacement of laws or norms with risk models or rankings based on numbers, have particular effects, including political effects on states, firms, individuals, and other actors......This study examines how numbers in transnational governance constitute actors, objects, and relationships, including relationships of power. We review the existing literatures on numbers for insights relevant to their role in transnational governance, including the ontology of numbers, the history...

  1. Approximation of complex algebraic numbers by algebraic numbers of bounded degree

    OpenAIRE

    Bugeaud, Yann; Evertse, Jan-Hendrik

    2007-01-01

    We investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic numbers of degree at most n. We also investigate how well complex algebraic numbers can be approximated by algebraic integers of degree at most n+1. It follows from our investigations that for every positive integer n there are complex algebraic numbers of degree larger than n that are better approximable by algebraic numbers of degree at most n than almost all complex numbers. As it turns out, these numbers ar...

  2. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN MOBILE NUMBER PORTABILITY AND CONSUMER CHOICE OF ACTIVE MULTIPLE MOBILE PHONE NUMBERS IN GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon A. Keelson; Addo J. Odei

    2014-01-01

    The use of multiple mobile phone numbers in Ghana has become a dominate phenomenon in recent years. The introduction of mobile number portability (MNP) makes it possible for a subscriber to conveniently switch from one mobile network to another without losing his or her number. Because of mobile number portability, we expected that use of multiple numbers would become less attractive. This study examines how mobile number portability has affected the use of multiple phone numbers. We use top,...

  3. Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe DeMaio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1982, Prodinger and Tichy defined the Fibonacci number of a graph G to be the number of independent sets of the graph G. They did so since the Fibonacci number of the path graph Pn is the Fibonacci number F(n+2 and the Fibonacci number of the cycle graph Cn is the Lucas number Ln. The tadpole graph Tn,k is the graph created by concatenating Cn and Pk with an edge from any vertex of Cn to a pendant of Pk for integers n=3 and k=0. This paper establishes formulae and identities for the Fibonacci number of the tadpole graph via algebraic and combinatorial methods.

  4. Certain number-theoretic episodes in algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Sivaramakrishnan, R

    2006-01-01

    Many basic ideas of algebra and number theory intertwine, making it ideal to explore both at the same time. Certain Number-Theoretic Episodes in Algebra focuses on some important aspects of interconnections between number theory and commutative algebra. Using a pedagogical approach, the author presents the conceptual foundations of commutative algebra arising from number theory. Self-contained, the book examines situations where explicit algebraic analogues of theorems of number theory are available. Coverage is divided into four parts, beginning with elements of number theory and algebra such as theorems of Euler, Fermat, and Lagrange, Euclidean domains, and finite groups. In the second part, the book details ordered fields, fields with valuation, and other algebraic structures. This is followed by a review of fundamentals of algebraic number theory in the third part. The final part explores links with ring theory, finite dimensional algebras, and the Goldbach problem.

  5. On the binary expansions of algebraic numbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Crandall, Richard E.; Pomerance, Carl

    2003-07-01

    Employing concepts from additive number theory, together with results on binary evaluations and partial series, we establish bounds on the density of 1's in the binary expansions of real algebraic numbers. A central result is that if a real y has algebraic degree D > 1, then the number {number_sign}(|y|, N) of 1-bits in the expansion of |y| through bit position N satisfies {number_sign}(|y|, N) > CN{sup 1/D} for a positive number C (depending on y) and sufficiently large N. This in itself establishes the transcendency of a class of reals {summation}{sub n{ge}0} 1/2{sup f(n)} where the integer-valued function f grows sufficiently fast; say, faster than any fixed power of n. By these methods we re-establish the transcendency of the Kempner--Mahler number {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup 2{sup n}}, yet we can also handle numbers with a substantially denser occurrence of 1's. Though the number z = {summation}{sub n{ge}0}1/2{sup n{sup 2}} has too high a 1's density for application of our central result, we are able to invoke some rather intricate number-theoretical analysis and extended computations to reveal aspects of the binary structure of z{sup 2}.

  6. Interaction of Number Magnitude and Auditory Localization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golob, Edward J; Lewald, Jörg; Jungilligens, Johannes; Getzmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The interplay of perception and memory is very evident when we perceive and then recognize familiar stimuli. Conversely, information in long-term memory may also influence how a stimulus is perceived. Prior work on number cognition in the visual modality has shown that in Western number systems long-term memory for the magnitude of smaller numbers can influence performance involving the left side of space, while larger numbers have an influence toward the right. Here, we investigated in the auditory modality whether a related effect may bias the perception of sound location. Subjects (n = 28) used a swivel pointer to localize noise bursts presented from various azimuth positions. The noise bursts were preceded by a spoken number (1-9) or, as a nonsemantic control condition, numbers that were played in reverse. The relative constant error in noise localization (forward minus reversed speech) indicated a systematic shift in localization toward more central locations when the number was smaller and toward more peripheral positions when the preceding number magnitude was larger. These findings do not support the traditional left-right number mapping. Instead, the results may reflect an overlap between codes for number magnitude and codes for sound location as implemented by two channel models of sound localization, or possibly a categorical mapping stage of small versus large magnitudes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. CT number of the fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Hiroko; Kawai, Takeshi; Kanasaki, Yoshiki; Akagi, Hiroaki

    1981-01-01

    This report is studied on CT number and CT images of the eight cases with fatty liver. Five of these cases showed the reversal of densities of the liver and vessels. In these cases, the diagnoses of the fatty liver were easible. In other cases, the diagnoses were possible only by comparison of the CT number of the liver and spleen because the CT number of normal liver were higher than those of the spleen. In the results which we examined the correlation of the CT number and specific gravities of the blood, normal saline, distilled water, mayonnaise, eatable iol, ethyl alcohol and lard, we observed the linear relationship between CT number and specific gravities. And so, we think that the diagnosis of the fatty liver and the degree of fatty infiltration can be guessed by the CT number of the liver and spleen. (author)

  8. Observing Optional Number in DDC Edition 23

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rotmianto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dewey Decimal Classification is a most popular classification system in the world because of its completeness and most up-to-date. There are many optional number in this classification system, although it rarely to be discussed even it is important to known well about that optional number, especially  for  a  librarian  as  classifier.  This  paper  is  a  literature  study  about  Dewey  Decimal Classification  Edition  23,  to  describe  about  optional  numbers,  particularly  the  number  in relationship with Indonesia’s subject and discipline. This paper is to avoid misunderstanding in interpreted about optional number among librarians, especially for who that does not understand well about optional numbers.

  9. Self-correcting random number generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble, Travis S.; Pooser, Raphael C.

    2016-09-06

    A system and method for generating random numbers. The system may include a random number generator (RNG), such as a quantum random number generator (QRNG) configured to self-correct or adapt in order to substantially achieve randomness from the output of the RNG. By adapting, the RNG may generate a random number that may be considered random regardless of whether the random number itself is tested as such. As an example, the RNG may include components to monitor one or more characteristics of the RNG during operation, and may use the monitored characteristics as a basis for adapting, or self-correcting, to provide a random number according to one or more performance criteria.

  10. Relativistic theory of tidal Love numbers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnington, Taylor; Poisson, Eric

    2009-01-01

    In Newtonian gravitational theory, a tidal Love number relates the mass multipole moment created by tidal forces on a spherical body to the applied tidal field. The Love number is dimensionless, and it encodes information about the body's internal structure. We present a relativistic theory of Love numbers, which applies to compact bodies with strong internal gravities; the theory extends and completes a recent work by Flanagan and Hinderer, which revealed that the tidal Love number of a neutron star can be measured by Earth-based gravitational-wave detectors. We consider a spherical body deformed by an external tidal field, and provide precise and meaningful definitions for electric-type and magnetic-type Love numbers; and these are computed for polytropic equations of state. The theory applies to black holes as well, and we find that the relativistic Love numbers of a nonrotating black hole are all zero.

  11. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, F-E; Lubrano, V; Lauwers-Cances, V; Giussani, C; Démonet, J-F

    2008-01-15

    Distinct functional pathways for processing words and numbers have been hypothesized from the observation of dissociated impairments of these categories in brain-damaged patients. We aimed to identify the cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading process in patients operated on for various brain lesions. Direct cortical electrostimulation was prospectively used in 60 brain mappings. We used object naming and two reading tasks: alphabetic script (sentences and number words) and Arabic number reading. Cortical areas involved in Arabic number reading were identified according to location, type of interference, and distinctness from areas associated with other language tasks. Arabic number reading was sustained by small cortical areas, often extremely well localized (area (Brodmann area 45), the anterior part of the dominant supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann area 40; p area (Brodmann area 37; p areas.

  12. Neocortical glial cell numbers in human brains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelvig, D.P.; Pakkenberg, H.; Stark, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Stereological cell counting was applied to post-mortem neocortices of human brains from 31 normal individuals, age 18-93 years, 18 females (average age 65 years, range 18-93) and 13 males (average age 57 years, range 19-87). The cells were differentiated in astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, microglia...... while the total astrocyte number is constant through life; finally males have a 28% higher number of neocortical glial cells and a 19% higher neocortical neuron number than females. The overall total number of neocortical neurons and glial cells was 49.3 billion in females and 65.2 billion in males...... and neurons and counting were done in each of the four lobes. The study showed that the different subpopulations of glial cells behave differently as a function of age; the number of oligodendrocytes showed a significant 27% decrease over adult life and a strong correlation to the total number of neurons...

  13. THE DISCOUNTED REPRODUCTIVE NUMBER FOR EPIDEMIOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Reluga, Timothy C.; Medlock, Jan; Galvani, Alison

    2009-01-01

    The basic reproductive number, , and the effective reproductive number, , are commonly used in mathematical epidemiology as summary statistics for the size and controllability of epidemics. However, these commonly used reproductive numbers can be misleading when applied to predict pathogen evolution because they do not incorporate the impact of the timing of events in the life-history cycle of the pathogen. To study evolution problems where the host population size is changing, measur...

  14. Analysis of android random number generator

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıtaş, Serkan

    2013-01-01

    Ankara : The Department of Computer Engineering and the Graduate School of Engineering and Science of Bilkent University, 2013. Thesis (Master's) -- Bilkent University, 2013. Includes bibliographical references leaves 61-65. Randomness is a crucial resource for cryptography, and random number generators are critical building blocks of almost all cryptographic systems. Therefore, random number generation is one of the key parts of secure communication. Random number generatio...

  15. Quality pseudo-random number generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarasiuk, J.

    1996-01-01

    The pseudo-random number generator (RNG) was written to match needs of nuclear and high-energy physics computation which in some cases require very long and independent random number sequences. In this random number generator the repetition period is about 10 36 what should be sufficient for all computers in the world. In this article the test results of RNG correlation, speed and identity of computations for PC, Sun4 and VAX computer tests are presented

  16. Number conserving approach in quasiparticle representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oudih, M.R.; Fellah, M.; Allal, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    An exact number conserving approach is formulated in the quasiparticle representation to show the effect of the particle-number projection on the ground and the first 0+ excited states. It is applied to the two-level pairing model, which allows an exact solution and a comparison to other approaches. The present method has proved to be an advantageous alternative as compared to the BCS and to the usual methods used to restore the particle number symmetry. (author)

  17. Random walk of the baryon number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazaryan, A.M.; Khlebnikov, S.Y.; Shaposhnikov, M.E.

    1989-01-01

    A new approach is suggested for the anomalous nonconservation of baryon number in the electroweak theory at high temperatures. Arguments are presented in support of the idea that the baryon-number changing reactions may be viewed as random Markov processes. Making use of the general theory of Markov processes, the Fokker--Planck equation for the baryon-number distribution density is obtained and kinetic coefficients are calculated

  18. Trading volume and the number of trades

    OpenAIRE

    Marwan Izzeldin

    2007-01-01

    Trading volume and the number of trades are both used as proxies for market activity, with disagreement as to which is the better proxy for market activity. This paper investigates this issue using high frequency data for Cisco and Intel in 1997. A number of econometric methods are used, including GARCH augmented with lagged trading volume and number of trades, tests based on moment restrictions, regression analysis of volatility on volume and trades, normality of returns when standardized by...

  19. Conferences on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This proceedings volume is based on papers presented at the Workshops on Combinatorial and Additive Number Theory (CANT), which were held at the Graduate Center of the City University of New York in 2011 and 2012. The goal of the workshops is to survey recent progress in combinatorial number theory and related parts of mathematics. The workshop attracts researchers and students who discuss the state-of-the-art, open problems, and future challenges in number theory.

  20. Asymptotics of quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnad, J.; Ortmann, Janosch

    2018-06-01

    This work concerns both the semiclassical and zero temperature asymptotics of quantum weighted double Hurwitz numbers. The partition function for quantum weighted double Hurwitz numbers can be interpreted in terms of the energy distribution of a quantum Bose gas with vanishing fugacity. We compute the leading semiclassical term of the partition function for three versions of the quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers, as well as lower order semiclassical corrections. The classical limit is shown to reproduce the simple single and double Hurwitz numbers studied by Okounkov and Pandharipande (2000 Math. Res. Lett. 7 447–53, 2000 Lett. Math. Phys. 53 59–74). The KP-Toda τ-function that serves as generating function for the quantum Hurwitz numbers is shown to have the τ-function of Okounkov and Pandharipande (2000 Math. Res. Lett. 7 447–53, 2000 Lett. Math. Phys. 53 59–74) as its leading term in the classical limit, and, with suitable scaling, the same holds for the partition function, the weights and expectations of Hurwitz numbers. We also compute the zero temperature limit of the partition function and quantum weighted Hurwitz numbers. The KP or Toda τ-function serving as generating function for the quantum Hurwitz numbers are shown to give the one for Belyi curves in the zero temperature limit and, with suitable scaling, the same holds true for the partition function, the weights and the expectations of Hurwitz numbers.

  1. Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Unique Physician Identification Number (UPIN) Directory contains selected information on physicians, doctors of Osteopathy, limited licensed practitioners and...

  2. Total dominator chromatic number of a graph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel P. Kazemi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Given a graph $G$, the total dominator coloring problem seeks a proper coloring of $G$ with the additional property that every vertex in the graph is adjacent to all vertices of a color class. We seek to minimize the number of color classes. We initiate to study this problem on several classes of graphs, as well as finding general bounds and characterizations. We also compare the total dominator chromatic number of a graph with the chromatic number and the total domination number of it.

  3. Numbers and other math ideas come alive

    CERN Document Server

    Pappas, Theoni

    2012-01-01

    Most people don't think about numbers, or take them for granted. For the average person numbers are looked upon as cold, clinical, inanimate objects. Math ideas are viewed as something to get a job done or a problem solved. Get ready for a big surprise with Numbers and Other Math Ideas Come Alive. Pappas explores mathematical ideas by looking behind the scenes of what numbers, points, lines, and other concepts are saying and thinking. In each story, properties and characteristics of math ideas are entertainingly uncovered and explained through the dialogues and actions of its math

  4. Asymptotic numbers, asymptotic functions and distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todorov, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    The asymptotic functions are a new type of generalized functions. But they are not functionals on some space of test-functions as the distributions of Schwartz. They are mappings of the set denoted by A into A, where A is the set of the asymptotic numbers introduced by Christov. On its part A is a totally-ordered set of generalized numbers including the system of real numbers R as well as infinitesimals and infinitely large numbers. Every two asymptotic functions can be multiplied. On the other hand, the distributions have realizations as asymptotic functions in a certain sense. (author)

  5. Dermatophytes and other fungi associated with skin mycoses in Tripoli, Libya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellabib, M S; Khalifa, Z; Kavanagh, K

    2002-04-01

    This study sought to determine the prevalence of skin infections and their causative agents in the Libyan population. Samples were collected from 2224 patients attending the Dermatology Clinics of the Tripoli Medical Centre (TMC) between August 1997 and December 1999 and were submitted to a mycology laboratory for analysis. Diagnosis was confirmed by microscopic examination in 1180 cases (53.1%) and the causative agent was isolated and cultured in 1160 cases (52.2%). Dermatophytes, Malassezia furfur and Candida albicans were the most common etiological agents isolated. Tinea corporis accounted for 45.9% of cases (85% of cases occurred in children below 15 years of age). The frequency of the other clinical types in descending order was pityriasis versicolor 27.8% (322 cases), candidiosis 13.4% (156 cases), tinea pedis 8.1% (94 cases), tinea manuum 2.6% (30 cases) and tinea barbae 2.2% (26 cases). Trichophyton violaceum was the most common etiological agent, responsible for 44% (300 cases) of dermatophyte infections. Malassezia furfur was ranked the second most frequent causative agent being found in 27.8% of cases, followed by Trichophyton rubrum 13.8% (160 cases) and Candida albicans 10% (116 cases). Other species isolated included Microsporum canis 8.1% (94 cases), Epidermophyton floccosum 6.6% (76 cases) and Trichophyton mentagrophytes 3.1% (36 cases).

  6. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paasonen, Pauli; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Klimont, Zbigniew; Visschedijk, Antoon; Denier van der Gon, Hugo A. C.; Amann, Markus

    2016-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas-Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies) model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa), coke production (Russia and China), and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation) scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol-cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response to tightening

  7. Continental anthropogenic primary particle number emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Paasonen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol particle number concentrations impact our climate and health in ways different from those of aerosol mass concentrations. However, the global, current and future anthropogenic particle number emissions and their size distributions are so far poorly known. In this article, we present the implementation of particle number emission factors and the related size distributions in the GAINS (Greenhouse Gas–Air Pollution Interactions and Synergies model. This implementation allows for global estimates of particle number emissions under different future scenarios, consistent with emissions of other pollutants and greenhouse gases. In addition to determining the general particulate number emissions, we also describe a method to estimate the number size distributions of the emitted black carbon particles. The first results show that the sources dominating the particle number emissions are different to those dominating the mass emissions. The major global number source is road traffic, followed by residential combustion of biofuels and coal (especially in China, India and Africa, coke production (Russia and China, and industrial combustion and processes. The size distributions of emitted particles differ across the world, depending on the main sources: in regions dominated by traffic and industry, the number size distribution of emissions peaks in diameters range from 20 to 50 nm, whereas in regions with intensive biofuel combustion and/or agricultural waste burning, the emissions of particles with diameters around 100 nm are dominant. In the baseline (current legislation scenario, the particle number emissions in Europe, Northern and Southern Americas, Australia, and China decrease until 2030, whereas especially for India, a strong increase is estimated. The results of this study provide input for modelling of the future changes in aerosol–cloud interactions as well as particle number related adverse health effects, e.g. in response

  8. Analytic number theory an introductory course

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Paul T

    2004-01-01

    This valuable book focuses on a collection of powerful methods ofanalysis that yield deep number-theoretical estimates. Particularattention is given to counting functions of prime numbers andmultiplicative arithmetic functions. Both real variable ("elementary")and complex variable ("analytic") methods are employed.

  9. Hello, I am not an NHS number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jane

    2016-09-14

    I was handed a request to return a patient's call and given a name, signs and symptoms and a number with ten digits, starting with a seven. There was no preceding zero, and assuming it must be a mistake I stuck one on, and dialled. The number was unobtainable.

  10. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  11. Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.

  12. Savaaksrat Kisitchisit (Numbers 1-10).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulu, Tupou L.; And Others

    This first grade workbook is designed for children in bilingual Inupiat-English programs in the Alaskan villages of Ambler, Kiana, Kobuk, Noorvik, Selawik, and Shungnak. Each page has a particular number, a corresponding picture with an appropriate caption, and lines for the child to use in writing the number. (CFM)

  13. Hacking DNA copy number for circuit engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Feilun; You, Lingchong

    2017-07-27

    DNA copy number represents an essential parameter in the dynamics of synthetic gene circuits but typically is not explicitly considered. A new study demonstrates how dynamic control of DNA copy number can serve as an effective strategy to program robust oscillations in gene expression circuits.

  14. 7 CFR 46.20 - Lot numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and entered on all sales tickets identifying and segregating the sales from the various shipments on hand. The lot number shall be entered on the sales tickets by the salesmen at the time of sale or by the produce dispatcher, and not by bookkeepers or others after the sales have been made. No lot number...

  15. Search for lepton-family-number nonconservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, C.M.

    1986-01-01

    A review of the status of lepton-family-number nonconservation is given. After a brief historical and theoretical discussion, a description of how experimental searches for lepton-family-number nonconservation are performed is presented. Finally, a summary of the results from past experiments and prospects for future experiments is given

  16. On contact numbers in random rod packings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.; Luding, Stefan; Philipse, A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Random packings of non-spherical granular particles are simulated by combining mechanical contraction and molecular dynamics, to determine contact numbers as a function of density. Particle shapes are varied from spheres to thin rods. The observed contact numbers (and packing densities) agree well

  17. Families of Linear Recurrences for Catalan Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, N.

    2011-01-01

    Four different families of linear recurrences are derived for Catalan numbers. The derivations rest on John Riordan's 1973 generalization of Catalan numbers to a set of polynomials. Elementary differential and integral calculus techniques are used and the results should be of interest to teachers and students of introductory courses in calculus…

  18. 41 CFR 105-1.109 - Numbering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Numbering. 105-1.109 Section 105-1.109 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION 1-INTRODUCTION 1.1-Regulations System § 105-1.109 Numbering. ...

  19. Game chromatic number of lexicographic product graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Alagammai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we determine the exact values of the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of path P2 with path Pn, star K1,n and wheel Wn. Also we give an upper bound for the game chromatic number of lexicographic product of any two simple graphs G and H.

  20. Teach Kids about Numbers All around Us

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler

    2011-01-01

    Recognizing the role numbers play in people's everyday lives is crucial to students' math understanding now and down the road. That's why Bob Krech, a curriculum specialist in New Jersey's West Windsor-Plainsboro district, likes to teach a lesson he calls "Numbers All Around Us." This lesson uses real-world examples to show that numbers…