WorldWideScience

Sample records for tinamous rhynchotus rufescens

  1. Models for the analysis of growth curves for rearing tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Tholon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Growth curves models provide a visual assessment of growth as a function of time, and prediction body weight at a specific age. This study aimed at estimating tinamous growth curve using different models, and at verifying their goodness of fit. A total number 11,639 weight records from 411 birds, being 6,671 from females and 3,095 from males, was analyzed. The highest estimates of a parameter were obtained using Brody (BD, von Bertalanffy (VB, Gompertz (GP, and Logistic function (LG. Adult females were 5.7% heavier than males. The highest estimates of b parameter were obtained in the LG, GP, BD, and VB models. The estimated k parameter values in decreasing order were obtained in LG, GP, VB, and BD models. The correlation between the parameters a and k showed heavier birds are less precocious than the lighter. The estimates of intercept, linear regression coefficient, quadratic regression coefficient, and differences between quadratic coefficient of functions and estimated ties of quadratic-quadratic-quadratic segmented polynomials (QQQSP were: 31.1732±2.41339; 3.07898± 0.13287; 0.02689±0.00152; -0.05566±0.00193; 0.02349±0.00107, and 57 and 145 days, respectively. The estimated predicted mean error values (PME of VB, GP, BD, LG, and QQQSP models were, respectively, 0.8353; 0.01715; -0.6939; -2.2453; and -0.7544%. The coefficient of determination (R² and least square error values (MS showed similar results. In conclusion, the VB and the QQQSP models adequately described tinamous growth. The best model to describe tinamous growth was the Gompertz model, because it presented the highest R² values, easiness of convergence, lower PME, and the easiness of parameter biological interpretation.

  2. Reproductive and behavioral aspects of red-winged tinamous (Rhynchotus rufescens in groups with different sex ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VU Cromberg

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research study was to evaluate the reproductive performance of tinamous submitted to five different male:female ratios. The study was carried out with 72 birds in a randomized experimental design with 4 replications. Tinamous were housed in cages, using the ratios of one (1:1, two (2:1, three (3:1 and four (4:1 females per male, and also one male was housed with three females individually (3R:1, in a rotational system. Reproductive records of the breeding season from September 2004 to March 2005 were used. The reproductive traits studied were: number of eggs laid, fertility, and percentage of eggs damaged and cracked by pecking. Nonparametric analyses of these traits were performed using Kruskal-Wallis test. Two replications of treatments 1:1 and 4:1, and one of treatment 2:1 were video-taped for three days, 12 hours/day. The videotapes were sampled according to the scan method to fit an ethogram. Birds were also watched for one hour per day to study dominance and agonistic behavior. None of the reproductive traits was affected by mating sex ratio (p<0.05. Female dominance could be related to displacement behavior (r=1.00, and male sitting in immobility plus sitting in activity behaviors were related to lower number of damaged eggs (r=-0.90. Social dominance was indirectly determined by displacement behavior in the study situation. A large number of damaged eggs occurred in all treatments, thereby not allowing a clear conclusion on the best male:female ratio.

  3. Effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho Nunes, Joao; Carvalho, M.M.; Sugui, J.K.; Queiroz, F.A.; Santana, A.E.; Hata, M.E.; Aiura, A.L.O.; Oliveira, J.A.; Queiroz, De Sandra Aidar

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluating the effect of litter substrates on the performance, carcass traits, and environmental comfort of red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens). In this experiment, 160 birds, with 100 and 300 days of age, were housed into 20 pens, and distributed according to a

  4. Morphology of oesophagus and crop of the partrigde Rhynchotus rufescens (Tiramidae = Morfologia do esôfago e do papo de perdizes Rhynchotus rufescens (Tiramidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Regina Rossi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty adult partridges Rhynchotus rufescens were used to study themorphology of oesophagus and crop. Materials to the morphologic study were collected and lengths of the oesophagus and of the crop were measured. For histological study, fragments of the oesophagus and of the crop were stained routinely with Masson’s trichrome stain. Total oesophagus was larger in females. In the entrance of the thorax, itsventral wall is enlarged broadly, forming the crop, which is larger in males. Oesophagus mucosa is constituted by stratified squamous epithelium, with mucous glands and lymphatic tissues. There are three layers of smooth muscle, involved in serosa. The histological structure of the crop is similar to the oesophagus. The mucous glands are reduced in size and the lymphatic tissues are dispersed in the connective tissue. There is a thin stratum of smooth muscle and other two wider layers of longitudinal and circular musculature.Vinte exemplares de Rhynchotus rufescens foram utilizadas para estudar a morfologia do esôfago e do papo. O material para o estudo morfológico foi coletado e o comprimento dos órgãos foi avaliado. Para o estudo histológico, as secções histológicas foram coradas com tricromo de Masson, posteriormente analisadas e descritas. O comprimento médio total do esôfago foi maior em fêmeas. Na entrada do tórax, a parede ventral do esôfago se dilata, formando o papo, maior em machos. A mucosa do esôfago é formada por epitélio escamoso estratificado, com glândulas mucosas e nódulos linfáticos. Há três camadas de músculo liso, as quais são envolvidas por serosa. A característica histológica do papo é semelhante à do esôfago. No papo, as glândulas mucosas são menores e os nódulos linfáticos estão dispersos no tecido conjuntivo. Há uma camada delgada de músculo liso e outras duas camadas mais largas de musculaturas longitudinal e circular.

  5. Anatomopathological findings in captive-raised red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Momo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The red-winged tinamou (Rhynchotus rufescens, a bird from the Tinamidae family, can be easily adapted to captivity. It is considered suitable for producing good quality meat while presenting great feed conversion rate, characteristics that make it interesting for commercial production. Therefore, in order to determine the major diseases that affect these birds, 114 birds from two different aviary types that died over a 12-year period, 1994-2006, were analyzed macro- and microscopically. Anatomical and pathological examinations showed that the most frequently affected systems were the urinary and digestive tracts. In the urinary tract, the main finding was gout, followed by amyloidosis and parasitism by the trematode Paratanaisia confusa. In the digestive tract, the presence of foreign material and parasitism by Capillaria penidoi were observed in the esophagus and crop. This study aims to describe the main anatomical and pathological findings in captive-bred red-winged tinamou and correlate them with the aviary type.

  6. Effect of temperature on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatch rate, egg water loss and partridge chick weight (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakage ES

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effects of incubation temperature (34.5; 35.5; 36.5; 37.5 and 38.5ºC, on incubation period, embryonic mortality, hatching rate, water loss and chick weight at hatch, using daily incubation of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The highest hatching percentage was obtained between 35.5 and 36.5ºC. Incubation length and temperature were inversely proportional. Water loss was lower in eggs incubated at low temperatures as compared to high temperatures. There was no difference among incubation temperatures in absolute and relative hatchling weights. Early embryonic mortality increased at low temperatures (36.5ºC. Our results show that, under conditions of daily incubation of eggs in the same incubator, higher hatching rate can be obtained using temperatures between 35.5ºC and 36.5ºC; incubation temperature is inversely proportional to incubation length, and absolute and relative weights of partridge chicks are not affected by incubation temperature.

  7. Avaliação dos níveis de proteína da dieta sobre a idade à maturidade sexual e produção de ovos de perdiz (Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek Influence of crude protein levels in partridges's (Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek diet and eggs production over the sexual maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joji Ariki

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a influência de dietas com diferentes níveis de proteína na fase de crescimento sobre a idade à maturidade sexual, utilizou-se sessenta perdizes, Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek (Aves, Tinamidae tendo como tratamentos cinco programas de alimentação, baseados nas recomendações do NRC (1994 para faisões, variando os teores de proteína bruta, de acordo com a idade da ave. Foi utilizado o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por três aves. Os dados obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância pelo SAS (SAS, 1992 e para comparações entre médias de tratamentos foi utilizado o teste de Tukey ao nível de 5% de probabilidade. Os resultados mostraram diferença (p In order to evaluate the influence of crude protein levels in the diet over the sexual maturity age, 60 partridges Rhynchotus rufescens Temminek (Aves, Tinamidae were fed 5 different crude protein levels according to the bird's age. The results show a difference (p < 0,05 among treatments for the age at first lay, which confirms the increased earlier sexual maturity in heavier birds, although no difference was observed in the treatments for the number of eggs produced. The average age at sexual maturity of 302 days, close to other birds with the same kind of exploration, shows that this species deserves further studies in order to improve its reproductive levels.

  8. Rendimento de carcaça e composição química da carne da perdiz nativa (Rhynchotus rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Maria Estela Gaglianone

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A composição química da carne e o rendimento de carcaça de perdizes (Rhynchotus rufescens adultas, com 12 meses, criadas em cativeiro com rações balanceadas, foram determinadas neste trabalho. Para rendimento de carcaça, após o abate e evisceração, foram feitos dois cortes: peito e coxa+sobrecoxa+dorso. Para análise química, foram retiradas três amostras de cada corte para determinação da composição centesimal da umidade, proteínas totais, lipídeos totais, cinzas e colesterol. Os valores observados mostraram um rendimento médio de carcaça de 74,4% com 36,6% de carne de peito. Os componentes químicos apresentaram para os cortes de coxa-sobrecoxa e peito, respectivamente, umidade 62,4 e 55,9%; proteínas 25,2 e 29,1%; lipídeos 1,6 e 5,6%; cinzas 1,4 e 1,2% e colesterol 234 e 70mg/100g. O excelente rendimento de carcaça, somado à composição química de sua carne, mostra o potencial desta espécie para a produção de carnes especiais.

  9. Morfologia do esôfago e do papo de perdizes Rhynchotus rufescens (Tiramidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1041 Morphology of oesophagus and crop of the partrigde Rhynchotus rufescens (Tiramidae - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v28i2.1041

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Lania de Araújo

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Vinte exemplares de Rhynchotus rufescens foram utilizadas para estudar a morfologia do esôfago e do papo. O material para o estudo morfológico foi coletado e o comprimento dos órgãos foi avaliado. Para o estudo histológico, as secções histológicas foram coradas com tricromo de Masson, posteriormente analisadas e descritas. O comprimento médio total do esôfago foi maior em fêmeas. Na entrada do tórax, a parede ventral do esôfago se dilata, formando o papo, maior em machos. A mucosa do esôfago é formada por epitélio escamoso estratificado, com glândulas mucosas e nódulos linfáticos. Há três camadas de músculo liso, as quais são envolvidas por serosa. A característica histológica do papo é semelhante à do esôfago. No papo, as glândulas mucosas são menores e os nódulos linfáticos estão dispersos no tecido conjuntivo. Há uma camada delgada de músculo liso e outras duas camadas mais largas de musculaturas longitudinal e circular.Twenty adult partridges Rhynchotus rufescens were used to study the morphology of oesophagus and crop. Materials to the morphologic study were collected and lengths of the oesophagus and of the crop were measured. For histological study, fragments of the oesophagus and of the crop were stained routinely with Masson’s trichrome stain. Total oesophagus was larger in females. In the entrance of the thorax, its ventral wall is enlarged broadly, forming the crop, which is larger in males. Oesophagus mucosa is constituted by stratified squamous epithelium, with mucous glands and lymphatic tissues. There are three layers of smooth muscle, involved in serosa. The histological structure of the crop is similar to the oesophagus. The mucous glands are reduced in size and the lymphatic tissues are dispersed in the connective tissue. There is a thin stratum of smooth muscle and other two wider layers of longitudinal and circular musculature.

  10. Efeito da forma física da ração sobre a porosidade, espessura da casca, perda de água e eclodibilidade em ovos de perdiz (Rhynchotus rufescens Effect of the physical form of diet on the eggshell porosity and thickness, water loss and hatchability of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ES Nakage

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar se a forma física da ração (farelada e peletizada afeta a porosidade e espessura da casca, e porcentagem de perda de água e eclodibilidade de ovos de perdiz. Os ovos foram coletados logo após a postura e separados em diferentes intervalos de peso (35-45g, 46-50g, 51-55g, 56-60g e 61-70g, sendo 10 ovos/classe/ração. O número de poros das cascas foi avaliado nas regiões apical, equatorial e basal dos ovos. Utilizou-se um micrômetro digital para a mensuração da espessura das três regiões da casca dos ovos, a partir dos quais obteve-se a espessura média por ovo. Os ovos para avaliação da eclodibilidade e porcentagem de perda de água do ovo até a transferência para o nascedouro (16º dia foram pesados, desinfectados, incubados (T=35,5ºC e UR= 70% e transferidos no 16º dia de incubação para o nascedouro, onde foram mantidos até a eclosão. As análises estatísticas empregadas foram: Análise de Variância e de Correlação, e teste de Tukey 5%. Os dados mostraram que, em perdizes, o número de poros na casca pode variar com a região da casca, peso do ovo e a forma física da ração, e que a ingestão de ração peletizada promove um aumento na espessura da casca dos ovos sem alterar a eclodibilidade e a porcentagem de perda de água dos mesmos durante a incubação.The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the ingestion of meal and pelleted diets on eggshell porosity and thickness, water loss and hatchability percentages of partridge (Rhynchotus rufescens eggs. The eggs (n=100 were divided into five different weight classes (1: 35-45 g, 2: 46-50 g, 3: 51-55 g, 4: 56-60 g, 5: 61-70 g. Parts from different regions (air space, equator and small end of each eggshell were analized in order to count pore numbers. Eggshell thickness measurements were carried out after removal of the egg membranes. The eggs used in the analyses of the water loss and hatchability percentages were

  11. Desempenho Produtivo da Perdiz (Rhynchotus rufescens Submetida a Rações com Diferentes Níveis Energéticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro MEG

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo definir o melhor nível energético na ração para perdizes na fase de reprodução, avaliando consumo de ração, produção e peso médio dos ovos e conversão alimentar. Os tratamentos foram três rações isoprotéicas (15%PB com níveis de energia de 2650, 2800 e 2950 kcal EM/kg. Foram utilizadas 24 aves em fase de reprodução da espécie Rynchotus rufescens, com 10 meses de idade. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 3 tratamentos (níveis de energia e 4 repetições, com um casal por parcela. Os resultados mostraram que não houve diferença significativa para consumo, mas houve efeito significativo positivo do nível de energia sobre o peso médio e a produção dos ovos. A conversão alimentar para os níveis de 2650 e 2800 kcal EM/kg de ração foi melhor em relação ao nível de 2950 kcal EM/ kg de ração. Concluiu-se que os níveis energéticos de 2650 a 2800 kcal EM/kg de ração seriam os recomendáveis para perdizes na fase reprodutiva.

  12. Les Tinamous. Tinami

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, H.

    1880-01-01

    Les Tinamous forment une tribu d’oiseaux parfaitement isolée et circonscrite, et bornée à la partie de l’Amérique comprise entre le Mexico méridional et la Patagonie. Ils se rattachent, toutefois, naturellement à l’ordre des Gallinae, tout en offrant certaines affinités avec l’ordre des Autruches.

  13. Location of the ureteral openings in the cloacas of tinamous, some ratite birds, and crocodilians: a primitive character.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Cleida Aparecida; Silva, Renata Mageste; Santos, Marcileida Maria; Mahecha, Germán Arturo Bohórquez

    2004-05-01

    Cloacas of 67 avian species, of both sexes, from various habitats and differing dietary habits, were examined macro- and microscopically to investigate possible variation in the location of the ureteral openings. Differing from most birds studied, in adult male Rhea americana and several tinamous species the ureters were found to open into the coprodeum. In these species the urodeum receives only the vas deferens or oviduct. Similarly, in crocodiles Caiman crocodilus yacare, but not in lizards Tropidurus montanus and snakes Crotalus durissus terrificus, the ureters empty into the coprodeum. This similarity between ancient birds (ratites and tinamous) and crocodiles may indicate a primitive character linking reptiles and birds. This unusual position of the ureteral orifice can represent an adaptation to facilitate urine collection into the coprodeum and large intestine. Another possibility is that this variation in ureter position is a male reproductive strategy to avoid the mixture of urine and semen in the cloaca. There were no evident correlations between the location of the ureteral openings and the birds' habitat, diet, or histology of the coprodeal mucosa. The occurrence of a phallus in eight species of birds was detected, as well as a peculiar vascularization related to the coprodeal epithelium of anseriformes. Together, these data add to the scarce information about the morphophysiology of the avian cloaca, and also contribute to clarify avian phylogenetic linkages. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Protein Metabolism in Lecithotrophic Larvae (Gastropoda: Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vavra, J; Manahan, D T

    1999-04-01

    Rates of protein depletion, synthesis, and turnover were measured in larvae of the abalone Haliotis rufescens as an approach to understanding macromolecular metabolism during lecithotrophic development. Protein content decreased linearly during development to metamorphic competence, with 34% of the initial protein in eggs depleted during the 8-day larval life span. Fractional rates of protein synthesis (percentage of total body-protein synthesized per day) decreased during development, from 40% (1-day-old trochophore larva) to 14% (7-day-old veliger larva). Separation of proteins by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed that protein pools in larvae are dominated by two high-molecular-weight protein classes (88 and 121 kDa). When the proteins of 1- and 3-day-old larvae were labeled with a mixture of 35S-methionine and cysteine, the pattern on two-dimensional gels showed that the turnover process (protein synthesis and degradation) involved hundreds of different proteins. The energy gained from loss of protein could account for 20% of the protein turnover rates for trochophore larvae and 79% of the lower turnover costs for late-stage veligers. Lecithotrophic larvae of H. rufescens maintained high biosynthetic activities, with up to 40% of their whole-body protein being turned over each day. Such dynamic processes during development of nonfeeding larvae would contribute significantly to maintenance metabolism.

  15. Placement of the genus Angelina within Rhytismatales and observations of Angelina rufescens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakehian, Jason M; LoBuglio, Katherine F; Pfister, Donald H

    2014-01-01

    Angelina rufescens is placed within the core clade of Rhytismatales (Leotiomycetes, Pezizomycotina, Ascomycota) based on analysis of LSU and mtSSU rDNA. The only species in the genus, it produces distinctive ascomata that reoccur annually on wood and on the remains of its own previous fructifications, forming dense conglomerations of interlocking longitudinally elongated apothecia with gray hymenia. Known collections and references of A. rufescens indicate that it is endemic to eastern and central United States. Morphological and cultural characters are described with notes on ascomata development. No mitospores were observed in field collections or in culture. Lectotypes are designated for Hysterium rufescens and its synonym Ascobolus conglomeratus. Angelina rufescens is illustrated here for the first time in the taxonomic literature.

  16. Mediterranean Recluse Spider, Loxosceles rufescens (Araneae: Sicariidae from Charkhab Cave, Southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber Sadeghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The best-known dangerous spiders belong to the six genera. The genus Loxosceles or violin spiders are well known for their ability to cause skin necrosis or loxoscelism. All Loxosceles species have medical im­portance due to their necrotizing venom. The present article reports the occurrence of L. rufescens in Charkhab Cave, south of Iran (Larestan.Methods: The specimens were collected from the Charkhab Cave using handling forceps, paintbrush and aspirator and preserved in 96% ethanol.Results: Loxosceles rufescens, a medically important spider, is recorded from Charkhab Cave in Fars Province (southwest of Iran. Identification of L. rufescens was performed based on external morphology and the features of male genitalia.Conclusion: Presence of L. rufescens in south of Iran especially in a cave confirmed that this species is a widely distributed species in Iran. Therefore, cavers or cave visitors should be aware of this poisonous spider in caves.

  17. A new coccidian parasite (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous elephant shrew, Elephantulus rufescens, from Kenya

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Modrý, David; Jirků, M.; Hůrková, L.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 2 (2005), s. 327-329 ISSN 1562-7020 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA524/03/1548 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Apicomplexa * Eimeria elephantuli * Elephantulus rufescens Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.425, year: 2005

  18. UTILIZAÇÃO DE DIFERENTES ESTRUTURAS DE VARIÂNCIA RESIDUAL EM MODELOS DE REGRESSÃO ALEATÓRIA PARA DESCRIÇÃO DA CURVA DE CRESCIMENTO DE PERDIZES (Rhynchotus rufescens CRIADAS EM CATIVEIRO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Tholon

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Random regression models (RRM allows considering heterogeneous residual variances to describe the growth for each age. However, this feature increases the number of parameters to be estimated in the maximization likelihood function process. Searching for more parsimonious RRM, several approaches have been suggested. One of them is the use of different structures of residual variances modelled through step function in different classes with similar variance or through variance functions. A total of 7,369 records of body weight of partridges, measured from birth to 210 days of partridges born from 2000 to 2004 were used in this research. The random regression models applied to the data set considered different structures of residual variances and were performed by the restricted maximum likelihood method. The residual variances were modeled using classes of 210 (R210 and 30 (R30 ages and variance functions with orders ranging from quadratic (VF2 to nine (VF9. The R30 considered birds weighted in the same week. The random effects included were the genetic additive direct and the permanent environment effects of the animal. It was not possible to include the maternal effects in the models. All random effects were modelled by sixth order regression on Legendre polynomials. The models were compared by the likelihood ratio test, the Akaike's information criterion and the Schwarz's Bayesian information criterion. Best results were showed by the models R210 and VF5. In conclusion, the most parsimonious model was VF5 and should be applied to fit growth records of partridges.

  19. [Extraction and GC-MS analysis of essential oil from leaves of Discocleidion rufescens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Yan-Zi; Wang, Jun-Xian

    2008-06-01

    To analyse the compositions of essential oil from leaves of Discocleidion rufescens. To isolate by steam distillation and analyze by GC-MS. 37 compounds, representing 92.25% of total oil were indentified and their relative amount was determined. The oil is rich in Phytol (39.30%, n-Hexadecanoic acid (11.72%), (Z) -3-Teoadecen-5-yne (5.78%) and beta-Pinene (3.63%).

  20. Description of the karyotype of Rhagomys rufescens Thomas, 1886 (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae from Southern Brazil Atlantic forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Filipe Testoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhagomys rufescens (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae is an endemic species of the Atlantic forest from Southern and Southeastern Brazil. Some authors consider Rhagomys as part of the tribe Thomasomyini; but its phylogenetic relationships remain unclear. Chromosomal studies on eight specimens of Rhagomys rufescens revealed a diploid number of 2n = 36 and a number of autosome arms FN = 50. GTG, CBG and Ag-NOR banding and CMA3/DAPI staining were performed on metaphase chromosomes. Eight biarmed and nine acrocentric pairs were found in the karyotype of this species. The X and Y chromosomes were both acrocentric. Most of the autosomes and the sex chromosomes showed positive C-bands in the pericentromeric region. The X chromosome showed an additional heterochromatic block in the proximal region of the long arm. Nucleolus organizer regions (NORs were located in the pericentromeric region of three biarmed autosomes (pairs 4, 6 and 8 and in the telomeric region of the short arm of three acrocentrics (pairs 10, 12 and 17. CMA3/DAPI staining produced fluorescent signals in many autosomes, especially in pairs 4, 6, and 8. This study presents cytogenetic data of Rhagomys rufescens for the first time.

  1. Biokinetic behavior of Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens: a reassessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Lorz, H.V.; Gonor, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The biokinetic behavior of /sup 95m/Tc in the red abalone, Haliotis rufescens, is reviewed in light of recent experiments on other molluscs. Additional experimentation has confirmed that, when uptake is directly from labeled seawater, abalone exhibit concentration factors in excess of 100. Bivalve molluscs under the same experimental conditions have concentration factors that do not exceed 2. However, uptake and loss kinetics cannot be described by a single compartment model as had been previously advanced. Assimilation of /sup 95m/Tc by the abalone following a single feeding of labeled macroalga, Nereocystis pyrifera, is high (approx. 45%) and loss kinetics are similar to those observed following direct uptake from seawater

  2. Evidence of green fluorescent protein and growth hormone expression in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancilla-Sánchez Edgar

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a highly appreciated mollusk in the national and international markets. Due to its natural over-exploitation and low growth rate, several genetic improvements were made, however special efforts are needed to increase its production. This study presents transgenic abalone’s larvae expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP fused to Cobia (Rachycentron canadum Growth Hormone (GH using sperm media transgenesis technique (SMT, pAcGFP1-N vector under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV promoter. Sperms were exposed to three voltages (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 Kv using a micropulser electroporator (Bio-Rad®. The highest GFP-GH expression average (40% was obtained in abalone larvae at 0.75 v. GFP and GH transgenes were positively detected by PCR, western blot and confocal microscope, respectively.

  3. Two new Brazilian species of Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 with remarks on amazonica and rufescens groups (Araneae, Sicariidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Sayuri Fukushima

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 has 91 representatives in the New World. Despite medical relevancy, the taxonomy of the genus is poorly understood. South American Loxosceles were divided into four groups of species: laeta, spadicea, gaucho and amazonica; this last one has a single species, Loxosceles amazonica Gertsch, 1967. More recently, the natural occurrence of L. amazonica in the New World has been questioned, due to the strong morphological resemblance and close phylogenetic relationship with Old World species, mainly with Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820. Herein, L. amazonica is rediagnosed and its morphological variation and natural distribution discussed. Two new species closely related to it from northeastern Brazil are also described, Loxosceles willianilsoni sp. n., from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, and Loxosceles muriciensis sp. n., from the state of Alagoas. The relationships of these new species with L. amazonica and L. rufescens are discussed.

  4. Two new Brazilian species of Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 with remarks on amazonica and rufescens groups (Araneae, Sicariidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri; de Andrade, Rute Maria Gonçalves; Bertani, Rogério

    2017-01-01

    The genus Loxosceles Heinecken & Lowe, 1832 has 91 representatives in the New World. Despite medical relevancy, the taxonomy of the genus is poorly understood. South American Loxosceles were divided into four groups of species: laeta , spadicea , gaucho and amazonica ; this last one has a single species, Loxosceles amazonica Gertsch, 1967. More recently, the natural occurrence of L. amazonica in the New World has been questioned, due to the strong morphological resemblance and close phylogenetic relationship with Old World species, mainly with Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820). Herein, L. amazonica is rediagnosed and its morphological variation and natural distribution discussed. Two new species closely related to it from northeastern Brazil are also described, Loxosceles willianilsoni sp. n. , from the state of Rio Grande do Norte, and Loxosceles muriciensis sp. n. , from the state of Alagoas. The relationships of these new species with L. amazonica and L. rufescens are discussed.

  5. Physiological performance of juvenile Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai abalone exposed to the withering syndrome agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roxana C; Brokordt, Katherina; Lohrmann, Karin B

    2012-09-15

    Withering syndrome (WS) is a serious chronic disease caused by infection with the bacterium Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis, a Rickettsiales-like organism (WS-RLO) that affects multiple abalone species in both natural and farmed populations. However, there is no available information regarding the effects of this disease on the physiological performance of infected abalone. We studied the effect of different levels of infection on components of energy balance and physiological indices (rates of absorption and assimilation, O/N ratio, and scope for growth) in the abalone species Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai. Juveniles were exposed to C. X. californiensis transmission for 130 days, during which time the presence/absence of WS-RLOs was evaluated by PCR (following DNA sequencing-based confirmation of 100% identity with the sequence of C. X. californiensis from California), and the prevalence and intensity of infection were evaluated via histological analysis. Among H. rufescens juveniles exposed to the bacterium, 92% became infected (positive by histology), and the intensity of infection ranged from low (degree 1) to moderate (degree 2). In contrast, no H. discus hannai juveniles were positive for WS-RLO by histology, although 23% were positive by PCR, possibly indicating incipient WS-RLO infection that did not develop during the experimental period or to mere presence of WS-RLO DNA in the sample. Infection of H. rufescens juveniles by WS-RLOs negatively affected all components of the energy balance and physiological indices, such as scope for growth and the O/N ratio, in direct relation to the degree of infection. The most strongly affected functions were the rate of ingestion, standard metabolism, and production of feces, which were reduced by 60-80% in the most highly infected individuals. The reduced energy intake in the organisms produced a strong energy imbalance such that the energy available for growth was reduced by 49% in infected

  6. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae) y patrones generales en Squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Federico; Lobo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral) osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides) y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos d...

  7. Atlas de Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae. Anatomía externa, osteología y bibliografía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero, Ricardo

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Los lagartos que en Argentina se conocen como "iguana roja" o "caraguay" pertenecen al género Tupinambis, uno de los saurios de mayor talla del continente; tienen importancia económica, tanto por su cuero como por su carne. Se reconocen seis especies actuales, que se distribuyen en América del Sur desde Colombia hasta el norte de la Patagonia, Argentina (Cei, 1993. Por su amplia distribución y abundancia son utilizados como animales de laboratorio por lo que es importante el conocimiento detallado de su anatomía. Es por ello que aquí presentamos en un Atlas fotográfico la morfología externa y osteología de Tupinambis rufescens.

  8. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae y patrones generales en Squamata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arias, Federico

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos del dermatocráneo más tardíos en osificarse son los del arco temporal superior (lacrimal, postorbital, postfrontal. Las principales diferencias en los tiempos de aparición y osificación se producen en algunos huesos del cráneo y en el autopodio (carpo/tarso, pero estas heterocronías no alteran la arquitectura final del esqueleto. Los resultados encontrados son comparados y discutidos con el conocimiento existente sobre otros linajes de Squamata. We describe the ontogenetic variation of skeleton of 13 Tupinambis meriane embryos and 11 Tupinambis rufescens embryos. Furthermore heterochronies in ossification sequence between both species are recorded. Results show that dermal elements (belonging to the skull and the pectoral girdle ossify before the chondral elements, being the elements that constitute the lower jaw, the palate (especially the palatine and the pterygoid, and the clavicle the first ones to ossify. The elements belonging to the dermatocranium which ossify later are the ones of the upper temporal arch (lacrimal, postorbital and postfrontal. The main differences present in timing of onset and ossification are produced in some bones of the skull and of the autopodium (carpus / tarsus; though, these heterochronies do not alter the final structure of the skeleton. Results achieved are compared and discussed with the available knowledge of other squamate lineages.

  9. Growth rates of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai in tank culture systems in southern Chile (41.5°S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Mardones

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The increased activity of aquaculture in Chile involves cultivation of salmonids, oysters mussels and other species such, and to a lesser extent species such as red abalone (Haliotis rufescens and Japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai. The aim of this study was to evaluate the growth rate of Haliotis rufescens and Haliotis discus hannai fed with different pellet based diets with Macrocystis sp. and Ulva sp., grown in ponds for 13 months. The results for both species denoted that there was an increase in length and biomass during experimental period, existing low growth rates during the austral winter (July-September and increase during the austral summer (December-January. Results are consistent with descriptions of literature that there is high rate of growth during the summer and using diet of brown algae. From the economic standpoint abalone farming would be an economically viable activity for local aquaculture, considering the water quality and food requirements.

  10. Immunomodulatory activity of extracts from Cordia superba Cham. and Cordia rufescens A. DC. (Boraginaceae, plant species native from Brazilian Semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Fernando Oliveira Costa

    Full Text Available The family Boraginaceae is widely distributed in Brazil and in the Northeastern region some species are popularly used to treat symptoms of rheumatism, painful menstruation and dyspepsia. In this work we studied Cordia superba Cham. and C. rufescens A. DC., native from Brazilian Semi-arid region, in order to investigate their immunomodulatory activity. Six extracts were prepared from aerial parts of C. superba and C. rufescens. The cytotoxicity was evaluated using splenocytes from BALB/c mice. The immunomodulatory activity was determined by in vitro assays using activated mouse macrophages and lymphocytes. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from BALB/c mice were stimulated with IFN-gamma and LPS in the presence/absence of the samples. The NO production was measured indirectly through Griess method. Three samples inhibited the production of nitric oxide in values near 50% at a concentration of 100 µg/mL. To evaluate the effects of the extracts on lymphocytes, splenocytes from BALB/c mice were incubated with the samples and concanavalin A. Proliferation inhibition was determined by analysis of ³H-thymidine uptake. Samples from the two species had a strong inhibitory activity on lymphocyte proliferation and IL-2 production. Two chloroform extracts prepared from aerial parts of C. rufescens had the lowest IC50 values (7.6 and 11.0 µg/mL.

  11. Stilbenes from Deguelia rufescens var. urucu (Ducke) A. M. G. Azevedo leaves: effects on seed germination and plant growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobo, Livia T.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Freitas, Manolo C.C. de; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Guilhon, Giselle M.S.P.; Santos, Lourivaldo S.; Santos, Alberdan S.; Arruda, Mara S.P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.b [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Souza Filho, Antonio Pedro S. [Centro de Pesquisa Agroflorestal da Amazonia Oriental (CPATU), Belem, PA (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The Amazon biodiversity may provide plants whose chemical substances are capable of controlling weeds. In this study we report the isolation and identification of five stilbenes from the leaves of 'timbo vermelho' (Deguelia rufescens var. urucu): 4-methoxylonchocarpene (1); 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-hydroxy-3'-prenyl-trans-stilbene (2), lonchocarpene (3), 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-Oprenyl- trans-stilbene (4) and pterostilbene (5). Compounds 2 and 4 are new natural products although 2 has been previously cited as synthesis product. Potential allelopathic activity for 1, 2 and 4 was evaluated over seed germination and plant growth of Mimosa pudica weed. The observed effects on seed germination did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) when the analysis of phytotoxicity was performed with the substances alone, the maximum inhibition did not exceed 20%. The most intense inhibitions on radicle and hypocotyl development were found for compound 4 (p < 0.05). When tested in pairs, showed antagonism for seed germination and synergism for radicle and hypocotyl development. (author)

  12. Patrones de osificación en Tupinambis merianae y Tupinambis rufescens (Squamata: Teiidae) y patrones generales en Squamata

    OpenAIRE

    Arias, Federico; Lobo, Fernando

    2006-01-01

    Se describe la variación ontogenética del esqueleto de 13 embriones de Tupinambis merianae y 11 de Tupinambis rufescens, detectándose heterocronías entre ambas especies. Los resultados muestran que los elementos dermales (tanto del cráneo como de la cintura pectoral) osifican antes que los elementos condrales, siendo los elementos que forman la mandíbula inferior, el paladar (especialmente los palatinos y los pterigoides) y la clavícula los primeros en osificarse, mientras que los elementos d...

  13. Molecular characterization of collagen IV evidences early transcription expression related to the immune response against bacterial infection in the red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chovar-Vera, Ornella; Valenzuela-Muñoz, Valentina; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian

    2015-02-01

    Collagen IV has been described as a structural protein of the basement membrane, which as a whole forms a specialized extracellular matrix. Recent studies have indicated a possible relationship between collagen IV and the innate immune response of invertebrate organisms. The present study characterized the alpha-1 chain of collagen IV in the red abalone Haliotis rufescens (Hr-ColIV) and evaluated its association with the innate immune response against Vibrio anguillarum. To further evidence the immune response, the matrix metalloproteinase-1 (Hr-MMP-1) and C-type lectin (Hr-CLEC) genes were also assessed. The complete sequence of Hr-ColIV was composed of 6658 bp, with a 5'UTR of 154 bp, a 3'UTR of 1177 bp, and an ORF of 5327 bp that coded for 1776 amino acids. The innate immune response generated against V. anguillarum resulted in a significant increase in the transcript levels of Hr-ColIV between 3 and 6 hpi, whereas Hr-MMP-1 and Hr-CLEC had the highest transcript activity 6 and 12 hpi, respectively. The results obtained in this study propose a putative biological function for collagen IV involved in the early innate immune response of the red abalone H. rufescens. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Differential susceptibility to the Withering Syndrome agent and renal coccidia in juvenile Haliotis rufescens, Haliotis discus hannai and the interspecific hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roxana; Lohrmann, Karin B; Pizarro, Javiera; Brokordt, Katherina

    2014-02-01

    Withering Syndrome (WS) is a pathogenic chronic disease caused by the intracellular rickettsial-like bacterium "Candidatus Xenohaliotis californiensis" (WS-RLOs), which affects many abalone species. The renal coccidium (Margolisiella haliotis) has often been observed concurrent with WS infection. The red abalone Haliotis rufescens is a very susceptible species to WS and is also infected by the coccidium M. haliotis. In contrast, the Japanese abalone Haliotis discus hannai is not infected by these parasites. Interspecific hybridization is a method for improving important traits in animal husbandry. The objective of this study was to determine susceptibility to WS-RLO and M. haliotis infection in the hybrid generated from a cross between red and Japanese abalones. Juveniles from both species and the interspecific hybrid were challenged by exposure to effluent from red abalone adults infected with both parasites. The animals were analyzed by histology at 130days post-challenge. A 33% prevalence WS-RLOs was observed in the red abalone H. rufescens, whereas a 20% prevalence was observed in the hybrid. Infections were graded on a scale of 0-3. Of these red abalones infected, 53% presented grade 1 infection intensity, 10% had grade 2 infections, and 50% had grade 3 infections. However, the hybrids only presented intensities at the extremes of the scale; of those infected 33% showed grade 1 infections and 66% had grade 3 infections. The coccidium prevalence was 7% in red abalone individuals and 13% in the hybrid abalone. In contrast, the Japanese abalone did not present infections with either parasite. As with the prevalence, the infection intensities for the coccidium were higher in the hybrid abalone; of those infected 25% had grade 2 infections, and 75% had grade 3 infections, but the red abalone presented only grade 2 infection intensities. Therefore, the hybrid did not inherited non-susceptibility or resistance characteristics of the parental H. discus hannai and

  15. The feasibility of bomb radiocarbon analysis to support an age-at-length relationship for red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson in northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaf, R T; Andrews, A H; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A

    2009-01-07

    Analysis of bomb generated radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) changes in a red abalone, Haliotis rufescens Swainson shell was used to investigate age-at-length relationships derived from data from a previous multi-year, multi-site tag-recapture study. Shell carbonate was extracted from four successive growth trajectory locations in a single shell with a length of 251 mm MSL. Extraction locations were based on VBGF predictions and chosen to span the initial rise of the {sup 14}C-bomb pulse that is known to have occurred in surface ocean waters during 1958 {+-} 1 y in the northeast Pacific. The close temporal correspondence of the red abalone sample series to regional {Delta}{sup 14}C records demonstrated the utility of the technique for validating age-at-length relationships for the red abalone. The findings provided support for a mean VBGF derived age of 32 y (range 30 to 33 y) for the specimen; however, the analysis of {sup 14}C data indicated that the specimen could be older.

  16. Experimental evidence for the effects of polyphenolic compounds from Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht (Phaeophyta: Laminariales) on feeding rate and growth in the red abalone Haliotus rufescens Swainson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Frank C.; Estes, James A.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of polyphenolic compounds from brown algae on grazing and growth rate of the California red abalone Haliotis rufescens Swainson were examined. Abalone consumed three phenolic-poor algal species, Laminaria sinclarii (Harvey) Farlow, Macrocystis pyrifera Agardh, and Nereocystis luetkeana Postels et Ruprecht (mean phenolic content = 0.52% dry mass), at a greater rate than two phenolic-rich species, Dictyoneurum californicum Ruprecht and Cystoseira osmundacea Agardh (mean phenolic content = 4.60% dry mass). This inverse relationship between phenolic content and consumption rate also existed after the algae were macerated and the liquid portion of the blended slurry incorporated in agar discs. However, the correlation between grazing rate and phenolic content imprpve d in this latter experiment, thus suggesting that abalone grazing was deterred significantly by the morphology of L. sinclarii and, to a lesser extent, of M. pyrifera. Polyphenolics extracted from D. californicum reduced abalone grazing rates by 90% when incorporated into agar discs at a concentration of 6 mg·ml−1. Although abalone were unable to maintain body mass when fed ad libitum on macerated M. pyrifera incorporated into agar discs, polyphenolics from D. californicum further inhibited shell growth when added to the discs at 5 mg·ml−1. The abalone ate less of the phenol-containing discs than of the discs lacking phenolics. Our results support findings of several prior studies that polyphenolic compounds from brown algae deter grazing by coastal zone herbivores in the northeast Pacific Ocean.

  17. Chemical composition of the essential oils of the berries of Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanène, Medini; Ameur, Elaissi; Larbi, Khouja Med; Piras, Alessandra; Porcedda, Silvia; Falconieri, Danilo; Marongiu, Bruno; Farhat, Farhat; Chemli, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    This study is outlined to probe the chemical composition of essential oil and in vitro antioxidant activity of Juniperus oxycedrus ssp. macrocarpa (S. & m.) Ball. and Juniperus oxycedrus L. ssp. rufescens (L. K.) berries, collected from four sites, according to their maturity phase. The chemical composition of the hydrodistilled essential oil was analysed by GC-MS. Forty-eight compounds were identified, accounting for approximately 79.8-98.9% of the oil. The main constituents were α-pinene, germacrene D, myrcene, abietadiene and cis-calamenene, their mean percentage vary according to their phenological stage. The antioxidant activity of the samples was determined by the ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Hawaria essential oil extracted from mature berries showed the highest antioxidant capacity.

  18. Phytochemical and anti-diarrheal studies of Bauhinia rufescens Lam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    phytochemical screening of the leaves, roots and stem bark showed the presence of saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, sterols and terpenes. The methanol extract of the leaves showed 100 percent protection at dose levels of 125 and 250mg/kg in castor oil-induced diarrheal study in mice. This activity was ...

  19. First attempts to cryopreserve red abalone (Haliotis rufescens oocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramírez Torrez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Overall, few advances in the cryopreservation of complex cells such as oocytes, embryo or tissue have been registered and in less quantity have been reported for aquatic species. Abalone has high economic interest worldwide and the conservation of abalone germplasm may help to enhance its culture and develop repopulation programs. In this work, we reported the cytotoxic effect of two concentration of trehalose (0.2 and 0.4 M on red abalone oocytes incubated for 10, 15 and 20 min. Also, we reported the cryopreservation of red abalone oocytes using a 3-steps cryopreservation protocol and 5 thawing protocols. Significant differences on cytotoxic effect were found (p<0.01. However, none of the cryoprotectant was optimum to cryopreserve red abalone oocyte. In conclusion, it is necessary to find an appropriate method to dehydrate or make the cryoprotectant penetrate on the abalone oocyte before proceeding to cryopreservation.

  20. Concentration and retention of Toxoplasma gondii surrogates from seawater by red abalone (Haliotis rufescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Kristen C; Krusor, Colin; Tinker, M. Tim; Moore, James G.; Conrad, Patricia A.; Shapiro, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Small marine snails and abalone have been identified as high- and low-risk prey items, respectively, for exposure of threatened southern sea otters to Toxoplasma gondii, a zoonotic parasite that can cause fatal encephalitis in animals and humans. While recent work has characterized snails as paratenic hosts for T. gondii, the ability of abalone to vector the parasite has not been evaluated. To further elucidate why abalone predation may be protective against T. gondii exposure, this study aimed to determine whether: (1) abalone are physiologically capable of acquiring T. gondii; and (2) abalone and snails differ in their ability to concentrate and retain the parasite. Abalone were exposed to T. gondii surrogate microspheres for 24 h, and fecal samples were examined for 2 weeks following exposure. Concentration of surrogates was 2–3 orders of magnitude greater in abalone feces than in the spiked seawater, and excretion of surrogates continued for 14 days post-exposure. These results indicate that, physiologically, abalone and snails can equally vector T. gondii as paratenic hosts. Reduced risk of T. gondii infection in abalone-specializing otters may therefore result from abalone's high nutritional value, which implies otters must consume fewer animals to meet their caloric needs.

  1. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  2. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus rufescens)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, V.P.; Agrawal, M.; Gupta, C.

    1976-01-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones. (orig.) [de

  3. Nutrient uptake efficiency of Gracilaria chilensis and Ulva lactuca in an IMTA system with the red abalone Haliotis rufescens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Macchiavello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the nutrient uptake efficiency of Ulva lactuca and Gracilaria chilensis cultivated in tanks associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The experiments evaluated different seaweed stocking densities (1200, 1900, 2600, and 3200 g m-2 and water exchange rates (60, 80, 125, and 250 L h-1. The results show that both U. lactuca and G. chilensis were efficient in capturing and removing all of the inorganic nutrients originating from the abalone cultivation for all of the tested conditions. Furthermore, an annual experiment was performed with U. lactuca, cultivated at a stocking density of 1900 g m-2 and at a water exchanged rate of 125 L h-1, in order to evaluate seasonal changes in the nutrient uptake efficiency, productivity, and growth rate associated with the wastewater of a land-based abalone culture. The results confirmed high uptake efficiency during the entire year, equivalent to a 100% removal of the NH4, NO3, and PO4 produced by the land-based abalone culture. The growth rate and productivity of U. lactuca presented a marked seasonality, increasing from fall until summer and varying from 0.5 ± 0.2% to 2.6 ± 0.2% d-1 and 10 ± 6.1% to 73.6 ± 8.4% g m-2 d-1 for sustainable growth rate and productivity, respectively. We conclude that there is sufficient evidence that demonstrates the high possibility of changing the traditional monoculture system of abalone in Chile, to a sustainable integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system, generating positive environmental externalities, including the use of U. lactuca as a biofiltration unit.

  4. Effects of climatic factors on prevalence of developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails (Lymnaea auricularia var rufescens in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam, K.M

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails and their populations in Sylhet region of Bangladesh. A total of 1865 Lymnaea snails were collected and examined, of which 56 (3% were found to having infected with developmental stages of Fasciola gigantica. Only 4.08% infected of 515 snails were collected from Biswanath Upazilla followed by 3.16% of 443 from Beanibazar, 2.53% of 396 from Balaganj then 2.40% of 292 Jaintapur Upazilla and the lowest 1.83% of 219 from Sylhet Sadar. Month-wise data, the prevalence of snail infections was observed to be the highest in May (5.06% and August (5.61% and the lowest in March (0.74% and February (0.68%. However there was no infection observed through November to January. Seasonal prevalence of the developmental stages of F. gigantica infection in Lymnaea snails was also studied. Highest prevalence (4.63% was recorded during rainy season and lowest prevalence (0.76% was recorded during winter season. The study revealed that the developmental stages of F. gigantica infection in snail populations decreases from November to January and increases from February to October and highest in August and September in Sylhet region of Bangladesh.

  5. Dirphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Hemileucinae: descrição de uma espécie nova do sul do Brasil e da fêmea de D. rufescens F. Johnson & Michener Dirphia Hübner (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae, Hemileucinae: description of a new species from Southern Brazil and the female of D. rufescens F. Johnson & Michener

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos G. C. Mielke

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uma nova espécie de Dirphia Hübner, [1819] do Rio Grande do Sul e de Santa Catarina, Brasil é descrita. Aproxima-se de D.sombrero (Le Cerf, 1934, mas difere pelo tamanho menor e pela genitália masculina (edeago com vesica dorsal, sendo esta provida de espículas dispersas. A fêmea de DirphiarufescensF. Johnson & Michener, 1948 é descrita pela primeira vez e a sua distribuição atualizada.A new species of Dirphia Hübner, [1819] from Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina, Brazil is described. Closely related to D.sombrero (Le Cerf, 1934, the new species differs by its smaller size and male genitalia (aedeagus bears dorsal vesica and this shows disperse spiculae. The female of DirphiarufescensF. Johnson & Michener, 1948 is described for the first time and its geographical distribution is updated.

  6. Poliploidia en moluscos de importancia comercial (almeja catarina Argopecten ventricosus Sowerby ii, 1842; almeja mano de leon Nodipecten subnodosus Sowerby 1835; y abulón rojo Haliotis rufescens Swainson 1822)

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado Amparo, Rosalío

    2003-01-01

    La poliploidía ha sido una de las biotecnologías más empleadas en la ultima década para el mejoramiento genético de moluscos bivalvos por ser una de las mejores alternativas a corto plazo para incrementar la producción. Los organismos triploides presentan tres juegos completos de cromosomas homólogos que afectan la sinapsis, lo cual da como resultado una esterilidad parcial o total, la cual teóricamente repercute favorablemente en el crecimiento. Sin embargo, la inducción a la triploidía pres...

  7. A new species of porcelain crab, Petrolisthes tuerkayi n. sp. (Crustacea: Anomura: Porcellanidae), from the Persian Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderloo, Reza; Apel, Michael

    2014-11-04

    A new species of porcellanid crab, Petrolisthes tuerkayi n. sp., is described from the Persian Gulf. The new species is closely related to P. rufescens Heller, 1861, but is easily distinguishable by having three or four large spines distally on the posterior margin of the carpus of chelipeds, whereas the posterior margin of the cheliped merus in P. rufescens is unarmed.

  8. New Avian Hepadnavirus in Palaeognathous Bird, Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jo, Wendy K; Pfankuche, Vanessa M; Petersen, Henning; Frei, Samuel; Kummrow, Maya; Lorenzen, Stephan; Ludlow, Martin; Metzger, Julia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Osterhaus, Albert; van der Vries, Erhard

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, we identified an avian hepatitis B virus associated with hepatitis in a group of captive elegant-crested tinamous (Eudromia elegans) in Germany. The full-length genome of this virus shares <76% sequence identity with other avihepadnaviruses. The virus may therefore be considered a new

  9. Coléoptères nouveaux ou peu connus du Musée de Leyde

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fairmaire, L.

    1887-01-01

    Long. 13 millim. — Elongatus, modice convexus, rufus, modice nitidus, capite infuscato, fulvo-pubescens, subtus cum pedibus dilute rufescens, tarsis obscuris; capite summo fortiter punctato, antice transversim late impresso et subtilius sed densius punctato, labro rufescente, late sinuato; antennis

  10. 2388-IJBCS-Article-Haro Hadou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Acacia senegal (L.) Willd ; Prosopis chilensis Stunz. et Bauhinia rufescens. Lam.. Geo-Eco-Trop, 33: 115-124. Megueni C, Awono ET, Ndjouenkeu R. 2011. Effet simultané de la dilution et de la combinaison du Rhizobium et des mycorhizes sur la production foliaire et les propriétés physico-chimiques des jeunes feuilles de ...

  11. 1575-IJBCS-Article-Kadidia B. Sanon+

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Prosopis chilensis Stunz. et Bauhinia rufescens Lam.. Geo. Eco. Trop., 33: 115-. 124. Marx DH. 1969. The influence of ectotrophic mycorrhizal fungi on the resistance of pine roots to pathogenic infections. I. Antagonism of mycorrhizal fungi to root pathogenic fungi and soil bacteria. Phytopathol., 59: 153-163. Megueni C ...

  12. Short communications

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eltringham 1973, Pomeroy 2002, Nachuha. 2007, Nachuha & John 2012). Breeding, particularly in eastern Uganda, starts in. March when the main rains begin and ends in July. For the past seven years, P. rufescens has bred at mixed colony sites in eastern. Uganda. In 2005 breeding was recorded at three sites, namely ...

  13. The Functional Morphology and Adaptations of the Epididymis in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sengis are testicondid African mammals that constitute Order Macroscelidae. The epididymal morphology in the rufous sengis (Elephantulus rufescens) was studied with focus on features and adaptations that make it suitable for sperm maturation and storage in this testicondid mammal. The three topographic regions were ...

  14. Some conservation aspects of papyrus endemic passerines around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bradypterus carpalis, Greater Swamp Warbler Acrocephalus rufescens, Papyrus ... Papyrus Yellow Warbler, the globally Near-threatened Papyrus Gonolek and .... Bennun, L.A. & Njoroge, P. 999. Important bird areas in Kenya. Nairobi, Kenya: East. Africa Natural History Society. Papyrus endemic passerines around Lake ...

  15. preliminary phytochemical and antimicrobial screening of the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    albicans, using disc diffusion method at disc potency of 100µg/disc showed inhibitory activity on the test isolates with zone of inhibition ... Keywords: Bauhinia rufescens, Stem bark, Phytochemical screening, Antimicrobial activity. INTRODUCTION ..... Harborne, J.B. and Williams, C.A. (2000): Advances in flavonoids research ...

  16. 857-IJBCS-Article-Usman Hamidu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR GATSING

    bark and leaves of Bauhinia rufescens were collected from Gathla-Gwoza, Borno State, Nigeria. Proximate analysis was done .... The determination of crude lipid content of the samples was done using. Soxhlet type of the direct solvent extraction method. The solvent used was petroleum ether. (boiling range 40 – 60 °C).

  17. Composition and foraging behaviour of mixed-species flocks in two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enlarged flock size resulted from a general increase in flocking tendency of all species. At the species level, the Long-billed Crombec Sylvietta rufescens and the Chinspot Batis Batis molitor showed clear feeding benefits within flocks, whereas tits obtained no feeding benefit. Crombecs and batises also changed foraging ...

  18. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vol 3, No 3 (2009), Protein quality and digestibility of different parts (spathe and spadix) of Colocasia esculenta var. antiquorum flower, Abstract PDF. EE Agbor, LC Kenmogne, J Tchoumboue, IB Umoh. Vol 5, No 4 (2011), Proximate and elemental composition of Bauhinia rufescens Lam (Leguminosae : Caesalpinioidaea) ...

  19. Antibacterial effects of cyanogenic glucoside isolated from the stem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The chemical contents and in vitro antibacterial effects of the n-butanol column fractions, stem bark methanol extracts of Bauhinia rufescens Lam. were evaluated in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using disc diffusion technique. The n-butanol soluble portion from the stem bark methanol extract was successively ...

  20. Phytochemical and in-vitro antibacterial effects of the partitioned ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study into the chemical contents and in-vitro antibacterial effects of the portioned portions of the methanol stem bark extracts of Bauhinia rufescens Lam were evaluated in some Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria using the hole-in-plate disc diffusion technique. The methanol stem bark extract was successively ...

  1. The status of habitat of great white and pink-backed pelicans in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitat change, mainly through the actions of humans, poses a threat to great white (Pelecanus onocrotalus) and pink-backed (P. rufescens) pelicans in northeastern KwaZulu-Natal, the southernmost distributions of these species on Africa's eastern seaboard. This study assessed the relative importance and state of the ...

  2. Numbers and distribution of the Great White Pelican Pelecanus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa, is the most southerly area in Africa in which the Pink-backed Pelican Pelecanus rufescens breeds. This area also boasts the most southerly breeding colony on the eastern seaboard of Africa for the Great White Pelican P. onocrotalus. Considerable amounts of data relating to the ...

  3. Chemotaxonomy of the Amazonian Unonopsis Species Based on GC-MS and Chemometric Analysis of the Leaf Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M. A. da Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Unonopsis specimens, comprising five species commonly found at Amazonas state (Brazil were collected in three different sites. The leaves of the specimens were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The data treated by chemometric analysis with the objective of verify the potential of their chemical profiles for chemotaxonomic approaches. Despite the essential oils presented spathulenol and caryophyllene oxide as a main constituent in most samples, the multivariate analysis showed significant differences between the species and their collection sites. The obtained results suggest high chemical similarity between U. floribunda and U. rufescens species and proved that U. guatterioides has a distinct chemistry when compared to the analyzed species. The chemical identification points to α-guaiene, α-calacorene and widdrol as possible chemical markers for U. floribunda and U. rufescens species.

  4. Using LC and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis as Tools to Distinguish Timbó Collections into Two Deguelia Species: A Contribution to Chemotaxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Danielle; E Silva, Consuelo; Pinheiro, Aline; Frommenwiler, Débora; Arruda, Mara; Guilhon, Giselle; Alves, Cláudio; Arruda, Alberto; Da Silva, Milton

    2016-04-30

    The species Deguelia utilis and Deguelia rufescens var. urucu, popularly known as "timbó," have been used for many years as rotenone sources in insecticide formulations. In this work, a method was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA) system, and results were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). By quantifying the major rotenoids of these species, it was possible to establish a linear relation between them. The ratio between the concentrations of rotenone and deguelin for D. utilis is approximately 1:0.8, respectively, while for D. rufescens var. urucu it is 2:1. These results may help to distinguish these species contributing to their taxonomic identification.

  5. Using LC and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis as Tools to Distinguish Timbó Collections into Two Deguelia Species: A Contribution to Chemotaxonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle da Costa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The species Deguelia utilis and Deguelia rufescens var. urucu, popularly known as “timbó,” have been used for many years as rotenone sources in insecticide formulations. In this work, a method was developed and validated using a high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array (HPLC-PDA system, and results were analyzed using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA. By quantifying the major rotenoids of these species, it was possible to establish a linear relation between them. The ratio between the concentrations of rotenone and deguelin for D. utilis is approximately 1:0.8, respectively, while for D. rufescens var. urucu it is 2:1. These results may help to distinguish these species contributing to their taxonomic identification.

  6. Management and Risk Assessment of Sabellid Polychaete Infestations in Abalone Mariculture Facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Kuris, Armand M.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1993, growers at some commercial abalone mariculture facilities (AMFs) in Southern California brought an interesting sabellid polychaete to our attention. The worm infested shells of cultured red abalone, Haliotis rufescens. Heavily infested abalone ceased growth. Their shells exhibited domed teratology often lacking respiratory holes. The worms appeared to bore into the shell. We discovered that all AMFs in California were infested; several were so heavily infest...

  7. Morphological diagnosis and geographic distribution of Atlantic Forest red-rumped mice of the genus Juliomys (Rodentia: Sigmodontinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pavan,Silvia E; Leite,Yuri L. R

    2011-01-01

    Recognition and identification of red-rumped mice of the genus Juliomys González, 2000 has been a problem among many mammalogists, and specimens of this genus are commonly confused with other Atlantic Forest sigmodontine rodents. Herein we provide an expanded diagnosis for the genus based on the analyses of the three living species of Juliomys, and provide morphological comparisons to the small bodied and bright colored rodents Rhagomys rufescens (Thomas, 1886) and Oligoryzomys flavescens (Wa...

  8. A taxonomic review of Korean Liogluta Thomson (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Aleocharinae) with descriptions of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Gyu; Ahn, Kee-Jeong

    2016-11-15

    A taxonomic review of the Liogluta Thomson in Korea is presented. The genus is represented in Korea by eight species including three new species, L. changwhani Lee & Ahn, sp. nov., L. jinilli Lee & Ahn, sp. nov. and L. rufescens Lee & Ahn, sp. nov. Two species [L. distans (Sharp) and L. ursi (Sawada)] are new to the Korean peninsula and L. pyonganica is recorded for the first time in South Korea. A key, descriptions, habitus photographs and illustrations of the diagnostic characters are provided.

  9. Ecological observations and GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of Sacoglossan Elysia bangtawaensis (Swennen)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Desai, N.M.; Jagtap, T.G.

    Kahalalides have been isolated from the sacoglossans E. rufescens (Rao et al., 2008) and E. ornata (Horgen et al., 2000) which showed antimalarial (El-Sayed et al., 1996) anticancer (Hamann et al., 1996) antipsoriatic (Izquierdo and Miguel, 2004...) antituberculosis (El-Sayed et al., 2000) and antifungal activity (Donia and Hamann, 2003). Although numerous secondary metabolites and variety of marine natural products have been isolated from sacoglossans (Faulkner, 1992; Avila, 1995), their ecological roles...

  10. Secondarily flightless birds or Cretaceous non-avian theropods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanau, J Lee

    2010-02-01

    Recent studies by Varricchio et al. reveal that males cared for the eggs of troodontids and oviraptorids, so-called "non-avian theropods" of the Cretaceous, just as do those of most Paleognathic birds (ratites and tinamous) today. Further, the clutches of both groups have large relative volumes, and consist of many eggs of relatively large size. By comparison, clutch care by most extant birds is biparental and the clutches are of small relative volume, and consist of but few small eggs. Varricchio et al. propose that troodontids and oviraptorids were pre-avian and that paternal egg care preceded the origin of birds. On the contrary, unmentioned by them is that abundant paleontological evidence has led several workers to conclude that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondary flightless birds. This evidence ranges from bird-like bodies and bone designs, adapted for climbing, perching, gliding, and ultimately flight, to relatively large, highly developed brains, poor sense of smell, and their feeding habits. Because ratites also are secondarily flightless and tinamous are reluctant, clumsy fliers, the new evidence strengthens the view that troodontids and oviraptorids were secondarily flightless. Although secondary flightlessness apparently favors paternal care of clutches of large, abundant eggs, such care is not likely to have been primitive. There are a suite of previously unknown independent findings that point to the evolution of, first, maternal, followed by biparental egg care in earliest ancestors of birds. This follows from the discovery of remarkable relict avian reproductive behaviors preserved by virtue of the highly conservative nature of vertebrate brain evolution. These behaviors can be elicited readily by exposing breeding birds to appropriate conditions, both environmental and with respect to their eggs and chicks. They give significant new clues for a coherent theory of avian origin and early evolution.

  11. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-04-10

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  12. Deep divergences and extensive phylogeographic structure in a clade of lowland tropical salamanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rovito Sean M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The complex geological history of Mesoamerica provides the opportunity to study the impact of multiple biogeographic barriers on population differentiation. We examine phylogeographic patterns in a clade of lowland salamanders (Bolitoglossa subgenus Nanotriton using two mitochondrial genes and one nuclear gene. We use several phylogeographic analyses to infer the history of this clade and test hypotheses regarding the geographic origin of species and location of genetic breaks within species. We compare our results to those for other taxa to determine if historical events impacted different species in a similar manner. Results Deep genetic divergence between species indicates that they are relatively old, and two of the three widespread species show strong phylogeographic structure. Comparison of mtDNA and nuclear gene trees shows no evidence of hybridization or introgression between species. Isolated populations of Bolitoglossa rufescens from Los Tuxtlas region constitute a separate lineage based on molecular data and morphology, and divergence between Los Tuxtlas and other areas appears to predate the arrival of B. rufescens in other areas west of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The Isthmus appears responsible for Pliocene vicariance within B. rufescens, as has been shown for other taxa. The Motagua-Polochic fault system does not appear to have caused population vicariance, unlike in other systems. Conclusions Species of Nanotriton have responded to some major geological events in the same manner as other taxa, particularly in the case of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. The deep divergence of the Los Tuxtlas populations of B. rufescens from other populations highlights the contribution of this volcanic system to patterns of regional endemism, and morphological differences observed in the Los Tuxtlas populations suggests that they may represent an undescribed species of Bolitoglossa. The absence of phylogeographic structure in B

  13. Reproductive conflict in social insects: Male production by workers in a slave-making ant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunner, Elizabeth; Trindl, Andreas; Falk, Karl H.

    2005-01-01

    is expected to be less detrimental for colony efficiency than in related, nonparasitic species. Furthermore, as slave-making workers usually do not perform brood care and thus might have little power in manipulating sex allocation, they might be more strongly selected to increase their direct fitness...... by producing their own sons than workers in nonparasitic species. In this study we investigated worker reproduction in four natural colonies of the slave-making ant Polyergus rufescens, using highly variable microsatellite markers. Our results show that workers produce up to 100% of the males. This study thus...... presents the first direct evidence of an almost complete takeover of male reproduction by workers in ants....

  14. Boletín de la AHA | Volumen 5 | Número 3

    OpenAIRE

    Asociación Herpetológica Argentina (AHA)

    1989-01-01

    VI Reunión de Comunicaciones Herpetológicas. Resúmenes: -Spinelli, C. M.; L. E. Fiorito; C. Stiebel. 1989. Alteraciones histológicas a nivel del intestino delgado en Tupinambis rufescens (Sauria: Teiidae) causadas por Diaphanocephalus galeatus (Nematoda: Diaphanocephalidae). -Grisolia, C. S.; F. O. Peluso; F. Francini; N. O. Stanchi. 1989. Estado actual de la colección herpetológica (Ofidios) del laboratorio y museo de animales venenosos de la Universidad Nacional de la Plata, Argentin...

  15. Remarks on Echinodermata from the South Central Mediterranean Sea based upon collections made during the MARCOS cruise (10 to 20th April, 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. MIFSUD

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The MARCOS cruise, which took place in the South Central Mediterranean Sea on board the RV ‘Urania’, resulted in the collection of 27 species of Echinodermata from shallow to bathyal depths, many from around Malta (the Fisheries Management Zone. The fauna is represented by common to rare taxa already reported from the Mediterranean with the exception of the amphi-Atlantic ophiuroid Ophiotreta valenciennesi rufescens (Koehler, 1896, recorded from the Mediterranean Basin for the first time. Odontaster mediterraneus (von Marenzeller, 1893 and Luidia sarsi Lutken, 1858 are also first records for the Maltese Islands.

  16. A new species of Bolitoglossa (Amphibia, Caudata) from the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovito, Sean M; Parra-Olea, Gabriela; Lee, Dana; Wake, David B

    2012-01-01

    We describe a new species of Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) from the Sierra de Juárez and Sierra Mixe of Oaxaca, Mexico. Bolitoglossa chinantecasp. n. is distinguished from the three other species in the subgenus Nanotriton by its more robust body, by having substantial numbers of maxillary teeth and differences in relative head width, foot width, and limb length. The new species occurs in sympatry with Bolitoglossa (Nanotriton) rufescens at the type locality. The description of another species of salamander from the Sierra de Juárez is noteworthy, given the already high plethodontid salamander species richness of the region.

  17. A new species of Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Ribera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles, L. mrazig sp. n., found in Tunisia is described and illustrated. The male bulb shows a high degree of morphological similarity to that of L. gaucho from Brazil, but the proportions of the palpal segments and the general colouration of the body reveal significant differences between the two species. A distance analysis of the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cox1 reveals that the specimen from Tunisia shows high genetic distance from L. gaucho (more than 20%. The American species L. gaucho and L. laeta form a sister group to the Mediterranean representatives (L. rufescens and the Tunisian specimen.

  18. Successful disinfection protocol for orchid seeds and influence of gelling agent on germination and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomaž JEVŠNIK

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Artificial propagation of endangered orchid species is one of the most important actions of conservationists often jeopardized by low numbers of acquired seed, its contamination and viability. Disinfection and chemical composition of media are two of the most important factors contributing to better germination in temperate orchid species. The article deals with three world genera (Epidendrum nocturnum, Prosthechea garciana, Maxillaria rufescens and one commercial hybrid (Zygopetalum and describes an effective method of orchid seed disinfection carried out in a centrifuge. Germination percentages of all three genera and one hybrid were between 60 and 90 % from which we concluded that the risk of physical damage to the seeds by centrifugation is not significant. The time needed for disinfected seeds (E. nocturnum, P. garciana, M. rufescens to swell-form protocorms was 10 days shorter compared to undisinfected seeds (Zygopetalum hybrid - green capsule method and some other studies. Adequate wetting and stratification of the seed is very important for successful germination, which resembles processes in natural environment. Additionally, this method solves the problems of collecting and transferring the seeds after disinfection. It is also important that the time needed for disinfection is shorter, which is desirable for some sensitive species. Our study also focuses on importance of gelling agent, namely Gellan gum and agar, since we noticed an obvious superiority of the former in all phases of in vitro development.

  19. A localized PCR inhibitor in a porcelain crab suggests a protective role

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Maklizi, Mahmoud A.; Ouf, Amged; Ferreira, Ari; Hedar, Shahyn

    2014-01-01

    A number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) inhibitors have been identified from biological and environmental samples. By and large, such substances are treated as random nuisances and contaminants with alternate functions; their inhibitory effects on DNA replication being a coincidental property of their molecular structure. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a localized PCR inhibitor in the foregut of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes rufescens (Anomura: Porcellanidae) from the Red Sea. The inhibitor precluded amplification of 28s, 16s and 18s gene sequences effectively but lost activity at 10−2 dilutions from initial concentration. Heat treatment was ineffective in arresting inhibition and spectrophotometric techniques suggested that the inhibitor was not a melanin-type compound. The compound was not detected from midgut, hindgut, or gills of the crab. Activity of the inhibitor was precluded when samples were treated with suspensions from the midgut, suggesting that enzymatic degradation of the inhibitor likely happens at that part of the gut. As many microbial pathogens invade their hosts via ingestion, we suggest the presence of the localized inhibitor could carry a defensive or immunological role for P. rufescens. The identity of the inhibitory molecule remains unknown. PMID:25493214

  20. A localized PCR inhibitor in a porcelain crab suggests a protective role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud A. El-Maklizi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A number of polymerase chain reaction (PCR inhibitors have been identified from biological and environmental samples. By and large, such substances are treated as random nuisances and contaminants with alternate functions; their inhibitory effects on DNA replication being a coincidental property of their molecular structure. Here, we demonstrate the presence of a localized PCR inhibitor in the foregut of the porcelain crab Petrolisthes rufescens (Anomura: Porcellanidae from the Red Sea. The inhibitor precluded amplification of 28s, 16s and 18s gene sequences effectively but lost activity at 10−2 dilutions from initial concentration. Heat treatment was ineffective in arresting inhibition and spectrophotometric techniques suggested that the inhibitor was not a melanin-type compound. The compound was not detected from midgut, hindgut, or gills of the crab. Activity of the inhibitor was precluded when samples were treated with suspensions from the midgut, suggesting that enzymatic degradation of the inhibitor likely happens at that part of the gut. As many microbial pathogens invade their hosts via ingestion, we suggest the presence of the localized inhibitor could carry a defensive or immunological role for P. rufescens. The identity of the inhibitory molecule remains unknown.

  1. Underwater adhesion of abalone: The role of van der Waals and capillary forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.Y.M.; Brunner, R.; Chen, P.Y.; Talke, F.E.; Meyers, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    The observation of the pedal foot of the red abalone Haliotis rufescens reveals the presence of micrometer-scaled setae terminating in nanometer-sized cylindrical fibrils, with some resemblance to those found on the gecko foot. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) pull-off force measurements on a single seta are compared with theoretical estimates for van der Waals attraction obtained through the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) equation, approximately 600 nN, and show agreement. The use of the JKR equation is justified through an analysis of the shape of the fibril extremities (parabolic) as well as their diameter (∼200 nm). Measurements under varying humidity conditions indicate that additional capillary interactions play a role, since the pull-off force increases with humidity. It is proposed that both van der Waals and capillary forces play a role in the attachment mechanism of H. rufescens, effectively enabling suction to reach its theoretical limit. Bulk pull-off force measurements on entire live animals yield an average detachment stress of 115 kPa, consistent with theoretical estimates. The setae and nanoscale fibril terminations enable compliance to surfaces with a variety of roughnesses, effectively sealing the interface, in addition to providing capillary and van der Waals forces.

  2. Spatial variation in post-dispersal seed removal in an Atlantic forest: Effects of habitat, location and guilds of seed predators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christianini, Alexander V.; Galetti, Mauro

    2007-11-01

    Studies of post-dispersal seed removal in the Neotropics have rarely examined the magnitude of seed removal by different types of granivores. The relative impact of invertebrates, small rodents, and birds on seed removal was investigated in a 2,178 ha Atlantic forest fragment in southeastern Brazil. We used popcorn kernels ( Zea mays—Poaceae) to investigate seed removal in a series of selective exclosure treatments in a replicated, paired design experiment that included forest understory, gaps, and forest edge sites. We recorded the vegetation around the experimental seed stations in detail in order to evaluate the influence of microhabitat traits on seed removal. Vertebrate granivores (rodents and birds) were surveyed to determine whether granivore abundance was correlated with seed removal levels. Seed removal varied spatially and in unpredictable ways at the study site. Seed encounter and seed use varied with treatments, but not with habitat type. However, seed removal by invertebrates was negatively correlated with gap-related traits, which suggested an avoidance of large gaps by granivorous ants. The abundance of small mammals was remarkably low, but granivorous birds (tinamous and doves) were abundant at the study site. Birds were the main seed consumers in open treatments, but there was no correlation between local granivorous bird abundance and seed removal. These results emphasize the stochastic spatial pattern of seed removal, and, contrary to previous studies, highlight the importance of birds as seed predators in forest habitats.

  3. On the evolution of noise-dependent vocal plasticity in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Sophie; Zollinger, Sue Anne; Lesku, John A; Brumm, Henrik

    2012-12-23

    Signal plasticity is considered an important step in the evolution of animal communication. In acoustic communication, signal transmission is often constrained by background noise. One adaptation to evade acoustic signal masking is the Lombard effect, in which an animal increases its vocal amplitude in response to an increase in background noise. This form of signal plasticity has been found in mammals, including humans, and some birds, but not frogs. However, the evolution of the Lombard effect is still unclear. Here we demonstrate for the first time the Lombard effect in a phylogentically basal bird species, the tinamou Eudromia elegans. By doing so, we take a step towards reconstructing the evolutionary history of noise-dependent vocal plasticity in birds. Similar to humans, the tinamous also raised their vocal pitch in noise, irrespective of any release from signal masking. The occurrence of the Lombard effect in a basal bird group suggests that this form of vocal plasticity was present in the common ancestor of all living birds and thus evolved at least as early as 119 Ma.

  4. Is Cerebellar Architecture Shaped by Sensory Ecology in the New Zealand Kiwi (Apteryx mantelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Jeremy R; Kolominsky, Jeffrey; Craciun, Iulia; Mulvany-Robbins, Bridget E; Wylie, Douglas R

    2016-01-01

    Among some mammals and birds, the cerebellar architecture appears to be adapted to the animal's ecological niche, particularly their sensory ecology and behavior. This relationship is, however, not well understood. To explore this, we examined the expression of zebrin II (ZII) in the cerebellum of the kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), a fully nocturnal bird with auditory, tactile, and olfactory specializations and a reduced visual system. We predicted that the cerebellar architecture, particularly those regions receiving visual inputs and those that receive trigeminal afferents from their beak, would be modified in accordance with their unique way of life. The general stripe-and-transverse region architecture characteristic of birds is present in kiwi, with some differences. Folium IXcd was characterized by large ZII-positive stripes and all Purkinje cells in the flocculus were ZII positive, features that resemble those of small mammals and suggest a visual ecology unlike that of other birds. The central region in kiwi appeared reduced or modified, with folium IV containing ZII+/- stripes, unlike that of most birds, but similar to that of Chilean tinamous. It is possible that a reduced visual system has contributed to a small central region, although increased trigeminal input and flightlessness have undoubtedly played a role in shaping its architecture. Overall, like in mammals, the cerebellar architecture in kiwi and other birds may be substantially modified to serve a particular ecological niche, although we still require a larger comparative data set to fully understand this relationship. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. [Diagnosis for the ecological conservation of Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae) and their habitats in the Tehuacan-Cuicatlan Reserve, Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Jatropha spp. is an important phytogenetic resource used as food, medicine, and biofuel. In this study, we verified the taxonomic identity of Jatropha species for The Biosphere Reserve Tehuacan-Cuicatlan, and the Ecological Land Units (ELU) occupied by them. We assessed the conservation status of their habitats, and the vulnerability of Jatopha spp. populations. A total of 15 sampling sites were selected in the Reserve. The taxonomic work was based on specimens, original descriptions and type material from herbaria and those available on-line. ELUs were classified using biophysical variables, and gvSIG software. Ecological attributes were determined using a quantitative analysis by the point-centered quarter method; disturbance was estimated through site indicators, and the conservation status of the Jatropha populations was assessed using the Method for Evaluation of the Risk of Extinction of Plants in Mexico (MER). Jatropha frequently dominated the physiognomy of plant communities. The current distribution of Jatropha species in the Reserve was mainly determined by elevation, temperature, and precipitation variables. The confirmed species were Jatropha ciliata Sessd ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, and Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., which are distributed in four of the six defined ELU. J. neopauciflora and J. rzedowskii were the most widespread species; this last species concur in four, J. oaxacana in two, while J. rufescens and J. ciliata in one ELU, being the most restricted. The richness of the genera in the associated communities ranged from 16 to 42. The maximum and minimum Importance Value Indexes were observed.in San Nicolas Tepoxtitlan for J. neopauciflora (53.75%) and J. rzedowskii (1.50%). The disturbance index varied from 0.22 to 0.82, with an average of 0.51, where the livestock variable had a high contribution. Considering the risk categories of MER, we

  6. Species composition and morphology of protostrongylids (Nematoda: Protostrongylidae) in ruminants from Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayotova-Pencheva, Mariana Stancheva

    2011-10-01

    Lungs of 52 ruminants from different regions of Bulgaria, 16 from goats (Capra aegagrus f. domestica L.), 15 from sheep (Ovis ammon f. domestica L.), 11 from mouflons (Ovis musimon L.), and 10 from chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra L.), were investigated. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of small lungworms in these hosts. The obtained results are summarized with those of previous studies, and a picture of the present status of the species composition of protostrongylids in ruminants from Bulgaria is forwarded. Morphometric data about the species Muellerius capillaris, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Neostrongylus linearis, Protostrongylus brevispiculum, and Protostrongylus rufescens are presented. The data on the morphology of these five species are supplied for the first time both for Bulgaria and the south-east part of the European continent.

  7. New Records of Seven Eupithecia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae from Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi, Sei-Woong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The genus Eupithecia Curtis is the largest taxon in Lepidoptera (more than 1,500 species worldwide and the adults of the genus are characterized by small in size, cryptically colored grayish and brownish forewing, and indistinct basal, ante- and postmedial transverse lines mostly with a definite discal spot on the forewing. Forty-four species have been reported so far in Korea. Herein, we present the first report on seven species of Eupithecia: Eupithecia rufescens Butler (1878, Eupithecia costiconvexa Inoue (1979, Eupithecia daemionata Dietze (1904, Eupithecia persuastrix Mironov (1990, Eupithecia actaeata Walderdorff (1869, Eupithecia suboxydata Staudinger (1897 and Eupithecia costimacularia Leech (1897. Diagnosis, descriptions and figures of the available species are provided.

  8. Novos táxons de Cerambycidae (Coleoptera das Américas Central e do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubirajara R. Martins

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Novos táxons descritos: em Cerambycinae, Bomarion caudatum sp. nov., da Bolívia (Ectenessini; Nephalius levigatus sp. nov., do Brasil, Paraíba (Elaphidiini; Bothriospila pulcherrima sp. nov., do Brasil, Bahia (Bothriospilini; Cycnidolon rufescens sp. nov., do Brasil, Paraíba (Neoibidionini. Em Lamiinae: Cicatricallia gen. nov., espécie-tipo: C. cicatricosa sp. nov. de Trindade e Tobago (Calliini; Mimasyngenes clarkei sp. nov., de Trinidad e Tobago e Mimasyngenes fonticulus sp. nov., do Brasil, Piauí; Ibypeba gen. nov., espécie-tipo: I. camiri sp. nov., da Bolívia; Micratelodesmis gen. nov., espécie-tipo: M. minor sp. nov. (Desmiphorini; Lycidola affinis sp. nov. de Trinidad e Tobago (Hemilophini. Novos registros: Lycidola beltii Bates, 1872 para a Costa Rica e Alampyris fuscus Martins & Galileo, 2008 para o Panamá (Hemilophini.

  9. Types of ectomycorrhizae and mycobioindication of forest site pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kraigher, H.; Batic, F.; Agerer, R. [Slovenian Forestry Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    1996-12-31

    Types of ectomycorrhizae on Norway spruce were determined in soil cores from two differently polluted forest research plots from the emission zone of the Sostanj Thermal Power Plant (TPP), Slovenia. 17 types of ectomycorrhizae were determined on 28443 root tips in soil cores from the polluted plot (Zavodnje). On the less polluted plot (Mislinja) 24 different types were determined on 38502 root tips in equal volume and number, of soil cores. In the discussion of mycobioindication of forest site pollution the authors employed a supposedly pollution sensitive (Hydnum rufescens), and supposedly unsensitive (Paxillus involutus) fungal species in ectomycorrhizae. However, further screening of comparable forest sites differently influenced by pollution is needed to confirm the choice of species.

  10. Medicinal significance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of ricinine: A concise report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanika Patel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ricinine (3-cyano-4-methoxy-N-methyl-2-pyridone is an alkaloid present in leaves and seeds of castor plant i.e. Ricinus communis. It can cause vomiting, convulsions, hypotension, liver and kidney damage and several other complications in human. Ricinine presents mainly in young plant and it is the only cyano-substituted pyridine compounds occurred naturally. Ricinine also found in some other plants such as Piper nigrum, Discocleidion rufescens, Aparisthmium cordatum and Nicotiana tabacum. Accidental and intended Ricinus communis intoxications in humans and animals have been known for centuries. In the present review, we summarize the information regarding its medicinal uses, pharmacological activities, analytical techniques and intended and unintended poisoning cases in humans and animals. This review will be beneficial for the researcher in the field of herbal medicine and other allied sciences.

  11. Ribosomal ITS diversity among the European species of the genus Hydnum (Hydnaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grebenc, Tine

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Several morphological species of the genus Hydnum L. are known to occur in Europe, but little molecular evidence exists to confirm the exact number and delimitation of the species. The present study seeks to investigate the genus Hydnum through sequence analysis of the nuclear ribosomal ITS regions and through morphological studies. The DNA sequences phylogenetic analysis revealed high diversity among the ITS region sequences in H. repandum (two clades and H. rufescens (six clades while the specimens of H. albidum, H. umbilicatum and H. ellipsosporum formed one and clearly separated clade per morphological species. Phylogenetic distances among the recognised species and the obtained morphologically unsupported clades are comparable and support the idea of several new, yet undescribed species. The intraspecific variability in the sequence data among phylogenetic species is generally low. Detailed morphological analysis of putative informative morphological characteristics could not support any of the observed non-monophyletic DNA-sequences clades within H. repandum or H. rufescens, and the proper use of names is not yet clear. Similar intraspecific variation has also been observed in many other ectomycorrhizal genera and could be explained by intensive speciation within variable groups under the influence of various factors (niche effect, ectomycorrhizal partner selection.

    En Europa, sobre la base de la morfología se han identificado distintas especies en el género Hydnum L.; sin embargo, no se tenían datos moleculares para confirmar el número exacto de táxones y las relaciones entre los mismos. Este trabajo se basa en los análisis filogenéticos de las secuencias ITS del nrDNA, que se comparan con los estudios morfológicos y los análisis estadísticos. Los análisis filogenéticos revelan una alta diversidad en las secuencias de las regions ITS en H. repandum

  12. Functional implications of species differences in the size and morphology of the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in birds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristián Gutiérrez-Ibáñez

    Full Text Available In birds, there is a retinofugal projection from the brain to the retina originating from the isthmo optic nucleus (ION in the midbrain. Despite a large number of anatomical, physiological and histochemical studies, the function of this retinofugal system remains unclear. Several functions have been proposed including: gaze stabilization, pecking behavior, dark adaptation, shifting attention, and detection of aerial predators. This nucleus varies in size and organization among some species, but the relative size and morphology of the ION has not been systematically studied. Here, we present a comparison of the relative size and morphology of the ION in 81 species of birds, representing 17 different orders. Our results show that several orders of birds, besides those previously reported, have a large, well-organized ION, including: hummingbirds, woodpeckers, coots and allies, and kingfishers. At the other end of the spectrum, parrots, herons, waterfowl, owls and diurnal raptors have relatively small ION volumes. ION also appears to be absent or unrecognizable is several taxa, including one of the basal avian groups, the tinamous, which suggests that the ION may have evolved only in the more modern group of birds, Neognathae. Finally, we demonstrate that evolutionary changes in the relative size and the cytoarchitectonic organization of ION have occurred largely independent of phylogeny. The large relative size of the ION in orders with very different lifestyles and feeding behaviors suggest there is no clear association with pecking behavior or predator detection. Instead, our results suggest that the ION is more complex and enlarged in birds that have eyes that are emmetropic in some parts of the visual field and myopic in others. We therefore posit that the ION is involved in switching attention between two parts of the retina i.e. from an emmetropic to a myopic part of the retina.

  13. Diagnóstico ecológico para la conservación de Jatropha spp. (Euphorbiaceae y sus hábitats, en la Reserva Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Hernández-Nicolás

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha spp., es un importante recurso fitogenético usado como alimento, medicina y biocombustible. En este estudio verificamos la identidad taxonómica de las especies de Jatropha para la Reserva de la Biosfera Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, y las unidades ambientales (UA que ocupan. Evaluamos el estado de conservación de sus hábitats y la vulnerabilidad de las poblaciones de Jatropha. Los sitios de muestreo seleccionados en la Reserva fueron 15. El trabajo taxonómico estuvo basado en especímenes, descripciones originales y material tipo de herbarios y aquellos en línea. Las UA fueron clasificadas mediante variables biofísicas y el software gvSIG. Los atributos ecológicos fueron determinados con análisis cuantitativo por el método de cuadrado centrado en un punto; el disturbio fue estimado a través de indicadores de sitio, y el estado de conservación de las poblaciones de Jatropha con el Método para la Evaluación de Riesgo de Extinción de Plantas en México (MER. Jatropha frecuentemente dominó la fisonomía de las comunidades vegetales. La distribución actual de las especies de Jatropha en la Reserva estuvo principalmente determinada por las variables altitud, temperatura y precipitación. Las especies confirmadas fueron: Jatropha ciliata Sessé ex Cerv., Jatropha neopauciflora Pax, Jatropha oaxacana J. Jiménez Ram. & R. Torres, Jatropha rufescens Brandegee, y Jatropha rzedowskii J. Jiménez Ram., las cuales estuvieron distribuidas en cuatro de las seis UA definidas. J. neopauciflora y J. rzedowskii son las especies más ampliamente distribuidas; estas últimas especies concurrieron en cuatro, J. oaxacana en dos, mientras que J. rufescens y J. ciliata en una UA, siendo ésta la especie más restringida. La riqueza de géneros en las comunidades asociadas varió entre 16 y 42. Los máximos y mínimos Índices de Valores de Importancia fueron observados en San Nicolás Tepoxtitlan para J. neopauciflora (53.75% y J. rzedowskii (1.50%. El

  14. Retention of stored water enables tropical tree saplings to survive extreme drought conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T

    2017-04-01

    Trees generally maintain a small safety margin between the stem water potential (Ψstem) reached during seasonal droughts and the Ψstem associated with their mortality. This pattern may indicate that species face similar mortality risk during extreme droughts. However, if tree species vary in their ability to regulate Ψstem, then safety margins would poorly predict drought mortality. To explore variation among species in Ψstem regulation, I subjected potted saplings of six tropical tree species to extreme drought and compared their responses with well-watered plants and pretreatment reference plants. In the drought treatment, soil water potential reached Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg., Cavanillesia platanifolia (Bonpl.) Kunth and Cedrela odorata L. had 100% survival and maintained Ψstem near -1 MPa (i.e., desiccation-avoiding species). Three other species, Cojoba rufescens (Benth.) Britton and Rose, Genipa americana L. and Hymenaea courbaril L. had 50%, 0% and 25% survival, respectively, and survivors had Ψstem <-6 MPa (i.e., desiccation-susceptible species). The desiccation-avoiding species had lower relative water content (RWC) in all organs and tissues (root, stem, bark and xylem) in the drought treatment than in the reference plants (means 72.0-90.4% vs 86.9-97.9%), but the survivors of the desiccation-susceptible C. rufescens had much lower RWC in the drought treatment (44.5-72.1%). Among the reference plants, the desiccation-avoiding species had lower tissue density, leaf-mass fraction and lateral-root surface area (LRA) than the desiccation-susceptible species. Additionally, C. platanifolia and C. odorata had reduced LRA in the drought treatment, which may slow water loss into dry soil. Together, these results suggest that the ability to regulate Ψstem during extreme drought is associated with functional traits that favor retention of stored water and that safety margins during seasonal drought poorly predict survival during extreme drought. © The Author

  15. Taxonomic identification of appendicularians collected in the epipelagic waters off northern Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia Identificación taxonómica de las apendicularias capturadas en aguas epipelágicas de la zona norte de Chile (Tunicata, Appendicularia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GUILLERMO ARAVENA

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This work provides a first taxonomic description of appendicularians collected during September and August of 1995 in the north coast of Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Fifteen species were identified. They belong to the families Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum, and Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. All the species are first records for waters of northern Chile, thus broadening their previous distribution in the southeast Pacific. The most abundant species were Oikopleura longicauda (56.1 %, O. gracilis (10.4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6.7 %; O. albicans (5.0 %; F. pellucida omani (4.7 %; O. cophocerca (4.4 % and F. venusta (4.1 %, whereas the eight remaining species, constituted 8.6 % of the total appendicularians collectedEl presente trabajo proporciona una primera descripción taxonómica de las apendicularias colectadas durante septiembre y agosto de 1995 en la costa norte de Chile (18º23'-31º00' S. Se identificaron 15 especies de apendicularias pertenecientes a las familias Oikopleuridae (Oikopleura longicauda, O. cophocerca, O. dioica, O. rufescens, O. fusiformis, O. albicans, O. gracilis and Megalocercus abyssorum y Fritillariidae (Fritillaria pellucida typica, F. pellucida omani, F. haplostoma F. tenella, F. formica digitata, F. venusta and F. fraudax. Todas las especies identificadas se registran por primera vez para aguas del norte de Chile y se amplía su distribución en esta área del Pacífico Suroriental. Las especies más abundantes fueron Oikopleura longicauda (56,1 %, O. gracilis (10,4 %, Fritillaria pellucida typica (6,7 %; O. albicans (5,0 %; F. pellucida omani (4,7 %; O. cophocerca (4,4 % y F. venusta (4,1 %, mientras que las ocho especies restantes constituyeron el 8,6 % del total de apendicularias

  16. Seasonal and spatial variability of appendicularian density and taxonomic composition in the Caravelas Estuary (Northeastern Brazil and adjacent coastal area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Freitas de Carvalho

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify and assess the seasonal and spatial variations of the appendicularians in the Caravelas River estuary and the adjacent coastal area. Samples were taken during 12 campaigns over five years (2001 and 2003-2006. Ten species were identified; the most abundant were Oikopleura dioica, Oikopleura rufescens, and Oikopleura longicauda. These species represented more than 95% of the total numbers of appendicularians. The remaining species were less frequent and occurred in low densities. The mean density of appendicularians found at the coastal stations (804 ind.m-3. was higher than in the estuary (66 ind.m-3. However, the differences observed between the estuary and coastal stations were not significant (p=0.54. The samples taken during the dry season showed a higher mean density (587 ind.m-3 than in the rainy season (376 ind.m-3, and the differences between the seasons were statistically significant (p=0.004.Esse trabalho teve como objetivo identificar e avaliar as variações espaciais e sazonais das apendiculárias no estuário do rio Caravelas e área costeira adjacente (17º35' - 18º22' S e 39º8' - 39º55'W. As coletas foram realizadas em 12 campanhas durante cinco anos (2001 e 2003 - 2006. Foram identificadas dez espécies, sendo que Oikopleura dioica, O. rufescens e O. longicauda foram as mais abundantes. Estas três espécies representaram mais de 95% do total de apendiculárias coletadas. As outras espécies foram menos freqüentes e ocorreram em baixas densidades. A densidade média de apendiculárias encontrada nas estações e costeiras (804 ind.m-3 foi maior que na de estuário (158 ind.m-3. As diferenças encontradas entre as estações de estuário e costeiras não foram significativas (p=0,73. As campanhas realizadas durante o período seco apresentaram densidade média (587 ind.m-3 maior que do período chuvoso (376 ind.m-3. As diferenças entre os períodos chuvoso e seco foram estatisticamente

  17. Reactividad inmunoquímica de sueros anti- Caiman yacare y Caiman latirostris frente a sueros de diferentes especies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Roodt, Adolfo Rafael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió la reactividad inmunoquímica entre los sueros de distintas especies de reptiles frente a sueros hiperinmunes experimentales anti-suero de Caiman yacare y anti-suero de Caiman latirostris. Los sueros que se probaron fueron los homólogos de Caiman yacare, Caiman latirostris y los heterólogos de Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops diporus, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus y Gallus gallus. La reactividad inmunoquímica se determinó mediante las técnicas de doble inmunodifusión y ELISA, mostrándose importante entre los sueros de los crocodrílidos y baja entre estos y los de las otras especies de reptiles estudiadas. Se observó mayor reactividad entre los antisueros anti-Caiman respecto a los sueros de Caiman latirostris y Caiman yacare que frente al suero de Alligator missisipiensis. Además, se encontró una fuerte reactividad entre ambos sueros anti-Caiman y el de Gallus gallus poniendo en evidencia la fuerte reactividad entre los sueros de arcosaurios. In order to study the immunochemical reactivity among sera from different species of reptiles regarding sera from Caiman, the immunoreactivity of sera from reptiles against antisera to Caiman yacare or anti-Caiman latirostris sera was studied. These hiperimmune sera were tested against sera from Alligator missisipiensis, Tupinambis merinae, Tupinambis rufescens, Chelonoidis chilensis, Clelia rustica, Waglerophis merremii, Lystrophys dorbignyi, Phyton molurus, Boa constrictor occidentalis, Eunectes notaeus, Crotalus durissus terrificus, Bothrops alternatus, Bothrops neuwiedii, Bothrops jararaca, Bothrops jararacussu, Bothrops moojeni, Pitangus sulphuratus and Gallus gallus. The immunochemical

  18. Gradual Ordering in Red Abalone Nacre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, P. U. P. A.; Metzler, Rebecca A.; Zhou, Dong; Scholl, Andreas; Doran, Andrew; Young, Anthony; Kunz, Martin; Tamura, Nobumichi; Coppersmith, Susan N.

    2008-09-03

    Red abalone (Haliotis rufescens) nacre is a layered composite biomineral that contains crystalline aragonite tablets confined by organic layers. Nacre is intensely studied because its biologically controlled microarchitecture gives rise to remarkable strength and toughness, but the mechanisms leading to its formation are not well understood. Here we present synchrotron spectromicroscopy experiments revealing that stacks of aragonite tablet crystals in nacre are misoriented with respect to each other. Quantitative measurements of crystal orientation, tablet size, and tablet stacking direction show that orientational ordering occurs not abruptly but gradually over a distance of 50 {micro}m. Several lines of evidence indicate that different crystal orientations imply different tablet growth rates during nacre formation. A theoretical model based on kinetic and gradual selection of the fastest growth rates produces results in qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data and therefore demonstrates that ordering in nacre is a result of crystal growth kinetics and competition either in addition or to the exclusion of templation by acidic proteins as previously assumed. As in other natural evolving kinetic systems, selection of the fastest-growing stacks of tablets occurs gradually in space and time. These results suggest that the self-ordering of the mineral phase, which may occur completely independently of biological or organic-molecule control, is fundamental in nacre formation.

  19. Diversity and endemism of Peruvian mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Pacheco

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available We present an annotated list for all land, aquatic and marine mammals known to occur in Peru and their distribution by ecoregions. We also present species conservation status according to international organizations and the legal conservation status in Peru. At present, we record 508 species, in 13 orders, 50 families, and 218 genera, making Peru the third most diverse country with regards to mammals in the New World, after Brazil and Mexico, and the fifth most diverse country for mammals in the World. This diversity includes 40 didelphimorphs, 2 paucituberculates, 1 manatee, 6 cingulates, 7 pilosa, 39 primates, 162 rodents, 1 rabbit, 2 soricomorphs, 165 bats, 34 carnivores, 2 perissodactyls, and 47 cetartiodactyls. Bats and rodents (327 species represent almost two thirds of total diversity (64% for Peru. Five genera and 65 species (12.8% are endemics to Peru, with the majority of these being rodents (45 species, 69,2%. Most of the endemic species are restricted to the Yungas of the eastern slope of the Andes (39 species, 60% followed by Selva Baja (14 species, 21.5%. The taxonomic status of some species is commented on, when those depart from accepted taxonomy. The marsupial Marmosa phaea; the rodents Melanomys caliginosus, M. robustulus, and Echinoprocta rufescens; the shrew Cryptotis equatoris; the bats Anoura fistulata, Phyllostomus latifolius, Artibeus ravus, Cynomops greenhalli, Eumops maurus, and Rhogeessa velilla; and the carnivore Nasuella olivacea are first records of species occurrence in Peru. Finally, we also include a list of 15 non-native species.

  20. Black, green, and red abalones. Species profiles: life histories and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and invertebrates (Pacific Southwest. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ault, J.S.

    1985-03-01

    Black, green, and red abalones (Haliotis cracherodii, H. fulgens, and H. rufescens, respectivley) are of commercial and ecological importance and are distributed widely along the California coast. The abalones are morphologically similar; species are distinguished by particular shell sculpture, color, and body characteristics. Their latitudinal and bathymetric distribution is stratified and most closely related to temperature. Small juveniles eat mainly microflora; adults eat primarily drift macro-algae, preferring specific brown or red algae, when available. Spawning occurs during summer; gonad ripening depends on food quality and quantity and water temperature. Larvae are lecithotrophic and remain planktonic for periods of 5 to 14 days after hatching; settling is substrate specific. Postlarvae and adults require hard substrate for attachment. Juveniles are cryptic, adults usually more exposed. Growth rates are similar, although maximum size varies with species. Increases in shell length and body weight correlate positively with food abundance and temperature. Below depths of 6 m, sea urchins are major competitors for food and space. Predation by invertebrates is low. Decreased abalone production from central California is associated with range expansion and increased predation by sea otters, the major source of abalone mortality. General declines in California landings are due to mortality from improper picking and replacement, habitat degradation, and perhaps overfishing. Commercial and sport diving efforts have increased sharply, whereas annual landings of abalones declined from 1965 to 1982.

  1. Pre- and Postcopulatory Traits of Salvator Male Lizards in Allopatry and Sympatry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Naretto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive traits of males are under influence of sexual pressures before and after copulation. The strength of sexual selection varies across populations because they undergo varying competition for mating opportunities. Besides intraspecific pressures, individuals seem to be subjected to pressures driven by interspecific interactions in sympatry. Lizards may vary their reproductive strategies through varying sexual characters, body size, gonadal investment, and sperm traits. We evaluated the reproductive traits, involved in pre- and postcopulatory competition, in allopatric and sympatric populations of Salvator lizards. We observed a spatial gradient of male competition among populations, with the following order: allopatric zone of S. rufescens; sympatric zone; and allopatric zone of S. merianae. Accordingly, variation in secondary sexual character, the relative testis mass, and the length of sperm component was observed between allopatry and sympatry in each species, suggesting differences in the investment of reproductive traits. However, we found that these two Salvator species did not differ in secondary sexual characters in sympatry. Interestingly, the trade-off between testes and muscle varied differently from allopatry to sympatry between these Salvator species, suggesting that the influence of social context on reproductive traits investment would affect lizard species differently.

  2. Pre- and Postcopulatory Traits of Salvator Male Lizards in Allopatry and Sympatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naretto, Sergio; Blengini, Cecilia S; Cardozo, Gabriela; Chiaraviglio, Margarita

    2016-01-01

    The reproductive traits of males are under influence of sexual pressures before and after copulation. The strength of sexual selection varies across populations because they undergo varying competition for mating opportunities. Besides intraspecific pressures, individuals seem to be subjected to pressures driven by interspecific interactions in sympatry. Lizards may vary their reproductive strategies through varying sexual characters, body size, gonadal investment, and sperm traits. We evaluated the reproductive traits, involved in pre- and postcopulatory competition, in allopatric and sympatric populations of Salvator lizards. We observed a spatial gradient of male competition among populations, with the following order: allopatric zone of S. rufescens; sympatric zone; and allopatric zone of S. merianae. Accordingly, variation in secondary sexual character, the relative testis mass, and the length of sperm component was observed between allopatry and sympatry in each species, suggesting differences in the investment of reproductive traits. However, we found that these two Salvator species did not differ in secondary sexual characters in sympatry. Interestingly, the trade-off between testes and muscle varied differently from allopatry to sympatry between these Salvator species, suggesting that the influence of social context on reproductive traits investment would affect lizard species differently.

  3. BIO-ECOLGICAL PHENOMENON OF POLY-PARASITISM – ACTUAL MAJOR PROBLEM IN BREEDING OF SHEEP AND GOATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a extensive study concerning the parasites andcomplexe problems of the poly-parasitism on sheep and goats in Dobrudja. In thispaper we proposed ourselves to establish the sheep and goats endoparasites, thedistribution and frequency of these function to age, sex and maintenance conditions.The increase of morbidity through parasitical diseases, as well as the ecological andeconomic consequences of poly-parasitism represent a important problem in theintegration conditions of Romania in UE and imposes to apply some efficientmethods of prophylaxis and control of parasitosis and parasito- zoonozis. Thedrawing of copro-parazitologic samples was effected directly from rectum of sheepand goats, testing 10% of each lot, during grazing season and in period of keepingin sheds. The copro-parasitological examinations were carried out ovoscopicaly(flotation, by next methods: Willis, Mc. Master and sediment, by Benedect-Nemesseri and polyvalent methods, as well as larvoscopicaly by Baermann method.After copro-parasitological examinations of samples which were harvested fromthese animals it comes out that both sheep and goats presents poly-parasitism withsporozoa (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. , cestodae (Moniezia expansa and Monieziabenedeni, gastro-intestinal nematodes (Nematodirus spp. ,Trichostrongylidae,Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nematodes (Protostrongylus rufescens,Dictyocaulus filaria, Muellerius capillaris, the degree of parasitical infestationdepending on species, age, sex, maintenance conditions and environmental factors.

  4. A revision of Thai Agathidinae (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, with descriptions of six new species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Stoelb

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Thai fauna of eleven agathidine genera, i.e., Biroia, Braunsia, Camptothlipsis, Coccygidium, Cremnops, Cremnoptoides, Disophrys, Earinus, Gyrochus, Lytopylus, and Troticus, are revised. 25 species are treated, 20 of which are found in Thailand and five that are likely to occur there. Six new species are described, i.e., Braunsia chaweewanae, Camptothlipsis annemariae, Camptothlipsis sheilae, Coccygidium mastigion, Coccygidium phaeoscapos, and Cremnoptoides yui. The following new synonomies are proposed: Isopronotum seminigripenne Enderlein, Isopronotum seminigripenne Enderlein, Isoptronotum seminigripenne rufescens, Enderlein Isopronotum tricolor Enderlein, Biroia soror Achterberg and Long, are all synonymized with Biroia fuscicornis (Cameron 1903. Braunsia pumatica van Achterberg and Long is synonymized with Braunsia fumipennis (Cameron 1899. Braunsia devriesi van Achterberg and Long is synonymized with Braunsia smithii (Dalla Torre 1898. Cremnops malayensis Bhat and Agathis nigritarsus Cameron 1899 are synonymized with Cremnops desertor (Linneaus 1758. Disophrys macilifera van Achterberg and Long is synonymized with Disophrys strigata Enderlein 1920. Disophrys guymanhi van Achterberg and Long is synonymized with Disophrys subfaciata (Brullé, 1846. Agathis burmensis (Bhat & Gupta, 1977 is synonymized with Lytophylus ebulus (Nixon 1950. Disophrys ornatipennis Cameron 1905 is transferred to Gyrochus ornatipennis (Cameron 1905 n. comb. Agathis flavipennis Brullé is transferred to Gyrochus flavipennis (Brullé 1846 n. comb. Troticus melanopterous Cameron is removed from the genus Cremnops and reinstated in Troticus. Keys to the genera of Thai Agathidinae and keys to the species of each genus with multiple species are presented.

  5. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassai, T; Takáts, C; Fok, E; Redl, P

    1988-01-01

    The anthelmintic potential of luxabendazole was investigated in sheep harboring mixed naturally acquired helminth infections. Results were assessed by comparing worm counts of the treated groups (seven animals each) on days 7-8 posttreatment with those of the nontreated control group, except for protostrongylid lungworms, for which the changes in pre- and posttreatment group mean larval counts/g feces were assessed for intensity effect. A single oral treatment at doses of 10.0 or 12.5 mg/kg body wt removed 97.6% of the adult Fasciola hepatica and 63.2%-83.8% of the Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Luxabendazole at 7.5, 10.0, and 12.5 mg/kg proved 100% effective in removing adult worms of the genera Haemonchus, Ostertagia, Trichostrongylus, Cooperia and Nematodirus as well as tissue-associated larval stages of gastrointestinal nematodes of the abomasal mucosa. The drug showed an intensity effect of 79.7%-87.6% against Strongyloides papillosus. Luxabendazole removed all Dictyocaulus filaria and reduced the fecal excretion of larvae of protostrongylid species (Protostrongylus rufescens, Neostrongylus linearis, Cystocaulus ocreatus, Muellerius capillaris) by 97.8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug.

  6. Molecular identification of Echinococcus multilocularis infection in small mammals from Northeast, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molouk Beiromvand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Alveolar echinococcosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the metacestode of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many species of small mammals, including arvicolid rodents or Ochotona spp., are natural intermediate hosts of the cestode. The main aim of this study was to identify natural intermediate hosts of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, Razavi Khorasan Province, northeastern Iran, where the prevalence of infected wild and domestic carnivores is high. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A program of trapping was carried out in five villages in which this cestode was reported in carnivores. The livers of 85 small mammals were investigated for the presence of E. multilocularis infection using multiplex PCR of mitochondrial genes. Infections were identified in 30 specimens: 23 Microtus transcaspicus, three Ochotona rufescens, two Mus musculus, one Crocidura gmelini, and one Apodemus witherbyi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: A range of small mammals therefore act as natural intermediate hosts for the transmission of E. multilocularis in Chenaran County, and the prevalence suggested that E. multilocularis infection is endemic in this region. The existence of the life cycle of this potentially lethal cestode in the vicinity of human habitats provides a significant risk of human infection.

  7. ANTIPARASITICAL PROTECTION IN SHEEP FARMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DOINA ARDELEANU

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Through our researches were carried out at ICDCOC- Palas, Constantza, we proposed ourselves to establish the poly-parasitism structure on sheep, as well as elaborating efficientical methods for anti-parasitical prophylaxis and fighting in sheep populations and pasture sourfaces, in order to ensuring anti-parasitical protection in sheep exploitations The copro-parasitological examinations was carried ovoscopicaly (flotation - by Willis and Mc. Master methods; sediment – by polyvalent method and larvoscopicaly – by Baermann method. The parasitological examination of coprological smears which were harvested on sheep showed the presence of polyparasitism phenomenon with protozoans (coccidiae: Eimeria spp. and helmints (cestodae: Moniesia expansa; gastro-intestinal nemathodes: Trichostrongylus spp., Nematodirus spp., Strongyloides papillosus and pulmonary nemathodes: Müellerius capillaris, Protostrongylus rufescens, Dictyocaulus filaria. Also, we proposed ourselves to study the paresites and their intermediary stages on pastures which were exploited with sheep, comparatively with mowed pastures. In the ansamble of research activities a special place is occupied by testing differents methods, in order to prevention and fighting of parasitical infestations on sheep and pasture in sheep farms.

  8. Laser Imaging Polarimetry of Nacre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Joshua A; Metzler, Rebecca A; D'Addario, Anthony J; Burgess, Carrie; Regan, Brian; Spano, Samantha; Cvarch, Ben A; Galvez, Enrique J

    2018-03-25

    Nacre is a complex biomaterial made of aragonite-tablet bricks and organic mortar that is considerably resilient against breakage. Nacre has been studied with a wide range of laboratory techniques, leading to understanding key fundamentals, and informing the creation of bio-inspired materials. In this article we present an optical polarimetric technique to investigate nacre, taking advantage of the translucence and birefringence of its micro-components. We focus our study on three classes of mollusks that have nacreous shells: bivalve (Pinctada fucata), gastropod (Haliotis asisina and Haliotis rufescens) and cephalopod (Nautilus pompilius). We sent polarized light from a laser through thin samples of nacre and did imaging polarimetry of the transmitted light. We observed clear distinctions between the structures of bivalve and gastropod, due to the spatial variation of their birefringence. The patterns for cephalopod were more similar to bivalve than gastropod. Bleaching of the samples disrupted the transmitted light. Subsequent refilling of the bivalve and gastropod nacre samples with oil produced optical patterns similar to those of unbleached samples. In cephalopod samples we found that bleaching produced irreversible changes in the optical pattern. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Rôle potentiel des haies vives pour la gestion des nématodes sur les bassins versants de la zone soudano-sahélienne au Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanogo, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential Role of Live Fences for Nematode Management on Watersheds in the Senegalese Sudano- Sahelian Area. The influence on the nematode communities of three type of live fences (Zizyphus mauritiana, Bauhinia rufescens and Acacia nilotica was studied in Sinthiou Kohel, in the sudano-sahelian area of Senegal. Numbers of plant parasitic nematode were greater in the vicinity of the live hedge than in the adjacent fields. The effect was apparent to a depth of 40 cm and 2 to 8 m up and downhill. Fewer plant parasitic nematode were recovered from A. nilotica than from the two other plant species. The increase in size of the community was associated with an increase in species diversity, mainly in the Z. mauritiana rhizosphere. Live hedge supported nematode species that were not present in the adjacent fields. Free living nematodes were more abundant under the live fences, whatever the sampling depth. Live fences influenced these nematodes over almost 5 m downhill against only 2 to 3 m uphill. The importance of the live fences, established in this area to prevent erosion, is discussed in relation to their potential for the management of soil parasites and soil fertility factors, that can be transported in runoff water.

  10. The genus Rosalba Thomson, 1864 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Apomecynini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Silva, Antonio; Galileo, Maria Helena M; Joly, Luis J; Tavakilian, GÉrard L

    2018-02-26

    Nineteen new species are described: Rosalba wappesi, from Bolivia; R. giesberti, from Bolivia; R. skillmani, from Bolivia; R. lingafelteri, from Bolivia; R. senecauxi, from French Guiana; R. dalensi, from French Guiana; R. giuglarisi, from French Guiana; R. nearnsi, from French Guiana; R. cerdai, from French Guiana; R. gaianii, from Venezuela; R. pittieri, from Venezuela; R. clinei, from Bolivia and Brazil; R. morrisi, from Costa Rica and Panama; R. schneppi, from Panama; R. birai, from Colombia; R. stenodesma, from Venezuela and French Guiana; R. similis, from Peru and Ecuador; R. bezarki, from Ecuador; and R.seraisorum, from Ecuador and Brazil (Amazonas). The following new synonymies are established: Aletretia dissimilis Belon, 1903 = A. fimbriata Belon, 1903; Aletretia consobrina Melzer, 1934, Rosalba gounellei Galileo Martins, 2013 and Rosalba vanini Galileo Martins, 2013 = Aletretia inscripta Bates, 1866; Aletretia mediofasciata Breuning, 1943 = Aletretia bucki Melzer, 1934; Aletretia peraffinis Breuning, 1940 = Aletretia approximata Melzer, 1934. The following species are redescribed: Rosalba strandiella (Breuning, 1940); and Rosalba rufescens (Breuning, 1940). The following new records are reported: Rosalba strandiella for Bolivia; R. strandi (Breuning, 1943) from the Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina; R. inscripta from Peru and the Brazilian state of Acre; R. smaragdina (Breuning, 1940) from the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais; R. obliqua (Thomson, 1868) from Brazil; and Rosalba fimbriata (Belon, 1903) from Ecuador.

  11. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Appendicularians (Urochordata and chaetognaths (Chaetognatha of Isla del Coco National Park, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.Appendicularians and chaetognaths are important members of the zooplancton but little studied in Costa Rica and not at all at Isla del Coco Nacional Park, eastern tropical Pacific. Epipelagic (0-50m zooplankton samples from the oceanic area off Isla del Coco, were collected in November 2001, and over patch reefs in 2009. We analized the species composition of appendicularians and chaetognaths present in 31

  12. Apendicularias (Urochordata y quetognatos (Chaetognatha del Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván Castellanos-Osorio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Las apendicularias y quetognatos son miembros importantes del zooplancton pero poco estudiados en Costa Rica y no del todo en el Parque Nacional Isla del Coco, Pacífico tropical este. Se recolectaron muestras epipelágicas de zooplancton de la zona oceánica (0-50m de la Isla del Coco, en noviembre de 2001 y sobre parches arrecifales en 2009. Se analizó la composición de especies de apendicularias y quetognatos presentes en 31 muestras. Nueve especies de apendicularias, y ocho especies de quetognatos fueron identificadas. Oikopleura longicauda fue la más abundante en el área estudiada (217organismos, representando el 65.56% del número total de apendicularias, seguida por Oikopleura rufescens, con 35 (10.57%. Todas las especies de apendicularias encontradas en este estudio son comunes en las aguas cálidas de los océanos, seis especies se registran aquí por primera vez en aguas de la Isla del Coco y dos son nuevos registros para Costa Rica. Entre los quetognatos, Flaccisagitta enflata fue la especie más común (85 ejemplares, representando el 50.6% del número total registrada en este estudio, seguida por Serratosagitta pacifica con 38 organismos (20.62%. Zonosagitta bedoti estuvó representada por un solo espécimen. Estas especies también se han registrado en las aguas tropicales del Pacífico oriental, pero seis especies son nuevos registros para Isla del Coco. Los datos sobre la distribución y morfología de las especies registradas se presentan junto con las claves para la identificación de los taxones en el área estudiada.

  13. High photobiont diversity in the common European soil crust lichenPsora decipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruprecht, Ulrike; Brunauer, Georg; Türk, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The genetic diversity of green algal photobionts (chlorobionts) in soil crust forming lichens was studied as part of the SCIN-project (Soil Crust InterNational). A total of 64 lichen samples were collected from four different sites along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Europe (Tabernas/Spain; Hochtor-Großglockner/Austria; Gynge Alvar/Sweden; Ruine Homburg/Germany). The dominant lichen species at all four sites was Psora decipiens , often occurring with Buellia elegans, Fulgensia bracteata, F. fulgens and Peltigera rufescens. Genetic identification of chlorobionts was carried out using the nuclear marker (nrITS) and a chloroplast marker ( psb L-J). We found P. decipiens to be associated with several different species of Trebouxia and Asterochloris , although previously described to only have Asterochloris sp. The phylogenetic analyses revealed a high chlorobiont diversity with 12 well supported clades, including Trebouxia asymmetrica , T. jamesii , T. impressa and other, as yet taxonomically unidentified clades ( Trebouxia sp. URa1-4, T . sp. URa6, T . sp. URa7-13). Additionally, five clades of Asterochloris were identified ( A. magna, A. sp. URa14 -17). Most of the chlorobiont species appeared to be cosmopolitan, but five clades were unevenly distributed between the sampling sites with only Trebouxia being found in the warm and dry Spanish habitats and combinations of Trebouxia and Asterochloris in the cooler and more humid habitats. The wide range of chlorobiont species might contribute to the observed domination of P. decipiens at all four research sites of the SCIN project which range from a desert in Spain to an alpine site in the Alps of Austria.

  14. Seasonal monitoring of deep-sea megabenthos in Barkley Canyon cold seep by internet operated vehicle (IOV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doya, Carolina; Chatzievangelou, Damianos; Bahamon, Nixon; Purser, Autun; De Leo, Fabio C; Juniper, S Kim; Thomsen, Laurenz; Aguzzi, Jacopo

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge of the processes shaping deep-sea benthic communities at seasonal scales in cold-seep environments is incomplete. Cold seeps within highly dynamic regions, such as submarine canyons, where variable current regimes may occur, are particularly understudied. Novel Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs), such as tracked crawlers, provide new techniques for investigating these ecosystems over prolonged periods. In this study a benthic crawler connected to the NEPTUNE cabled infrastructure operated by Ocean Networks Canada was used to monitor community changes across 60 m2 of a cold-seep area of the Barkley Canyon, North East Pacific, at ~890 m depth within an Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). Short video-transects were run at 4-h intervals during the first week of successive calendar months, over a 14 month period (February 14th 2013 to April 14th 2014). Within each recorded transect video megafauna abundances were computed and changes in environmental conditions concurrently measured. The responses of fauna to environmental conditions as a proxy of seasonality were assessed through analysis of abundances in a total of 438 video-transects (over 92 h of total footage). 7698 fauna individuals from 6 phyla (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Mollusca, and Chordata) were logged and patterns in abundances of the 7 most abundant taxa (i.e. rockfish Sebastidae, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria, hagfish Eptatretus stoutii, buccinids (Buccinoidea), undefined small crabs, ctenophores Bolinopsis infundibulum, and Scyphomedusa Poralia rufescens) were identified. Patterns in the reproductive behaviour of the grooved tanner crab (Chionnecetes tanneri) were also indicated. Temporal variations in biodiversity and abundance in megabenthic fauna was significantly influenced by variabilities in flow velocity flow direction (up or down canyon), dissolved oxygen concentration and month of study. Also reported here for the first time are transient mass aggregations of grooved tanner

  15. Molecular characterization of the 30-AA N-terminal mineral interaction domain of the biomineralization protein AP7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Won; Morse, Daniel E; Evans, John Spencer

    2004-12-21

    The AP7 protein is one of several mollusk shell proteins which are responsible for aragonite polymorph formation and stabilization within the nacre layer of the Pacific red abalone, H. rufescens. Previously, we demonstrated that the 30-AA N-terminal domain of AP7, denoted as AP7-1, exists as an unfolded sequence and possesses the capability of inhibiting calcium carbonate crystal growth in vitro via growth step frustration or interruption. However, very little is known with regard to the interactive capabilities of this sequence with Ca(II) and with calcium carbonates. Using multidisciplinary techniques, we determine that the AP7-1 polypeptide interacts with Ca(II) ions at the -DD- sequence clusters, yet retains its unfolded, conformationally labile structure in the presence of Ca(II) ions. Further, NMR experiments reveal that the extended structured sequence blocks, -GNGM-, -SVRTQG-, and -ISYL, exhibit motional, chemical exchange, and/or backbone geometry perturbations in response to Ca(II) interactions with AP7-1. Solid-state NMR magic angle spinning studies verify that during the course of in vitro calcium carbonate crystal growth, AP7-1 becomes bound to calcite fragments and cannot be entirely displaced from the mineral fragments using competitive Ca(II) washing. Finally, using a scrambled sequence version of the AP7-1 polypeptide, we observe that sequence scrambling does not adversely affect the crystal growth inhibitory activity of AP7-1, suggesting that the amino acid composition of AP7-1 may be more critical to growth step inhibition than the linear ordering of amino acids.

  16. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  17. Seasonal monitoring of deep-sea megabenthos in Barkley Canyon cold seep by internet operated vehicle (IOV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Doya

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the processes shaping deep-sea benthic communities at seasonal scales in cold-seep environments is incomplete. Cold seeps within highly dynamic regions, such as submarine canyons, where variable current regimes may occur, are particularly understudied. Novel Internet Operated Vehicles (IOVs, such as tracked crawlers, provide new techniques for investigating these ecosystems over prolonged periods. In this study a benthic crawler connected to the NEPTUNE cabled infrastructure operated by Ocean Networks Canada was used to monitor community changes across 60 m2 of a cold-seep area of the Barkley Canyon, North East Pacific, at ~890 m depth within an Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ. Short video-transects were run at 4-h intervals during the first week of successive calendar months, over a 14 month period (February 14th 2013 to April 14th 2014. Within each recorded transect video megafauna abundances were computed and changes in environmental conditions concurrently measured. The responses of fauna to environmental conditions as a proxy of seasonality were assessed through analysis of abundances in a total of 438 video-transects (over 92 h of total footage. 7698 fauna individuals from 6 phyla (Cnidaria, Ctenophora, Arthropoda, Echinodermata, Mollusca, and Chordata were logged and patterns in abundances of the 7 most abundant taxa (i.e. rockfish Sebastidae, sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria, hagfish Eptatretus stoutii, buccinids (Buccinoidea, undefined small crabs, ctenophores Bolinopsis infundibulum, and Scyphomedusa Poralia rufescens were identified. Patterns in the reproductive behaviour of the grooved tanner crab (Chionnecetes tanneri were also indicated. Temporal variations in biodiversity and abundance in megabenthic fauna was significantly influenced by variabilities in flow velocity flow direction (up or down canyon, dissolved oxygen concentration and month of study. Also reported here for the first time are transient mass aggregations of

  18. Morphology of floral papillae in Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. (Orchidaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, K L; Turner, M P

    2004-01-01

    The labellar papillae and trichomes of Maxillaria Ruiz & Pav. show great diversity. Although papillae also occur upon other parts of the flower (e.g. column and anther cap), these have not yet been studied. Labellar trichomes of Maxillaria are useful in taxonomy, but hitherto the taxonomic value of floral papillae has not been assessed. The aim of this paper is to describe the range of floral papillae found in Maxillaria and to determine whether papillae are useful as taxonomic characters. Light microscopy, histochemistry, low-vacuum scanning and transmission electron microscopy. A total of 75 taxa were studied. Conical papillae with rounded or pointed tips were the most common. The column and anther cap usually bear conical, obpyriform or villiform papillae, whereas those around the stigmatic surface and at the base of the anther are often larger and swollen. Labellar papillae show greater diversity, and may be conical, obpyriform, villiform, fusiform or clavate. Papillae may also occur on multiseriate trichomes that perhaps function as pseudostamens. Labellar papillae contain protein but most lack lipid. The occurrence of starch, however, is more variable. Many papillae contain pigment or act as osmophores, thereby attracting insects. Rewards such as nectar or a protein-rich, wax-like, lipoidal substance may be secreted by papillae onto the labellar surface. Some papillae may have a protective role in preventing desiccation. Species of diverse vegetative morphology may have identical floral papillae, whereas others of similar vegetative morphology may not. Generally, floral papillae in Maxillaria have little taxonomic value. Nevertheless, the absence of papillae from members of the M. cucullata alliance, the occurrence of clavate papillae with distended apices in the M. rufescens alliance and the presence of papillose trichomes in some species may yet prove to be useful.

  19. [Variability of Cytochrome b Gene and Adjacent Section of Gene tRNA-Thr of Mitochondrial DNA in the Northern Mole Vole Ellobius talpinus (Mammalia, Rodentia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanov, A S; Lebedev, V S; Zykov, A E; Bakloushinskaya, I Yu

    2015-12-01

    subspecies taxonomy. The subspecies E. t. talpinus is actually a complex taxon, including two or three genetically discrete forms (III, IV, and probably II). Moreover, one of the forms (III) occupies the territory where three subspecies, E. t. talpinus, E. t. rufescens, and E. t. transcaspiae, were described.

  20. Can lichen species of BSC acclimate to changing environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Laura; Colesie, Claudia; Büdel, Burkhard

    2015-04-01

    sites. Lichen species are also analysed to investigate the variability within their morphological and physiological traits and whether this is site specific. From the transplant experiment lichen samples are analysed to find whether lichen species can readily switch their photobiont to a locally adapted symbiont and whether the morphological and physiological parameters change in order to acclimatise to the new conditions. This work is currently ongoing and here the initial results from the lichen species Psora decipiens, Fulgensia fulgens (green algal lichens) and Peltigera rufescens (cyanolichen) are presented.

  1. A systematic revision of Baconia Lewis (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2013-10-01

    . angusta Schmidt, 1893a, B. incognita sp. n., B. guartela sp. n., B. bullifrons sp. n., B. cavei sp. n., B. subtilis sp. n., B. dentipes sp. n., B. rubripennis sp. n., B. lunatifrons sp. n.], B. aeneomicans group [B. aeneomicans (Horn, 1873, B. pulchella sp. n., B. quercea sp. n., B. stephani sp. n., B. irinae sp. n., B. fornix sp. n., B. slipinskii Mazur, 1981, B. submetallica sp. n., B. diminua sp. n., B. rufescens sp. n., B. punctiventer sp. n., B. aulaea sp. n., B. mustax sp. n., B. plebeia sp. n., B. castanea sp. n., B. lescheni sp. n., B. oblonga sp. n., B. animata sp. n., B. teredina sp. n., B. chujoi (Cooman, 1941, B. barbarus (Cooman, 1934, B. reposita sp. n., B. kubani sp. n., B. wallacea sp. n., B. bigemina sp. n., B. adebratti sp. n., B. silvestris sp. n.], B. cylindrica group [B. cylindrica sp. n., B. chatzimanolisi sp. n.], B. gibbifer group [B. gibbifer sp. n., B. piluliformis sp. n., B. maquipucunae sp. n., B. tenuipes sp. n., B. tuberculifer sp. n., B. globosa sp. n.], B. insolita group [B. insolita (Schmidt, 1893a, comb. n., B. burmeisteri (Marseul, 1870, B. tricolor sp. n., B. pilicauda sp. n.], B. riouka group [B. riouka (Marseul, 1861, B. azuripennis sp. n.], B. famelica group [B. famelica sp. n., B. grossii sp. n., B. redemptor sp. n., B. fortis sp. n., B. longipes sp. n., B. katieae sp. n., B. cavifrons (Lewis, 1893, comb. n., B. haeterioides sp. n.], B. micans group [B. micans (Schmidt, 1889a, B. carinifrons sp. n., B. fulgida (Schmidt, 1889c], Baconia incertae sedis [B. chilense (Redtenbacher, 1867, B. glauca (Marseul, 1884, B. coerulea (Bickhardt, 1917, B. angulifrons sp. n., B. sanguinea sp. n., B. viridimicans (Schmidt, 1893b, B. nayarita sp. n., B. viridis sp. n., B. purpurata sp. n., B. aenea sp. n., B. clemens sp. n., B. leivasi sp. n., B. atricolor sp. n.]. We designate lectotypes for the following species: Baconia loricata Lewis, 1885, Phelister gounellei Marseul, 1887, Baconia jubaris Lewis, 1901, Baconia festiva Lewis, 1891, Platysoma

  2. A systematic revision of Operclipygus Marseul (Coleoptera, Histeridae, Exosternini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Caterino

    2013-02-01

    ., O. hamistrius (Schmidt, 1893 comb. n., O. impressicollis sp. n., O. intersectus sp. n., O. montanus sp. n., O. nubosus sp. n., O. pichinchensis sp. n., O. propinquus sp. n., O. quinquestriatus sp. n., O. rubidus (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. rufescens sp. n., O. troglodytes sp. n.], O. plicicollis group [O. cephalicus sp. n., O. longidens sp. n., O. plicicollis (Schmidt, 1893], O. fossipygus group [O. disconnectus sp. n., O. fossipygus (Wenzel, 1944, O. foveipygus (Bickhardt, 1918, O. fungicolus (Wenzel & Dybas, 1941, O. gibbulus (Schmidt, 1889 comb. n., O. olivensis sp. n., O. simplicipygus sp. n., O. subdepressus (Schmidt, 1889, O. therondi (Wenzel, 1976], O. impunctipennis group [O. chamelensis sp. n., O. foveiventris sp. n., O. granulipectus sp. n., O. impunctipennis (Hinton, 1935 comb. n., O. latifoveatus sp. n., O. lissipygus sp. n., O. maesi sp. n., O. mangiferus sp. n., O. marginipennis sp. n., O. nicodemus sp. n., O. nitidus sp. n., O. pacificus sp. n., O. pauperculus sp. n., O. punctissipygus sp. n., O. subviridis sp. n., O. tripartitus sp. n., O. vorax sp. n.], O. marginellus group [O. ashei sp. n., O. baylessae sp. n., O. dentatus sp. n., O. formicatus sp. n., O. hintoni sp. n., O. marginellus (J.E. LeConte, 1860 comb. n., O. orchidophilus sp. n., O. selvorum sp. n., O. striatellus (Fall, 1917 comb. n.], incertae sedis: O. teapensis (Marseul, 1853 comb. n., O. punctulatus sp. n., O. lama Mazur, 1988, O. florifaunensis sp. n., O. bosquesecus sp. n., O. arnaudi Dégallier, 1982, O. subsphaericus sp. n., O. latipygus sp. n., O. elongatus sp. n., O. rupicolus sp. n., O. punctipleurus sp. n., O. falini sp. n., O. peregrinus sp. n., O. brooksi sp. n., O. profundipygus sp. n., O. punctatissimus sp. n., O. cavisternus sp. n., O. siluriformis sp. n., O. parallelus sp. n., O. abbreviatus sp. n., O. pygidialis (Lewis, 1908, O. faltistrius sp. n., O. limonensis sp. n., O. wenzeli sp. n., O. iheringi (Bickhardt, 1917, O. angustisternus (Wenzel, 1944, O. shorti sp. n. We