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Sample records for tin-coated abutment screw

  1. [Fracture of implant abutment screws and removal of a remaining screw piece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, S.M. van den; Baat, C. de

    2008-01-01

    Fracture of the implant abutment screws is a complication which can render an implant useless. The prevalence of abutment screw fracture does not exceed 2.5% after 10 years. Causes are loosening of implant abutment screw, too few, too short or too narrow implants, implants not inserted perpendicular

  2. Hollow Abutment Screw Design for Easy Retrieval in Case of Screw Fracture in Dental Implant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyun Sim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The prosthetic component of dental implant is attached on the abutment which is connected to the fixture with an abutment screw. The abutment screw fracture is not frequent; however, the retrieval of the fractured screw is not easy, and it poses complications. A retrieval kit was developed which utilizes screw removal drills to make a hole on the fractured screw that provides an engaging drill to unscrew it. To minimize this process, the abutment screw is modified with a prefabricated access hole for easy retrieval. This study aimed to introduce this modified design of the abutment screw, the concept of easy retrieval, and to compare the mechanical strengths of the conventional and hollow abutment screws by finite element analysis (FEA and mechanical test. In the FEA results, both types of abutment screws showed similar stress distribution in the single artificial tooth system. A maximum load difference of about 2% occurred in the vertical load by a mechanical test. This study showed that the hollow abutment screw may be an alternative to the conventional abutment screws because this is designed for easy retrieval and that both abutment screws showed no significant difference in the mechanical tests and in the FEA.

  3. Carbon film coating of abutment surfaces: effect on the abutment screw removal torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corazza, Pedro Henrique; de Moura Silva, Alecsandro; Cavalcanti Queiroz, José Renato; Salazar Marocho, Susana María; Bottino, Marco Antonia; Massi, Marcos; de Assunção e Souza, Rodrigo Othávio

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating of prefabricated implant abutment on screw removal torque (RT) before and after mechanical cycling (MC). Fifty-four abutments for external-hex implants were divided among 6 groups (n = 9): S, straight abutment (control); SC, straight coated abutment; SCy, straight abutment and MC; SCCy, straight coated abutment and MC; ACy, angled abutment and MC; and ACCy, angled coated abutment and MC. The abutments were attached to the implants by a titanium screw. RT values were measured and registered. Data (in Newton centimeter) were analyzed with analysis of variance and Dunnet test (α = 0.05). RT values were significantly affected by MC (P = 0.001) and the interaction between DLC coating and MC (P = 0.038). SCy and ACy showed the lowest RT values, statistically different from the control. The abutment coated groups had no statistical difference compared with the control. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed DLC film with a thickness of 3 μm uniformly coating the hexagonal abutment. DLC film deposited on the abutment can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce abutment screw loosening.

  4. Effect of surface coating on the screw loosening of dental abutment screws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan-Ik; Choe, Han-Cheol; Chung, Chae-Heon

    2004-12-01

    Regardless of the type of performed restoration, in most cases, a screw connection is employed between the abutment and implant. For this reason, implant screw loosening has remained a problem in restorative practices. The purpose of this study was to compare the surface of coated/plated screws with titanium and gold alloy screws and to evaluate the physical properties of coated/plated material after scratch tests via FE-SEM (field emission scanning electron microscopy) investigation. GoldTite, titanium screws provided by 3i (Implant Innovation, USA) and TorqTite, titanium screws by Steri-Oss (Nobel Biocare, USA) and gold screws and titanium screws by AVANA (Osstem Implant, Korea) were selected for this study. The surface, crest, and root of the abutment screws were observed by FE-SEM. A micro-diamond needle was also prepared for the scratch test. Each abutment screw was fixed, and a scratch on the surface of the head region was made at constant load and thereafter the fine trace was observed with FE-SEM. The surface of GoldTite was smoother than that of other screws and it also had abundant ductility and malleability compared with titanium and gold screws. The scratch tests also revealed that teflon particles were exfoliated easily in the screw coated with teflon. The titanium screw had rough surface and low ductility. The clinical use of gold-plated screws is recommended as a means of preventing screw loosening.

  5. Does Abutment Collar Length Affect Abutment Screw Loosening After Cyclic Loading?

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    Siadat, Hakimeh; Pirmoazen, Salma; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Alikhasi, Marzieh

    2015-07-01

    A significant vertical space that is corrected with vertical ridge augmentation may necessitate selection of longer abutments, which would lead to an increased vertical cantilever. This study investigated the influence of different abutment collar heights on single-unit dental implant screw-loosening after cyclic loading. Fifteen implant-abutment assemblies each consisted of an internal hexagonal implant were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Group1, consisting of 5 abutments with 1.5 mm gingival height (GH); Group2, 5 abutments with 3.5 mm GH; and Group3, 5 abutments with 5.5 mm GH. Each specimen was mounted in transparent auto-polymerizing acrylic resin block, and the abutment screw was tightened to 35 Ncm with an electric torque wrench. After 5 minutes, initial torque loss (ITL) was recorded for all specimens. Metal crowns were fabricated with 45° occlusal surface and were placed on the abutments. A cyclic load of 75 N and frequency of 1 Hz were applied perpendicular to the long axis of each specimen. After 500 000 cycles, secondary torque loss (STL) was recorded. One-way ANOVA analysis was used to evaluate the effects of abutment collar height before and after cyclic loading. One-way ANOVA showed that ITL among the groups was not significantly different (P = .52), while STL was significantly different among the groups (P = .008). Post-hoc Tukey HSD tests showed that STL values were significantly different between the abutments with 1.5 mm GH (Group1) and with 5.5 mm GH (Group3) (P = .007). A paired comparison t-test showed that cyclic loading significantly influenced the STL in comparison with the ITL in each group. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that increase in height of the abutment collar could adversely affect the torque loss of the abutment screw.

  6. [Current status of implant-abutment--part 1: abutments for cemented versus screw retained restorations].

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    Harel, N; Livne, S; Piek, D; Marku-Cohen, S; Ormianer, Z

    2012-01-01

    Fixed implant supported single crowns and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) have become an accepted treatment option for replacing and restoring missing teeth. Recent systematic reviews summarized excellent 5- and 10-year survival rates for both reconstruction types. In screw-retained restorations, the fastening screw provides a solid joint between the restoration and the implant abutment or between the restoration and the implant itself. With cement-retained prostheses, this restorative screw is eliminated for many reasons: esthetics, occlusal stability, and fabrication of passively fitting restorations. The purpose of this article is to review the variety of implant-abutments available for fabrication of fixed implant-supported restoration and compare between the various abutment forms (screw vs. cement retained).

  7. Loosening torque of Universal Abutment screws after cyclic loading: influence of tightening technique and screw coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacchi, Atais; Regalin, Alexandre; Bhering, Claudia Lopes Brilhante; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Spazzin, Aloisio Oro

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of tightening technique and the screw coating on the loosening torque of screws used for Universal Abutment fixation after cyclic loading. Forty implants (Titamax Ti Cortical, HE, Neodent) (n=10) were submerged in acrylic resin and four tightening techniques for Universal Abutment fixation were evaluated: A - torque with 32 Ncm (control); B - torque with 32 Ncm holding the torque meter for 20 seconds; C - torque with 32 Ncm and retorque after 10 minutes; D - torque (32 Ncm) holding the torque meter for 20 seconds and retorque after 10 minutes as initially. Samples were divided into subgroups according to the screw used: conventional titanium screw or diamond like carbon-coated (DLC) screw. Metallic crowns were fabricated for each abutment. Samples were submitted to cyclic loading at 10(6) cycles and 130 N of force. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). The tightening technique did not show significant influence on the loosening torque of screws (P=.509). Conventional titanium screws showed significant higher loosening torque values than DLC (P=.000). The use of conventional titanium screw is more important than the tightening techniques employed in this study to provide long-term stability to Universal Abutment screws.

  8. Tightening techniques for the retaining screws of universal abutment

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    Alexandre Wittcinski REGALIN

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose This study evaluated the torque maintenance of universal abutment retaining screws using different tightening techniques, and coated or uncoated screws. Material and method The screws were tightened to implants as following: Control – 32 Ncm torque; H20 – holding 32 Ncm torque for 20 s; R – 32 Ncm torque, repeated after 10 min (retorque; and H20+R – combining the two tightening techniques. Titanium and coated screws were also evaluated. Result Statistical analysis showed higher maintained torque for titanium screws (p<0.001. The H20+R technique showed the highest maintained torque (p=0.003, but the H20 technique’s maintained torque was similar. Conclusion Titanium screws associating the two tightening techniques can improve maintained torque.

  9. Preload, Coefficient of Friction, and Thread Friction in an Implant-Abutment-Screw Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentaschek, Stefan; Tomalla, Sven; Schmidtmann, Irene; Lehmann, Karl Martin

    To examine the screw preload, coefficient of friction (COF), and tightening torque needed to overcome the thread friction of an implant-abutment-screw complex. In a customized load frame, 25 new implant-abutment-screw complexes including uncoated titanium alloy screws were torqued and untorqued 10 times each, applying 25 Ncm. Mean preload values decreased significantly from 209.8 N to 129.5 N according to the number of repetitions. The overall COF increased correspondingly. There was no comparable trend for the thread friction component. These results suggest that the application of a used implant-abutment-screw complex may be unfavorable for obtaining optimal screw preload.

  10. Fracture resistance of abutment screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone, and carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone

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    Eduardo Aloisio Fleck NEUMANN

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Fractured abutment screws may be replaced; however, sometimes, the screw cannot be removed and the entire implant must be surgically removed and replaced. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of abutment retention screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone (PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK, using an external hexagonal implant/UCLA-type abutment interface assembly. UCLA-type abutments were fixed to implants using titanium screws (Group 1, polyetheretherketone (PEEK screws (Group 2, and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (Group 3. The assemblies were placed on a stainless steel holding apparatus to allow for loading at 45o off-axis, in a universal testing machine. A 200 N load (static load was applied at the central point of the abutment extremity, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute, until failure. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey’s range test. The titanium screws had higher fracture resistance, compared with PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p 0.05. Finally, visual analysis of the fractions revealed that 100% of them occurred at the neck of the abutment screw, suggesting that this is the weakest point of this unit. PEEK abutment screws have lower fracture resistance, in comparison with titanium abutment screws.

  11. Fracture resistance of abutment screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone, and carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Eduardo Aloisio Fleck; Villar, Cristina Cunha; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Fractured abutment screws may be replaced; however, sometimes, the screw cannot be removed and the entire implant must be surgically removed and replaced. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of abutment retention screws made of titanium, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK, using an external hexagonal implant/UCLA-type abutment interface assembly. UCLA-type abutments were fixed to implants using titanium screws (Group 1), polyetheretherketone (PEEK) screws (Group 2), and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (Group 3). The assemblies were placed on a stainless steel holding apparatus to allow for loading at 45o off-axis, in a universal testing machine. A 200 N load (static load) was applied at the central point of the abutment extremity, at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute, until failure. Data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's range test. The titanium screws had higher fracture resistance, compared with PEEK and 30% carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws (p 0.05). Finally, visual analysis of the fractions revealed that 100% of them occurred at the neck of the abutment screw, suggesting that this is the weakest point of this unit. PEEK abutment screws have lower fracture resistance, in comparison with titanium abutment screws.

  12. Abutment screw loosening of endosseous dental implant body/abutment joint by cyclic torsional loading test at the initial stage.

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    Katsuta, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Fumihiko

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic torsional loading tests were carried out in the laboratory using various implant systems, in order to clarify differences between the systems in loosening of abutment screws. Six samples from six commercially available abutment systems were used, giving a total of 36 samples. Four of the systems used internal connections, and two used external connections. The abutment screw for each system was tightened to a torque value specified by the manufacturer, and after 5 min, the loosening torque was measured using a digital torque meter. Measurements were taken twice, and a second measurement was taken as a reference value. A cyclic torsional loading test with 100,000 cycles was performed on the sample, and the loosening torque was again measured after the test. In conclusion, loosening of the abutment screw occurred as a result of cyclic torsional loading, and the degree of loosening varied with each implant system.

  13. Effectiveness of screw surface coating on the stability of zirconia abutments after cyclic loading.

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    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Butignon, Luis Eduardo; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2012-01-01

    Different surface treatments have been developed in attempts to prevent the loosening of abutment screws. The aim of the current study was to compare the effectiveness of titanium alloy screws with tungsten-doped diamond-like carbon (W-DLC) coating and uncoated screws in providing stability to zirconia (ZrO2) ceramic abutments after cyclic loading. Twenty prefabricated ZrO2 ceramic abutments on their respective external-hex implants were divided into two groups of equal size according to the type of screw used: uncoated titanium alloy screw (Ti) or titanium alloy screw with W-DLC coating (W-DLC/Ti). The removal torque value (preload) of the abutment screw was measured before and after loading. Cyclic loading between 11 and 211 N was applied at an angle of 30 degrees to the long axis of the implants at a frequency of 15 Hz. A target of 0.5 X 106 cycles was defined. Group means were calculated and compared using analysis of variance and the F test (α = .05). Before cyclic loading, the preload for Ti screws was significantly higher than that for W-DLC/Ti screws (P = .021). After cyclic loading, there was no significant difference between them (P = .499). Under the studied conditions, it can be concluded that, after cyclic loading, both abutment screws presented a significant reduction in the mean retained preload and similar effectiveness in maintaining preload.

  14. Influence of implant/abutment joint designs on abutment screw loosening in a dental implant system.

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    Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro; Odaki, Misako; Nemoto, Kimiya; Aida, Masahiro

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of implant/abutment joint designs on abutment screw loosening in a dental implant system, using nonlinear dynamic analysis of the finite element method (FEM). This finite element simulation study used two dental implant systems: the Ankylos implant system (Degusa Dental, Hanau, German) with a taper joint (taper joint-type model), and the Bränemark implant system (Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) with an external hex joint (external hex joint-type model). The nonlinear dynamic analysis was performed using three-dimensional finite element analysis. In comparing the movement of the taper type-joint model and external hex type-joint model, it was found that the external hex type-joint model had greater movement than the taper type-joint model. The external hex joint-type model showed rotation movement, whereas the movement of the taper joint-type model showed no rotation. It was concluded that the nonlinear dynamic analysis used in this study clearly demonstrated the differences in rotation of components in dental implant systems with taper or external hex joints. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Influence of abutment type and esthetic veneering on preload maintenance of abutment screw of implant-supported crowns.

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    Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Dos Santos, Paulo Henrique; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves

    2014-02-01

    The effect of veneering materials on screw joint stability remains inconclusive. Thus, this study evaluated the preload maintenance of abutment screws of single crowns fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials. Sixty crowns were divided into five groups (n = 12): UCLA abutment in gold alloy with ceramic (group GC) and resin (group GR) veneering, UCLA abutment in titanium with ceramic (group TiC) and resin (group TiR) veneering, and zirconia abutment with ceramic veneering (group ZiC). Abutment screws made of gold were used with a 35 Ncm insertion torque. Detorque measurements were obtained initially and after mechanical cycling. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Fisher's exact test at a significance level of 5%. For the initial detorque means (in Ncm), group TiC (21.4 ± 1.78) exhibited statistically lower torque maintenance than groups GC (23.9 ± 0.91), GR (24.1 ± 1.34), and TiR (23.2 ± 1.33) (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Group ZiC (21.9 ± 2.68) exhibited significantly lower torque maintenance than groups GC, GR, and TiR (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). After mechanical cycling, there was a statistically significant difference between groups TiC (22.1 ± 1.86) and GR (23.8 ± 1.56); between groups ZiC (21.7 ± 2.02) and GR; and also between groups ZiC and TiR (23.6 ± 1.30) (p < 0.05, Fisher's exact test). Detorque reduction occurred regardless of abutment type and veneering material. More irregular surfaces in the hexagon area of the castable abutments were observed. The superiority of any veneering material concerning preload maintenance was not established. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  16. Influence of sizes of abutments and fixation screws on dental implant system: a non-linear finite element analysis.

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    Mao, Zhihong; Yi, Dake; Cao, Guo

    2017-08-28

    The purpose of this study is to discuss the influence of sizes of abutments and fixation screws on immediately loaded dental implants in mandibular bones using nonlinear finite element methods. Abutments with three unilateral wall thicknesses and fixation screws with three diameters are analyzed to compare the stresses and deformations under a vertical or oblique force of 130 N. The nonlinearity due to friction contacts between the fixation screw, the abutment, the implant, and the bone is taken into account. The results showed that improper sizes of abutments and fixation screws would increase the stress and deformation of the dental implant system. If possible, the diameter of fixation screw should not be smaller than Φ1.0 mm, the diameter between Φ1.0 mm and Φ1.2 mm is acceptable. The fixation screw diameter preferably exceeds Φ1.4 mm. The unilateral wall thickness >0.5 mm is optimal selection for abutments.

  17. Influence of Liquid Lubrication on the Screw-Joint Stability of Y-TZP Implant Abutment Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Abi-Rached, Filipe de Oliveira; Butignon, Luis Eduardo; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of abutment screws coated with liquid Vaseline on the screw-joint stability of yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) abutment systems. Forty Y-TZP prefabricated abutments, 20 Neodent and 20 Bionnovation, were tightened to 20 Ncm on their respective external hexagon implants, and divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the screws: coated with Vaseline or uncoated. The removal torque (RT) value of the abutment screw was measured before and after loading. A cyclic loading (0.5 × 10 6 cycles; 15 Hz) between 11 and 211 N was applied. Means were compared using a repeated-measures ANOVA (α = 0.05). There was no significant difference between coated and uncoated screws (p = 0.822). Significant differences were found between the abutment systems (p implant restorations. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Using a porcelain furnace to debond cement-retained implant crown from the abutment after screw fracture: a clinical report.

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    Saponaro, Paola C; Heshmati, Reza H; Lee, Damian J

    2015-04-01

    When a screw fracture occurs on a cement-retained, implant-supported restoration, the abutment and restoration are completely separated from the implant's internal connection. Traditionally, an access hole is drilled through the crown to retrieve the broken screw, and the restoration can be placed again as a screw-retained restoration. This clinical report documents a patient whose broken abutment screw was retrieved from the restoration by burning off the cement and separating from the abutment without drilling an access hole. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  19. Noninvasive method for retrieval of broken dental implant abutment screw

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    Jagadish Reddy Gooty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants made of titanium for replacement of missing teeth are widely used because of ease of technical procedure and high success rate, but are not free of complications and may fail. Fracturing of the prosthetic screw continues to be a problem in restorative practice and great challenge to remove the fractured screw conservatively. This case report describes and demonstrates the technique of using an ultrasonic scaler in the removal of the fracture screw fragment as a noninvasive method without damaging the hex of implants.

  20. Abutments with reduced diameter for both cement and screw retentions: analysis of failure modes and misfit of abutment-crown-connections after cyclic loading.

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    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze failure modes and misfit of abutments with reduced diameter for both cement and screw retentions after cyclic loading. Forty morse-taper abutment/implant sets of titanium were divided into four groups (N = 10): G4.8S-4.8 abutment with screw-retained crown; G4.8C-4.8 abutment with cemented crown; G3.8S-3.8 abutment with screw-retained crown; and G3.8C-3.8 abutment with cemented crown. Copings were waxed on castable cylinders and cast by oxygen gas flame and injected by centrifugation. After, esthetic veneering ceramic was pressed on these copings for obtaining metalloceramic crowns of upper canine. Cemented crowns were cemented on abutments with provisional cement (Temp Bond NE), and screw-retained crowns were tightened to their abutments with torque recommended by manufacturer (10 N cm). The misfit was measured using a stereomicroscope in a 10× magnification before and after cyclic loading (300,000 cycles). Tests were visually monitored, and failures (decementation, screw loosening and fractures) were registered. Misfit was analyzed by mixed linear model while failure modes by chi-square test (α = 0.05). Cyclic loading affected misfit of 3.8C (P ≤ 0.0001), 3.8S (P = 0.0055) and 4.8C (P = 0.0318), but not of 4.8S (P = 0.1243). No differences were noted between 3.8S with 4.8S before (P = 0.1550) and after (P = 0.9861) cyclic loading, but 3.8C was different from 4.8C only after (P = 0.0015) loading. Comparing different types of retentions at the same diameter abutment, significant difference was noted before and after cyclic loading for 3.8 and 4.8 abutments. Analyzing failure modes, retrievable failures were present at 3.8S and 3.8C groups, while irretrievable were only present at 3.8S. The cyclic loading decreased misfit of cemented and screw-retained crowns on reduced diameter abutments, and misfit of cemented crowns is greater than screw-retained ones. Abutments of reduced diameter failed more than

  1. Screw Joint Stability in Conventional and Abutment-Free Implant-Supported Fixed Restorations.

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    Scherg, Stefan; Karl, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Procera Implant Bridges (PIBs) do not engage supporting implant shoulders and are fixed using comparably long retention screws. The aim of this in vitro clinical study was to determine the detorque values in PIBs and conventionally fabricated fixed dental prostheses (FDPs). Two groups of screw-retained implant-supported three-unit FDPs (n=10) were fabricated by means of conventional casting or computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture to fit an in vitro situation with two implants. Following fixation, the restorations were subjected to masticatory simulation (100,000 cycles, 100 N) and subsequent detorquing of the retention screws. In the clinical part, a total of 10 patients received PIB restorations in the premolar/molar region that were detorqued after 2, 4, and 6 months. One-sample t tests adjusted for multiple testing by the Bonferroni-Holm method were applied for statistical analysis based on percentage detorque values (α=.05). 60% of the initial torque values were maintained in screws directly retaining restorations, while the abutment screws used in the conventional restorations showed detorque levels in the range of 80%. No significant difference in detorque levels between screws retaining PIBs and conventional FDPs could be detected (P=.5186). The abutment screws showed significantly greater detorque values compared with screws directly retaining restorations (P=.0002; P=.0000). In vivo, a significant increase in detorque values ranging from 21.64 Ncm after 2 months to 27.81 Ncm after 6 months was recorded. Prosthetic screws retaining implant-supported FDPs show torque loss during the initial period of service. Retightening reduces the amount of future torque loss.

  2. Biomechanical Analysis of Tapered Integrated Screw and Sensitivity Analysis on Abutment Loosening in Dental Implants

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    Milad Farzadi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Different mechanisms have been developed for connecting abutment to implant. One of the most popular mechanisms is Tapered Integrated Screw (TIS, which is a Tapered Interference Fit (TIF with a screw integrated at the bottom of that. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of TIS and effective factors in employing TIS during design and implementation processes using an analytic method.Materials and Methods: Relevant equations were developed to predict tightening and loosening torques, contactpressure and preloads with and without bone tissue in this analysis. The efficiency is defined as the ratio of the loosening torque to the tightening torque. The effects of the change in elastic modulus and thickness of the bone on operation of this mechanism were investigated.Results: In this study, 14 independent parameters such as taper angle, friction coefficient, abutment and implantgeometry that are effective on performance of TIS mechanism were presented. The role of some factors was shown in the performance of ITI implant using sensitivity analysis.Conclusion: It was shown that friction coefficient, contact length, and implant radius play major roles on tightening and loosening torques and efficiency of the mechanism. Furthermore, the results revealed that the change in the elastic modulus and thickness of the bone influenced the efficiency of the mechanism less than 15%.

  3. Evaluation of the sealing capability of implants to titanium and zirconia abutments against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum under different screw torque values.

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    Smith, Nicole A; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-09-01

    When evaluating long-term implant success, clinicians have always been concerned with the gap at the implant-abutment junction, where bacteria can accumulate and cause marginal bone loss. However, little information regarding bacterial leakage at the implant-abutment junction, or microgap, is available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate sealing at 2 different implant-abutment interfaces under different screw torque values. Twenty sterile zirconia abutments and 20 sterile titanium abutments were screwed into 40 sterile implants and placed in test tubes. The ability of a bacterial mixture of Prevotella intermedia, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Fusobacterium nucleatum to leak through an implant-titanium abutment seal under 20 and 35 Ncm torque values and an implant-zirconia abutment seal under 20 and 35 Ncm torque values was evaluated daily until leakage was noted. Once a unit demonstrated leakage, a specimen was plated. After 4 days, the number of colonies on each plate was counted with an electronic colony counter. Plating was used to verify whether or not bacterial leakage occurred and when leakage first occurred. The implant-abutment units were removed and rinsed with phosphate buffered saline solution and evaluated with a stereomicroscope. The marginal gap between the implant and the abutment was measured and correlated with the amount of bacterial leakage. The data were analyzed with ANOVA. Bacterial leakage was noted in all specimens, regardless of material or screw torque value. With titanium abutments, changing the screw torque value from 20 to 35 Ncm did not significantly affect the amount of bacterial leakage. However, with zirconia abutments, changing the screw torque value from 20 to 35 Ncm was statistically significant (P<.017). Overall, the marginal gap noted was larger at the zirconia-abutment interface (5.25 ±1.99 μm) than the titanium-abutment interface (12.38 ±3.73 μm), irrespective of the screw torque value. Stereomicroscopy revealed a

  4. Fracture Strength of Implant-Supported Ceramic Crowns with Customized Zirconia Abutments: Screw Retained vs. Cement Retained.

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    Nogueira, Lorenna Bastos Lima Verde; Moura, Carmem Dolores Vilarinho Soares; Francischone, Carlos Eduardo; Valente, Valdimar Silva; Alencar, Suyá Moura Mendes; Moura, Walter Leal; Soares Martins, Gregorio Antonio

    2016-01-01

    To compare the fracture resistance before and after cyclic fatigue assays of ceramic crowns with customized zirconia abutments when screw retained and cemented onto implants. The sample of this study consisted of 40 ceramic crowns with zirconia infrastructure fixed onto external hexagonal implants. The crowns were distributed into two groups (n = 20): Screw-retained and cemented crowns. Half the crowns of each group (n = 10) underwent compression until fracture and the other half (n = 10) underwent cyclic fatigue and subsequent compression until fracture. The cyclic fatigue test was carried out using an electromechanical fatigue device (loads from 0 to 100 N, 2 Hz frequency, in distilled water, at 37 °C for a period of 1 million cycles). The compression test was carried out using a universal testing machine with a 0.5 mm/min speed and 5 KN load cell. After fracture, the crowns were classified according to the type of fracture. Student's t test (p crowns (before = 1068.31 N, after = 891.49 N; p > 0.05) nor that of the cemented crowns (before = 2117.78 N; after = 2094.81 N; p > 0.05); however, the mean fracture resistance of the cemented crowns was higher than that of the screw-retained crowns both before (p crowns cemented onto the customized zirconia abutments offered greater fracture resistance than ceramic crowns with customized zirconia abutments screw retained onto implants. The cyclic fatigue did not seem to influence the fracture resistance of these crowns, whether cemented or screw retained onto implants. Fracture of the veneering ceramic was the predominant failure in this study. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  5. The effect of DLC-coating deposition method on the reliability and mechanical properties of abutment's screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Dimorvan; Coelho, Paulo G; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Bonfante, Estevam A; Witek, Lukasz; Del Bel Cury, Altair A

    2018-04-10

    To characterize the mechanical properties of different coating methods of DLC (diamond-like carbon) onto dental implant abutment screws, and their effect on the probability of survival (reliability). Seventy-five abutment screws were allocated into three groups according to the coating method: control (no coating); UMS - DLC applied through unbalanced magnetron sputtering; RFPA-DLC applied through radio frequency plasma-activated (n=25/group). Twelve screws (n=4) were used to determine the hardness and Young's modulus (YM). A 3D finite element model composed of titanium substrate, DLC-layer and a counterpart were constructed. The deformation (μm) and shear stress (MPa) were calculated. The remaining screws of each group were torqued into external hexagon abutments and subjected to step-stress accelerated life-testing (SSALT) (n=21/group). The probability Weibull curves and reliability (probability survival) were calculated considering the mission of 100, 150 and 200N at 50,000 and 100,000 cycles. DLC-coated experimental groups evidenced higher hardness than control (p1 indicating that fatigue contributed to failure. High reliability was depicted at a mission of 100N. At 200N a significant decrease in reliability was detected for all groups (ranging from 39% to 66%). No significant difference was observed among groups regardless of mission. Screw fracture was the chief failure mode. DLC-coating have been used to improve titanium's mechanical properties and increase the reliability of dental implant-supported restorations. Copyright © 2018 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of lubricant on the reliability of dental implant abutment screw joint: An in vitro laboratory and three-dimension finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tingting; Fan, Hongyi; Ma, Ruiyang; Chen, Hongyu; Li, Zhi; Yu, Haiyang

    2017-06-01

    Biomechanical factors play a key role in the success of dental implants. Fracture and loosening of abutment screws are major issues. This study investigated the effect of lubricants on the stability of dental implant-abutment connection. As lubricants, graphite and vaseline were coated on the abutment screw surface, respectively, and a blank without lubricant served as the control. The total friction coefficient (μ tot ), clamping force, fatigue behavior and detorque of the joint combined with dynamic cyclic loading were measured under different lubricating conditions. Further, a three-dimensional finite element analysis was used to investigate stress distribution, in conjunction with experimental images. The results showed that the lubricant reduced μ tot , which in turn led to an increase in clamping force. Decrease in loading increased the fatigue life of the screw. However, use of lubricant at high load reduced the fatigue life. Ductile fracture at the first thread of the screw was the chief failure mode, which was due to maximum von Mises stress. Higher stress levels occurred in the lubricant groups. Lubricated screws resulted in lower detorque which made the joint easier to loosen. In conclusion, the lubricant cannot effectively improve the reliability of dental implant-abutment connection. Keeping the interfaces of implant-screw uncontaminated and strengthening the surface of the screw may be recommend for clinical operation and future design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of the Coronal Wall Thickness of Dental Implants on the Screw Joint Stability in the Internal Implant-Abutment Connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Huh, Yoon-Hyuk; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of implant coronal wall thickness on load-bearing capacity and screw joint stability. Experimental implants were customized after investigation of the thinnest coronal wall thickness of commercially available implant systems with a regular platform diameter. Implants with four coronal wall thicknesses (0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm) were fabricated. Three sets of tests were performed. The first set was a failure test to evaluate load-bearing capacity and elastic limit. The second and third sets were cyclic and static loading tests. After abutment screw tightening of each implant, vertical cyclic loading of 250 N or static loading from 250 to 800 N was applied. Coronal diameter expansion, axial displacement, and removal torque values of the implants were compared. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for statistical analysis (α = .05). Implants with 0.2-mm coronal wall thickness demonstrated significantly low load-bearing capacity and elastic limit (both P implants also showed significantly large coronal diameter expansion and axial displacement after screw tightening (both P implant, axial displacement of the abutment, and removal torque loss of the abutment screw (all P Implant coronal wall thickness of 0.2 mm produces significantly inferior load-bearing capacity and screw joint stability.

  8. The role of implant/abutment system on torque maintenance of retention screws and vertical misfit of implant-supported crowns before and after mechanical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge, Juliana Ribeiro Pala; Barao, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Assuncao, Wirley Goncalves

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the role of the implant/abutment system on torque maintenance of titanium retention screws and the vertical misfit of screw-retained implant-supported crowns before and after mechanical cycling. Three groups were studied: morse taper implants with conical abutments (MTC group), external-hexagon implants with conical abutments (EHC group), and external-hexagon implants with UCLA abutments (EHU group). Metallic crowns casted in cobalt-chromium alloy were used (n = 10). Retention screws received insertion torque and, after 3 minutes, initial detorque was measured. Crowns were retightened and submitted to cyclic loading testing under oblique loading (30 degrees) of 130 ± 10 N at 2 Hz of frequency, totaling 1 × 106 cycles. After cycling, final detorque was measured. Vertical misfit was measured using a stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance, Tukey test, and Pearson correlation test (P cycling. No statistically significant difference was observed among groups before mechanical cycling. After mechanical cycling, a statistically significantly lower loss of detorque was verified in the MTC group in comparison to the EHC group. Significantly lower vertical misfit values were noted after mechanical cycling but there was no difference among groups. There was no significant correlation between detorque values and vertical misfit. All groups presented a significant decrease of torque before and after mechanical cycling. The morse taper connection promoted the highest torque maintenance. Mechanical cycling reduced the vertical misfit of all groups, although no significant correlation between vertical misfit and torque loss was found.

  9. An esthetic solution for single-implant restorations - type III porcelain veneer bonded to a screw-retained custom abutment: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magne, Pascal; Magne, Michel; Jovanovic, Sascha A

    2008-01-01

    A new esthetic solution to restore dental implants in combination with limited interdental, facial or labial, or interocclusal space is presented. This article describes the translational application of novel-design porcelain veneers and adhesive restorative principles in the implant realm. A patient is presented who was treated with a single implant-supported restoration replacing a missing mandibular lateral incisor and partially collapsed interdental space. A screw-retained custom metal ceramic abutment was combined with a bonded porcelain restoration. This unique design was motivated by the limited restorative space and subgingival implant shoulder. It was also developed as a solution to the interference of the screw-access channel with the incisal edge, therefore providing the surgeon with more options during implant axis selection. The porcelain-to-porcelain adhesive approach was used instead of traditional principles of retention and resistance form of the abutment.

  10. Effect of Preseating, Screw Access Opening, and Vent Holes on Extrusion of Excess Cement at the Crown-Abutment Margin and Associated Tensile Force for Cement-Retained Implant Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Rodrigo A; Vargas-Koudriavtsev, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to (1) compare the effects of crown preseating prior to cementation, (2) determine whether maintenance of screw access openings on titanium abutments and open vent holes on cast crowns affects the amount of excess cement at the crown-abutment margin, and (3) analyze the associated tensile force after cementation. Three independent variables were tested: (1) abutment screw access (open or closed), (2) crown coping modification (with or without a vent hole in the palatal aspect), and (3) crown preseating on an abutment analog. Ten implant crown copings were cemented using temporary cement on ten straight implant abutments for each combination of the three independent variables. The amount of excess cement at the crown margins was measured by weight. Axial tensile load was measured 24 hours after cementation. Results were statistically analyzed using linear regression and univariate three-way analysis of variance (α = .05). Open screw access, presence of a vent hole on the crown, and preseating of the crown had significant effects on the amount of excess cement at the crown margin (P cement at the margins and tensile strength values. Placement of vent holes on the crown or open screw access may be considered for cementing crowns on implant abutments using temporary cement in order to minimize excess cement at the crown margin. A preseating protocol is not advisable, either alone or combined with open screw access, since it significantly reduces the retentive strength of cemented restorations (P < .001).

  11. The effect of different implant-abutment connection on screw joint stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos; Calvani, Pasquale; Muftu, Sinan; Pissiotis, Argirios; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2012-03-06

    Abstract Dental implants with an internal connection have been designed in order to establish a better stress distribution when lateral external forces act on the prosthesis and minimize the forces transmitted to the fastening screw. In the present study, ten externally and ten internally hexed implants were tested with a compressive force applied with an Instron Universal machine. Four cycles of loading-unloading were applied to each specimen, in order to achieve displacements of 0.5, 1, 2 and 2.5 mm. The mean loads for the first cycle were 256.70 N for the external connection and 256 N for the internal connection implants. The independent t test did not reveal any significant differences among the two tested groups (P=.780). For the second cycle, the mean loads needed for a displacement of 1mm were 818.19 N and 780.20 N, for the external connection and the internal connection implants respectively. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the two tested groups (Pimplants. These loads were required for a displacement of 2.5mm. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the two tested groups (Pimplant system could not prevent screw loosening during overloading. No implant or prosthesis failure was noticed in either group.

  12. The effect of different implant-abutment connections on screw joint stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalakis, Konstantinos X; Calvani, Pasquale Lino; Muftu, Sinan; Pissiotis, Argiris; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    Dental implants with an internal connection have been designed to establish a better stress distribution when lateral external forces act on the prosthesis and minimize the forces transmitted to the fastening screw. In the present study, 10 externally and 10 internally hexed implants were tested with a compressive force applied with an Instron Universal machine. Four cycles of loading-unloading were applied to each specimen to achieve displacements of 0.5, 1, 2, and 2.5 mm. The mean loads for the first cycle were 256.70 N for the external connection and 256 N for the internal connection implants. The independent t test did not reveal any significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P = .780). For the second cycle, the mean loads needed for a displacement of 1 mm were 818.19 N and 780.20 N for the external connection and the internal connection implants, respectively. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P implants. These loads were required for a displacement of 2.5 mm. The independent t test revealed significant differences among the 2 tested groups (P implant system could not prevent screw loosening during overloading. No implant or prosthesis failure was noticed in either group.

  13. Scanning Electron Microscopy Analysis of the Adaptation of Single-Unit Screw-Retained Computer-Aided Design/Computer-Aided Manufacture Abutments After Mechanical Cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markarian, Roberto Adrian; Galles, Deborah Pedroso; Gomes França, Fabiana Mantovani

    To measure the microgap between dental implants and custom abutments fabricated using different computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) methods before and after mechanical cycling. CAD software (Dental System, 3Shape) was used to design a custom abutment for a single-unit, screw-retained crown compatible with a 4.1-mm external hexagon dental implant. The resulting stereolithography file was sent for manufacturing using four CAD/CAM methods (n = 40): milling and sintering of zirconium dioxide (ZO group), cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) sintered via selective laser melting (SLM group), fully sintered machined Co-Cr alloy (MM group), and machined and sintered agglutinated Co-Cr alloy powder (AM group). Prefabricated titanium abutments (TI group) were used as controls. Each abutment was placed on a dental implant measuring 4.1× 11 mm (SA411, SIN) inserted into an aluminum block. Measurements were taken using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) (×4,000) on four regions of the implant-abutment interface (IAI) and at a relative distance of 90 degrees from each other. The specimens were mechanically aged (1 million cycles, 2 Hz, 100 N, 37°C) and the IAI width was measured again using the same approach. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance, followed by the Tukey test. After mechanical cycling, the best adaptation results were obtained from the TI (2.29 ± 1.13 μm), AM (3.58 ± 1.80 μm), and MM (1.89 ± 0.98 μm) groups. A significantly worse adaptation outcome was observed for the SLM (18.40 ± 20.78 μm) and ZO (10.42 ± 0.80 μm) groups. Mechanical cycling had a marked effect only on the AM specimens, which significantly increased the microgap at the IAI. Custom abutments fabricated using fully sintered machined Co-Cr alloy and machined and sintered agglutinated Co-Cr alloy powder demonstrated the best adaptation results at the IAI, similar to those obtained with commercial prefabricated titanium abutments after mechanical cycling. The

  14. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  15. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The management of an edentulous maxilla using a CAD/CAM-guided immediately loaded provisional implant prosthesis with screw-retained and cement-retained abutments: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tee-Khin, Neo; Cheng, Ansgar C; Lee, Helena; Wee, Alvin G

    2009-12-01

    Functional rehabilitation of edentulous jaws using a CAD/CAM-guided implant protocol is commonly recommended as a definitive treatment modality. A patient with an edentulous maxilla received 7 endosseous implants using a CAD/CAM surgical template. A provisional maxillary acrylic resin fixed complete denture was connected immediately after implant placement using a combination of screw-retained and cement-retained abutments.

  17. Influence of space size of abutment screw access channel on the amount of extruded excess cement and marginal accuracy of cement-retained single implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Amri, Mohammad D; Al-Johany, Sulieman S; Al-Qarni, Mohammed N; Al-Bakri, Ahmed S; Al-Maflehi, Nassr S; Abualsaud, Haythem S

    2018-02-01

    The detrimental effect of extruded excess cement on peri-implant tissue has been well documented. Although several techniques have been proposed to reduce this effect by decreasing the amount of extruded cement, how the space size of the abutment screw access channel (SAC) affects the amount of extruded cement and marginal accuracy is unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of the size of the unfilled space of the abutment SAC on the amount of extruded excess cement and the marginal accuracy of zirconia copings. Twelve implant replicas and corresponding standard abutments were attached and embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) zirconia copings with a uniform 30-μm cement space were fabricated by 1 dental technician using the standard method. The copings were temporarily cemented 3 times at different sizes of the left space of the SAC as follows: the nonspaced group (NS), in which the entire SAC was completely filled, the 1-mm-spaced group (1MMS), and the 2-mm-spaced group (2MMS). Abutments and crowns were ultrasonically cleaned, steam cleaned, and air-dried. The excess cement was collected and weighed. To measure the marginal accuracy, 20 measurements were made every 18 degrees along the coping margin at ×300 magnification and compared with the pre-cementation readings. One-way ANOVA was calculated to determine whether the amount of extruded excess cement differed among the 3 groups, and the Tukey test was applied for multiple comparisons (α=.05). The mean weights (mg) of extruded excess cement were NS (33.53 ±1.5), 1MMS (22.97 ±5.4), and 2MMS (15.17 ±5.9). Multiple comparisons showed significant differences in the amount of extruded excess cement among the 3 test groups (Pextruded excess cement by 55% in comparison with the nonspaced abutments. However, no effect was found on the marginal accuracy of zirconia copings. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the

  18. Influence of TiN coating on the biocompatibility of medical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of TiN coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) was evaluated to compare with that of the uncoated NiTi-SMA. Based on the orthodontic clinical application, the surface properties and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), wettability test, mechanical test and in vitro tests including MTT, cell apoptosis and cell adhesion tests. It was observed that the bonding between the substrate and TiN coating is excellent. The roughness and wettability increased as for the TiN coating compared with the uncoated NiTi-SMA. MTT test showed no significant difference between the coated and uncoated NiTi-SMA, however the percentage of early cell apoptosis was significantly higher as for the uncoated NiTi alloy. SEM results showed that TiN coating could enhance the cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on NiTi-SMA. The results indicated that TiN coating bonded with the substrate well and could lead to a better biocompatibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical Performance of One-Piece, Screw-Retained Implant Crowns Based on Hand-Veneered CAD/CAM Zirconia Abutments After a Mean Follow-up Period of 2.3 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnider, Nicole; Forrer, Fiona Alena; Brägger, Urs; Hicklin, Stefan Paul

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical performance of one-piece, screw-retained implant crowns based on hand-veneered computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconium dioxide abutments with a crossfit connection at least 1 year after insertion of the crown. Consecutive patients who had received at least one Straumann bone level implant and one-piece, screw-retained implant crowns fabricated with CARES zirconium dioxide abutments were reexamined. Patient satisfaction, occlusal and peri-implant parameters, mechanical and biologic complications, radiologic parameters, and esthetics were recorded. A total of 50 implant crowns in the anterior and premolar region were examined in 41 patients. The follow-up period of the definitive reconstructions ranged from 1.1 to 3.8 years. No technical and no biologic complications had occurred. At the reexamination, 100% of the implants and reconstructions were in situ. Radiographic evaluation revealed a mean distance from the implant shoulder to the first visible bone-to-implant contact of 0.06 mm at the follow-up examination. Screw-retained crowns based on veneered CAD/CAM zirconium dioxide abutments with a crossfit connection seem to be a promising way to replace missing teeth in the anterior and premolar region. In the short term, neither failures of components nor complications were noted, and the clinical and radiographic data revealed stable hard and soft tissue conditions.

  20. Evaluation of torque loss value of MAD/MAM zirconia abutments with prefabricated titanium abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In response to esthetic demand of patients, ceramic abutments have been developed. Despite esthetic of zirconia abutments, machining accuracy of these abutments has always been a question. Any misfit in the abutment-implant interface connection can lead to detorque and screw loosening. The aim of this study was to compare torque loss value of manually aided design/manually aided manufacture (MAD/MAM zirconia abutments with prefabricated titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Seven titanium abutments (Branemark RP, Easy abutment and seven copy milled abutments which were duplicated from the prefabricated Zirkonzhan (ZirkonZahn, Sand in Taufers, Italy were prepared. After sintering process of zirconia abutment, all abutments were fastened with a torque screw under 35 Ncm. Detorque measurements were performed per group pushing the reverse button of the Torque controller soon after screw tightening with values registered. The mean torque loss were calculated and compared using Student's t test. Results: The mean of torque loss was 12.71 Ncm with standard deviation of 1.70 for prefabricated titanium abutments and 15.50 Ncm with standard deviation of 4.67 for MAD-MAM abutments. The difference between the two groups was not statistically significant (P=0.23. Conclusion: Within the limitation of this study, MAD-MAM ceramic abutments could maintain the applied torque comparing to the prefabricated abutments.

  1. Microstructural investigations of interfaces in PVD TiN coated tool steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; in't Veld, AJH; De Hosson, JTM; Lejcek, P; Paidar,

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure of PVD TiN coated tools steels composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the microstructure of the coatings consists of a dense fibrous structure typical of a zone T structure. When the

  2. A Study on Contact Fatigue Performance of Nitrided and TiN Coated Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of TiN coating on gear contact fatigue performance through contact fatigue experiment and gear rig test. The results reveal that the deposition on gears with hard coating TiN could provide the subsurface protection and improve the contact fatigue life, and the contact fatigue strength of nitrided+TiN coated 32Cr2MoV is 1557 MPa at survival probability of 99%, 284 MPa higher than that of nitrided 32Cr2MoV. Although TiN coating on the the edge of the meshing zone wore out, there is no obvious pitting at the site and the rest of meshed zone of TiN coated gear keeps well without pittings and wear grooves, which is opposite to nitrided gears with pittings and peeling off. TiN coating is dense and smooth with lower surface roughness, and it wraps up the gear tooth so that the gear surface no longer contacts with lubricant and prevents the cracks initiation, prolonging the contact fatigue life of gears.

  3. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Woo; Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K.; Lee, Kang Yong

    2009-01-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at ±25 μm displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 ± 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  4. Evaluation of surface characteristics under fretting of electrical contacts: Removal behaviour of hot dipped tin coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Woo [Stainless Steel Research Group, Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, Pohang 790-300 (Korea, Republic of); Ramesh Bapu, G.N.K. [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Yong, E-mail: kyl2813@yonsei.ac.kr [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-01

    The fretting corrosion behaviour of hot dipped tin coating is investigated at low fretting cycles at {+-}25 {mu}m displacement amplitude, 0.5N normal load, 3 Hz frequency, 45-50% relative humidity, and 25 {+-} 1 deg. C temperature. The typical characteristics of the change in contact resistance with fretting cycles are explained. The fretted surface is examined using laser scanning microscope, scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive X-ray analysis to assess the surface profile, extent of fretting damage, extent of oxidation and elemental distribution across the contact zone. The interdependence of extent of wear and oxidation increases the complexity of the fretting corrosion behaviour of tin coating. The variation of contact resistance clearly revealed the fretting of tin coating from 50 to 1200 cycles and the fretting of the substrate above 1200 cycles. The observed low and stable contact resistance region and the fluctuating resistance region at various fretting cycles are explained and substantiated with Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser scanning microscope (LSM) and energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX) analysis results of the fretted surface.

  5. Surface properties of W-implanted TiN coatings post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bin; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao; Liu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PVD TiN coatings are implanted with W ions at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . • Low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) is adopted on W-implanted TiN coatings. • W content and depth in the W-implanted coatings reduce after LTIS. • LTIS cannot well improve friction and wear of W-implanted TiN under dry sliding. - Abstract: TiN coatings were implanted with W ions by metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 , and then they were post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) at 160 °C. The W-implanted TiN samples were characterized before and after post-treatment of LTIS, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Nano Indenter System. Friction and wear properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding in air. After post-treatment of LTIS, XRD results showed no diffraction peaks of tungsten sulfides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings; W-implanted TiN coatings were sputtered by the sulfur plasma with about 36% reducing of W depth. Further, the nano-hardness decreased mainly due to the amount decreasing of Ti 2 N and the formation of more metal oxides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings after LTIS. As a result, LTIS treatment could not well improve tribological properties of W-implanted TiN coatings.

  6. Micro- and nanosecond laser TiN coating/steel modification: Morphology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, M.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Gaković, B.; Panchenko, A. N.; Radak, B.; Stasić, J.

    2009-09-01

    Morphology effects induced during interaction of μs- (Transversely Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser) or ns- (HF laser) pulses with titanium nitride (TiN) coating, deposited on austenitic stainless steel AISI 316, were studied. Experiments were carried out in regime of focused laser beam in air at atmospheric pressure. The used laser fluences were found to be sufficient for inducing intensive surface modifications of the target. The energy absorbed from the CO2 as well as HF laser beam is mainly converted into thermal energy, causing different effects like ablation, appearance of hydrodynamic features, etc. Morphology characteristics obtained during ns-pulses irradiation (HF laser) were different to those initiated by μs-pulses (TEA CO2 laser). The changes on the target surface in form of massive resolidifed droplets and crown-like structures were observed only for ns- (HF laser) pulses. It was found that these effects are a consequence of higher temperature and better coupling of the HF laser radiation with the target. Recent investigations of ps-Nd:YAG laser interaction with the same TiN coating showed that morphology picture is quite different including the reduction of thermal effect.

  7. Thermal and mechanical testings of TiC and TiN coating materials with Mo substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomay, Y.; Koizumi, H.; Ishihara, H.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal and Mechanical characteristics of TiC and TiN coating materials with Mo substrates are reported. The coating method applied is chemical vapor deposition. In the case of TiC coating, thin TiN layers were coated before TiC coating to avoid formation of molybdenum carbide during TiC coating. thermal testing by electron beam showed that both the TiC-TiN and TiN coating layers survived without observable erosion till the substrates were melted

  8. The abutment seating jig: a prosthodontic implant adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judy, K W

    1997-01-01

    Rapid, accurate seating of screw-retained implant abutment heads, where timing is controlled by internal or external hex designs, can be readily accomplished with individual, custom-cast abutment head location devices. The devices are especially useful when the abutment head-implant body complex is to be permanently cemented. The use and design of abutment seating jigs for single tooth implants and completely implant or implant and natural tooth-supported prostheses are described.

  9. Surface wear of TiN coated nickel tool during the injection moulding of polymer micro Fresnel lenses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Gasparin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Limited tool life of nickel mould inserts represents an issue for the mass-production of polymer optics with complex micro three-dimensional geometries by injection moulding. TiN coating was applied to a nickel insert for the injection moulding of polycarbonate micro Fresnel lenses. Surface wear ...

  10. Safety and efficacy of nano lamellar TiN coatings on nitinol atrial septal defect occluders in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhi xiong, E-mail: Top5460@163.com [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Fu, Bu fang, E-mail: fubnicpbp@163.com [National Institutes for Food and Drug Control, Beijing (China); Zhang, De yuan, E-mail: Deyuanzhangcn@yahoo.com.cn [Lifetech Scientific (Shenzhen) Co., Ltd., Shenzhen (China); Zhang, Zhi wei, E-mail: Zhzhx65@163.com [Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangzhou (China); Cheng, Yan, E-mail: chengyan@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing (China); Sheng, Li yuan, E-mail: lysheng@yeah.net [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Lai, Chen, E-mail: laichen1110@163.com [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Xi, Ting fei, E-mail: Xitingfie@pku.edu.cn [Research Institute of Peking University in Shenzhen, Shenzhen 518057 (China); Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing (China)

    2013-04-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion devices made of nickel–titanium (NiTi) have a major shortcoming in that they release nickel into the body. We modified NiTi occluders using Arc Ion Plating technology. Nano lamellar titanium–nitrogen (TiN) coatings were formed on the surfaces of the occluders. The safety and efficacy of the modified NiTi occluders were evaluated in animal model. The results showed that 38 out of 39 rams (97%) survived at the end of the experiment. Fibrous capsules formed on the surfaces of the devices. Gradual endothelialization took place through the attachment of endothelial progenitor cells from the blood and the migration of endothelial cells from adjacent endocardium. The neo-endocardium formed more quickly in the coated group than in the uncoated group, as indicated by the evaluation of the six month study group. After TiN coating, there was no significant difference in endothelial cell cycle. TiN coating significantly reduced the release of nickel in both in vivo and in vitro indicating an improved biocompatibility of the nitinol ASD occluders. Superior and modified ASD occluders may provide a good choice for people with nickel allergies after sFDA registration, which is expected in one to two years. - Highlights: ► The nano lamella TiN coating did not change the shape-memory behavior and flexibility of the nitinol occluder. ► Nano lamella TiN coating modifications significantly reduced nickel release from nitinol ASD occluder. ► The new ASD occluder was found to be superior to nitinol ASD occluder with respect to both safety and efficacy.

  11. Safety and efficacy of nano lamellar TiN coatings on nitinol atrial septal defect occluders in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi xiong; Fu, Bu fang; Zhang, De yuan; Zhang, Zhi wei; Cheng, Yan; Sheng, Li yuan; Lai, Chen; Xi, Ting fei

    2013-01-01

    Atrial septal defect (ASD) occlusion devices made of nickel–titanium (NiTi) have a major shortcoming in that they release nickel into the body. We modified NiTi occluders using Arc Ion Plating technology. Nano lamellar titanium–nitrogen (TiN) coatings were formed on the surfaces of the occluders. The safety and efficacy of the modified NiTi occluders were evaluated in animal model. The results showed that 38 out of 39 rams (97%) survived at the end of the experiment. Fibrous capsules formed on the surfaces of the devices. Gradual endothelialization took place through the attachment of endothelial progenitor cells from the blood and the migration of endothelial cells from adjacent endocardium. The neo-endocardium formed more quickly in the coated group than in the uncoated group, as indicated by the evaluation of the six month study group. After TiN coating, there was no significant difference in endothelial cell cycle. TiN coating significantly reduced the release of nickel in both in vivo and in vitro indicating an improved biocompatibility of the nitinol ASD occluders. Superior and modified ASD occluders may provide a good choice for people with nickel allergies after sFDA registration, which is expected in one to two years. - Highlights: ► The nano lamella TiN coating did not change the shape-memory behavior and flexibility of the nitinol occluder. ► Nano lamella TiN coating modifications significantly reduced nickel release from nitinol ASD occluder. ► The new ASD occluder was found to be superior to nitinol ASD occluder with respect to both safety and efficacy

  12. Influence of abutment materials on the implant-abutment joint stability in internal conical connection type implant systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jae-Young; Yang, Dong-Seok; Huh, Jung-Bo; Heo, Jae-Chan; Yun, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE This study evaluated the influence of abutment materials on the stability of the implant-abutment joint in internal conical connection type implant systems. MATERIALS AND METHODS Internal conical connection type implants, cement-retained abutments, and tungsten carbide-coated abutment screws were used. The abutments were fabricated with commercially pure grade 3 titanium (group T3), commercially pure grade 4 titanium (group T4), or Ti-6Al-4V (group TA) (n=5, each). In order to assess the amount of settlement after abutment fixation, a 30-Ncm tightening torque was applied, then the change in length before and after tightening the abutment screw was measured, and the preload exerted was recorded. The compressive bending strength was measured under the ISO14801 conditions. In order to determine whether there were significant changes in settlement, preload, and compressive bending strength before and after abutment fixation depending on abutment materials, one-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post-hoc test was performed. RESULTS Group TA exhibited the smallest mean change in the combined length of the implant and abutment before and after fixation, and no difference was observed between groups T3 and T4 (P>.05). Group TA exhibited the highest preload and compressive bending strength values, followed by T4, then T3 (Pimplant systems. The strength of the abutment material was inversely correlated with settlement, and positively correlated with compressive bending strength. Preload was inversely proportional to the frictional coefficient of the abutment material. PMID:25551010

  13. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli, E-mail: linly311@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Le, Thi Bang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhou, Guanghong [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Zheng, Chuanbo, E-mail: zjust316@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O{sub 3}) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O{sub 3} treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100 °C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O{sub 3} treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O{sub 3} treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. - Highlights: • TiN coating surface was oxidized by hydrothermal or ozone treatment while preserving its hardness. • Improved wettability, decontamination and interstitial N promoted osteoblast responses. • Partial oxidation makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant with good osteoconductivity.

  14. Measurement of partial coefficients of sputtering of titanium atoms from TiC and TiN coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vychegzhanin, G.A.; Gribanov, Yu.A.; Dikij, N.P.; Zhmurin, P.N.; Letuchij, A.N.; Matyash, P.P.; Sidokur, P.I.; Shono, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Method of laser fluorescent spectroscopy was used to measure partial coefficients of sputtering of titanium atoms from TiC and TiN coatings under irradiation by 1 keV hydrogen ions. Irradiation was conducted in a plant with reflective discharge. Investigation of damaged layer in irradiated samples was conducted. The presence of near-the-surface layer enrichment with titanium atoms was revealed both in TiC and TiN samples. 12 refs.; 4 figs

  15. Effect of triangular texture on the tribological performance of die steel with TiN coatings under lubricated sliding condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ping; Xiang, Xin; Shao, Tianmin; La, Yingqian; Li, Junling

    2016-12-01

    The friction and wear of stamping die surface can affect the service life of stamping die and the quality of stamping products. Surface texturing and surface coating have been widely used to improve the tribological performance of mechanical components. This study experimentally investigated the effect of triangular surface texture on the friction and wear properties of the die steel substrate with TiN coatings under oil lubrication. TiN coatings were deposited on a die steel (50Cr) substrate through a multi-arc ion deposition system, and then triangular surface texturing was fabricated by a laser surface texturing. The friction and wear test was conducted by a UMT-3 pin-on-disk tribometer under different sliding speeds and different applied loads, respectively. The adhesion test was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of triangular texturing on the interfacial bonding strength between the TiN coating and the die steel substrate. Results show that the combination method of surface texturing process and surface coating process has excellent tribological properties (the lowest frictional coefficient and wear volume), compared with the single texturing process or the single coating process. The tribological performance is improved resulting from the high hardness and low elastic modulus of TiN coatings, and the generation of hydrodynamic pressure, function of micro-trap for wear debris and micro-reservoirs for lubricating oil of the triangular surface texture. In addition, the coating bonding strength of the texturing sample is 3.63 MPa, higher than that of the single coating sample (3.48 MPa), but the mechanisms remain to be further researched.

  16. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Le, Thi Bang; Zhou, Guanghong; Zheng, Chuanbo; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O 3 ) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O 3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100 °C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O 3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O 3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. - Highlights: • TiN coating surface was oxidized by hydrothermal or ozone treatment while preserving its hardness. • Improved wettability, decontamination and interstitial N promoted osteoblast responses. • Partial oxidation makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant with good osteoconductivity.

  17. Investigation of interfacial capacitance of Pt, Ti and TiN coated electrodes by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norlin, A; Pan, J; Leygraf, C

    2002-08-01

    Electrochemical processes at the electrode-electrolyte (body fluid) interface are of ultimate importance for stimulating/sensing electrode function. A high electrode surface area is desirable for safe stimulation through double-layer charging and discharging. Pt and Pt-Ir alloys have been the most common electrode materials. The use of TiN coating as the surface layer on the electrode has found increasing interest because of its metal-like conductivity, excellent mechanical and chemical properties, and the fact that it can be deposited with a high surface area. In this work, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), which is a sensitive and non-destructive technique and widely used for characterization of electrical properties of electrode-electrolyte interfaces, was applied to investigate pure Pt and Ti, and TiN coated electrodes exposed to a phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS) solution. Platinized Pt and Ti were also studied for comparison. The capacitance value of the electrodes in PBS was obtained through quantitative analysis of the EIS spectra. The results reveal that the capacitance of the TiN coated electrodes with a rough surface is several hundreds times higher than that of a smooth Pt surface. Platinization of Ti can also increase the capacitance to the same extent as platina. EIS has been shown to be a powerful technique for characterization of stimulating/sensing electrodes.

  18. Surface modifications of TiN coatings by a pulsed TEA CO2 laser: Coating thickness effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtica, M. S.; Gaković, B. M.; Radak, B. B.

    2007-09-01

    Interactions of a transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser, pulse duration ˜2 μs (initial spike FWHM ˜120 ns), with polycrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) coatings deposited on high-quality steel (AISI 316 or M2) were studied. The experiments were carried out in a regime of high laser energy densities: 25, 48, and 50 J/cm2. The energy absorbed from the laser beam was partially converted to thermal energy and the effects of the TiN coating thickness on the morphological changes were considered. The morphological features and processes that accompany the interaction can be summarized as follows: (i) exfoliation of the TiN coating in the central zone of the irradiated area (for coating thickness of 1 μm) or appearance of grainy structure (for coating thicknesses 3 and 10 μm); (ii) appearance of hydrodynamic changes in the surrounding peripheral zone; and (iii) appearance of plasma in front of the target during sample irradiation.

  19. Anodic stripping voltammetric measurement of trace cadmium at tin-coated carbon paste electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bang Lin; Wu, Zhi Ling; Xiong, Chang Hong; Luo, Hong Qun; Li, Nian Bing

    2012-01-15

    A carbon paste electrode modified with tin was used for the determination of trace cadmium by anodic stripping voltammetry. The electroanalytical performance for the determination of Cd(II) on the tin-coated carbon paste electrode(SnF-CPE) was better than that on the carbon paste electrode. The measuring conditions have been optimized. The measurement of trace cadmium on the SnF-CPE has the best response under the conditions of 0.10molL(-1) acetate buffer solution (pH 3.9), 3.5mgL(-1) Sn(II), deposition potential of -1.40V, and deposition time of 150s. The SnF-CPE revealed highly linear behavior in the concentration range of 2.0-90.0μgL(-1) with the detection limit of 1.13μgL(-1) for Cd(II). The developed sensor has been applied to the determination of Cd(II) in real water samples with satisfactory results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Studies on the surface modification of TiN coatings using MEVVA ion implantation with selected metallic species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, L.P.; Purushotham, K.P.; Manory, R.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Reduced surface roughness was observed after ion implantation. • W implantation increased residual stress. • Reduced friction and wear accompanied Mo implantation. • Mo implanted layer was more resistant to breakdown during wear testing. • Ion implantation effects can be complex on various implanting species properties. - Abstract: Improvement in the performance of TiN coatings can be achieved using surface modification techniques such as ion implantation. In the present study, physical vapor deposited (PVD) TiN coatings were implanted with Cr, Zr, Nb, Mo and W using the metal evaporation vacuum arc (MEVVA) technique at a constant nominal dose of 4 × 10 16 ions cm −2 for all species. The samples were characterized before and after implantation, using Rutherford backscattering (RBS), glancing incident angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and optical microscopy. Friction and wear studies were performed under dry sliding conditions using a pin-on-disc CSEM Tribometer at 1 N load and 450 m sliding distance. A reduction in the grain size and surface roughness was observed after implantation with all five species. Little variation was observed in the residual stress values for all implanted TiN coatings, except for W implanted TiN which showed a pronounced increase in compressive residual stress. Mo-implanted samples showed a lower coefficient of friction and higher resistance to breakdown during the initial stages of testing than as-received samples. Significant reduction in wear rate was observed after implanting with Zr and Mo ions compared with unimplanted TiN. The presence of the Ti 2 N phase was observed with Cr implantation.

  1. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Le, Thi Bang; Zhou, Guanghong; Zheng, Chuanbo; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-02-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O3) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100°C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Structural study near the film/substrate interface of a plasma sprayed tin coating on low carbon steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vourlias, G.; Pistofidis, N.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E.K.

    2006-01-01

    The structure near the film/substrate interface of tin coatings deposited with the plasma spray technique on a low carbon steel substrate is examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), conventional transmission electron microscopy (CTEM) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), focusing on the structural properties affecting the corrosion performance. This examination revealed the presence of several Fe-Sn phases, which ensure good adhesion of the coatings to the underlying steel. Furthermore, amorphous Sn or SnO x were also detected in the coating, which, being in low concentration, have no effect on the coating properties

  3. Load fatigue performance of conical implant-abutment connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetoh, Y L; Tan, Keson B; Chua, E K; Quek, H C; Nicholls, Jack I

    2011-01-01

    Conical implant-abutment connections for platform switching have been recently introduced in implant systems. This study investigated the load fatigue performance of three conical abutment systems and their corresponding titanium and zirconia abutments. Regular-diameter implants of the Ankylos (AK), PrimaConnex (PC), and Straumann (ST) systems were tested with their corresponding titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr) abutments tightened to the recommended torque (n = 5 implant-abutment assemblies per group). A rotational load fatigue machine applied a sinusoidally varying tensile-compressive 21 N load to specimens at a 45-degree angle, producing an effective bending moment of 35 Ncm at a frequency of 10 Hz. The number of cycles to failure was recorded, with the upper limit set at 5 million cycles. Results were evaluated through analyses of variance. Except for the ST Zr group, which showed no failures in four samples and one failure just below the screw head, and the AK Ti group, in which one sample was preserved without fracture, all groups experienced failure of at least one of the components, whether the abutment screw only, the abutment, and/or the implant neck. There were significant differences between systems. There was no difference between systems for the Ti abutments, and the ST group was significantly different from the AK and PC groups for the Zr abutments. Ti conical abutments appear to have poorer load fatigue performance compared with earlier studies of external-hexagon connections. The load fatigue performance of Zr conical abutments varied and seemed to be highly system dependent. Many of the fractures in both the Ti and Zr abutment groups occurred within the implant, and retrieval would pose a significant clinical challenge. The clinician should weigh the mechanical, biologic, and esthetic considerations before selection of any implant system, connection type, or abutment material.

  4. Effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on the tribological properties of TiN coated HSS using CAE PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, A.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-Speed Steel (HSS) is a material that used in various Hi-Tech industries for many reasons. The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological properties of TiN (Titanium Nitride)-coated HSS. Using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE) technique coated samples. The goal of this work is to determine usefulness of TiN coatings in order to improve tribological properties of HSS, as vastly use in cutting tool industry for various applications. A Pin-on-Disc test showed that the minimum value recorded for friction coefficient was reduced from 0.294 to 0.239 when the nitrogen gas flow rate was increased from 100 sccm to 200 sccm. The decrease in friction coefficient resulted from the reduction in macrodroplets by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate during deposition. The worn surface morphology of the TiN coated HSS was observed on a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and the elemental composition on the wear scar were investigated by means of EDXS. (Author)

  5. FEA and microstructure characterization of a one-piece Y-TZP abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Lucas Hian; Ribeiro, Sebastião; Borges, Alexandre Luís Souto; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Tango, Rubens Nisie

    2014-11-01

    The most important drawback of dental implant/abutment assemblies is the need for a fixing screw. This study aimed to develop an esthetic one-piece Y-TZP abutment to suppress the use of the screw. Material characterization was performed using a bar-shaped specimen obtained by slip-casting to validate the method prior to prototype abutment fabrication by the same process. The mechanical behavior of the prototype abutment was verified and compared with a conventional abutment by finite element analysis (FEA). The abutment was evaluated by micro-CT analysis and its density was measured. FEA showed stress concentration at the first thread pitch during installation and in the cervical region during oblique loading for both abutments. However, stress concentration was observed at the base of the screw head and stem in the conventional abutment. The relative density for the fabricated abutment was 95.68%. Micro-CT analysis revealed the presence of elongated cracks with sharp edges over the surface and porosity in the central region. In the light of these findings, the behavior of a one-piece abutment is expected to be better than that of the conventional model. New studies should be conducted to clarify the performance and longevity of this one-piece Y-TZP abutment. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of occlusal forces on stress distribution in preloaded dental implant screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ibrahim; Sertgöz, Atilla; Ekici, Bülent

    2004-04-01

    Abutment and prosthetic loosening of single and multiple screw-retained, implant-supported fixed partial dentures is a concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate stress distribution of preloaded dental implant screws in 3 implant-to-abutment joint systems under simulated occlusal forces. Three abutment-to-implant joint systems were simulated by using the 3-dimensional finite element analysis method: (1) Branemark external hexagonal screw-retained abutment, (2) ITI 8-degree Morse tapered cemented abutment, and (3) ITI 8-degree Morse tapered plus internal octagonal screw-retained abutment. A thermal load and contact analysis method were used to simulate the preload resulting from the manufacturers' recommended torques in implant screw joint assemblies. The simulated preloaded implants were then loaded with 3 simulated static occlusal loads (10 N; horizontal, 35 N; vertical, 70 N; oblique) on the crown position onto the implant complex. Numeric and graphical results demonstrated that the stresses increased in both the abutment and prosthetic screws in the finite element models after simulated horizontal loading. However, when vertical and oblique static loads were applied, stresses decreased in the external hexagonal and internal octagonal plus 8-degree Morse tapered abutment and prosthetic screws with the exception of the prosthetic screw of ITI abutment after 70-N oblique loading. Stresses increased in the ITI 8-degree Morse tapered cemented abutment after both vertical and oblique loads. Although an increase or decrease was demonstrated for the maximum calculated stress values in preloaded screws after occlusal loads, these maximum stress values were well below the yield stress of both abutment and prosthetic screws of 2 implant systems tested. The results imply that the 3 implant-to-abutment joint systems tested may not fail under the simulated occlusal forces.

  7. The molecular mechanism for effects of TiN coating on NiTi alloy on endothelial cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dayun; Lü, Xiaoying; Hong, Ying; Xi, Tingfei; Zhang, Deyuan

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study is to systematically investigate the molecular mechanism of different effects of nickel titanium (NiTi) alloy surface and titanium nitride (TiN) coating on endothelial cell function. Release of nickel (Ni) ion from bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys and proliferation of endothelial cells on the two materials were evaluated, and then influence of the two materials on cellular protein expression profiles was investigated by proteomic technology. Subsequently, proteomic data were analyzed with bioinformatics analyses and further validated using a series of biological experiments. Results showed that although the two materials did not affect cell proliferation, the Ni ions released from bare NiTi alloy generated inhibition on pathways associated with actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, energy metabolism, inflammation, and amino acid metabolism. In comparison, TiN coating not only effectively prevented release of Ni ions from NiTi alloy, but also promoted actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion formation, increased energy metabolism, enhanced regulation of inflammation, and promoted amino acid metabolism. Furthermore, the two processes, "the initial mediation of adsorbed serum protein layer to endothelial cell adhesion and growth on the two materials" from our previous study, and "the following action of the two materials on cellular protein expression profile", were linked up and comprehensively analyzed. It was found that in stage of cell adhesion (within 4 h), release of Ni ions from bare NiTi alloy was very low, and the activation of adsorbed proteins to cell adhesion and growth related biological pathways (such as regulation of actin cytoskeleton, and focal adhesion pathways) was almost as same as TiN-coated NiTi alloy. This indicated that the released Ni ions did not affect the mediation of adsorbed proteins to endothelial cell adhesion. However, in stage of cell growth and proliferation, the release of Ni ions from bare NiTi alloy increased with time and reached a higher level, which inhibited endothelial cell function at molecular level, whereas TiN coating improved endothelial cell function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The influence of repetitively pulsed plasma immersion low energy ion implantation on TiN coating formation and properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivin, D. O.; Ananin, P. S.; Dektyarev, S. V.; Ryabchikov, A. I.; Shevelev, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    Application of high frequency short pulse plasma immersion low energy ion implantation for titanium nitride coating deposition using vacuum arc metal plasma and hot-cathode gas-discharge plasma on R6M5 alloy was investigated. Implementation of negative repetitively pulsed bias with bias amplitude 2 kV, pulse duration 5 μs and pulse frequency 105 Hz leads to 6.2-fold decrease of vacuum arc macroparticle surface density for macroparticles with diameter less than 0.5 μm. Ion sputtering due coating deposition reduces the production rate approximately by 30%. It was found that with bias amplitude range from 1.1 to 1.4 kV and pulse duration 5 μs yields to formation of coatings with local hardness up to 40 GPa. This paper presents the results of experimental studies of adhesion strength, tribological properties and surface morphology of deposited TiN coatings.

  9. An experimental study on the characteristics and delamination of TiN coatings deposited on Al 7075-T6 under fatigue cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskouei, R.H.; Ibrahim, R.N.; Barati, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, delamination of a titanium nitride (TiN) thin film from an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 substrate has been studied under fatigue loading conditions. TiN coatings of 3 μm in thickness were deposited onto the aluminium substrate using a physical vapour deposition process. Fatigue fracture surfaces of the coated specimens, failed under a range of low to high cyclic loads, were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analyses showed that the coating layer remained well-adhered to the substrate under fatigue loading with maximum stresses less than 200 MPa. However, local delaminations were observed at maximum cyclic stresses higher than 200 MPa. The coated specimens were found to beneficially resist maximum cyclic stresses up to 350 MPa without showing delaminations when subjected to a modified post heat treatment with a high solutionising temperature. This was associated with an average improvement of 27% in the fatigue life of the coated specimens subjected to the post heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere (argon) when compared to uncoated Al 7075-T6 for tested maximum alternating stress levels. Characterisation of TiN coatings confirmed the presence of single phase TiN film onto the substrate without any oxidisation when heat treated in argon atmosphere. Moreover, compressive residual stresses in TiN coatings increased from − 4.54 to − 7.56 GPa after the post heat treatment as a result of thermal stresses introduced during the quenching stage of the heat treatment. The actual lattice parameters were determined using the Cohen–Wagner method and were found to increase from 4.257 (Å) for the as-deposited TiN coatings to 4.262 (Å) for TiN coatings subjected to the post heat treatment. - Highlights: ► Improvement in fatigue life of TiN coated Al 7075-T6 after a post heat treatment ► Excellent adhesion of TiN film to the substrate at low and moderate cyclic loads ► Local delaminations of TiN film from Al 7075-T6 substrate at high cyclic loads ► Resistance of TiN film to delamination largely increased after the heat treatment ► Residual stress in TiN increased from − 4.54 to − 7.56 GPa after the heat treatment

  10. Experimental research on the relationship between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Xinxin; Wei, Huasha; Wang, Dashan; Han, Yan; Deng, Jing; Wang, Yongliang; Wang, Junjun; Yang, Jianjun

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the correlation between fit accuracy and fracture resistance of zirconia abutments, as well as its feasibility for clinical applications. Twenty self-made zirconia abutments were tested with 30 Osstem GSII implants. First, 10 Osstem GSII implants were cut into two parts along the long axis and assembled with the zirconia abutments. The microgaps between the implants and the zirconia abutments were measured under a scanning electron microscope. Second, the zirconia abutments were assembled with 20 un-cut implants and photographed before and after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque. The dental films were measured by Digora for Windows 2.6 software. Then the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was measured using the universal testing machine at 90°. All results were analyzed using SPSS13.0 software. The average internal-hexagon microgaps between the implants and zirconia abutments were 19.38±1.34μm. The average Morse taper microgap in the implant-abutment interface was 17.55±1.68μm. The dental film showed that the Morse taper gap in the implant-abutment interface disappeared after being fixed with a central screw of 30-Ncm torque, and the average moving distance of the zirconia abutments to the implants was 0.19±0.02mm. The average fracture resistance of zirconia abutments was 282.93±17.28N. The internal-hexagon microgap between the implants and zirconia abutments was negatively related to the fracture resistance of the abutments (r1=-0.97, pzirconia abutments. The fracture resistance of zirconia abutments can satisfy the clinical application. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Processing of an ultrafine-grained titanium by high-pressure torsion: an evaluation of the wear properties with and without a TiN coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan Ting; Gao, Nong; Gee, Mark G; Wood, Robert J K; Langdon, Terence G

    2013-01-01

    A commercial purity (CP) Grade 2 Ti was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) using an imposed pressure of 3.0GPa at room temperature. The HPT processing reduced the grain size from ∼8.6 μm in the as-received state to ultra-fine grains (UFG) of ∼130 nm after HPT. Tensile testing showed the HPT-processed Ti exhibited a good combination of high ultimate tensile strength (∼940 MPa) and a reasonable elongation to failure (∼23%). Physical vapour deposition was used to deposit TiN coatings, with a thickness of 2.5 μm, on Ti samples both with and without HPT processing. Scratch tests showed the TiN coating on UFG Ti had a critical failure load of ∼22.5 N whereas the load was only ∼12.7 N for the coarse-grained Ti. The difference is explained using a simple composite hardness model. Wear tests demonstrated an improved wear resistance of TiN coating when using UFG Ti as the substrate. The results suggest that CP Ti processed by HPT and subsequently coated with TiN provides a potentially important material for use in bio-implants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Influence of Plasma Nitriding Pre-Treatment on Tribological Properties of TiN Coatings Deposited by PACVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdipoor, M. S.; Mahboubi, F.; Ahangarani, Sh.; Raoufi, M.; Elmkhah, H.

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of plasma nitriding pre-treatment (PN) on mechanical and tribological behavior of TiN coatings produced by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD). The heat treatment of quench and temper was carried out on hot work AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) steel samples. A group of samples were plasma nitrided at 500 °C for 4 h in an atmosphere containing 25 vol.% nitrogen and 75 vol.% hydrogen. Then TiN layer was deposited on all of samples at 520 °C temperature, 8 kHz frequency, and 33% duty cycle. The microstructural, mechanical, and tribological properties of the coatings were investigated using SEM, WDS, AFM, microhardness tester, and pin-on-disc wear test. The load of wear test was 10 N and the samples were worn against different pins, ball-bearing steel (DIN 1.3505), and cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co). The results indicate that the difference of hardness between the samples with PN-TiNlayer and those samples with only TiN layer without PN was 450 HV and the former samples showed a significant amount of wear resistance in comparison to the latter ones.

  13. Effect of various additives on morphological and structural characteristics of pulse electrodeposited tin coatings from stannous sulfate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh, E-mail: stannum.ashu@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Karabi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Fecht, Hans-J. [Institut für Mikro- und Nanomaterialien, Universität Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PEG and thiourea act as grain refiners, and Triton X-100 acts as brightener in bath. • Additives refine the crystallite size and modify the orientation of lattice planes. • Dendritic and nodular growths are reduced when additives are used in combination. - Abstract: The pulse electrodeposited tin coatings are synthesized from an acidic electrolyte (stannous sulfate, SnSO{sub 4}30 g/L and sulfuric acid, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}—200 g/L) containing various additives (polyethylene glycol (PEG), thiourea and Triton X-100). The effect of the additives on surface morphology, preferred orientation of grains, grain size, and surface roughness has been studied. The final coatings are characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface profilometry. In the absence of additives, tin deposition is associated with prominent hydrogen evolution reaction giving rise to rough deposits. Both PEG and thiourea act as grain refiner while Triton X-100 acts as a brightener in the electrolyte. The cathodic polarization on the reduction of the tin (II) ions is more pronounced when a combination of additives is used and further, fine-grained, smooth and shiny electrodeposits of tin are obtained due to a synergistic effect of the adsorbed species.

  14. Characterization of surface enhancement of carbon ion-implanted TiN coatings by metal vapor vacuum arc ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, C L

    2002-01-01

    The modification of the surfaces of energetic carbon-implanted TiN films using metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion implantation was investigated, by varying ion energy and dose. The microhardness, microstructure and chemical states of carbon, implanted on the surface layer of TiN films, were examined, as functions of ion energy and dose, by nanoindenter, transmission electron microscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. Results revealed that the microhardness increased from 16.8 up to 25.3 GPa and the friction coefficient decreased to approximately 0.2, depending on the implanted ion energy and dose. The result is attributed to the new microcrystalline phases of TiCN and TiC formed, and carbon concentration saturation of the implanted matrix can enhance the partial mechanical property of TiN films after MEVVA treatment. The concentration distribution, implantation depth and chemical states of carbon-implanted TiN coatings depended strongly on the ion dose and...

  15. Effect of active screen plasma nitriding pretreatment on wear behavior of TiN coating deposited by PACVD technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raoufi, M., E-mail: raoufi@iust.ac.ir [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirdamadi, Sh. [School of Metallurgical Engineering, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahboubi, F. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangarani, Sh. [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Dep., Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahdipoor, M.S. [Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Elmkhah, H. [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-08-01

    Titanium based alloys are used extensively for improving wear properties of different parts due to their high hardness contents. Titanium nitride (TiN) is among these coatings which can be deposited on surface using various techniques such as CVD, PVD and PACVD. Their weak interface with substrate is one major drawback which can increase the total wear in spite of favorite wear behavior of TiN. Disc shaped samples from AISI H13 (DIN 1.2344) steel were prepared in this study. Single TiN coating was deposited on some of them while others have experienced a TiN deposition by active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN). Hardness at the surface and depth of samples was measured through Vickers micro hardness test which revealed 1810 Hv hardness as the maximum values for a dual-layered ASPN-TiN. Pin-on-disc wear test was done in order to study the wear mechanism. In this regard, the wear behavior of samples was investigated against pins from 100Cr6 (Din 1.3505) bearing steel and tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) steel. It was evidenced that the dual-layer ASPN-TiN coating has shown the least weight loss with the best wearing behavior because of its high hardness values, stable interface and acceptable resistance against peeling during wearing period.

  16. [Dental implant restoration abutment selection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Shi; Hao, Zeng

    2017-04-01

    An increasing number of implant restoration abutment types are produced with the rapid development of dental implantology. Although various abutments can meet different clinical demands, the selection of the appropriate abutment is both difficult and confusing. This article aims to help clinicians select the appropriate abutment by describing abutment design, types, and selection criteria.

  17. A technique for the management of screw access opening in cement-retained implant restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Kermanshah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Abutment screw loosening has been considered as a common complication of implant-supported dental prostheses. This problem is more important in cement-retained implant restorations due to their invisible position of the screw access opening. Case Report: This report describes a modified retrievability method for cement-retained implant restorations in the event of abutment screw loosening. The screw access opening was marked with ceramic stain and its porcelain surface was treated using hydrofluoric acid (HF, silane, and adhesive to bond to composite resin. Discussion: The present modified technique facilitates screw access opening and improves the bond between the porcelain and composite resin.

  18. Marginal Vertical Fit along the Implant-Abutment Interface: A Microscope Qualitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Mobilio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to qualitatively evaluate the marginal vertical fit along two different implant-abutment interfaces: (1 a standard abutment on an implant and (2 a computer-aided-design/computer-aided-machine (CAD/CAM customized screw-retained crown on an implant. Four groups were compared: three customized screw-retained crowns with three different “tolerance” values (CAD-CAM 0, CAD-CAM +1, CAD-CAM −1 and a standard titanium abutment. Qualitative analysis was carried out using an optical microscope. Results showed a vertical gap significantly different from both CAD-CAM 0 and CAD-CAM −1, while no difference was found between standard abutment and CAD-CAM +1. The set tolerance in producing CAD/CAM screw-retained crowns plays a key role in the final fit.

  19. Clinical outcomes of implant abutments in the anterior region: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidra, Avinash S; Rungruanganunt, Patchanee

    2013-06-01

    The clinical outcomes of anterior implant abutments are not well reported. Purpose of the Study To systematically review the existing literature to identify survival, mechanical, biological, and esthetic outcomes of anterior implant abutments. An electronic search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with specific search terms and predetermined criteria. After application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, the final list of articles was reviewed in-depth to meet the objectives of this review. Systematic application of inclusion and exclusion criteria resulted in identification of 27 studies that described outcomes of anterior implant abutments. Because of substantial heterogeneity of data, true survival, or cumulative survival of abutments could not be calculated. However, the mean failure of abutments was 1.15%, attributable to fractures restricted to ceramic abutments. Mechanical complications included abutment screw loosening, primarily restricted to external hex implants. Biological complications included fistulas and mucosal recession. Esthetic outcomes showed lesser gingival discoloration for zirconia abutments compared with metal abutments. Minimal anterior abutment fractures have been reported and are restricted to ceramic abutments. Studies using spectrophotometry showed lesser gingival discoloration with zirconia abutments, but there is no evidence for difference in patient's esthetic satisfaction between ceramic and metal abutments. For the anterior region, selection of an implant with internal connection and a customized metal abutment (titanium or cast metal) can have the least mechanical complications. Limited existing clinical data indicate reduced peri-implant mucosal discoloration from zirconia abutments, which may be preferable over metal abutments, in patients with thinner mucosal tissues or patients with high or gummy smiles. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Fracture strength and failure mode of maxillary implant-supported provisional single crowns: a comparison of composite resin crowns fabricated directly over PEEK abutments and solid titanium abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santing, Hendrik Jacob; Meijer, Henny J A; Raghoebar, Gerry M; Özcan, Mutlu

    2012-12-01

    Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the fracture strength of implant-supported composite resin crowns on PEEK and solid titanium temporary abutments, and to analyze the failure types. Three types of provisional abutments, RN synOcta Temporary Meso Abutment (PEEK; Straumann), RN synOcta Titanium Post for Temporary Restorations (Straumann), and Temporary Abutment Engaging NobRplRP (Nobel Biocare) were used, and provisional screw-retained crowns using composite resin (Solidex) were fabricated for four different locations in the maxilla. The specimens were tested in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute until fracture occurred. The failure types were analyzed and further categorized as irreparable (Type 1) or reparable (Type 2). No significant difference was found between different abutment types. Only for the position of the maxillary central incisor, composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments showed significantly lower (p Provisional crowns on PEEK abutments showed similar fracture strength as titanium temporary abutments except for central incisors. Maxillary right central incisor composite resin crowns on PEEK temporary abutments fractured below the mean anterior masticatory loading forces reported to be approximately 206 N. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A rationale method for evaluating unscrewing torque values of prosthetic screws in dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Miguel Saliba

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Previous studies that evaluated the torque needed for removing dental implant screws have not considered the manner of transfer of the occlusal loads in clinical settings. Instead, the torque used for removal was applied directly to the screw, and most of them omitted the possibility that the hexagon could limit the action of the occlusal load in the loosening of the screws. The present study proposes a method for evaluating the screw removal torque in an anti-rotational device independent way, creating an unscrewing load transfer to the entire assembly, not only to the screw. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty hexagonal abutments without the hexagon in their bases were fixed with a screw to 20 dental implants. They were divided into two groups: Group 1 used titanium screws and Group 2 used titanium screws covered with a solid lubricant. A torque of 32 Ncm was applied to the screw and then a custom-made wrench was used for rotating the abutment counterclockwise, to loosen the screw. A digital torque meter recorded the torque required to loosen the abutment. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between the means of Group 1 (38.62±6.43 Ncm and Group 2 (48.47±5.04 Ncm, with p=0.001. CONCLUSION: This methodology was effective in comparing unscrewing torque values of the implant-abutment junction even with a limited sample size. It confirmed a previously shown significant difference between two types of screws.

  2. Evaluation of microgap size and microbial leakage in the connection area of 4 abutments with Straumann (ITI) implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rismanchian, Mansoor; Hatami, Mahnaz; Badrian, Hamid; Khalighinejad, Navid; Goroohi, Hossein

    2012-12-01

    A microgap between implant and abutment can lead to mechanical and biological problems such as abutment screw fracture and peri-implantitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate microgap size and microbial leakage in the connection area of 4 different abutments to ITI implants. In this experimental study, 36 abutments in 4 groups (including Cast On, Castable, Solid, and Synocta abutments) connected to Straumann fixtures (with their inner part inoculated with bacterial suspension) and microbial leakage were assessed at different times. The size of the microgap in 4 randomized locations was then measured by scanning electron microscope. The data were analyzed by SPSS software and by 1-way variance statistical test, Kruskal-Wallis, and their supplementary tests (Mann-Whitney HSD and Tukey's; α = .05) at the next step. The effect of using different types of abutments was significant on the mean microgap size (P < .001) and on the mean number of leaked colonies (CFU/mL) through the connection area of the implant and abutment within the first 5 hours of the experiment (P = .012); however, it did not significantly influence microleakage at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 14 days (P = .145). Using Synocta abutments compared with Solid abutments will not provide us with more accommodation, and vice versa. Using Solid and Synocta abutments can significantly decrease the microgap size; however, Cast On abutments do not show a significant difference in terms of microgap compared with Castable abutments. Microleakage in the connection area is comparable for these 4 abutments.

  3. Fracture Strength of Standard and Small Diameter Prosthetic Abutments for Full-Arch Implant-Supported Restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sá, Bruno Costa Martins; Andrighetto, Augusto Ricardo; Bernardes, Sergio Rocha; Tiossi, Rodrigo

    2017-06-01

    This study tested the fracture strength of prosthetic abutments with different sizes and combinations to support a 5-implant milled framework with distal extension. Prosthetic abutments with different dimensions (4.8-mm diameter mini conical abutment and 3.5-mm diameter microconical abutment) were screwed to 5 threaded implants. The following groups were divided (n = 3): G1 with 5 miniconical abutments (standard size), G2 with 5 microconical abutments (small sized), G3 with a combination of 3 small sized abutments and 2 standard sized abutments, and G4 with a combination of 2 small sized abutments and 3 standard sized abutments. Standardized titanium frameworks for full-arch fixed dental prosthesis were milled with equidistant holes for each of the 5 implants and abutments. A loading point was selected at 18 mm away from both distal implants. A universal testing system was used for the fracture strength tests and load was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min on the previously described loading points until component fracture. Mean fracture strength for each group was statistically compared (α = 0.05). Prosthetic screws were the only fractured components for all tested groups. Mean fracture strength was: G1, 1130.22 N; G2, 1031.36 N; G3, 757.9 N; and G4 792.03 N (P prosthetic abutments and combinations that were tested provide adequate fracture strength for clinical use. However, the combination of standard and small diameter abutments leads to lower fracture strength compared with when only standard sized prosthetic abutments were used, irrespective of the abutment diameter (4.8- or 3.5-mm).

  4. Effect of Cyclic Loading on Micromotion at the Implant-Abutment Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Matthias; Taylor, Thomas D

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic loading may cause settling of abutments mounted on dental implants, potentially affecting screw joint stability and implant-abutment micromotion. It was the goal of this in vitro study to compare micromotion of implant-abutment assemblies before and after masticatory simulation. Six groups of abutments (n = 5) for a specific tissue-level implant system with an internal octagon were subject to micromotion measurements. The implant-abutment assemblies were loaded in a universal testing machine, and an apparatus and extensometers were used to record displacement. This was done twice, in the condition in which they were received from the abutment manufacturer and after simulated loading (100,000 cycles; 100 N). Statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance, two-sample t tests (Welch tests), and Pearson product moment correlation (α = .05). The mean values for micromotion ranged from 33.15 to 63.41 μm and from 30.03 to 42.40 μm before and after load cycling. The general trend toward reduced micromotion following load cycling was statistically significant only for CAD/CAM zirconia abutments (P = .036) and for one type of clone abutment (P = .012), with no significant correlation between values measured before and after cyclic loading (Pearson product moment correlation; P = .104). While significant differences in micromotion were found prior to load cycling, no significant difference among any of the abutment types tested could be observed afterward (P > .05 in all cases). A quantifiable settling effect at the implant-abutment interface seems to result from cyclic loading, leading to a decrease in micromotion. This effect seems to be more pronounced in low-quality abutments. For the implant system tested in this study, retightening of abutment screws is recommended after an initial period of clinical use.

  5. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Naiming; Huang Xiaobo; Zhang Xiangyu; Fan Ailan; Qin Lin; Tang Bin

    2012-01-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  6. Load to failure of different zirconia abutments for an internal hexagon implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Salaita, Louai G; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2015-09-01

    Various zirconia abutment designs are available to restore implant systems. Fracture resistance is one of the criteria involved in selecting among these options. The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure and compare load to failure for 5 zirconia abutments for an internally hexagon implant. Five 4.1×11.5-mm Zimmer tapered screw-vent implants were individually secured in a loading apparatus, and 3 specimens of each of the 5 different abutments (Zimmer Contour with a Ti ring, anatomic-contour Atlantis-Zr, anatomic-contour Inclusive-Zr, anatomic-contour Astra Tech ZirDesign, Legacy Straight Contoured abutment with Ti core) (N=15) were loaded at a 30-degree angle until the implant abutment complex failed. Data for load to failure were compared with analysis of variance and a Tukey-Kramer post hoc test (α=.05). The custom anatomic-contour abutment (Inclusive) showed the lowest load to fracture, and the stock anatomic-contour (AstraTech ZirDesign) the second lowest load to fracture. These were significantly lower than all other abutments (Pzirconia abutment with a titanium core-hexagon (Legacy Straight Contoured), which was significantly greater than all other abutments (Pzirconia abutments fractured at an average of 275 N compared with the average fracture load of 842 N for zirconia abutments with titanium component (Pzirconia abutment with a titanium ring and the zirconia abutment with a titanium core-hexagon (Legacy Straight Contoured) had significantly greater fracture resistance than that of any of the 1-piece anatomic-contour zirconia abutments tested. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Eleven-Year Follow-Up of a Prospective Study of Zirconia Implant Abutments Supporting Single All-Ceramic Crowns in Anterior and Premolar Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembic, Anja; Philipp, Alexander Otto Hermann; Hämmerle, Christoph Hans Franz; Wohlwend, Arnold; Sailer, Irena

    2015-10-01

    Clinical studies on zirconia abutments report very good survival rates and biological and technical results, but few have an observation period of more than 5 years. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term performance of customized zirconia implant abutments supporting all-ceramic crowns. Twenty-seven patients receiving 54 single implants were included (25 incisors, 14 canines, 15 premolars in both jaws). Yttria-stabilized zirconia abutments were screwed to the implants with a defined torque. All-ceramic crowns were adhesively cemented onto the abutments. The implants, abutments, and crowns were clinically and radiographically examined after 11 years of use. Modified United States Public Health Service (USPHS) criteria were used to assess technical outcomes: fracture of abutment/crown framework/veneering ceramic, loosening of abutment screw/crown, marginal adaptation, anatomical form, occlusal wear, and abutment fit. The biological parameters were pocket probing depth, plaque control record, bleeding on probing, papilla index, and gingival/mucosal recession at implants and neighboring natural teeth. The cumulative success rate of abutments and crowns was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The results of the USPHS criteria were analyzed descriptively. Sixteen patients with 31 zirconia abutments were examined at 11.3 (±0.9) years after implantation. No abutment or crown was lost. The cumulative success rate was 96.3% for abutments and 90.7% for crowns. Two abutment screws loosened, and three crowns exhibited minor chipping. There were no biological complications. Customized zirconia single implant abutments exhibited excellent long-term outcomes in anterior and premolar regions. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of TiC and TiN coated molybdenum limiter system and initial results of the thermal testing in neutral beam heated JFT-2 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hiroo; Sengoku, Seio; Maeno, Masaki; Yamamoto, Shin; Seki, Masahiro; Kazawa, Minoru

    1982-06-01

    This paper describes the limiter drive system for TiC and TiN coated molybdenum limiters and the thermal testing results of the TiC coated limiter in the JFT-2 tokamak using neutral beam injection (0.7 MW). To investigate the influence of TiC coated limiter on plasma behavior and adhesion property under tokamak plasma, a full scale limiter test has been performed in the JFT-2. Reproducible plasma was obtained after the plasma conditioning. Maximum heat flux to the limiter, measured by IR camera, was 1.5 -- 6.5 kW/cm 2 in 25 msec. Cracking, exfoliation and melting on TiC coated limiter were not observed, except for a number of arc tracks. Finally, the permissible heat fluxes of TiC coated molybdenum first wall are discussed. (author)

  9. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suegama, P.H.; Sarmento, V.H.V.; Montemor, M.F.; Benedetti, A.V.; de Melo, H.G.; Aoki, I.V.; Santilli, C.V.

    2010-01-01

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  10. Polarization Studies on Inhibitory Effect of Chromates and Dichromates on Corrosion of Tin Coated Steel in 0.5M Monochloroacetic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangita Sharma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chromates and Dichromates have been tested for its inhibitory effects towards tin coated steel in 0.5M monochloroacetic acid. The corrosion behaviour of potassium chromate, sodium chromate, potassium dichromate, sodium dichromate and ammonium dichromate was studied by polarization curves, Tafel parameters like Tafel slopes, extrapolation of cathodic Tafel line and intersection of cathodic and anodic line at open circuit potential in presence of inhibitors have been tabulated along with other electrochemical parameters and corrosion current have been calculated from Tafel lines. The efficiencies are calculated and compared reasonably well with those obtained from loss in weight data. All the inhibitors induce a significant increase of potential positive and direction accounts for cathodic polarization. The Icorr has also been calculated and that accounts well for cathodic reactions in presence of chromates and dichromates as inhibitors.

  11. Effect of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of siloxane-poly(methyl methacrylate) based film applied on tin coated steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suegama, P.H. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 61548, 05424-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sarmento, V.H.V. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); Montemor, M.F. [ICEMS, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Benedetti, A.V. [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil); de Melo, H.G.; Aoki, I.V. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica, Escola Politecnica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, CP 61548, 05424-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Santilli, C.V., E-mail: santilli@iq.unesp.b [Departamento Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, CP 355, 14801-970 Araraquara, SP (Brazil)

    2010-07-15

    This work investigates the influence of the addition of cerium (IV) ions on the anticorrosion properties of organic-inorganic hybrid coatings applied to passivated tin coated steel. In order to evaluate the specific effect of cerium (IV) addition on nanostructural features of the organic and inorganic phases of the hybrid coating, the hydrolytic polycondensation of silicon alkoxide and the radical polymerization of the methyl methacrylate (MMA) function were induced separately. The corrosion resistance of the coatings was evaluated by means of linear polarization, Tafel type curves and electrochemical impedance measurements. The impedance results obtained for the hybrid coatings were discussed based on an electrical equivalent circuit used to fit the experimental data. The electrochemical results clearly showed the improvement of the protective properties of the organic-inorganic hybrid coating mainly when the cerium (IV) was added to the organic phase solution precursor, which seemed to be due to the formation of a more uniform and densely reticulated siloxane-PMMA film.

  12. The role of prosthetic abutment material on the stress distribution in a maxillary single implant-supported fixed prosthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Hugo Eduardo, E-mail: hugo.e.peixoto@hotmail.com [Implantology Team, Latin American Institute of Research and Education in Dentistry, Curitiba, Paraná (Brazil); Bordin, Dimorvan, E-mail: dimorvan_bordin@hotmail.com [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Del Bel Cury, Altair A., E-mail: altcury@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Silva, Wander José da, E-mail: wanderjose@fop.unicamp.br [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Limeira avenue, 901-Vila Rezende, Piracicaba, SP 13414-903 (Brazil); Faot, Fernanda, E-mail: fernanda.faot@gmail.com [Department of Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Federal University of Pelotas, Gonçalves Chaves, 457, 2nd floor, Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul 96015-560 (Brazil)

    2016-08-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the influence of abutment's material and geometry on stress distribution in a single implant-supported prosthesis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional models were made based on tomographic slices of the upper middle incisor area, in which a morse taper implant was positioned and a titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrN) universal abutments was installed. The commercially available geometry of titanium (T) and zirconia (Z) abutments were used to draw two models, TM1 and ZM1 respectively, which served as control groups. These models were compared with 2 experimental groups were the mechanical properties of Z were applied to the titanium abutment (TM2) and vice versa for the zirconia abutment (ZM2). Subsequently, loading was simulated in two steps, starting with a preload phase, calculated with the respective friction coefficients of each materials, followed by a combined preload and chewing force. The maximum von Mises stress was described. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA that considered material composition, geometry and loading (p < 0.05). Results: Titanium and zirconia abutments showed similar von Mises stresses in the mechanical part of the four models. The area with the highest concentration of stress was the screw thread, following by the screw body. The highest stress levels occurred in screw thread was observed during the preloading phase in the ZM1 model (931 MPa); and during the combined loading in the TM1 model (965 MPa). Statistically significant differences were observed for loading, the material × loading interaction, and the loading × geometry interaction (p < 0.05). Preloading contributed for 77.89% of the stress (p < 0.05). There were no statistically significant differences to the other factors (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The screw was the piece most intensely affected, mainly through the preload force, independent of the abutment's material. - Highlights: • The abutment's screw was the most impaired piece of the

  13. Implant-abutment interface

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    healing collars, abutments, transfer copings and analogs, which increases inventory costs and complexity. Limitations of external hex became more evident ..... 0.75mm or bone platform switching which involves an inward bone ring in the coronal part of the implant. 34 that is in continuity with the alveolar bone crest .

  14. Self-Inflicted Drywall Screws in the Sagittal Sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guppy, Kern H; Ochi, Calvin

    2018-02-01

    A 30-year-old right-handed man with a history of schizophrenia presented with 2 self-inflicted drywall screws in the skull. The patient was sleepy but easily arousable; blood tests showed he had taken methamphetamines. Computed tomography and computed tomography angiography of the head showed the frontal screw abutted left of the superior sagittal sinus, and the posterior screw went through the superior sagittal sinus with no extravasation of contrast material at either site. Both screws were removed with exposure of the sagittal sinus using U-shaped craniectomies. There was no bleeding on the removal of the screws. It appears the posterior screw entered between the leaflets of the sagittal sinus dura mater. The patient had returned to work without any sequelae 1 month after injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of different abutment-implant connections - A nonlinear finite element analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishak, Muhammad Ikman; Shafi, Aisyah Ahmad; Rosli, M. U.; Khor, C. Y.; Zakaria, M. S.; Rahim, Wan Mohd Faizal Wan Abd; Jamalludin, Mohd Riduan

    2017-09-01

    The success of dental implant surgery is majorly dependent on the stability of prosthesis to anchor to implant body as well as the integration of implant body to bone. The attachment between dental implant body and abutment plays a vital role in attributing to the stability of dental implant system. A good connection between implant body cavity to abutment may minimize the complications of abutment loosening and implant fractures as widely reported in clinical findings. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of different abutment-implant connections on stress dispersion within the abutment and implant bodies as well as displacement of implant body via three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). A 3-D model of mandible was reconstructed from computed tomography (CT) image datasets using an image-processing software with the selected region of interest was the left side covering the second premolar, first molar and second molar regions. The bone was modelled as compact (cortical) and porous (cancellous) structures. Besides, three implant bodies and three generic models of abutment with different types of connections - tapered interference fit (TIF), tapered integrated screwed-in (TIS) and screw retention (SR) were created using computer-aided design (CAD) software and all models were then analysed via 3D FEA software. Occlusal forces of 114.6 N, 17.2 N and 23.4 N were applied in the axial, lingual and mesio-distal directions, respectively, on the top surface of first molar crown. All planes of the mandibular bone model were rigidly fixed. The result exhibited that abutment with TIS connection produced the most favourable stress and displacement outcomes as compared to other attachment types. This is due to the existence of integrated screw at the bottom portion of tapered abutment which increases the motion resistance.

  16. Stiffness, strength, and failure modes of implant-supported monolithic lithium disilicate crowns: influence of titanium and zirconia abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joda, Tim; Bürki, Alexander; Bethge, Stefan; Brägger, Urs; Zysset, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate stiffness, strength, and failure modes of monolithic crowns produced using computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture, which are connected to diverse titanium and zirconia abutments on an implant system with tapered, internal connections. Twenty monolithic lithium disilicate (LS2) crowns were constructed and loaded on bone level-type implants in a universal testing machine under quasistatic conditions according to DIN ISO 14801. Comparative analysis included a 2 × 2 format: prefabricated titanium abutments using proprietary bonding bases (group A) vs nonproprietary bonding bases (group B), and customized zirconia abutments using proprietary Straumann CARES (group C) vs nonproprietary Astra Atlantis (group D) material. Stiffness and strength were assessed and calculated statistically with the Wilcoxon rank sum test. Cross-sections of each tested group were inspected microscopically. Loaded LS2 crowns, implants, and abutment screws in all tested specimens (groups A, B, C, and D) did not show any visible fractures. For an analysis of titanium abutments (groups A and B), stiffness and strength showed equally high stability. In contrast, proprietary and nonproprietary customized zirconia abutments exhibited statistically significant differences with a mean strength of 366 N (Astra) and 541 N (CARES) (P zirconia abutments (groups C and D) below the implant shoulder. Depending on the abutment design, prefabricated titanium abutment and proprietary customized zirconia implant-abutment connections in conjunction with monolithic LS2 crowns had the best results in this laboratory investigation.

  17. Photoelastic stress analysis of implant-tooth connected prostheses with segmented and nonsegmented abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, Kent T; Ozawa, Shogo; Caputo, Angelo A; Nishimura, Russell D

    2003-05-01

    There is some question about whether implant abutment selection affects the transfer of load between connected implants and natural teeth. The purpose of this study was to compare stress transfer patterns with either 1 or 2 posterior implants connected to a single anteriorly located simulated natural tooth with either 1 or 2 segmented and nonsegmented implant abutments under relevant functional loads by use of the photoelastic stress analysis technique. A model of a human left mandible, edentulous posterior to the first premolar, with two 3.75-mm x 13-mm screw-type implants embedded within the edentulous area, was fabricated from photoelastic materials. The implants were in the first and second molar positions. Two fixed partial denture prosthetic restorations were fabricated with either segmented conical abutments or nonsegmented UCLA abutments. Vertical occlusal loads were applied at fixed locations on the restorations. The photoelastic stress fringes that developed in the supporting mandible were monitored visually and recorded photographically. The stress intensity (number of fringes), stress concentrations (closeness of fringes), and their locations were subjectively compared. Loading on the restoration over the simulated tooth generated apical stresses of similar intensity (fringe order) at the tooth and the first molar implant for both abutment types. Low-level stress was transferred to the second molar implant. Loading directed on the implant-supported region of the restoration demonstrated low transfer of stress to the simulated tooth. Nonvertical stress transfer with slightly higher intensity was observed for the nonsegmented abutment. Within the limitations of this simulation study, stress distribution and intensity for the 2 implant conditions was similar for segmented and nonsegmented abutment designs. Magnitude of stresses observed for both abutment designs was similar for the single implant condition. Vertical loading produced more nonaxial stresses

  18. Effect of abutment modification and cement type on retention of cement-retained implant supported crowns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Farzin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Provisional cements are commonly used to facilitate retrievability of cement-retained fixed implant restorations; but compromised abutment preparation may affect the retention of implant-retained crowns.The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of abutment design and type of luting agent on the retentive strength of cement-retained implant restorations.Two prefabricated abutments were attached to their corresponding analogs and embedded in an acrylic resin block. The first abutment (control group was left intact without any modifications. The screw access channel for the first abutment was completely filled with composite resin. In the second abutment, (test group the axial wall was partially removed to form an abutment with 3 walls. Wax models were made by CAD/CAM. Ten cast copings were fabricated for each abutment. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by Temp Bond luting agent under standardized conditions (n=20. The assemblies were stored in 100% humidity for one day at 37°C prior to testing. The cast crown was removed from the abutment using an Instron machine, and the peak removal force was recorded. Coping/abutment specimens were cleaned after testing, and the testing procedure was repeated for Dycal luting agent (n=20. Data were analyzed with two- way ANOVA (α=0.05.There was no significant difference in the mean transformed retention (Ln-R between intact abutments (4.90±0.37 and the abutments with 3 walls (4.83±0.25 using Dycal luting agent. However, in TempBond group, the mean transformed retention (Ln-R was significantly lower in the intact abutment (3.9±0.23 compared to the abutment with 3 walls (4.13±0.33, P=0.027.The retention of cement-retained implant restoration can be improved by the type of temporary cement used. The retention of cast crowns cemented to implant abutments with TempBond is influenced by the wall removal.

  19. Custom anatomic healing abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak S Gowda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental implants with their increasing success rates and predictability of final outcome are fast becoming the treatment of choice for replacing missing teeth. Considering the success of immediate implant placement in reducing tissue loss and achieving good esthetic results, is making it a more popular treatment modality in implant dentistry. Understanding the management of gingival tissues in relation to implants to obtain maximum esthetics is of utmost importance. The use of provisional abutments and immediate temporization has a proven track record of their ability to produce optimal esthetics and to guide the tissue response during the healing phase. With careful patient selection and execution, customized healing abutments can provide an effective method to enhance the esthetic and emergence profile for anterior implant restorations.

  20. A mine abutment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardashev, K.A.; Borisovets, V.A.; Kozel, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to increase the service life of the abutment between a mine shaft and near shaft drifts by eliminating the irregularity of the near shaft rock massif. The stated purpose is achieved by the fact that in the mine abutment, which includes a mine shaft and near shaft chambers, the mine shaft is made within the near shaft chambers with an expansion and is equipped with a cylindrical shell installed in its widened part with an inside cross section equal to the cross section of the shaft which with the shaft forms a cavity for positioning the near shaft chambers. Moreover, the mine shaft in the expansion zone may be made in the form of a cone in its upper part and in the form of a cylinder in its lower part.

  1. Evaluation of torque loss in Co-Cr castable abutments after cyclic loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Zeighami

    2018-03-01

    Conclusion: Misfit between the castable implant components can cause torque loss before and after cyclic loading. However, it is more appropriate to relate the results of this study to the screw loosening of the above mentioned abutments than judging their clinical performance.

  2. Prospective assessment of CAD/CAM zirconia abutment and lithium disilicate crown restorations: 2.4 year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Lyndon F; Stanford, Clark; Feine, Jocelyne; McGuire, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Single-tooth implant restorations are commonly used to replace anterior maxillary teeth. The esthetic, functional, and biologic outcomes are, in part, a function of the abutment and crown. The purpose of this clinical study was to describe the implant, abutment, and crown survival and complication rates for CAD/CAM zirconia abutment and lithium disilicate crown restorations for single-tooth implants. As part of a broader prospective investigation that enrolled and treated 141 participants comparing tissue responses at the conical interface (CI; AstraTech OsseoSpeed), flat-to-flat interface (FI; NobelSpeedy), and platform-switch interface (PS; NanoTite Certain Prevail) of single-tooth implants, computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) zirconia abutments (ATLANTIS Abutment) and cemented lithium disilicate (e.max) crowns were used in the restoration of all implants. After 2.4 years in function (3 years after implant placement), the implant, abutment, and crown of 110 participants were evaluated. Technical and biologic complications were recorded. Demographic results were tabulated as percentages with mean values and standard deviations. Abutment survival was calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. After 2.4 years, no abutments or crowns had been lost. Abutment complications (screw loosening, screw fracture, fracture) were absent for all 3 implant groups. Crown complications were limited to 2 crowns debonding and 1 with excess cement (2.5%). Five biological complications (4.0%) were recorded. The overall complication rate was 6.5%. CAD/CAM zirconia abutments restored with cemented lithium disilicate crowns demonstrated high survival on 3 different implant-abutment interface designs. No abutment or abutment screw fracture occurred. The technical complications observed after 2.4 years were minor and reversible. The use of CAD/CAM zirconia abutments with cemented lithium disilicate crowns is associated with high technical and biologic success at 2

  3. Influence of substrate pre-treatments by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on the behavior of TiN coatings deposited by plasma reactive sputtering on 100Cr6 steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vales, S., E-mail: sandra.vales@usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Brito, P., E-mail: ppbrito@gmail.com [Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais (PUC-MG), Av. Dom José Gaspar 500, 30535-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Pineda, F.A.G., E-mail: pipe8219@gmail.com [Universidade de São Paulo (USP), Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos, Av. Trabalhador São Carlense 400, São Carlos, SP CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Ochoa, E.A., E-mail: abigail_ochoa@hotmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Droppa, R., E-mail: roosevelt.droppa@ufabc.edu.br [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Av. dos Estados, 5001, Santo André, SP CEP 09210-580 (Brazil); Garcia, J., E-mail: jose.garcia@sandvik.com [Sandvik Coromant R& D, Lerkrogsvägen 19, SE-12680, Stockholm (Sweden); Morales, M., E-mail: monieriz@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); Alvarez, F., E-mail: alvarez@ifi.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campus Universitário Zeferino Vaz, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, SP CEP 13083-970 (Brazil); and others

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the influence of pre-treating a 100Cr6 steel surface by Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and plasma nitriding at low temperature (380 °C) on the roughness, wear resistance and residual stresses of thin TiN coatings deposited by reactive IBAD was investigated. The Xe{sup +} ion bombardment was carried out using a 1.0 keV kinetic energy by a broad ion beam assistance deposition (IBAD, Kaufman cell). The results showed that in the studied experimental conditions the ion bombardment intensifies nitrogen diffusion by creating lattice imperfections, stress, and increasing roughness. In case of the combined pre-treatment with Xe{sup +} ion bombardment and subsequent plasma nitriding, the samples evolved relatively high average roughness and the wear volume increased in comparison to the substrates exposed to only nitriding or ion bombardment. - Highlights: • Effect of Xe ion bombardment and plasma nitriding on TiN coatings was investigated. • Xe ion bombardment with 1.0 KeV increases nitrogen retention in plasma nitriding. • 1.0 KeV ion impact energy causes sputtering, thus increasing surface roughness. • TiN coating wear is minimum after plasma nitriding due to lowest roughness.

  4. The Evaluation of Unscrewing Torque Values of Implant-Abutment Connections: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruna, Ezio; Fabianelli, Andrea; Mastriforti, Giacomo; Papacchini, Federica

    This study investigated the stability of titanium screws in implant-abutment connections by measuring the force necessary to induce unscrewing. A total of 60 implant-abutment couplings were assigned to two groups (n = 30 each). The sequence 10-20-32 Ncm was tested in Group 1; the sequence 10-20-32-32-32 Ncm was tested in Group 2. The force necessary to unscrew each abutment-implant sample was recorded and statistically analyzed. The significance level was set at P < .05. Significant differences were found between the two sequences. Group 2 required higher forces than Group 1 to unscrew. The stability of the implant-abutment joint may be improved by tightening with the sequence 10-20-32-32-32 Ncm.

  5. Stability of the screw joints in patients with implant-supported fixed prostheses in edentulous jaws: a 1-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekfeldt, Anders; Eriksson, Anders; Johansson, Lars-Ake

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this follow-up study was to evaluate the stability of the screw joint in edentulous patients 1 year after treatment with implant-supported fixed prostheses (Brånemark system). A total of 20 patients were included, 10 treated in the maxilla and 10 in the mandible. The fixed prostheses were removed approximately 1 year after insertion, and the stability of the screw joints was evaluated using a rating scale based upon the CDA quality evaluation criteria of dental care. All implant-supported fixed prostheses were recorded as stable before the prosthetic screws (gold screws) were unscrewed. "Unacceptable loosening" was observed in 4% of the prosthetic screws and in 29% of the abutment screws. In this study, only a few of the prosthetic screws showed unacceptable loosening after 1 year of function. The clinical relevance of the observed high occurrence of loose abutment screws could be questioned, as all fixed prostheses were initially recorded as stable.

  6. Effect of Vertical Misfit on Screw Joint Stability of Implant-Supported Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Tabata, Lucas Fernando; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gomes, Érica Alves

    2011-08-01

    The passive fit between prosthesis and implant is a relevant factor for screw joint stability and treatment success. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vertical misfit in abutment-implant interface on preload maintenance of retention screw of implant-supported crowns. The crowns were fabricated with different abutments and veneering materials and divided into 5 groups ( n = 12): Gold UCLA abutments cast in gold alloy veneered with ceramic (Group I) and resin (Group II), UCLA abutments cast in titanium veneered with ceramic (Group III) and resin (Group IV), and zirconia abutments with ceramic veneering (Group V). The crowns were attached to implants by gold retention screws with 35-N cm insertion torque. Specimens were submitted to mechanical cycling up to 106 cycles. Measurements of detorque and vertical misfit in abutment-implant interface were performed before and after mechanical cycling. ANOVA revealed statistically significant difference ( P 0.05) between vertical misfit and detorque value. It was concluded that vertical misfit did not influence torque maintenance and the abutments cast in titanium exhibited the highest misfit values.

  7. Improved irradiation tolerance of reactive gas pulse sputtered TiN coatings with a hybrid architecture of multilayered and compositionally graded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yang, Jijun; Zhang, Feifei; Lu, Chenyang; Wang, Lumin; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the improved irradiation tolerance of reactive gas pulse (RGP) sputtered TiN coatings which has hybrid architecture of multilayered and compositionally graded structures. The multilayered RGP-TiN coating is composed of hexagonal close-packed Ti phase and face-centred cubic TiN phase sublayers, where the former sublayer has a compositionally graded structure and the latter one maintains constant stoichiometric atomic ratio of Ti:N. After 100 keV He ion irradiation, the RGP-TiN coating exhibits improved irradiation resistance compared with its single layered (SL) counterpart. The size and density of He bubbles are smaller in the RGP-TiN coating than in the SL-TiN coating. The irradiation-induced surface blistering of the coatings shows a similar tendency. Meanwhile, the irradiation hardening and adhesion strength of the RGP-TiN coatings were not greatly affected by He irradiation. Moreover, the irradiation damage tolerance of the coatings can be well tuned by changing the undulation period number of N2 gas flow rate. Detailed analysis suggested that this improved irradiation tolerance could be related to the combined contribution of the multilayered and compositionally graded structures.

  8. Application of response surface methodology on investigating flank wear in machining hardened steel using PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Sahoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the development of flank wear model in turning hardened EN 24 steel with PVD TiN coated mixed ceramic insert under dry environment. The paper also investigates the effect of process parameter on flank wear (VBc. The experiments have been conducted using three level full factorial design techniques. The machinability model has been developed in terms of cutting speed (v, feed (f and machining time (t as input variable using response surface methodology. The adequacy of model has been checked using correlation coefficients. As the determination coefficient, R2 (98% is higher for the model developed; the better is the response model fits the actual data. In addition, residuals of the normal probability plot lie reasonably close to a straight line showing that the terms mentioned in the model are statistically significant. The predicted flank wear has been found to lie close to the experimental value. This indicates that the developed model can be effectively used to predict the flank wear in the hard turning. Abrasion and diffusion has been found to be the dominant wear mechanism in machining hardened steel from SEM micrographs at highest parametric range. Machining time has been found to be the most significant parameter on flank wear followed by cutting speed and feed as observed from main effect plot and ANOVA study.

  9. Influence of abutment material on the fracture strength and failure modes of abutment-fixture assemblies when loaded in a bio-faithful simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apicella, Davide; Veltri, Mario; Balleri, Piero; Apicella, Antonio; Ferrari, Marco

    2011-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate differences in the ultimate fracture resistance of titanium and zirconia abutments. Twenty titanium fixtures were embedded in 20 resin mandible section simulators to mimic osseointegrated implants in the premolar area. The embedded implants were then randomly divided into two groups. Afterwards, specimens in group A (n=10) were connected to titanium abutments (TiDesign™ 3.5/4.0, 5.5, 1.5 mm), while specimens in group B (n=10) were connected to zirconia abutments (ZirDesign ™ 3.5/4.0, 5.5, 1.5 mm). Both groups were loaded to failure in a dynamometric testing machine. Fractured samples were then analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Group A showed a significantly higher fracture strength than that observed in group B. Group A failures were observed at the screw that connects the abutment with the implant while the abutment connection hexagons were plastically bent by the applied load. Group B failures were a result of abutment fractures. SEM analysis showed that in group A the screw failure was driven by crack nucleation, coalescence and propagation, while in group B, the SEM analysis of failed surfaces showed the conchoidal fracture profile characteristic of brittle materials. The strength of both tested systems is adequate to resist physiologic chewing forces in the premolar area. Conversely, the titanium and zirconia failure modes evaluated here occurred at unphysiological loads. In addition, because the abutments were tested without crowns, the presented data have limited direct transfer to the clinical situation. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. A finite element analysis of two different dental implants: stress distribution in the prosthesis, abutment, implant, and supporting bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Sergio E T; Cury, Patricia R; Sendyk, Wilson R; Sendyk, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluates the influence of 2 commercially available dental implant systems on stress distribution in the prosthesis, abutment, implant, and supporting alveolar bone under simulated occlusal forces, employing a finite element analysis. The implants and abutments evaluated consisted of a stepped cylinder implant connected to a screw-retained, internal, hexagonal abutment (system 1) and a conical implant connected to a solid, internal, conical abutment (system 2). A porcelain-covered, silver-palladium alloy was used as a crown. In each case, a simulated, 100-N vertical load was applied to the buccal cusp. A finite element model was created based on the physical properties of each component, and the values of the von Mises stresses generated in the prosthesis, abutment, implant, and supporting alveolar bone were calculated. In the prostheses, the maximum von Mises stresses were concentrated at the points of load application in both systems, and they were greater in system 1 (148 N/mm2) than in system 2 (55 N/mm2). Stress was greater on the abutment of system 2 than of system 1 on both the buccal (342 N/mm2 x 294 N/mm2) and lingual (294 N/mm2 x 148 N/ mm2) faces. Stress in the cortical, alveolar bone crest was greater in system 1 than in system 2 (buccal: 99.5 N/mm2 x 55 N/mm2, lingual: 55 N/mm2 x 24.5 N/mm2, respectively). Within the limits of this investigation, the stepped cylinder implant connected to a screw-retained, internal hexagonal abutment produces greater stresses on the alveolar bone and prosthesis and lower stresses on the abutment complex. In contrast, the conical implant connected to a solid, internal, conical abutment furnishes lower stresses on the alveolar bone and prosthesis and greater stresses on the abutment.

  11. Experimental zirconia abutments for implant-supported single-tooth restorations in esthetically demanding regions: 4-year results of a prospective clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glauser, Roland; Sailer, Irena; Wohlwend, Arnold; Studer, Stephan; Schibli, Monica; Schärer, Peter

    2004-01-01

    This prospective clinical study evaluated an experimental implant abutment made of densely sintered zirconia with respect to peri-implant hard and soft tissue reaction as well as fracture resistance over time. Twenty-seven consecutively treated patients with 54 single-tooth implants were included. Zirconia abutment ingots were individually shaped and set on the implants with gold screws. All-ceramic (Empress I) crowns were cemented using a composite cement. At the 1- and 4-year examinations, reconstructions were evaluated for technical problems (fracture of abutment or crown, loosening of abutment screw). Modified Plaque and simplified Gingival Indices were recorded at implants and neighboring teeth, and peri-implant bone levels were radiographically determined. All but 1 of the 27 patients with 53 restorations could be evaluated at 1 year, and 36 restorations in 18 patients were evaluated 4 years after abutment and crown insertion. The median observation period for the reconstructions was 49.2 months. No abutment fractures occurred. Abutment screw loosening was reported for 2 restorations at 8 months and 27 months, respectively. Mean Plaque Index was 0.4 (SD 0.6) at abutments and 0.5 (SD 0.6) at teeth; mean Gingival Index was 0.7 (SD 0.5) at abutments and 0.9 (SD 0.5) at teeth. Mean marginal bone loss measured 1.2 mm (SD 0.5) after 4 years of functional loading. Zirconia abutments offered sufficient stability to support implant-supported single-tooth reconstructions in anterior and premolar regions. The soft and hard tissue reaction toward zirconia was favorable.

  12. A prospective, split-mouth study comparing tilted implants with angulated connection versus conventional implants with angulated abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Weehaeghe, Manú; De Bruyn, Hugo; Vandeweghe, Stefan

    2017-12-01

    An angulation of the implant connection could overcome the problems related to angulated abutments. This study compares conventional implants with angulated abutment to tilted implants with an angulated connection. Twenty patients were treated in the edentulous mandible. In the posterior jaw locations, one conventional tilted implant with angulated abutment and one angulated implant without abutment were placed. In the anterior jaw, two conventional implants were placed, one with and one without abutment. Implants were immediately loaded and 3 months later, the final bridge (PFM or monolithic zirconia) was placed. After a follow-up of 48 months, 17 patients were available for clinical examination. The mean overall marginal bone loss (MBL) was 1.26 mm. No significant differences in implant survival, MBL, periodontal indices, patients' satisfaction, or complications was found between implants restored on abutment or implant level, between the posteriorly located angulated implant nor angulated abutment, and between both anterior implants with or without abutment. The posterior implants demonstrated less MBL compared to the anterior implants (P implants restored with zirconia or PFM bridges (P = .294). Overall mean pocket depth was 2.83 mm. More plaque was found in the PFM group compared to the full-zirconia group, at the bridge (P = .042) and the implants (P = .029). There was no difference between both materials in pocket depth (P = .635) or bleeding (P = .821). One zirconia bridge fractured, two angulated abutment were replaced and four loose bridge screws connected to the angulated abutments had to be tightened. Patients were overall satisfied (4.74/5). An implant with angulated connection may results in a stronger connection but does not affect the marginal bone loss. No difference in MBL was seen between implants restored on abutment or implant level. Zirconia seems to reduce the amount of plaque. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. In vitro fatigue and fracture resistance of one- and two-piece CAD/CAM zirconia implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrke, Peter; Johannson, Dirk; Fischer, Carsten; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Beuer, Florian

    2015-01-01

    All-ceramic abutments are employed increasingly often in implant dentistry for esthetic reasons. In vitro stress testing is required to evaluate the suitability of these constructions, especially in load-bearing posterior regions. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the fatigue and fracture resistance of one- and two-piece computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia implant abutments with an internal-hex connection and prefabricated commercially available zirconia stock abutments. Twenty-one abutment-crown specimens were prepared for three test groups. Control group 1 (SZ) included specimens with unprepared stock zirconia abutments, test group 2 (OP) included one-piece CAD/CAM zirconia abutments, and test group 3 (TP) included two-piece CAD/CAM zirconia abutments. All 21 specimens underwent thermocycling and fatigue testing. Finally, all specimens were tested for fracture resistance with a universal testing machine. The maximum load was applied to the tapered occlusal area of each crown at a 30-degree angle and a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until the implant-abutment connection failed. Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Shapiro-Wilk, and post-hoc Scheffé tests were used for statistical analysis. All abutments in groups SZ and OP fractured into two or more pieces after fracture resistance testing. None of the TP abutments displayed apparent disintegration, but failure was evidenced by bending of the retention screw. OP abutments (232.1 ± 29.8 N) and SZ abutments (251.8 ± 23.2 N) showed lower fracture loads than the TP abutments (291.4 ± 27.8 N). However, only the difference between the OP and TP groups was statistically significant. Further load-displacement analyses corroborated the higher mechanical stability of the TP abutments. Superior resistance was achieved for two-piece hybrid CAD/CAM zirconia abutments. These abutments might be clinically beneficial in high-load areas, such as premolar and molar regions.

  14. Effect of implant abutment modification on the extrusion of excess cement at the crown-abutment margin for cement-retained implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwani, Chandur; Piñeyro, Alfonso; Hess, Timothy; Zhang, Hai; Chung, Kwok-Hung

    2011-01-01

    To compare the effect of implant abutment modification on the amount of cement extruded at the crown-abutment margin and to evaluate the vertical discrepancy after cementation. Access openings of titanium abutments were modified with an opening (open) and placement of two vent holes 3 mm from the occlusal edge and 180 degrees apart (internal vent). Access openings were filled with resin material (closed) and used as controls. Each abutment was secured to an implant analog. Eugenol-free zinc oxide cement (TempBond NE) was selected to cement the cast crowns (n = 9) onto test abutments. The amount of cement extruded out of the margin was calculated, and vertical seating discrepancies were determined with a linear transducer device before and after cementation. Differences among groups were analyzed statistically. The mean amount of extruded cement ranged from 36% to 90% of the total cement placed within the crowns. The order, from least to greatest amount of excess cement extrusion at the margins, was internal vent, open, and closed; significant differences were observed between test groups. The net vertical discrepancies of tested specimens ranged from -7 μm to +6 μm (mean, 0 μm). No statistically significant differences in vertical discrepancy were found between the groups. Venting the hollow abutment resulted in the least amount of cement extrusion when compared to closing off the screw access channel or leaving it open. Within the limitations of this study, it may be concluded that the use of two, 0.75-mm radius vent holes placed 3 mm apical to the occlusal area of the abutment and 180 degrees apart will limit the amount of cement extruded into the gingival sulcus of implant-retained crowns.

  15. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera custom abutments and three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves da Cunha, Tiago de Morais; Correia de Araújo, Roberto Paulo; Barbosa da Rocha, Paulo Vicente; Pazos Amoedo, Rosa Maria

    2012-10-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera® (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Nobel Biocare) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture (CAD/CAM) and paired with (1) eight MK Iii RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare) - GNB group; (2) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group; and (3) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group. A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pairwise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52 and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Comparison of fit accuracy between Procera® custom abutments and three implant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais Alves da Cunha, Tiago; de Araújo, Roberto Paulo Correia; da Rocha, Paulo Vicente Barbosa; Amoedo, Rosa Maria Pazos

    2012-12-01

    Although increase of misfit has been reported when associating implant and abutment from different manufacturers, Procera custom abutment has been universally used in clinical practice. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the vertical gap of zirconia Procera® abutment associated with implants from the same manufacturer (Procera manufacturer) and two other implant systems. Twenty-four zirconia Procera abutments were produced using computer-assisted design and manufacture and paired with (a) eight MK III, RP 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Nobel Biocare™, Göteborg, Sweden) - GNB group (Nobel Biocare group); (b) eight Try on, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Sistema de Implantes, São Paulo, Brazil) - ES group (SIN experimental group) ; and (c) eight Master screw, 4.1 × 10 mm implants (Conexão® Sistema de Prótese, São Paulo, Brazil) - EC group (Conexão experimental group). A comparison of the vertical misfit at the implant-abutment interface was taken at six measuring sites on each sample using scanning electron microscopy with a magnification of 408×. One-way analysis of variance was used to test for differences, and Tukey's test was used for pair-wise comparison of groups (α = 0.05). Significant differences relative to average misfit were found when Procera abutments were associated with other implant manufacturers. The ES group and EC group did not differ significantly, but both demonstrated significantly larger average misfit than the GNB group (p = .001). The average misfit was 5.7 µm ± 0.39, 9.53 µm ± 0.52, and 10.62 µm ± 2.16, respectively, for groups GNB, ES, and EC. The association of Procera zirconia abutment with other implant systems different from its manufacturer demonstrated significant alteration of vertical misfit at implant-abutment interface. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Soft tissues stability of cad-cam and stock abutments in anterior regions: 2-year prospective multicentric cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lops, Diego; Bressan, Eriberto; Parpaiola, Andrea; Sbricoli, Luca; Cecchinato, Denis; Romeo, Eugenio

    2015-12-01

    Aim of this study was to verify if the type of implant abutment manufacturing, stock or cad-cam, could influence the maintenance of stable gingival margins around single restorations in anterior areas. After 16 weeks of healing, implants (Osseospeed, Astra Tech Dental Implant) were positioned. Depending on the different fixture inclination and the thickness of buccal peri-implant soft tissue, abutment selection resulted in four groups: Group 1 (patients with zirconia ZirDesign(®) stock abutments), Group 2 (titanium stock TiDesign(®) abutments), Group 3 (zirconia cad-cam abutments), and Group 4 (titanium cad-cam abutments). The following parameters were assessed: buccal gingival margin modification (BGM). The modification of the implant gingival margin was followed at 1 and 2 years of follow-up. A computerized analysis was performed for measurements. Differences between soft tissue margin at baseline and after 2 years measured the gingival margin recession. A general linear model was used to evaluate each group in relation to gingival recession after two years. Tukey's post hoc test was used to compare the mean REC indexes of each group of abutments. Seventy-two healthy patients (39 males and 33 females; mean age of 46 years) scheduled for single gap rehabilitation in anterior areas were enrolled. A 100% of implant survival rate was observed after 24 months of function. One failure occurred due to fracture of a Zirconia cad-cam abutment. Moreover, two abutment screw unscrewing were observed. Both for zirconia and titanium stock abutments (Group 1 and 2), the mean recession of implant buccal soft tissue was of 0.3 mm (SD of 0.3 and 0.4 mm, respectively). Soft tissue mean recession of zirconia and titanium cad-cam abutments (Group 3 and 4) was of 0.1 and -0.3 mm, respectively (SD of 0.3 and 0.4 mm, respectively). REC values of cad-cam titanium abutments (Group 4) were significantly lower than that of Group 1 (-0.57 mm), Group 2 (-0.61 mm), and Group 3 (-0.40 mm

  18. Mechanical behavior of provisional implant prosthetic abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pastor, Blanca; Roig-Vanaclocha, Ana; Román-Rodriguez, Juan-Luis; Fons-Font, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implant-supported prostheses have to overcome a major difficulty presented by the morphology and esthetics of peri-implant tissues in the anterior sector. Diverse therapeutic techniques are used for managing the mucosa adjacent to the implant and the most noteworthy is immediate/deferred fixed provisionalization. Objectives: In vitro testing of strength and deformation of implant prosthetic abutments made from different materials (Titanium/PEEK/methacrylate). Material and Methods: Forty Sweden&Martina® implant prosthetic abutments (n=40) were divided into five groups: Group MP: methacrylate provisional abutments with machined titanium base; Group PP: Poly ether ether ketone (PEEK) provisional abutments; Group TP: titanium provisional abutments; Group TAD: titanium anti-rotational definitive abutments; Group TRD: titanium rotational definitive abutments. Their mechanical behavior under static loading was analyzed. Samples were examined under a microscope to determine the type of fracture produced. Results and Conclusions: Definitive anti-rotational titanium abutments and definitive rotational titanium abutments achieved the best mean compression strength, while PEEK resin provisional abutments obtained the lowest. The group that showed the greatest elastic deformation was the group of titanium provisional abutments. Key words:Immediate loading, immediate provisionalization, implant prosthetic abutment, definitive implant prosthetic abutment. PMID:25129253

  19. Criteria to manage the technical and biologic success of an implant abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanides, Leon

    2014-01-01

    To maximize esthetics in anterior implant restorations, the initial step in treatment planning should be determining the prosthesis's esthetic integration with the patient's smile in keeping with the patient's anatomical limitations. This article examines the role of the abutment in supporting both esthetics and technical success. Included are discussions regarding cemented versus screw-retained restorations, material selection for anterior tooth replacement, and design parameters.

  20. Resistance of three implant-abutment interfaces to fatigue testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Gisele Ribeiro

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The design and retentive properties of implant-abutment connectors affect the mechanical resistance of implants. A number of studies have been carried out to compare the efficacy of connecting mechanisms between abutment and fixture. Objectives: The aims of this study were: 1 to compare 3 implant-abutment interfaces (external hexagon, internal hexagon and cone-in-cone regarding the fatigue resistance of the prosthetic screw, 2 to evaluate the corresponding mode of failure, and 3 to compare the results of this study with data obtained in previous studies on Nobel Biocare and Straumann connectors. Materials and METHODS: In order to duplicate the alternating and multivectorial intraoral loading pattern, the specimens were submitted to the rotating cantilever beam test. The implants, abutments and restoration analogs were spun around their longitudinal axes while a perpendicular force was applied to the external end. The objective was to determine the force level at which 50% of the specimens survived 10(6 load cycles. The mean force levels at which 50% failed and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals were determined using the staircase procedure. RESULTS: The external hexagon interface presented better than the cone-in-cone and internal hexagon interfaces. There was no significant difference between the cone-in-cone and internal hex interfaces. Conclusion: Although internal connections present a more favorable design, this study did not show any advantage in terms of strength. The external hexagon connector used in this study yielded similar results to those obtained in a previous study with Nobel Biocare and Straumann systems. However, the internal connections (cone-in-cone and internal hexagon were mechanically inferior compared to previous results.

  1. Influence of implant angulation on the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thulasidas, Shreedevi; Givan, Daniel A; Lemons, Jack E; O'Neal, Sandra Jean; Ramp, Lance C; Liu, Perng-Ru

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effects of abutment design to correct for implant angulation and aging on the fracture resistance of zirconia abutments. Greater understanding of the fracture strength of the zirconia abutments under various clinical conditions may lead to improvement of clinical protocols and possibly limit potential failures of implant prosthetics. Test specimens consisted of an implant-zirconia abutment-zirconia crown assembly with implant apex positioned at 0°, 20° to the facial (20F), and 20° to the lingual (20L) with respect to a constant crown contour. To keep the abutment design as the only variable, CAD/CAM technology was used to generate monolithic zirconia crowns identical both in external and internal dimensions and marginal contours to precisely fit all the abutments in an identical fashion. The monolithic zirconia abutments were designed to fit the constant crown contours and the internal connection of the implant at the three angulations. The customized abutments for the three implant angulations varied in emergence profile, screw hole location, and material thickness around the screw hole. Half the specimens from each group were subjected to steam autoclaving and thermocycling to simulate aging of the restorations in vivo. To mimic the off-axis loading of the central incisor, the specimens were loaded at the recommended cephalometric interincisal relationship of 135° between the long axis of the crown supported by the implant and the Instron force applicator simulating the mandibular incisor. The force applicator was positioned 2 mm from the incisal edge and loaded at a 1 mm/min crosshead speed. Data were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA (α = 0.05) and Tukey's HSD. The 20F group had the highest fracture values followed by the 0° group, and the 20L group had the lowest fracture values. Aging did not yield any significant difference in fracture force magnitudes. Within the limitations of this study, tilting the implant apex to the lingual

  2. An introduction to single implant abutments.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Warreth, Abdulhadi

    2013-01-01

    This article is an introduction to single implant abutments and aims to provide basic information about abutments which are essential for all dental personnel who are involved in dental implantology. Clinical Relevance: This article provides a basic knowledge of implants and implant abutments which are of paramount importance, as replacement of missing teeth with oral implants has become a well-established clinical procedure.

  3. Effect of cyclic load on vertical misfit of prefabricated and cast implant single abutment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudys Rodolfo de Jesus Tavarez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate misfit alterations at the implant/abutment interface of external and internal connection implant systems when subjected to cyclic loading. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Standard metal crowns were fabricated for 5 groups (n=10 of implant/abutment assemblies: Group 1, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; Group 2, internal hexagon implant and premachined abutment; Group 3, internal octagon implant and prefabricated abutment; Group 4, external hexagon implant and UCLA cast-on premachined abutment; and Group 5, external hexagon implant and Ceraone abutment. For groups 1, 2, 3 and 5, the crowns were cemented on the abutments and in group 4 crowns were screwed directly on the implant. The specimens were subjected to 500,000 cycles at 19.1 Hz of frequency and non-axial load of 133 N in a MTS 810 machine. The vertical misfit (μm at the implant/abutment interface was evaluated before (B and after (A application of the cyclic loading. Data were analyzed statistically by using two-away ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Before loading values showed no difference among groups 2 (4.33±3.13, 3 (4.79±3.43 and 5 (3.86±4.60; between groups 1 (12.88±6.43 and 4 (9.67±3.08, and among groups 2, 3 and 4. However, groups 1 and 4 were significantly different from groups 2, 3 and 5. After loading values of groups 1 (17.28±8.77 and 4 (17.78±10.99 were significantly different from those of groups 2 (4.83±4.50, 3 (8.07±4.31 and 5 (3.81±4.84. There was a significant increase in misfit values of groups 1, 3 and 4 after cyclic loading, but not for groups 2 and 5. CONCLUSIONS: The cyclic loading and type of implant/abutment connection may develop a role on the vertical misfit at the implant/abutment interface.

  4. A technique for fabricating single screw-retained implant-supported interim crowns in conjunction with implant surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRory, M Eric; Cagna, David R

    2014-06-01

    This article presents an intraoral technique for fabricating single screw-retained implant-supported interim crowns immediately after surgical implant placement in extraction sites. The technique may be used with any implant system that provides a provisional abutment or an open-tray impression coping that can be modified for use as a provisional abutment. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. In vitro performance of implant-supported monolithic zirconia crowns: Influence of patient-specific tooth-coloured abutments with titanium adhesive bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosentritt, Martin; Rembs, Andreas; Behr, Michael; Hahnel, Sebastian; Preis, Verena

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the influence of the combination of patient-specific abutments and titanium adhesive bases on the long-term in vitro performance of anterior crowns. Ten systems of screw-retained implant and adhesive base combinations (n=8/group) were restored with zirconia or polyetherketone (PEEK) abutments and identical full-anatomical zirconia crowns. For simulating clinical anterior loading, implants were fixed at an angle of 135° and submitted to prolonged thermal cycling and mechanical loading (TC: 6×3000 cycles, 5°C/55°C; ML: 100N, 3.6×10(6) cycles) to cause and register fatigue failure. Failed restorations were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy. Surviving restorations were loaded to fracture. Data (mean±standard deviation) were statistically analyzed (ANOVA; Bonferroni; Kaplan-Meier-Log-Rank; α=0.05). Seven systems survived TCML without any failure. The other three systems showed loosening and fracturing of the screw (0.4-1.6×10(6) loadings) or debonding between base and abutment (0.002-3.4×10(6) loadings). None of the systems showed any fracture of the crown or failed bonding between abutment and crown. The Log-Rank test showed significant (p=0.000) differences. Fracture data significantly varied (ANOVA p=0.000) between the individual systems (minimum: 371N; maximum: 763N). Failures were mostly caused by bending or fracturing of the screw and in three cases by fracture of the abutment. Anterior implant-supported zirconia crowns on titanium adhesive bases and bonded patient-specific zirconia abutments provided good in vitro performance and high fracture resistance. Sufficient high torque moments and early re-screwing may be advised. Most adhesive base and abutment combinations may be appropriate for anterior application. Individual improvements may contribute to enduring success. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of implant connection and restoration design (screwed vs. cemented) in reliability and failure modes of anterior crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Amilcar C; Bonfante, Estevam A; Rocha, Eduardo P; Silva, Nelson R F A; Marotta, Leonard; Coelho, Paulo G

    2011-08-01

    The mechanical performance of cemented or screw-retained implant-supported crowns with an internal or external configuration is yet to be understood. This in vitro study evaluated the effect of screw-retained and cement-retained prostheses on internal and external implant-abutment connections. Thereby, the reliability and failure modes of crowns were investigated. Eighty-four implants (Emfils; Colosso Evolution system) were divided into four groups (n=21 each): screw-retained and internal connection (Si), screw-retained and external connection (Se), cement-retained and internal connection (Ci), and cement-retained and external connection (Ce). Ti-6Al-4V abutments were torqued (30 Ncm) to the implants, and maxillary central incisor metal crowns were torqued (30 Ncm) or cemented (Rely X Unicem; 3M-ESPE) and subjected to accelerated life-testing in water. Use-level probability Weibull curves and reliability for 50,000 cycles at 150 N were calculated. The β values for Si (1.72), Se (1.50), Ci (1.34), and Ce (1.77) groups indicated that fatigue/damage accumulation accelerated their failure. The Ci group presented the highest reliability, the Se group presented the lowest reliability, and Si and Ce groups presented intermediate reliability. Screw-retained restorations presented mainly abutment fracture. Cement-retained restorations resulted in failures of the screw in the Ce group, but implant/screw fracture in the Ci group. © 2011 Eur J Oral Sci.

  7. Measurements of Repeated Tightening and Loosening Torque of Seven Different Implant/Abutment Connection Designs and Their Modifications: An In Vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkevica, Alena; Nathanson, Dan; Pober, Richard; Strating, Herman

    2018-02-01

    Repeated tightening and loosening of the abutment screw may alter its mechanical and physical properties affecting the optimal torque and ultimate reliability of an implant/abutment connection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of repeated tightening and loosening of implant/abutment screws on the loosening torque of implant/abutment connections of commercially available implant systems. Seven different implant/abutment connections and their modifications were tested. The screws of each system were tightened according to the manufacturer's specifications. After 20 minutes the screws were loosened. This procedure was repeated ten times, and the differences between the 1st and 10th cycle were expressed as a percentage change RTq(%) and correlated with initial torque, the number of threads, the length of shank, and thread surface area employing Spearman's analysis. All systems showed significant differences in residual torque (RTq) value (p 0.05). All connections but group 3 (p = 1.000) showed a significant change from the initial torque (ITq) to the RTq values. The first successive RTq values increased in two connection groups 1 and 2. The remaining connections showed reduced RTq values ranging from -1.2 % (group 5) to -23.5% (group 6). The RTq values declined gradually with every repeated tightening in groups 1, 2, 3, 8, 9, 11, 12. In group 2, after the tenth tightening the RTq was still above the ITq value. Only length of shank demonstrated a correlation with the RTq(%) change over the successive tightening loosening cycles (p implant/abutment screws caused varying torque level changes among the different systems. These observations can probably be attributed to connection design. Limiting the number of tightening/loosening cycles in clinical and laboratory procedures is advisable for most of the implant systems tested. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  8. Long-term cumulative survival and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos Implants: focus on the abutment neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Hye Won; Yang, Byoung-Eun

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cumulative survival rate (CSR) and mechanical complications of single-tooth Ankylos® implants. This was a retrospective clinical study that analyzed 450 single Ankylos® implants installed in 275 patients between December 2005 and December 2012. The main outcomes were survival results CSR and implant failure) and mechanical complications (screw loosening, fracture, and cumulative fracture rate [CFR]). The main outcomes were analyzed according to age, sex, implant length or diameter, bone graft, arch, and position. The 8-year CSR was 96.9%. Thirteen (2.9%) implants failed because of early osseointegration failure in 3, marginal bone loss in 6, and abutment fracture in 4. Screw loosening occurred in 10 implants (2.2%), and 10 abutment fractures occurred. All abutment fractures were located in the neck, and concurrent screw fractures were observed. The CSR and rate of screw loosening did not differ significantly according to factors. The CFR was higher in middle-aged patients (5.3% vs 0.0% in younger and older patients); for teeth in a molar position (5.8% vs 0.0% for premolar or 1.1% for anterior position); and for larger-diameter implants (4.5% for 4.5 mm and 6.7% for 5.5 mm diameter vs 0.5% for 3.5 mm diameter) (all Ptooth restoration in Koreans. However, relatively frequent abutment fractures (2.2%) were observed and some fractures resulted in implant failures. Middle-aged patients, the molar position, and a large implant diameter were associated with a high incidence of abutment fracture.

  9. Influence of three types of abutments on preload values before and after cyclic loading with structural analysis by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butignon, Luis Eduardo; Basilio, Mariana de Almeida; Pereira, Rodrigo de Paula; Arioli Filho, Joao Neudenir

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of three types of abutments in the maintenance of screw joint preload before and after cyclic loading as well as to observe possible microdamage in the structure of the components using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Forty-five external-hex implants were embedded in epoxy resin, received their respective abutments, and were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 15): (1) machined titanium (Ti) abutments; (2) pre-machined gold (Au) abutments; and (3) machined zirconia (ZrO(2)) abutments. The abutment screws were tightened according to the manufacturer's recommended torque. Initially, a static bending test was performed using five specimens of each group to determine the load applied in the cyclic loading test. Thus, 10 specimens of each group were used to measure the reverse torque value (preload) of the abutment screw before and after loading. A cyclic loading (0.5 × 10(6) cycles; 15 Hz) between 11 and 211 N was applied at an angle of 30 degrees to the long axis of the implants. The group means were compared using analysis of variance and the Tukey test (α = .05). The reverse torque analysis before cyclic loading showed no significant difference among the groups (P > .05). After cyclic loading, all preload means decreased significantly. The lowest decrease in preload was observed in the Ti group, whereas the highest decrease was observed in the ZrO(2) group, with a significant difference noted between them (P = .010). The Au group presented an intermediate decrease, with no significant difference compared to the other groups (P > .05). SEM images showed structural changes in the mating surfaces of the abutments after cyclic loading. The load application reduced the preload means significantly in all groups, and more significantly in the ZrO(2) group.

  10. A Current Perspective on Screw-Retained Single-Implant Restorations: A Review of Pertinent Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, George

    2017-05-06

    There is a trend toward increased use of screw-retained single-implant restorations. A comprehensive literature review was undertaken to examine the data related to screw- and cement-retention and to objectively evaluate the innovations in implant dentistry that have led to this resurgence. When comparing the two options, survival and complication rates are similar, bone and soft-tissue levels are comparable, and zirconia offers esthetic advantages for both selections. Zirconia abutments with bonded titanium inserts provide esthetic alternatives to titanium abutments for both choices. Bone- and soft-tissue responses are similar, but residual cement of cement-retained restorations is associated with significant soft- and hard-tissue complications. The potential weakness of ceramic discontinuity of screw-access openings can be lessened by the incorporation of stronger ceramic materials such as zirconia and lithium disilicate. The overriding remaining indication for cement-retained restorations is to compensate for angled implants. Screw-retained single-implant crowns should be reconsidered for many clinical situations for the following reasons: Predictable retention and retrievability No potential for the biologic consequences associated with residual cement As with cement-retained restorations, the choice between metal ceramics or all ceramics Only one margin, at the implant/abutment interface A single abutment/crown ceramic margin that can extend gingivally to the implant interface Nearly imperceptible blend of a composite resin in ceramic abutment access openings One component instead of two, which may simplify the restorative process CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Innovations in implant and ceramic technology now give screw-retained prostheses the potential for esthetic, functional, and biologic outcomes that are comparable to those for cement-retained prostheses, while providing the advantages of predictable retrievability and avoidance of residual cement. Angled

  11. A comparative study on microgap of premade abutments and abutments cast in base metal alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalithamma, Jaini Jaini; Mallan, Sreekanth Anantha; Murukan, Pazhani Appan; Zarina, Rita

    2014-06-01

    The study compared the marginal accuracy of premade and cast abutments. Premade titanium, stainless steel, and gold abutments formed the control groups. Plastic abutments were cast in nickel-chromium, cobalt-chromium and grade IV titanium. The abutment/implant interface was analyzed. Analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test revealed no significant difference in mean marginal microgap between premade gold and titanium abutments and between premade stainless steel and cast titanium abutments. Statistically significant differences (P < .001) were found among all other groups.

  12. Microbial leakage through the implant-abutment interface of Morse taper implants in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloise, João Pedro; Curcio, Ricardo; Laporta, Marcia Zorello; Rossi, Liliane; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Alvares; Rapoport, Abrão

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the frequency of bacterial leakage of Streptococcus sanguinis biotype II along the implant-abutment interface between two systems of morse taper dental implants. Different methods of activation of the taper abutments were used: tapped-in (Bicon) and screwed-in (Ankylos). Twenty sterile assemblies were used and attached, 10 Bicon and 10 Ankylos implants, according to manufacturers' specifications. They were then totally immersed within 20 test tubes containing a sterile nutrient solution brain-heart infusion (BHI). The internal part of the 20 implants was previously inoculated with 0.1 microl of S. sanguinis II (ATCC 10557) and then connected to the respective abutments. The assemblies were incubated under anaerobic conditions for 14 days in an autoclave at 37 degrees C. They were monitored daily for solution cloudiness resultant from microbial leakage on the interface of the assemblies. For statistical analysis, the Fisher test was applied and significance was assigned at the 5% level. There was solution cloudiness, indicating the finding of bacterial growth inside two Bicon assemblies and two Ankylos assemblies 48 h after incubation. Microbial leakage was further substantiated by testing the suspension for the presence of Streptococcus sp. None of the sterility controls were contaminated. The frequency of bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface, with the two different morse taper implant systems, was 20% of the assemblies of each system. There were no statistical differences between them. Irrespective of which of the two morse taper implant connection systems of activation was analyzed, tapped-in (Bicon) or screwed-in (Ankylos), this in vitro experiment showed bacterial leakage along the implant-abutment interface.

  13. Abutment selection in implant-supported fixed prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglio, G D

    1999-06-01

    Selecting the appropriate abutment can be both complex and confusing with the ever-increasing number of implant choices and transepithelial abutments available. Many restorative dentists resort to fabricating costly custom abutments to avoid the selection process. Although custom abutments are at times necessary, prefabricated abutments are usually more desirable. This article will describe the various abutments available and how to select the correct abutment for a given clinical situation in an organized, systematic fashion. Criteria discussed include implant position, angulation, soft tissue height, and interocclusal space. The latest modifications and developments in implant abutments are reviewed along with an indirect method of selecting abutments in a laboratory setting.

  14. A review of implant abutments--abutment classification to aid prosthetic selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Sanjay; Paprocki, Gregory J; Wicks, Russell; Markose, Sony

    2013-01-01

    With an increase in the availability of implant restorative components, the selection of an appropriate implant abutment for a given clinical situation has become more challenging. This article describes a classification system that will help the practitioner understand the different implant abutments available and therefore be able to understand the selection of abutments for single and multiple unit fixed implant prosthesis.

  15. Behavior and analysis of an integral abutment bridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    As a result of abutment spalling on the integral abutment bridge over 400 South Street in Salt Lake City, Utah, the Utah Department of Transportation (UDOT) instigated research measures to better understand the behavior of integral abutment bridges. ...

  16. Machined and plastic copings in three-element prostheses with different types of implant-abutment joints: a strain gauge comparative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Renato Sussumu; Nishioka, Lea Nogueira Braulino de Melo; Abreu, Celina Wanderley; de Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; Balducci, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    Using strain gauge (SG) analysis, the aim of this in vitro study was quantify the strain development during the fixation of three-unit screw implant-supported fixed partial dentures, varying the types of implant-abutment joints and the type of prosthetic coping. The hypotheses were that the type of hexagonal connection would generate different microstrains and the type of copings would produce similar microstrains after prosthetic screws had been tightened onto microunit abutments. Three dental implants with external (EH) and internal (IH) hexagonal configurations were inserted into two polyurethane blocks. Microunit abutments were screwed onto their respective implant groups, applying a torque of 20 Ncm. Machined Co-Cr copings (M) and plastic prosthetic copings (P) were screwed onto the abutments, which received standard wax patterns. The wax patterns were cast in Co-Cr alloy (n=5), forming four groups: G1) EH/M; G2) EH/P; G3) IH/M and G4) IH/P. Four SGs were bonded onto the surface of the block tangentially to the implants, SG 1 mesially to implant 1, SG 2 and SG 3 mesially and distally to implant 2, respectively, and SG 4 distally to implant 3. The superstructure's occlusal screws were tightened onto microunit abutments with 10 Ncm torque using a manual torque driver. The magnitude of microstrain on each SG was recorded in units of microstrain (µε). The data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test (p0.05). The hypotheses were partially accepted. It was concluded that the type of hexagonal connection and coping presented similar mechanical behavior under tightening conditions.

  17. Micromorphological differences of the implant-abutment junction and in vitro load testing for three different titanium abutments on Straumann tissue level implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheos, N; Larsson, C; Ma, L; Fokas, G; Chronopoulos, V; Janda, M

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the micromorphological differences among three commercially available titanium abutments on Straumann implants. Furthermore, the possible impact of functional loading on the micromorphology and potential complications was investigated with the use of in vitro testing. Three groups of Titanium abutments (A: Straumann Variobase n = 5, B: EBI best Duo n = 5, and C: Implant Direct n = 5) were torqued on Straumann RN implants, as according to each of the manufacturer's instructions. The implant-abutment units were scanned with Micro-CT. Three units of each group were directly sliced in the microtome and photographed under different magnifications (10×-500×) through a Scanning Electron Microscope. Six units (two from each group) were restored with cement-retained crowns, subjected to 2000,000 load cycles with loads between 30 and 300 N at 2 Hz, examined through Micro-CT and finally sliced and photographed as described above. The micromorphology of each unit was studied, and the total length of tight contact (<3 μm) was calculated between the implant, abutment and screw contact areas. Major morphological differences were identified between the three units, as well as differences in the extent of tight contact in all areas examined. Despite the morphological differences, the 2M cycles of loading via in vitro test did not result in any noticeable complications although some changes in the micromorphology were observed. The examined implant-abutment units presented with major morphological differences. Two million cycles of in vitro loading did not appear to affect the stability of the units despite the micromorphological changes. These results need to be interpreted however under the limitations of the small sample size and the specific set-up of the in vitro testing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Non-linear 3D evaluation of different oral implant-abutment connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streckbein, P; Streckbein, R G; Wilbrand, J F; Malik, C Y; Schaaf, H; Howaldt, H P; Flach, M

    2012-12-01

    Micro-gaps and osseous overload in the implant-abutment connection are the most common causes of peri-implant bone resorption and implant failure. These undesirable events can be visualized on standardized three-dimensional finite element models and by radiographic methods. The present study investigated the influence of 7 available implant systems (Ankylos, Astra, Bego, Brånemark, Camlog, Straumann, and Xive) with different implant-abutment connections on bone overload and the appearance of micro-gaps in vitro. The individual geometries of the implants were transferred to three-dimensional finite element models. In a non-linear analysis considering the pre-loading of the occlusion screw, friction between the implant and abutment, the influence of the cone angle on bone strain, and the appearance of micro-gaps were determined. Increased bone strains were correlated with small (Ankylos) or a smaller cone angle (Bego). The results of our in silico study provide a solid basis for the reduction of peri-implant bone strain and micro-gaps in the implant-abutment connection to improve long-term stability.

  19. Local scour at abutments: A review

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Kwan T F 1988 A study of abutment scour. Rep. No. 451, School of Engineering, University of. Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Kwan T F, Melville B W 1994 Local scour and flow measurements at bridge abutments. J. Hydraul. Res. 32: 661–673. Laursen E M 1952 Observations on the nature of scour. Proc. 5th Hydraul.

  20. Dynamic fatigue properties of the dental implant-abutment interface: joint opening in wide-diameter versus standard-diameter hex-type implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, S A; Stanford, C M; Buranadham, S; Fridrich, T; Wagner, J; Gratton, D

    2001-06-01

    The clinical long-term success of single-tooth implant restorations depends, in part, on a stable connection between the prosthetic restoration and the implant body. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the fatigue life of UCLA-style abutment screws in wide-diameter versus conventionally sized dental implant restorations. Five 3.75 x 15-mm and five 6.0 x 15-mm hexed dental implants were used. Ten frameworks were fabricated, 5 with a single UCLA-style, 3.75-mm hexed gold alloy cylinder, and 5 with a single UCLA-style, 6.0-mm hexed gold alloy cylinder. To simulate a common laboratory procedure, 2 abutment interfaces were relieved with a one-quarter round bur for both diameters. The 3.75-mm implant used a Gold-Tite central abutment screw torqued to 32 Ncm, and the 6.0-mm implant used a titanium central abutment screw torqued to 25 Ncm. Frameworks were dynamically loaded ( approximately 10 Hz) with a 120 +/- 10-N, 4-mm off-axis force. Liquid metal strain gauges were used to measure joint opening. Measurements were made at intervals of 10(3), 10(4), 10(5), and 5x10(5) cycles. Gauge output data were converted to displacement with a conversion factor determined by calibration. Linear regression analysis then was performed. Two observations were made in this study. Two of three 3.75-mm nonadjusted specimens and all three 6.0-mm nonadjusted specimens maintained joint closure (range of opening 0-20 microm) while measured under dynamic loading. The median joint opening at 5x10(5) cycles for 3.75-mm nonadjusted specimens was 14 +/- 7 microm; for 6.0-mm specimens, it was 11 +/- 10 microm. Both 3.75-mm adjusted specimens and 1 nonadjusted specimen failed to maintain joint closure (excess joint opening >50 microm). One of the 3.75-mm adjusted specimens had abutment screw fracture. One of two 6.0-mm adjusted specimens failed to maintain joint closure because of screw fracture. The dental implant-abutment interface of 3.75-mm and 6.0-mm externally hexed implants

  1. An in vivo assessment of the effects of using different implant abutment occluding materials on implant microleakage and the peri-implant microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, Caroline

    Microleakage may be a factor in the progression of peri-implant pathology. Microleakage in implant dentistry refers to the passage of bacteria, fluids, molecules or ions between the abutment-implant interface to and from the surrounding periodontal tissues. This creates a zone of inflammation and reservoir of bacteria at the implant-abutment interface. Bone loss typically occurs within the first year of abutment connection and then stabilizes. It has not yet been definitively proven that the occurrence of microleakage cannot contribute to future bone loss or impede the treatment of peri-implant disease. Therefore, strategies to reduce or eliminate microleakage are sought out. Recent evidence demonstrates that the type of implant abutment channel occluding material can affect the amount of microleakage in an in vitro study environment. Thus, we hypothesize that different abutment screw channel occluding materials will affect the amount of observed microleakage, vis-a-vis the correlation between the microflora found on the abutment screw channel occluding material those found in the peri-implant sulcus. Additional objectives include confirming the presence of microleakage in vivo and assessing any impact that different abutment screw channel occluding materials may have on the peri-implant microbiome. Finally, the present study provides an opportunity to further characterize the peri-implant microbiome. Eight fully edentulous patients restored with at dental implants supporting screw-retained fixed hybrid prostheses were included in the study. At the initial appointment (T1), the prostheses were removed and the implants and prostheses were cleaned. The prostheses were then inserted with polytetrafluoroethylene tape (PTFE, TeflonRTM), cotton, polyvinyl siloxane (PVS), or synthetic foam as the implant abutment channel occluding material and sealed over with composite resin. About six months later (T2), the prostheses were removed and the materials collected. Paper

  2. Compressive Force With 2-Screw and 3-Screw Subtalar Joint Arthrodesis With Headless Compression Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Glisson, Richard R; Reidl, Markus; Easley, Mark E

    2016-12-01

    Joint compression is an essential element of successful arthrodesis. Although subtalar joint compression generated by conventional screws has been quantified in the laboratory, compression obtainable with headless screws that rely on variable thread pitch to achieve bony contact has not been assessed. This study measured subtalar joint compression achieved by 2 posteriorly placed contemporary headless, variable-pitch screws, and quantified additional compression gained by placing a third screw anteriorly. Ten, unpaired fresh-frozen cadaveric subtalar joints were fixed sequentially using 2 diverging posterior screws (one directed into the talar dome, the other into the talar neck), 2 parallel posterior screws (both ending in the talar dome), and 2 parallel screws with an additional anterior screw inserted from the plantar calcaneus into the talar neck. Joint compression was quantified directly during screw insertion using a novel custom-built measuring device. The mean compression generated by 2 diverging posterior screws was 246 N. Two parallel posterior screws produced 294 N of compression, and augmentation of that construct with a third, anterior screw increased compression to 345 N (P screw fixation was slightly less than that reported previously for subtalar joint fixation with 2 conventional lag screws, but was comparable when a third screw was added. Under controlled testing conditions, 2 tapered, variable-pitch screws generated somewhat less compression than previously reported for 2-screw fixation with conventional headed screws. A third screw placed anteriorly increased compression significantly. Because headless screws are advantageous where prominent screw heads are problematic, such as the load-bearing surface of the foot, their effectiveness compared to other screws should be established to provide an objective basis for screw selection. Augmenting fixation with an anterior screw may be desirable when conditions for fusion are suboptimal. © The Author

  3. Radiographical evaluation of the gap at the implant-abutment interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavassiliou, Harris; Kourtis, Stefanos; Katerelou, Julia; Chronopoulos, Vasillios

    2010-08-01

    The detection of marginal gaps at the implant-abutment interface is a common clinical task in prosthodontic treatment. For the detection of the gap intraorally, especially under thick soft tissues the most common method is dental radiography. The objective of this experimental study was to investigate the accuracy of conservative dental radiography to detect marginal gaps at the implant-abutment interface. For these reasons radiographs were taken on internal and external hex implants with different experimental gaps and inclinations. The abutment (with a space created by plastic sheets 0.5 and 0.2 mm in thickness) was screwed on the implant, and the implant was placed into a box filled with silicone impression material. The X-ray film was placed parallel to the implant at the back of the box, the borders of the box were marked to the base and the box. A ruler of 10 cm was fixed at a long X-ray tube to ensure parallelism to the implant, X-ray film. Sets of radiographs were made at 0 degrees, 5 degrees, 10 degrees, 15 degrees, 20 degrees, 25 degrees, 30 degrees (to the abutment) and -5 degrees, -10 degrees, -15 degrees, -20 degrees, -25 degrees, -30 degrees (to the implant) degrees. The X-ray images were observed with visual examination, under magnification, and in higher magnification in a slide projector. The phenomenal and the true gap at the implant-abutment interface were calculated in order to determine the distortion. There were significant differences between the internal and external hex implants because of the different morphology of the implants. The detecting ability to diagnose a gap at the implant-abutment interface varied significantly with the angulation degree of the X-ray tube. At inclinations to the implant (- inclination) the gap diminished earlier than those inclinations to the prosthetic abutment (+ inclinations). In all examinations the gap was not detectable at angulations higher than 20 degrees. In visual examination at 25 degrees and 30

  4. Clinical Evaluation of the Influence of Connection Type and Restoration Height on the Reliability of Zirconia Abutments: A Retrospective Study on 965 Abutments with a Mean 6-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbri, Giacomo; Fradeani, Mauro; Dellificorelli, Gianluca; De Lorenzi, Marco; Zarone, Fernando; Sorrentino, Roberto

    This multicenter retrospective clinical study aimed to evaluate the clinical performance of zirconia abutments in anterior and posterior regions, focusing on implant-abutment connections and restoration vertical height (RVH). Six experienced prosthodontists used 965 computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture zirconia abutments in 601 patients. Different surgical approaches were taken according to the needs of each patient. The final restorations were all-ceramic single crowns and short-span fixed dental prostheses. Screw-retained restorations were mainly used in anterior areas, whereas cemented prostheses were chosen in cases where the implant position was not ideal. Different types of implant-abutment connections were compared: external, internal with metal components, and internal full-zirconia conical connection. All the restorations were followed up for 4 to 10 years. Technical and biologic complications were assessed in relation to several biomechanical variables, such as RVH. Differences between groups were statistically analyzed, and longevity of abutments was evaluated according to Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Zirconia abutments resulted in overall survival and success rates of 98.9% and 94.8%, respectively. External connections reported survival and success rates of 99.7% and 94.5%, internal metal connections 99.8% and 95.5%, and internal zirconia connections 93.1% and 93.1%, respectively. Overall complication rates of 1.14%, 3.42%, and 0.62% were reported for fractures, chipping, and unscrewing, respectively. The external connection showed the longest survival while the internal zirconia connection showed the highest fracture incidence over the observation period. The clinical risk limit of RVH was identified as 14 mm. Zirconia abutments showed satisfactory clinical performance in anterior and posterior regions after 4 to 10 years. RVH and connection type influenced the clinical longevity of restorations; in particular, internal connections

  5. Molecular leakage at implant-abutment connection--in vitro investigation of tightness of internal conical implant-abutment connections against endotoxin penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Sönke; Dimaczek, Birka; Açil, Yaha; Terheyden, Hendrik; Freitag-Wolf, Sandra; Kern, Matthias

    2010-08-01

    Microleakage has been discussed as a major contributing factor for inflammatory reactions at the implant-abutment connection. In previous studies, the tightness against corpuscular bodies (viable bacteria) has been successfully investigated under static and dynamic conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the tightness against endotoxins of two implant systems (AstraTech and Ankylos) with conical internal connections under static conditions. The inner parts of eight implants of each system were inoculated with endotoxin. Implants were screwed together with the respective abutments and stored under isostatic conditions in a supernatant of pyrogen-free water for 168 h. Supernatant samples were taken after 5 min, 24 h, 72 h, and 168 h, and endotoxin contamination was determined by the amebocyte-lysate test. Only one implant in the AstraTech group showed no sign of endotoxin contamination after 168 h, while the other implants showed contamination after varying storage times, respectively. The implants in the Ankylos group showed endotoxin contamination after only 5 min of storage in the supernatant solution. The tested internal conical implant-abutment connections appear to be unable to prevent endotoxin leakage. In average, Astra implants showed a higher tightness than Ankylos implants.

  6. Diagnostic Classification and Design Considerations for Implant-Supported Fixed Partial Dentures and Screw Access Channel: The ABC/PBC and SAC Classifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlHelal, Abdulaziz; Kattadiyil, Mathew T; Clark, Jefferson L; AlBader, Bader

    Logical categorization of implant-supported fixed partial dentures (ISFPDs) based on implant angulation, abutment type, and screw access channel (SAC) design for screw-retained restoration is not available in the literature. This article proposes a simple classification system to describe implant angulations and prosthesis design affecting abutment selection (engaging or nonengaging) for ISFPDs. An additional classification that addresses screw access channel designs is also introduced. These classifications provide clear interpretation of clinical scenarios for ISFPD design consideration and a basis for categorization of future complications. The angulation-based and prosthetic-based classifications simplify communication regarding implant angulation and prosthesis design type for ISFPDs. The SAC classification assists in prosthetic design, factoring in function and esthetics when designing the screw access.

  7. Practice-based clinical evaluation of zirconia abutments for anterior single-tooth restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinke, Sven; Lattke, Anja; Eickholz, Peter; Kramer, Katharina; Ziebolz, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the survival rate and prevalence of biologic and technical complications associated with single-tooth implants with all-ceramic abutments in the anterior region. A total of 33 patients were restored with 50 anterior implants and temporarily luted all-ceramic crowns on prefabricated zirconia abutments. All of the patients subsequently received annual supportive maintenance; 27 patients (18 women, 22-74 years) with 42 implants participated in the final maintenance visit and were included in the study (follow-up 78.1 ± 27.0 months). The time-dependent survival rate (Kaplan-Meier) and the frequency of prosthetic complications (abutment fracture [AF], screw loosening [SL], fracture of veneering ceramics [VF], retention loss [RL]) and biologic complications (peri-implantitis) were calculated to determine the success rates. No implant loss (implant-related survival rate 100%) but one abutment fracture occurred throughout the entire observation period; therefore, the survival rate of the superstructures (in situ criterion) was 97.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.930- 1.000) after 7 years. Eleven restorations were affected by prosthetic complications: RL (n = 4), VF (n = 5), and SL (n = 2). Peri-implantitis was diagnosed for two implants (probing depth > 5 mm, bleeding on probing [BOP]/suppuration, and bone loss > 3 mm) (implant-related peri-implantitis rate 4.8%). No restoration required replacement due to complications. The success rate (event-free restoration) was 75.9% (95% CI 0.636- 0.882) after 7 years. Considering the calculated survival rate, the application of all-ceramic zirconia implant abutments in the anterior region can be recommended as a reliable therapy in private practice. Fractures of veneering ceramics were the most common prosthetic complication.

  8. Pre-fabricated zirconium dioxide implant abutments for single-tooth replacement in the posterior region: success and failure after 3 years of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothdurft, Frank P; Nonhoff, Joerg; Pospiech, Peter R

    2014-07-01

    Zirconia implant abutments have gained a much broader clinical use over the past few years. The aim of the present study was to assess the clinical performance of a pre-fabricated zirconium dioxide implant abutment for single-tooth replacement in the posterior region. Forty implants of the XiVE(®) S plus screw type (DENTSPLY Friadent, Mannheim, Germany) were inserted in the posterior region of 24 patients and provided with zirconium dioxide abutments (FRIADENT(®) CERCON(®) Abutment, DENTSPLY Friadent). The following parameters were used to document the state of soft tissue: modified plaque index, modified sulcus bleeding index and pocket depth. Mesial and distal bone levels were determined on radiographs during the prosthetic treatment and at the 36-month recall. Thirty-seven implants could be followed up after 36 months in function. One patient wearing two abutments was lost to follow-up. One abutment exhibited a rotational misfit after 2 years in function. A further abutment showed the same failure at the 36-months recall appointment. In the remaining 36 implants the soft and hard tissue parameters were indicative of a low inflammatory status. Compared to the baseline situation, a partly significant bone apposition could be observed. Chipping of parts of the veneering ceramic was registered in 22% of the remaining implant restorations. The use of zirconia abutments in this study lead to mainly healthy peri-implant hard and soft tissue conditions but, considering the observed failures after 3 years in function, clinical long-term results should be awaited before recommending full zirconia implant abutments in a posterior indication.

  9. Optimization of Cutting Parameters during Dry Turning of Austenitic Stainless Steel Using nc-AlTiN/Si3N4, TiAlN, and TiN Coated Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Vijaya Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The nc-AlTiN/Si3N4, TiAlN, and TiN coating were deposited using lateral rotating cathodes (LARC technology on TNMG 160404 cemented carbide turning inserts. Ultrafine grain treated cemented carbide substrates were used in case of TiAlN and TiN inserts. The coated inserts were tested for their hardness and compositions were determined by X-ray diffraction studies. The grain structures of coatings were observed using scanning electron microscopy. Dry cutting tests were performed on AISI 304 stainless steel to compare the performances of these coatings in terms of wear and surface finish imparted to workpiece. 3D confocal laser microscope was used to determine the flank wear. Grey relation analysis was carried out to optimize the machining parameters. Studies reveal that nc-AlTiN/Si3N4 coating showed the highest hardness of 28 GPa. The coating also shows a dense grain structure. Furthermore, in cutting tests even under severe dry cutting conditions, the wear observed was less than the other two coatings and surface finish imparted to work parts was less than 2 μm by this coating.

  10. DLC screw preload. Loosening prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida de Mattias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The screw loosening is a reason to prosthetic rehabilitation failure. However, the DLC (Diamond-like carbon screw treatment lead thefriction decrease and sliding between the components, which increases the screw preload benefit and decreases the chance of looseningoccurrence. This case shows a clinical indication of the association of the correct preload applied and the DLC screw, which can be considered an optimized protocol to solve screw loosening recidivate of unitary prosthesis in anterior maxillary site.

  11. Facet Joint Violation During Percutaneous Pedicle Screw Placement: A Comparison of Two Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Oliver; Jazini, Ehsan; Weir, Tristan B; Banagan, Kelley E; Koh, Eugene Y; Greg Anderson, D; Gelb, Daniel E; Ludwig, Steven C

    2017-08-01

    A comparative study of facet joint violation (FJV) using two percutaneous surgical techniques. To compare the rate of iatrogenic FJV and medial pedicle wall breach between two methods of percutaneous pedicle screw instrumentation in the thoracic and lumbar spine. Variable iatrogenic damage to the facet joints has been reported to occur with percutaneous pedicle screw techniques, compared with the open approach, which has been associated with adjacent segment disease. Technical variations of percutaneous pedicle screw placement may pose different risks to the facet joint. Attending spine surgeons percutaneously placed pedicle screws in seven human cadaveric spines from T2 to L5. At each level, screws were instrumented on one side using the 9 or 3 o'clock reference point of the pedicle on the posteroanterior view with a lateral-to-medial trajectory (LMT) and on the contralateral side using the center of the pedicle with an owl's eye trajectory (OET). Postoperative screw placement was assessed with computed tomography and then open cadaveric dissection. Outcome measures included FJV and medial pedicle wall breach. Overall, 17 of 105 screws placed with an LMT versus 49 of 105 screws placed with an OET violated or abutted the facet joint (P L1), and lumbar (L2-L5) levels (P = 0.003, 0.035, and 0.018, respectively). Medial pedicle wall breach occurred with 11 LMT screws and seven OET screws (P = 0.077), and no breach was considered critical. A significantly higher FJV rate was observed using the OET versus the LMT in the thoracic, thoracolumbar, and lumbar spine. No statistically significant differences in medial pedicle wall breach occurred between the techniques. Thus, the LMT of minimally invasive pedicle screw fixation may reduce iatrogenic damage to the facet joints. 3.

  12. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Compliant Ball Screw Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An actuator includes a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is adapted to receive an input torque and in response rotates and supplies a drive force. The ball screw extends through the ball nut and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw receives the drive force from the ball nut and in response selectively translates between a retract position and a extend position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw proximate the first end to translate therewith. The ball screw stop engages the ball nut when the ball screw is in the extend position, translates, with compliance, a predetermined distance toward the first end upon engaging the ball nut, and prevents further rotation of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  13. Compatible CAD-CAM titanium abutments for posterior single-implant tooth replacement: A retrospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Kuang-Wei; Shen, Yu-Fu; Wei, Pein-Chi

    2017-03-01

    In addition to the original abutments provided by implant companies, compatible computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD-CAM) abutments are also available from different manufacturers. However, the combination of abutments and implant systems from different manufacturers may lead to mechanical problems between components. Little has been reported on the clinical performance of this treatment option. The purpose of this retrospective case series was to evaluate the outcome of compatible CAD-CAM titanium abutments (TiAs) for posterior single-implant tooth replacement (PSITR) up to 6 years after insertion. Eighty-one patients (34 men, 47 women) who received PSITR restored with compatible CAD-CAM TiAs and had a final recall examination between May 2014 and April 2015 were included in this study. Clinical and radiographic examinations were documented. Retrospective evaluation of the patient records was also performed. Correlations between bone-level changes and variables were calculated using the Spearman correlation. Implant and prosthesis survival rates were 100%. Twenty technical complications were observed, including 9 decementations of the crown, 6 screw loosenings, and 5 ceramic fractures. Periimplant mucositis was diagnosed in 36 patients (44.4%) and periimplantitis in 6 patients (7.4%). Correlation analysis showed a significant effect of the extent of periodontal bone loss of the remaining teeth on the marginal bone-level changes around implants (r=0.548, P<.001). Compatible CAD-CAM TiAs provide a viable treatment option for PSITR. However, in light of relatively high screw-loosening and decementation rates, choosing appropriate cements and abutment manufacturers is essential to improve the clinical performance of this treatment option. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Factors influencing success of cement versus screw-retained implant restorations: a clinical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Manawar

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: As more and more dental practitioners are focusing on implant-supported fixed restorations, some clinicians favor the use of cement retained restorations while others consider screw retained prosthesis to be the best choice. Discussion: In screw-retained restorations, the fastening screw provides a solid joint between the restoration and the implant abutment, while in cement-retained prostheses the restorative screw is eliminated to enhance esthetics, occlusal stability, and passive fit of the restorations. The factors that influence the type of fixation of the prostheses to the implants like passivity of the framework, ease of fabrication, occlusion, esthetics, accessibility, retention and retrievability are discussed in this article with scientific studies demonstrating superior outcomes of one technique over another. Screwretained implant restorations have an advantage of predictable retention, retrievability and lack of potentially retained subgingival cement. However, a few disadvantages exist such as precise placement of the implant for optimal and esthetic location of the screw access hole and obtaining passive fit. On the other hand, cement retained restorations eliminate unesthetic screw access holes, have passive fit of castings, reduced complexity of clinical and lab procedures, enhanced esthetics, reduced cost factors and non disrupted morphology of the occlusal table. Conclusion: This article compares the advantages, potential disadvantages and limitations of screw and cement retained restorations and their specific implications in the most common clinical situation.

  15. Clinical experience with the screw extraction set for broken screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsukawa, Nobuyuki

    2011-01-01

    Titanium plate systems are used frequently for bone fractures and postosteotomy fixation in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, sometimes the head of the screw for plate fixation is deformed or the screw breaks in the bone. Screw removal can be difficult in these cases. In this study, we examined the utility of the Screw Extraction Set (Synthes Inc) in facilitating the removal of screws broken in craniomaxillofacial bones. In the past, we often encountered screw head sockets that had become deformed. In the removal of such a screw, the extraction screw tip did not engage well with the deformed screw head socket because the extraction screw tip was angled obtusely. Thus, its removal was difficult, and this method was clearly problematic. Using the Screw Extraction Set, the removal method for a screw broken in the bone was relatively easy. In particular, it was very convenient in removing broken screws in the mandibular angle and ramus, where surgery is difficult under direct vision. This system was thought to be useful for craniofacial surgeons if proper patient selection is performed.

  16. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Lorenzen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after installation of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase and Cochrane library search...

  17. Tissue reactions to abutment shift: an experimental study in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamsson, Ingemar; Berglundh, Tord; Sekino, Satoshi; Lindhe, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Standard protocols for the clinical use of dental implants often include the placement of healing abutments prior to standard or custom-made abutments. The tissue response to a single shift from a healing abutment to a permanent abutment has not been studied. The aim of the present experiment was to study tissue reactions that may occur following the removal of a healing abutment and the placement of a permanent abutment. In six beagle dogs, all mandibular premolars were extracted. Three months later three fixtures of the Astra Tech Implants Dental System (Astra Tech AB, Mölndal, Sweden) were installed in each edentulous premolar region. An additional 3 months later, the first abutment connection was performed. In two sites on each side of the mandible, healing abutments were placed; in the remaining site, a Uni-abutment (Astra Tech AB) was used. The two healing abutments were removed 2 weeks later, and one Uni-abutment and one prepable abutment were placed. A plaque-control period was initiated, and 6 months later block biopsies were obtained. The biopsies were prepared for histometric and morphometric examination. Radiographs were obtained at fixture placement, 2 weeks after the first abutment connection, and 6 months later. The length of the barrier epithelium, the height of the connective tissue attachment, and the level of the marginal bone did not differ between the three abutment groups. The major part of the radiographic bone loss during the experiment took place prior to or immediately after abutment connection; only small bone level alterations occurred during the subsequent 6-month period. The shift from a healing abutment to a permanent abutment resulted in the establishment of a transmucosal attachment, the dimension and quality of which did not differ from those of the mucosal barrier formed to a permanent abutment placed during a second-stage surgery.

  18. Accuracy of different abutment level impression techniques in All-On-4 dental implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Alikhasi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Passive fit of prosthetic frameworks is a major concern in implant dentistry. Impression technique is one of the several variables that may affect the outcome of dental implants. The purpose of this study was to compare the three dimensional accuracy of direct and indirect abutment level implant impressions ofALL-ON-4 treatment plan.Materials and Methods: A reference acrylic resin model with four Branemark fixtures was made according to All-On-4 treatment plan. Multiunit abutments were screwed into the fixtures and two special trays were made for direct and indirect impression techniques. Ten direct and ten indirect impression techniques with respective impression transfers were made. Impressions were poured with stone and the positional accuracy of the abutment analogues in each dimension of x, y, and z axes and also angular displacement (Δθ were evaluated using a Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM. Data were analyzed using T- test.Results: The results showed that direct impression technique was significantly more accurate than indirect technique (P<0.001.Conclusion: The results showed that the accuracy of direct impression technique was significantly more than that of indirect technique in Δθ and Δr coordinate and also Δx, Δy, Δz.

  19. Discrepancies in marginal and internal fits for different metal and alumina infrastructures cemented on implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faot, Fernanda; Suzuki, Dalton; Senna, Plinio M; da Silva, Wander J; de Mattias Sartori, Ivete A

    2015-06-01

    Cemented crowns are increasingly being used on dental implants instead of on screw-retained prostheses because of the reliability of internal Morse taper implant-abutment connections. However, there is a lack of information on the fit of metal ceramic and premachined alumina infrastructures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fits of different metal and alumina infrastructures cemented on universal post abutments. A total of 45 abutments (6 mm in height and 3.3 mm in diameter) were divided into five groups on the basis of their infrastructure material: cobalt-chromium (CoCr), nickel-chromium (NiCr), nickel-chromium-molybdenum-titanium (NiCrMoTi), gold (Au), and premachined alumina. The alumina group showed marginal overextension, and the Au group showed the highest discrepancy in marginal fit among the metal alloys. The CoCr and alumina groups showed the lowest discrepancies in internal fit. In conclusion, the alumina cylinders exhibited the best internal fit, despite their horizontal overextension. Among the metal alloys, CoCr exhibited the best fit at critical regions, such as the cervical and occlusal areas. © 2015 Eur J Oral Sci.

  20. Incidence of undetected cement on CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crowns and customized CAD/CAM implant abutments. A prospective case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasiluk, Grzegorz; Chomik, Ewa; Gehrke, Peter; Pietruska, Małgorzata; Skurska, Anna; Pietruski, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of cement residues after cementation of CAD/CAM monolithic zirconia crowns on customized CAD/CAM titanium abutments. Sixty premolars and molars were restored on Astra Tech Osseospeed TX ™ implants using single monolithic zirconia crowns fixed on two types of custom-made abutments: Atlantis ™ titanium or Atlantis ™ Gold Hue. Occlusal openings providing access to the abutment screws were designed for retrievability of the crown/abutment connection. After fixation with glass ionomer cement, the crown/abutment units were unscrewed to evaluate the presence of residual cement. Dichotomous assessment of the presence or absence of cement at the crown/abutment unit and peri-implant tissues was performed. Clinically undetected cement excess was visible on 44 of 60 restorations (73.3%). There was no interdependency between residual cement presence and implant location or diameter. However, a dependency between the presence of residual cement and the aspect of the abutment/crown connection could be noted. The majority of the residues were observed on the distal (17.9%) and mesial (15%) aspects. While on the palatal/lingual aspect, the cement was visible in 8.8%; only 3.4% of all surfaces displayed cement residues. Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that the use of customized CAD/CAM abutments do not guarantee avoidance of subgingival cement residues after crown cementation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. MONITORING OF DISPLACEMENT ABUTMENTS OF MOTORWAY VIADUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof TROJNAR

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is controlling the behavior of the bridge supports of the motorway viaduct WA-164 on strengthened subsoil using soil-cement columns made in DSM technology. Monitoring of the construction was carried out for a period of 16 months by measuring the settlement and rotation of the structure. The settlements were measured by means of the geodesic precision leveling method. Changes in the rotation of the supports were recorded using a inclinometer sensors installed on the walls of the abutments. For mapping of the construction work, numerical models of span and abutments were performed. The abutment was modeled in computer program SOFiSTiK. The stiffness of subsoil was calibrated with regard to the measured settlement of the abutment on DSM columns. The results of field measurements shows that after backfilling the abutments, it leaned in the embankments direction. This is also confirmed by numerical analysis. Monitoring conducted in 2014 showed that settlement is stabilized, and the measured values are safe and lower than the SLS limit stage. Numerical modeling along with geotechnical and geodetic monitoring has enabled a better understanding of the behavior of the bridge foundation on strengthened subsoil and verify the calculation assumptions taken at the stage of design calculations.

  2. Evaluation of Heat Transfer to the Implant-Bone Interface During Removal of Metal Copings Cemented onto Titanium Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Umut; Cakan, Murat; Delilbasi, Cagri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the temperature increase due to heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when the abutment screw channel is accessed or a metal-ceramic crown is sectioned buccally with diamond or tungsten carbide bur using an air rotor, with or without irrigation. Cobalt-chromium copings were cemented onto straight titanium abutments. The temperature changes during removal of the copings were recorded over a period of 1 minute. The sectioning of coping with diamond bur and without water irrigation generated the highest temperature change at the cervical part of the implant. Both crown removal methods resulted in an increase in temperature at the implant-bone interface. However, this temperature change did not exceed 47°C, the potentially damaging threshold for bone reported in the literature.

  3. 21 CFR 872.3630 - Endosseous dental implant abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endosseous dental implant abutment. 872.3630... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3630 Endosseous dental implant abutment. (a) Identification. An endosseous dental implant abutment is a premanufactured prosthetic component...

  4. Randomized controlled clinical trial of customized zirconia and titanium implant abutments for canine and posterior single-tooth implant reconstructions: preliminary results at 1 year of function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Zembic, Anja; Jung, Ronald Ernst; Siegenthaler, David; Holderegger, Claudia; Hämmerle, Christoph Hans Franz

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether or not customized zirconia abutments exhibit the same survival rates in canine and posterior regions as titanium abutments, and to compare the esthetic result of the two abutment types. Twenty-two patients with 40 implants in posterior regions were included and the implant sites were randomly assigned to 20 customized zirconia and 20 customized titanium abutments. All-ceramic (AC) and metal-ceramic (MC) crowns were fabricated. In all except two cases, the crowns were cemented on the abutments using resin or glass-ionomer cements. Two zirconia reconstructions were screw retained. At baseline, 6 and 12 months, the reconstructions were examined for technical and biological problems. Probing pocket depth (PPD), plaque (Pl) and bleeding on probing (BOP) were assessed and compared with natural control teeth. Furthermore, the difference of color (DeltaE) of the peri-implant mucosa and the gingiva of control teeth was evaluated by means of a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade). The data were analyzed with Student's unpaired t-test, ANOVA and regression analyses. Twenty patients with 19 zirconia and 12 titanium abutments were examined at a mean follow-up of 12.6+/-2.7 months. The survival rate for reconstructions and abutments was 100%. No technical or biological problems were found at the test and control sites. Two chippings (16.7%) occurred at crowns supported by titanium abutments. No difference was found regarding PPD (meanPPD(ZrO2) 3.4+/-0.7 mm, mPPD(Ti) 3.3+/-0.6 mm), Pl (mPl(ZrO2) 0.2+/-0.3, mPl(Ti) 0.1+/-1.8) and BOP (mBOP(ZrO2) 60+/-30%, mBOP(Ti) 30+/-40%) between the two groups. Both crowns on zirconia and titanium abutments induced a similar amount of discoloration of the soft tissue compared with the gingiva at natural teeth (DeltaE(ZrO2) 8.1+/-3.9, DeltaE(Ti) 7.8+/-4.3). At 1 year, zirconia abutments exhibited the same survival and a similar esthetic outcome as titanium abutments.

  5. Fracture resistance of implant-supported screw-retained zirconia-based molar restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Junichi; Komine, Futoshi; Kamio, Shingo; Taguchi, Kohei; Blatz, Markus B; Matsumura, Hideo

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this in vitro study was to investigate fracture loads of screw-retained zirconia-based molar restorations (hybrid abutment crown) fabricated with different restorative materials and designs. Forty-four screw-retained zirconia-based molar restorations were fabricated on dental implants and divided into four groups (n = 11): porcelain-layered zirconia-based restorations (PLZ), indirect composite-layered zirconia-based restorations (ILZ), metal-ceramic restorations (MC), and monolithic zirconia restorations (MONO). The zirconia-based restorations in the PLZ, ILZ, and MONO groups were adhesively bonded on implant abutments with a dual-polymerized resin material. All restorations were tightened on implant bodies with titanium screws and were tested for fracture resistance. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Steel-Dwass test were used to evaluate differences in fracture loads (α = 0.05). As compared with the other groups, the MONO specimens had a significantly higher mean fracture resistance (7.54 kN); no significant differences were found among the PLZ (1.96 kN), ILZ (1.80 kN), and MC (1.45 kN) groups (P > 0.05). For the PLZ, ILZ, and MC groups, all specimens fractured within the layering materials. In contrast, the fracture mode for the MONO group was complete fracture of the restorations. All restorations withstood the masticatory forces. Fracture loads were significantly higher for screw-retained implant-supported monolithic zirconia restorations than for screw-retained bilayered restorations. For the screw-retained bilayered zirconia-based restorations, the fracture resistance of ILZ restorations was comparable to that of PLZ restorations and MC restorations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Improving the pullout strength of pedicle screws by screw coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, T; Abe, E; Okuyama, K; Sato, K

    2001-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pedicle screw coupling on the pullout strength of pedicle screws in the osteoporotic spine. The vertebral bone mineral density (BMD) of 33 cadaveric lumbar vertebrae were measured by quantitative computed tomography. Pedicle screws were inserted into each pedicle. The pullout strength and displacement of the screws, without coupling and with single or double couplers, were studied, and the relationship between pullout strength and BMD was analyzed. The average pullout strength of the pedicle screws without screw coupling was 909.3 +/- 188.6 N (n = 9), that coupled with a single coupler was 1,409.0 +/- 469.1 N (n = 9), and that with double couplers was 1,494.0 +/- 691.6 N (n = 9). The pullout strength of the screws coupled with single or double couplers was significantly greater than that of screws without couplers (p pullout strength by screw coupling was significant in a test group with BMD of more than 90 mg/ml (p pedicle screws improves pullout strength; however, the effect tends to be less significant in severely osteoporotic spines.

  7. Fracture load of different crown systems on zirconia implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, T; Kirsten, A; Kappert, H F; Fischer, H

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the fracture load of single zirconia abutment restorations using different veneering techniques and materials. The abutment restorations were divided into 6 groups with 20 samples each: test abutments (control group A), lithium disilicate ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group B), leucite ceramic crowns bonded on incisor abutments (group C), premolar abutments directly veneered with a fluor apatite ceramic (group D (layered) and group E (pressed)) and premolar abutments bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F). The fracture load of the restorations was evaluated using a universal testing machine. Half of each group was artificially aged (chewing simulation and thermocycling) before evaluating the fracture load with the exception of the test abutments. The fracture load of the test abutments was 705 ± 43N. Incisor abutments bonded with lithium disilicate or leucite ceramic crowns (groups B and C) showed fracture loads of about 580N. Premolar restorations directly veneered with fluor apatite ceramic (groups D and E) showed fracture loads of about 850N. Premolar restorations bonded with lithium disilicate ceramic crowns (group F) showed fracture loads of about 1850N. The artificial ageing showed no significant influence on the strength of the examined restorations. All ceramic crowns made of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, adhesively bonded to premolar abutments showed the highest fracture loads in this study. However, all tested groups can withstand physiological bite forces. Copyright © 2010 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. One-piece internal zirconia abutments for single-tooth restorations on narrow and regular diameter implants: A 5-year prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Andrée; Johansson, Lars-Åke; Lindh, Christina; Ekfeldt, Anders

    2017-10-01

    Studies have reported an increased risk for fractures of zirconia abutments compared with titanium abutments. The aim of this study was to evaluate single-tooth implant restorations with one-piece yttria-stabilized internal zirconia abutments on narrow and regular diameter implants up to 6 years after insertion. This study comprises 52 consecutively treated patients, with a median age of 19 years. In total, 59 narrow (3.3 mm) and 10 regular (4.1 mm) diameter implants were installed. Sixty-five all-ceramic crowns were cemented on implant-supported one-piece internal zirconia abutments and 4 restorations were screw-retained. Thirty-five patients with 48 implant restorations participated in the final examination and another 14 patients with 16 implant restorations were possible to reach and could be interviewed. The implant survival was 100% but the survival rate for the implant-supported ceramic restorations was lower, 87.5%. Three crowns (4.7%) were remade for different reasons. Five restorations (7.8%) were remade due to fracture of the internal one-piece zirconia abutment. Four of these fractures occurred in 3.3 mm implant abutments. Narrow diameter implants offer an opportunity to restore small single-tooth edentulous gaps. For esthetical reasons the choice of an abutment in zirconia can be favorable, but at least with the used implant system, there seems to be an increased risk for fracture. Most patients were very satisfied with the esthetics and function of their implant restorations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Upper bound of abutment scour in laboratory and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Carolina Department of Transportation, conducted a field investigation of abutment scour in South Carolina and used those data to develop envelope curves that define the upper bound of abutment scour. To expand on this previous work, an additional cooperative investigation was initiated to combine the South Carolina data with abutment scour data from other sources and evaluate upper bound patterns with this larger data set. To facilitate this analysis, 446 laboratory and 331 field measurements of abutment scour were compiled into a digital database. This extensive database was used to evaluate the South Carolina abutment scour envelope curves and to develop additional envelope curves that reflected the upper bound of abutment scour depth for the laboratory and field data. The envelope curves provide simple but useful supplementary tools for assessing the potential maximum abutment scour depth in the field setting.

  10. Strength comparison of allogenic bone screws, bioabsorbable screws, and stainless steel screw fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rano, James A; Savoy-Moore, Ruth T; Fallat, Lawrence M

    2002-01-01

    Allogenic bone screws are new to the fixation market and have yet to be tested against current fixation materials. An in vitro comparison of the same sizes of stainless steel, bioabsorbable, and allogenic bone screws was undertaken to assess screw resistance to the forces of bending, pullout, and shear. Using aluminum plates to support the screws, forces up to 1000 Newtons were applied to six to eight samples of each type of screw. During each test, stainless steel screws withstood the maximum force that could be exerted by the testing apparatus without failing (bending, 113.9 +/- 11.8 N mean +/- SE; pullout 999.1 +/- 33.7 N; and shear, 997.5 +/- 108.8 N). In each test, compared to bioabsorbable screws, allogenic bone screws failed faster (pullout, allogenic: 12.4 +/- 1.1 seconds vs. bioabsorbable, 120.6 +/- 13.8 seconds; p = .001; bending, allogenic: 53.4 +/- 4.8 seconds vs. bioabsorbable, 201.9 +/- 11.1 seconds; p = .001; shear, allogenic 13.5 +/- 1.4 seconds vs. bioabsorbable, 43.8 +/- 0.9 seconds; p = .001) under equivalent (pullout: bioabsorbable, 385.0 +/- 18.4 N vs. allogenic, 401.0 +/- 35.9 N; p = .001) or lower (bending, allogenic: 4.7 +/- 0.2 N vs. bioabsorbable, 11.0 +/- 0.9 N; p = .675; shear, allogenic: 312.1 +/- 15.5 N vs. bioabsorbable 680.9 +/- 8.5 N; p = .001) loads, and in a highly variable fashion. Overall, the bioabsorbable screws withstood the forces of bending, pullout, and shear better than the allogenic screws, and stainless steel screws outperformed both bioabsorbable and allogenic screws. Despite these results, allogenic screws could still be useful in compliant patients who would benefit from their osteoconductive properties.

  11. ROTARY SCREW SYSTEMS IN CEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Taratuta V. D.; Belokur K. A.; Serga G. V.

    2016-01-01

    The article presents results of research of rotary-screw systems in relation to the creation of rotary kilns for the annealing of-cuttings in the preparation of cement clinker. Using the proposed design, in comparison with known designs of similar purpose, it significantly improves performance, reduces size and power consumption through the use of rotary screw systems in the form of screw rotors and drums made hollow with sidewalls assembled from separate strips or plates of different geometr...

  12. Biomechanical Comparison of External Fixation and Compression Screws for Transverse Tarsal Joint Arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latt, L Daniel; Glisson, Richard R; Adams, Samuel B; Schuh, Reinhard; Narron, John A; Easley, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Transverse tarsal joint arthrodesis is commonly performed in the operative treatment of hindfoot arthritis and acquired flatfoot deformity. While fixation is typically achieved using screws, failure to obtain and maintain joint compression sometimes occurs, potentially leading to nonunion. External fixation is an alternate method of achieving arthrodesis site compression and has the advantage of allowing postoperative compression adjustment when necessary. However, its performance relative to standard screw fixation has not been quantified in this application. We hypothesized that external fixation could provide transverse tarsal joint compression exceeding that possible with screw fixation. Transverse tarsal joint fixation was performed sequentially, first with a circular external fixator and then with compression screws, on 9 fresh-frozen cadaveric legs. The external fixator was attached in abutting rings fixed to the tibia and the hindfoot and a third anterior ring parallel to the hindfoot ring using transverse wires and half-pins in the tibial diaphysis, calcaneus, and metatarsals. Screw fixation comprised two 4.3 mm headless compression screws traversing the talonavicular joint and 1 across the calcaneocuboid joint. Compressive forces generated during incremental fixator foot ring displacement to 20 mm and incremental screw tightening were measured using a custom-fabricated instrumented miniature external fixator spanning the transverse tarsal joint. The maximum compressive force generated by the external fixator averaged 186% of that produced by the screws (range, 104%-391%). Fixator compression surpassed that obtainable with screws at 12 mm of ring displacement and decreased when the tibial ring was detached. No correlation was found between bone density and the compressive force achievable by either fusion method. The compression across the transverse tarsal joint that can be obtained with a circular external fixator including a tibial ring exceeds that

  13. Effect of Screw Access Channel Filling Method and Cement Type on Retention of Implant-Supported Fixed Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Mahabadi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is limited data on the factors affecting the retention of cemented fixed prostheses to implant abutment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of screw access channel filling method and cement type on retention of implant-supported fixed restorations.  Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 implant analogs were mounted in autopolymerizing acrylic resin blocks, and two-piece titanium abutments were placed in each implant analog. Twenty abutment samples were completely filled with silicone, and 20 other samples were filled partially. In each of the study groups, Temp Bond® eugenol-containing temporary cement was used for 10 samples, while in another 10 samples non-eugenol temporary cements were utilized. Prior to the retention test, samples were placed in the rmocycling machine with 1000 cycles for 24 h. Each sample was stretched using a Universal Pull-out Test Machine with a force of 5000 N. The required load for removing the crown was recorded. The data was analyzed USING two-way ANOVA and least square difference (α=0.05. Results: Among the four groups, the highest retention rate was observed in the group of partial screw access channel filling with eugenol cement. Also, the rate of retention in the group of complete screw access channel filling with non-eugenol cement was significantly lower than in any other group. A significant difference was observed between all the groups except for the groups of complete screw access channel filling with eugenol cement and partial screw access channel filling with non-eugenol cement (P=0.27. Conclusion: The mean rate of retention in partial access cavity filling group was greater than that of the complete access cavity filling group; moreover, this rate was higher in the eugenol cement group than the non-eugenol cement group.

  14. SCREW SELECTION FOR SCREW OPERATION USING EXPERT SYSTEM APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüdayim BAŞAK

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a expert system has been developed using Leonardo expert system package programming for screw operation, According to DIN standard norm. The designed program decide the most suitable screw type considering to material, cutting speed, working condition etc. This program also directs to user.

  15. Abutment Coating With Diamond-Like Carbon Films to Reduce Implant-Abutment Bacterial Leakage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Mayra; Sangalli, Jorgiana; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Ferreira, Leandro Lameirão; da Silva Sobrinho, Argemiro Soares; Nogueira, Lafayette

    2016-02-01

    The influence of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on bacterial leakage through the interface between abutments and dental implants of external hexagon (EH) and internal hexagon (IH) designs was evaluated. Film deposition was performed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition. Sets of implants and abutments (n = 30 per group, sets of 180 implants) were divided according to connection design and treatment of the abutment base: 1) no treatment (control); 2) DLC film deposition; and 3) Ag-DLC film deposition. Under sterile conditions, 1 μL Enterococcus faecalis was inoculated inside the implants, and abutments were tightened. The sets were tested for immediate external contamination, suspended in test tubes containing sterile culture broth, and followed for 5 days. Turbidity of the broth indicated bacterial leakage. At the end of the period, the abutments were removed and the internal content of the implants was collected with paper points and plated in Petri dishes. After 24-hour incubation, they were assessed for bacterial viability and colony-forming unit counting. Bacterial leakage was analyzed by χ(2) and Fisher exact tests (α = 5%). The percentage of bacterial leakage was 16.09% for EH implants and 80.71% for IH implants (P DLC and Ag-DLC films do not significantly reduce the frequency of bacterial leakage and bacteria load inside the implants.

  16. Frictional performance of ball screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Katuhiro; Takafuji, Kazuki

    1985-01-01

    As feed screws, ball screws have become to be adopted in place of trapezoidal threads. The structure of ball screws is complex, but those are the indispensable component of NC machine tools and machining centers, and are frequently used for industrial robots. As the problems in the operation of ball screws, there are damage, life and the performance related to friction. As to the damage and life, though there is the problem of the load distribution on balls, the results of the research on rolling bearings are applied. The friction of ball screws consists of the friction of balls and a spiral groove, the friction of a ball and a ball, the friction in a ball-circulating mechanism and the viscous friction of lubricating oil. It was decided to synthetically examine the frictional performance of ball screws, such as driving torque, the variation of driving torque, efficiency, the formation of oil film and so on, under the working condition of wide range, using the screws with different accuracy and the nuts of various circuit number. The experimental setup and the processing of the experimental data, the driving performance of ball screws and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Fixture-abutment connection surface and micro-gap measurements by 3D micro-tomographic technique analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Meleo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available X-ray micro-tomography (micro-CT is a miniaturized form of conventional computed axial tomography (CAT able to investigate small radio-opaque objects at a-few-microns high resolution, in a nondestructive, non-invasive, and tri-dimensional way. Compared to traditional optical and electron microscopy techniques, which provide two-dimensional images, this innovative investigation technology enables a sample tri-dimensional analysis without cutting, coating or exposing the object to any particular chemical treatment. X-ray micro-tomography matches ideal 3D microscopy features: the possibility of investigating an object in natural conditions and without any preparation or alteration; non-invasive, non-destructive, and sufficiently magnified 3D reconstruction; reliable measurement of numeric data of the internal structure (morphology, structure and ultra-structure. Hence, this technique has multi-fold applications in a wide range of fields, not only in medical and odontostomatologic areas, but also in biomedical engineering, materials science, biology, electronics, geology, archaeology, oil industry, and semi-conductors industry. This study shows possible applications of micro-CT in dental implantology to analyze 3D micro-features of dental implant to abutment interface. Indeed, implant-abutment misfit is known to increase mechanical stress on connection structures and surrounding bone tissue. This condition may cause not only screw preload loss or screw fracture, but also biological issues in peri-implant tissues.

  18. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani; Reza Mohammadpour

    2016-01-01

    Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abut...

  19. An in vitro comparison of the accuracy of implant impressions with coded healing abutments and different implant angulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdullah, Khaled; Zandparsa, Roya; Finkelman, Matthew; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Fabricating implant definitive casts with CAD/CAM technology (Robocasts) from coded healing abutment impressions represents a simpler and innovative alternative to conventional implant impression techniques. However, information about the accuracy of the impressions and the resultant definitive casts is limited. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Robocasts and compare them to those definitive casts fabricated with conventional implant impression techniques (open tray with splinted impression copings technique). A reference epoxy resin cast was fabricated and shaped to simulate a dental arch. Two regular platform implant replicas (Biomet 3i Certain, 4.1 mm diameter and 15 mm length) with internal connections were placed 10 mm apart with a 10-degree convergence for one side of the reference resin cast and a 30-degree convergence for the other. Coded healing abutments (Encode) were placed at 3 different heights above the level of the soft tissue replication material (approximately 1, 2, and 4 mm) and served as test groups (E1, E2, and E4), and open trays with splinted impression copings (OTSC) served as a control group. The control group was compared to the impressions of the coded healing abutments by using a standardized measurement protocol. Impressions were made for each group (n=18) and poured with vacuum mixed (100 g powder/20 mL water) Type IV dental stone. The vertical discrepancy (Z axis) between 2 prefabricated passively fitting titanium reference frameworks and the platforms of the implant replicas was measured with an optical comparator applying the 1 screw test. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and post-hoc Mann-Whitney U tests, as well as the Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. The Bonferroni correction was used to account for multiple comparisons. The significance level (α) used in a given set of tests was equal to .05 divided by the number of tests performed in that set. The median vertical discrepancy of each coded healing

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Abutment Teeth with Gingival Discoloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristic, Ljubisa; Dakovic, Dragana; Postic, Srdjan; Lazic, Zoran; Bacevic, Miljana; Vucevic, Dragana

    2017-04-06

    The grey-bluish discoloration of gingiva (known as "amalgam tattoo") does not appear only in the presence of amalgam restorations. It may also be seen in cases of teeth restored with cast dowels and porcelain-fused-to-metal (PFM) restorations. The aim of this article was to determine the clinical characteristics of abutment teeth with gingival discoloration. This research was conducted on 25 patients referred for cast dowel and PFM restorations. These restorations were manufactured from Ni-Cr alloys. Ninety days after cementing the fixed prosthodontic restorations, the abutment teeth (n = 61) were divided into a group with gingival discoloration (GD) (n = 25) and without gingival discoloration (NGD) (n = 36). The control group (CG) comprised the contralateral teeth (n = 61). Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depth were assessed before fabrication and also 90 days after cementation of the PFM restorations. The gingival index, clinical attachment level, and probing depths of the abutment teeth that had GD were statistically higher before restoration, in comparison with the abutment teeth in the NGD and control groups. Ninety days after cementation, the abutment teeth with GD had significantly lower gingival indexes and probing depths, compared to the abutment teeth in the NGD group. Both abutment teeth groups (GD and NGD) had significantly higher values of clinical attachment levels when compared to the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in plaque index values between the study groups. The results of this study indicated that impairment of periodontal status of abutment teeth seemed to be related to the presence of gingival discolorations. Therefore, fabrication of fixed prosthodontic restorations requires careful planning and abutment teeth preparation to minimize the occurrence of gingival discolorations. With careful preparation of abutment teeth for cast dowels and crown restorations it may be

  1. The pullout performance of pedicle screws

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Teyfik

    2015-01-01

    This brief book systematically discusses all subjects that affect the pullout strength of pedicle screws. These screws are used in spinal surgeries to stabilize the spine. The holding strength of the pedicle screw is vital since loosening of the pedicle screws can cause revision surgeries. Once the pedicle screw is pulled out, it is harder to obtain same stabilization for the fused vertebrae. The book reviews the effect of screw designs, application techniques, cement augmentation, coating of the screw and test conditions on the pullout strength. The studies with finite element analysis were also included.

  2. Designing screws for polymer compounding in twin-screw extruders =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Cristina Ferreira

    Considering its modular construction, co-rotating twin screw extruders can be easily adapted to work with polymeric systems with more stringent specifications. However, their geometrical flexibility makes the performance of these machines strongly dependent on the screw configuration. Therefore, the definition of the adequate screw geometry to use in a specific polymer system is an important process requirement which is currently achieved empirically or using a trial-and-error basis. The aim of this work is to develop an automatic optimization methodology able to define the best screw geometry/configuration to use in a specific compounding/reactive extrusion operation, reducing both cost and time. This constitutes an optimization problem where a set of different screw elements are to be sequentially positioned along the screw in order to maximize the extruder performance. For that, a global modeling program considering the most important physical, thermal and rheological phenomena developing along the axis of an intermeshing co-rotating twin screw extruder was initially developed. The accuracy and sensitivity of the software to changes in the input parameters was tested for different operating conditions and screw configurations using a laboratorial Leistritz LSM 30.34 extruder. Then, this modeling software was integrated into an optimization methodology in order to be possible solving the Twin Screw Configuration Problem. Multi-objective versions of local search algorithms (Two Phase Local Search and Pareto Local Search) and Ant Colony Optimization algorithms were implemented and adapted to deal with the combinatorial, discrete and multi-objective nature of the problem. Their performance was studied making use of the hypervolume indicator and Empirical Attainment Function, and compared with the Reduced Pareto Search Genetic Algorithm (RPSGA) previously developed and applied to this problem. In order to improve the quality of the results and/or to decrease the

  3. Time-wise variation of scouring at bridge abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Accurate estimation of the maximum possible depth of scour at bridge abutments is important in decision-making for the safe depth of burial of footings. Besides, investigation of the geometric features of scour holes around abutments provides useful information for the degree of scour counter-measure to be implemented ...

  4. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent flow field around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted ... The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study ...

  5. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Kwan T F 1989 A study of abutment scour. Rep. No. 451, School of Engineering, University of. Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand. Kwan T F, Melville B W 1994 Local scour and flow measurements at bridge abutments. J. Hydraul. Res. 32: 661–673. Melville B W, Raudkivi R J 1977 Flow characteristics in local scour at bridge ...

  6. Microleakage Evaluation at Implant-Abutment Interface Using Radiotracer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakimeh Siadat

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Microbial leakage through the implant-abutment (I-A interface results in bacterial colonization in two-piece implants. The aim of this study was to compare microleakage rates in three types of Replace abutments namely Snappy, GoldAdapt, and customized ceramic using radiotracing.Materials and Methods: Three groups, one for each abutment type, of five implants and one positive and one negative control were considered (a total of 17 regular body implants. A torque of 35 N/cm was applied to the abutments. The samples were immersed in thallium 201 radioisotope solution for 24 hours to let the radiotracers leak through the I-A interface. Then, gamma photons received from the radiotracers were counted using a gamma counter device. In the next phase, cyclic fatigue loading process was applied followed by the same steps of immersion in the radioactive solution and photon counting.Results: Rate of microleakage significantly increased (P≤0.05 in all three types of abutments (i.e. Snappy, GoldAdapt, and ceramic after cyclic loading. No statistically significant differences were observed between abutment types after cyclic loading.Conclusions: Microleakage significantly increases after cyclic loading in all three Replace abutments (GoldAdapt, Snappy, ceramic. Lowest microleakage before and after cyclic loading was observed in GoldAdapt followed by Snappy and ceramic.Keywords: Dental Implants; Dental Implant-Abutment Design; Thallium Chloride

  7. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    When a wing-wall abutment is placed vertically on a rigid-bed rectangular channel by attach- ing it to one of the vertical sidewalls of the channel, the approaching turbulent boundary layer undergoes separation and rolles up to form the well-known primary vortex, which swept out by the side of the abutment. Limited research ...

  8. Retention of crowns cemented on implant abutments with temporary cements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Yuko; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    This study was to examine the retentive force of crowns to implant abutments with commercial temporary cements. Six different temporary cements were investigated. Cast crowns were cemented to the abutments using each cement and their retentive forces to abutments were determined 7 or 28 days after cementing (n=10). The retentive force of the cements to abutments varied widely among the products [27-109 N (7-day), 18-80 N (28-days)]. The retentive force of all the cements was not reduced as the time elapsed, except for two products tested. The polycarboxylate cements and paste-mixing type eugenol-free cements revealed comparable retentive force after 28 days of storage. The powder-liquid type cements showed a positive correlation (pcement between the retentive force and compressive strength. Mechanical strength of temporary cements could not be a prominent predicting factor for retention of the crowns on the abutments.

  9. Scour around vertical wall abutment in cohesionless sediment bed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, M.; Sharma, P. K.; Ahmad, Z.

    2017-12-01

    At the time of floods, failure of bridges is the biggest disaster and mainly sub-structure (bridge abutments and piers) are responsible for this failure of bridges. It is very risky if these sub structures are not constructed after proper designing and analysis. Scour is a natural phenomenon in rivers or streams caused by the erosive action of the flowing water on the bed and banks. The abutment undermines due to river-bed erosion and scouring, which generally recognized as the main cause of abutment failure. Most of the previous studies conducted on scour around abutment have concerned with the prediction of the maximum scour depth (Lim, 1994; Melvill, 1992, 1997 and Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005). Dey and Barbhuiya (2005) proposed a relationship for computing maximum scour depth near an abutment, based on laboratory experiments, for computing maximum scour depth around vertical wall abutment, which was confined to their experimental data only. However, this relationship needs to be also verified by the other researchers data in order to support the reliability to the relationship and its wider applicability. In this study, controlled experimentations have been carried out on the scour near a vertical wall abutment. The collected data in this study along with data of the previous investigators have been carried out on the scour near vertical wall abutment. The collected data in this study along with data of the previous have been used to check the validity of the existing equation (Lim, 1994; Melvill, 1992, 1997 and Dey and Barbhuiya, 2005) of maximum scour depth around the vertical wall abutment. A new relationship is proposed to estimate the maximum scour depth around vertical wall abutment, it gives better results all relationships.

  10. Screw retained vs. cement retained implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittneben, Julia-Gabriela; Joda, Tim; Weber, Hans-Peter; Brägger, Urs

    2017-02-01

    A fixed dental prosthesis can be secured to an endosseous implant via cementation (using a provisional or definitive cement) on an implant abutment that is screw retained to the implant or directly in the implant via screw retention. The clinical decision as to which retention system best suits the individual patient depends on several factors. The aim of this review is to present a detailed overview of the factors potentially influencing whether to choose screw retention or cement retention. These factors include the individual indication, advantages and disadvantages of the different retention mechanisms, the retention provided, retrievability, provisionalization, esthetics and clinical performance, including failures and complications. The results of recently published systematic reviews on this topic are discussed and an overview is provided. A decision tree is presented to facilitate the clinical selection of the retention type. This overview concludes that the choice of retention type (screw retained or cement retained) might not influence the overall survival of the implant-supported fixed dental prosthesis, but may be responsible for the development of certain complications. The decision may depend on technical feasibility and on weighing the pros and cons. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Biofilm formation on titanium alloy and anatase-Bactercline® coated titanium healing screws: an in vivo human study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scarano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim Bacterial adherence to implants is considered to be an important event in the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. In fact, this infection process is a first stage of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis, and a positive correlation has been found between oral hygiene and marginal bone loss around implants in the edentulous mandible. Surface properties of transgingival implant components are important determinants in bacterial adhesion. The purpose of this study was to characterize the biofilm formation, in vivo, on healing screws made of titanium alloy or coated with a combination of anatase and Bactercline® product. Materials and methods Twenty-five patients, between 21- 37 years, in excellent systemic health, participated in this study. In each of the 25 participants, one anatase-Bactercline® coated healing screw (Test and one titanium alloy (TI6Al4V healing screw (Control were adapted to two different implants. Quantitative and qualitative biofilm formation on healing abutments was analyzed by culture method.Results Bacterial adherence to the two different healing screws used in this study were compared. Statistically significant differences were found between the Control and the Test group for both aerobic and anaerobic bacterial counts (p<0,05. The microflora consisted both of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and displayed a high variability. The anaerobic S. intermedius, potentially “pathogenic”, was isolated only from the Control group. Both healing screws harbored primarily Gram-positive rods as Actinomyces spp, A. naeslundii, A. viscosus and the Gram-negative rods (Fusobacterium spp, Prevotella spp, Capnocythophaga spp were mostly found on the Control healing screws.Conclusion Anatase-Bactercline® coated healing screws reduce the number of initially adhering bacteria, formed mainly of Gram-positive microorgnisms, while, on the contrary, the microflora covering the titanium alloy healing screws was, for the

  12. Lumbar pedicle screw salvage: pullout testing of three different pedicle screw designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLain, R F; Fry, M F; Moseley, T A; Sharkey, N A

    1995-02-01

    Although research has determined pedicle screw pullout strengths for normal and osteoporotic bone, this study provides the first biomechanical analysis of pedicle screw salvage. Ten fresh frozen human lumbar spines were separated into individual vertebrae; 6.0 x 40 mm pedicle screws were placed in each pedicle; and an axial pullout test was performed to establish control values. Ultimate load, initial stiffness, work, and displacement data were calculated. Each vertebra was reinstrumented with one 7.0 x 40 mm variable screw placement (VSP) screw side by side with either a 7.0 mm Cotrel Dubousset sacral screw (CD) or a 7.0 mm Compact Cotrel Dubousset pedicle screw (CCD). Pullout tests were repeated and compared to control data for individual screws and for each VSP/CD or VSP/CCD pair. Vertebrae were then reinstrumented with 8.0 mm VSP and CD screws and paired pullouts repeated. Statistical analysis was carried out using a paired T test. Analysis of intravertebral and intergroup variation of controls was carried out using a Paired Two Sample T test. The 7.0 mm CCD screws restored pullout strength to 62% of control pullouts; 7.0 mm CD screws, to 85%; 7.0 mm VSP screws, to 99%; 8.0 mm CD screws, to 109%; and 8.0 mm VSP screws, to 148% of control pullouts. The 7.0 mm VSP salvage screws exceeded CD screws in ultimate load by 22.5% (p screws by 33.5% (p screws significantly increased pullout relative to both controls and all 7.0 mm salvage screws, with 8.0 mm VSP exceeding 8.0 mm CD by 34% (p screws. Although applied in a smaller number of vertebrae, 8.0 mm screws sufficiently outperformed smaller screws to provide statistically significant differences. The 7.0 mm VSP salvage screws restored pullout to control levels, roughly equivalent to outcomes previously obtained with unpressurized polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA).

  13. Identification of risk factors for fracture of veneering materials and screw loosening of implant-supported fixed partial dentures in partially edentulous cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, K; Arakawa, H; Maekawa, K; Hara, E S; Yamazaki, S; Kimura-Ono, A; Sonoyama, W; Minakuchi, H; Matsuka, Y; Kuboki, T

    2013-03-01

    This retrospective study identified the risk factors for fracture of veneering materials and screw loosening of implant-supported fixed partial dentures in partially edentulous cases. The study group included a total of 182 patients who were installed 219 suprastructures at the Fixed Prosthodontic Clinic of Okayama University Dental Hospital between February 1990 and March 2005 and were subdivided in two subgroups: 120 patients (149 facing suprastructures) were included in the subgroup to investigate the risk factors of fracture of veneering materials, and 81 patients (92 suprastructures) were included in the subgroup to identify the risk factors of abutment screw loosening. Each patient was followed up from the day of suprastructure installation until March, 2005. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify the risk factors related to technical complications, and eight factors were regarded as candidate risk factors. Screw retention was the significant risk factor for fracture of veneering materials, whereas connection of suprastructures with natural tooth was the significant risk factor for screw loosening. It was suggested that screw retention was a significant risk factor for the fracture of veneering materials, and connection of suprastructures with natural tooth was a significant risk factor for screw loosening. Future studies, involving dynamic factors (e.g. bruxism) as predictors as well, are more helpful to discuss the risk factor of fracture of veneering materials and screw loosening. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Misplaced Cervical Screws Requiring Reoperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jeremy C; Arnold, Paul M; Smith, Zachary A; Hsu, Wellington K; Fehlings, Michael G; Hart, Robert A; Hilibrand, Alan S; Nassr, Ahmad; Rahman, Ra'Kerry K; Tannoury, Chadi A; Tannoury, Tony; Mroz, Thomas E; Currier, Bradford L; De Giacomo, Anthony F; Fogelson, Jeremy L; Jobse, Bruce C; Massicotte, Eric M; Riew, K Daniel

    2017-04-01

    A multicenter, retrospective case series. In the past several years, screw fixation of the cervical spine has become commonplace. For the most part, this is a safe, low-risk procedure. While rare, screw backout or misplaced screws can lead to morbidity and increased costs. We report our experiences with this uncommon complication. A multicenter, retrospective case series was undertaken at 23 institutions in the United States. Patients were included who underwent cervical spine surgery from January 1, 2005, to December 31, 2011, and had misplacement of screws requiring reoperation. Institutional review board approval was obtained at all participating institutions, and detailed records were sent to a central data center. A total of 12 903 patients met the inclusion criteria and were analyzed. There were 11 instances of screw backout requiring reoperation, for an incidence of 0.085%. There were 7 posterior procedures. Importantly, there were no changes in the health-related quality-of-life metrics due to this complication. There were no new neurologic deficits; a patient most often presented with pain, and misplacement was diagnosed on plain X-ray or computed tomography scan. The most common location for screw backout was C6 (36%). This study represents the largest series to tabulate the incidence of misplacement of screws following cervical spine surgery, which led to revision procedures. The data suggest this is a rare event, despite the widespread use of cervical fixation. Patients suffering this complication can require revision, but do not usually suffer neurologic sequelae. These patients have increased cost of care. Meticulous technique and thorough knowledge of the relevant anatomy are the best means of preventing this complication.

  15. Clinical evaluation of isolated abutment teeth in removable partial dentures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarrati S

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aims: Nowadays, removable partial dentures are applied to patients who are not able to use dental implants or fixed prosthesis. Although based on the studies the users of removable partial dentures are in the risk of plaque accumulation and unacceptable changes such as gingivitis, periodontitis and mobility in abutment tooth. It is not clear whether the negative effects of removable partial dentures are more on the isolated teeth which are a kind of abutment adjacent to endentulous area in both sides. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical condition of isolated abutment teeth without splinting in comparison to control abutment from the aspects of B.O.P (bleeding on probing, mobility, pocket depth and gingivitis."nMaterials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prepared questionnaires were filled out by 50 patients who received removable partial dentures in department of removable prosthodontics of dental school of Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The patients had isolated abutment tooth and did not have any systemic disease. The obtained data were analyzed. Using Wilcoxon, exact Fisher and Kruskal-Wallis test."nResults: B.O.P (P=0.004, pocket depth (P=0.035, and mobility (P<0.001 in isolated abutments were more than those in control abutments, but there were not significant differences in the degree of caries (P=0.083 and gingivitis (P=0.07."nConclusion: This study showed that clinical condition of isolated abutments is worse than that of control abutments. More attention should be paid to healthiness of isolated teeth without splinting and periodic follow ups should be done in these cases.

  16. Marginal fit of cemented and screw-retained crowns incorporated on the Straumann (ITI) Dental Implant System: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosches, N A; Brägger, U; Lang, N P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the marginal fit of crowns on the Straumann (ITI) Dental Implant System with special consideration of different casting dental materials. Sixty porcelain-fused-to-metal crowns were fabricated: 18 crowns on standard cone abutments with an impression cylinder, partially prefabricated analogs, no coping and screw-retained (A); 18 crowns on solid abutments without an impression device, no analogs, no coping and cemented (B); and 18 crowns on solid abutments using an impression transfer cap, an analog with a shoulder, no coping and cemented (C). In each group, six crowns were made on epoxy mastercasts (Bluestar), six on synthetic plaster (Moldasynt) and six on super hard stone (Fujirock). Six additional crowns were fabricated with the transversal screw retention system onto the Octa system with impression transfer caps, metal analogs, gold copings and screw-retained (D). Impregum was used as impression material. Crowns of B and C were cemented with KetacCem. Crowns of A and D were fixed with an occlusal screw torqued at 15 N cm. Crowns were embedded, cut and polished. Under a light microscope using a magnification of x 100, the distance between the crown margin (CM) and the shoulder (marginal gap, MG) and the distance between the CM and the end of the shoulder (crown length, CL) was measured. MGs were 15.4+/-13.2 microm (A), 21.2+/-23.1 microm (B), 11+/-12.1 microm (C) and 10.4+/-9.3 microm (D). No statistically significantly differences using either of the casting materials were observed. CLs were -21.3+/-24.8 microm (A), 3+/-28.9 microm (B), 0.5+/-22 microm (C) and 0.1+/-15.8 microm (D). Crowns were shorter on synthetic casting materials compared with stone casts (Pcemented and screw-retained versions as well as when using no, partial or full analogs.

  17. Fracture resistance of implant- supported monolithic crowns cemented to zirconia hybrid-abutments: zirconia-based crowns vs. lithium disilicate crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshiyab, Shareen H; Nawafleh, Noor; Öchsner, Andreas; George, Roy

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the fracture resistance under chewing simulation of implant-supported posterior restorations (crowns cemented to hybrid-abutments) made of different all-ceramic materials. Monolithic zirconia (MZr) and monolithic lithium disilicate (MLD) crowns for mandibular first molar were fabricated using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing technology and then cemented to zirconia hybrid-abutments (Ti-based). Each group was divided into two subgroups (n=10): (A) control group, crowns were subjected to single load to fracture; (B) test group, crowns underwent chewing simulation using multiple loads for 1.2 million cycles at 1.2 Hz with simultaneous thermocycling between 5℃ and 55℃. Data was statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and a Post-Hoc test. All tested crowns survived chewing simulation resulting in 100% survival rate. However, wear facets were observed on all the crowns at the occlusal contact point. Fracture load of monolithic lithium disilicate crowns was statistically significantly lower than that of monolithic zirconia crowns. Also, fracture load was significantly reduced in both of the all-ceramic materials after exposure to chewing simulation and thermocycling. Crowns of all test groups exhibited cohesive fracture within the monolithic crown structure only, and no abutment fractures or screw loosening were observed. When supported by implants, monolithic zirconia restorations cemented to hybrid abutments withstand masticatory forces. Also, fatigue loading accompanied by simultaneous thermocycling significantly reduces the strength of both of the all-ceramic materials. Moreover, further research is needed to define potentials, limits, and long-term serviceability of the materials and hybrid abutments.

  18. Fracture strength of zirconia implant abutments on narrow diameter implants with internal and external implant abutment connections: A study on the titanium resin base concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailer, Irena; Asgeirsson, Asgeir G; Thoma, Daniel S; Fehmer, Vincent; Aspelund, Thor; Özcan, Mutlu; Pjetursson, Bjarni E

    2018-03-11

    There is limited knowledge regarding the strength of zirconia abutments with internal and external implant abutment connections and zirconia abutments supported by a titanium resin base (Variobase, Straumann) for narrow diameter implants. To compare the fracture strength of narrow diameter abutments with different types of implant abutment connections after chewing simulation. Hundred and twenty identical customized abutments with different materials and implant abutment connections were fabricated for five groups: 1-piece zirconia abutment with internal connection (T1, Cares-abutment-Straumann BL-NC implant, Straumann Switzerland), 1-piece zirconia abutment with external hex connection (T2, Procera abutment-Branemark NP implant, Nobel Biocare, Sweden), 2-piece zirconia abutments with metallic insert for internal connection (T3, Procera abutment-Replace NP implant, Nobel Biocare), 2-piece zirconia abutment on titanium resin base (T4, LavaPlus abutment-VarioBase-Straumann BL-NC implant, 3M ESPE, Germany) and 1-piece titanium abutment with internal connection (C, Cares-abutment-Straumann BL-NC implant, Straumann, Switzerland). All implants had a narrow diameter ranging from 3.3 to 3.5 mm. Sixty un-restored abutments and 60 abutments restored with glass-ceramic crowns were tested. Mean bending moments were compared using ANOVA with p-values adjusted for multiple comparisons using Tukey's procedure. The mean bending moments were 521 ± 33 Ncm (T4), 404 ± 36 Ncm (C), 311 ± 106 Ncm (T1) 265 ± 22 Ncm (T3) and 225 ± 29 (T2) for un-restored abutments and 278 ± 84 Ncm (T4), 302 ± 170 Ncm (C), 190 ± 55 Ncm (T1) 80 ± 102 Ncm (T3) and 125 ± 57 (T2) for restored abutments. For un-restored abutments, C and T4 had similar mean bending moments, significantly higher than those of the three other groups (p < .05). Titanium abutments (C) had significantly higher bending moments than identical zirconia abutments (T1) (p < .05). Zirconia

  19. Periodontal Conditions of Abutments and Non-Abutments in Removable Partial Dentures over 7 Years of Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonte Porto Carreiro, Adriana; de Carvalho Dias, Kássia; Correia Lopes, Ana Lílian; Bastos Machado Resende, Camila Maria; Luz de Aquino Martins, Ana Rafaela

    2017-12-01

    To evaluate the periodontal conditions and integrity of abutment and non-abutment teeth of patients evaluated 7 years after insertion of the removable partial denture (RPD). Twenty-two patients (17 women, 5 men) were assessed at the moment of denture insertion and 7 years later. The following items were verified in each assessment: bleeding on probing (BP), probing depth (PD), gingival recession (GR), and mobility (M), comparing direct and indirect abutment teeth, and the teeth not involved in the denture design. Tooth integrity was also evaluated and classified as intact when no caries or fractures were observed. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to reveal statistical significance between the groups (p = 0.05) as well as the Bonferrroni-corrected Mann-Whitney test for post hoc comparison. The Wilcoxon test was used for evaluation within the group over time. Fisher's exact test was applied to cross data about abutment integrity. Statistically significant differences were found for GR (baseline, p < 0.001; 7 years, p < 0.001) and PD (baseline, p = 0.001; 7 years = 0.004) between the three groups at baseline and after 7 years of follow-up. Mean BP and M values increased from initial assessment to after 7 years of RPD use in every group, but no statistically significant difference was found between the groups. For abutment integrity, a statistically significant difference (p = 0.028) was observed, and the direct abutment exhibited more (33.3%) caries and fractures. RPDs generated more periodontal damage to direct abutments, since higher gingival recession probing depth indexes, and presence of caries and fractures were observed in comparison to indirect abutments and non-abutments. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  20. Effect of microthread presence and restoration design (screw versus cemented) in dental implant reliability and failure modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Erika O; Freitas Júnior, Amilcar C; Bonfante, Estevam A; Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Silva, Nelson R F A; Coelho, Paulo G

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the reliability and failure modes of implants with a microthreaded or smooth design at the crestal region, restored with screwed or cemented crowns. The postulated null hypothesis was that the presence of microthreads in the implant cervical region would not result in different reliability and strength to failure than smooth design, regardless of fixation method, when subjected to step-stress accelerated life-testing (SSALT) in water. Eighty four dental implants (3.3 × 10 mm) were divided into four groups (n = 21) according to implant macrogeometric design at the crestal region and crown fixation method: Microthreads Screwed (MS); Smooth Screwed (SS); Microthreads Cemented (MC), and Smooth Cemented (SC). The abutments were torqued to the implants and standardized maxillary central incisor metallic crowns were cemented (MC, SC) or screwed (MS, SS) and subjected to SSALT in water. The probability of failure versus cycles (90% two-sided confidence intervals) was calculated and plotted using a power law relationship for damage accumulation. Reliability for a mission of 50,000 cycles at 150 N (90% 2-sided confidence intervals) was calculated. Differences between final failure loads during fatigue for each group were assessed by Kruskal-Wallis along with Benferroni's post hoc tests. Polarized-light and scanning electron microscopes were used for failure analyses. The Beta (β) value (confidence interval range) derived from use level probability Weibull calculation of 1.30 (0.76-2.22), 1.17 (0.70-1.96), 1.12 (0.71-1.76), and 0.52 (0.30-0.89) for groups MC, SC, MS, and SS respectively, indicated that fatigue was an accelerating factor for all groups, except for SS. The calculated reliability was higher for SC (99%) compared to MC (87%). No difference was observed between screwed restorations (MS - 29%, SS - 43%). Failure involved abutment screw fracture for all groups. The cemented groups (MC, SC) presented more abutment and implant fractures

  1. Integral bridge abutment-to-approach slab connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-01

    The Iowa Department of Transportation has long recognized that approach slab pavements of integral abutment bridges are prone to settlement and cracking, which manifests as the "bump at the end of the bridge". A commonly recommended solution is to in...

  2. Deterioration of J-bar reinforcement in abutments and piers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-31

    Deterioration and necking of J-bars has been reportedly observed at the interface of the footing and stem wall during the demolition : of older retaining walls and bridge abutments. Similar deterioration has been reportedly observed between the pier ...

  3. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment bridges, a type of jointless bridge, are the construction option of choice when designing highway bridges in many parts of the country. Rather than providing an expansion joint to separate the substructure from the superstructure to...

  4. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical : highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To : expand ...

  5. Prosthetic abutment influences bone biomechanical behavior of immediately loaded implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana de Villa CAMARGOS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the type of prosthetic abutment associated to different implant connection on bone biomechanical behavior of immediately and delayed loaded implants. Computed tomography-based finite element models comprising a mandible with a single molar implant were created with different types of prosthetic abutment (UCLA or conical, implant connection (external hexagon, EH or internal hexagon, IH, and occlusal loading (axial or oblique, for both immediately and delayed loaded implants. Analysis of variance at 95%CI was used to evaluate the peak maximum principal stress and strain in bone after applying a 100 N occlusal load. The results showed that the type of prosthetic abutment influences bone stress/strain in only immediately loaded implants. Attachment of conical abutments to IH implants exhibited the best biomechanical behavior, with optimal distribution and dissipation of the load in peri-implant bone.

  6. Automated Erosion System to Protect Highway Bridge Crossings at Abutments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    A new instrument (Photo-Electronic Erosion Pin, or PEEP) was examined in collecting field data and remotely monitoring bank erosion near bridge abutments during floods. The performance of PEEPs was evaluated through a detailed field study to determin...

  7. Mechanical testing of thin-walled zirconia abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi CANULLO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the use of zirconia abutments for implant-supported restorations has gained momentum with the increasing demand for esthetics, little informed design rationale has been developed to characterize their fatigue behavior under different clinical scenarios. However, to prevent the zirconia from fracturing, the use of a titanium connection in bi-component aesthetic abutments has been suggested. Objective Mechanical testing of customized thin-walled titanium-zirconia abutments at the connection with the implant was performed in order to characterize the fatigue behavior and the failure modes for straight and angled abutments. Material and Methods Twenty custom-made bi-component abutments were tested according to ISO 14801:2007 either at a straight or a 25° angle inclination (n=10 each group. Fatigue was conducted at 15 Hz for 5 million cycles in dry conditions at 20°C±5°C. Mean values and standard deviations were calculated for each group. All comparisons were performed by t-tests assuming unequal variances. The level of statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Failed samples were inspected in a polarized-light and then in a scanning electron microscope. Results Straight and angled abutments mean maximum load was 296.7 N and 1,145 N, the dynamic loading mean Fmax was 237.4 N and 240.7 N, respectively. No significant differences resulted between the straight and angled bi-component abutments in both static (p=0.253 and dynamic testing (p=0.135. A significant difference in the bending moment required for fracture was detected between the groups (p=0.01. Fractures in the angled group occurred mainly at the point of load application, whereas in the straight abutments, fractures were located coronally and close to the thinly designed areas at the cervical region. Conclusion Angled or straight thin-walled zirconia abutments presented similar Fmax under fatigue testing despite the different bending moments required for fracture. The main

  8. Using Ultrasound to Prevent Screw Penetration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balfour, George W

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasound is a readily available, inexpensive, easy-to-use, and rapid diagnostic tool. Physicians can use ultrasound to identify excessively long screws or screw penetration into joints. This article illustrates ultrasound identification of problem screws. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Accuracy combining different brands of implants and abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá-Ruíz, María-Fernanda; Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo; Senent-Vicente, Gisela; González-de-Cossio, Inés; Amigó-Borrás, Vicente

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the vertical misfit between different brands of dental implants and prosthetic abutments, with or without mechanical torque, and to study their possible combination. Five different brands of implant were used in the study: Biofit (Castemaggiore, Italy), Bioner S.A. (Barcelona, Spain), 3i Biomet (Palm Beach, U.S.A.), BTI (Alava, Spain) and Nobel Biocare (Göteborg, Sweden), with standard 4.1 mm heads and external hexagons, and their respective machined prosthetic abutments. The implant-to-abutment fit/misfit was evaluated at four points (vestibular, lingual/palatine, mesial and distal) between implants and abutments of the same brand and different brands, with or without mechanical torque, using SEM micrographs at 5000X. Image analysis was performed using NIS-Elements software (Nikon Instruments Europe B.V.). Before applying torque, vertical misfit (microgaps) of the different combinations tested varied between 1.6 and 5.4 microns and after applying torque, between 0.9 and 5.9 microns, an overall average of 3.46 ± 2.96 microns. For manual assembly without the use of mechanical torque, the best results were obtained with the combination of the 3i implant and the BTI abutment. The Nobel implant and Nobel abutment, 3i-3i and BTI-BTI and the combination of 3i implant with BTI or Nobel abutment provided the best vertical fit when mechanical torque was applied. The vertical fits obtained were within the limits considered clinically acceptable. The application of mechanical torque improved outcomes. There is compatibility between implants and abutments of different brand and so their combination is a clinical possibility.

  10. Creep and shrinkage effects on integral abutment bridges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuswamy, Sivakumar

    Integral abutment bridges provide bridge engineers an economical design alternative to traditional bridges with expansion joints owing to the benefits, arising from elimination of expensive joints installation and reduced maintenance cost. The superstructure for integral abutment bridges is cast integrally with abutments. Time-dependent effects of creep, shrinkage of concrete, relaxation of prestressing steel, temperature gradient, restraints provided by abutment foundation and backfill and statical indeterminacy of the structure introduce time-dependent variations in the redundant forces. An analytical model and numerical procedure to predict instantaneous linear behavior and non-linear time dependent long-term behavior of continuous composite superstructure are developed in which the redundant forces in the integral abutment bridges are derived considering the time-dependent effects. The redistributions of moments due to time-dependent effects have been considered in the analysis. The analysis includes nonlinearity due to cracking of the concrete, as well as the time-dependent deformations. American Concrete Institute (ACI) and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) models for creep and shrinkage are considered in modeling the time dependent material behavior. The variations in the material property of the cross-section corresponding to the constituent materials are incorporated and age-adjusted effective modulus method with relaxation procedure is followed to include the creep behavior of concrete. The partial restraint provided by the abutment-pile-soil system is modeled using discrete spring stiffness as translational and rotational degrees of freedom. Numerical simulation of the behavior is carried out on continuous composite integral abutment bridges and the deformations and stresses due to time-dependent effects due to typical sustained loads are computed. The results from the analytical model are compared with the

  11. Displacement of screw-retained single crowns into implants with conical internal connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Burak; Seidt, Jeremy D; McGlumphy, Edwin A; Clelland, Nancy L

    2013-01-01

    Internal conical implant-abutment connections without platforms may lead to axial displacement of crowns during screw tightening. This displacement may affect proximal contacts, incisal edge position, or occlusion. This study aimed to measure the displacement of screw-retained single crowns into an implant in three dimensions during screw tightening by hand or via torque driver. A stereolithic acrylic resin cast was created using computed tomography data from a patient missing the maxillary right central incisor. A 4.0- × 11-mm implant was placed in the edentulous site. Five porcelain-fused-to-metal single crowns were made using "cast-to" abutments. Crowns were tried on the stereolithic model, representing the patient, and hand tightened. The spatial relationship of crowns to the model after hand tightening was determined using three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D DIC), an optical measurement technique. The crowns were then tightened using a torque driver to 20 Ncm and the relative crown positions were again recorded. Testing was repeated three times for each crown, and displacement of the crowns was compared between the hand-tightened and torqued states. Commercial image correlation software was used to analyze the data. Mean vertical and horizontal crown displacement values were calculated after torqueing. The interproximal contacts were evaluated before and after torquing using an 8-μm aluminum foil shim. There were vertical and horizontal differences in crown positions between hand tightening and torqueing. Although these were small in magnitude, detectable displacements occurred in both apical and facial directions. After hand tightening, the 8-μm shim could be dragged without tearing. However, after torque tightening, the interproximal contacts were too tight and the 8-μm shim could not be dragged without tearing. Differences between hand tightening and torque tightening should be taken into consideration during laboratory and clinical

  12. THE USE OF A CODED HEALING ABUTMENT AS AN IMPRESSION COPING TO DESIGN AND MILL AN INDIVIDUALIZED ANATOMIC ABUTMENT : A CLINICAL REPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Telleman, Gerdien; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    A coded implant healing abutment makes an impression at the implant level no longer necessary. An impression is made of the healing abutment, which is placed onto the implant directly after implant placement. The codes embedded in the occlusal surface of the healing abutment provide essential

  13. The influence of removable partial dentures on the periodontal health of abutment and non-abutment teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dula, Linda J; Shala, Kujtim Sh; Pustina-Krasniqi, Teuta; Bicaj, Teuta; Ahmedi, Enis F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of removable partial dentures (RPD) on the periodontal health of abutment and non-abutment teeth. A total 107 patients with RPD participated in this study. It was examined 138 RPD, they were 87 with clasp-retained and 51 were RPD with attachments. The following periodontal parameters were evaluated for abutment and non-abutment teeth, plaque index (PLI), calculus index (CI), bleeding on probing (BOP), probing depth (PD) (mm) and tooth mobility (TM) index. These clinical measurements were taken immediately before insertion the RPD, then one and 3 months after insertion. The level of significance was set at (P 0.05). With carefully planned prosthetic treatment and adequate maintenance of the oral and denture hygiene, we can prevent the periodontal diseases.

  14. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges : appendix E, INDOT design manual : selected recommendations for integral abutment bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To expand thei...

  15. Simple New Screw Insertion Technique without Extraction for Broken Pedicle Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jin-Sang; Park, Jong-Tae

    2018-05-01

    Spinal transpedicular screw fixation is widely performed. Broken pedicle screw rates range from 3%-7.1%. Several techniques have been described for extraction of broken pedicle screws. However, most of these techniques require special instruments. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. No special instruments or drilling in an adjacent pedicle are required. We used a high-speed air drill with a round burr. With C-arm fluoroscopy guidance, the distal fragment of a broken pedicle screw was palpated using free-hand technique through the screw entry hole. A high-speed air drill with a round burr (not a diamond burr) was inserted through the hole. Drilling began slowly and continued until enough space was obtained for new screw insertion. Using this space, we performed new pedicle screw fixation medially alongside the distal fragment of the broken pedicle screw. We performed the insertion with a previously used entry hole and pathway in the pedicle. The same size pedicle screw was used. Three patients were treated with this modified technique. New screw insertion was successful in all cases after partial drilling of the distal broken pedicle screw fragment. There were no complications, such as screw loosening, dural tears, or root injury. We describe a simple, modified technique for management of broken pedicle screws without extraction. This technique is recommended in patients who require insertion of a new screw. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Non-Radiological Method for Fabrication of a Screw-Channel Drilling Guide in Cement-Retained Implant Restorations Using Intraoral Digital Scanning and Imaging Superimposition: A Clinical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Hang-Nga; Kim, Kyung-Rok; Lee, Du-Hyeong

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of retrieving the abutment screw is a major disadvantage of cement-retained implant restorations. Conventional methods for locating the screw-access hole are based largely on radiography or manual labor, which limits accuracy and clinical feasibility. This clinical report describes a non-radiological method for fabricating an accurate drilling guide for location of the screw channel using intraoral optical scanning, 3D superimposition, and computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technologies. The present technique not only improves the guide fabrication process and the accuracy of screw-channel drilling, but also has wide indications for implant restorations. © 2016 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Association Between Implant-Abutment Microgap and Implant Circularity to Bacterial Leakage: An In Vitro Study Using Tapered Connection Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes de Chaves E Mello Dias, Eduardo Cláudio; Sperandio, Marcelo; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique

    2017-09-22

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the microgap between the abutment and implant as well as the circularity of implant platforms and associating conformational errors with bacterial microleakage in tapered connection implant systems. Four brands of implants with a tapered abutment connection were tested. Bacterial leakage was assessed using 0.3 μL of Escherichia coli suspension inoculated into the abutment screw chamber of the implants, which were then torqued and incubated at 37°C for 14 days. All specimens used for the microbiologic experiment were then cut lengthwise, and the microgap was measured at three points on each side of the sample using scanning electron microscopy (up to 5,000× magnification). Microtomography was used to assess implant platform circularity to validate the microscopic findings qualitatively. Two samples from the Nobel Biocare system, four from the Ankylos (Dentsply) system, four from the Neodent (Straumann) system, and five from the Conexão system were positive for bacterial leakage, with no significant difference between groups. The Neodent system had the highest mean microgap values (5.84 ± 9.83 μm), followed by the Nobel Biocare systems (5.17 ± 4.10 μm), Ankylos (3.47 ± 3.28 μm), and Conexão (2.72 ± 3.19 μm), with no significant difference between systems. All systems showed conformational errors of circularity on microtomography images. The tapered connection systems evaluated herein were not able to halt bacterial leakage, nor were they free from conformational errors.

  18. The Effect of Compressive Cyclic Loading on the Retention of Cast Single Crowns Cemented to Implant Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Arenal, Angel; Gonzalez-Gonzalez, Ignacio; Pinés-Hueso, Javier; deLlanos-Lanchares, Hector; del Rio Highsmith, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the retention strength of three cements commonly used in implant-supported prostheses before and after compressive cyclic loading. The working model consisted of five solid abutments, 7 mm in height and with a 6-degree taper, screw retained to five implant analogs secured in a rectangular block of self-curing acrylic. On the abutments, 30 metal Cr-Ni alloy copings were cemented using three luting agents: glass ionomer, resin urethane-based, and compomer cement (n = 10). Two tensile tests were conducted with a universal testing machine, before and after 100,000 cycles of 100 N and 0.72 Hz compressive cyclic loading in a humid environment. Before applying the compressive load, the retention strength of the resin urethane-based cement was slightly higher than that of the compomer cement and 75% greater than the glass-ionomer cement. After compressive loading, the resin urethane-based cement showed the highest percentage of loss of retention (64.45%, compared with 50% for glass-ionomer and compomer cement). However, the glass-ionomer cement showed the lowest mean retentive strength with 50.35 N as opposed to 75.12 N for the compomer cement and 71.25 N for the resin urethane-based. Compressive cyclic loading significantly influences the retention strength of the luting agents tested. All three cements may favor the retrievability of the crowns.

  19. Metallurgical examination of gun barrel screws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, E.L.; Clift, T.L.

    1996-06-01

    The examination was conducted to determine the extent of degradation that had occurred after a series of firings; these screws prevent live rounds of ammunition from being loaded into the firing chamber. One concern is that if the screw tip fails and a live round is accidentally loaded into the chamber, a live round could be fired. Another concern is that if the blunt end of the screw begins to degrade by cracking, pieces could become small projectiles during firing. All screws used in firing 100 rounds or more exhibited some degree degradation, which progressively worsened as the number of rounds fired increased. (SEM, metallography, x-ray analysis, and microhardness were used.) Presence of cracks in these screws after 100 fired rounds is a serious concern that warrants the discontinued use of these screws. The screw could be improved by selecting an alloy more resistant to thermal and chemical degradation.

  20. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerino Paolantoni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces; in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece. Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  1. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Guerino; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Mignogna, Jolanda; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces); in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece). Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results. PMID:27027093

  2. Findings of a Four-Year Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing Two-Piece and One-Piece Zirconia Abutments Supporting Single Prosthetic Restorations in Maxillary Anterior Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolantoni, Guerino; Marenzi, Gaetano; Blasi, Andrea; Mignogna, Jolanda; Sammartino, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized controlled study is to investigate the clinical results obtained over four years and incidence of complications associated with one- versus two-piece custom made zirconia anchorages, in single tooth implant-supported restorations of the maxillary anterior region. Sixty-five patients, with a total of 74 missing maxillary teeth, were selected in the period from February 2007 to July 2010. Two different ways of custom made zirconia abutment and final prosthetic restoration were evaluated: a standard zirconia abutment associated with a pressed layer of lithium disilicate with an all-ceramic cemented restoration versus one-piece restoration with the facing porcelain fired and pressed straight to the custom made zirconia abutment. In 29 cases, the restoration consisted of an all-ceramic restoration for cementation (two pieces); in 45 cases the restoration was a screw-retained restoration (one piece). Three all-ceramic restorations broke during the observation time. Two one-piece restorations fractured after 26 months. At follow-up examination there were no significant differences between one-piece and two-piece groups regarding the PI, BI, and MBL. Awaiting studies with longer follow-up times, a careful conclusion is that zirconia anchorages for single-implant restorations seem to demonstrate good short-term technical and biological results.

  3. Microleakage at the Different Implant Abutment Interface: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Presence of gap at the implant-abutment interface, leads to microleakage and accumulation of bacteria which can affect the success of dental implants. Aim To evaluate the sealing capability of different implant connections against microleakage. Materials and Methods In January 2017 an electronic search of literature was performed, in Medline, EBSCO host and Pubmed data base. The search was focused on ability of different implant connections in preventing microleakage. The related titles and abstracts available in English were screened, and the articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria were selected for full text reading. Results In this systematic review, literature search initially resulted in 78 articles among which 30 articles only fulfilled the criteria for inclusion and were finally included in the review. Almost all the studies showed that there was some amount of microleakage at abutment implant interface. Microleakage was very less in Morse taper implants in comparison to other implant connections. Majority of studies showed less microleakage in static loading conditions and microleakage increases in dynamic loading conditions. Conclusion In this systematic review maximum studies showed that there was some amount of microleakage at abutment implant interface. External hexagon implants failed completely to prevent microleakage in both static and dynamic loading conditions of implants. Internal hexagon implants mainly internal conical (Morse taper) implants are very promising in case of static loading and also showed less microleakage in dynamic loading conditions. Torque recommended by manufacturer should be followed strictly to get a better seal at abutment implant interface. Zirconia abutments are more to microleakage than Titanium abutments and there use should be discouraged. Zirconia abutments should be only restricted to cases where there was very high demand of aesthetics. PMID:28764310

  4. Spectrophotometric analysis of fluorescent zirconia abutments compared to "conventional" zirconia abutments: A within subject controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Gamper, Felix B; Sapata, Vítor M; Voce, Giuseppe; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2017-08-01

    Zirconia abutments are frequently used for implant-supported single crowns. Even though demonstrating esthetic benefits compared to metal abutments, zirconia abutments lead to an increased brightness of the peri-implant mucosa compared to natural teeth and are not ideal from an esthetic point of view. To test whether or not a fluorescent hybrid zirconia abutment offers superior esthetics compared to a non-fluorescent one-piece zirconia abutment based on spectrophotometric analysis. In 24 patients with 24 single-tooth implants, 2 types of reconstructions were fabricated: a directly veneered one-piece zirconia abutment/crown (control) and a directly veneered fluorescent hybrid zirconia abutment/crown (test). Spectrophotometric assessment was performed: prior to abutment insertion (WA), at abutment try-in (A), at the try-in of the final crowns (C). Color differences (ΔE) were assessed compared to the gingiva of natural teeth (T) and between the reconstructions. At abutment try-in, ΔE values were 8.49 ± 3.59 for A Control and 8.27 ± 4.03 for A Test compared to T. At crown insertion, ΔE values were 7.61 ± 4.03 for C Control and 8.32 ± 3.57 for C Test compared to T. The difference in ΔE values between A Control and A Test was 0.23 ± 2.54 (P = .37), whereas the difference in ΔE values between C Control and C Test was -0.66 ±3.45 (P = .48). For all cases with a mucosal thickness ≤2 mm, the comparison between C Control and C Test was significant in favor of the control group (P = .03). Both types of reconstructions were similar in terms of esthetics. Incases with a mucosal thickness of compared to the natural gingiva was more pronounced for the fluorescent hybrid zirconia reconstructions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Biomechanical Comparison of Inter-fragmentary Compression Pressures: Lag Screw versus Herbert Screw for Anterior Odontoid Screw Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Tae; Sung, Joo-Kyung; Park, Seong-Hyun; Seong, Ki-Woong; Cho, Dae-Chul

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare inter-fragmentary compression pressures after fixation of a simulated type II odontoid fracture with the headless compression Herbert screw and a half threaded cannulated lag screw. We compared inter-fragmentary compression pressures between 40- and 45-mm long 4.5-mm Herbert screws (n=8 and n=9, respectively) and 40- and 45-mm long 4.0-mm cannulated lag screws (n=7 and n=10, respectively) after insertion into rigid polyurethane foam test blocks (Sawbones, Vashon, WA, USA). A washer load cell was placed between the two segments of test blocks to measure the compression force. Because the total length of each foam block was 42 mm, the 40-mm screws were embedded in the cancellous foam, while the 45-mm screws penetrated the denser cortical foam at the bottom. This enabled us to compare inter-fragmentary compression pressures as they are affected by the penetration of the apical dens tip by the screws. The mean compression pressures of the 40- and 45-mm long cannulated lag screws were 50.48±1.20 N and 53.88±1.02 N, respectively, which was not statistically significant (p=0.0551). The mean compression pressures of the 40-mm long Herbert screw was 52.82±2.17 N, and was not statistically significant compared with the 40-mm long cannulated lag screw (p=0.3679). However, 45-mm Herbert screw had significantly higher mean compression pressure (60.68±2.03 N) than both the 45-mm cannulated lag screw and the 40-mm Herbert screw (p=0.0049 and p=0.0246, respectively). Our results showed that inter-fragmentary compression pressures of the Herbert screw were significantly increased when the screw tip penetrated the opposite dens cortical foam. This can support the generally recommended surgical technique that, in order to facilitate maximal reduction of the fracture gap using anterior odontoid screws, it is essential to penetrate the apical dens tip with the screw.

  6. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Starch-Jensen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective was to test the hypothesis of no difference in implant treatment outcome after installation of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. Material and Methods: A MEDLINE (PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library search in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. No language or year of publication restriction was applied. Results: The search provided 298 titles. Three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included studies were characterized by low or moderate risk of bias. Survival of suprastructures has never been compared within the same study. High implant survival rate was reported in all the included studies. Significantly more peri-implant marginal bone loss, higher probing depth score, bleeding score and gingival score was observed around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection. There were no significant differences between the two treatment modalities regarding professional or patient-reported outcome measures. Meta-analysis disclosed a mean difference of peri-implant marginal bone loss of 1.56 mm (confidence interval: 0.87 to 2.25, indicating significant more bone loss around implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection. Conclusions: A scalloped implant-abutment connection seems to be associated with higher peri-implant marginal bone loss compared to a flat implant-abutment connection. Therefore, the hypothesis of the present systematic review must be rejected. However, further long-term randomized controlled trials assessing implant treatment outcome with the two treatment modalities are needed before definite conclusions can be provided about the beneficial use of implants with a scalloped implant-abutment connection on preservation of the peri-implant marginal bone level.

  7. Fatigue induced changes in conical implant-abutment connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Kai; Wiest, Wolfram; Fella, Christian; Balles, Andreas; Dittmann, Jonas; Rack, Alexander; Maier, Dominik; Thomann, Ralf; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Kohal, Ralf Joachim; Zabler, Simon; Nelson, Katja

    2015-11-01

    Based on the current lack of data and understanding of the wear behavior of dental two-piece implants, this study aims for evaluating the microgap formation and wear pattern of different implants in the course of cyclic loading. Several implant systems with different conical implant-abutment interfaces were purchased. The implants were first evaluated using synchrotron X-ray high-resolution radiography (SRX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The implant-abutment assemblies were then subjected to cyclic loading at 98N and their microgap was evaluated after 100,000, 200,000 and 1 million cycles using SRX, synchrotron micro-tomography (μCT). Wear mechanisms of the implant-abutment connection (IAC) after 200,000 cycles and 1 million cycles were further characterized using SEM. All implants exhibit a microgap between the implant and abutment prior to loading. The gap size increased with cyclic loading with its changes being significantly higher within the first 200,000 cycles. Wear was seen in all implants regardless of their interface design. The wear pattern comprised adhesive wear and fretting. Wear behavior changed when a different mounting medium was used (brass vs. polymer). A micromotion of the abutment during cyclic loading can induce wear and wear particles in conical dental implant systems. This feature accompanied with the formation of a microgap at the IAC is highly relevant for the longevity of the implants. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Abutment emergence modification for immediate implant provisional restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbaum, Todd R; Chang, Yi-Yuan; Klokkevold, Perry R; Snowden, John S

    2013-04-01

    In their stock form, some titanium provisional implant abutments are not ideally designed for use in immediate placement/immediate provisional restoration treatment. This is largely due to the apical flare design that applies excessive pressure to the peri-implant soft tissue complex and crestal bone. This appears to have the undesirable effect of increasing peri-implant bone resorption and severely impeding the potential for increases in gingival volume. This type of stock titanium abutment will therefore benefit significantly from recontouring. The subgingival portion of the abutment is recontoured from the flared stock shape to a straight or parallel design. This modification minimizes pressure on the surgical site and provides additional space around the subgingival portion of the provisional restoration, within which the gingiva has the potential to remodel and fill. This allows the potential formation of additional peri-implant gingival volume and a coronal maintenance or migration of the soft tissue complex. In order to minimize the "graying effect" of titanium abutments, the retentive portion is opaqued by the technician or clinician. These modifications will improve the potential outcomes for both the peri-implant gingiva and the provisional restoration. Narrowing the emergence profile of implant abutments for use in immediate implant provisional restorations appears to allow for creation of greater peri-implant volume. Thus resulting in increased esthetic potential and predictability of the peri-implant gingiva. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Helical screw expander evaluation project

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A one MW helical rotary screw expander power system for electric power generation from geothermal brine was evaluated. The technology explored in the testing is simple, potentially very efficient, and ideally suited to wellhead installations in moderate to high enthalpy, liquid dominated field. A functional one MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing, operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000 kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  10. The behavior of implant-supported dentures and abutments using the cemented cylinder technique with different resinous cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivete Aparecida de Mathias Sartori

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Evaluate the behavior of implant-supported dentures and their components, made by cemented cylinder technique, using threetypes of resin cements. Methods: Fifty three patients, of whom 26 were women and 27 men, aged between 25 and 82 years. Results: With partial (54.43% and total (45.57% implant-supported dentures, of the Cone Morse, external and internal hexagon types (Neodent®, Curitiba, Brazil, totaling 237 fixations, were analyzed. The resin cements used were Panavia® (21.94%, EnForce® (58.23% and Rely X® (19.83% and the components were used in accordance with the Laboratory Immediate Loading - Neodent® sequence. The period of time of denture use ranged between 1 and 5 years. The results reported that 5(2.1% cylinders were loosened from metal structure (both belonging to Rely X group, 2(0.48% implants were lost after the first year of use, 16(6.75% denture retention screws wereloosened and 31(13.08% abutment screws were unloosened.Conclusion: The reasons for these failures probably are: metal structure internal retention failure, occlusal pattern, cementation technique and loading conditions. The cemented cylinder technique was effective when used in partial and total implant-supported rehabilitations, keeping prosthetic components stable, despite the resin cement utilized. However, further clinical studies must be conducted.

  11. Soil-structure interaction studies for understanding the behavior of integral abutment bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Integral Abutment Bridges (IAB) are bridges without any joints within the bridge deck or between the : superstructure and the abutments. An IAB provides many advantages during construction and maintenance of : a bridge. Soil-structure interactions at...

  12. Wear at the Implant-Abutment Interface of Zirconia Abutments Manufactured by Three CAD/CAM Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro Tannure, Ana Luiza; Cunha, Alfredo Gonçalves; Borges Junior, Luiz Antônio; da Silva Concílio, Laís Regiane; Claro Neves, Ana Christina

    To evaluate the changes in the external-hexagon surface of the titanium (Ti) implant before and after mechanical cycling, when coupled with zirconia (Zr) abutments (A) manufactured by three computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) systems (Neodent Digital, Zirkonzahn, and AmannGirrbach) and the ZrTi abutment manufactured by Neodent. Four groups were formed (n = 6): titanium implant with Zr AmannGirrbach abutment (AZrAG), with Zr Zirkonzahn abutment (AZrZ), with Zr Neodent abutment (AZrN), and with Zr abutment with infrastructure in Ti Neodent (AZrTiN). Standardized abutments were made from three identical abutments milled in wax. Images of the surface of each side of the hexagons of the implant were obtained by scanning electron microscopy, before and after mechanical cycling, to evaluate the parameters: (1) scratches in the hexagon face; (2) hexagon superior shoulder kneading; (3) hexagon shoulder wear; (4) alterations on the hexagon base; and (5) scratches on the hexagon top. The abutments were coupled with the implants, and Cr-Co crowns were cemented. The implant/abutment/crown assemblies were submitted to mechanical cycling (400 N, 8.0 Hz) for 1 million cycles. The observed changes were classified as follows: absence (0), mild (1), moderate (2), and severe (3). The results were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and Dunn tests (P < .05). For parameter 1, a significant difference (P = .008) was observed between AZrZ and AZrAG, with more scratches in AZrZ; and between AZrN and AZrTiN (P = .006), with more scratches in AZrN. For parameter 2, a significant difference (P < .05) was observed between AZrZ and AZrAG and between AZrZ and AZrN, with greater kneading in AZrZ; among AZrN and AZrTiN, there was no significant difference (P = .103). For parameter 3, a significant difference (P < .05) was observed between AZrZ and the other groups of Zr, with more wear in AZrZ; between AZrN and AZrTiN, there was no significant difference (P

  13. Compression screw fixation of the syndesmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Husam H; Glisson, Richard R; DeOrio, James K

    2012-10-01

    Screw fixation of syndesmotic injuries facilitates ligament healing and restoration of ankle stability, but little information regarding screw performance is available. This study quantified the reduction obtained with three common 2-screw configurations using different methods of reduction and novel methods of subsequently provoking and measuring diastasis. Seven fresh-frozen lower extremities were subjected to 100 N medial and lateral tibia loads with the talus restrained. Tibia displacement, indicative of ankle clear space, was recorded. The syndesmosis and distal interosseous ligament were disrupted and measurements repeated. A pressure sensor was inserted into the syndesmosis and three 2-screw fixation methods were evaluated in each specimen: 3.5-mm screws engaging both fibula cortices and the lateral tibial cortex, inserted while using a clamp to achieve syndesmosis reduction; 3.5-mm lag screws engaging both tibia cortices; and 4.5-mm lag screws engaging both tibia cortices. One thousand 100 N medial and lateral loads were applied and clear space and syndesmosis compression were quantified every 100 cycles. Normal ankle clear space averaged 1.98 mm and increased to 3.02 mm after syndesmosis disruption. Fixation decreased the clear space to 1.36 mm, 1.22 mm, and 1.19 mm for the 3.5-mm tricortical, 3.5-mm lag, and 4.5-mm lag screws, respectively, remaining steady throughout cyclic loading. Syndesmosis compression dropped markedly from 61N to 23 N on clamp release after tricortical screw insertion. The 3.5-mm and 4.5-mm lag screws exerted 112 N and 131 N, respectively, after insertion, and maintained compression several-fold greater than the tricortical screws during cyclic loading. No difference was demonstrable between the two lag screw sizes. While all screw configurations successfully reduced ankle clear space, syndesmosis reduction was more effectively maintained by lag screws than by tricortical screws inserted with clamp reduction. The transient nature of

  14. The effect of repeated torque tightening on total lengths of implant abutments in different internal implant‒abutment connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Saleh Saber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Since the misfit of crown has an important role in clinical performance of implant-supported prostheses, and due to the impact of the settling effect on misfit, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of torque forces on the total lengths of narrow and short implant abutments in different internal implant‒abutment connections. Methods. In four different implant‒abutment connections, 8 analog implants with a normal diameter (4 mm and narrow abutment (4.5 mm were selected from groups of internal hex, internal octagon, morse hex 6° and morse hex 11°. Each of them was mounted within plaster type IV, and 32 samples were obtained. Then, the amount of vertical displacement was measured by closing the impression copings and applying torques of 20 25 and 30 Ncm. This stage was repeated for the abutment. In the next stage, the resin pattern was built and measurements were performed after applying the torques mentioned. Finally, after making the frame, this stage was repeated, and the settling effect was statistically analyzed with ANOVA. Results. In the stages of impression coping, resin pattern and final prosthesis, HEXAGONE had significantly the highest and OCTAGONE had the lowest rates of settling, and the settling of morse hex 11° and 6° was between them. Conclusion. Octagon implant had significantly the lowest settling in various clinical and laboratory stages by applying different torques.

  15. Temporal variation of clear-water scour at compound Abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Ab. Ghani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of actual abutments in rivers are built on foundation, while there is limited number of study available on the effects of the foundation on the local scour. In this study, temporal variation of local scour around compound abutment was investigated experimentally under clear-water conditions. The results showed that a suitable level of foundation is able to decrease the scour depth and increase scour time during the flood events. The trend of temporal scour depth at compound pier and abutment is similar. The scour depth develops to top of foundation quickly, and then the foundation postpones the scour development (lag–time. Duration of lag–time depends on the foundation level, velocity ratio (U/Uc and foundation dimension. This study highlights that proper design of foundation level increases duration of scouring and provides enough time to treat bridge foundation after the flood events.

  16. Immediate placement and provisionalization of single-tooth implants involving a definitive individual abutment: a clinical and radiographic retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlev, Jens; Kohberg, Peter; Ahlmann, Søren; Gotfredsen, Erik; Andersen, Niels Trolle; Isidor, Flemming; Schou, Søren

    2013-06-01

    To assess with a mean follow-up period of 33 months (median: 31 month, range: 11-89 month) the treatment outcome after immediate placement and provisionalization of single-tooth oral implants involving a definitive individual abutment and a provisional crown followed by later placement of a definitive crown. 68 patients with 68 single-tooth implants in the esthetic zone were consecutively treated; 55 of these patients were included in the study. The treatment involved tooth extraction, implant placement, placement of a definitive individual abutment, and a provisional crown in the same visit in private practice. The definitive crown was placed after a mean period of 7 months. The primary outcome measures included implant survival, definitive implant crown survival, and overall treatment survival. The secondary outcome measures included probing depth, bleeding on probing, peri-implant marginal bone level, marginal bone level of the neighboring tooth surfaces, biological complications, and technical complications. Of the inserted implants 98% survived and of the definitive crowns mounted a survival of 100% was observed. Consequently, the overall treatment survival was 98%. The mean probing depth was 2.9 mm at implant level and 63% of the implants were characterized by no bleeding on probing. The mean peri-implant marginal bone level was 2 mm. A significant mean peri-implant marginal bone level gain of 0.5 mm was observed from implant placement to the follow-up (95% CI: 0.07-0.89 mm, P = 0.022). No significant changes of the marginal bone level at the neighboring tooth surfaces were seen. Four episodes of peri-implant inflammation were identified in three patients, while 46 incidents of loosening of the provisional crown occurred in 33 patients. One abutment screw loosened before placement of the definitive crown. Finally, loosening of four definitive crowns occurred in four patients. Immediate placement and provisionalization of single-tooth oral implants

  17. Effect of screw access hole preparation on fracture load of implant-supported zirconia-based crowns: an in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Mokhtarpour

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fracture load of implant-supported restorations is an important factor in clinical success. This study evaluated the effect of two techniques for screw access hole preparation on the fracture load of cement-screw-retained implant-supported zirconia-based crowns. Methods. Thirty similar cement-screw-retained implant-supported zirconia-based maxillary central incisor crowns were evaluated in three groups of 10. Group NH: with no screw access holes for the control; Group HBS: with screw access holes prepared with a machine before zirconia sintering; Group HAS: with screw access holes prepared manually after zirconia sintering. In group HBS, the access holes were virtually designed and prepared by a computer-assisted design/computer-assisted manufacturing system. In group HAS, the access holes were manually prepared after zirconia sintering using a diamond bur. The dimensions of the screw access holes were equal in both groups. The crowns were cemented onto same-size abutments and were then subjected to thermocycling. The fracture load values of the crowns were measured using a universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Tukey test (P < 0.05. Results. The mean fracture load value for the group NH was 888.37 ± 228.92 N, which was the highest among the groups, with a significant difference (P < 0.0001. The fracture load values were 610.48 ± 125.02 N and 496.74 ± 104.10 Nin the HBS and HAS groups, respectively, with no significant differences (P = 0.44. Conclusion. Both techniques used for preparation of screw access holes in implant-supported zirconia-based crowns de-creased the fracture load.

  18. Assessment of different screw augmentation techniques and screw designs in osteoporotic spines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavanne, A.; Spitaler, R.; Kropik, K.; Aigner, N.; Ogon, M.; Redl, H.

    2008-01-01

    This is an experimental study on human cadaver spines. The objective of this study is to compare the pullout forces between three screw augmentation methods and two different screw designs. Surgical interventions of patients with osteoporosis increase following the epidemiological development. Biomechanically the pedicle provides the strongest screw fixation in healthy bone, whereas in osteoporosis all areas of the vertebra are affected by the disease. This explains the high screw failure rates in those patients. Therefore PMMA augmentation of screws is often mandatory. This study involved investigation of the pullout forces of augmented transpedicular screws in five human lumbar spines (L1–L4). Each spine was treated with four different methods: non-augmented unperforated (solid) screw, perforated screw with vertebroplasty augmentation, solid screw with vertebroplasty augmentation and solid screw with balloon kyphoplasty augmentation. Screws were augmented with Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA). The pullout forces were measured for each treatment with an Instron testing device. The bone mineral density was measured for each vertebra with Micro-CT. The statistical analysis was performed with a two-sided independent student t test. Forty screws (10 per group and level) were inserted. The vertebroplasty-augmented screws showed a significant higher pullout force (mean 918.5 N, P = 0.001) than control (mean 51 N), the balloon kyphoplasty group did not improve the pullout force significantly (mean 781 N, P > 0.05). However, leakage occurred in some cases treated with perforated screws. All spines showed osteoporosis on Micro-CT. Vertebroplasty-augmented screws, augmentation of perforated screws and balloon kyphoplasty augmented screws show higher pullout resistance than non-augmented screws. Significant higher pullout forces were only reached in the vertebroplasty augmented vertebra. The perforated screw design led to epidural leakage due to the position of the

  19. Optimal trajectory for the atlantooccipital transarticular screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Min; Yeom, Jin S; Lee, Joon Oh; Buchowski, Jacob M; Park, Kun-Woo; Chang, Bong-Soon; Lee, Choon-Ki; Riew, K Daniel

    2010-07-15

    Radiologic evaluation of computed tomography (CT) scans using screw insertion simulation software. To investigate the optimal entry point and trajectory of atlantooccipital transarticular screws. To our knowledge, no large series focusing on the placement of atlantooccipital transarticular screws have been published. We used 1.0-mm sliced CT scans and 3-dimensional screw trajectory software to simulate 4.0-mm screw placement. Four entry points were evaluated. Screw placement success rate, safe range of medial angulation, and screw length using each entry point were determined. CT scans of 126 patients were evaluated, for a total of 252 screws for each entry point. On simulation, the 2 lateral entry points showed significantly higher success rates and safe range of medial angulation than the 2 middle points. The 2 lateral entry points had similar success rates (98.0% for anteriolateral (AL) point and 97.6% for posteriolateral (PL) point). Although the safe range of medial angulation was significantly wider for the AL point (26.1 degrees) than for the PL point (23.7 degrees), the screw lengths were significantly longer for the PL point (32.6 mm) than for the AL point (29.4 mm). For both points, 30 degrees of medial angulation led to highest rate of successful screw placement, but the rate was only 79.4% and 80.2%, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in success rates between AL and PL points, PL is likely the best entry point. Although 30 degrees medial and approximately 5 degrees upward angulation led to the highest rate of successful screw placement, the rate was only around 80%. Given the wide individual variation, we recommend that a preoperative 3-dimensional CT scan be obtained when attempting atlantooccipital transarticular screw fixation.

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of Latarjet Screw Fixation: Comparison of Screw Types and Fixation Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jason J; Hamamoto, Jason T; Leroux, Timothy S; Saccomanno, Maristella F; Jain, Akshay; Khair, Mahmoud M; Mellano, Christen R; Shewman, Elizabeth F; Nicholson, Gregory P; Romeo, Anthony A; Cole, Brian J; Verma, Nikhil N

    2017-09-01

    To compare the initial fixation stability, failure strength, and mode of failure of 5 different screw types and fixation methods commonly used for the classic Latarjet procedure. Thirty-five fresh-frozen cadaveric shoulder specimens were allocated into 5 groups. A 25% anteroinferior glenoid defect was created, and a classic Latarjet coracoid transfer procedure was performed. All grafts were fixed with 2 screws, differing by screw type and/or fixation method. The groups included partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded solid 4.0-mm cancellous screws with unicortical fixation, fully threaded solid 3.5-mm cortical screws with bicortical fixation, partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm cancellous screws with bicortical fixation, and partially threaded cannulated 4.0-mm captured screws with bicortical fixation. All screws were stainless steel. Outcomes included cyclic creep and secant stiffness during cyclic loading, as well as load and work to failure during the failure test. Intergroup comparisons were made by a 1-way analysis of variance. There were no significant differences among different screw types or fixation methods in cyclic creep or secant stiffness after cyclic loading or in load to failure or work to failure during the failure test. Post-failure radiographs showed evidence of screw bending in only 1 specimen that underwent the Latarjet procedure with partially threaded solid cancellous screws with bicortical fixation. The mode of failure for all specimens analyzed was screw cutout. In this biomechanical study, screw type and fixation method did not significantly influence biomechanical performance in a classic Latarjet procedure. When performing this procedure, surgeons may continue to select the screw type and method of fixation (unicortical or bicortical) based on preference; however, further studies are required to determine the optimal method of treatment. Surgeons may choose the screw type and

  1. Live-bed scour experiments with 45° wing-wall abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 39; Issue 5. Live-bed scour experiments with 45° wing-wall abutments ... Keywords. Scour; bridge foundation; abutments; hydraulics; rivers. ... A design equation is proposed for estimating maximum scour depth at 45°wing-wall abutment under live-bed condition. The calculated values of ...

  2. Utilization of Ceramic Inlays for Sealing Implant Prostheses Screw Access Holes: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihali, Sorin; Canjau, Silvana; Bratu, Emanuel; Wang, Hom-Lay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, in a case control study, the esthetic and functional clinical performance of ceramic inlays used for covering the screw access hole in single monolithic lithium disilicate full-contour crowns bonded on computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) prefabricated titanium abutments in order to eliminate the drawbacks of alternative restorative methods. Twenty-eight patients with missing teeth in the lateral areas (premolars and molars) received screw-retained implant restorations. In half of the restorations (n = 14), composite fillings were used to seal the access hole (control group), while the other half was sealed with ceramic inlays (test group). To determine the restoration occlusal wear, impressions were obtained after the restorations were finalized, at 1 year, and at 2 years follow-up. The casts were scanned with a 3D Scanner Design System recording the anatomical surfaces of the white model replicates. Wear amounts (μm) were calculated as the maximum loss in height of the occlusal surface. The clinical evaluation was carried out using a kit specifically designed for assessing the FDI criteria. Statistics were performed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). A total of 58 restorations were delivered, and after 2 years of follow-up, the wear values were 228.20 ± 54.68 μm for the control group and 65.20 ± 7.24 μm for the ceramic inlay group. One-way ANOVA showed significant differences among the vertical loss between these two groups (P inlays appears to be a predictable, esthetic, and successful method of sealing the screw holes of the screw-retained implant restorations.

  3. Biomechanical comparison of screw versus plate/screw construct for talonavicular fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Shelby E; Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S; Adelaar, Robert S

    2009-02-01

    Talonavicular fusion is performed for a variety of indications. This study examined the effects of fixation techniques on plantar pressures, construct stiffness, and strength. Eight matched pairs of cadaveric lower extremities were axially loaded intact and after talonavicular fixation with a 3.5 reconstruction plate, reconstruction plate plus cancellous screw (plate/screw), or three screws (screws). Recorded plantar pressures were divided into three forefoot, two midfoot, and two hindfoot regions. Cantilevered bending of excised constructs provided stiffness data for plantar and lateral directions, and failure characteristics in plantar bending. Relative to the intact state, all fixations decreased peak pressure in the medial forefoot, while generally increasing it in the lateral forefoot and midfoot. Average pressure shifted laterally for all fixation methods in the forefoot, generally in the hindfoot and the lateral midfoot. Generally, contact areas decreased in the medial forefoot, midfoot, and hindfoot while increasing laterally in the midfoot and hindfoot. The only difference among fixation methods was a decreased medial midfoot contact area for screws. No differences were found between screws and plate/screw in bending stiffness or failure (p screw method averaged approximately 363 N/mm while stiffness of the screw only construct averaged approximately 380 N/mm. The load to failure averaged 946 N for the plate/screw construct and 1099 N for the screw construct. This study showed lateralization of plantar pressures following talonavicular fixation. Minimal differences were found between plate/screw and screws. Fixation across the joint may be key to achieving stability sufficient to resist shear and rotational stresses. Plate/screw or screws would likely be similarly effective in fusing the talonavicular joint. However, the fusion induced lateralization of plantar pressures may unintentionally result in adjacent joint arthritis and foot pain.

  4. Pedicle screw anchorage of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws under cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Schmid, Rene; Nydegger, Thomas; Konschake, Marko; Schmoelz, Werner

    2018-03-01

    Pedicle screw loosening is a common and significant complication after posterior spinal instrumentation, particularly in osteoporosis. Radiolucent carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) pedicle screws have been developed recently to overcome drawbacks of conventional metallic screws, such as metal-induced imaging artifacts and interference with postoperative radiotherapy. Beyond radiolucency, CF/PEEK may also be advantageous over standard titanium in terms of pedicle screw loosening due to its unique material properties. However, screw anchorage and loosening of CF/PEEK pedicle screws have not been evaluated yet. The aim of this biomechanical study therefore was to evaluate whether the use of this alternative nonmetallic pedicle screw material affects screw loosening. The hypotheses tested were that (1) nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resist an equal or higher number of load cycles until loosening than standard titanium screws and that (2) PMMA cement augmentation further increases the number of load cycles until loosening of CF/PEEK screws. In the first part of the study, left and right pedicles of ten cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (BMD 70.8 mg/cm 3  ± 14.5) were randomly instrumented with either CF/PEEK or standard titanium pedicle screws. In the second part, left and right pedicles of ten vertebrae (BMD 56.3 mg/cm 3  ± 15.8) were randomly instrumented with either PMMA-augmented or nonaugmented CF/PEEK pedicle screws. Each pedicle screw was subjected to cyclic cranio-caudal loading (initial load ranging from - 50 N to + 50 N) with stepwise increasing compressive loads (5 N every 100 cycles) until loosening or a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Angular screw motion ("screw toggling") within the vertebra was measured with a 3D motion analysis system every 100 cycles and by stress fluoroscopy every 500 cycles. The nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resisted a similar number of load cycles until loosening as the contralateral standard

  5. 26-year follow-up of screw-retained fixed dental prostheses supported by machined-surface Brånemark implants: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2011-01-01

    Rough-surface implants have become very popular during the last 10 years due to greater reported bone-implant-contact and bone volume between implant threads compared to machined-surface implants. The aim of this clinical report is to present the 26-year clinical outcomes of machined-surface implants supporting screw-retained fixed dental prostheses in a 77-year-old woman. A 51-year-old woman received five mandibular and six maxillary implants supporting screw-retained fixed dental prostheses. The original machined-surface regular platform Branemark implants were placed using a two-stage surgical approach. No implants were lost, and average marginal bone levels between the implant platform and the first bone-implant contact for maxillary and mandibular implants were 3.3 +/- 0.6 mm and 1.7 +/- 0.3 mm after 26 years. The following prosthetic complications were recorded during the follow up period; a) broken acrylic denture tooth (four times), b) loose prosthetic screw (three times), c) loose abutment screw (two times). This case report shows that machined-surface dental implants can successfully support screw-retained fixed dental prostheses over 26 years, which makes dental implants an important dental treatment option compared to the traditional prosthetic treatment methods, especially in elderly edentulous patients.

  6. Precision attachment case restoration with implant abutments: a review with case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Edward

    2011-08-01

    Passively retained precision attachment partial dentures have been used successfully on natural tooth abutments since the 1920s. However, the dental profession has not advocated their use with implant abutments. When used in the passive manner that has proven successful on natural tooth abutments, precision attachment cases on implant abutments can be an excellent treatment option. This type of case has been used successfully for more than 17 years and offers tremendous advantages over the conventional overdenture approach to removal restorations on implant abutments.

  7. The role of the implant impression in abutment selection: a technical note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupeyan, H K; Lang, B R

    1995-01-01

    Selecting the abutment at second-stage implant surgery should combine the experience of both the surgeon and the restorative dentist to avoid complications during prosthetic reconstructions. If an inappropriate abutment is selected, the resultant removal of the abutment and replacement of it with a completely different one is both costly and inefficient. The availability of the healing abutment component has eliminated many of these problems. Making an impression at the implant level allows the dentist ample time to study the restorative needs before selecting the final abutment.

  8. CAD/CAM technology for implant abutments, crowns, and superstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapos, Theodoros; Evans, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to compare implant prostheses fabricated by computer-assisted design and computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM) with conventionally fabricated implant prostheses when assessing esthetics, complications (biologic and mechanical), patient satisfaction, and economic factors. Electronic searches for clinical studies focusing on long-term follow-up were performed using the PubMed and Ovid search engines. Concentrating on the restorative aspect of the CAD/CAM technology applicable to implant dentistry, pertinent literature was divided into articles related to implant abutments, crowns, and frameworks. A total of 18 articles satisfied the inclusion criteria. Two articles reported on CAD/CAM crowns, six on abutments, and 10 on implant-supported CAD/CAM frameworks. The mean survival rate for CAD/CAM crowns was 98.85% and for CAD/CAM abutments 100%. The mean survival rate for CAD/CAM frameworks was 95.98%. Based on the current literature, CAD/CAM fabricated crowns, abutments, and frameworks demonstrate survival rates comparable to conventionally fabricated prostheses. Implant survival appears unaffected by fabrication technique. Since this technology encompasses several manufacturing variations, a new definition might be necessary to accurately define the processes under which the CAD/CAM restorations are fabricated. "Complete CAD/CAM product" where no or minimal manual intervention is employed could be a possible term.

  9. Time-wise variation of scouring at bridge abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    provides useful information for the degree of scour counter-measure to be imple- mented against ... time-to-peak value of design flood hydrograph, smaller scour depths may be obtained, which reduce the total cost of ... where KyL is a factor accounting for the effects of flow depth and abutment length, KI is the flow intensity ...

  10. Time-wise variation of scouring at bridge abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    provides useful information for the degree of scour counter-measure to be imple- mented against excessive scouring. Experiments have been performed to investi- gate time-dependent characteristics of scour holes around vertical wall abutments under clear water conditions with uniform bed materials. Temporal variations ...

  11. Assessment of the periapical health of abutment teeth: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Abutment teeth, apical periodontitis, endodontics, epidemiology, radiology. Date of Acceptance: 29‑Nov‑2014. Introduction. Extensive removal of enamel and dentin is required during the preparation of teeth for fixed partial dentures. This procedure may lead to irreversible damage of the dental pulp if not carried ...

  12. Mechanical performance of cement- and screw-retained all-ceramic single crowns on dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Matthias; Ristow, Oliver; Erdelt, Kurt; Beuer, Florian

    2018-03-01

    This in-vitro study was performed to compare the contact wear, fracture strength and failure mode of implant-supported all-ceramic single crowns manufactured with various fabrication and fixation concepts. Fifty dental implants (Conelog Ø 4,3mm/L11mm, Camlog Biotechnologies AG) were embedded and treated with all-ceramic molar single-crowns. Three groups received hand-layered zirconia crowns (IPS e.max Ceram/ IPS e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar Vivadent AG): CZL (cement-retained zirconia-based layered) group crowns were cemented conventionally, SZL (screw-retained zirconia-based layered) group crowns were screw-retained, MZL (modified zirconia-based layered) group crowns showed a different coping design with screw retention. The specimens of SST (screw-retained sintering-technique) and SFL (screw-retained full-contour lithium-disilicate) group were CAD/CAM (Computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing) fabricated in the sintering technique (IPS e.max ZirCAD/IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and full-contour of lithium disilicate (IPS e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent AG) respectively and screw-retained. All specimens underwent artificial aging, load until failure and a scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis. The received data were statistically compared (one-way ANOVA; Student-Newman-Keuls test; Mann-Whitney U-test) at a significance level of 5%. Mouth-motion fatigue testing caused two abutment fractures (SST group and SZL group) and two chipping events (CZL group). Specimens of MZL group showed statistically significant less contact wear compared to the other groups (pCAD/CAM fabricated specimens towards manually veneered components. The mode of retention did not influence the fracture resistance but the failure patterns of the specimens. CAD/CAM milled lithium-disilicate crowns seemed to be a preserving factor for dental implants. The mode of retention and veneering influences the mechanical performance of implant-supported single crowns.

  13. Retention of cast crown copings cemented to implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, J E; Richards, L C; Abbott, J R

    2008-12-01

    The cementation of crowns to dental implant abutments is an accepted form of crown retention that requires consideration of the properties of available cements within the applied clinical context. Dental luting agents are exposed to a number of stressors that may reduce crown retention in vivo, not the least of which is occlusal loading. This study investigated the influence of compressive cyclic loading on the physical retention of cast crown copings cemented to implant abutments. Cast crown copings were cemented to Straumann synOcta titanium implant abutments with three different readily used and available cements. Specimens were placed in a humidifier, thermocycled and subjected to one of four quantities of compressive cyclic loading. The uniaxial tensile force required to remove the cast crown copings was then recorded. The mean retention values for crown copings cemented with Panavia-F cement were statistically significantly greater than both KetacCem and TempBond non-eugenol cements at each compressive cyclic loading quantity. KetacCem and TempBond non-eugenol cements produced relatively low mean retention values that were not statistically significantly different at each quantity of compressive cyclic loading. Compressive cyclic loading had a statistically significant effect on Panavia-F specimens alone, but increased loading quantities produced no further statistically significant difference in mean retention. Within the limitations of the current in vitro conditions employed in this study, the retention of cast crown copings cemented to Straumann synOcta implant abutments with a resin, glass ionomer and temporary cement was significantly affected by cement type but not compressive cyclic loading. Resin cement is the cement of choice for the definitive non-retrievable cementation of cast crown copings to Straumann synOcta implant abutments out of the three cements tested.

  14. Simple Technique for Removing Broken Pedicular Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Agrawal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The procedure for removing a broken pedicle screw should ideally be technically easy and minimally invasive, as any damage to the pedicle, during removal of the broken screw, may weaken the pedicle, thus compromising on the success of re-instrumentation. We describe the case of a 32-year old man who had undergone surgery for traumatic third lumbar vertebral body fracture three years prior to current admission and had developed the complication of pedicle screw breakage within the vertebral body. The patient underwent re-exploration and removal of the distal screws. Through a paravertebral incision and muscle separation, the screws and rods were exposed and the implants were removed.

  15. Twin screw subsurface and surface multiphase pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dass, P. [CAN-K GROUP OF COMPANIES, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    A new subsurface twin screw multiphase pump has been developed to replace ESP and other artificial lift technologies. This technology has been under development for a few years, has been field tested and is now going for commercial applications. The subsurface twin screw technology consists of a pair of screws that do not touch and can be run with a top drive or submersible motor; and it carries a lot of benefits. This technology is easy to install and its low slippage makes it highly efficient with heavy oil. In addition twin screw multiphase pumps are capable of handling high viscosity fluids and thus their utilization can save water when used in thermal applications. It also induces savings of chemicals because asphaltenes do not break down easily as well as a reduction in SOR. The subsurface twin screw multiphase pump presented herein is an advanced technology which could be used in thermal applications.

  16. [Screw arthrodesis of the shoulder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerch, S; Berndt, T; Lipka, W; Rühmann, O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of the procedure is arthrodesis of the shoulder by osteosynthesis of the glenohumeral and the acromiohumeral joint each with three screws, which results in preservation of scapulothoracic motion and pain relief. Traumatic brachial plexus lesions, palsy in infancy, poliomyelitis with preserved or restorable function of the elbow and the hand. Paralysis of the deltoid muscle and the rotator cuff. Nonrestorable vast defect of the rotator cuff with pseudoparalysis. Chronic infectious arthritis resistant to therapy. Unsuccessful attempts to treat glenohumeral instability. Alternative procedure to shoulder arthroplasty in young patients with omarthrosis, who perform hard physical work. Insufficient strength of the scapular muscles (Weaning from the splint after the end of the week 6 postoperatively, full range of motion allowed. In a prospective study from January 2007 to September 2008, 4 patients with a medium age of 35.7 years underwent screw arthrodesis of the shoulder with a follow-up of 1.0 (0.6-1.5) year. Primary fusion of all arthrodesis surfaces was achieved in all patients; no revision surgery was necessary. All patients improved in shoulder function with an average range of motion of 60° abduction and 40° anteversion.

  17. [A biomechanical comparison of Acutrak headless compression screw and AO cannulated lag screw for the fixation of Hoffa fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jing; Zhang, Shu-Liang; Feng, Pin; Jiang, Yong; Zou, Chang; Zhang, Hui; Tu, Chong-Qi

    2013-03-01

    To compare the stability, strength of Letenneur type I Hoffa fractures fixed by Acutrak headless compression screws and AO cannulated lag screws. 12 models of Letenneur type I Hoffa fractures were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were fixed with two AO cannulated lag screws or Acutrak headless compression screws anteroposteriorly or posteroanteriorly. The stress between two fragments of all specimens was tested. Axial compression test, the cycle load test and the limit load test were successively performed in every specimen. In axial compression test, displacement of Acutrak headless compression screw groups was lower than that of AO cannulated lag screw anteroposteriorly (P AO cannulated lag screws (P AO cannulated lag screw. The direction of screw affects the initial stability for AO cannulated lag screw, other than Acutrak headless compression screw.

  18. Biomechanical comparison of lag screw versus self-drilling screw fixation of oblique metatarsal osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabenhorst, Brien M; Smith, Michael P; James, C Roger; Grimes, Jerry S

    2011-08-01

    Several fixation methods for a Weil metatarsal osteotomy have been proposed. Lag screw fixation has been described as the preferred fixation technique. The self-drilling screw has been introduced and can be used for fixation of the Weil osteotomy. The current study compared self-drilling screws with lag screw fixation. A Weil metatarsal osteotomy was performed on the second, third, and fourth metatarsals of five matched pairs of fresh frozen cadaver feet. The feet of each pair were randomly assigned ical to fixation with either a 2.0-mm cortical lag screw or a 2.0-mm self-drilling screw. The second metatarsals were stressed using cantilever bending. The third and fourth metatarsals were stressed under a shear force. Yield load, deformation at yield load, structural stiffness, and energy stored at yield load were recorded. There were no statistically significant differences (p screw. There were no significant differences in the stability of fixation of the self-drilling screw and lag screw. There was a trend toward the lag screw fixation being more stable. The clinical significance of this trend is uncertain but suggests there is not a large difference between the two methods of fixation.

  19. Esthetic and Clinical Performance of Implant-Supported All-Ceramic Crowns Made with Prefabricated or CAD/CAM Zirconia Abutments: A Randomized, Multicenter Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittneben, J G; Gavric, J; Belser, U C; Bornstein, M M; Joda, T; Chappuis, V; Sailer, I; Brägger, U

    2017-02-01

    Patients' esthetic expectations are increasing, and the options of the prosthetic pathways are currently evolving. The objective of this randomized multicenter clinical trial was to assess and compare the esthetic outcome and clinical performance of anterior maxillary all-ceramic implant crowns (ICs) based either on prefabricated zirconia abutments veneered with pressed ceramics or on CAD/CAM zirconia abutments veneered with hand buildup technique. The null hypothesis was that there is no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups. Forty implants were inserted in sites 14 to 24 (FDI) in 40 patients in 2 centers, the Universities of Bern and Geneva, Switzerland. After final impression, 20 patients were randomized into group A, restored with a 1-piece screw-retained single crown made of a prefabricated zirconia abutment with pressed ceramic as the veneering material using the cut-back technique, or group B using an individualized CAD/CAM zirconia abutment (CARES abutment; Institut Straumann AG) with a hand buildup technique. At baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y clinical, esthetic and radiographic parameters were assessed. Group A exhibited 1 dropout patient and 1 failure, resulting in a survival rate of 94.7% after 1 y, in comparison to 100% for group B. No other complications occurred. Clinical parameters presented stable and healthy peri-implant soft tissues. Overall, no or only minimal crestal bone changes were observed with a mean DIB (distance from the implant shoulder to the first bone-to-implant contact) of -0.15 mm (group A) and 0.12 mm (group B) at 1 y. There were no significant differences at baseline, 6 mo, and 1 y for DIB values between the 2 groups. Pink esthetic score (PES) and white esthetic score (WES) values at all 3 examinations indicated stability over time for both groups and pleasing esthetic outcomes. Both implant-supported prosthetic pathways represent a valuable treatment option for the restoration of single ICs in the anterior maxilla

  20. Fracture resistance of zirconia-based implant abutments after artificial long-term aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsahhaf, Abdulaziz; Spies, Benedikt Christopher; Vach, Kirstin; Kohal, Ralf-Joachim

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the survival rate, fracture strength, bending moments, loading to fracture and fracture modes of different designs of zirconia abutments after dynamic loading with thermocycling, and compare these values to titanium abutments. A total of 80 abutment samples were divided into 5 test groups of 16 samples in each group. The study included the following groups, "Group 1" CAD/CAM produced all-zirconia abutments, "Group 2" titanium abutments, "Group 3" zirconia-abutments adhesively luted to a titanium base, "Group 4" prefabricated all-zirconia abutments and "Group 5" zirconia-abutments glass soldered to a titanium base. Half the number of samples in each group was exposed to 1.2 million loading cycles (5-years simulation) in the chewing simulator. The samples that survived the artificial aging were later tested for fracture strength in a universal testing machine. The remaining 8 samples of the group were directly tested for fracture strength. All samples exposed to the 5-years artificial aging survived except of six samples in one group (Group 1). The surviving samples were later fracture tested in the universal testing machine. The bending moments (Ncm) values were as follow: Exposed groups: "Group 1" 94.5Ncm; "Group 2" 599.2Ncm; "Group 3" 477.5Ncm; "Group 4" 314.4Ncm; "Group 5" 509.4Ncm. Non-exposed groups: "Group 1" 269.3Ncm; "Group 2" 474.2Ncm; "Group 3" 377.6Ncm; "Group 4" 265.4Ncm; "Group 5" 372.4Ncm. Except in Group 1, the values were higher in the exposed groups, although, statistically there was no difference (p>0.05). The one-piece ZrO2-abutment group (Group 1 and Group 4) exhibited lower values, while the two-piece ZrO2-abutment groups (Group 3 and Group 5) showed similar values and fracture modes like the titanium abutment group. The titanium abutment group showed the highest values of bending moments among all groups. The implant-abutment connection area appeared to influence the bending moment value and the fracture mode of the tested

  1. Effect of Steam Autoclaving on the Tensile Strength of Resin Cements Used for Bonding Two-Piece Zirconia Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadanelli, Marcos Alexandre; Amaral, Flávia Lucisano Botelho do; Basting, Roberta Tarkany; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Salles; França, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of steam autoclave sterilization on the tensile strength of two types of resin cements used to bond customized CAD/CAM zirconia abutments onto titanium bases. Forty sets of zirconia abutments cemented to screwed titanium bases of implants analogs were divided into 4 groups (n = 10). Two groups were treated with a conventional chemically activated resin cement (ML, Multilink Ivoclar Vivadent) and the other two groups with a self-adhesive dual resin cement (RelyX U200, 3M ESPE). One group from each cement was submitted to steam autoclaving. The autoclave sterilization cycle was performed after 72 hours of cementation for 15 minutes at 121°C and 2.1 Kgf/cm 2 . The samples were subjected to tensile strength testing in a universal testing machine (200 Kgf, 0.5 mm/min), from which the means and standard deviations were obtained in Newtons. Results showed (via ANOVA and Tukey's test; α = 0.05) that in the absence of steam autoclaving, no difference was observed in tensile strength between the cements tested: ML: 344.87 (93.79) and U200: 280 (92.42) (P = .314). Steam autoclaving, however, significantly increased tensile strength for the ML: 465.42 (87.87) compared to U200: 289.10 (49.02) (P 0.05). The authors concluded that steam autoclaving increases the mean tensile strength of the chemically activated cement compared to the dual-cure self-adhesive cement. The performance of both cements evaluated was similar if the sterilization step was disconsidered.

  2. Two Different Percutaneous Bone-Anchored Hearing Aid Abutment Systems: Comparative Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polat, Beldan; İşeri, Mete; Orhan, Kadir Serkan; Yılmazer, Ayça Başkadem; Enver, Necati; Ceylan, Didem; Kara, Ahmet; Güldiken, Yahya; Çomoğlu, Şenol

    2016-04-01

    To compare two different percutaneous bone-anchored hearing aid (BAHA) abutment systems regarding operation time, scar healing, quality of life, implant stability, audiologic results, and complications. The study involves a prospective multi-center clinical evaluation. Thirty-two consecutive patients who had undergone BAHA surgery from January 2011 to January 2013 in two tertiary centers were included in the study. The Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was used to assess the patients at least 6 months after surgery. The operation time and complications were recorded. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) values were recorded using resonance frequency analysis. Holger's classification was used to evaluate skin reactions. The mean length of the operation was 39.2±4 min for standard abutment and 18.3±5.7 min for hydroxyapatite-coated abutment. ISQ scores were significantly better for standard abutment in all tests. The mean total Glasgow Inventory Benefit Score was 39.3±19 for the standard abutment and 46.3±24.5 for the hydroxyapatite-coated abutment groups, but there was no statistical significance between the two groups. There was no difference in audiological improvement between the two groups after surgery. Hydroxyapatite-coated abutment provided a shorter operation time that was significantly different from standard abutment. There were no significant differences between standard abutment and hydroxyapatite-coated abutment regarding audiologic improvement, quality of life, loading time, and complications.

  3. Bending moments of zirconia and titanium implant abutments supporting all-ceramic crowns after aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlemann, Sven; Truninger, Thomas C; Stawarczyk, Bogna; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2014-01-01

    To test the fracture load and fracture patterns of zirconia abutments restored with all-ceramic crowns after fatigue loading, exhibiting internal and external implant-abutment connections as compared to restored and internally fixed titanium abutments. A master abutment was used for the customization of 5 groups of zirconia abutments to a similar shape (test). The groups differed according to their implant-abutment connections: one-piece internal connection (BL; Straumann Bonelevel), two-piece internal connection (RS; Nobel Biocare ReplaceSelect), external connection (B; Branemark MkIII), two-piece internal connection (SP, Straumann StandardPlus) and one-piece internal connection (A; Astra Tech AB OsseoSpeed). Titanium abutments with internal implant-abutment connection (T; Straumann Bonelevel) served as control group. In each group, 12 abutments were fabricated, mounted to the respective implants and restored with glass-ceramic crowns. All samples were embedded in acrylic holders (ISO-Norm 14801). After aging by means of thermocycling in a chewing simulator, static load was applied until failure (ISO-Norm 14801). Fracture load was analyzed by calculating the bending moments. Values of all groups were compared with one-way ANOVA followed by Scheffé post hoc test (P-valuecrown occurred in the test groups. In groups BL and A, fractures were located in the internal part of the connection, whereas in groups RS and SP, a partial deformation of the implant components occurred and cracks and fractures of the zirconia abutment were detected. The differently connected zirconia abutments exhibited similar bending moments with the exception of one group. Hence, the type of connection only had a minor effect on the stability of restored zirconia abutments. In general, restored titanium abutments exhibited the highest bending moments. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Fabrication of a Customized Ball Abutment to Correct a Nonparallel Implant Abutment for a Mandibular Implant-Supported Removable Partial Prosthesis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Dasht

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: While using an implant-supported removable partial prosthesis, the implant abutments should be parallel to one another along the path of insertion. If the implants and their attachments are placed vertically on a similar occlusal plane, not only is the retention improved, the prosthesis will also be maintained for a longer period. Case Report: A 65-year-old male patient referred to the School of Dentistry in Mashhad, Iran with complaints of discomfort with the removable partial dentures for his lower mandible. Due to the lack of parallelism in the supporting implants, prefabricated ball abutment could not be used. As a result, a customized ball abutment was fabricated in order to correct the non-parallelism of the implants. Conclusion: Using UCLA abutments could be a cost-efficient approach for the correction of misaligned implant abutments in implant-supported overdentures.

  5. Guidelines for implant abutment selection for partially edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, Carl; Lazzara, Richard J

    2010-01-01

    Dental implant treatments have changed dramatically since the introduction of osseointegration in the 1970s. Placement and restoration of dental implants now are considered to be a basic, important component of dental practices around the world. During the past several decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of dental implant manufacturers and implant restorative components available for clinicians and dental laboratory technicians treating partially edentulous patients. While the increase in components has improved the esthetic and functional results obtainable with dental implants, clinicians also have reported difficulties and confusion in treatment planning dental implant restorations for partially edentulous patients. This article introduces a protocol for implant abutment selection in partially edentulous patients undergoing dental implant treatment by describing a clinical/laboratory protocol for abutment selection in implant dentistry for implant surgeons, restorative dentists, and dental laboratory technicians.

  6. Impact of implant-abutment connection on osteoimmunological and microbiological parameters in short implants: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Veli Özgen; Emingil, Gülnur; Bostanci, Nagihan; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2017-09-01

    The study aimed to determine the levels of soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-кB ligand (sRANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) as well as their relative calculated ratio in peri-implant crevicular fluid (PICF) obtained around two different types of implant-abutment connection on short implants following a 12-month monitoring period. Moreover, the levels of a number of oral bacterial species were investigated in the corresponding submucosal biofilm samples. Thirty short implants were randomly placed in posterior maxillary edentulous sites using a split-mouth design in 15 periodontally healthy subjects. Tapered interference fit (TIF) and taper-integrated screwed-in (TIS) types of implant-abutment connections were selected for investigation. PICF and submucosal biofilm samples were collected 1 month after surgery and repeated 12 months after prosthetic loading. Clinical parameters, including probing depth, dichotomous presence of bleeding on probing, and plaque index, were recorded and digital periapical radiographs were taken at each time point. sRANKL and OPG levels in PICF were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Total bacterial levels, as well as levels of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, Prevotella intermedia, and Streptococcus oralis, were analyzed in the corresponding submucosal biofilm samples using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The total amount of sRANKL in TIF implants was 2.64-fold lower than that in TIS implants at baseline (P  0.05). Accordingly, OPG and RANKL/OPG ratio were similar between the groups at each time point (P > 0.05). Microbiological results were similar in both groups at each time point (P > 0.05). The results of this longitudinal study suggested that sRANKL and OPG in PICF, as well as microbiological parameters in submucosal biofilms, were similar between TIF and TIS implants, after a 12-month monitoring period, despite early

  7. Clinical considerations for selecting implant abutments for fixed prosthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solow, Roger A

    2015-01-01

    There is an overwhelming number of designs and components for dentists to choose from when treatment planning implant-supported restorations. The selection process can be simplified by establishing priorities on a site-by-site basis to facilitate a predictable, esthetic, and stable final result. Clinical considerations should include prosthetic support, periodontal stability, reparability, and oral hygiene, which often occur in concert. This article addresses the principles that guide implant abutment selection when treatment planning for fixed prosthodontics.

  8. Accuracy combining different brands of implants and abutments

    OpenAIRE

    Sol?-Ru?z, Mar?a F.; Selva-Otaolaurruchi, Eduardo; Senent-Vicente, Gisela; Gonz?lez-de-Cossio, In?s; Amig?-Borr?s, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the vertical misfit between different brands of dental implants and prosthetic abutments, with or without mechanical torque, and to study their possible combination. Study design: Five different brands of implant were used in the study: Biofit (Castemaggiore, Italy), Bioner S.A. (Barcelona, Spain), 3i Biomet (Palm Beach, U.S.A.), BTI (Alava, Spain) and Nobel Biocare (G?teborg, Sweden), with standard 4.1 mm heads and external hexagons, and their respective machined prost...

  9. Potential Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine Gel in the Implant Screw Hole on Bacterial Count

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Khudair Ali

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial penetration inside the implant’s internal hole creates a bacterial reservoir that is related with an area of inflamed connective tissue opposite the fixture-abutment junction and this can affect with the health of the peri-implant tissue. Chlorhexidine (CHX has been used to prevent internal implant contamination as a 0.2% solution, a varnish or gel. Aim: To evaluate the aerobic/anaerobic bacterial count-reduction potential of 2% CHX gel placed, at the time of surgery, in the implant screw hole over a period of minimum 90 d, and to monitor the periodontal health status of all patients, throughout the study. Material and methods: Ten partially edentulous patients received 30 DI and these implants were randomly allocated in to: Group I (test 15 implants applied by flap or flapless surgery with 2% CHX gel application. Group II (control 15 implants applied by flap or flapless surgery without CHX gel application. All patients were examined clinically to determine their oral health status by examination of their plaque index, PLI, Gingival index GI, Bleeding on probing, BOP, and probing pocket depth, PPD, every two weeks throughout the study. Three months later, the plaque sample was collected from the internal hole of fixture and was sent for bacteriological examination. Results: The present study shows highly significant reduction of aerobic count of bacteria from 52.1% to 100%. Also, anaerobic bacterial count was reduced from 64.6% to 100% for group that received 2% CHX gel in screw hole of implants at time of surgery. When compared, the count of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria (CFU between test and control group, a significant reduction was found. Conclusion: The use of 2% CHX gel at the time of placement can significantly reduce bacterial counts in the implant screw hole, and this effect can be maintained for 90 d or longer.

  10. Twin Screw Mixer/Fine Grind Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 40-mm Twin-Screw Mixer/Extruder (TSE) pilot plant is a continuous, remotely operated, flexible facility that can significantly enhance safety and environmental...

  11. Load-Bearing Capacity of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Abutments and One-Piece Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxeberria, Marina; Abdulmajeed, Aous A; Escuin, Tomas; Vinas, Miguel; Lassila, Lippo V J; Närhi, Timo O

    2015-06-01

    Fiber-reinforced composites (FRC) can potentially help in a physiologic stress transmission due to its excellent biomechanical matching with living tissues. Novel one-piece FRC implants and abutments with two different fiber orientations were loaded until failure to assess the load-bearing capacity, fracture patterns, and precision of fit. The one-piece FRC implants showed significantly higher load-bearing capacity compared to FRC abutments regardless of the fiber orientation (p < 0.001). For FRC abutments, bidirectional abutments showed significantly higher loads compared to unidirectional abutments (p < 0.001). The type of structure and fiber orientation are strong determinant factors of the load-bearing capacity of FRC implants and abutments.

  12. Fatigue resistance and failure mode of adhesively restored custom metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boff, Luís Leonildo; Oderich, Elisa; Cardoso, Antônio Carlos; Magne, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the fatigue resistance and failure mode of composite resin and porcelain onlays and crowns bonded to premolar custom metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments. Sixty composite resin mesostructures were fabricated with computer assistance with two preparation designs (crown vs onlay) and bonded to a metal implant abutment. Following insertion into an implant with a tapered abutment interface (Titamax CM), each metal-composite resin abutment was restored with either composite resin (Paradigm MZ100) or ceramic (Paradigm C) (n = 15) and attached with adhesive resin (Optibond FL) and a preheated light-curing composite resin (Filtek Z100). Cyclic isometric chewing (5 Hz) was then simulated, starting with 5,000 cycles at a load of 50 N, followed by stages of 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,200, and 1,400 N (25,000 cycles each). Samples were loaded until fracture or to a maximum of 180,000 cycles. The four groups were compared using life table survival analysis (log-rank test). Previously published data using zirconia abutments of the same design were included for comparison. Paradigm C and MZ100 specimens fractured at average loads of 1,133 N and 1,266 N, respectively. Survival rates ranged from 20% to 33.3% (ceramic crowns and onlays) to 60% (composite resin crowns and onlays) and were significantly different (pooled data for restorative material). There were no restoration failures, but there were adhesive failures at the connection between the abutment and the mesostructure. The survival of the metal-composite resin premolar abutments was inferior to that of identical zirconia abutments from a previous study (pooled data for abutment material). Composite resin onlays/crowns bonded to metal-composite resin premolar implant abutments presented higher survival rates than comparable ceramic onlays/crowns. Zirconia abutments outperformed the metal-composite resin premolar abutments.

  13. Case report using the "H" abutment: achieving esthetics, strength, and predictability for the anterior implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbrook, David

    2015-03-01

    Replacing an anterior tooth using a dental implant has long been a challenge for most clinicians. Implant abutment selection is a crucial aspect of maximizing esthetics, strength, and customization. The author has experienced significant success in this regard over a period of more than 7 years using a lithium-disilicate "H" ("Hybrid") abutment. In this case presentation, a procedure is described for providing these highly esthetic abutment-supported restorations, which may offer significant advantages over traditional options.

  14. Selection and modification of prefabricated implant abutments according to the desired restoration contour: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourtis, Stefanos G

    2002-05-01

    Implant restorations must fulfill the functional and esthetic demands of the patient. The discrepancy in the diameters of an implant and a natural tooth often leads to compromise. The use of prefabricated abutments that can be individually modified offers certain advantages. Selection and modification of the abutment are simpler when a waxup of the restoration is used as a guideline. This article describes a laboratory technique in which the implant abutment is selected and modified according to the waxup of the restoration.

  15. A technique to determine the preferred use of a custom abutment for an implant supported crown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Russell; Ahuja, Swati; Jain, Vinay

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant challenges in contemporary dental implant therapy involves managing the transition of the restoration from the implant through the soft tissues by means of an abutment. This article presents a practical technique to visualize if the selection of a custom-made abutment would be favored over the use of a manufactured standard abutment to receive crown restoration supported by a dental implant.

  16. Fracture resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment of dental implant system with injection molding technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianjun; Wang, Ke; Liu, Guangyuan; Wang, Dashan

    2013-11-01

    Zirconia powder in nanometers can be fabricated into inter-joined abutment of dental implant system with the injection shaping technique. This study was to detect the resistance of inter-joined zirconia abutment with different angle loading for clinical applications. The inter-joined abutments were shaped with the technique of injection of zirconia powder in nanometers. Sixty Osstem GSII 5 × 10 mm implants were used with 30 zirconia abutments and 30 Osstem GSII titanium abutments for fixation using 40 N torque force. The loading applications included 90°, 30°, and 0° formed by the long axis of abutments and pressure head of universal test machine. The fracture resistances of zirconia and titanium abutments were documented and analyzed. The inter-joined zirconia abutments were assembled to the Osstem GSII implants successfully. In the 90° loading mode, the fracture resistance of zirconia abutment group and titanium abutment group were 301.5 ± 15.4 N and 736.4 ± 120.1 N, respectively. And those in the 30° groups were 434.7 ± 36.1 N and 1073.1 ± 74 N, correspondingly. Significant difference in the two groups was found using t-test and Wilcoxon test. No damage on the abutments of the two groups but S-shaped bending on the implants was found when the 0° loading was 1300-2000 N. Through the assembly of Zirconia abutments and implants, all the components presented sufficient resistance acquired for the clinical application under loadings with different angle. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Application of reverse engineering in the production of individual dental abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusov, A. V.; Kashapov, R. N.; Kashapov, L. N.; Statsenko, E. O.

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of the research is to develop a method of manufacturing individual dental abutments for a variety of dental implants. System of industrial X-ray microtomography Phoenix V|tome|X S 240 has been applied for creation of highly accurate model of the dental abutment. Scanning of dental abutment and the optimization of model was produced. The program of milling the individual abutment with a standard conical neck of hexagon was produced for the five-axis milling machine imes - icore 450i from the materials titanium and zirconium oxide.

  18. Comparison of 3 luting agents on retention of implant-supported crowns on 2 different abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güncü, M Bariş; Cakan, Umut; Canay, Senay

    2011-10-01

    For fixed prostheses, retention is one of the most important factors for clinical success. It is unknown whether grooves that increase surface area of implant abutment while retaining the diameter and wall height provide greater uniaxial retention force. The purpose of this study was to determine the retention of 3 different cements on 2 implant abutments with different surface configurations. Thirty samples on 2 different abutments (a total of 60 crowns) with different margin and axial walls configuration and surface area were used. Metal crowns were fabricated on the abutment and cemented with 3 different (zinc-phosphate [ZP], glass ionomer [GI], or eugenol-free zinc oxide [ZO]) cements. After cementation, implant-abutment-casting assemblies were thermal cycled 1000 times with 1-minute dwell-time between 5°C and 55°C then subjected to tensile test with universal testing machine until decementation occurred. The mean force required to dislodge castings from abutment was determined. The luting agents influenced retention of castings on implant abutments, whereas different surface configurations and total surface area of the abutments did not influence the uniaxial retention forces. Among the cements tested, ZP exhibited higher values of retention, followed by GI and eugenol-free ZO. The increase in surface area of abutment did not result in improved retention. The present results suggest using ZP rather than GI and eugenol-free ZO in implant-supported crowns to provide higher retention.

  19. Effect of surface topography of implant abutments on retention of cemented single-tooth crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, Tomie Nakakuki; Adachi, Lena Katekawa; Miashiro, Karen; Yoshida, Hideki; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami; Neto, Pedro Tortamano; Frigerio, Maria Luiza Moreira Arantes

    2010-08-01

    This study investigated whether surface topography affects the retentive strength of cemented full crowns, comparing the effects of standard machined, sandblasted, and grooved implant abutments. Five metallic crowns per abutment type were cast and cemented with zinc phosphate. After 24 hours, the specimens were submitted to a tensile test. The retentive strength of the cemented crowns was affected by abutment surface topography. The sandblasted and grooved surface groups had approximately 2.4 times greater mean uniaxial retentive strength than the machined surface group (P < .001). The retentive strength of the sandblasted and grooved abutments was similar, despite marked differences in surface profiles and roughness parameters.

  20. Ball Screw Actuator Including a Stop with an Integral Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Perek, John (Inventor); Geck, Kellan (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An actuator includes a housing assembly, a ball nut, a ball screw, and a ball screw stop. The ball nut is rotationally mounted in the housing assembly, is adapted to receive an input torque, and is configured, upon receipt thereof, to rotate and supply a drive force. The ball screw is mounted within the housing assembly and extends through the ball nut. The ball screw has a first end and a second end, and is coupled to receive the drive force from the ball nut. The ball screw is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively translate between a stow position and a deploy position. The ball screw stop is mounted on the ball screw to translate therewith and is configured to at selectively engage the housing assembly while the ball screw is translating, and engage the ball nut when the ball screw is in the deploy position.

  1. Insertion profiles of 4 headless compression screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Adam; Harvey, Edward J; Lefebvre, Louis-Philippe; Barthelat, Francois; Rabiei, Reza; Martineau, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    In practice, the surgeon must rely on screw position (insertion depth) and tactile feedback from the screwdriver (insertion torque) to gauge compression. In this study, we identified the relationship between interfragmentary compression and these 2 factors. The Acutrak Standard, Acutrak Mini, Synthes 3.0, and Herbert-Whipple implants were tested using a polyurethane foam scaphoid model. A specialized testing jig simultaneously measured compression force, insertion torque, and insertion depth at half-screw-turn intervals until failure occurred. The peak compression occurs at an insertion depth of -3.1 mm, -2.8 mm, 0.9 mm, and 1.5 mm for the Acutrak Mini, Acutrak Standard, Herbert-Whipple, and Synthes screws respectively (insertion depth is positive when the screw is proud above the bone and negative when buried). The compression and insertion torque at a depth of -2 mm were found to be 113 ± 18 N and 0.348 ± 0.052 Nm for the Acutrak Standard, 104 ± 15 N and 0.175 ± 0.008 Nm for the Acutrak Mini, 78 ± 9 N and 0.245 ± 0.006 Nm for the Herbert-Whipple, and 67 ± 2N, 0.233 ± 0.010 Nm for the Synthes headless compression screws. All 4 screws generated a sizable amount of compression (> 60 N) over a wide range of insertion depths. The compression at the commonly recommended insertion depth of -2 mm was not significantly different between screws; thus, implant selection should not be based on compression profile alone. Conically shaped screws (Acutrak) generated their peak compression when they were fully buried in the foam whereas the shanked screws (Synthes and Herbert-Whipple) reached peak compression before they were fully inserted. Because insertion torque correlated poorly with compression, surgeons should avoid using tactile judgment of torque as a proxy for compression. Knowledge of the insertion profile may improve our understanding of the implants, provide a better basis for comparing screws, and enable the surgeon to optimize compression. Copyright

  2. Effects of Removal and Reinsertion of Headless Compression Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald, Simon M; Niu, Rui; Jones, Christopher W; Smith, Belinda J; Clarke, Elizabeth C; Lawson, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    This study investigates the loss of compression when 3 commonly used headless compression screws are backed out (reversed), and assesses the ability to re-establish compression with screws of greater diameter. Two investigators tested 3 screw designs (Acutrak 2, Synthes HCS, Medartis SpeedTip CCS) in 2 diameters and lengths. Each design had 10 test cycles in a polyurethane foam bone model with compression recorded using a washer load cell. A 28-mm screw of the narrower diameter was inserted until 2 mm recessed and then reversed 30°, 60°, 90°, 180°, 270°, 360°, and 720°. After this the screw was removed completely and a 24-mm screw of greater diameter inserted until recessed 2 mm with the compressive force again recorded. All screws showed an immediate, statistically significant loss of compression at 30° of reversing. The Acutrak 2 Micro screw demonstrated not only the greatest mean compressive force, but also the fastest compressive loss. Insertion of the shorter screw of greater diameter was associated with re-establishment of compression to levels comparable with the original screw. This study reaffirms the importance of establishing the correct screw length before insertion due to the immediate loss of compression with reversal of these devices. If a headless compression screw penetrates the far joint surface, the screw should be completely removed and replaced with a shorter screw of greater diameter. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Axial loading cross screw fixation for the Austin bunionectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Ryan B; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John P

    2011-01-01

    The Austin procedure has become a common method of osteotomy for the correction of hallux abductovalgus when indicated. The V-type configuration is intrinsically stable but not without complications. One complication encountered is rotation and/or displacement of the capital fragment. We present the use of an axial loading screw in conjunction with a dorsally placed compression screw. The benefit to this technique lies in the orientation of the axial loading screw, because it is directed to resist the ground reactive forces while also providing a second point of fixation in a crossing screw design. In a head-to-head biomechanical comparison, we tested single dorsal screw fixation versus double screw fixation, including both the dorsal and the axial loading screws in 10 metatarsal Sawbones(®) (Pacific Research Laboratories Inc, Vashon, WA). Five metatarsals received single dorsal screw fixation and five received the dorsal screw and the additional axial loading screw. The metatarsals were analyzed on an Instron compression device for comparison; 100% of the single screw fixation osteotomies failed with compression at an average peak load of 205 N. Four of five axial loading double screw fixation osteotomies did not fail. This finding suggests that the addition of an axial loading screw providing cross screw orientation significantly increases the stability of the Austin osteotomy, ultimately decreasing the likelihood of displacement encountered in the surgical repair of hallux abductovalgus. Copyright © 2011 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lapidus bunionectomy: Early evaluation of crossed lag screws versus locking plate with plantar lag screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Amol; Nguyen, Aidan; Nelsen, Elise

    2009-01-01

    We compared outcomes of the Lapidus bunionectomy fixated with crossed lag screws versus a locking plate with a plantar lag screw. Forty patients who underwent Lapidus bunionectomy between August 2001 and May 2006 were evaluated in a combined retrospective and prospective fashion. Crossed lag screws were used in 19 of the patients, and a locking plate with a plantar lag screw was used in 21 of the patients. Other than fixation, the only interventional difference pertained to postoperative weight bearing, where those receiving the plate initiated full weight bearing on the operated foot at 4 weeks postoperative, as compared to 6 weeks for those receiving crossed screws. Overall, the mean preoperative AOFAS hallux score was 41.75 +/- 2.52, and the postoperative score was 90.48 +/- 8.41 (P fixation, use of an adjunct Akin osteotomy and surgery performed before 2003 were statistically significantly associated with crossed screw fixation, and the preoperative AOFAS score was statistically significantly higher in the locking plate fixation group. There were no statistically significant differences related to postoperative complications between the 2 fixation groups. In conclusion, the Lapidus bunionectomy fixated with a locking plate and a plantar lag screw allows earlier weight bearing in comparison with crossed lag screws, without a difference in complications. 2.

  5. Simulation for fretting corrosion of tin-coated copper contacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.Y.; Joo, H.G. [Stress Analysis and Failure Design Laboratory, School of Mechanical Engineering, Yonsei University, 134, Sinchon-dong, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, D.K. [Research and Development Division, Hyundai-Kia Motors 772-1, Jangduk-dong, Hwaseong Gyeonggi 445-706 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Y.W. [Technical Research Laboratories, POSCO, P.O.Box 36, Goedong-dong, Nam-gu, Pohang Gyeongbuk 790-300 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-04-15

    The simulations of contact resistance variation under various oxide fractions are conducted. The copper oxide is assigned on the contact area with various fractions by the random distribution technique. The calculated contact resistance at each oxide area fraction is compared with the experimental result. The increase in contact resistance results in an increased oxide area fraction. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. An investigation of heat transfer to the implant-bone interface when drilling through a zirconia crown attached to a titanium or zirconia abutment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Amy G; Sutton, Alan; Turkyilmaz, Ilser

    2014-11-01

    Thermal injury to the implant-bone interface may lead to bone necrosis and loss of osseointegration. This is a concern during manipulation of the implant throughout the restorative phase of treatment. The risk of heat transfer to the implant-bone interface during abutment preparation or prosthesis removal should be considered. The purpose of the study was to examine the amount of heat transferred to the implant-bone interface when a zirconia crown is drilled to access the screw channel or section a crown with a high-speed dental handpiece. Of the 64 ceramic-veneered zirconia crowns fabricated, 32 had a coping thickness of 0.5 mm and 32 had a coping thickness of 1.0 mm. The crowns were cemented on either titanium stock abutments or zirconia stock abutments. Each group was further subdivided to evaluate heat transfer when the screw channel was accessed or the crown was sectioned with a high-speed handpiece with or without irrigation. Temperature change was recorded for each specimen at the cervical and apical aspect of the implant with thermocouples and a logging thermometer. ANOVA was used to assess the statistical significance in temperature change between the test combinations, and nonparametric Mann-Whitney U tests were used to evaluate the findings. The use of irrigation during both crown removal processes yielded an average temperature increase of 3.59 ±0.35°C. Crown removal in the absence of irrigation yielded an average temperature increase of 18.76 ±3.09°C. When all parameter combinations in the presence of irrigation were evaluated, the maximum temperature change was below the threshold of thermal injury to bone. The maximum temperature change was above the threshold for thermal injury at the coronal aspect of the implant and below the threshold at the apical aspect in the absence of irrigation. Within the limitations of this investigation, the use of irrigation with a high-speed dental handpiece to remove a ceramic-veneered zirconia crown results in

  7. Standard Waste Box Lid Screw Removal Option Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-03-11

    This report provides results from test work conducted to resolve the removal of screws securing the standard waste box (SWB) lids that hold the remediated nitrate salt (RNS) drums. The test work evaluated equipment and process alternatives for removing the 42 screws that hold the SWB lid in place. The screws were secured with a red Loctite thread locker that makes removal very difficult because the rivets that the screw threads into would slip before the screw could be freed from the rivet, making it impossible to remove the screw and therefore the SWB lid.

  8. Effect of pedicle screw diameter on screw fixation efficacy in human osteoporotic thoracic vertebrae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Dar-Ming; Shih, Yu-Tang; Chen, Yi-Hsing; Chien, Andy; Wang, Jaw-Lin

    2018-03-21

    The selection of an ideal screw size plays a crucial role in the success of spinal instrumentation as larger diameter screws are thought to provide better fixation strength but increase the risk of pedicle failure during insertion. On the other hand, smaller diameter screws are with lesser risk of pedicle breakage but are thought to compromise the stability of the instrumentation. By investigating the relationship between screw diameter and the pullout strength of pedicle screws after fatigue loading, this study seeks to find quantitative biomechanical data for surgeons in determining the most ideal diameter size screws when performing surgical implementations on osteoporotic vertebrae. Twenty-seven osteoporotic (BMD ranged: 0.353-0.848 g/cm 2 ) thoracic vertebrae (T3-T8) were harvested from 5 human cadavers. Two sizes of poly-axial screws (5.0 mm × 35 and 4.35 mm × 35) were implanted into each pedicles of the vertebrae by an experienced surgeon. Specimens were randomly distributed into control group, fatigue group of 5000 and 10,000 cycles with peak-to-peak loadings of 10-100 N at 1 Hz. Each specimen was then axial pullout tested at a constant rate of 5 mm/min. The ultimate pullout strength (N) & stiffness (N/mm) were obtained for analysis. The results showed that although the larger diameter screws achieved superior pullout strength immediately after the implantation, both sizes of screws exhibited comparable pullout strengths post fatigue loading. This indicates that the smaller diameter screws may be considered for surgical techniques performed on osteoporotic vertebrae for reduced risk of pedicle breakage without sacrificing fixation strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Stability of medial locking plate and compression screw versus two crossed screws for lapidus arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klos, Kajetan; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Mückley, Thomas; Fröber, Rosemarie; Hofmann, Gunther O; Schwieger, Karsten; Windolf, Markus

    2010-02-01

    Lapidus (first metatarsocuneiform joint) arthrodesis is an established procedure for the management of hallux valgus. This study investigated the utility of fixation with a medial locking plate with adjunct compression screw versus fixation with two crossed screws. Eight pairs of fresh-frozen human specimens were used in a matched pair test. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Fixation with two 4-mm-diameter crossed screws was compared versus a medial locking plate (X-Locking Plate 2.4/2.7; Synthes, Solothurn, Switzerland) with adjunct 4-mm-diameter compression screw. The specimens were tested in a four-point bending test. Parameters obtained were initial stiffness; plantar joint-line gapping after one cycle, 100 and 1000 cycles; and number of cycles to failure. Failure was defined as more than or equal to 3 mm plantar gapping. The groups did not differ significantly with regard to BMD (p = 0.866) and initial stiffness (p = 0.889). The plate-and-screw construct showed significantly less movement during testing, and significantly (p = 0.001) more cycles to failure than did the crossed-screw construct. There was a significant correlation (crossed-screw construct: p = 0.014; plate-and-screw construct: p = 0.010) between BMD and the number of cycles to failure. Under cyclic loading conditions, the construct using a medial locking plate with adjunct compression screw was superior to the construct using two crossed screws. The medial locking-plate technique described could help shorten the period of nonweightbearing and reduce the risk of non-union.

  10. Effect of Implant Connection Type and Depth on the Seating Accuracy of Hand-Tightened Abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siadat, Hakimeh; Belbasi, Simin; Alikhasi, Marzieh; Nazari, Vahideh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh

    2017-12-14

    Improper seating of abutment on the implant is a common problem. This study investigated the effect of the type of implant/abutment interface on the complete seating of the abutments on the head of implants placed at different gingival depths. Three implant systems with three different connections including straight external hexagon, butt-joint internal tri-lobed, and conical internal hexagon were used. Two gingival thicknesses (2 and 7 mm) were created using pink baseplate wax around the straight abutments seated on the implants. After placing the implants in acrylic blocks, the wax was replaced with the gingival mask material to simulate the gingival drape around the implant heads. Afterwards, 15 prosthodontists were asked to hand-tighten the straight abutments in the corresponding implant bodies relying only on their tactile sense. At the final stage, the gingival mask was removed, and the seating quality of the abutments on implant bodies was assessed visually. The effect of implant connection and depth on abutment seating accuracy was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and multiple-comparison tests. No significant difference was found regarding the effect of either depth or connection design on the accuracy of the abutment seating (p > 0.05); however, pairwise comparison of the combined effect of the depth and connection design was significant (p = 0.009). Accuracy of abutment seating on the Nobel Active implants at both 2 and 7 mm depths were significantly better than Replace system with 7 mm depth (p = 0.027). The same results were obtained in comparison between Nobel Active system at both 2 and 7 mm depths with Branemark system with 7 mm depth (p = 0.006). An increase in implant placement depth meant a decrease in accuracy of the abutment seating. The internal conical connection design showed the best result in abutment positioning in deep implants as compared with external and internal butt-joint connection designs. © 2017 by the American College of

  11. Antibacterial effect of doxycycline-coated dental abutment surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xing, Rui; Tiainen, Hanna; Shabestari, Maziar; Lyngstadaas, Ståle P; Haugen, Håvard J; Witsø, Ingun L; Lönn-Stensrud, Jessica; Jugowiec, Dawid

    2015-01-01

    Biofilm formation on dental abutment may lead to peri-implant mucositis and subsequent peri-implantitis. These cases are clinically treated with antibiotics such as doxycycline (Doxy). Here we used an electrochemical method of cathodic polarization to coat Doxy onto the outer surface of a dental abutment material. The Doxy-coated surface showed a burst release in phosphate-buffered saline during the first 24 h. However, a significant amount of Doxy remained on the surface for at least 2 weeks especially on a 5 mA–3 h sample with a higher Doxy amount, suggesting both an initial and a long-term bacteriostatic potential of the coated surface. Surface chemistry was analyzed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. Surface topography was evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy and blue-light profilometry. Longer polarization time from 1 h to 5 h and higher current density from 1 to 15 mA cm −2 resulted in a higher amount of Doxy on the surface. The surface was covered by a layer of Doxy less than 100 nm without significant changes in surface topography. The antibacterial property of the Doxy-coated surface was analyzed by biofilm and planktonic growth assays using Staphylococcus epidermidis. Doxy-coated samples reduced both biofilm accumulation and planktonic growth in broth culture, and also inhibited bacterial growth on agar plates. The antibacterial effect was stronger for samples of 5 mA–3 h coated with a higher amount of Doxy compared to that of 1 mA–1 h. Accordingly, an abutment surface coated with Doxy has potential for preventing bacterial colonization when exposed to the oral cavity. Doxy-coating could be a viable way to control peri-implant mucositis and prevent its progression into peri-implantitis. (paper)

  12. The effects of splinting periodontally compromised removable partial denture abutments on bone stresses: a three-dimensional finite element study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allahyar Geramy

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: Splinting a very weak abutment to an adjacent healthy tooth might not be beneficial. The acceptable crown to root ratio for fixed splinting a weak abutment to an adjacent normal tooth was around 1.65-2.

  13. A novel abutment construction technique for rapid bridge construction : controlled low strength Materials (CLSM) with full-height concrete panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    One of the major obstacles facing rapid bridge construction for typical span type bridges is the time required to construct bridge abutments and foundations. This can be remedied by using the controlled low strength materials (CLSM) bridge abutment. ...

  14. Twin screw wet granulation: Binder delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-06-20

    The effects of three ways of binder delivery into the twin screw granulator (TSG) on the residence time, torque, properties of granules (size, shape, strength) and binder distribution were studied. The binder distribution was visualised through the transparent barrel using high speed imaging as well as quantified using offline technique. Furthermore, the effect of binder delivery and the change of screw configuration (conveying elements only and conveying elements with kneading elements) on the surface velocity of granules across the screw channel were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The binder was delivered in three ways; all solid binder incorporated with powder mixture, 50% of solid binder mixed with powder mixture and 50% mixed with water, all the solid binder dissolved in water. Incorporation of all solid binder with powder mixture resulted in the relatively longer residence time and higher torque, narrower granule size distribution, more spherical granules, weaker big-sized granules, stronger small-sized granules and better binder distribution compared to that in other two ways. The surface velocity of granules showed variation from one screw to another as a result of uneven liquid distribution as well as shown a reduction while introducing the kneading elements into the screw configuration. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Study of displacements of a bridge abutment using FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wymysłowski Michał

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Steel sheet piles are often used to support excavations for bridge foundations. When they are left in place in the permanent works, they have the potential to increase foundation bearing capacity and reduce displacements; but their presence is not usually taken into account in foundation design. In this article, the results of finite element analysis of a typical abutment foundation, with and without cover of sheet piles, are presented to demonstrate these effects. The structure described is located over the Więceminka river in the town of Kołobrzeg, Poland. It is a single-span road bridge with reinforced concrete slab.

  16. Live-bed scour experiments with 45 wing-wall abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 39; Issue 5. Live-bed scour experiments with 45° wing-wall ... Keywords. Scour; bridge foundation; abutments; hydraulics; rivers. ... A design equation is proposed for estimating maximum scour depth at 45°wing-wall abutment under live-bed condition. The calculated values of scour ...

  17. Soft tissue response to zirconia and titanium implant abutments : an in vivo within-subject comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brakel, Ralph; Meijer, Gert J.; Verhoeven, Jan Willem; Jansen, John; de Putter, Cornelis; Cune, Marco S.

    2012-01-01

    Aim To compare the health of the soft tissues towards zirconia and titanium abutments in man, as observed using histological data. Material and Methods Twenty patients received two mandibular implants with either a zirconia or titanium abutment (split mouth study design, left-right randomization).

  18. Live-bed scour experiments with 45 wing-wall abutments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The armour-layer gradually increases the effective bed shear resistance, which restricts the development of scour hole. 4. Maximum equilibrium local scour depth around 45. ◦ wing-wall abutment. Maximum equilibrium local scour depth at 45. ◦ wing-wall abutment in non-cohesive bed sedi- ments depends on the variables ...

  19. A Simplified Technique for Implant-Abutment Level Impression after Soft Tissue Adaptation around Provisional Restoration

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Kutkut; Osama Abu-Hammad; Robert Frazer

    2016-01-01

    Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or plastic impression copings, analogs, and laboratory components. Simplifying the dental implant restoration by reducing armamentarium through incorporating conventional techniq...

  20. Analysis of resistance to fatigue between straight solid and anatomic abutments of Morse taper system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Tavares de GOIS-SANTOS

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the phenomenon of fatigue is essential because implant failures usually are caused by this process. Purpose The objective of this study was to examine the fatigue resistance of straight and anatomical abutments joints that were submitted to cyclic loads. Material and method We used 37 Morse taper implants and 37 abutments, divided into two groups (n= 16: straight abutment, n= 21 anatomical abutment. The sets were submitted to cyclic loading (5 million using servo-hydraulic equipment. Three sets from each group were subjected to bending tests to determine the maximum load resistance, which served as the parameter for comparison of the cyclic tests. We evaluated number of cycles, load and bending moment. Result Of the 31 abutments cyclically tested, 17 (54.8% fractured in fewer than 5 million cycles; 8 (25.8% of these were straight abutments, and 9 (29% were anatomical. A total of 14 samples (45.2% resisted the cyclic loading. According to Fisher's exact test, there was no difference between groups as the fracture. Conclusion Despite of the straight abutments have higher average load and bending moment on the anatomical, both types of abutments showed similar performance as the fracture strength in vitro.

  1. Fracture Strength and Failure Mode of Maxillary Implant-Supported Provisional Single Crowns : A Comparison of Composite Resin Crowns Fabricated Directly Over PEEK Abutments and Solid Titanium Abutments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santing, H.J.; Meijer, Henny J.A.; Raghoebar, G.M.; Ozcan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Polyetheretherketone (PEEK) temporary abutments have been recently introduced for making implant-supported provisional single crowns. Little information is available in the dental literature on the durability of provisional implant-supported restorations. Purpose: The objectives of this

  2. Impact of screw configuration on the particle size distribution of granules produced by twin screw granulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Burggraeve, A; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-02-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) has been reported by different research groups as an attractive technology for continuous wet granulation. However, in contrast to fluidized bed granulation, granules produced via this technique typically have a wide and multimodal particle size distribution (PSD), resulting in suboptimal flow properties. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of granulator screw configuration on the PSD of granules produced by TSG. Experiments were performed using a 25 mm co-rotating twin screw granulator, being part of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing line from GEA Pharma Systems). Besides the screw elements conventionally used for TSG (conveying and kneading elements), alternative designs of screw elements (tooth-mixing-elements (TME), screw mixing elements (SME) and cutters) were investigated using an α-lactose monohydrate formulation granulated with distilled water. Granulation with only conveying elements resulted in wide and multimodal PSD. Using kneading elements, the width of the PSD could be partially narrowed and the liquid distribution was more homogeneous. However, still a significant fraction of oversized agglomerates was obtained. Implementing additional kneading elements or cutters in the final section of the screw configuration was not beneficial. Furthermore, granulation with only TME or SME had limited impact on the width of the PSD. Promising results were obtained by combining kneading elements with SME, as for these configurations the PSD was narrower and shifted to the size fractions suitable for tableting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The movement of screw dislocations in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian Xiaogeng; Woo Chungho

    2004-03-25

    Using Acland potential for tungsten, the movement of 1/2a<1 1 1> screw dislocation under shear stress was investigated by molecular dynamics simulation. Equilibrated core structure was obtained by relaxation of screw dislocation with proper boundary conditions. We found that the equilibrium dislocation core has three-fold symmetry and spread out in three <1 1 2> direction on {l_brace}1 1 0{r_brace} planes. The screw dislocation core could not keep the original shape when the shear stress applied. The dislocation could not move until the shear stress became large enough. The dislocation moved in zigzag when the shear stress neared the Peierls stress. When the shear stress became larger, the dislocation moved in zigzag at the beginning and than moved almost in straight line in [2-bar11] direction. The large shear stress applied, the long distance moved before the dislocation stilled in z-direction and the large velocity in y-direction.

  4. A Simplified Technique for Implant-Abutment Level Impression after Soft Tissue Adaptation around Provisional Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Kutkut

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Impression techniques for implant restorations can be implant level or abutment level impressions with open tray or closed tray techniques. Conventional implant-abutment level impression techniques are predictable for maximizing esthetic outcomes. Restoration of the implant traditionally requires the use of the metal or plastic impression copings, analogs, and laboratory components. Simplifying the dental implant restoration by reducing armamentarium through incorporating conventional techniques used daily for crowns and bridges will allow more general dentists to restore implants in their practices. The demonstrated technique is useful when modifications to implant abutments are required to correct the angulation of malpositioned implants. This technique utilizes conventional crown and bridge impression techniques. As an added benefit, it reduces costs by utilizing techniques used daily for crowns and bridges. The aim of this report is to describe a simplified conventional impression technique for custom abutments and modified prefabricated solid abutments for definitive restorations.

  5. Interfacial sliding properties of bone screw materials and their effect on screw fixation strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koistinen, Arto P; Korhonen, Hannu; Kröger, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo

    2014-09-05

    This study examined the effect of interfacial sliding and test material properties on the fixation strength and insertional properties of self-tapping bone screws. Various substitute materials (polyacetal [POM], poly(methyl methacrylate) [PMMA] and E-glass-filled Epoxy [Sawbones®]) for human bone were evaluated, and the results were compared with the findings for cadaver bone.
 Initial coefficient of friction (CoF) of the screw material stainless steel AISI316 was tested using a pin-on-disk apparatus, and the screws were exposed to pullout tests after insertion torque tests. The effect of a smooth diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating was studied by applying the coating on both CoF test balls and bone screws.
 Mechanical properties of test blocks strongly correlated to both pullout strength and insertion torque of the screws: for noncoated 2.7-mm screws, tensile strength correlated to pullout strength and insertion torque, with Pearson correlation coefficients r=0.977 and r=0.738, respectively. In contrast, CoF correlated strongly to screw insertion torque but not to pullout strength in bone substitute materials (for noncoated 2.7-mm screws, r=0.652 and r=0.248, respectively). There were no significant differences in CoF using noncoated and DLC-coated screw materials against bone substitutes.
 Proper materials for in vitro testing help in evaluating the biomechanics of the implants in advance. However, choosing the material needs attention, as their ability to model human bone depends on test type.

  6. Effect of the number of abutments on biomechanics of Branemark prosthesis with straight and tilted distal implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Michelon Naconecy

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the bending moments, and compressive and tensile forces in implant-supported prostheses with three, four or five abutments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten Pd-Ag frameworks were tested over two master models with: 1 parallel vertical implants, and 2 tilted distal implants. Strain gauges were fixed on the abutments of each master model to measure the deformation when a static load of 50 N was applied on the cantilever (15 mm. The deformation values were measured when the metallic frameworks were tested over three, four or five abutments, and transformed into force and bending moment values. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons at 5% level of significance. RESULTS: Abutment #1 (adjacent to the cantilever had the highest values of force and sagittal bending moment for all tests with three, four or five abutments. Independently from the number of abutments, axial force in abutment #1 was higher in the vertical model than in the tilted model. Total moment was higher with three abutments than with four or five abutments. Independently from the inclination of implants, the mean force with four or five abutments was lower than that with three abutments. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that in the set-ups with four or five abutments tilted distal implants reduced axial force and did not increase bending moments.

  7. Effect of the number of abutments on biomechanics of Branemark prosthesis with straight and tilted distal implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naconecy, Marcos Michelon; Geremia, Tomás; Cervieri, André; Teixeira, Eduardo Rolim; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the bending moments, and compressive and tensile forces in implant-supported prostheses with three, four or five abutments. Ten Pd-Ag frameworks were tested over two master models with: 1) parallel vertical implants, and 2) tilted distal implants. Strain gauges were fixed on the abutments of each master model to measure the deformation when a static load of 50 N was applied on the cantilever (15 mm). The deformation values were measured when the metallic frameworks were tested over three, four or five abutments, and transformed into force and bending moment values. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons at 5% level of significance. Abutment #1 (adjacent to the cantilever) had the highest values of force and sagittal bending moment for all tests with three, four or five abutments. Independently from the number of abutments, axial force in abutment #1 was higher in the vertical model than in the tilted model. Total moment was higher with three abutments than with four or five abutments. Independently from the inclination of implants, the mean force with four or five abutments was lower than that with three abutments. The results suggest that in the set-ups with four or five abutments tilted distal implants reduced axial force and did not increase bending moments.

  8. OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES: TWO OR THREE SCREWS?

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Ricardo; Pepicelli, Gustavo Roberto; Takata, Edmilson Takehiro

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of osteosynthesis on femoral neck fractures using two instead of three screws. Methods: Thirty-nine fractures were retrospectively evaluated, divided into groups in which two screws were used in parallel (n = 28) or three screws (n =11) in an inverted triangle configuration (in accordance with the AO technique). The patients were then followed up until reaching the outcome of either consolidation or failure. Results: In the group in which two screws were u...

  9. A processing method for orthodontic mini-screws reuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Noorollahian

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Cleaning of used mini-screws with phosphoric acid 37% (10 minutes and sodium hypochlorite 5.25% (30 minutes reduces tissue remnants to the level of as-received mini-screws. So it can be suggested as a processing method of used mini-screws. Previous insertion of mini-screws into the bone and above-mentioned processing method and resterilization with autoclave had no adverse effects on insertion, removal, and fracture torque values as mechanical properties indices.

  10. Drag and Torque on Locked Screw Propeller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Tabaczek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Few data on drag and torque on locked propeller towed in water are available in literature. Those data refer to propellers of specific geometry (number of blades, blade area, pitch and skew of blades. The estimation of drag and torque of an arbitrary propeller considered in analysis of ship resistance or propulsion is laborious. The authors collected and reviewed test data available in the literature. Based on collected data there were developed the empirical formulae for estimation of hydrodynamic drag and torque acting on locked screw propeller. Supplementary CFD computations were carried out in order to prove the applicability of the formulae to modern moderately skewed screw propellers.

  11. Influence of abutment height and surface roughness on in vitro retention of three luting agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Batalla, Jordi; Soliva-Garriga, Joan; Campillo-Funollet, Marc; Munoz-Viveros, Carlos A; Giner-Tarrida, Lluis

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of abutment height, airborne-particle abrasion, and type of cement on the tensile resistance to dislodgement of cement-retained implant restorations. Three groups of 12 standardized abutments each were prepared with different heights (4 mm, 5 mm, and 6 mm) using a milling machine. Crowns were cast in cobalt-chrome using the lost-wax technique, airborne particle-abraded using 50-Μm aluminum oxide, and cleaned with acetone. Restorations were cemented using a noneugenol acrylic urethane cement, a resin-modified glass ionomer, or a zinc oxide-noneugenol cement. A 5-kg load was applied for 10 minutes. Samples were kept at 37°C and 100% humidity overnight. A tensile force was applied to the crown using a testing machine at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute until failure occurred. Next, the abutments were airborne particle-abraded with 50-Μm aluminum oxide, and the cementation and testing procedures were repeated. The effects of cement, abutment height, and surface treatment were evaluated statistically. There were significant differences among the cements. The resin-modified glass ionomer provided the greatest retention in all the tested conditions, while the zinc oxide-noneugenol cement produced the lowest retention values. Significant differences were also detected between 4-mm and 6-mm abutments, with the 6-mm abutments being more retentive. No differences were found between 4-mm and 5-mm abutments or between 5-mm and 6-mm abutments. The effect of airborne-particle abrasion was also found to be significant. A maximum increase of 90 N in retention force was observed after airborne-particle abrasion for the 5-mm abutments cemented with the acrylic urethane cement. Cement, airborne-particle abrasion, and abutment height can significantly influence retention of implant-supported crowns. Different parameters, including those specific to the patient, should be considered in the selection of a luting agent.

  12. Primary stability following abutment preparation of one-piece dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Omer; Gabay, Eran; Machtei, Eli E

    2013-01-01

    One-piece dental implants are commonly used for the immediate restoration of missing teeth. In most cases, the clinician has to prepare the abutment intraorally to ensure a proper emergence profile and abutment angulation. However, this procedure might impair primary stability and thus potentially compromise osseointegration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of abutment preparation on the primary stability of a one-piece implant system (UNO MIS). Implant stability was assessed by resonance frequency analysis with a novel custom-made external fixation device, validated previously, developed specifically for resonance frequency measurements of this implant. Thirty 3 × 13-mm implants were inserted in porcine jawbone with insertion torque of 15 Ncm (group A, 15 implants) or 30 Ncm (group B, 15 implants). Abutments were prepared by reducing the facial aspect of the implant abutment with a high-speed dental turbine (400,000 rpm) equipped with a medium-roughness diamond bur. Implant stability quotients (ISQs) were measured before and after abutment preparation. Mean ISQs measured in group A and group B before abutment preparation were very similar (58.2 ± 1.4 and 57.4 ± 0.9, respectively; P > .05). Following abutment preparation, three implants in group A lost primary stability. The mean ISQ value in group A was reduced from 58.2 ± 1.4 to 54.9 ± 7.9 following abutment preparation (P .05). Abutment preparation of a one-piece dental implant inserted with low insertion torque might impair implant primary stability.

  13. An innovative steel-concrete joint for integral abutment bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Briseghella

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Integral abutment bridges are becoming rather common, due to the durability problems of bearings and expansion joints. At the same time, among short- and medium-span bridges, multi-beam steel-concrete composite deck with hot-rolled girder is an economical and interesting alternative to traditional pre-stressed concrete solutions. The two concepts can be linked together to design integral steel-concrete composite bridges with the benefits of two typologies. The most critical aspect for these bridges is usually the joints between deck and piers or abutments. In this paper, an innovative beam-to-pier joint is proposed and a theoretical and experimental study is introduced and discussed. The analyzed connection is aimed at combining general ease of construction with a highly simplified assembly procedure and a good transmission of hogging and sagging moment at the supports in continuous beams. For this purpose, the traditional shear studs, used at the interface between steel beam and upper concrete slab, are also used at the ends of steel profiles welded horizontally to the end plates. To better understand the behaviour of this kind of joints and the roles played by different components, three large-scale specimens were tested and an FE model was implemented. The theoretical and experimental results confirmed the potential of the proposed connection for practical applications and indicated the way to improve its structural behaviour.

  14. Bond strengths of a porcelain material to different abutment substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, M; Mannocci, F; Vichi, A; Goracci, G

    2000-01-01

    The study evaluated the bond strength values of a single-unit all-porcelain material luted with an adhesive-resin cement to different abutment substrates: amalgam, compomer, traditional glass ionomer cement, microhybrid resin composite, two resin composites for abutment build-up, gold, sandblasted gold, dentin and enamel. Syntac enamel-dentin bonding system, in combination with IPS-Empress porcelain material, was used. After thermal cycling, the samples were inserted into a Bencor jig device and sheared in a Controls testing machine. The statistical analysis of the differences between the bond strength values obtained was performed by ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls multiple-comparison test. The type of failure at the interface was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. The type of failure, such as adhesive, cohesive and adhesive-cohesive, was correlated with bond strength values. Enamel, dentin and the two resin composites for crown build-up showed the highest bond strength values, while amalgam and gold samples showed the lowest.

  15. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Removal of jammed titanium screws can be difficult due to the problem of stripping of the hexagonal heads of the screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri‑implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 ...

  16. Hollow Mill for Extraction of Stripped Titanium Screws: An Easy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    screws. We present a technique of extraction of stripped screws with the use of a standard 4.5 mm stainless steel hollow mill in a patient of peri-implant fracture of the radius fixed with a titanium locking plate 2 years back. The technique is quick, safe, and cost effective. Key words: Hollow mill, stripped screws, titanium locked.

  17. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  18. Inadvertent Screw Stripping During Ankle Fracture Fixation in Elderly Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinah, A. Feroz; Mears, Simon C.; Knight, Trevor A.; Soin, Sandeep P.; Campbell, John T.; Belkoff, Stephen M.

    2011-01-01

    Poor screw purchase because of osteoporosis presents difficulties in ankle fracture fixation. The aim of our study was to determine if cortical thickness, unicortical versus bicortical purchase, and bone mineral density are predictors of inadvertent screw stripping and overtightening. Ten paired cadaver ankles (average donor age, 81.7 years; range, 50-97 years) were used for the study. Computed tomography scanning with phantoms of known density was used to determine the bone density along the distal fibula. A standard small-fragment, 7-hole, one-third tubular plate was applied to the lateral surface of the fibula, with 3 proximal bicortical cortical screws and 2 distal unicortical cancellous screws. A posterior plate, in which all 5 screws were cortical and achieved bicortical purchase, was subsequently applied to the same bones and positioned so that the screw holes did not overlap. A torque sensor was used to measure the torque of each screw during insertion (Ti) and then stripping (Ts). The effect of bone density, screw location, cortical thickness, and unicortical versus bicortical purchase on Ti and Ts was checked for significance (P screws were inadvertently stripped and 12% were overtightened. Despite 21% of the screws being stripped or being at risk for stripping, we found no significant predictors to warn of impending screw stripping. Additional work is needed to identify clinically useful predictors of screw stripping. PMID:23569675

  19. Fracture strength of implant abutments after fatigue testing: A systematic review and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coray, Rafaela; Zeltner, Marco; Özcan, Mutlu

    2016-09-01

    The use of implants and their respective suprastructures to replace missing teeth has become a common therapeutic option in dentistry. Prior to their clinical application, all implant components have to demonstrate suitable durability in laboratory studies. Fatigue tests utilising cyclic loading typically simulate masticatory function in vitro. The objectives of this systematic review were to assess the loading conditions used for fatigue testing of implant abutments and to compare the fracture strength of different types of implant abutment and abutment-connection types after cyclic loading. Original scientific papers published in MEDLINE (PubMed) and Embase database in English between 01/01/1970 and 12/31/2014 on cyclic loading on implant abutments were included in this systematic review. The following MeSH terms, search terms and their combinations were used: "in vitro" or "ex vivo" or experimental or laboratory, "dental implants", "implants, experimental", "dental prosthesis, implant-supported", "fatigue", "dental abutments", "cyclic loading", "cyclic fatigue", "mechanical fatigue", "fatigue resistance", "bending moments", and "fracture". Two reviewers performed screening and data abstraction. Only the studies that reported, static fracture values before and after fatigue cycling of implant abutments, were included that allowed comparison of aging effect through cyclic loading. Data (N) were analyzed using a weighted linear regression analysis (α=0.05). The selection process resulted in the final sample of 7 studies. In general, loading conditions of the fatigue tests revealed heterogeneity in the sample but a meta-analysis could be performed for the following parameters: a) abutment material, b) implant-abutment connection, and (c) number of fatigue cycles. Mean fracture strength of titanium (508.9±334.6N) and for zirconia abutments (698.6±452.6N) did not show significant difference after cyclic loading (p>0.05). Internal implant-abutment connections

  20. Entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-An; Kwak, Dai-Soon; You, Sung-Lim

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the entry zone of iliac screw fixation to maintain proper entry width and screw length. Computed tomography images of pelvic bones from 90 human cadavers were reconstructed into 3-dimensional models. In each model, a sectional image crossing the posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) and anterior inferior iliac spine (AIIS) and consecutive sectional images up to 20 mm superiorly and inferiorly from the PSIS with 1-mm intervals aiming the AIIS were obtained. One virtual iliac screw with 10-mm diameter was introduced onto the PSIS at the middle and at the lateral and medial 1/4 points on the prominence of the posterior iliac spine. The entry width of the bony prominence and the corresponding maximal screw length available were evaluated for each entry point. The entry width was smallest on the inferior 20 mm (4.7 ± 3.0 mm) and gradually increased up to the superior 10 mm (19.1 ± 3.9 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw length was smallest on the superior 20 mm (76.7 ± 39.7 mm) and gradually increased down to the inferior 10 mm (112.3 ± 15.1 mm) sectional images. The maximal screw lengths were significantly greatest at the most medial point and smallest at the most lateral point on the superior 20- and 10-mm sectional images and at the PSIS. The iliac screw fixation entry zone to maintain proper screw length and entry width is outlined from 20 mm superiorly to 10 mm inferiorly from the PSIS and is located more medially from the prominence of the posterior iliac spine.

  1. Sacroiliac screw fixation for tile B fractures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, E.W. van den; Zwienen, C.M. van; Hoek van Dijke, G.A.; Snijders, C.J.; Vugt, A.B. van

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this comparative cadaveric study was to investigate whether the stability of partially unstable pelvic fractures can be improved by combining plate fixation of the symphysis with a posterior sacroiliac screw. METHODS: In six specimens, a Tile B1 (open-book) pelvic fracture

  2. Nylon screws make inexpensive coil forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, G.; Rosenthal, C.

    1978-01-01

    Standard nylon screws act as coil form copper wire laid down in spiral thread. Completed coil may be bonded to printed-circuit board. However, it is impossible to tune coil by adjusting spacing between windings, technique sometimes used with air-core coils.

  3. A comparison of screw insertion torque and pullout strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, William M; Tornetta, Paul; Petteys, Timothy; Gerlach, Darin; Cartner, Jacob; Walker, Zakiyyah; Russell, Thomas A

    2010-06-01

    Pullout strength of screws is a parameter used to evaluate plate screw fixation strength. However, screw fixation strength may be more closely related to its ability to generate sufficient insertion because stable nonlocked plate-screw fracture fixation requires sufficient compression between plate and bone such that no motion occurs between the plate and bone under physiological loads. Compression is generated by tightening of screws. In osteoporotic cancellous bone, sufficient screw insertion torque may not be generated before screw stripping. The effect of screw thread pitch on generation of maximum insertion torque (MIT) and pullout strength (POS) was investigated in an osteoporotic cancellous bone model and the relationship between MIT and POS was analyzed. Stainless steel screws with constant major (5.0 mm) and minor (2.7 mm) diameters but with varying thread pitches (1, 1.2, 1.5, 1.6, and 1.75 mm) were tested for MIT and POS in a validated osteoporotic surrogate for cancellous bone (density of 160 kg/m(3) [10 lbs/ft(3)]). MIT was measured with a torque-measuring hex driver for screws inserted through a one-third tubular plate. POS was measured after insertion of screws to a depth of 20 mm based on the Standard Specification and Test Methods for Metallic Medical Bone Screws (ASTM F 543-07). Five screws were tested for each failure mode and screw design. The relationship between MIT and compressive force between the plate and bone surrogate was evaluated using pressure-sensitive film. There was a significant difference in mean MIT based on screw pitch (P compression between the plate and bone surrogate was found for increasing screw torque (R(2) = 0.97). These results indicate that the ability of different screw designs to generate high screw insertion torque in a model of osteoporotic cancellous bone is unrelated to their pullout strength. Therefore, extrapolation of results for POS to identify optimal screw design for osteoporotic bone may not be valid

  4. [Clinical application of percutaneous iliosacral screws combined with pubic ramus screws in Tile B pelvic fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qi-Fei; Lin, Kui-Ran; Zhao, Dai-Jie; Zhang, Song-Qin; Feng, Sheng-Kai; Li, Chen

    2017-03-25

    To investigate the application and effect of minimally invasive percutaneous anterior pelvic pubic ramus screw fixation in Tile B fractures. A retrospective review was conducted on 56 patients with posterior pelvic ring injury combined with fractures of anterior pubic and ischiadic ramus treated between May 2010 and August 2015, including 31 males and 25 females with an average age of 36.8 years old ranging from 35 to 65 years old. Based on the Tile classification, there were 13 cases of Tile B1 type, 28 cases of Tile B2 type and 15 cases of Tile B3 type. Among them, 26 patients were treated with sacroiliac screws combined with external fixation (external fixator group) and the other 30 patients underwent sacroiliac screw fixation combined with anterior screw fixation (pubic ramus screw group). Postoperative complications, postoperative ambulation time, fracture healing, blood loss, Majeed pelvic function score and visual analogue scale(VAS) were compared between two groups. Fifty-four patients were followed up from 3 to 24 months with a mean of 12 months. There were no significant difference in the peri-operative bleeding and operation time between two groups( P >0.05). The postoperative activity time and fracture healing time of pubic ramus screw group were shorter than those of the external fixator group, the differences were statistically significant( P safty treatment method to the Tile B pelvic fracture. It has advantages of early ambulation, relief of the pain and few complications.

  5. Method of Retention Control for Compromised Periodontal Bone Support Abutment of Conical Crown Retained Denture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-Hsiang Wang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Conical crown-retained dentures (CCRD show a higher survival rate and greater patient satisfaction than transitional removable partial dentures during long-term follow-up. However, unsustainable denture retention force on supporting abutments after initial delivery and loss retention are frequently seen in long-term follow-up of clinical cases. The main causes are insufficient information concerning denture retention designs and the retention-tolerance of the supporting abutments. Monitoring by dental technicians of the quality of dental prostheses is critical. This case report describes an optimal method for CCRD construction that determines and distributes an optimal denture retention force on the supporting abutments to allow the patient to easily remove the denture while ensuring that the CCRD remains in place during physiologic activities. Oral rehabilitation with CCRD should consider the condition of the abutment periodontal support, the interarch occlusal relationship, supplemental fatigue of the terminal abutment, and patient's estimated bite force. The effects of friction on the abutment's inner crown were based on an optimal a angle. The dental laboratory used these measurements to fabricate a CCRD using a Koni-Meter to adjust the retention of the inner crown. This method protects the abutments and reduces the wear between the inner and outer crowns. The CCRD achieved good esthetic results and physiologic functions. Periodic long-term follow-up of the patient and CCRD after initial placement is recommended.

  6. Analysis of the Generating and Influencing Factors of Vertical Cracking in Abutments during Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingwei Xue

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the causes of cracking in abutments subject to concrete shrinkage and temperature variation during the construction process and to determine factors affecting the mechanical properties of the abutment, nonlinear calculations capturing abutment behavior are conducted with Midas/FEA software. Using these calculations, the cracking mechanism is identified, and the influence of the evaluated factors is analyzed. It is concluded that the deformation between the pile cap and abutment backwall as constrained by a pile foundation when subjected to concrete shrinkage and temperature changes is the basic cause of abutment cracks during construction; these cracks form over the piles and develop upward. For a given reinforcement ratio, the distribution of horizontal crack-control steel using small, closely spaced bars is more beneficial. When pile-bearing capacity meets the standard, the width of the generated cracks tends to decrease with the decrease in the diameter of the piles. The existence of a postcast strip in the abutment backwall also contributes to the decrease in the depth of the crack. Finally, the impact of age difference between the pile cap concrete and abutment backwall concrete on cracking is inconsequential.

  7. The use of definitive implant abutments for the fabrication of provisional crowns: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilhan, Hakan; Geckili, Onur; Mumcu, Emre

    2011-10-01

    The anterior region is a challenge for most clinicians to achieve optimal esthetics with dental implants. The provisional crown is a key factor in the success of obtaining pink esthetics around restorations with single implants, by soft tissue and inter-proximal papilla shaping. Provisional abutments bring additional costs and make the treatment more expensive. Since one of the aims of the clinician is to reduce costs and find more economic ways to raise patient satisfaction, this paper describes a practical method for chair-side fabrication of non-occlusal loaded provisional crowns used by the authors for several years successfully. Twenty two patients (9 males, 13 females; mean age, 36,72 years) with one missing anterior tooth were treated by using the presented method. Metal definitive abutments instead of provisional abutments were used and provisional crowns were fabricated on the definitive abutments for all of the patients. The marginal fit was finished on a laboratory analogue and temporarily cemented to the abutments. The marginal adaptation of the crowns was evaluated radiographically. The patients were all satisfied with the final appearance and no complications occurred until the implants were loaded with permanent restorations. The use of the definitive abutments for provisional crowns instead of provisional abutments reduces the costs and the same results can be obtained.

  8. Influences of implant neck design and implant-abutment joint type on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement: three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Yasufumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imazato, Satoshi; Nakano, Tamaki; Yatani, Hirofumi

    2012-11-01

    Occlusal overloading is one of the causes of peri-implant bone resorption, and many studies on stress distribution in the peri-implant bone by three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) have been performed. However, the FEA models previously reported were simplified and far from representing what occurs in clinical situations. In this study, 3D FEA was conducted with simulation of the complex structure of dental implants, and the influences of neck design and connections with an abutment on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement were investigated. Three types of two-piece implant CAD models were designed: external joint with a conical tapered neck (EJ), internal joint with a straight neck (IJ), and conical joint with a reverse conical neck (CJ). 3D FEA was performed with the setting of a "contact" condition at the component interface, and stress distribution in the peri-implant bone and abutment micromovement were analyzed. The shear stress was concentrated on the mesiodistal side of the cortical bone for EJ. EJ had the largest amount of abutment micromovement. While the von Mises and shear stresses around the implant neck were concentrated on the labial bone for IJ, they were distributed on the mesiodistal side of the cortical bone for CJ. CJ had the least amount of abutment micromovement. Implants with a conical joint with an abutment and reverse conical neck design may effectively control occlusal overloading on the labial bone and abutment micromovement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of Bond Strength between Grooved Titanium Alloy Implant Abutments and Provisional Veneering Materials after Surface Treatment of the Abutments: An In vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkat, Gowtham; Krishnan, Murugesan; Srinivasan, Suganya; Balasubramanian, Muthukumar

    2017-01-01

    Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength. This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between the abutment and the provisional veneering materials by surface treatments such as acid etching, laser etching, and sand blasting of the abutment. Forty titanium alloy abutments of 3 mm diameter and 11 mm height were grouped into four groups with ten samples. Groups A, B, C, and D are untreated abutments, sand blasted with 110 μm aluminum particles, etched with 1% hydrofluoric acid and 30% nitric acid, and laser etched with Nd: YAG laser, respectively. Provisional crowns were fabricated with bis-acrylic resin and cemented with noneugenol temporary luting cement. The shear bond strength was measured in universal testing machine using modified Shell-Nielsen shear test after the cemented samples were stored in water at 25°C for 24 h. Load was applied at a constant cross head speed of 5 mm/min until a sudden decrease in resistance indicative of bond failure was observed. The corresponding force values were recorded, and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Newman-Keuls post hoc test. The laser-etched samples showed higher bond strength. Among the three surface treatments, laser etching showed the highest bond strength between titanium alloy implant abutment and provisional restorations. The sand-blasted surfaces demonstrated a significant difference in bond strength compared to laser-etched surfaces. The results of this study confirmed that a combination of surface treatments and bond agents enhances the

  10. Effect of Abutment Height on Retention of Single Cementretained, Wide- and Narrow-platform Implant-supported Restorations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariba Saleh Saber

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. In contrast to prepared natural dentin abutments, little is known concerning factors influencing the retention of fixed prostheses cemented to implant abutments. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment height on the retention of single castings cemented to wide and narrow platform implant abutments. Materials and methods. Thirty-six parallel-sided abutments (Biohorizon Straight Abutment of narrow platform (NP and wide platform (WP sizes with their analogs were used. In each group of platform size, abutments were prepared with axial wall heights of 5, 4, 3, 2 mm (n=9. On the whole 72 castings were constructed, which incorporated an attachment to allow removal. Castings were cemented to abutments with TempBond®. A uniaxial tensile force was applied to the crown using an Instron machine until cement failure occurred. Analysis of variance of the models were fit to determine the effect of height of abutment of the restorations on the mean tensile strength (α=0.05. Results. The mean peak removal force for corresponding abutments was significantly different (P NP; (2 with alteration of axial wall height for NP: 5 mm > 4 mm > 3 mm = 2 mm and for WP: 5 mm > 4 mm = 3 mm = 2 mm. Conclusion. The retention of NP cement-retained restorations is influenced by the wall height but not in same manner as WP. Restorations of narrow-platform size with longer abutment exhibited higher tensile resistance to dislodgement.

  11. Assessing accuracy of sustentaculum screw placement during calcaneal fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitajn, I Leah; Toussaint, Rull James; Kwon, John Y

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of the Harris heel view to confirm placement of the sustentacular screw during calcaneal fixation. A 4.0 cancellous screw was placed in a cadaveric specimen, from lateral to medial in 5 configurations: (1) within the sustentaculum, (2) misdirected inferiorly to sustentaculum, (3) misdirected superiorly to sustentaculum, (4) misdirected anteriorly to sustentaculum, and (5) misdirected posteriorly to sustentaculum. Harris heel views were obtained at 5 angulations and were analyzed to determine screw placement. A screw placed anatomically was radiographically confirmed by the Harris heel view to be within the sustentaculum in all views. An inferiorly misdirected screw appeared radiographically within the sustentaculum at 30, 40 and 50 degrees but was confirmed misplaced on the 10- and 20-degree views. A posteriorly misdirected screw was confirmed misplaced on all 5 views. An anteriorly misdirected screw appeared radiographically within the sustentaculum on the 10-degree view but was confirmed misplaced on all other views. A superiorly misdirected screw was confirmed misplaced on all views. Clinicians should be aware that several specific axial heel views are required to verify placement of the sustentacular screw. An inferiorly misdirected screw will appear to be within the sustentaculum with the standard Harris heel view. Heel views should be obtained from a range of 10 to 50 degrees to confirm accurate placement of the sustentacular screw.

  12. Abutment Material Effect on Peri-implant Soft Tissue Color and Perceived Esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aram; Campbell, Stephen D; Viana, Marlos A G; Knoernschild, Kent L

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implant abutment material on peri-implant soft tissue color using intraoral spectrophotometric analysis and to compare the clinical outcomes with patient and clinician perception and satisfaction. Thirty patients and four prosthodontic faculty members participated. Abutments were zirconia, gold-hued titanium, and titanium. Peri-implant mucosa color of a single anterior implant restoration was compared to the patient's control tooth. Spectrophotometric analysis using SpectroShade TM Micro data determined the color difference (ΔE, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*) between the midfacial peri-implant soft tissue for each abutment material and the marginal gingiva of the control tooth. Color difference values of the abutment groups were compared using ANOVA (α = 0.05). Patient and clinician satisfaction surveys were also conducted using a color-correcting light source. The results of each patient and clinician survey question were compared using chi-square analysis (α = 0.05). Pearson correlation analyses identified the relationship between the total color difference (ΔE) and the patient/clinician perception and satisfaction, as well as between ΔE and tissue thickness. Zirconia abutments displayed significantly smaller spectrophotometric gingival color difference (ΔE) compared to titanium and gold-hued titanium abutments (respectively, 3.98 ± 0.99; 7.22 ± 3.31; 5.65 ± 2.11; p esthetics than crown (white) esthetics (p < 0.05). Peri-implant mucosa with zirconia abutments demonstrated significantly lower mean color difference compared to titanium or gold-hued titanium abutments as measured spectrophotometrically; however, no statistical difference in patient or clinician perception/satisfaction among abutment materials was demonstrated. Patients were significantly more satisfied than clinicians. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. EFFECT OF CAST RECTIFIERS ON THE MARGINAL FIT OF UCLA ABUTMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime, Ana Paula Gumieiro; de Vasconcellos, Diego Klee; Mesquita, Alfredo Mikail Melo; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: This study assessed the effect of cast rectifiers on the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments compared to premachined UCLA abutments. The influence of casting and porcelain baking on the marginal misfit of these components was also investigated. Methods: Two groups were analyzed: test group – 10 cast UCLA abutments, finished with cast rectifier and submitted to ceramic application; control group – 10 premachined UCLA abutments, cast with noble metal alloy and submitted to ceramic application. Vertical misfit measurements were performed under light microscopy. In the test group, measurements were performed before and after the use of cast rectifiers, and after ceramic application. In the control group, measurements were performed before and after casting, and after ceramic application. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey's test (α= 5%). Results: The use of cast rectifiers significantly reduced the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments (from 25.68μm to 14.83μm; p<0.05). After ceramic application, the rectified cylinders presented misfit values (16.18μm) similar to those of premachined components (14.3 μm). Casting of the premachined UCLA abutments altered the marginal misfit of these components (from 9.63 μm to 14.6 μm; p<0.05). There were no significant changes after porcelain baking, in both groups. Conclusion: The use of cast rectifiers reduced the vertical misfit of cast UCLA abutments. Even with carefully performed laboratory steps, changes at the implant interface of premachined UCLA abutments occurred. Ceramic application did not alter the marginal misfit values of UCLA abutments. PMID:19089125

  14. Effect of cast rectifiers on the marginal fit of UCLA abutments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Gumieiro Jaime

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the effect of cast rectifiers on the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments compared to premachined UCLA abutments. The influence of casting and porcelain baking on the marginal misfit of these components was also investigated. METHODS: Two groups were analyzed: test group - 10 cast UCLA abutments, finished with cast rectifier and submitted to ceramic application; control group - 10 premachined UCLA abutments, cast with noble metal alloy and submitted to ceramic application. Vertical misfit measurements were performed under light microscopy. In the test group, measurements were performed before and after the use of cast rectifiers, and after ceramic application. In the control group, measurements were performed before and after casting, and after ceramic application. Data were submitted to statistical analysis by ANOVA and Tukey's test (a= 5%. RESULTS: The use of cast rectifiers significantly reduced the marginal misfit of cast UCLA abutments (from 25.68mm to 14.83mm; p<0.05. After ceramic application, the rectified cylinders presented misfit values (16.18mm similar to those of premachined components (14.3 mm. Casting of the premachined UCLA abutments altered the marginal misfit of these components (from 9.63 mm to 14.6 mm; p<0.05. There were no significant changes after porcelain baking, in both groups. CONCLUSION: The use of cast rectifiers reduced the vertical misfit of cast UCLA abutments. Even with carefully performed laboratory steps, changes at the implant interface of premachined UCLA abutments occurred. Ceramic application did not alter the marginal misfit values of UCLA abutments.

  15. Influence of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic crown systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Armağanci, Arzu; Ceylan, Gözlem; Celik, Ersan; Cankaya, Soner; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-11-01

    Ceramics are widely used for anterior restorations; however, clinical color reproduction still constitutes a challenge particularly when the ceramic crowns are used on titanium implant abutments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic material systems. Forty disks (11×1.5 mm, shade A2) were fabricated from medium-opacity (mo) and high-translucency (ht) lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) blocks, an aluminous ceramic (VITA In-Ceram Alumina), and a zirconia (Zirkonzahn) ceramic system. Disks were fabricated to represent 3 different implant abutments (zirconia, gold-palladium, and titanium) and dentin (composite resin, A2 shade) as background (11×2 mm). Disk-shaped composite resin specimens in A2 shade were fabricated to represent the cement layer. The color measurements of ceramic specimens were made on composite resin abutment materials using a spectrophotometer. CIELab color coordinates were recorded, and the color coordinates measured on composite resin background served as the control group. Color differences (ΔE 00 ) between the control and test groups were calculated. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared with the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The ceramics system, abutment material, and their interaction were significant for ΔE 00 values (P2.25) were observed for lithium disilicate ceramics on titanium abutments (2.46-2.50). The ΔE 00 values of lithium disilicate ceramics for gold-palladium and titanium abutments were significantly higher than for other groups (P2.25) of an implant-supported lithium disilicate ceramic restoration may be clinically unacceptable if it is fabricated over a titanium abutment. Zirconia may be a more suitable abutment material for implant-supported ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. OSTEOSYNTHESIS OF FEMORAL NECK FRACTURES: TWO OR THREE SCREWS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Ricardo; Pepicelli, Gustavo Roberto; Takata, Edmilson Takehiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of osteosynthesis on femoral neck fractures using two instead of three screws. Thirty-nine fractures were retrospectively evaluated, divided into groups in which two screws were used in parallel (n = 28) or three screws (n =11) in an inverted triangle configuration (in accordance with the AO technique). The patients were then followed up until reaching the outcome of either consolidation or failure. In the group in which two screws were used, consolidation was observed in 23 of the 28 fractures (82%). In the group in which three screws were used, consolidation was observed in 6 of the 11 fractures (55%). There was no statistically significant difference between these percentages. There was no difference in the prognosis for these fractures when treated using two screws in parallel or three screws in an inverted triangle in accordance with the AO technique. Further studies are needed in order to establish a definitive conclusion.

  17. Dental materials and their performance for the management of screw access channels in implant-supported restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Philipp; Alamanos, Christos; Hahnel, Sebastian; Papavasileiou, Dimitrios; Behr, Michael; Rosentritt, Martin

    2017-03-31

    Unsuccessfully sealed screw access channels of prosthetic implant abutments may lead to malodor or peri-implant diseases in gingival tissues adjacent to implant-supported restorations. Therefore, 72 sets of screw channel analogs with six different materials incorporated (Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), wax, gutta-percha, cavit, endofrost-pellets and cotton pellets) were exposed (2.5 h, 37°C) to Streptococcus mutans, oralis and Candida albicans suspensions. Bacterial adherence was quantified by using the fluorescence dye, Alamar Blue/resazurin, and an automated multifunctional reader. For quantification of fungal adherence the ATP-based bioluminescence approach was used. High relative fluorescence and luminescence intensities (>10,000), indicating high adhesion of streptococci and fungi were found for cotton and endofrost-pellets and low intensities (cavit and PTFE. The quantity of bacterial and fungal adhesion differed significantly between the assessed various sealing materials. In conclusion and within the limitations of this study, wax, gutta-percha, cavit and PTFE should be preferred as sealing materials.

  18. A Nearly Lethal Screw: An Unusual Cause of Recurrent Bradycardia and Asystole Episodes after Fixation of the Cervical Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Frenkel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 51-year-old man who was injured in a bicycle accident. His main injury was an unstable fracture of the cervical and thoracic vertebral column. Several hours after his arrival to the hospital the patient underwent open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF of the cervical and thoracic spine. The patient was hospitalized in our critical care unit for 99 days. During this time patient had several episodes of severe bradycardia and asystole; some were short with spontaneous return to sinus and some required pharmacological treatment and even Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR. Initially, these episodes were attributed to the high cervical spine injury, but, later on, CT scan suggested that a fixation screw abutted on the esophagus and activated the vagus nerve by direct pressure. After repositioning of the cervical fixation, the bradycardia and asystole episodes were no longer observed and the patient was released to a rehabilitation ward. This case is presented in order to alert practitioners to the possibility that, after operative fixation of cervical spine injuries, recurrent episodes of bradyarrhythmia can be caused by incorrect placement of the fixation screws and might be confused with the natural history of the high cervical cord injury.

  19. Research and application of absorbable screw in orthopedics: a clinical review comparing PDLLA screw with metal screw in patients with simple medial malleolus fracture

    OpenAIRE

    TANG Jin; HU Jin-feng; GUO Wei-chun; YU Ling; ZHAO Sheng-hao

    2013-01-01

    【Abstract】Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of absorbable screw in medial malleolus fracture and discuss its clinical application in orthopedics. Methods: A total of 129 patients with simple medial malleolus fracture were studied. Among them, 64 patients were treated with poly-D, L-lactic acid (PDLLA) absorbable screws, while the others were treated with metal screws. All the patients were followed up for 12-20 months (averaged 18.4 months) and the the...

  20. Biomechanical Analysis of Individual All-Ceramic Abutments Used in Dental Implantology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziębowicz B.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of finite element analysis and experimental testing under simulated physiological loading conditions on issues shaping the functional properties of individual all-ceramic abutments manufactured by CAD/CAM technology. The conducted research have cognitive significance showing the all-ceramic abutment behavior, as a key element of the implantological system, under the action of cyclic load. The aim of this study was evaluation the fatigue behavior of yttria-stabilized zirconia abutment submitted to cyclic stresses, conducted in accordance with EN ISO 14801 applies to dynamic fatigue tests of endosseous dental implants.

  1. Biomechanical study of pedicle screw fixation in severely osteoporotic bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Stephen D; Salkeld, Samantha L; Stanley, Tom; Faciane, Albert; Miller, Scot D

    2004-01-01

    Obtaining adequate purchase with standard pedicle screw techniques remains a challenge in poor quality bone. The development of alternate insertion techniques and screw designs was prompted by recognition of potential fixation complications. An expandable pedicle screw design has been shown to significantly improve fixation compared to a conventional screw in poor quality bone. The purpose of this study was to determine if polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement augmentation of an expandable pedicle screw can further improve fixation strength compared to the expandable screw alone in severely osteoporotic bone. A technique for cement insertion into the pedicle by means of the cannulated central portion of the expandable screw is also described. The axial pullout strength, stiffness and energy absorbed of cemented and noncemented expandable pedicle screws was determined in cadaveric vertebrae. Twenty-one fresh unembalmed vertebrae from the thoracolumbar spine were used. Radiographs and bone mineral density measurements (BMD) were used to characterize bone quality. Paired cemented and noncemented pedicle screw axial pullout strength was determined through mechanical testing. Mechanical pullout strength, stiffness and energy to failure was correlated with BMD. Overall, there was a 250% increase in mean pullout strength with the cemented expandable screw compared with a noncemented expandable screw including a greater than twofold increase in pullout strength in the most severely osteoporotic bone. The mean stiffness and energy absorbed to failure was also significantly increased. A cemented conventional screw achieved a pullout strength similar to the noncemented expandable screw. PMMA cement augmentation of the expandable pedicle screw may be a viable clinical option for achieving fixation in severely osteoporotic bone.

  2. Screw Versus Plate Fixation for Chevron Osteotomy: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Boyd J; Fallat, Lawrence M; Kish, John P

    2016-01-01

    The chevron osteotomy is a popular procedure used for the correction of moderate hallux abducto valgus deformity. Fixation is typically accomplished with Kirschner wires or bone screws; however, in cystic or osteoporotic bone, these could be inadequate, resulting in displacement of the capital fragment. We propose using a locking plate and interfragmental screw for fixation of the chevron osteotomy that could reduce the healing time and decrease the incidence of displacement. We performed a retrospective cohort study for chevron osteotomies on 75 feet (73 patients). The control groups underwent fixation with 1 screw in 30 feet (40%) and 2 screws in 30 feet (40%). A total of 15 feet (20%) were included in the locking plate and interfragmental screw group. The patients were followed up until bone healing was achieved at a median of 7 (range 6 to 14) weeks. Our hypothesis was that those treated with the locking plate and interfragmental screw would have a faster healing time and fewer incidents of capital fragment displacement compared with the 1- or 2-screw groups. The corresponding mean intervals to healing for the 1-screw group was 7.71 ± 1.28 (range 6 to 10) weeks, for the 2-screw group was 7.27 ± 1.57 (range 6 to 14) weeks, and for the locking plate and interfragmental screw group was 7.01 ± 1.00 (range 6 to 9) weeks. One case of capital fragment displacement occurred in the single screw group and one in the 2-screw group. No displacement occurred in the locking plate and interfragmental screw group. Neither finding was statistically significant. However, we believe the locking plate and interfragmental screw could be a viable option in patients with osteoporotic and cystic bone changes for correction of hallux abducto valgus. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Research and application of absorbable screw in orthopedics: a clinical review comparing PDLLA screw with metal screw in patients with simple medial malleolus fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANG Jin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of absorbable screw in medial malleolus fracture and discuss its clinical application in orthopedics. Methods: A total of 129 patients with simple medial malleolus fracture were studied. Among them, 64 patients were treated with poly-D, L-lactic acid (PDLLA absorbable screws, while the others were treated with metal screws. All the patients were followed up for 12-20 months (averaged 18.4 months and the therapeutic effect was evaluated ac-cording to the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Soci-ety clinical rating systems. Results: In absorbable screw group, we obtained excel-lent and good results in 62 cases (96.88%; in steel screw group, 61 cases (93.85% achieved excellent and good results. There was no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion: In the treatment of malleolus fracture, absorbable screw can achieve the same result compared with metal screw fixation. Absorbable screw is preferred due to its advantages of safety, cleanliness and avoiding the removal procedure associated with metallic implants. Key words: Ankle; Bone screws; Fractures, bone

  4. Cephalomedullary screws as the standard proximal locking screws for nailing femoral shaft fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinge, Cory; Liporace, Frank; Koval, Kenneth; Gilbert, George T

    2010-12-01

    In 2004, we modified our technique for the stabilization of femoral shaft fractures so that all fractures were stabilized using a reconstruction nail with proximal locking screws oriented into the femoral head. The rationale for this was twofold: first, potentially "missed" associated femoral neck fractures would be stabilized. Second, hip fractures that might occur later in life above the intramedullary nail might be avoided. The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether there were any risks to patients treated for femoral shaft fractures with antegrade nails using cephalomedullary proximal locking screws. Retrospective. Two regional trauma centers. Eighty-seven consecutive patients were treated for a femoral shaft fracture treated with antegrade femoral nailing with a cephalomedullary locked nail. Reamed, trochanteric insertion of an intramedullary nail with proximal locking screws placed in a cephalomedullary direction. Patient and injury data, radiographic analyses, and complications of treatment were assessed at a minimum of 12 months. Sixty-one of 87 patients (70%) were available at a mean of 19.8 months (range, 12-44 months). Sixty of 61 fractures united after the index procedure. Complications included one delayed union successfully treated with exchange nailing, one distal locking screw fracture (allowing dynamization and completion of fracture healing), two patients with postoperative deformity that required a derotation procedure, and two drill bits that broke intraoperatively and were retained. There were no major complications at the hip, no migration or failure of proximal locking screws, and no screws required removal. Using a reconstruction nail and cephalomedullary proximal locking screws for antegrade femoral nailing of femoral shaft fractures was not associated with major complications in this series. This modification of standard femoral nailing offers potential advantages, including fixation of any "missed" associated femoral

  5. Biomechanical analysis of an interference screw and a novel twist lock screw design for bone graft fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnis, S; Mullen, J; Asnis, P D; Sgaglione, N; LaPorta, T; Grande, D A; Chahine, N O

    2017-12-01

    Malpositioning of an anterior cruciate ligament graft during reconstruction can occur during screw fixation. The purpose of this study is to compare the fixation biomechanics of a conventional interference screw with a novel Twist Lock Screw, a rectangular shaped locking screw that is designed to address limitations of graft positioning and tensioning. Synthetic bone (10, 15, 20lb per cubic foot) were used simulating soft, moderate, and dense cancellous bone. Screw push-out and graft push-out tests were performed using conventional and twist lock screws. Maximum load and torque of insertion were measured. Max load measured in screw push out with twist lock screw was 64%, 60%, 57% of that measured with conventional screw in soft, moderate and dense material, respectively. Twist lock max load was 78% and 82% of that with conventional screw in soft and moderate densities. In the highest bone density, max loads were comparable in the two systems. Torque of insertion with twist lock was significantly lower than with conventional interference screw. Based on geometric consideration, the twist lock screw is expected to have 35% the holding power of a cylindrical screw. Yet, results indicate that holding power was greater than theoretical consideration, possibly due to lower friction and lower preloaded force. During graft push out in the densest material, comparable max loads were achieved with both systems, suggesting that fixation of higher density bone, which is observed in young athletes that require reconstruction, can be achieved with the twist lock screw. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Achieving interfragmentary compression without special drilling technique or screw design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastman, Jonathan; Deafenbaugh, Bradley; Christiansen, Blaine; Garcia-Nolen, Tanya; Lee, Mark

    2017-09-08

    Traditional fracture fixation teaching suggests that fully threaded screws do not provide interfragmentary compression unless placed through a glide hole. Based on this assumption, pelvic surgeons typically use fully threaded screws in the treatment of comminuted transforaminal sacral fractures to limit iatrogenic neuroforaminal stenosis. Clinical experience with fully threaded screws suggests that interfragmentary compression actually does occur. We hypothesized that the use of a fully threaded screw does not produce any interfragmentary compression and that there is no difference in insertional torque between partially threaded and fully threaded screws. To test this hypothesis, fully and partially threaded 7.0 millimeter (mm) cannulated screws were placed across two synthetic bone blocks fabricated to simulate normal and osteoporotic bone. We compared two groups of normal and osteoporotic blocks for compression achieved and maximal insertional torque generated with fully threaded and partially threaded screw insertion. A micro computed tomography (CT) scan of the composite blocks was obtained to investigate for structural changes created during screw insertion. For both groups, compression was achieved with fully threaded screws and the maximal insertional torque was higher using fully threaded screws. Micro CT analysis demonstrated local bone damage with structural disruption in the near segment of the fully threaded screw path in comparison to the partially threaded. this study demonstrates that compression is generated using fully threaded screws without using a predrilled glide hole. The insertional torque required to generate compression with fully threaded screws is increased but is clinically applicable. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges : appendix A, construction plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To expand thei...

  8. Long-term behavior of integral abutment bridges : appendix D, Bowen lab soil borings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Integral abutment (IA) construction has become the preferred method over conventional construction for use with typical highway bridges. However, the use of these structures is limited due to state mandated length and skew limitations. To expand thei...

  9. Thermal behavior of IDOT integral abutment bridges and proposed design modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The Illinois Department of Transportation (IDOT) has increasingly constructed integral abutment bridges (IABs) : over the past few decades, similar to those in many other states. Because the length and skew limitations : currently employed by IDOT ha...

  10. Sealing Capability and SEM Observation of the Implant-Abutment Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzoni, Fabio C; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Gerson; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Silva, Nelson R F A; Suzuki, Marcelo; Silva, Thelma Lopes; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the sealing capability of external hexagon implant systems and assess the marginal fit, two groups (n = 10 each) were employed: SIN (Sistema de Implantes Nacional, Brazil) and Osseotite, (Biomet 3i, USA). Sealing capability was determined by placing 0.7 μL of 1% acid-red solution in the implant wells before the torque of their respective abutments. Specimens were then placed into 2.5 mL vials filled with 1.3 mL of distilled water with the implant-abutment interface submerged. Three samples of 100 μL water were collected at previously determinate times. The absorbance was measured with a spectrophotometer, and the data were analyzed by Two-way ANOVA (P implant-abutment interface of both groups. Gaps in the implant-abutment interface were observed along with leakage increased at the 144 hrs evaluation period.

  11. Thermal response of integral abutment bridges with mechanically stabilized earth walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    The advantages of integral abutment bridges (IABs) include reduced maintenance costs and increased useful life spans. : However, improved procedures are necessary to account for the impacts of cyclic thermal displacements on IAB components, : includi...

  12. Twin screw granulation - review of current progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, M R

    2015-01-01

    Twin screw granulation (TSG) is a new process of interest to the pharmaceutical community that can continuously wet granulate powders, doing so at lower liquid concentrations and with better product consistency than found by a high shear batch mixer. A considerable body of research has evolved over the short time since this process was introduced but generally with little comparison of results. A certain degree of confidence has been developed through these studies related to how process variables and many attributes of machinery configuration will affect granulation but some major challenges still lay ahead related to scalability, variations in the processing regimes related to degree of channel fill and the impact of wetting and granulation of complex powder formulations. This review examines the current literature for wet granulation processes studied in twin screw extrusion machinery, summarizing the influences of operational and system parameters affecting granule properties as well as strives to provide some practical observations to newly interested users of the technique.

  13. Screw as a Bladder Foreign Body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Reza Hosseini

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Foreign bodies in the bladder are among the strangest differential diagnoses in the lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS and may be missed in initial medical evaluations. We present a 63-year-old man who was visited in the emergency department because of obstructive and irritative lower urinary tract symptoms. Two months earlier, he had a pelvic fracture due to motor vehicle accident and underwent an open reduction and internal fixation of the pubic rami and right acetabulum by an anterior ilioinguinal approach. After initial evaluation, an abdominopelvic X-ray revealed a 3 cm screw in the suprapubic area. He underwent urethrocystoscopy and a 3 cm screw was extracted by forceps.

  14. Calculating Characteristics of the Screws with Constant And Variable Step

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. N. Zotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This work is devoted to creating a technique for calculating power characteristics of the screws with constant and variable step for the centrifugal pumps. The technique feature is that the reverse currents, which are observed in screws working at low flow, are numerically taken into account. The paper presents a diagram of the stream in the screw with flow to the network Q=0, and the static pressure of the screw in this mode is computed according to reverse current parameters. Maximum flow of screw is determined from the known formulas. When calculating the power characteristics and computing the overall efficiency of the screw, for the first time a volumetric efficiency of the screw is introduced. It is defined as a ratio between the flow into the network and the sum of the reverse current flows and a flow into the network. This approach allowed us to determine the efficiency of the screw over the entire range of flows.A comparison of experimental characteristics of the constant step screw with those of calculated by the proposed technique shows their good agreement.The technique is also used in calculating characteristics of the variable step screws. The variable step screw is considered as a screw consisting of two screws with a smooth transition of the blades from the inlet to the outlet. Screws in which the step at the inlet is less than that of at the outlet as well as screws with the step at the inlet being more than that of at the outlet were investigated. It is shown that a pressure of the screw with zero step and the value of the reverse currents depend only on the parameters of the input section of the screw, and the maximum flow, if the step at the inlet is more than the step at the outlet, is determined by the parameters of the output part of the screw. Otherwise, the maximum flow is determined a little bit differently.The paper compares experimental characteristics with characteristics calculated by the technique for variable step

  15. Optimal trajectory for the occipital condyle screw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tien V; Vivas, Andrew C; Baaj, Ali A; Vale, Fernando L; Uribe, Juan S

    2014-04-01

    Retrospective analysis. To understand what may constitute an optimal trajectory for an occipital condyle (OC) screw. OC screws are an alternative to standard occipital plates as a cephalad fixation point in occipitocervical fusion. An optimal trajectory for placement of OC screws has not been described. We conducted a computed tomography-based study of 340 human occipital condyls. All computed tomographies were negative for traumatic, degenerative, and neoplastic pathology. On the basis of the current literature, linear measurements of distances were made based on a constant entry point. Medial angulations of 10, 20, and 25 degrees relative to the sagittal midline were used. In addition, 10-, 5-degree cranial, 10- and 30-degree caudal angulations were studied to evaluate the incidence of hypoglossal canal and atlantooccipital joint compromise. Average distances were 17.1±2.8, 20.4±2.8, and 22.2±2.9 for 10, 20, and 25 degrees of medial angulation, respectively. Right-sided and left-sided measurements for each category were not significantly different. However, the difference in the measured distances between 10 versus 20 degrees, 10 versus 25 degrees, and 20 versus 25 degrees was all significantly different (PAtlantooccipital joint compromise incidence was 21.8% and 99.1% for 10- and 30-degree caudal angulation, respectively. The condylar entry point should be medial to the condylar fossa, midcondylar, and ≥2 mm caudal to the skull base. An optimal trajectory for the OC screw should have a medial angulation of ≥20 degrees relative to the sagittal midline, trying to stay parallel to the skull base. Minor adjustments in angulation can be made, but any adjustment approaching 10 degrees cranial or caudal leads to an increased risk of hypoglossal canal cranially or atlantooccipital joint compromise caudally.

  16. Fracture Strength of Titanium based Lithium Disilicate and Zirconia Abutment Crowns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-12

    If yes . give date. D N/A 27. COMMENTS ~ APPROVED 0 DISAPPROVED I RB approved presentation of dental materials research w i th appropriate...The specimens were cemented to a titanium-base implant system, subjected to thermocycling and cyclic loading, and fractured in a material testing...zirconia abutment/lithium-disilicate crown. INTRODUCTION Dental implants and the use of esthetic abutments are widely practiced procedures for dentists

  17. Performance of conical abutment (Morse Taper) connection implants: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christian M; Nogueira-Filho, Getulio; Tenenbaum, Howard C; Lai, Jim Yuan; Brito, Carlos; Döring, Hendrik; Nonhoff, Jörg

    2014-02-01

    In this systematic review, we aimed to compare conical versus nonconical implant-abutment connection systems in terms of their in vitro and in vivo performances. An electronic search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases with the logical operators: "dental implant" AND "dental abutment" AND ("conical" OR "taper" OR "cone"). Names of the most common conical implant-abutment connection systems were used as additional key words to detect further data. The search was limited to articles published up to November 2012. Recent publications were also searched manually in order to find any relevant studies that might have been missed using the search criteria noted above. Fifty-two studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. As the data and methods, as well as types of implants used was so heterogeneous, this mitigated against the performance of meta-analysis. In vitro studies indicated that conical and nonconical abutments showed sufficient resistance to maximal bending forces and fatigue loading. However, conical abutments showed superiority in terms of seal performance, microgap formation, torque maintenance, and abutment stability. In vivo studies (human and animal) indicated that conical and nonconical systems are comparable in terms of implant success and survival rates with less marginal bone loss around conical connection implants in most cases. This review indicates that implant systems using a conical implant-abutment connection, provides better results in terms of abutment fit, stability, and seal performance. These design features could lead to improvements over time versus nonconical connection systems. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Accurate and Simple Screw Insertion Procedure With Patient-Specific Screw Guide Templates for Posterior C1-C2 Fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugawara, Taku; Higashiyama, Naoki; Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi

    2017-03-15

    Prospective clinical trial of the screw insertion method for posterior C1-C2 fixation utilizing the patient-specific screw guide template technique. To evaluate the efficacy of this method for insertion of C1 lateral mass screws (LMS), C2 pedicle screws (PS), and C2 laminar screws (LS). Posterior C1LMS and C2PS fixation, also known as the Goel-Harms method, can achieve immediate rigid fixation and high fusion rate, but the screw insertion carries the risk of injury to neuronal and vascular structures. Dissection of venous plexus and C2 nerve root to confirm the insertion point of the C1LMS may also cause problems. We have developed an intraoperative screw guiding method using patient-specific laminar templates. Preoperative bone images of computed tomography (CT) were analyzed using three-dimensional (3D)/multiplanar imaging software to plan the trajectories of the screws. Plastic templates with screw guiding structures were created for each lamina using 3D design and printing technology. Three types of templates were made for precise multistep guidance, and all templates were specially designed to fit and lock on the lamina during the procedure. Surgery was performed using this patient-specific screw guide template system, and placement of the screws was postoperatively evaluated using CT. Twelve patients with C1-C2 instability were treated with a total of 48 screws (24 C1LMS, 20 C2PS, 4 C2LS). Intraoperatively, each template was found to exactly fit and lock on the lamina and screw insertion was completed successfully without dissection of the venous plexus and C2 nerve root. Postoperative CT showed no cortical violation by the screws, and mean deviation of the screws from the planned trajectories was 0.70 ± 0.42 mm. The multistep, patient-specific screw guide template system is useful for intraoperative screw navigation in posterior C1-C2 fixation. This simple and economical method can improve the accuracy of screw insertion, and reduce operation time and

  19. 2D and 3D assessment of sustentaculum tali screw fixation with or without Screw Targeting Clamp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, A Siebe; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; Vellekoop, Leonie; Knops, Simon P; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; Verhofstad, Michael H J

    2017-12-01

    Precise placement of sustentaculum tali screw(s) is essential for restoring anatomy and biomechanical stability of the calcaneus. This can be challenging due to the small target area and presence of neurovascular structures on the medial side. The aim was to evaluate the precision of positioning of the subchondral posterior facet screw and processus anterior calcanei screw with or without a Screw Targeting Clamp. The secondary aim was to evaluate the added value of peroperative 3D imaging over 2D radiographs alone. Twenty Anubifix™ embalmed, human anatomic lower limb specimens were used. A subchondral posterior facet screw and a processus anterior calcanei screw were placed using an extended lateral approach. A senior orthopedic trauma surgeon experienced in calcaneal fracture surgery and a senior resident with limited experience in calcaneal surgery performed screw fixation in five specimens with and in five specimens without the clamp. 2D lateral and axial radiographs and a 3D recording were obtained postoperatively. Anatomical dissection was performed postoperatively as a diagnostic golden standard in order to obtain the factual screw positions. Blinded assessment of quality of fixation was performed by two surgeons. In 2D, eight screws were considered malpositioned when placed with the targeting device versus nine placed freehand. In 3D recordings, two additional screws were malpositioned in each group as compared to the golden standard. As opposed to the senior surgeon, the senior resident seemed to get the best results using the Screw Targeting Clamp (number of malpositioned screws using freehand was eight, and using the targeting clamp five). In nine out of 20 specimens 3D images provided additional information concerning target area and intra-articular placement. Based on the 3D assessment, five additional screws would have required repositioning. Except for one, all screw positions were rated equally after dissection when compared with 3D examinations

  20. In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshagh Morteza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. Materials and Methods : A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel. In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Results : Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds for every 4 mm of expansion. Conclusion : In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.

  1. In vitro evaluation of force-expansion characteristics in a newly designed orthodontic expansion screw compared to conventional screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshagh, Morteza; Momeni Danaei, S H; Hematian, M R; Oshagh, M R; Zade, A Hadiun; Saboori, A A

    2009-01-01

    Expansion screws like Hyrax, Haas and other types, produce heavy interrupted forces which are unfavorable for dental movement and could be harmful to the tooth and periodontium. The other disadvantage of these screws is the need for patient cooperation for their regular activation. The purpose of this study was to design a screw and compare its force- expansion curve with other types. A new screw was designed and fabricated in the same dimension, with conventional types, with the ability of 8 mm expansion (Free wire length: 12 mm, initial compression: 4.5 mm, spring wire diameter: 0.4 mm, spring diameter: 3 mm, number of the coils: n0 ine, material: s0 tainless steel). In this in vitro study, the new screw was placed in an acrylic orthodontic appliance, and after mounting on a stone cast, the force-expansion curve was evaluated by a compression test machine and compared to other screws. Force-expansion curve of designed screw had a flatter inclination compared to other screws. Generally it produced a light continuous force (two to 3.5 pounds) for every 4 mm of expansion. In comparison with heavy and interrupted forces of other screws, the newly designed screw created light and continuous forces.

  2. In vitro evaluation of thermomechanic coupling in conical implant-to-abutment joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Tonino; Di Iorio, Donato; Caputi, Sergio; Degidi, Marco; Iezzi, Giovanna; Piattelli, Adriano

    2007-12-01

    This study investigates the use of thermomechanic abutment-to-implant coupling. Ten 3.5 x 1 mm commercially pure titanium Ankylos implants (Dentsply Friadent, Mannheim, Germany) and 10 standard abutment of titanium alloy Ti6Al4V were used in the present study. All fixtures were mounted on hold specimen provided of a 10-ohm electrical resistance to maintain the fixture at 37 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C during the entire test and to evaluate the influence of the coefficient of thermal expansion on joined conical abutment. The threading part of all abutments was cut off using a diamond disc. All abutment implants were coupled at 35 N using a universal testing machine (Lloyd 30K, Lloyd Instruments Ltd. Segensworth, UK). Five abutments were heated at 37 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C, whereas the reaming were cooled at 0 degrees C +/- 3 degrees C before connection. To measure the difference a pull-out test was performed. The results were statistically analyzed using unpaired t test at P < 0.05. The cooled specimens showed a result (mean +/- SD) of 421.6 +/- 55.20 N, whereas for heated specimens the result was 238.4 +/- 42.27 N. The difference was statistically significant (P = 0.001). The thermomechanic coupling significantly increases the performance of the conical joint.

  3. Epithelial attachment and downgrowth on dental implant abutments--a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglhaut, Gerhard; Schwarz, Frank; Winter, Robert R; Mihatovic, Ilja; Stimmelmayr, Michael; Schliephake, Henning

    2014-01-01

    The soft tissues around dental implants are enlarged compared with the gingiva because of the longer junctional epithelium and the hemidesmosonal attachments are fewer, suggestive of a poorer quality attachment. Inflammatory infiltrates caused by bacterial colonization of the implant-abutment interface are thought to be one of the factors causing epithelial downgrowth and subsequent peri-implant bone loss. Gold alloys and dental ceramics as well as the contamination of the implant surface with amino alcohols, appear to promote epithelial downgrowth. Physical manipulaton of the abutment surfaces, including concave abutment designs, platform switching, and microgrooved surfaces are believed to inhibit epithelial downgrowth and minimizes bone loss at the implant shoulder. This paper reviews the factors that are believed to influence the migration of epithelial attachment the dental implant and abutment surfaces. Exploration of innovative computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing-based concepts such as "one abutment-one time" and their effect on epithelial downgrowth are discussed. Based on the review of current literature, the authors recommend inserting definitive abutments at the time of surgical uncovering. To implement this concept, registration of the implant position should to be taken at the time of surgical implant placement. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Influence of superstructure geometry on the mechanical behavior of zirconia implant abutments: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringer, Alexander; Diebels, Stefan; Nothdurft, Frank P

    2014-12-01

    To predict the clinical performance of zirconia abutments, it is crucial to examine the mechanical behavior of different dental implant-abutment connection configurations. The international standard protocol for dynamic fatigue tests of dental implants (ISO 14801) allows comparing these configurations using standardized superstructure geometries. However, from a mechanical point of view, the geometry of clinical crowns causes modified boundary conditions. The purpose of this finite element (FE) study was to evaluate the influence of the superstructure geometry on the maximum stress values of zirconia abutments with a conical implant-abutment connection. Geometry models of the experimental setup described in ISO 14801 were generated using CAD software following the reconstruction of computerized tomography scans from all relevant components. These models served as a basis for an FE simulation. To reduce the numerical complexity of the FE model, the interaction between loading stamp and superstructure geometry was taken into account by defining the boundary conditions with regard to the frictional force. The results of the FE simulations performed on standardized superstructure geometry and anatomically shaped crowns showed a strong influence of the superstructure geometry and related surface orientations on the mechanical behavior of the underlying zirconia abutments. In conclusion, ISO testing of zirconia abutments should be accompanied by load-bearing capacity testing under simulated clinical conditions to predict clinical performance.

  5. Hydraulic screw fastening devices - design, maintenance, operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lachner.

    1976-01-01

    With hydraulic screw fastening devices, pretension values with a maximum deviation of +-2.5% from the rated value can be achieved. This high degree of pretension accuracy is of considerable importance with regard to the safety factor required for the screw connection between reactor vessel head and reactor vessel. The operating rhythm of a nuclear power station with its refuelling art regular intervals makes further demands on the screw fastening device, in particular in connection with the transport of screws and for nuts. The necessary installations extend the screw fastening device into a combination of a high-pressure hydraulic cylinder system with an electrical or pneumoelectrical driving unit and an electrical control unit. Maintenance work is complicated by the large number of identical, highly stressed structural elements in connection with an unfavourable relation operating time/outage time. The problems have been perpetually reduced by close cooperation between the manufacturers and users of screw fastening devices. (orig./AK) [de

  6. Translaminar screw fixation in the lumbar spine: technique, indications, results

    OpenAIRE

    Grob, D.; Humke, T.

    1998-01-01

    Translaminar screw fixation of the lumbar spine represents a simple and effective technique for short segment fusion in the degenerative spine. Clinical experience with 173 patients who underwent translaminar screw fixation revealed a fusion rate of 94%. The indications for translaminar screw fixation as a primary fixation procedure are: segmental dysfunction, lumbar spinal stenosis with painful degenerative changes, segmental revision surgery after discectomies, and painful disc-related synd...

  7. The gauge theory of dislocations: A nonuniformly moving screw dislocation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazar, Markus, E-mail: lazar@fkp.tu-darmstadt.d [Emmy Noether Research Group, Department of Physics, Darmstadt University of Technology, Hochschulstr. 6, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI 49931 (United States)

    2010-07-05

    We investigate the nonuniform motion of a straight screw dislocation in infinite media in the framework of the translational gauge theory of dislocations. The equations of motion are derived for an arbitrarily moving screw dislocation. The fields of the elastic velocity, elastic distortion, dislocation density and dislocation current surrounding the arbitrarily moving screw dislocation are derived explicitly in the form of integral representations. We calculate the radiation fields and the fields depending on the dislocation velocities.

  8. Randomized controlled trial of osteoconductive fixation screws for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a comparison of the Calaxo and Milagro screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Henry E; Salmon, Lucy J; Waller, Alison; Winalski, Carl S; Williams, Heidi A; Linklater, James M; Vasanji, Amit; Roe, Justin P; Pinczewski, Leo A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the outcome of 2 bioabsorbable screws for tibial interference fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with reference to rate of absorption, osteoconductive properties, and clinical outcome. Patients undergoing primary anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autograft in a single unit were invited to participate in this study. Patients were randomized to receive either the Calaxo screw (Smith & Nephew, Andover, MA) or Milagro screw (DePuy Mitek, Raynham, MA) for tibial fixation. Patients were reviewed with subjective and objective evaluation by use of the International Knee Documentation Committee form, Lysholm score, KT-1000 arthrometry (MEDmetric, San Diego, CA), and clinical examination. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 1 year and computed tomography scanning at 1 week and at 6, 12, and 24 months. Sixty patients agreed to participate in the study, with 32 patients randomized to the Calaxo screw and 28 to the Milagro screw for tibial fixation. There was no significant difference in subjective or objective clinical outcome between the 2 groups. At 24 months, 88% of Calaxo screws showed complete screw resorption compared with 0% of Milagro screws (P Milagro group (P = .001). At 24 months, the mean volume of new bone formation for the Calaxo group was 21% of original screw volume. Ossification of the Milagro screw was unable to be accurately assessed as a result of incomplete screw resorption. Both screws showed similar favorable objective and subjective outcomes at 2 years. The Calaxo screw resorbed completely over a period of 6 months and was associated with a high incidence of intra-tunnel cyst formation. The Milagro screw increased in volume over a period of 6 months, followed by a gradual resorption, which was still ongoing at 2 years. Both screws were associated with tunnel widening, and neither showed evidence of significant tunnel ossification. We conclude that, despite satisfactory clinical outcomes, the

  9. Cervical Pedicle Screw Placement Using Medial Funnel Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung Hwan; Choi, Byung Kwan; Han, In Ho; Choi, Won Gyu; Nam, Kyoung Hyup; Kim, Hwan Soo

    2017-09-01

    Cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement is very challenging due to high risk of neurovascular complications. We devised a new technique (medial funnel technique) to improve the accuracy and feasibility of CPS placement. We reviewed 28 consecutive patients undergoing CPS instrumentation using the medial funnel technique. Their mean age was 51.4 years (range, 30-81 years). Preoperative diagnosis included degenerative disease (n=5), trauma (n=22), and infection (n=1). Screw perforations were graded with the following criteria: grade 0 having no perforation, grade 1 having 50% of screw diameter. Grades 0 and 1 were considered as correct position. The degree of perforation was determined by 2 junior neurosurgeons and 1 senior neurosurgeon. A total of 88 CPSs were inserted. The rate of correct placement was 94.3%; grade 0, 54 screws; grade 1, 29 screws; grade 2, 4 screws; and grade 3, 1 screw. No neurovascular complications or failure of instrumentation occurred. In perforated screws (34 screws), lateral perforations were 4 and medial perforations were 30. We performed CPS insertion using medial funnel technique and achieved 94.3% (83 of 88) of correct placement. And it can decrease lateral perforation.

  10. Accuracy of pedicle screw placement in patients with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jun; Zhu, Feng; Xu, Leilei; Liu, Zhen; Sun, Xu; Qian, Bangping; Jiang, Qing; Zhu, Zezhang; Qiu, Yong

    2017-03-21

    There is no study concerning safety and accuracy of pedicle screw placement in Marfan syndrome. The objective of this study is to investigate accuracy and safety of pedicle screw placement in scoliosis associated with Marfan syndrome. CT scanning was performed to analyze accuracy of pedicle screw placement. Pedicle perforations were classified as medial, lateral or anterior and categorized to four grades: ≤ 2 mm as Grade 1, 2.1-4.0 mm as Grade 2, 4.1-6.0 mm as Grade 3, ≥6.1 mm as Grade 4. Fully contained screws or with medial wall perforation ≤ 2 mm or with lateral wall perforation ≤ 6 mm and without injury of visceral organs were considered acceptable, otherwise were unacceptable. 976 pedicle screws were placed, 713 screws (73.1%) were fully contained within the cortical boundaries of the pedicle. 924 (94.7%) screws were considered as acceptable, and 52 (5.3%) as unacceptable. The perforation rate was higher using free-hand technique than O-arm navigation technique (30.8% VS. 11.4%, P Marfan syndrome is accuracy and safe. O-arm navigation was an effective modality to ensure the safety and accuracy of screw placement. Special attention should be paid when screws were placed at the lumber spine and the concave side of spine deformity to avoid the higher rate of complications.

  11. Minimally Invasive Technique for PMMA Augmentation of Fenestrated Screws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Helge Klingler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To describe the minimally invasive technique for cement augmentation of cannulated and fenestrated screws using an injection cannula as well as to report its safety and efficacy. Methods. A total of 157 cannulated and fenestrated pedicle screws had been cement-augmented during minimally invasive posterior screw-rod spondylodesis in 35 patients from January to December 2012. Retrospective evaluation of cement extravasation and screw loosening was carried out in postoperative plain radiographs and thin-sliced triplanar computed tomography scans. Results. Twenty-seven, largely prevertebral cement extravasations were detected in 157 screws (17.2%. None of the cement extravasations was causing a clinical sequela like a new neurological deficit. One screw loosening was noted (0.6% after a mean follow-up of 12.8 months. We observed no cementation-associated complication like pulmonary embolism or hemodynamic insufficiency. Conclusions. The presented minimally invasive cement augmentation technique using an injection cannula facilitates convenient and safe cement delivery through polyaxial cannulated and fenestrated screws during minimally invasive screw-rod spondylodesis. Nevertheless, the optimal injection technique and design of fenestrated screws have yet to be identified. This trial is registered with German Clinical Trials DRKS00006726.

  12. Influence of abutment design on clinical status of peri-implant tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taiyeb-Ali, Tara B; Toh, Chooi Gait; Siar, Chong Huat; Seiz, Doris; Ong, Siew Tin

    2009-10-01

    To compare the clinical soft tissue responses around implant tooth-supported 3-unit bridges using tapered abutments with those using butt-joint abutments. In a split-mouth design study, 8 mm Ankylos (Dentsply Friadent, Germany) implants were placed in the second mandibular molar region of 8 adult Macaca fascicularis monkeys about 1 month after extraction of all mandibular molars. After 3 months of submerged healing, 3-unit metal bridges were constructed. Clinical data was collected by the author who was blind to the abutment selections. Implants were clinically evaluated using Waite plaque index, sulcus bleeding index, probing pocket depth (PPD), probing attachment loss (PAL), and width of keratinized mucosa at baseline (BL) and 3-month and 6-month intervals. Stability of the implant was assessed using Periotest device at BL and after 6 months. At BL, all the clinical variables did not differ statistically between the tapered and the butt-joint groups except for PPD (P < 0.05), where the mean PPD was greater in the butt-joint group (2.75 ± 1.02 mm) as compared with the tapered group (1.97 ± 0.65 mm). At the 3-month assessment, there was no difference in all clinical variables. After 6-month loading, no significant difference between these 2 groups was detected in all these variables, with the exception of PAL (P = 0.05) where mean PAL was greater for implants with the butt-joint abutments (0.91 ± 0.86 mm) in comparison with the tapered abutments (0.50 ± 0.88 mm), and mean Periotest values (PTVs) that indicate the tapered-abutment implants (PTV = -4.5 ± 1.60) were more stable than butt-joint-abutment implants (PTV = -1.5 ± 3.59) with P < 0.05. The differences in these mucogingival responses between these 2 groups at BL (during seating of abutments, especially of butt-joint abutments) and after 6-month loading indicated enhanced peri-implant soft tissue stability around the tapered abutments of this system. There was also enhanced-PTV in the test group for

  13. Multifactorial risk assessment for survival of abutments of removable partial dentures based on practice-based longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, Sayaka; Ikebe, Kazunori; Matsuda, Ken-Ichi; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2013-12-01

    Predicting the tooth survival is such a great challenge for evidence-based dentistry. To prevent further tooth loss of partially edentulous patients, estimation of individualized risk and benefit for each residual tooth is important to the clinical decision-making. While there are several reports indicating a risk of losing the abutment teeth of RPDs, there are no existing reports exploring the cause of abutment loss by multifactorial analysis. The aim of this practice-based longitudinal study was to determine the prognostic factors affecting the survival period of RPD abutments using a multifactorial risk assessment. One hundred and forty-seven patients had been previously provided with a total of 236 new RPDs at the Osaka University Dental Hospital; the 856 abutments for these RPDs were analyzed. Survival of abutment teeth was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was conducted by Cox's proportional hazard modelling. The 5-year survival rates were 86.6% for direct abutments and 93.1% for indirect abutments, compared with 95.8% survival in non-abutment teeth. The multivariate analysis showed that abutment survival was significantly associated with crown-root ratio (hazard ratio (HR): 3.13), root canal treatment (HR: 2.93), pocket depth (HR: 2.51), type of abutments (HR: 2.19) and occlusal support (HR: 1.90). From this practice-based longitudinal study, we concluded that RPD abutment teeth are more likely to be lost than other residual teeth. From the multifactorial risk factor assessment, several prognostic factors, such as occlusal support, crown-root ratio, root canal treatment, and pocket depth were suggested. These results could be used to estimate the individualized risk for the residual teeth, to predict the prognosis of RPD abutments and to facilitate an evidence-based clinical decision making. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Analysis of the peri-implant soft tissues in contact with zirconia abutments: an evidence-based literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Medeiros, Rodrigo Antonio; Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Mazaro, Jose Vitor Quinelli; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate through a literature review, the soft tissue response in contact with zirconia abutments, including case reports comparing prosthetics rehabilitations with zirconia and titanium abutments upto 3 years of follow-up as well as the factors that should be considered on implant's abutment selection. Metallic abutments can provide grayish color when in contact with thin soft tissues which may lead the implant prosthetic treatment to failure. In this context, the abutments of zirconia stand out because there is an excellent linking between esthetics and the health of peri-implant soft tissues. A consult of the published researches was made on the PubMed database from 2000 to September 2012. The including criteria were: literature reviews, clinical studies and case reports in English that focused on the response of the soft tissue in contact with zirconia implant abutments. The studies that were not in English and did not match the tackled issue were excluded. A total of 32 articles were found. According to the search strategy, just 16 articles were selected for this review. Three studies affirmed that zirconia abutments have an excellent soft tissue response; one study showed increased gingival recession with zirconia abutments and nine studies do not stand out any difference on biological behavior between titanium and zirconia abutments. Three studies affirmed that zirconia abutments provide natural gingival appearance, anatomic contour and greater esthetics. The use of zirconia abutments is recommended for anterior regions because of their greater optical properties and esthetic results and more studies should be performed and analyzed longitudinally regarding their biological response. The zirconia abutments have been established to be essential in order to achieve great esthetic results in cases of thin peri-implant soft tissues and in regions where the three-dimensional placement of implants is more superficial.

  15. Finite element analysis of osteosynthesis screw fixation in the bone stock: an appropriate method for automatic screw modelling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Wieding

    Full Text Available The use of finite element analysis (FEA has grown to a more and more important method in the field of biomedical engineering and biomechanics. Although increased computational performance allows new ways to generate more complex biomechanical models, in the area of orthopaedic surgery, solid modelling of screws and drill holes represent a limitation of their use for individual cases and an increase of computational costs. To cope with these requirements, different methods for numerical screw modelling have therefore been investigated to improve its application diversity. Exemplarily, fixation was performed for stabilization of a large segmental femoral bone defect by an osteosynthesis plate. Three different numerical modelling techniques for implant fixation were used in this study, i.e. without screw modelling, screws as solid elements as well as screws as structural elements. The latter one offers the possibility to implement automatically generated screws with variable geometry on arbitrary FE models. Structural screws were parametrically generated by a Python script for the automatic generation in the FE-software Abaqus/CAE on both a tetrahedral and a hexahedral meshed femur. Accuracy of the FE models was confirmed by experimental testing using a composite femur with a segmental defect and an identical osteosynthesis plate for primary stabilisation with titanium screws. Both deflection of the femoral head and the gap alteration were measured with an optical measuring system with an accuracy of approximately 3 µm. For both screw modelling techniques a sufficient correlation of approximately 95% between numerical and experimental analysis was found. Furthermore, using structural elements for screw modelling the computational time could be reduced by 85% using hexahedral elements instead of tetrahedral elements for femur meshing. The automatically generated screw modelling offers a realistic simulation of the osteosynthesis fixation with

  16. Finite element analysis of osteosynthesis screw fixation in the bone stock: an appropriate method for automatic screw modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieding, Jan; Souffrant, Robert; Fritsche, Andreas; Mittelmeier, Wolfram; Bader, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    The use of finite element analysis (FEA) has grown to a more and more important method in the field of biomedical engineering and biomechanics. Although increased computational performance allows new ways to generate more complex biomechanical models, in the area of orthopaedic surgery, solid modelling of screws and drill holes represent a limitation of their use for individual cases and an increase of computational costs. To cope with these requirements, different methods for numerical screw modelling have therefore been investigated to improve its application diversity. Exemplarily, fixation was performed for stabilization of a large segmental femoral bone defect by an osteosynthesis plate. Three different numerical modelling techniques for implant fixation were used in this study, i.e. without screw modelling, screws as solid elements as well as screws as structural elements. The latter one offers the possibility to implement automatically generated screws with variable geometry on arbitrary FE models. Structural screws were parametrically generated by a Python script for the automatic generation in the FE-software Abaqus/CAE on both a tetrahedral and a hexahedral meshed femur. Accuracy of the FE models was confirmed by experimental testing using a composite femur with a segmental defect and an identical osteosynthesis plate for primary stabilisation with titanium screws. Both deflection of the femoral head and the gap alteration were measured with an optical measuring system with an accuracy of approximately 3 µm. For both screw modelling techniques a sufficient correlation of approximately 95% between numerical and experimental analysis was found. Furthermore, using structural elements for screw modelling the computational time could be reduced by 85% using hexahedral elements instead of tetrahedral elements for femur meshing. The automatically generated screw modelling offers a realistic simulation of the osteosynthesis fixation with screws in the adjacent

  17. Biomechanical efficacy of monoaxial or polyaxial pedicle screw and additional screw insertion at the level of fracture, in lumbar burst fracture: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Wang

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The addition of intermediate screws at the level of a burst fracture significantly increased the stability of short-segment pedicle screw fixation in both the MPS and PPS groups. However, in short-segment fixation group, monoaxial pedicle screw exhibited more stability in flexion and extension than the polyaxial pedicle screw.

  18. The Effect of Abutment Surface Roughness on the Retention of Implant-Supported Crowns Cemented with Provisional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Abrisham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surface roughness can increase the retention of castings by ridges and grooves that are microretentive. This study compared the retention of implant-supported crowns when used with 3 different surface roughness abutments and one temporary cement. Methods: Thirty solid abutments (ITI, 4 mm high, were divided into three groups randomly. In the first group, 10 abutments were roughened with sandblast (50-µm aluminum oxide and in the second group, 10 abutments were roughened with diamond bur. The third group had no surface treatment. Then, thirty implant fixture analogs (ITI were placed in the center of acrylic cylinders. After that a solid abutment was tightened on the each fixture analog with 35 N/cm force. Thirty base metal crowns were made on the 4 mm ITI abutment analogs using plastic coping. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by TempBond temporary cement and finally, crowns were pulled from the abutment in a universal test machine at a cross speed of 0.5cm/min. Results: The mean tensile strength in sandblasted, bur treated, and control group were 64.38±8, 91.37±7.19, and 58.61±1.93, respectively. Bur treated group showed higher tensile strength in comparison with two other groups. Conclusion: Surface modification of implant abutment by diamond bur may be an effective method to increase retention of crown when TempBond is used.

  19. The Effect of Abutment Surface Roughness on the Retention of Implant-Supported Crowns Cemented with Provisional Luting Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalil Ganbarzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surface roughness can increase the retention of castings by ridges and grooves that are microretentive. This study compared the retention of implant-supported crowns when used with 3 different surface roughness abutments and one temporary cement. Methods: Thirty solid abutments (ITI, 4 mm high, were divided into three groups randomly. In the first group, 10 abutments were roughened with sandblast (50-µm aluminum oxide and in the second group, 10 abutments were roughened with diamond bur. The third group had no surface treatment. Then, thirty implant fixture analogs (ITI were placed in the center of acrylic cylinders. After that a solid abutment was tightened on the each fixture analog with 35 N/cm force. Thirty base metal crowns were made on the 4 mm ITI abutment analogs using plastic coping. The prepared copings were cemented on the abutments by TempBond temporary cement and finally, crowns were pulled from the abutment in a universal test machine at a cross speed of 0.5cm/min. Results: The mean tensile strength in sandblasted, bur treated, and control group were 64.38±8, 91.37±7.19, and 58.61±1.93, respectively. Bur treated group showed higher tensile strength in comparison with two other groups. Conclusion: Surface modification of implant abutment by diamond bur may be an effective method to increase retention of crown when TempBond is used.

  20. The Influence of Post in Endodontically Treated Molar Abutment on Fixed Dentures Success Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pralita Kusumawardhini

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many dentists believe that the tooth need reinforcement provided by post before the definite restoration is placed. However, others suggest not to use post when posterior teeth especially molars, still have significant amount of tooth structure. Therefore, when endodontically treated molar is considered to be used as fixed denture abut-ment, clinicians must have proper knowledge about the impact of post placement. This literature will describe considerations regarding post placement in endodontically treated molar abutment in fixed partial dentures and their influence to the success rate. Previous studies implied the need of proper measurement of the amount of remaining tooth structure, the type of intracoronal reinforcement of the abutment, and the functional loads to ensure the success of fixed denture treatment. When planning definitive restorations for endodontically treated abutment teeth, some even suggest to use post and core to fulfill the need of reinforcement. On the contrary, others find that when a post is use in endodontically treated abutment teeth, the failure of custom made-tapered cast post and core is relatively high, whereas the use of amalgam or composite core in posterior teeth especially molars with adequate amount of tooth structure is sufficient due to post system’s limited influence on the suc-cess rate. Based on literature review, for cases with adequate tooth stucture, it can be concluded that the influ-ence of post placement in endodontically treated molar abutment to fixed partial dentures success rate is very limited.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v18i2.64

  1. Wear of Morse taper and external hexagon implant joints after abutment removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Abraão M; Pereira, Jorge; Silva, Filipe S; Henriques, Bruno; Nascimento, Rubens M; Benfatti, Cesar A M; López-López, José; Souza, Júlio C M

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the removal torque values on abutments and the morphological wear aspects of two different dental implant joints after immersion in a medium containing biofilm from human saliva. Twenty implant-abutment assemblies were divided into four groups in this study: (A) Morse taper free of medium containing biofilm, and (B) after contact with a medium containing biofilm from human saliva; (C) External Hexagon free of medium containing biofilm, and (D) after contact with medium containing biofilm from human saliva. The abutments were firstly torqued to the implants according to the manufacturer´s recommendations, using a handheld torque meter. Groups B and D were immersed into 24 well-plates containing 2 ml BHI medium with microorganisms for 72 h at 37 °C under microaerophilic conditions. After detorque evaluation, the abutments were removed and the implants were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry. On the detorque evaluation, the torque values decreased for the external hexagon implants and increased for the Morse taper implants. However, the values were lower when both implant-abutment assemblies were in contact with a medium containing biofilm from human saliva. The wear areas of contacting surfaces of the implants were identified by SEM. The highest average roughness values were recorded on the surfaces free of biofilm. The medium containing biofilm from human saliva affected the maintenance of the torque values on Morse taper and external hexagon abutments. Additionally, the removal of abutment altered the inner implant surfaces resulting in an increase of wear of the titanium-based connection.

  2. Evaluation of bond strength between grooved titanium alloy implant abutments and provisional veneering materials after surface treatment of the abutments: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gowtham Venkat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Titanium has become the material of choice with greater applications in dental implants. The success of the dental implant does not only depend on the integration of the implant to the bone but also on the function and longevity of the superstructure. The clinical condition that demands long-term interim prosthesis is challenging owing to the decreased bond between the abutment and the veneering material. Hence, various surface treatments are done on the abutments to increase the bond strength. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the bond strength between the abutment and the provisional veneering materials by surface treatments such as acid etching, laser etching, and sand blasting of the abutment. Materials and Methods: Forty titanium alloy abutments of 3 mm diameter and 11 mm height were grouped into four groups with ten samples. Groups A, B, C, and D are untreated abutments, sand blasted with 110 μm aluminum particles, etched with 1% hydrofluoric acid and 30% nitric acid, and laser etched with Nd: YAG laser, respectively. Provisional crowns were fabricated with bis-acrylic resin and cemented with noneugenol temporary luting cement. The shear bond strength was measured in universal testing machine using modified Shell–Nielsen shear test after the cemented samples were stored in water at 25°C for 24 h. Load was applied at a constant cross head speed of 5 mm/min until a sudden decrease in resistance indicative of bond failure was observed. The corresponding force values were recorded, and statistical analysis was done using one-way ANOVA and Newman–Keuls post hoc test. Results: The laser-etched samples showed higher bond strength. Conclusion: Among the three surface treatments, laser etching showed the highest bond strength between titanium alloy implant abutment and provisional restorations. The sand-blasted surfaces demonstrated a significant difference in bond strength compared to laser-etched surfaces. The results of this

  3. Removal Torque and Biofilm Accumulation at Two Dental Implant-Abutment Joints After Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jorge; Morsch, Carolina S; Henriques, Bruno; Nascimento, Rubens M; Benfatti, Cesar Am; Silva, Filipe S; López-López, José; Souza, Júlio Cm

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the removal torque and in vitro biofilm penetration at Morse taper and hexagonal implant-abutment joints after fatigue tests. Sixty dental implants were divided into two groups: (1) Morse taper and (2) external hexagon implant-abutment systems. Fatigue tests on the implant-abutment assemblies were performed at a normal force (FN) of 50 N at 1.2 Hz for 500,000 cycles in growth medium containing human saliva for 72 hours. Removal torque mean values (n = 10) were measured after fatigue tests. Abutments were then immersed in 1% protease solution in order to detach the biofilms for optical density and colony-forming unit (CFU/cm²) analyses. Groups of implant-abutment assemblies (n = 8) were cross-sectioned at 90 degrees relative to the plane of the implant-abutment joints for the microgap measurement by field-emission guns scanning electron microscopy. Mean values of removal torque on abutments were significantly lower for both Morse taper (22.1 ± 0.5 μm) and external hexagon (21.1 ± 0.7 μm) abutments after fatigue tests than those recorded without fatigue tests (respectively, 24 ± 0.5 μm and 24.8 ± 0.6 μm) in biofilm medium for 72 hours (P = .04). Mean values of microgap size for the Morse taper joints were statistically signicantly lower without fatigue tests (1.7 ± 0.4 μm) than those recorded after fatigue tests (3.2 ± 0.8 μm). Also, mean values of microgap size for external hexagon joints free of fatigue were statistically signicantly lower (1.5 ± 0.4 μm) than those recorded after fatigue tests (8.1 ± 1.7 μm) (P joints were lower in comparison to those recorded at external hexagon implant-abutment joints after fatigue tests in a simulated oral environment for 72 hours.

  4. Evaluation of resilient abutment components on measured strain using dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, D; Stanford, C M; Aquilino, S A

    1998-07-01

    Factors that affect transmission of strain from prostheses to bone may affect the long-term success of loaded implants. Current in vitro models are theoretically predictive (finite element modeling) or facsimile (photoelastic) in nature. A more clinically relevant in vitro model for strain evaluation should be investigated. This study attempted: (1) to validate a human cadaver bone model for vitro measurement of cortical bone strain, and (2) to evaluate the effect on cortical strain measurements of a resilient plastic component incorporated within a titanium implant in response to variable dynamic loading. Two IMZ (Interpore International) abutment alternatives were used: the titanium Abutment Complete and the polyoxymethylene Intra-mobile Element. The model system consisted of two implants placed in unfixed human cadaver ulna bone to simulate an implant bound edentulous region. Four biaxial rosette strain gauges simultaneously recorded cortical bone strain immediately mesial and distal to each implant. During experimentation a simulated prosthetic framework supported by either titanium or polyoxymethylene abutments was dynamically loaded 6 min from the terminal abutment along a cantilever extension. Cyclic nominal peak loads were applied with a materials testing machine at 20-N intervals from 20 to 200 N at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/minute. The protocol allowed frequency of load application to vary. A Newtonian linear correlation (r2 > or = 0.98) between load application and strain output was determined for each gauge position except for the terminal gauge located opposite the cantilever. Cortical strains recorded were within reported physiologic ranges involved in bone modeling and remodeling. Further, the polyoxymethylene abutment components did not result in reduction of peak microstrain at any gauge position. The Intra-mobile Element abutments, however, did increase the time required to complete 10 loading cycles when compared with the titanium Abutment

  5. Comparative study of the pullout strength of the 2.4-mm AO locking screw, 2.0-mm AO cortical screw and Herbert screw in sawbones: a biomechanical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat; Sompan, Soon; Luenam, Suriya

    2014-02-01

    Headless screw is a standard implant for an osteochondral fragment fixation. With a threaded design, the screw head can be buried under the articular cartilage to prevent a post-traumatic arthritis. However, the screw is expensive and maybe not available in the emergency situation. The 2.4-mm AO locking screw also has a threaded head which is able to advance underneath the cartilage. This has been usedfor fixation of the osteochondal fracture clinically. We compared the pullout strength of 2.4-mm AO locking screw with those ofHerbert screw and 2.0-mm AO cortical screw. The studies pemformed by using Instron 4502 to measure the pullout strength in 12 models for each type of the screw. The pullout strength of the 2.4-mm AO locking screw from a corticocancellous bone model was compared with the pullout strength of the Herbert screw from a cancellous bone model and the 2.0-mm AO cortical screw ifom the corticocancellous bone model. The differences in pullout strength between the 2.4-mm AO locking screw and the other two screws were determined by independent t-test. The pullout strength of the 2.4-mm AO locking screw, Herbert screw and 2.0-mm AO cortical screw were 143.49+46.18 N, 72.83 +/- 16.64 N, and 80.38 +/- 1.42 N, respectively. The pullout strength of2.4-mm AO locking screw was signi2ficantly higher than those ofHerbert screw and 2.0-mm AO cortical screw (pAO locking screw in the corticocancellous bone model had pullout strength higher than the Herbert screw in the cancellous bone model and the 2.0-mm AO cortical screw in corticocancellous bone model. The 2.4-mm AO locking screw may use instead of headless screw for intra-articular fixation in a specific situation, such as when the headless screw is unavailable.

  6. Evaluation of two styles of slotted, flat-head screws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, C.A. Jr.; Johnson, W.B.

    1979-01-01

    A series of torque tests were performed to evaluate the relative merits of two different flat-head screws fabricated from a uranium--6% niobium alloy. The screws tested were machined with both normal, straight-through slots in the head and with slots having radiused bottoms. Test results indicate that both designs easily surpass the required 20-inch-pound-proof torque

  7. scaphoid dimensions and appropriate screw sizes in a kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dimensions will aid in identifying appropriate screw systems. Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the dimensions of the scaphoid and its distal pole and relating this to commonly used screw systems. Methods: One hundred and four human scaphoids were studied and their dimensions determined. These.

  8. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-10

    Aug 10, 2015 ... Materials and Methods: Three different three-dimensional finite element models of the mandible were developed to simulate the biomechanical responses of titanium plates and screws. The fracture lines were fixed with double 4-hole straight, 4-hole square, and 5-hole Y plates with monocortical screws.

  9. Torsion strenght of biodegradable and titanium screws: a comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Gerrit J.; van der Houwen, Eduard B.; Stegenga, Boudewijn; Bos, Rudolf R.M.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine 1) the differences in maximum torque between 7 biodegradable and 2 titanium screw systems, and 2) the differences of maximum torque between “hand tight” and break of the biodegradable and the titanium osteofixation screw systems. Materials and Methods: Four oral and

  10. Electromagnetic Lead Screw for Potential Wave Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Kaiyuan; Wu, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new type electromagnetic lead screw (EMLS) intended for wave energy application. Similar to the mechanical lead screw, this electromagnetic version can transfer slow linear motion to high-rotational motion, offering gearing effects. Compared with the existing pure magnetic...

  11. Influence of surface modified dental implant abutments on connective tissue attachment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blázquez-Hinarejos, Mónica; Ayuso-Montero, Raúl; Jané-Salas, Enric; López-López, José

    2017-08-01

    Determine whether surface modified prosthetic abutments for dental implants influence connective tissue attachment to the implant-abutment system. A systematic review was conducted using the MEDLINE-PubMed database, with two independent reviewers filtering the titles and abstracts. Two reviewers assessed all potentially relevant articles. An assessment was carried out on the level of evidence of the research according to the guidelines of the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM). After an initial search, 109 potentially relevant articles were found. After reading the titles and abstracts, 99 articles were excluded because the surface treatment was limited to the implant and not to the abutment, or because different materials were analysed instead of surface treatments; 28 were also duplicate articles. An additional 6 research studies were included that were of interest and were found by reading the references of the included articles. The studies included are: 7 in vitro studies, 5 experimental studies in animals, 2 clinical trials in humans and 2 clinical cases. Surface modification for prosthetic abutments on dental implants can achieve connective tissue attachment to the abutment; however, more studies should be conducted in humans to obtain more and better evidence of these results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the marginal fit at implant-abutment interface by optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Keisuke; Akiba, Norihisa; Sadr, Alireza; Sumi, Yasunori; Tagami, Junji; Minakuchi, Shunsuke

    2014-05-01

    Vertical misfit of implant-abutment interface can affect the success of implant treatment; however, currently available modalities have limitations to detect these gaps. This study aimed to evaluate implant-abutment gaps in vitro using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Vertical misfit gaps sized 50, 100, 150, or 200 μm were created between external hexagonal implants and titanium abutments (Nobel Biocare, Göteborg, Sweden). A porcine gingival tissue slice, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, or 2.0 mm in thickness, was placed on each implant-abutment interface. The gaps were evaluated by swept-source OCT at a center wavelength of 1330 nm (Panasonic Healthcare, Ehime, Japan) with beam angles of 90, 75 and 60 deg to the implant long-axis. The results suggested that while the measurements were precise, gap size and gingival thickness affected the sensitivity of detection. Gaps sized 100 μm and above could be detected with good accuracy under 0.5- or 1.0-mm-thick gingiva (GN). Around 70% of gaps sized 150 μm and above could be detected under 1.5-mm-thick GN. On the other hand, 80% of gaps under 2.0-mm-thick GN were not detected due to attenuation of near-infrared light through the soft tissue. OCT appeared as an effective tool for evaluating the misfit of implant-abutment under thin layers of soft tissue.

  13. Topography, microhardness, and precision of fit on ready-made zirconia abutment before/after sintering process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Taro; Milleding, Percy; Wennerberg, Ann

    2007-09-01

    Sintering porcelain on a ceramic abutment may change the microstructure and result in aging processes that influence the mechanical properties, internal strain, and the three-dimensional form of the abutment, thus causing a possible misfit between the abutment and the fixture. The aim was to investigate topography, microhardness, and precision of fit on yttrium-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) abutments before/after the sintering process. Ten Y-TZP abutment samples were ground to a shape used in the clinical situation and divided at random into two groups: before/after sintering. After the surface roughness was measured on all abutments, the abutments were connected to fixture replicas, embedded in resin, and cut in the longitudinal axis. Both sides of the cut samples were measured with respect to microhardness and minimum distance between fixture and abutment surface. t-Test, one-way analysis of variance, and Bonferroni multiple comparisons were used to investigate statistical significant differences. The surface roughness (S(a) and S(dr)) after sintering was significantly higher than before sintering. The total average values of microhardness after sintering were statistically lower than before sintering with a difference of 2%. The total distance between abutment/fixture before/after sintering demonstrated no statistically significant difference. Contact between abutment/fixture was most common at the top area of the fixture. A slight decrease of microhardness and contamination of porcelain particles immediately below the veneered part were found on the Y-TZP abutment after sintering. The sintering process did not affect the precision of fit.

  14. A comparative radiographic evaluation of the titanium and zirconium implant-abutment gap of three different implant connections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Sahebi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: In response to esthetic demand and use of zirconia abutments; detection of implant-abutment connection misfit is so important. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of radiographic images in the detection of abutment-implant connection misfit in zirconia and titanium abutments of three different implant connections. Materials and Methods: One regular implant fixture of Branemark, Noble active and Replace systems were mount in acrylic models. Two pieces titanium and zirconium abutments were attached to the implants, once with correct adaptation and once with 0.5 mm spacer. Digital radiographic images were taken of 12 created states with zero degree vertical and horizontal inclination and evaluated by 10 specialists in implant treatment in two different time penods. Data were analyzed using Kappa analysis. Results: Interclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC of the agreement of answers in the first and second times were 97.4 and 97.5, respectively (P<0/001. Sensitivity of detecting gap in all groups was acceptable (95-100% except titanium abutment in Noble active which was the lowest value (35%. Specificity of all groups were acceptable (80-95% except zirconia abutments in Noble active and Replace with 45% and 30% values, respectively, and titanium abutments in Branemark had the highest value (95%. Conclusion: The sensitivity of radiographic images in detection of abutment-implant connection misfit only in Noble active with titanium abutment was not acceptable. Specificity of radiographic images in the absence of gap in titanium abutments was more favorable.

  15. A prospective clinical trial to assess the optical efficacy of pink neck implants and pink abutments on soft tissue esthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Mindy S; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi; Elani, Hawazin W; Da Silva, John D; Kim, David M; Tarnow, Dennis; Schulze-Späte, Ulrike; Bittner, Nurit

    2017-11-12

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, controlled, multicenter clinical study was to analyze the optical effects of an anodized pink colored implant shoulder/abutment system in the peri-implant mucosa of immediately placed dental implants. Forty subjects with a restoratively hopeless tooth in the maxillary esthetic zone, were recruited and randomized to receive either a pink-neck implant, or a conventional gray implant. All patients received an immediate implant and immediate provisional and two identical CAD/CAM titanium abutments with different surface colors: pink and gray, and one zirconia all-ceramic crown. The color of the peri-implant mucosa was measured using a dental spectrophotometer and analyzed using CIELAB color system. The overall color difference between the peri-implant mucosa with a pink abutment and a gray abutment was ΔE = 4.22. Patients with gray implants presented a color change of ΔE = 3.86-4.17 with this abutment change, while patients with pink implants had a color change of ΔE = 3.84-4.69. The peri-implant mucosa with a pink abutment was significantly more red when compared with a gray abutment (P ≤ .01). When a pink abutment was used, there is a significant color change of the peri-implant mucosa that is above the detectable color threshold. Esthetic outcomes are important for the success of implant treatment of maxillary anterior implants. The phenomenon of the gray color of a dental implant and abutment shining through the peri-implant mucosa has been documented in the literature. The objective of this study was to assess the optical effect of an anodized pink-neck implant and a pink abutment on the color of peri-implant mucosa. This study demonstrates that using pink-neck implant and a pink abutment would contribute positively to the overall esthetic outcome for an anterior implant. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Analysis of Soil Resistance During Screw Displacement Pile Installation

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    Krasinski Adam

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The application of screw displacement piles (SDP is still increasing due to their high efficiency and many advantages. However, one technological problem is a serious disadvantage of those piles. It relates to the generation of very high soil resistance during screw auger penetration, especially when piles are installed in non-cohesive soils. In many situations this problem causes difficulties in creating piles of designed length and diameter. It is necessary to find a proper method for prediction of soil resistance during screw pile installation. The analysis of screw resistances based on model and field tests is presented in the paper. The investigations were carried out as part of research project, financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education. As a result of tests and analyses the empirical method for prediction of rotation resistance (torque during screw auger penetration in non-cohesive subsoil based on CPT is proposed.

  17. Ball Screw Actuator Including an Axial Soft Stop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingett, Paul T. (Inventor); Forrest, Steven Talbert (Inventor); Abel, Steve (Inventor); Woessner, George (Inventor); Hanlon, Casey (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An actuator includes an actuator housing, a ball screw, and an axial soft stop assembly. The ball screw extends through the actuator housing and has a first end and a second end. The ball screw is coupled to receive a drive force and is configured, upon receipt of the drive force, to selectively move in a retract direction and an extend direction. The axial soft stop assembly is disposed within the actuator housing. The axial soft stop assembly is configured to be selectively engaged by the ball screw and, upon being engaged thereby, to translate, with compliance, a predetermined distance in the extend direction, and to prevent further movement of the ball screw upon translating the predetermined distance.

  18. Complications associated with thoracic pedicle screws in spinal deformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Lv, Guohua; Passias, Peter; Kozanek, Michal; Metkar, Umesh S.; Liu, Zhongjun; Wood, Kirkham B.; Rehak, Lubos

    2010-01-01

    Thoracic pedicle screws have superior anchoring strength compared with other available fixation techniques. However, these are not universally accepted in many developing countries because of the concerns regarding safety and complications. In addition, there is evidence that pedicle morphology is unique in Chinese patients. The goal of this study was to analyze the complications seen at our institution, while using thoracic pedicle screws for the treatment of thoracic deformity, and to determine the safety of our techniques for the treatment of thoracic deformity in a Chinese population. From 1998 to 2005, there were 208 thoracic deformity patients treated at our institution, 70 of whom were male and 138 were female. Their age ranged from 11 to 55 years (mean of 14.9 years). All of them underwent corrective deformity surgery using posterior pedicle screw systems and follow-up was available for at least 3 years. Etiologic diagnoses included adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in 119 patients, congenital kyphoscoliosis in 38, adult scoliosis in 37 and undetermined in 14. Screw positions were evaluated using intraoperative and postoperative radiographs and a CT scan was performed when a concern for screw malposition was present. All radiographic evaluations were carried out in a double-blinded fashion. A total of 1,123 thoracic pedicle screws were inserted (5.4 thoracic screws/patient). The deformity correction rate was 81, 65 and 62% for idiopathic, congenital and adult scoliosis patients, respectively. The overall complication rate was 16.5% at the final follow-up. Complication rates directly and indirectly related to pedicle screws were 7.2 and 9.3%, respectively. There were no significant screw-related neurologic or visceral complications that adversely affected long-term results. The complications seen with thoracic pedicle screws in a Chinese population were similar to other populations and could be utilized safely for the treatment of thoracic deformity in this

  19. Influence of different abutment diameter of implants on the peri-implant stress in the crestal bone: A Three-dimensional finite element analysis - In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama Aradya

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Results from this study showed the platform switched abutment led to relative decrease in von Mises stress in transcortical section of bone compared to normal abutment under vertical and oblique forces in posterior mandible region.

  20. Evaluation of the Periodontal Status of Abutment Teeth in Removable Partial Dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, André Ricardo Maia; da Silva Lobo, Fábio Daniel; Miranda, Mónica Célia Pereira; Framegas de Araújo, Filipe Miguel Soares; Santos Marques, Tiago Miguel

    2017-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether the use of removable partial dentures affects the periodontal status of abutment teeth. An observational cross-sectional study was done on a sample of patients rehabilitated with removable partial dentures (2010 to 2013). At a recall appointment, a clinical examination was done to collect data related to the rehabilitation and periodontal status of the abutment teeth. Of 145 invited patients, 54 attended the requested follow-up appointment (37.2%). Mean patient age was 59.1 years, and the study population was 42.6% male and 57.4% female. The mean follow-up time for the prosthesis was 26 months. Abutment teeth had higher values in all periodontal variables (P removable partial dentures is affected by these rehabilitations. A recall program for these patients involving removable prosthodontics and periodontology appointments is mandatory.

  1. Short-term retrospective case series of implant-assisted removable partial dentures with locator abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Puigpelat, Octavi; Gargallo-Albiol, Jordi; Hernández-Alfaro, Federico; Cabratosa-Termes, Josep

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective case series was to report on the clinical performance of implant-assisted removable partial dentures (IARPDs) with Locator abutments in different partial edentulism situations, with a mean follow-up period of 28.6 months. Twelve consecutive patients were treated with IARPDs. A total of 24 implants were placed in the edentulous area. Minimum follow-up period was 12 months. Overall patient satisfaction, health of peri-implant tissues, survival of implants and abutments, and prosthetic complications were reported. Overall implant survival was 91.6%; two implants failed. No major complications were reported-only one IARPD metal framework broke. No Locator abutment loosening was reported. Within the limitations of this retrospective study, treatment with IARPDs can improve the patient's function, phonetics, and esthetics without the need for extensive bone regeneration surgeries and prosthodontic rehabilitations. However, well-designed prospective clinical studies on IARPDs are needed to support their long-term use.

  2. A systematic approach to definitive planning and designing single and multiple unit implant abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunagaran, Sanjay; Markose, Sony; Paprocki, Gregory; Wicks, Russell

    2014-12-01

    With an increase in the availability of implant restorative components, the selection of an appropriate implant abutment for a given clinical situation has become more challenging. This article describes a systematic protocol to help the practitioner more thoughtfully select abutments for single and multiple unit fixed implant prostheses. The article examines the evaluation, planning, design, and fabrication processes for the definitive restoration. It includes an assessment of a variety of factors, namely restorative space, soft and hard tissues, the location of the implant platform, the type of platform connection, platform switching indications, tissue collar heights, emergence profile, implant angulation, and finally the design and esthetic options for the final implant abutment. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Bacterial microleakage at the abutment-implant interface, in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrucea, Carlos; Conrado, Aparicio; Olivares, Denise; Padilla, Carlos; Barrera, Andrea; Lobos, Olga

    2018-02-15

    In implant rehabilitation, a microspace is created at the abutment-implant interface (AII). Previous research has shown that oral microbiome can proliferate in this microspace and affect periimplant tissues, causing inflammation in peri-implant tissues. Preventing microbial leakages through the AII is therefore an important goal in implantology. To determine the presence of marginal bacterial microleakage at the AII according to the torque applied to the prosthetic implant in vitro. Twenty-five Ticare Inhex internal conical implants (MG Mozo-Grau, Valladolid, España) were connected to a prosthetic abutment using torques of implant adjustment as determined by micro-CT. The different torques applied to the abutment-implant system condition the bacterial leakage at the implant interface. No microleakage was observed at 20 and 30 N. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Marginal Bone Remodeling around healing Abutment vs Final Abutment Placement at Second Stage Implant Surgery: A 12-month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Nabih; Aboulhosn, Maissa; Berberi, Antoine; Manal, Cordahi; Younes, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    The periimplant bone level has been used as one of the criteria to assess the success of dental implants. It has been documented that the bone supporting two-piece implants undergoes resorption first following the second-stage surgery and later on further to abutment connection and delivery of the final prosthesis. The aim of this multicentric randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the crestal bone resorption around internal connection dental implants using a new surgical protocol that aims to respect the biological distance, relying on the benefit of a friction fit connection abutment (test group) compared with implants receiving conventional healing abutments at second-stage surgery (control group). A total of partially edentulous patients were consecutively treated at two private clinics, with two adjacent two-stage implants. Three months after the first surgery, one of the implants was randomly allocated to the control group and was uncovered using a healing abutment, while the other implant received a standard final abutment and was seated and tightened to 30 Ncm. At each step of the prosthetic try-in, the abutment in the test group was removed and then retightened to 30 Ncm. Horizontal bone changes were assessed using periapical radiographs immediately after implant placement and at 3 (second-stage surgery), 6, 9 and 12 months follow-up examinations. At 12 months follow-up, no implant failure was reported in both groups. In the control group, the mean periimplant bone resorption was 0.249 ± 0.362 at M3, 0.773 ± 0.413 at M6, 0.904 ± 0.36 at M9 and 1.047 ± 0.395 at M12. The test group revealed a statistically significant lower marginal bone loss of 20.88% at M3 (0.197 ± 0.262), 22.25% at M6 (0.601 ± 0.386), 24.23% at M9 (0.685 ± 0.341) and 19.2% at M9 (0.846 ± 0.454). The results revealed that bone loss increased over time, with the greatest change in bone loss occurring between 3 and 6 months. Alveolar bone loss was significantly greater in the

  5. Influence of Metal and Ceramic Abutments on the Stress Distribution Around Narrow Implants: A Photoelastic Stress Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Gustavo Holtz; Grossi, João Almeida; Zielak, João César; Giovanini, Allan Fernando; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to compare, through photoelastic analysis, the distribution of stresses around narrow implants with external hexagon (EH) and Morse taper (MT) connections, when single crowns made with metal and ceramic abutments were used. Six photoelastic models were prepared, simulating the use of narrow EH and MT implants replacing a lateral incisor. These 2 groups received 3 different abutments: prefabricated metal abutments, customized metal abutments, and customized zirconia abutments. All crowns were identical and made with a leucite reinforced glass-ceramic. Vertical loads of 0 to 100 N were applied on the palatal surface of the crowns, and the photoelastic stress fringes developed in each model were captured in a high-definition video, and digital photographs were taken at 100 N. The abutment type and material influenced the stress distribution patterns around narrow implants with EH and MT connections. Stresses were generated mainly around the apical and lingual regions of the implants. For both connections, the prefabricated metal abutments presented better stress distribution around the implants when compared to customized metal and zirconia abutments because low stress levels were developed in smaller areas around the implants.

  6. Assessment and comparison of retention of zirconia copings luted with different cements onto zirconia and titanium abutments: An in vitro study

    OpenAIRE

    Neelima Sreekumar Menon; G P Surendra Kumar; K R Jnanadev; C L Satish Babu; Shilpa Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess and compare the retention of zirconia copings luted with different luting agents onto zirconia and titanium abutments. Materials and Methods: Titanium and zirconia abutments were torqued at 35 N/cm onto implant analogs. The samples were divided into two groups: Group A consisted of four titanium abutments and 32 zirconia copings and Group B consisted of four zirconia abutments and 32 zirconia copings and four luting agents were used. T...

  7. Examination of the Position Accuracy of Implant Abutments Reproduced by Intra-Oral Optical Impression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Ajioka

    Full Text Available An impression technique called optical impression using intraoral scanner has attracted attention in digital dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the optical impression, comparing a virtual model reproduced by an intraoral scanner to a working cast made by conventional silicone impression technique. Two implants were placed on a master model. Working casts made of plaster were fabricated from the master model by silicone impression. The distance between the ball abutments and the angulation between the healing abutments of 5 mm and 7 mm height at master model were measured using Computer Numerical Control Coordinate Measuring Machine (CNCCMM as control. Working casts were then measured using CNCCMM, and virtual models via stereo lithography data of master model were measured by a three-dimensional analyzing software. The distance between ball abutments of the master model was 9634.9 ± 1.2 μm. The mean values of trueness of the Lava COS and working casts were 64.5 μm and 22.5 μm, respectively, greater than that of control. The mean of precision values of the Lava COS and working casts were 15.6 μm and 13.5 μm, respectively. In the case of a 5-mm-height healing abutment, mean angulation error of the Lava COS was greater than that of the working cast, resulting in significant differences in trueness and precision. However, in the case of a 7-mm-height abutment, mean angulation errors of the Lava COS and the working cast were not significantly different in trueness and precision. Therefore, distance errors of the optical impression were slightly greater than those of conventional impression. Moreover, the trueness and precision of angulation error could be improved in the optical impression using longer healing abutments. In the near future, the development of information technology could enable improvement in the accuracy of the optical impression with intraoral scanners.

  8. Examination of the Position Accuracy of Implant Abutments Reproduced by Intra-Oral Optical Impression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaira, Chikayuki; Kobayashi, Takuya; Kondo, Hisatomo

    2016-01-01

    An impression technique called optical impression using intraoral scanner has attracted attention in digital dentistry. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the optical impression, comparing a virtual model reproduced by an intraoral scanner to a working cast made by conventional silicone impression technique. Two implants were placed on a master model. Working casts made of plaster were fabricated from the master model by silicone impression. The distance between the ball abutments and the angulation between the healing abutments of 5 mm and 7 mm height at master model were measured using Computer Numerical Control Coordinate Measuring Machine (CNCCMM) as control. Working casts were then measured using CNCCMM, and virtual models via stereo lithography data of master model were measured by a three-dimensional analyzing software. The distance between ball abutments of the master model was 9634.9 ± 1.2 μm. The mean values of trueness of the Lava COS and working casts were 64.5 μm and 22.5 μm, respectively, greater than that of control. The mean of precision values of the Lava COS and working casts were 15.6 μm and 13.5 μm, respectively. In the case of a 5-mm-height healing abutment, mean angulation error of the Lava COS was greater than that of the working cast, resulting in significant differences in trueness and precision. However, in the case of a 7-mm-height abutment, mean angulation errors of the Lava COS and the working cast were not significantly different in trueness and precision. Therefore, distance errors of the optical impression were slightly greater than those of conventional impression. Moreover, the trueness and precision of angulation error could be improved in the optical impression using longer healing abutments. In the near future, the development of information technology could enable improvement in the accuracy of the optical impression with intraoral scanners. PMID:27706225

  9. The head to foot screw fixation. A new technique of percutaneous screw fixation of the scaphoid bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaraa, Mourad; Ben Slama, Safouane; Mahjoub, Sabri; Sehli, Heithem; Hadj Salah, Méhdi; Mbarek, Mondher

    2017-01-01

    Many techniques have been described for screw fixation of the scaphoid bone. The approach is either proximal or dorsal. A new percutaneous technique is presented by the authors called the head to foot screw fixation. Indications and results are evaluated. It is a percutaneous technique with fixation of the scaphoid bone by two screws introduced in an opposite direction: a proximal screw and a distal screw. No postoperative immobilization was necessary. A prospective study was conducted in 40 patients over a period of three years. The average age was 25 years with extremes of 14 and 44 years. This technique was practiced in fractures (30 cases) and nonunion (10 cases) in which the localization was proximal, corresponding to Schernberg types I, II and III. Forms associated with perilunate dislocation of the carpus were excluded from the study. The results were analysed with a mean of 8 months (6-30). Union was obtained in all the cases. No tendon injury related to percutaneous approach was noted. The technique required a learning curve with progressive decrease in operative time from 45 to 15 minutes. It was necessary in two cases to change protruding screws which were not diagnosed during the first intervention. Percutaneous screw fixation was achieved again in both cases.   Conclusions: The combination in our experience of two screws allowed us to prevent rotation around the unthreated area of a single screw. Our technique, bringing together the head to the foot of the screw, reduces the crowding at the proximal part of the scaphoid bone. This non-invasive method permitted early mobilization with no pain until biological union.

  10. The role of abutment-attachment selection in resolving inadequate interarch distance: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsiyabi, Abdullah S; Felton, David A; Cooper, Lyndon F

    2005-09-01

    A critical factor that needs to be evaluated during the diagnosis and treatment planning phase for patients seeking an implant-tissue-supported overdenture or metal-resin implant fixed denture is the presence of adequate interarch distance. The amount of interarch distance is critical to the selection of appropriate implant abutments and attachments for both implant-tissue-supported overdentures and metal-resin implant fixed complete dentures. This clinical report describes a patient with complications related to the failure to diagnose inadequate interarch distance, and the methods used to resolve the patient's chief complaint. A guide for abutment-attachment selection using one commercially available implant system is given.

  11. Design concepts of a removable partial dental prosthesis with implant-supported abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Stephanie; Chee, Winston W L; Torbati, Arman

    2014-08-01

    A clinical report is presented that describes the restoration of a severe anterior maxillary ridge defect and pneumatized sinuses with a rotation-path partial removable dental prosthesis and implant-supported abutments. Other treatment options were considered and rejected based on patient preferences and limitations, which included avoiding invasive surgeries. The principles of integrating fixed and removable prosthesis design were applied. However, the clasp design was modified to take into account the direct bone-to-implant contact of the abutments. An esthetic and functional outcome was obtained without any overly invasive surgery. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Innovation in abutment-free bone-anchored hearing devices in children: Updated results and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Shaun; Centric, Aaron; Chennupati, Sri Kiran

    2015-10-01

    Bone-anchored hearing devices are an accepted treatment option for hearing restoration in various types of hearing loss. Traditional devices have a percutaneous abutment for attachment of the sound processor that contributes to a high complication rate. Previously, our institution reported on the Sophono (Boulder, CO, USA) abutment-free system that produced similar audiologic results to devices with abutments. Recently, Cochlear Americas (Centennial, CO, USA) released an abutment-free bone-anchored hearing device, the BAHA Attract. In contrast to the Sophono implant, the BAHA Attract utilizes an osseointegrated implant. This study aims to demonstrate patient benefit abutment-free devices, compare the results of the two abutment-free devices, and examine complication rates. A retrospective chart review was conducted for the first eleven Sophono implanted patients and for the first six patients implanted with the BAHA Attract at our institution. Subsequently, we analyzed patient demographics, audiometric data, clinical course and outcomes. Average improvement for the BAHA Attract in pure-tone average (PTA) and speech reception threshold (SRT) was 41dB hearing level (dBHL) and 56dBHL, respectively. Considering all frequencies, the BAHA Attract mean improvement was 39dBHL (range 32-45dBHL). The Sophono average improvement in PTA and SRT was 38dBHL and 39dBHL, respectively. The mean improvement with Sophono for all frequencies was 34dBHL (range 24-43dBHL). Significant improvements in both pure-tone averages and speech reception threshold for both devices were achieved. In direct comparison of the two separate devices using the chi-square test, the PTA and SRT data between the two devices do not show a statistically significant difference (p-value 0.68 and 0.56, respectively). The complication rate for these abutment-free devices is lower than that of those featuring the transcutaneous abutment, although more studies are needed to further assess this potential advantage

  13. Management of Broken Dental Implant Abutment in a Patient with Bruxism: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Almaie, Saad

    2017-01-01

    This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.

  14. Management of broken dental implant abutment in a patient with bruxism: A rare case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Al-Almaie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This rare case report describes prosthodontic complications resulting from a dental implant was placed surgically more distally in the area of the missing mandibular first molar with a cantilever effect and a crest width of >12 mm in a 59-year-old patient who had a history of bruxism. Fracture of abutment is a common complication in implant was placed in area with high occlusal forces. Inability to remove the broken abutment may most often end up in discarding the implant. Adding one more dental implant mesially to the previously placed implant, improvisation of technique to remove the broken abutment without sacrificing the osseointegrated dental implant, fabrication with cemented custom-made abutment to replace the broken abutment for the first implant, and the use of the two implants to replace a single molar restoration proved reliable and logical treatment solutions to avoid these prosthodontic complications.

  15. Influences of internal tapered abutment designs on bone stresses around a dental implant: three-dimensional finite element method with statistical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chun-Ming; Huang, Heng-Li; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Fuh, Lih-Jyh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of various designs of internal tapered abutment joints on the stress induced in peri-implant crestal bone by using the three-dimensional finite element method and statistical analyses. Thirty-six models with various internal tapered abutment-implant interface designs including different abutment diameters (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mm), connection depths (4, 6, and 8 mm), and tapers (2°, 4°, 6°, and 8°) were constructed. A force of 170 N was applied to the top surface of the abutment either vertically or 45° obliquely. The maximum von Mises bone-stress values in the crestal bone surrounding the implant were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. In addition, patterns of bone stress around the implant were examined. The results demonstrate that a smaller abutment diameter and a longer abutment connection significantly reduced the bone stresses (P implant interfaced connection was more parallel, bone stresses under vertical loading were less (P = 0.0002), whereas the abutment taper did not show significant effects on bone stresses under oblique loading (P = 0.83). Bone stresses were mainly influenced by the abutment diameter, followed by the abutment connection depth and the abutment taper. For an internal tapered abutment design, it was suggested that a narrower and deeper abutment-implant interface produced the biomechanical advantage of reducing the stress concentration in the crestal region around an implant.

  16. Positioning of pedicle screws in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis using electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Moreira Gavassi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the occurrence of poor positioning of pedicle screws inserted with the aid of intraoperative electromyographic stimulation in the treatment of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS.METHODS: This is a prospective observational study including all patients undergoing surgical treatment for AIS, between March and December 2013 at a single institution. All procedures were monitored by electromyography of the inserted pedicle screws. The position of the screws was evaluated by assessment of postoperative CT and classified according to the specific AIS classification system.RESULTS: Sixteen patients were included in the study, totalizing 281 instrumented pedicles (17.5 per patient. No patient had any neurological deficit or complaint after surgery. In the axial plane, 195 screws were found in ideal position (69.4% while in the sagittal plane, 226 screws were found in ideal position (80.4%. Considering both the axial and the sagittal planes, it was observed that 59.1% (166/281 of the screws did not violate any cortical wall.CONCLUSION: The use of pedicle screws proved to be a safe technique without causing neurological damage in AIS surgeries, even with the occurrence of poor positioning of some implants.

  17. Experiments on screw-pinch plasmas with elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassing, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis experiments are described carried out with SPICA II, a toroidal screw-pinch plasma device. this device is the last one in a series of plasma machines of the toroidal screw-pinch differing from its predecessor in its race-track shaped section. In devices of the type toroidal screw-pinch stable confinement is possible of plasmas with larger β values than in a tokamak discharge. In a pinch the plasma is screwed up, during the formation, in such a way that in a relatively small volume a plasma is formated with a high pressure. During the screwing up the plasma is heated by shock heating as well as adiabatic compression. With the modified snowplow model the density and temperature after the formation can be calculated, starting from the initial conditions. When all ions arrive into the plasma column, the density in the column is determined by the volume compression. First purpose of the experiments was to find a stable discharge. Subsequently discharges have been made with a high as possible β in order to investigate at which maximum β it is possible to confine screw-pinch plasmas stably. When these had been found, the nature and importance could be investigated of the processes following which the screw-pinch plasma looses its energy. (author), 75 res.; 95 figs.; 8 tabs

  18. Multiaxial pedicle screw designs: static and dynamic mechanical testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanford, Ralph Edward; Loefler, Andreas Herman; Stanford, Philip Mark; Walsh, William R

    2004-02-15

    Randomized investigation of multiaxial pedicle screw mechanical properties. Measure static yield and ultimate strengths, yield stiffness, and fatigue resistance according to an established model. Compare these measured properties with expected loads in vivo. Multiaxial pedicle screws provide surgical versatility, but the complexity of their design may reduce their strength and fatigue resistance. There is no published data on the mechanical properties of such screws. Screws were assembled according to a vertebrectomy model for destructive mechanical testing. Groups of five assemblies were tested in static tension and compression and subject to three cyclical loads. Modes of failure, yield, and ultimate strength, yield stiffness, and cycles to failure were determined for six designs of screw. Static compression yield loads ranged from 217.1 to 388.0 N and yield stiffness from 23.7 to 38.0 N/mm. Cycles to failure ranged from 42 x 10(3) to 4,719 x 10(3) at 75% of static ultimate load. There were significant differences between designs in all modes of testing. Failure occurred at the multiaxial link in static and cyclical compression. Bending yield strengths just exceeded loads expected in vivo. Multiaxial designs had lower static bending yield strength than fixed screw designs. Five out of six multiaxial screw designs achieved one million cycles at 200 N in compression bending. "Ball-in-cup" multiaxial locking mechanisms were vulnerable to fatigue failure. Smooth surfaces and thicker material appeared to be protective against fatigue failure.

  19. Zirconia and titanium implant abutments for single-tooth implant prostheses after 5 years of function in posterior regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lops, Diego; Bressan, Eriberto; Chiapasco, Matteo; Rossi, Alessandro; Romeo, Eugenio

    2013-01-01

    To verify, in a medium-term follow-up, whether or not zirconia (Zr) abutments show similar survival outcomes as titanium (Ti) abutments in posterior areas. A two-stage surgical protocol was used. Each patient was followed for 5 years after the definitive prosthesis insertion. Clinical and radiographic parameters were assessed at the yearly follow-up visit, and prosthetic complications were recorded. Statistical analysis (Wilcoxon signed rank test) was used to compare any difference in biologic and radiographic parameters between implants and the natural contralateral teeth. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the changes over time (from baseline to the last follow-up) of clinical and radiographic parameters. A total of 85 patients with a single posterior tooth gap were treated with 85 implants supporting 47 Ti and 38 Zr abutments, respectively. All-ceramic (38) and metal-ceramic (47) single crowns were fabricated. Four patients were classified as dropouts. Eighty-one implants supporting 44 Ti and 37 Zr abutments completed the 5-year follow-up examination. No implant, reconstruction, or abutment failures were recorded. Therefore, the prosthetic survival after 5 years of function was 100% for all the abutments and restorations. No significant differences in biologic and radiographic indexes were found between Ti and Zr abutments when compared with each other and with the natural teeth after 5 years. No significant marginal bone loss was found between the baseline and the last follow-up, both for Zr and Ti abutments. The medium-term survival of Zr abutments in posterior regions was comparable with that of Ti abutments. Long-term evaluations are needed to confirm this finding.

  20. Are Zirconia Implant Abutments Safe and Predictable in Posterior Regions? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; De Souza, Grace M; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review aimed to evaluate whether the survival rate and predictability of zirconia abutments are similar to those of titanium abutments for single implant crowns in the posterior area. A systematic search of two databases (Medline/PubMed and Cochrane Library) was performed by two independent reviewers for articles published between January 2004 and July 2014. The electronic search was complemented by a hand search of the following journals from the same period: Journal of Periodontology, Clinical Oral Implants Research, International Journal of Prosthodontics, and International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants. Studies included were published in English, evaluated single implant crowns, and performed a mean observation ≥ 1 year. Any disagreement between the reviewers was solved by means of a discussion. Forest plot and funnel were used to compare zirconia and titanium abutments. The search strategy identified 669 studies. Of these, 11 studies were included and only 6 studies were selected for meta-analysis. The pooled results for fixed implant single crowns in posterior areas showed a 5-year success rate of 99.3% for zirconia abutments and 99.57% for titanium abutments. There was no statistical difference regarding veneer failure (P = .26). The pooled results of these studies showed that the mean bone loss was 0.38 ± 0.87 mm for zirconia and 0.2 ± 0.13 mm for titanium abutments. The use of zirconia abutments for single implant-fixed crowns in posterior regions is questionable due to the absence of long-term data. The short-term results of zirconia abutments regarding mechanical and biologic responses are similar to titanium abutments. Caution when using zirconia abutments in posterior regions is necessary until further clinical evidence shows favorable long-term results.

  1. Engineering Aspects of Single- and Twin-screw Extrusion-cooking of Biopolymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuilichem, D.J. van; Stolp, W.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1983-01-01

    A survey is given of the properties of single- and twin-screw extruders. The influence on the design of the different leakage gaps existing in co-rotating, counter-rotating, self-wiping, twin-screw extruders and single-screw equipment is discussed. The mixing effects in single- and twin-screw

  2. Pedicle screw rupture: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio E.O. Giacaglia

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a technical description related to the rupture of a titanium alloy pedicle screw and connecting bar implanted in dorsal vertebras of a patient. Only metallurgical facts are described, with no attempt to identify any imperfections in the clinical aspects related to the rupture. The results described here are based on extensive analysis of the broken materials in a material sciences specialized laboratory. Excluding an incorrect prosthesis implantation in the surgical procedure and a possible low bone density, an information not available to the research team, with high probability the rupture of metallic pieces used in the prosthetic implant, was produced by the low fatigue resistance resulting by an improper machining process and excessive bending of the connecting bar prior to implant.

  3. Screw pyrolysis technology for sewage sludge treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi Morgano, Marco; Leibold, Hans; Richter, Frank; Stapf, Dieter; Seifert, Helmut

    2018-03-01

    Sewage sludge quantities have grown continuously since the introduction of the European Directive (UWWTD 91/271/EEC) relating to the treatment of urban wastewater. In the present, most of the sewage sludge is combusted in single fuels incineration plants or is co-fired in waste incineration or coal power plants. The combustion of sewage sludge is a proven technology. Other treatments, such as fluidized bed gasification, were successfully adopted to produce suitable syngas for power production. Besides, the number of large wastewater treatment plants is relatively small compared to the local rural ones. Moreover, alternative technologies are arising with the main target of nutrients recovery, with a special focus on phosphorus. The aforementioned issues, i.e. the small scale (below 1MW) and the nutrients recovery, suggest that pyrolysis in screw reactors may become an attractive alternative technology for sewage sludge conversion, recovery and recycling. In this work, about 100kg of dried sewage sludge from a plant in Germany were processed at the newly developed STYX Reactor, at KIT. The reactor combines the advantages of screw reactors with the high temperature filtration, in order to produce particle and ash free vapors and condensates, respectively. Experiments were carried out at temperatures between 350°C and 500°C. The yield of the char decreased from 66.7wt.% to 53.0wt.%. The same trend was obtained for the energy yield, while the maximum pyrolysis oil yield of 13.4wt.% was obtained at 500°C. Besides mercury, the metals and the other minerals were completely retained in the char. Nitrogen and sulfur migrated from the solid to the condensate and to the gas, respectively. Based on the energy balance, a new concept for the decentral production of char as well as heat and power in an externally fired micro gas turbine showed a cogeneration efficiency up to about 40%. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Inline screw feeding vacuum arc thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronhaus, Igal; Laterza, Matteo; Maor, Yonatan

    2017-04-01

    A new type of micropropulsion device for nanosatellite applications is presented—the inline-screw-feeding vacuum-arc thruster (ISF-VAT). This thruster couples a conventional "triggerless" ignition geometry with a feeding mechanism that maintains a steady state discharge performance. The feeding mechanism implements a screw action on a central cathode rod. At a predetermined rate, a complete and uniform erosion of the cathodes tip is obtained as well as "healing" of the insulator coating. The inline feeding of the cathode forces the arc to emerge on the tip of the cathode, flush with the exit plane of the anode. This enables the plasma plume to efficiently accelerate away from the thruster, eliminating the need for an additional ion acceleration stage. The ISF-VAT feeding mechanism is computer controlled and offers reliable operation of the thruster over a large number of pulses. Characterization of the ISF-VAT performance is presented, conducted on an experimental prototype in the Aerospace Plasma Laboratory, Technion. Measurement results of the mass flow rate, electrical parameters of the discharge, and thrust are presented. Using a Ti cathode at a discharge power of 3 W, a mass flow rate of ≈1.8 ×10-9 kg/s and a thrust level ≈ 7 μN were measured. More than 106 pulses were demonstrated in a single run, accumulating a total impulse of 0.2 Ns. The thruster prototype dimensions are 15 × 15 × 65 mm3 and are ≈ 60 g in mass.

  5. Design of platform for removing screws from LCD display shields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Zimei; Qin, Qin; Dou, Jianfang; Zhu, Dongdong

    2017-11-01

    Removing the screws on the sides of a shield is a necessary process in disassembling a computer LCD display. To solve this issue, a platform has been designed for removing the screws on display shields. This platform uses virtual instrument technology with LabVIEW as the development environment to design the mechanical structure with the technologies of motion control, human-computer interaction and target recognition. This platform removes the screws from the sides of the shield of an LCD display mechanically thus to guarantee follow-up separation and recycle.

  6. Modelling of porous biomass pyrolysis in screw reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, A. A.; Kozlov, A. N.

    2017-09-01

    This paper is concerned with the development of a model of wood pyrolysis in a screw reactor as the first stage of the multistage gasification process. To prevent clinkering of particles and thermal inhomogeneities, screw-type transportation is used to transport fuel. In order to describe kinetics of pyrolysis and transport of volatiles within the wood particles and their transition to the gas phase we carried out the studies using a complex of synchronous thermal analysis. A detailed numerical modeling of pyrolyzer was performed with the Comsol Multiphysics software which makes it possible to optimize the design and operating parameters of the pyrolysis process in a screw reactor.

  7. [Positions of Sustentacular Screw in Osteosynthesis of Calcaneal Fractures: Clinical and Radiographic Study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazour, J; Křivohlávek, M; Lukáš, R

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The aim of the study was to analyse the options for sustentacular screw placement in osteosynthesis of intra-articular fractures of the heel bone and to assess the effect of various screw positions on failure to maintain the reduction in the postoperative period. In addition, problems related to screw-end protrusion over the medial cortical bone or to screw penetration into the talocalcaneal joint were assessed. MATERIAL AND METHODS The group comprised 23 patients with a total of 25 intra-articular fractures of the heel bone treated by surgery. The procedure involved insertion of a sustentacular screw under fluoroscopic guidance. Post-operatively, screw position in the sustentacular fragment was evaluated on CT scans. During follow-up, attention was focused on the effect of screw placement on maintenance of fracture reduction, and clinical symptoms potentially associated with screw malposition were recorded. RESULTS All sustentacular screws were fixed sustentacular fragments. Seven screws (28%) were inserted in the talar shelf, seven (28%) were placed under and nine (36%) over the sustentaculum tali. Two screws penetrated into the talocalcaneal joint (8%). The end of a screw projecting by 2 mm over the medial wall of the calcaneus was found in 11 cases (44%). Two patients with screws penetrating into the talocalcaneal joint had problems. On the other hand, no clinical effect of a screw extending over the medial wall of the calcaneus was recorded. No significant association of screw position with late //delayed failure of fracture reduction was detected. DISCUSSION Although the ideal trajectory for a sustentacular screw have been defined using a model of the calcaneus, it is not easy to achieve optimal screw placement due to the complex anatomy of the calcaneus and limited possibilities of intra-operative control of screw insertion. Any sustentacular screw malposition is a potential risk factor, particularly if the screw has penetrated into the

  8. Measurement of Tip Apex Distance and Migration of Lag Screws and Novel Blade Screw Used for the Fixation of Intertrochanteric Fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse Chieh-Szu Yang

    Full Text Available Fixation with a dynamic hip screw (DHS is one of the most common methods for stabilizing intertrochanteric fractures, except for unstable and reverse oblique fracture types. However, failure is often observed in osteoporotic patients whereby the lag screw effectively 'cuts out' through the weak bone. Novel anti-migration blades have been developed to be used in combination with a lag screw ('Blade Screw' to improve the fixation strength in osteoporotic intertrochanteric fractures. An in-vitro biomechanical study and a retrospective clinical study were performed to evaluate lag screw migration when using the novel Blade Screw and a traditional threaded DHS. The biomechanical study showed both the Blade Screw and DHS displayed excessive migration (≥10 mm before reaching 20,000 loading cycles in mild osteoporotic bone, but overall migration of the Blade Screw was significantly less (p ≤ 0.03. Among the patients implanted with a Blade Screw in the clinical study, there was no significant variation in screw migration at 3-months follow-up (P = 0.12. However, the patient's implanted with a DHS did display significantly greater migration (P<0.001 than those implanted with the Blade Screw. In conclusion, the Blade Screw stabilizes the bone fragments during dynamic loading so as to provide significantly greater resistance to screw migration in patients with mild osteoporosis.

  9. Immediate placement and immediate provisional abutment modeling in anterior single-tooth implant restorations using a CAD/CAM application: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselios, Nikolaos; Parel, Stephen M; Jones, John D

    2006-03-01

    A patient underwent immediate implant placement and immediate provisional restoration with nonocclusal loading in the right central incisor area. A provisional custom abutment and a cemented provisional restoration were fabricated. At the impression appointment, an implant level impression was made and the provisional abutment was scanned for fabrication of the definitive custom abutment. This clinical report describes how CAD/CAM technology can facilitate the definitive restoration of immediately placed and loaded implants by allowing the fabrication of the definitive abutment as an exact duplicate of the provisional abutment.

  10. Characteristics of immediate and fatigue strength of a dual-threaded pedicle screw in cadaveric spines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasiliense, Leonardo B C; Lazaro, Bruno C R; Reyes, Phillip M; Newcomb, Anna G U S; Turner, Joseph L; Crandall, Dennis G; Crawford, Neil R

    2013-08-01

    Novel dual-threaded screws are configured with overlapping (doubled) threads only in the proximal shaft to improve proximal cortical fixation. Tests were run to determine whether dual-threaded pedicle screws improve pullout resistance and increase fatigue endurance compared with standard pedicle screws. In vitro strength and fatigue tests were performed in human cadaveric vertebrae and in polyurethane foam test blocks. Seventeen cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (14 pedicles) and 40 test sites in foam blocks were tested. Measures for comparison between standard and dual-threaded screws were bone mineral density (BMD), screw insertion torque, ultimate pullout force, peak load at cyclic failure, and pedicular side of first cyclic failure. For each vertebral sample, dual-threaded screws were inserted in one pedicle and single-threaded screws were inserted in the opposite pedicle while recording insertion torque. In seven vertebrae, axial pullout tests were performed. In 10 vertebrae, orthogonal loads were cycled at increasing peak values until toggle exceeded threshold for failure. Insertion torque and pullout force were also recorded for screws placed in foam blocks representing healthy or osteoporotic bone porosity. In bone, screw insertion torque was 183% greater with dual-threaded than with standard screws (pscrews pulled out at 93% of the force required to pull out dual-threaded screws (p=.42). Of 10 screws, five reached toggle failure first on the standard screw side, two screws failed first on the dual-threaded side, and three screws failed on both sides during the same round of cycling. In the high-porosity foam, screw insertion torque was 60% greater with the dual-threaded screw than with the standard screw (p=.005), but 14% less with the low-porosity foam (p=.07). Pullout force was 19% less with the dual-threaded screw than with the standard screw in the high-porosity foam (p=.115), but 6% greater with the dual-threaded screw in the low-porosity foam (p=.156

  11. Accuracy of Digital Versus Conventional Periapical Radiographs to Detect Misfit at the Implant-Abutment Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cançado Oliveira, Bruno Fernando; Valerio, Claudia Scigliano; Jansen, Wellington Corrêa; Zenóbio, Elton Gonçalves; Manzi, Flávio Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Misfit is a risk factor for rehabilitation with implants, and its detection is of fundamental importance to the success of treatment with implants. The use of appropriate radiographic imaging is key for a good prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of film and digital radiographs for the detection of misfit at the implant-abutment interface. Digital and conventional (manual and automatic processing) radiography was performed in seven test specimens, each one with a different vertical misfit between the abutment and the platform of the implant. Scanning electron microscopy was used to confirm the misfit and to measure it. Five dental radiologists independently and blindly evaluated the images. Cohen's kappa with linear weighting was calculated to determine interexaminer and intraexaminer concordance. Statistical analyses were performed using the Cochran's Q test and the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC). Interexaminer analysis showed that the kappa value was equal to 0.74, whereas the average kappa value in the intraexaminer evaluation was 0.90. Digital imaging showed the largest area on the ROC graph, and conventional images with manual processing showed the smallest area. The images obtained through conventional radiography with both manual and automatic processing showed statistically significant differences from the measurement of the gold standard (P < .05). Digital imaging can be used to evaluate misfit at the implant-abutment interface. Conventional systems of radiographic imaging do not provide sufficient information to evaluate misfit at the implant-abutment interface.

  12. Implant-abutment gap versus microbial colonization : Clinical significance based on a literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Passos, Sheila Pestana; May, Liliana Gressler; Faria, Renata; Ozcan, Mutlu; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Microorganisms from the oral cavity may settle at the implant-abutment interface (IAI). As a result, tissue inflammation could occur around these structures. The databases MEDLINE/PubMed and PubMed Central were used to identify articles published from 1981 through 2012 related to the microbial

  13. The effect of zirconia and titanium implant abutments on light reflection of the supporting soft tissues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brakel, Ralph; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Frenken, Joost; de Roode, Rowland; de Wit, Gerard C.; Cune, Marco S.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the difference in light reflection of oral mucosa covering titanium (Ti) or zirconia (ZrO2) abutments as it relates to the thickness of the covering mucosa. Material and methods: Fifteen anterior implants (Astra Osseo speed (R)) in 11 patients were fitted with a Ti or a ZrO2

  14. Long-term stability analysis of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The time-dependent behavior of the left bank abutment slope at Jinping I hydropower station has a major influence on the normal operation and long-term safety of the hydropower station. To solve this problem, a geomechanical model containing various faults and weak structural planes is established, and numerical simulation is conducted under normal water load condition using FLAC3D, incorporating creep model proposed based on thermodynamics with internal state variables theory. The creep deformations of the left bank abutment slope are obtained, and the changes of principal stresses and deformations of the dam body are analyzed. The long-term stability of the left bank abutment slope is evaluated according to the integral curves of energy dissipation rate in domain and its derivative with respect to time, and the non-equilibrium evolution rules and the characteristic time can also be determined using these curves. Numerical results show that the left bank abutment slope tends to be stable in a global sense, and the stress concentration is released. It is also indicated that more attention should be paid to some weak regions within the slope in the long-term deformation process.

  15. The effect of mucosal cuff shrinkage around dental implants during healing abutment replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissan, J; Zenziper, E; Rosner, O; Kolerman, R; Chaushu, L; Chaushu, G

    2015-10-01

    Soft tissue shrinkage during the course of restoring dental implants may result in biological and prosthodontic difficulties. This study was conducted to measure the continuous shrinkage of the mucosal cuff around dental implants following the removal of the healing abutment up to 60 s. Individuals treated with implant-supported fixed partial dentures were included. Implant data--location, type, length, diameter and healing abutments' dimensions--were recorded. Mucosal cuff shrinkage, following removal of the healing abutments, was measured in bucco-lingual direction at four time points--immediately after 20, 40 and 60 s. anova was used to for statistical analysis. Eighty-seven patients (49 women and 38 men) with a total of 311 implants were evaluated (120 maxilla; 191 mandible; 291 posterior segments; 20 anterior segments). Two-hundred and five (66%) implants displayed thick and 106 (34%) thin gingival biotype. Time was the sole statistically significant parameter affecting mucosal cuff shrinkage around dental implants (P < 0.001). From time 0 to 20, 40 and 60 s, the mean diameter changed from 4.1 to 4.07, 3.4 and 2.81 mm, respectively. The shrinkage was 1%, 17% and 31%, respectively. The gingival biotype had no statistically significant influence on mucosal cuff shrinkage (P = 0.672). Time required replacing a healing abutment with a prosthetic element should be minimised (up to 20/40 s), to avoid pain, discomfort and misfit. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Papillary fill response in single-tooth implants using abutments of different geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep; den Hartog, Laurens; Dilbaghi, Anjali; de Jong, Bart; Kerdijk, Wouter; Cune, Marco S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the influence of abutment geometry on papillary fill in the esthetic zone in a delayed crown protocol. Materials and methods: Twenty-six subjects received two non-adjacent endosseous implants in the esthetic zone. Functional temporary crowns were installed 17-19 weeks later,

  17. Comparison of two different abutment designs on marginal bone loss and soft tissue development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patil, Ratnadeep C.; den Hartog, Laurens; van Heereveld, Christiaan; Jagdale, Aditi; Dilbaghi, Anjali; Cune, Marco S.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the response of soft tissues around two different abutment designs in healed sites in the esthetic zone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six subjects received two endosseous implants in healed, bilateral implant sites in the esthetic zone in the maxilla or the mandible. After 17 to

  18. Evaluation on Impact Interaction between Abutment and Steel Girder Subjected to Nonuniform Seismic Excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate the impact interaction between the abutment and the girder subjected to nonuniform seismic excitation. An impact model based on tests is presented by taking material properties of the backfill of the abutment into consideration. The conditional simulation is performed to investigate the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions. A two-span continuous steel box girder bridge is taken as the example to analyze and assess the pounding interaction between the abutment and the girder. The detailed nonlinear finite element (FE model is established and the steel girder and the reinforced concrete piers are modeled by nonlinear fiber elements. The pounding element of the abutment is simulated by using a trilinear compression gap element. The elastic-perfectly plastic element is used to model the nonlinear rubber bearings. The comparisons of the pounding forces, the shear forces of the nonlinear bearings, the moments of reinforced concrete piers, and the axial pounding stresses of the steel girder are studied. The made observations indicate that the nonuniform excitation for multisupport bridge is imperative in the analysis and evaluation of the pounding effects of the bridges.

  19. A technique to facilitate the fabrication of provisional restorations for ITI solid abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Murat; Güler, Ahmet Umut; Erkoçak, Ayça; Sanal, Fatma Ayşe

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this technique report was to present a procedure for the fabrication of provisional restorations for ITI solid abutments using impression caps in the laboratory with a number of advantages over intraoral techniques. There may be no need for cementation, and elimination of cementation may assist tissue healing.

  20. Repair of fractured abutment teeth under pre-existing crowns: An alternative approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kennedy Mascarenhas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a technique for repair of abutment tooth which fractured during removal of a provisional restoration before bisque trial. The technique uses plastic templates to fabricate new composite core foundation for the existing crowns. This technique helps the dentist to rebuild the core in a single appointment.

  1. Evaluation of contiguous implants with cement-retained implant-abutment connections. A minipig study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rezende Martins de Barros

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The presence of a microgap at the implant-abutment interface may permit bacterial contamination and lead to bone resorption, interfering with papillae formation. The present study evaluated adjacent implants with cement-retained abutments as an option to control such deleterious effects. Materials and methods Seven minipigs had their bilateral mandibular premolars previously extracted. After 8 weeks, four implants were installed in each hemi-mandible of each animal. The adjacent implants were randomly inserted on one side at the crestal bone level and on the other, 1.5 mm subcrestally. Immediately, a non-submerged healing and functional loading were provided with the abutments cementation and prostheses installation. Clinical examination and histomorphometry served to analyze the implant success. Results A total of 52 implants were evaluated at the end of the study. The subcrestal group achieved statistical better results when compared to the crestal group, clinically in papillae formation (1.97 x 1.57 mm and histomorphometrically in crestal bone remodeling (1.17 x 1.63 mm, bone density (52.39 x 45.22% and bone-implant contact (54.13 x 42.46%. Conclusion The subcrestal placement of cement-retained abutment implants showed better indexes of osseointegration and also improved papillae formation and crestal bone remodeling at the interimplant area after immediate loading, making them a promising option for the treatment of esthetic regions.

  2. Abutment-free bone-anchored hearing devices in children: initial results and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centric, Aaron; Chennupati, Sri Kiran

    2014-05-01

    Bone-anchored implantable hearing devices are widely accepted as a surgical option for certain types of hearing loss in both adults and children. Most commercially available devices involve a percutaneous abutment to which a sound processor attaches. The rate of complications with such bone conduction systems is greater than 20%. Most complications arise from the abutment. Recently, the Sophono (Boulder, CO) Alpha 1, an abutment-free system, has been introduced. We conducted a retrospective chart review of the first five patients who underwent implantation with the Sophono abutment-free bone conduction hearing system with the Alpha 1 processor at our institution and report here on these patients' pre- and postoperative audiometric data and clinical courses. Average improvement in pure-tone average was 32dB hearing loss and average improvement in speech response threshold was 28dB hearing loss. All patients were responding in the normal to mild hearing loss range in the operated ear after device activation. Average improvement across individual frequencies was between 17 and 37dB (SD 5.5-11dB). Our audiometric results to date are promising and have been consistent with published data on other bone-anchored hearing devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Distribution of Side Abutment Stress in Roadway Subjected to Dynamic Pressure and Its Engineering Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Qiangling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The borehole stress-meter was employed in this study to investigate the distribution of the side abutment stress in roadway subjected to dynamic pressure. The results demonstrate that the side abutment stress of the mining roadway reaches a peak value when the distance to the gob is 8 m and the distribution curve of the side abutment stress can be divided into three zones: stress rising zone, stress stabilizing zone, and stress decreasing zone. Further numerical investigation was carried out to study the effect of the coal mass strength, coal seam depth, immediate roof strength, and thickness on the distribution of the side abutment stress. Based on the research results, we determined the reasonable position of the mining roadway and the optimal width of the barrier pillar. The engineering application demonstrates that the retention of the barrier pillar with a width of 5 m along the gob as the haulage roadway for the next panel is feasible, which delivers favorable technological and economic benefits.

  4. Lumbar pedicle screw placement: Using only AP plane imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Sethi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Placement of pedicle screws under fluoroscopic guidance using AP plane imaging alone with tactile guidance is safe, fast, and reliable. However, a good understanding of the radiographic landmarks is a prerequisite.

  5. Centrifuging Step-Screw Conveyor for Regolith Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A variety of ISRU operations will utilize lunar regolith as feedstock. The proposed centrifuging step-screw conveyor concept will provide a well controlled robust,...

  6. Kinematic analysis of parallel manipulators by algebraic screw theory

    CERN Document Server

    Gallardo-Alvarado, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    This book reviews the fundamentals of screw theory concerned with velocity analysis of rigid-bodies, confirmed with detailed and explicit proofs. The author additionally investigates acceleration, jerk, and hyper-jerk analyses of rigid-bodies following the trend of the velocity analysis. With the material provided in this book, readers can extend the theory of screws into the kinematics of optional order of rigid-bodies. Illustrative examples and exercises to reinforce learning are provided. Of particular note, the kinematics of emblematic parallel manipulators, such as the Delta robot as well as the original Gough and Stewart platforms are revisited applying, in addition to the theory of screws, new methods devoted to simplify the corresponding forward-displacement analysis, a challenging task for most parallel manipulators. Stands as the only book devoted to the acceleration, jerk and hyper-jerk (snap) analyses of rigid-body by means of screw theory; Provides new strategies to simplify the forward kinematic...

  7. Biomechanical analysis of titanium fixation plates and screws in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hole Y plates with monocortical screws. 150 N incisal occlusal loads were simulated on the models. The commercial ANSYS software was utilized to calculate the Von Mises stresses on fixative appliances. Results: The highest Von Mises stress ...

  8. Influences of microgap and micromotion of implant-abutment interface on marginal bone loss around implant neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Wang, Jiawei

    2017-11-01

    To review the influences and clinical implications of micro-gap and micro-motion of implant-abutment interface on marginal bone loss around the neck of implant. Literatures were searched based on the following Keywords: implant-abutment interface/implant-abutment connection/implant-abutment conjunction, microgap, micromotion/micromovement, microleakage, and current control methods available. The papers were then screened through titles, abstracts, and full texts. A total of 83 studies were included in the literature review. Two-piece implant systems are widely used in clinics. However, the production error and masticatory load result in the presence of microgap and micromotion between the implant and the abutment, which directly or indirectly causes microleakage and mechanical damage. Consequently, the degrees of microgap and micromotion further increase, and marginal bone absorption finally occurs. We summarize the influences of microgap and micromotion at the implant-abutment interface on marginal bone loss around the neck of the implant. We also recommend some feasible methods to reduce their effect. Clinicians and patients should pay more attention to the mechanisms as well as the control methods of microgap and micromotion. To reduce the corresponding detriment to the implant marginal bone, suitable Morse taper or hybrid connection implants and platform switching abutments should be selected, as well as other potential methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pull out Strength of Dual Outer Diameter Pedicle Screws Compared to Uncemented and Cemented Standard Pedicle Screws: A Biomechanical in vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Andrea; Leichtle, Carmen I; Frantz, Sandra; Bumann, Marte; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Shiozawa, Thomas; Leichtle, Ulf G

    2017-05-01

    To analyze the potential of the dual outer diameter screw and systematically evaluate the pull-out force of the dual outer diameter screw compared to the uncemented and cemented standard pedicle screws with special regard to the pedicle diameter and the vertebra level. Sixty vertebrae of five human spines (T 6 -L 5 ) were sorted into three study groups for pairwise comparison of the uncemented dual outer diameter screw, the uncemented standard screw, and the cemented standard screw, and randomized with respect to bone mineral density (BMD) and vertebra level. The vertebrae were instrumented, insertion torque was determined, and pull-out testing was performed using a material testing machine. Failure load was evaluated in pairwise comparison within each study group. The screw-to-pedicle diameter ratio was determined and the uncemented dual outer diameter and standard screws were compared for different ratios as well as vertebra levels. Significantly increased pull-out forces were measured for the cemented standard screw compared to the uncemented standard screw (+689 N, P dual outer diameter screw (+403 N, P dual outer diameter screw to the uncemented standard screw in the total study group, a distinct but not significant increase was measured (+149 N, P = 0.114). Further analysis of these two screws, however, revealed a significant increase of pull-out force for the dual outer diameter screw in the lumbar region (+247 N, P = 0.040), as well as for a screw-to-pedicle diameter ratio between 0.6 and 1 (+ 488 N, P = 0.028). For clinical application, cement augmentation remains the gold standard for increasing screw stability. According to our results, the use of a dual outer diameter screw is an interesting option to increase screw stability in the lumbar region without cement augmentation. For the thoracic region, however, the screw-to-pedicle diameter should be checked and attention should be paid to screw cut out, if the dual outer diameter screw is considered.

  10. Accelerated Tooth Movement with Orthodontic Mini-Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksakalli, S; Balaban, A; Nazaroglu, K; Saglam, E

    2017-01-01

    This case report outlines the possibility of accelerated tooth movement with the combination of microosteoperforation and mini-screws. A 14-year-old male patient presented Class II malocclusion with maxillary incisor protrusion. Upper first premolars were extracted, and after leveling, accelerated canine distalization started. For pre- and postdistalization times, amount of distalization, periodontal health, and root resorption were assessed. Within the limitations of this case report, micro-osteoperforations with mini-screw have a potential for shortening the treatment time.

  11. Treatment concept of the edentulous mandible with prefabricated telescopic abutments and immediate functional loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, George E; May, Steffan; May, Dittmar

    2011-01-01

    The present paper demonstrates a new technique and long-term results of a treatment concept that uses four implants placed in the anterior mandible that are connected to prefabricated telescopic abutments and immediately loaded with removable restorations. The present retrospective study included 488 implants (Ankylos, Dentsply) placed in 122 patients (mean age: 65.2 ± 9.8 years) with clinical and radiographic evaluation for a period of at least 1 year. Eighty-four implants were placed in fresh extraction sockets and combined in the restorations with implants placed in healed ridges. All implants were placed 2 mm subcrestally (based on chart documentation, measured from the midfacial bone level). The implants were connected immediately after surgery to conical prefabricated abutments (angle of 4 to 6 degrees) using a final torque of 15 Ncm. Secondary prefabricated copings that fit the abutments were placed over the abutments after abutment connection, and the complete denture of each patient was relined chairside with methyl methacrylate resin. The prosthetic restorations were to remain in place for 10 days to ensure that the implants remained immobile. After a mean of 79 ± 29.8 months (range, 17 to 129 months) only eight implants failed (1.6%). Twenty-one implants (4.3%) showed crestal bone loss greater than 2 mm relative to the implant position at the time of implant insertion. Therefore, the failure rate was 5.94% for the entire observation period. The success rate for the evaluated implants was 94.06%. The patients were satisfied with the stability of their prostheses, and no prosthetic or peri-implant problems were observed. These telescopic implant-supported restorations with immediate loading seem to be an alternative prosthetic solution for the edentulous patient, providing long-term implant stability.

  12. Custom Morse taper zirconia abutments: Influence on marginal fit and torque loss before and after thermomechanical cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moris, Izabela Cristina Maurício; Faria, Adriana Cláudia Lapria; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; Fok, Alex Sui-Lun; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina Silveira

    2018-02-01

    The use of zirconia abutments has increased because of aesthetics, but sometimes customization is necessary and its effect is unclear. This study evaluated the marginal fit and torque loss of customized and non-customized aesthetic zirconia abutments associated with Morse taper implants before and after thermomechanical cycling. Twenty-four implant/abutment/crown sets were divided into three groups (N = 8): Zr - non-customized zirconia abutments, Zrc - customized zirconia abutments, and Ti - titanium abutments. The ceramic crowns of the upper canines were made. All of the abutments were tightened with 15-N.cm torque, and the crowns were cemented on the abutments. The misfits and torque loss were measured before and after thermomechanical cycling. The marginal fit was evaluated in two planes throughout 10 different slices, 30 measurements for each face (i.e., buccal, palatal, mesial and distal) and 120 measurements for each sample. A load of 100N, a frequency of 2Hz and 1000,000 cycles with temperature variation of 5°-55°C were used for thermomechanical cycling. Thermomechanical cycling significantly decreased the marginal misfit only with the Zrc (p = 0.002), and the Ti was significantly different from the Zr and Zrc before and after thermomechanical cycling. Thermomechanical cycling did not affect the torque losses of the groups, but a significant difference between the Zr and Zrc (p = 0.0345) before cycling was noted. Customization of zirconia abutments does not significantly affect torque loss and marginal misfit after thermomechanical cycling suggesting that they can be safe for clinical utilization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stress corrosion cracking lifetime prediction of spring screw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, S. K.; Ryu, C. H.

    2004-01-01

    A lifetime prediction of holddown spring screw in nuclear fuel assembly was performed using fracture mechanics approach. The spring screw was designed such that it was capable of sustaining the loads imposed by the initial tensile preload and operational loads. In order to investigate the cause of failure and to predict the stress corrosion cracking life of the screw, a stress analysis of the top nozzle spring assembly was done using finite element analysis. The elastic-plastic finite element analysis showed that the local stresses at the critical regions of head-shank fillet and thread root significantly exceeded than the yield strength of the screw material, resulting in local plastic deformation. Normalized stress intensity factors for PWSCC life prediction was proposed. Primary water stress corrosion cracking life of the Inconel 600 screw was predicted by using integration of the Scott model and resulted in 1.78 years, which was fairly close to the actual service life of the holddown spring screw

  14. Modeling and Analyzing the Slipping of the Ball Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Xu

    Full Text Available AbstractThis paper aims to set up the ball systematic slipping model and analyze the slipping characteristics caused by different factors for a ball screw operating at high speeds. To investigate the ball screw slipping mechanism, transformed coordinate system should be established firstly. Then it is used to set up mathematical modeling for the ball slipping caused by the three main reasons and the speed of slipping can be calculated. Later, the influence of the contact angle, helix angle and screw diameter for ball screw slipping will be analyzed according to the ball slipping model and slipping speeds equation and the slipping analysis will be obtained. Finally, curve of slipping analysis and that of mechanical efficiency of the ball screw analysis by Lin are compared, which will indirectly verify the correctness of the slipping model. The slipping model and the curve of slipping analysis established in this paper will provide theory basis for reducing slipping and improving the mechanical efficiency of a ball screw operating at high speeds.

  15. Treatment Outcomes for Isolated Maxillary Complex Fractures with Maxillomandibular Screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorka, Rahul; Gohil, Amish Jayantilal; Gupta, Ashish Kumar; Koshy, Santosh

    2017-12-01

    Intermaxillary fixation (IMF) is a basic and fundamental principle in the management of patients with fractures of the maxillomandibular complex. There are several shortcomings related to the conventionally recommended tooth-mounted devices that are used to achieve IMF. To circumvent these, the use of bone-borne screws has been advocated. We present a series of maxillary fractures treated with IMF screws. Over a 12-month period, 15 cases of maxillary fracture were managed with open reduction and bone plate fixation. IMF screws were used to achieve IMF intraoperatively and for a short duration postoperatively. Eight cortical titanium screws were inserted transmucosally, two for each quadrant at the junction of the attached and mobile mucosa. Satisfactory occlusion was achieved in all the patients with few complications. IMF screw fixation was observed to be a safe and quick method for open reduction of maxillary fractures. Tooth-borne devices are associated with problems such as poor oral hygiene and periodontal health, extrusion of teeth, loss of tooth vitality, traumatic ulcers of buccal and labial mucosa, and needle stick injury to the operator. These procedures are also time consuming. The use of cortical bone screws is a quicker and safe alternative for achieving satisfactory IMF.

  16. Pullout strength of misplaced pedicle screws in the thoracic and lumbar vertebrae - A cadaveric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam K Saraf

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The objective of this cadaveric study was to analyze the effects of iatrogenic pedicle perforations from screw misplacement on the mean pullout strength of lower thoracic and lumbar pedicle screws. We also investigated the effect of bone mineral density (BMD, diameter of pedicle screws, and the region of spine on the pullout strength of pedicle screws. Materials and Methods: Sixty fresh human cadaveric vertebrae (D10-L2 were harvested. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA scan of vertebrae was done for BMD. Titanium pedicle screws of different diameters (5.2 and 6.2 mm were inserted in the thoracic and lumbar segments after dividing the specimens into three groups: a standard pedicle screw (no cortical perforation; b screw with medial cortical perforation; and c screw with lateral cortical perforation. Finally, pullout load of pedicle screws was recorded using INSTRON Universal Testing Machine. Results: Compared with standard placement, medially misplaced screws had 9.4% greater mean pullout strength and laterally misplaced screws had 47.3% lesser mean pullout strength. The pullout strength of the 6.2 mm pedicle screws was 33% greater than that of the 5.2 mm pedicle screws. The pullout load of pedicle screws in lumbar vertebra was 13.9% greater than that in the thoracic vertebra ( P = 0.105, but it was not statistically significant. There was no significant difference between pullout loads of vertebra with different BMD ( P = 0.901. Conclusion: The mean pullout strength was less with lateral misplaced pedicle screws while medial misplaced pedicle screw had more pullout strength. The pullout load of 6.2 mm screws was greater than that of 5.2 mm pedicle screws. No significant correlation was found between bone mineral densities and the pullout strength of vertebra. Similarly, the pullout load of screw placed in thoracic and lumbar vertebrae was not significantly different.

  17. Fixed Conometric Retention with CAD/CAM Conic Coupling Abutments and Prefabricated Syncone Caps: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bressan, Eriberto; Venezze, Alvise Cenzi; Magaz, Vanessa Ruiz; Lops, Diego; Ghensi, Paolo

    The conometric retention system was proposed and described as a predictable alternative to retain fixed implant-supported complete dentures and, more recently, to retain fixed partial restorations. Currently available studies describe a technique based on the Ankylos (Dentsply) implant system and stock conic coupling abutments. The purpose of this case series study is therefore to demonstrate the possibility of using Atlantis computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacture technology to produce Conus abutments (Dentsply) and using the fixed conometric retention with other implant brands for which appropriate stock conic coupling abutments are not available.

  18. Transforming an existing fixed provisional prosthesis into an implant-supported fixed provisional prosthesis with the use of healing abutments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimattayompol, Nopsaran; Emtiaz, Shahram; Woloch, Michael M

    2002-07-01

    Maintaining a fixed provisional prosthesis through all phases of complex implant prosthodontic therapy for a soon-to-be completely edentulous arch is a difficult task. This article focuses on the treatment phase in which teeth and/or transitional implants supporting a provisional fixed partial denture are removed. The described technique makes use of healing abutments to support a modified provisional fixed partial denture. This protocol ensures patient comfort and allows proper soft tissue healing before definitive implant abutment selection. It also eliminates the placement of interim implant abutments.

  19. Undetected residual cement on standard or individualized all-ceramic abutments with cemented zirconia single crowns - a prospective randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappel, Stefanie; Eiffler, Constantin; Lorenzo-Bermejo, Justo; Stober, Thomas; Rammelsberg, Peter

    2016-09-01

    To assess the frequency and amount of residual cement after attachment of monolithic zirconia crowns to standard and individualized ceramic abutments. Twenty patients (mean age 58.9 years at inclusion in the study; 30% male) were randomized to receive either a standard or an individualized abutment on a bone-level implant. Monolithic zirconia single crowns were attached to abutments by use of permanent glass-ionomer cement. Crowns were fabricated with an occlusal hole to enable unscrewing of the abutment-crown complex. Immediately after cementation, superstructures were removed and both the peri-implant soft tissue and the abutment-crown complex were photographed in a standardized manner, to detect residual cement. Photographs were analyzed using Corel Photo Paint X7, and residual cement-to-total abutment and residual cement-to-peri-implant soft tissue area ratios were calculated. Residual cement was observed for 9 of 10 (90%) individualized abutments, compared with 4 of 10 (40%) standard abutments (OR = 13.5, P = 0.049). Twenty-seven of 40 (68%) individualized abutment surfaces were affected, compared with 12 of 40 (30%) standard abutment surfaces. The probability of observing residual cement was approximately five times higher for the surfaces of individualized abutments than for those of standard abutments (P = 0.005). The mean amount of sulcus surface covered by cement was 1.17% (SD 2.85) for the individualized abutments and 3.78% (SD 7.40) for the standard abutments. The position of the margin significantly affected the amount of residual cement. Both individualized and standard all-ceramic abutments result in small amounts of subgingival residual cement on abutment and sulcus surfaces. However, use of individualized abutments does not guarantee complete avoidance of undetected cement rests. Undetected residual cement might be avoided by use of all-ceramic abutments with visible abutment shoulders. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley

  20. Fixation strength of biocomposite wedge interference screw in ACL reconstruction: effect of screw length and tunnel/screw ratio. A controlled laboratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrera Antonio

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary stability of the graft is essential in anterior cruciate ligament surgery. An optimal method of fixation should be easy to insert and provide great resistance against pull-out forces. A controlled laboratory study was designed to test the primary stability of ACL tendinous grafts in the tibial tunnel. The correlation between resistance to traction forces and the cross-section and length of the screw was studied. Methods The tibial phase of ACL reconstruction was performed in forty porcine tibias using digital flexor tendons of the same animal. An 8 mm tunnel was drilled in each specimen and two looped tendons placed as graft. Specimens were divided in five groups according to the diameter and length of the screw used for fixation. Wedge interference screws were used. Longitudinal traction was applied to the graft with a Servohydraulic Fatigue System. Load and displacement were controlled and analyzed. Results The mean loads to failure for each group were 295,44 N (Group 1; 9 × 23 screw, 564,05 N (Group 2; 9 × 28, 614,95 N (Group 3; 9 × 35, 651,14 N (Group 4; 10 × 28 and 664,99 (Group 5; 10 × 35. No slippage of the graft was observed in groups 3, 4 and 5. There were significant differences in the load to failure among groups (ANOVA/P Conclusions Longer and wider interference screws provide better fixation in tibial ACL graft fixation. Short screws (23 mm do not achieve optimal fixation and should be implanted only with special requirements.

  1. Experimental study of the density distribution of the particles of the material in screw installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demidov S. F.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available the experimental studies of density distribution of the particles of a mixture of wheat, oats, rye to feed pigs by infrared heating at the time of stay and temperature at the exit of the installation. The purpose of the work is to study the quality of treatment of the product with the settings with the screw and the screw with installed round jumper on the pen of the screw. Screw installations with infrared emitters of selected wavelength give the opportunity for intense and continuous heat treatment process. The authors used the optimal parameters of the process with the screw and the screw with installed round jumper on the pen of the screw. The parameters of screw installation during the study were the following: the number of revolutions of the screw was 10 rpm, density of heat flux was 12 kW/m2, output capacity – 250 kg/h.

  2. Prediction of Deformity Correction by Pedicle Screw Instrumentation in Thoracolumbar Scoliosis Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Yoshimori; Yamazaki, Nobutoshi; Nagura, Takeo; Matsumoto, Morio; Chiba, Kazuhiro; Toyama, Yoshiaki

    In segmental pedicle screw instrumentation, the relationship between the combinations of pedicle screw placements and the degree of deformity correction was investigated with a three-dimensional rigid body and spring model. The virtual thoracolumbar scoliosis (Cobb’s angle of 47 deg.) was corrected using six different combinations of pedicle-screw placements. As a result, better correction in the axial rotation was obtained with the pedicle screws placed at or close to the apical vertebra than with the screws placed close to the end vertebrae, while the correction in the frontal plane was better with the screws close to the end vertebrae than with those close to the apical vertebra. Additionally, two screws placed in the convex side above and below the apical vertebra provided better correction than two screws placed in the concave side. Effective deformity corrections of scoliosis were obtained with the proper combinations of pedicle screw placements.

  3. Helical Screw Expander Evaluation Project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKay, R.

    1982-03-01

    A functional 1-MW geothermal electric power plant that featured a helical screw expander was produced and then tested in Utah in 1978 to 1979 with a demonstrated average performance of approximately 45% machine efficiency over a wide range of test conditions in noncondensing operation on two-phase geothermal fluids. The Project also produced a computer-equipped data system, an instrumentation and control van, and a 1000-kW variable load bank, all integrated into a test array designed for operation at a variety of remote test sites. Additional testing was performed in Mexico in 1980 under a cooperative test program using the same test array, and machine efficiency was measured at 62% maximum with the rotors partially coated with scale, compared with approximately 54% maximum in Utah with uncoated rotors, confirming the importance of scale deposits within the machine on performance. Data are presented for the Utah testing and for the noncondensing phases of the testing in Mexico. Test time logged was 437 hours during the Utah tests and 1101 hours during the Mexico tests.

  4. CT provides precise size assessment of implanted titanium alloy pedicle screws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael J; Slakey, Joseph B

    2014-05-01

    After performing instrumented spinal fusion with pedicle screws, postoperative imaging using CT to assess screw position may be necessary. Stainless steel implants produce significant metal artifact on CT, and the degree of distortion is at least partially dependent on the cross-sectional area of the implanted device. If the same effect occurs with titanium alloy implants, ability to precisely measure proximity of screws to adjacent structures may be adversely affected as screw size increases. We therefore asked whether (1) CT provides precise measurements of true screw widths; and (2) precision degrades based on the size of the titanium implant imaged. CT scans performed on 20 patients after instrumented spinal fusion for scoliosis were reviewed. The sizes of 151 titanium alloy pedicle screws were measured and compared with known screw size. The amount of metal bloom artifact was determined for each of the four screw sizes. ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test were performed to evaluate differences in scatter, and Spearman's rho coefficient was used to measure relationship between screw size and scatter. All screws measured larger than their known size, but even with larger 7-mm screws the size differential was less than 1 mm. The four different screw sizes produced scatter amounts that were different from each other (p titanium alloy pedicle screws produces minimal artifact, thus making this the preferred imaging modality to assess screw position after surgery. Although the amount of artifact increases with the volume of titanium present, the degree of distortion is minimal and is usually less than 1 mm.

  5. Pullout performance comparison of pedicle screws based on cement application and design parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolunay, Tolga; Başgül, Cemile; Demir, Teyfik; Yaman, Mesut E; Arslan, Arslan K

    2015-11-01

    Pedicle screws are the main fixation devices for certain surgeries. Pedicle screw loosening is a common problem especially for osteoporotic incidents. Cannulated screws with cement augmentation are widely used for that kind of cases. Dual lead dual cored pedicle screw has already given promising pullout values without augmentation. This study concentrates on the usage of dual lead dual core with cement augmentation as an alternative to cannulated and standard pedicle screws with cement augmentation. Five groups (dual lead dual core, normal pedicle screw and cannulated pedicle screw with augmentation, normal pedicle screw, dual lead dual cored pedicle screw) were designed for this study. Healthy bovine vertebrae and synthetic polyurethane foams (grade 20) were used as embedding test medium. Test samples were prepared in accordance with surgical guidelines and ASTM F543 standard testing protocols. Pullout tests were conducted with Instron 3300 testing frame. Load versus displacement values were recorded and maximum pullout loads were stated. The dual lead dual cored pedicle screw with poly-methyl methacrylate augmentation exhibited the highest pullout values, while dual lead dual cored pedicle screw demonstrated similar pullout strength as cannulated pedicle screw and normal pedicle screw with poly-methyl methacrylate augmentation. The dual lead dual cored pedicle screw with poly-methyl methacrylate augmentation can be used for osteoporotic and/or severe osteoporotic patients according to its promising results on animal cadaver and synthetic foams. © IMechE 2015.

  6. Development and Testing of X-Ray Imaging-Enhanced Poly-L-Lactide Bone Screws.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jen Chang

    Full Text Available Nanosized iron oxide particles exhibit osteogenic and radiopaque properties. Thus, iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles were incorporated into a biodegradable polymer (poly-L-lactic acid, PLLA to fabricate a composite bone screw. This multifunctional, 3D printable bone screw was detectable on X-ray examination. In this study, mechanical tests including three-point bending and ultimate tensile strength were conducted to evaluate the optimal ratio of iron oxide nanoparticles in the PLLA composite. Both injection molding and 3D printing techniques were used to fabricate the PLLA bone screws with and without the iron oxide nanoparticles. The fabricated screws were implanted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. Bone blocks containing the PLLA screws were resected 2 and 4 weeks after surgery. Histologic examination of the surrounding bone and the radiopacity of the iron-oxide-containing PLLA screws were evaluated. Our results indicated that addition of iron oxide nanoparticles at 30% significantly decreased the ultimate tensile stress properties of the PLLA screws. The screws with 20% iron oxide exhibited strong radiopacity compared to the screws fabricated without the iron oxide nanoparticles. Four weeks after surgery, the average bone volume of the iron oxide PLLA composite screws was significantly greater than that of PLLA screws without iron oxide. These findings suggested that biodegradable and X-ray detectable PLLA bone screws can be produced by incorporation of 20% iron oxide nanoparticles. Furthermore, these screws had significantly greater osteogenic capability than the PLLA screws without iron oxide.

  7. Biomechanical comparison of two locking plate constructs under cyclic torsional loading in a fracture gap model. Two screws versus three screws per fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilmont, A; Palierne, S; Verset, M; Swider, P; Autefage, A

    2015-01-01

    The number of locking screws required per fragment during bridging osteosynthesis in the dog has not been determined. The purpose of this study was to assess the survival of two constructs, with either two or three screws per fragment, under cyclic torsion. Ten-hole 3.5 mm stainless steel locking compression plates (LCP) were fixed 1 mm away from bone surrogates with a fracture gap of 47 mm using two bicortical locking screws (10 constructs) or three bicortical locking screws (10 constructs) per fragment, placed at the extremities of each LCP. Constructs were tested in cyclic torsion (range: 0 to +0.218 rad) until failure. The 3-screws constructs (29.65 ± 1.89 N.m/rad) were stiffer than the 2-screws constructs (23.73 ± 0.87 N.m/rad), and therefore, were subjected to a greater torque during cycling (6.05 ± 1.33 N.m and 4.88 ± 1.14 N.m respectively). The 3-screws constructs sustained a significantly greater number of cycles (20,700 ± 5,735 cycles) than the 2-screws constructs (15,600 ± 5,272 cycles). In most constructs, failure was due to screw damage at the junction of the shaft and head. The remaining constructs failed because of screw head unlocking, sometimes due to incomplete seating of the screw head prior to testing. Omitting the third innermost locking screw during bridging osteosynthesis led to a reduction in fatigue life of 25% and construct stiffness by 20%. Fracture of the screws is believed to occur sequentially, starting with the innermost screw that initially shields the other screws.

  8. One abutment-one time versus a provisional abutment in immediately loaded post-extractive single implants: a 1-year follow-up of a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandi, Tommaso; Guazzi, Paolo; Samarani, Rawad; Maghaireh, Hassan; Grandi, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    To compare immediately loaded post-extractive single implants using a definitive abutment versus provisional abutment later replaced by custom-made abutment. In two private clinics, 28 patients in need of one single post-extractive implant in the maxilla or mandible from the left second premolar to the right second premolar area were randomised shortly before tooth extraction to provisional abutment (PA) and definitive abutment (DA) groups. Three patients had to be excluded for buccal wall fracture after tooth extraction. In the PA group, implants were immediately restored using a platform-switched provisional titanium abutment and definitive platform-switched titanium abutments were used in the DA group. In both groups, a non-occluding provisional single crown was provided. Implants were definitively restored after 4 months. In the PA group, the abutment was removed and the impression was made directly on the implant platform. In the DA group an impression of the abutment was made using a retraction cord. Outcome measures were: implant failures; complications; and marginal peri-implant bone level changes. Patients were followed up to 1 year after loading. Twelve patients were randomised to the DA group and 13 patients to the PA group. At the 12-month follow-up, no implant failed. One biological complication occurred in the DA group and one mechanical complication occurred in the PA group. All complications were successfully treated. One year after loading, implants in the DA group lost an average of 0.11 mm (SD: 0.06) of periimplant bone and implants in PA group about 0.58 mm (SD: 0.11). At the 12-month follow-up, there was a statistically significant difference in bone level change between groups (mean difference: 0.48 mm, CI 95% 0.40; 0.55, P < 0.0001). Within the limits of this study, the non-removal of abutments placed at the time of surgery resulted in the maintenance of 0.5 mm more bone levels around immediately restored postextractive single implants than

  9. Pedicle screw augmentation with bone cement enforced Vicryl mesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Samuel L; Bachmann, Elias; Fischer, Michael; Meyer, Dominik C; Gerber, Christoph A; Snedeker, Jess G; Farshad, Mazda

    2018-01-01

    Achieving sufficient mechanical purchase of pedicle screws in osteoporotic or previously instrumented bone is technically and biologically challenging. Techniques using different kinds of pedicle screws or methods of cement augmentation have been used to address this challenge, but are associated with difficult revisions and complications. The purpose of this biomechanical trial was to investigate the use of biocompatible textile materials in combination with bone cement to augment pullout strength of pedicle screws while reducing the risk of cement extrusion. Pedicle screws (6/40 mm) were either augmented with standard bone-cement (Palacos LV + G) in one group (BC, n = 13) or with bone-cement enforced by Vicryl mesh in another group (BCVM, n = 13) in osteoporosis-like saw bone blocks. Pullout testing was subsequently performed. In a second experimental phase, similar experiments were performed using human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (n = 10). In osteoporosis-like saw bone blocks, a mean screw pullout force of 350 N (±125) was significantly higher with the Bone cement (BC) compared to bone-cement enforced by Vicryl mesh (BCVM) technique with 240 N (±64) (p = 0.030). In human cadaveric lumbar vertebrae the mean screw pullout force was 784 ± 366 N with BC and not statistically different to BCVM with 757 ± 303 N (p = 0.836). Importantly, cement extrusion was only observed in the BC group (40%