WorldWideScience

Sample records for tin xrd images

  1. Study of archaeological objects by neutron imaging, xrd and xrf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinca, M.; Dinu, A. D.; Stanciulescu, M. G.; Mandescu, D.

    2015-01-01

    Archaeological objects were borrowed from Arges County History Museum (ACHM) and investigated at the Institute for Nuclear Research (INR). Metallic objects made in iron, copper alloys and silver discovered in southern part of Romania, mostly Dacian and Roman origin, were investigated. For imaging was used the neutron and gamma imaging facility from tangential channel of the TRIGA ACPR to put in evidence the internal structure of the objects. For elemental and chemical composition, concentration levels in objects were performed investigations by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). These investigations offer valuable information in archaeological research about composition, structure of the bulk, presence of alteration, inclusions, typology of the location of material extraction, manufacturing techniques etc. This work is an example of application of neutron imaging and other radiation-based analytical methods for cultural heritage research that had the aim to involve some of the non-destructive investigation methods available at INR. (authors)

  2. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  3. Effect of annealing temperature on optical properties of binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite prepared by sol-gel route using simple precursors: structural and optical studies by DRS, FT-IR, XRD, FESEM investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Mohammad Hossein; Mardani, Maryam

    2015-02-25

    Binary zinc tin oxide nano-composite was synthesized by a facile sol-gel method using simple precursors from the solutions consisting of zinc acetate, tin(IV) chloride and ethanol. Effect of annealing temperature on optical and structural properties was investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). XRD results revealed the existence of the ZnO and SnO2 phases. FESEM results showed that binary zinc tin oxide nano-composites ranges from 56 to 60 nm in diameter at 400°C and 500°C annealing temperatures respectively. The optical band gap was increased from 2.72 eV to 3.11 eV with the increasing of the annealing temperature. FTIR results confirmed the presence of zinc oxide and tin oxide and the broad absorption peaks at 3426 and 1602 cm(-1) can be ascribed to the vibration of absorptive water, and the absorption peaks at 546, 1038 and 1410 cm(-1) are due to the vibration of Zn-O or Sn-O groups in binary zinc tin oxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Preparation of 99mTc- Tin colloid: a freeze-dried kit for liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Muramoto, E.; Barbosa, M.R.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.

    1988-07-01

    99m Tc-tin-colloid was formulated as a useful agent for liver imaging. The radiochemical purity and stability of the labeled colloid were determined by paper chromatography and 85% methanol solvent, the labelling efficiency was > 95%. The comparative studies of the biological distribution of 99m Tc-tin-colloid and 99 Tc-Sulphur-colloid were made with Wistar rats. The results of organ distribution were similar in both products; > 90% liver uptake. (author) [pt

  5. Tin-filter enhanced dual-energy-CT: image quality and accuracy of CT numbers in virtual noncontrast imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Sascha; Sauter, Alexander; Spira, Daniel; Gatidis, Sergios; Ketelsen, Dominik; Heuschmid, Martin; Claussen, Claus D; Thomas, Christoph

    2013-05-01

    To measure and compare the objective image quality of true noncontrast (TNC) images with virtual noncontrast (VNC) images acquired by tin-filter-enhanced, dual-source, dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) of upper abdomen. Sixty-three patients received unenhanced abdominal CT and enhanced abdominal DECT (100/140 kV with tin filter) in portal-venous phase. VNC images were calculated from the DECT datasets using commercially available software. The mean attenuation of relevant tissues and image quality were compared between the TNC and VNC images. Image quality was rated objectively by measuring image noise and the sharpness of object edges using custom-designed software. Measurements were compared using Student two-tailed t-test. Correlation coefficients for tissue attenuation measurements between TNC and VNC were calculated and the relative deviations were illustrated using Bland-Altman plots. Mean attenuation differences between TNC and VNC (HUTNC - HUVNC) image sets were as follows: right liver lobe -4.94 Hounsfield units (HU), left liver lobe -3.29 HU, vena cava -2.19 HU, spleen -7.46 HU, pancreas 1.29 HU, fat -11.14 HU, aorta 1.29 HU, bone marrow 36.83 HU (all P VNC and TNC series were observed for liver, vena portae, kidneys, pancreas, muscle and bone marrow (Pearson's correlation coefficient ≥0.75). Mean image noise was significantly higher in TNC images (P VNC and TNC images (P = .19). The Hounsfield units in VNC images closely resemble TNC images in the majority of the organs of the upper abdomen (kidneys, liver, pancreas). In spleen and fat, Hounsfield numbers in VNC images are tend to be higher than in TNC images. VNC images show a low image noise and satisfactory edge sharpness. Other criteria of image quality and the depiction of certain lesions need to be evaluated additionally. Copyright © 2013 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Rodighiero, Simona

    2015-03-22

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. In-vivo behavior of tin-117m(2+ and 4+)-labeled DTPA and MDP. Preparation, tissue distribution in mice, and imaging in dogs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Richards, P.; Meinken, G.E.; Som, P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Butler, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    Tissue distribution in mice of stannous chloride (pH 2), and of stannous as well as stannic chelates of MDP and DTPA is described. The bone-to-tissue ratios of these compounds are evaluated. High bone uptake of all these compounds point out the high affinity of tin for bone despite the chemically diverse ligands. Whole body autoradiographs of mice injected with tin-117m(IV)-DTPA demonstrate the almost exclusive localization of tin-117m activity in bone. Clarity of bone images in a dog, obtained up to 15 days following the injection of tin-117m(IV)-DTPA is demonstrated

  8. Image processing of worn and unworn protective coatings of TiAlN and TiN on 100Cr6 steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Inge Lise; Guibert, M.; Martin, J.M.

    by a reciprocating wear process in a linear tribo-meter with up to 105 repetitive cycles, leaving the embedded TiN signal layers uncovered at the bottom the wear scars. The worn surfaces were characterized by subsequent image processing. A color detection, by a simple optical imaging system, of the wear scar......-coating to the TiN signal layer. The two different methods, image processing and laser reflectance measurements, lead thus to identical results, showing that image processing by means of color detection or monitoring and laser reflectance are potential techniques for intelligent determination of residual thickness......A model system, consisting of a titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) coating on top of an ‘optical’ titanium nitride (TiN) signal layer deposited on 100Cr6 steel substrates, was exposed to an extremely abrasive wear process. The TiAlN top-coatings, of thicknesses of up to 3 µm, were removed...

  9. Structural, optical and electrical properties of tin oxide thin films for application as a wide band gap semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Ahmad, Shabir; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher Majid, E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO) thin films were synthesized using thermal evaporation technique. Ultra pure metallic tin was deposited on glass substrates using thermal evaporator under high vacuum. The thickness of the tin deposited films was kept at 100nm. Subsequently, the as-deposited tin films were annealed under oxygen environment for a period of 3hrs to obtain tin oxide films. To analyse the suitability of the synthesized tin oxide films as a wide band gap semiconductor, various properties were studied. Structural parameters were studied using XRD and SEM-EDX. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and the electrical parameters were calculated using the Hall-setup. XRD and SEM confirmed the formation of SnO phase. Uniform texture of the film can be seen through the SEM images. Presence of traces of unoxidised Sn has also been confirmed through the XRD spectra. The band gap calculated was around 3.6eV and the optical transparency around 50%. The higher value of band gap and lower value of optical transparency can be attributed to the presence of unoxidised Sn. The values of resistivity and mobility as measured by the Hall setup were 78Ωcm and 2.92cm{sup 2}/Vs respectively. The reasonable optical and electrical parameters make SnO a suitable candidate for optoelectronic and electronic device applications.

  10. Combined XRD and XAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, S.N.; Hanson, J.C.; Lopez Camara, A.; Barrio, L.; Estrella, M.; Zhou, G.; Si, R.; Khalid, S.; Wang, Q.

    2011-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) are complementary techniques for investigating the structure of materials. XRD probes long range order and XAFS probes short range order. We have combined the two techniques at one synchrotron beamline, X18A at the NSLS, allowing samples to be studied in a single experiment. This beamline will allow for coordinated measurements of local and long range structural changes in chemical transformations and phase transitions using both techniques.

  11. Imaging the Parasinus Region with a Third-Generation Dual-Source CT and the Effect of Tin Filtration on Image Quality and Radiation Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lell, M M; May, M S; Brand, M; Eller, A; Buder, T; Hofmann, E; Uder, M; Wuest, W

    2015-07-01

    CT is the imaging technique of choice in the evaluation of midface trauma or inflammatory disease. We performed a systematic evaluation of scan protocols to optimize image quality and radiation exposure on third-generation dual-source CT. CT protocols with different tube voltage (70-150 kV), current (25-300 reference mAs), prefiltration, pitch value, and rotation time were systematically evaluated. All images were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction (Advanced Modeled Iterative Reconstruction, level 2). To individually compare results with otherwise identical factors, we obtained all scans on a frozen human head. Conebeam CT was performed for image quality and dose comparison with multidetector row CT. Delineation of important anatomic structures and incidental pathologic conditions in the cadaver head was evaluated. One hundred kilovolts with tin prefiltration demonstrated the best compromise between dose and image quality. The most dose-effective combination for trauma imaging was Sn100 kV/250 mAs (volume CT dose index, 2.02 mGy), and for preoperative sinus surgery planning, Sn100 kV/150 mAs (volume CT dose index, 1.22 mGy). "Sn" indicates an additional prefiltration of the x-ray beam with a tin filter to constrict the energy spectrum. Exclusion of sinonasal disease was possible with even a lower dose by using Sn100 kV/25 mAs (volume CT dose index, 0.2 mGy). High image quality at very low dose levels can be achieved by using a Sn100-kV protocol with iterative reconstruction. The effective dose is comparable with that of conventional radiography, and the high image quality at even lower radiation exposure favors multidetector row CT over conebeam CT. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. UV-visible spectroscopic estimation of photodegradation of rhodamine-B dye using tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangami, G; Dharmaraj, N

    2012-11-01

    Nanocrystalline, tin(IV) oxide (SnO(2)) particles has been prepared by thermal decomposition of tin oxalate precursor obtained from the reactions of tin(IV) chloride and sodium oxalate using eggshell membrane (ESM). The as-prepared SnO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by thermal studies, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman, FT-IR and UV-visible studies and used as a photocatalyst for the degradation of rhodamine-B (Rh-B) dye. The size of the prepared nanoparticles was in the range of 5-12nm as identified from the TEM images. Powder XRD data revealed the presence of a tetragonal, rutile crystalline phase of the tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles. Thermal analysis showed that the decomposition of tin oxalate precursor to yield the titled tin(IV) oxide nanoparticles was completed below 500°C. The extent of degradation of Rh-B in the presence of SnO(2) monitored by absorption spectral measurements demonstrated that 94.48% of the selected dye was degraded upon irradiation with UV light for 60 min. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Overview - XRF and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: While the roots of both X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) and X-ray Powder Diffractometry (XRD) go back 80 years or so, it is only in the last 30 years or so that both techniques have become widely used in the industrial and research environments. It is the experience of the author that all instrumental techniques go through four basic stages: 1. Innovation - someone has a bright idea 2. Application - people start to apply the bright idea 3. Frustration - the bright idea is found to have complications 4. Consolidation - the complications are understood and resolved. XRF went through these four stages by the mid 1980s. This means that, today, if one understands what one is doing, applies the correct (and generally well known) analytical strategy, there is a high probability that one will obtain the correct result. XRD, on the other hand, is still hovering between 3 and 4 on the list. Problems such as the effect of preferred orientation on intensities, difficulties in obtaining accurate data for larger d-spacings, etc., although better understood today, still pose significant challenges to those involved in both routine and research analysis. The development of low-cost computers has made a dramatic impact in both techniques and it is estimated that today, about 90% of all new spectrometer and diffractometer systems sold, are fully automated. There are about 30,000 X-ray spectrometers and about 25,000 diffractometers in use in the world today. Of these about one half are automated. The process of automation has brought its rewards as well as its consequences. In general, the automation of the two techniques has resulted in a poorer understanding of the instrumentation and methodology, on the part of the typical user. Many laboratories employ both techniques, since they are largely complimentary. This workshop will cover the basics of the two methods, highlighting the advantages and shortcomings of both. Copyright (1999) Australian X-ray Analytical

  14. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  15. XRD alignment, calibration and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The quality of any diffractometer system is very much dependent on the alignment, calibration and performance. The three subjects are very much related. Firstly, you must know how to carry out the full diffractometer alignment. XRD alignment is easy once you know how. The presentation will show you step by step to carry out the full alignment. Secondly, you need to know how to calibrate the diffractometer system. The presentation will show you how to calibrate the goniometer, detector etc. Thirdly, to prove the system is working within the manufacturer specification. The presentation will show you how to carry out the resolution, reproducibility and linearity test. Copyright (2002) Australian X-ray Analytical Association Inc

  16. Tin electrodeposition from sulfate solution containing a benzimidazolone derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said BAKKALI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin electrodeposition in an acidic medium in the presence of N,N’-1,3-bis-[N-3-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose-6-yl-2-oxobenzimidazol-1-yl]-2-tetradecyloxypropane as an additive was investigated in this work. The adequate current density and the appropriate additive concentration were determined by gravimetric measurements. Chronopotentiometric curves showed that the presence of the additive caused an increase in the overpotential of tin reduction. The investigations by cyclic voltammetry technique revealed that, in the presence and in absence of the additive, there were two peaks, one in the cathodic side attributed to the reduction of Sn2+ and the other one in the anodic side assigned to the oxidation of tin previously formed during the cathodic scan. The surface morphology of the tin deposits was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD.

  17. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The tin oxide (SnO_2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO_2 powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  18. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    between proteins and diseases, based on text mining data processed from scientific literature. In the current implementation, TIN-X supports exploration of data for G-protein coupled receptors, kinases, ion channels, and nuclear receptors. TIN-X supports browsing and navigating across proteins......Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association...

  19. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  20. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  1. Evaluation of the suitability of tin slag in cementitious materials: Mechanical properties and Leaching behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Wafa' Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha; Cahyadi, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag, a by-product of tin production has been used in cementitious application. The present investigation focuses on the suitability of tin slag as primary component in cement and as component that substitute some amount of Portland Cement. The tin slags studied were taken from Bangka, Indonesia. The main contents of the tin slag are SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 according to the XRF investigation. The aim of this article was to study the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength), microstructure and leaching behaviour of tin slag blended cement. This study used air-cooled tin slag that had been passed through 400# sieve to replace Portland Cement with ratio 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 by weight. Cement pastes and tin slag blended cement pastes were prepared by using water/cement ratio (W/C) of 0.40 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 3, 7, 14 days The microstructure of the raw tin slag was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The phase composition of each cement paste was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The aim of the leachability test was to investigate the environmental impacts of tin slag blended cement product in the range 4-8 pH by using static pH-dependent leaching test. The result show that the increase of the tin slag content decreasing the mortar compressive strength at early ages. The use of tin slag in cement provide economic benefits for all related industries.

  2. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  3. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Concrete Material Composed of Tin Slag Waste in Aqueous Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Cahyadi, Agung; Taruli Siallagan, Sonia; Wafa' Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag is a byproduct of tin ore smelting process which is rarely utilized. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the use of tin slag for concrete cement material application compared to the industrial Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Tin slag composition was characterized by XRD and XRF analysis. The characterization results showed the similar chemical composition of tin slag and OPC. It also revealed the semi crystalline structure of tin slag sample. Several electrochemical tests were performed to evaluate corrosion behavior of tin slag, OPC and various mixed composition of both materials and the addition of CaO. The corrosion behavior of OPC and tin slag were evaluated by using Cyclic Polarization, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) methods. Aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with 3.5% w.t concentration which similar to seawater was used as the electrolyte in this work. The steel specimen used as the reinforce bar (rebar) material of the concrete was carbon steel AISI 1045. The rebar was embedded in the concrete cement which composed of OPC and the various composition of tin slag including slag without addition of CaO and slag mixed with addition of 50 % CaO. The electrochemical tests results revealed that tin slag affected its corrosion behavior which becoming more active and increasing the corrosion rate as well as decreasing the electrochemical impedance.

  4. Study on the removal of iron impurities in methanesulfonic acid tin plating bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou-li, LIU; Jian-Jun, CHEN; Hong-Liang, PAN

    2018-03-01

    This thesis investigated the the influence of sodium sulfite as reducing agent on the recovery rate of tin ion. The approach is that HZ016 type cation exchange resin was used to adsorb Sn2+ and Fe2+ in electroplated tin solution first. After adsorption, the resin was removed by sulfuric acid, which was added with NaOH to adjust pH value to form precipitation and separate tin. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy spectrum (EDS) method were used to analyze the composition of the precipitates adjusted by pH. The results show that when the mass ratio of resin to bath is 1:2, the adsorption efficiency of resin reaches 98.3% and 97.1% respectively, and the elution efficiency of tin and iron reaches 95.1% and 94% respectively when the mass ratio of resin to eluent sulfuric acid is 1:4. Sodium sulfite was added to increase the efficiency of tin recovery by 8.1%. EDS and XRD atlas showed that after pH regulation, the main composition of the filtration precipitation was the hydroxides of tin.

  5. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  6. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  7. Tribological characterization of TiN coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Nishant S.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Sonera, Akshay L.; Chauhan, Dharmesh B.; Dave, Divyeshkumar P.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coating deposited on aluminium and brass pin substrates using RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural properties and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). There was formation of (101) Ti2N, (110) TiN2 and (102) TiN0.30 peaks at 3.5Pa, 2Pa and 1.25Pa sputtering pressure respectively. The tribological properties of coating were inspected using pin on disc tribometer equipment. It was observed that TiN coated aluminium and brass pins demonstrated improved wear resistance than uncoated aluminium and brass pins.

  8. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Shi, Lei; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide

  9. Powder-XRD and (14) N magic angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy of some metal nitrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempgens, Pierre; Britton, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    Some metal nitrides (TiN, ZrN, InN, GaN, Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 ) have been studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and (14) N magic angle-spinning (MAS) solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For Ca3 N2 , Mg3 N2 , and Ge3 N4 , no (14) N NMR signal was observed. Low speed (νr  = 2 kHz for TiN, ZrN, and GaN; νr  = 1 kHz for InN) and 'high speed' (νr  = 15 kHz for TiN; νr  = 5 kHz for ZrN; νr  = 10 kHz for InN and GaN) MAS NMR experiments were performed. For TiN, ZrN, InN, and GaN, powder-XRD was used to identify the phases present in each sample. The number of peaks observed for each sample in their (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectrum matches perfectly well with the number of nitrogen-containing phases identified by powder-XRD. The (14) N MAS solid-state NMR spectra are symmetric and dominated by the quadrupolar interaction. The envelopes of the spinning sidebands manifold are Lorentzian, and it is concluded that there is a distribution of the quadrupolar coupling constants Qcc 's arising from structural defects in the compounds studied. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Characterization of tin films synthesized from ethaline deep eutectic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swatilekha; Roy, Sudipta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tin deposition was achieved by galvanostatic method on the basic substrates from ethaline deep eutectic solvent without use of any additives. • The current potential behaviour of tin system changes with increase in concentration of hydrated tin chloride in ethaline. • The deposition rate in ethaline display three times lower value compared to aqueous electrolytes. • Fine grained crystals of 62 ± 10 nm were obtained for tin deposits. • The deposition process is economical and can be adapted for industrial applications. - Abstract: Tin (Sn) films were electrodeposited by galvanostatic method from ethaline deep eutectic solvent (DES), without any additives. The effect of various deposition parameters on the microstructure was studied. With increase in metal salt concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, changes in current–potential behaviour were observed in the polarization scans. This might be due to the existence of [SnCl 3 ] − , [Sn 2 Cl 5 ] − complexes in ethaline DES. Smooth and homogeneous deposits were obtained on a steel substrate surface by applying current density of 1.57 × 10 −3 A/cm 2 at 25 °C. Under these conditions the deposition rate was found to be 0.1 ± 10% μm/min and current efficiency was obtained as 84 ± 3%. XRD analysis of the deposit confirmed the polycrystalline tetragonal structure with mostly (2 0 0) orientation having a crystallite size about 62 ± 16% nm along with an internal strain of 0.0031 ± 22%. The present deposition method is simple, economical and can be adapted for industrial applications

  11. Characterization of uranium silicide powder using XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Rafael H.L.; Saliba-Silva, Adonis M.; Carvalho, Elita F.U.; Lima, Nelson B.; Ichikawa, Rodrigo U.; Martinez, Luiz G.

    2013-01-01

    Uranium silicide (U 3 Si 2 ) is an intermetallic used as nuclear fuel in most modern MTR - Materials Test Reactor. Dispersed in aluminum, this fuel allows high uranium densities, up to 4.8 gU/cm 3 . At IPEN, the fabrication of fuel elements based on U 3 Si 2 for the IEA-R1 reactor is carried out in the Nuclear Fuel Center (CCN), by vacuum induction melting of uranium and silicon, followed by grinding. Before employed in a nuclear reactor, U 3 Si 2 must be submitted to a strict quality control, which includes granulometry, density, X-ray radiography for dispersion homogeneity, chemical and crystallographic characterization. Concerning phase composition for a qualified fuel, the fraction of U 3 Si 2 should be higher than 80wt.%. Aiming at the development of a routine methodology for quantification of phases via analysis of XRD data using the Rietved method, six samples from two production baths of CCN were submitted to X-ray diffraction. The data were analyzed using software GSAS and line profile analysis methods. The results suggest that fusion product have preferred orientation and grinding step is important for a better refinement. (author)

  12. Evidence for highly localized damage in internal tin and powder-in-tube Nb{sub 3}Sn strands rolled before reaction obtained from coupled magneto-optical imaging and confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polyanskii, A A; Lee, P J; Jewell, M C; Larbalestier, D C [Applied Superconductivity Center, National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32310 (United States); Barzi, E; Turrioni, D; Zlobin, A V [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Nb{sub 3}Sn strands for high-current, high-field magnets must be cabled before reaction while the conductor is still composed of ductile components. Even though still in the ductile, deformable state, significant damage can occur in this step, which expresses itself by inhomogeneous A15 formation, Sn leakage or even worse effects during later reaction. In this study, we simulate cabling damage by rolling recent high performance powder-in-tube (PIT) and internal tin (IT) strands in controlled increments, applying standard Nb{sub 3}Sn reaction heat treatments, and then examining the local changes using magneto-optical imaging (MOI), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). These combined characterizations allow any local damage to the filament architecture to be made clear. MOI directly reveals the local variation of superconductivity while CLSM is extremely sensitive in revealing Sn leakage beyond the diffusion barrier into the stabilizing Cu. These techniques reveal a markedly different response to deformation by the PIT and IT strands. The study demonstrates that these tools can provide a local, thorough, and detailed view of how strands degrade and thus complement more complex extracted strand studies.

  13. Organic derivatives of tin (II/IV): Investigation of their structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szirtes, L., E-mail: szirtes@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary); Megyeri, J., E-mail: megyeri@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary); Kuzmann, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, CRC of the Hungarian Academy of Science at Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Beck, A. [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The structures of tin(II)-oxalate, tin(IV)Na-EDTA and tin(IV)Na{sub 8}-inositol hexaphosphate were investigated using XRD analysis. Samples were identified using the Moessbauer study, thermal analysis and FTIR spectrometry. The Moessbauer study determined two different oxidation states of tin atoms, and consequently two different tin surroundings in the end products. The tin oxalate was found to be orthorhombic with space group Pnma, a=9.2066(3) A, b=9.7590(1) A, c=13.1848(5) A, V=1184.62 A{sup 3} and Z=8. SnNa-EDTA was found to be monoclinic with space group P2{sub 1}/c{sub 1}, a=10.7544(3) A, b=10.1455(3) A, c=16.5130(6) A, {beta}=98.59(2){sup o}, V=1781.50(4) A{sup 3} and Z=4. Sn(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}Na{sub 8}O{sub 24}P{sub 6}) was found to be amorphous.

  14. Applications of the rotating orientation XRD method to oriented materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhenqi; Li Fei; Jin Li; Bai Yu

    2009-01-01

    The rotating orientation x-ray diffraction (RO-XRD) method, based on conventional XRD instruments by a modification of the sample stage, was introduced to investigate the orientation-related issues of such materials. In this paper, we show its applications including the determination of single crystal orientation, assistance in crystal cutting and evaluation of crystal quality. The interpretation of scanning patterns by RO-XRD on polycrystals with large grains, bulk material with several grains and oriented thin film is also presented. These results will hopefully expand the applications of the RO-XRD method and also benefit the conventional XRD techniques. (fast track communication)

  15. stainless steel by SEM-XRD and image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Constanzo-R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis cualitativ o de la distribución de un electrodepósito de cobre en el inter ior de electrodos porosos (EP de acero inoxidable y carbono grafito. Para ello, se reali zaron pruebas de electrodepositación de cobre a nivel de labora torio, con un posterior análisis de cortes de muestras de acero y grafito vía Microscopía Estereoscópica, Microscopía SEM-DRX y Análisis de Imagen, los cuales mostraron que el cobre no se deposita en forma uniforme al interior del electrodo. En el electrodo de acero, la penetra ción del depósito en el espesor fue alrededor de 50%, mientras que para el grafito a lrededor de 90%. En forma general, se observó un aumento de la cantidad de depósito hacia el extremo frente al ánodo y con sitios de difer ente crecimiento en depósito de cobre. Esto demuestra una distr ibución de corriente y potencial, función de parámetros físicos de electrodo y de la s características fisicoquímicas e hidrodinámicos del electroli to.

  16. Role of different chelating agent in synthesis of copper doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, B.; Anusiya, A.; Rani, B. Jansi; Ravi, G.; Yuvakkumar, R.

    2018-05-01

    An attempt was made to synthesis the copper doped tin oxide (Cu-SnO2) nanoparticles by adopting different chelating agents (NaOH, KOH and C2H2O4) by Sol-gel process. The synthesized products were characterized by XRD, Photoluminescence (PL), Infra- Red (FTIR) and SEM analysis. The XRD confirms the formation of Cu-SnO2 shows the maximum peak at 33.8° with lattice plane (101). The PL peak at 361 and 382 nm due to the recombination of electron in conduction band to valence band infers the optical properties. The IR spectra correspond to the peak at 551 and 620 cm-1 attributed to the characteristics peak for Cu-SnO2 nanoparticles. The SEM images for all three Cu-SnO2 nanoparticles formed by three chelating agent (NaOH, KOH and C2H2O4) facilitates the formation mechanism and the chelating agent Oxalic acid results in formation of nano flowers with diverse layers orientated in random direction. Further SEM studies reveal that, the Cu-SnO2 nanoparticles formed by oxalic acid could posses high surface area with large number layered structured enables the better electrochemical properties and its applications.

  17. Measuring the sustainability of tin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congren; Tan, Quanyin; Zeng, Xianlai; Zhang, Yuping; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-09-01

    Tin is a component of many items used in daily activities, including solder in consumer electronics, tin can containing food and beverages, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers in construction products, catalysts in industrial processes, etc. China is the largest producer and consumer of refined tin, and more than 60% of this refined tin is applied in the electronics sector as solder. China is the leader in global economic growth; simultaneously, China is also a major producer and consumer of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Thus, future tin supply and demand in China are forecasted, based on the gross domestic product per capita and the average consumption of refined tin in past five years. Current tin reserves and identified resources in China can meet the future two decades of mine production, but import of tin will also be critical for China's future tin consumption. However, there will be a lot of uncertainty for import of tin from other countries. At the same time, virgin mining of geological ores is a process of high energy consumption and destruction of the natural environment. Hence recycling tin from Sn-bearing secondary resources like tailings and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) can not only address the shortage of tin mineral resources, but also save energy and protect the ecological environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of Annealing on TiN Thin Film Growth by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jafari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on stainless steel substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering method and annealing at different annealing temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C for 120 min in nitrogen/argon atmospheres. Effects of annealing temperatures on the structural and the optical properties of TiN films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscope (AFM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Our experimental studies reveal that the annealing temperature appreciably affected the structures, crystallite sizes, and reflection of the films. By increasing the annealing temperature to 700°C crystallinity and reflection of the film increase. These results suggest that annealed TiN films can be good candidate for tokamak first wall due to their structural and optical properties.

  19. Effect of gas ratio on tribological properties of sputter deposited TiN coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavda, Mahesh R., E-mail: maheshchavda1990@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. Jivraj Mehta Institute of Technology, Mogar-388340 (India); Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Rawal, Sushant K., E-mail: sushantrawal.me@charusat.ac.in [CHAMOS Matrusanstha Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chandubhai S. Patel Institute of Technology, Charotar University of Science and Technology (CHARUSAT), Changa-388421 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coatings were deposited on Si, corning glass, pins of mild steel (MS, ϕ3mm), aluminium (Al, ϕ4mm) and brass (ϕ6mm) substratesby DC magnetron sputtering. The argon and nitrogen (Ar:N{sub 2})gas ratio was precisely controlled by Mass Flow Controller (MFC) and was varied systematically at diffract values of 10:10,12:08, 16:04 and 18:02sccm. The structural properties of TiN coatings were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and its surface topography was studied using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The tribological properties of TiN coatings were investigated using pin-on-disc tribometer.

  20. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  1. Preparation and Characterization of Tin Oxide Nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kabiri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is preparation of SnO2 nanowires by means of Thermal chemical reaction vapor transport deposition (TCRVTD method from SnO powders. The morphology, chemical composition and microstructure properties of the nanowires are characterized using field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM, EDS, and XRD. The XRD diffraction patterns reveal that the SnO2 nanowires have been grown in the form of tetragonal crystal structures with the lattice parameter of a=b=0.440 nm, and c=0.370 nm. The SEM images reveal that SnO2 nanowires have successfully been grown on the Si substrate. The EDS patterns show that only elements of Sn, O and Au are detected. Prior to the VLS process the substrate is coated by a thin layer of Au. The diameter of nanowires is measured to be something between 20-100 nm.

  2. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  3. Initial stages of indoor atmospheric corrosion of electronics contact metals in humid tropical climate: tin and nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veleva, L.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Samples of electrolytic tin and nickel have been exposed for 1 to 12 m in indoor environment, inside a box (rain sheltered cabinet, placed in tropical humid marine-urban climate, as a part of Gulf of Mexico. The corrosion aggressiveness of box has been classified as a very high corrosive, based on the monitored chlorides and SO2 deposition rates, and the Temperature/Relative Humidity air daily complex. The annual mass increasing of nickel is approximately twice higher than its values of mass loss (C. The relation between nickel mass loss or increasing and time of wetness (t of metal surface is linear and does not obey the power equation C = A tn, which has be found for tin. The SEM images reveal a localized corrosion on nickel and tin surfaces. XRD detects the formation of SnCl2.H2O as a corrosion product. Within the time on the tin surface appear black spots, considered as organic material.

    Muestras de estaño y níquel electrolíticos han sido expuestas de 1 a 12 m en ambiente interno (indoor, en una caseta (gabinete protegido de lluvia, colocada en clima tropical húmedo marino-urbano del Golfo de México. La agresividad de la caseta ha sido clasificada como muy altamente corrosiva, basada al registro de la velocidad de deposición de cloruros y SO2, y en el complejo diario de temperatura/humedad relativa del aire. El incremento de masa anual de níquel es, aproximadamente, dos veces mayor que del valor de su pérdida de masa (C. La relación entre la pérdida de masa de Ni o su incremento, y el tiempo de humectación (t de la superficie metálica y lineal y no obedece la ley de potencia C = A tn , que ha sido encontrada para el estaño. Las imágenes del SEM revelan una corrosión localizada en las superficie de níquel y estaño. El análisis de rayos-X detecta la formación de SnCl2.H2O como producto de corrosión. Con el tiempo

  4. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  5. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Gasga, José; Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L.; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois; Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E.; García-García, Ramiro

    2013-01-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI) XRD index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI) FTIR index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI) XRD value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI) FTIR indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. - Highlights: • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices for tooth enamel and synthetic HAP were obtained. • SEM and TEM images were more correlated with (CI) XRD than with (CI) FTIR . • Regardless of the temperature, (CI) XRD and (CI) FTIR showed similar behavior. • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices resulted in a fast and qualitative measurement

  6. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Gasga, José, E-mail: jreyes@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L., E-mail: esmemapi@gmail.com [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois, E-mail: galoisborre@yahoo.com [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E., E-mail: gab0409@yahoo.com.mx [Unidad Académica de Odontología, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Edificio E7, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo”, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); García-García, Ramiro, E-mail: ramiro@fisica.unam.mx [Instituto de Física, UNAM, Circuito de la Investigación Científica s/n., Cd. Universitaria, Coyoacán 04510, México, D.F. (Mexico); and others

    2013-12-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI){sub XRD} index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI){sub FTIR} index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI){sub XRD} value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI){sub FTIR} indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. - Highlights: • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices for tooth enamel and synthetic HAP were obtained. • SEM and TEM images were more correlated with (CI){sub XRD} than with (CI){sub FTIR}. • Regardless of the temperature, (CI){sub XRD} and (CI){sub FTIR} showed similar behavior. • XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices resulted in a fast and qualitative measurement.

  7. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  8. The use of micro-XRD for the study of glaze color decorations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradell, T.; Molina, G. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Dpt. Fisica i Enginyeria Nuclear, Castelldefels (Spain); Molera, J.; Pla, J. [Universitat de Vic, GRTD, Escola Politecnica Superior, Vic (Spain); Labrador, A. [BM16-ESRF, LLS, BP 220, Grenoble Cedex (France); Lund University, MAX IV Laboratory, Lund (Sweden)

    2013-04-15

    The compounds responsible for the colors and decorations in glass and glazed ceramics include: coloring agents (transition-metal ions), pigments (micro- and nanoprecipitates of compounds that either do not dissolve or recrystallize in the glassy matrix) and opacifiers (microcrystalline compounds with high light scattering capability). Their composition, structure and range of stability are highly dependent not only on the composition but also on the procedures followed to obtain them. Chemical composition of the colorants and crystallites may be obtained by means of SEM-EDX and WDX. Synchrotron radiation micro-X-ray diffraction (SR-micro-XRD) has a small beam size adequate (10 to 50 microns footprint size) to obtain the structural information of crystalline compounds and high brilliance, optimal for determining the crystallites even when present in low amounts. In addition, in glass decorations the crystallites often appear forming thin layers (from 10 to 100 micrometers thick) and they show a depth-dependent composition and crystal structure. Their nature and distribution across the glass/glaze decorations gives direct information on the technology of production and stability and may be related to the color and appearance. A selection of glass and glaze coloring agents and decorations are studied by means of SR-micro-XRD and SEM-EDX including: manganese brown, antimony yellow, red copper lusters and cobalt blue. The selection includes Medieval (Islamic, and Hispano Moresque) and Renaissance tin-glazed ceramics from the 10th to the 17th century AD. (orig.)

  9. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  10. Effect of microstructure of TiN film on properties as bipolar plate coatings in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell prepared by inductively coupled plasma assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Kai; Li, Zhuguo

    2013-01-01

    As potential application in bipolar plate of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, the microstructure, corrosion resistance and the electrical conductivity of titanium nitride (TiN) and Si doped titanium nitride (Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N) films deposited by magnetron sputtering with different bias voltages are investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), electrochemical test and four-point probe method, respectively. XRD, SEM and AFM results reveal that the texture and topography of TiN film depend on the bias voltage and incorporation of Si. When the bias voltage is − 20 V and − 30 V, the TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films exhibit a dense (111) plane preferred growth, denser structure and smoother surface topography. The potentiodynamic test results indicate that the TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films have higher chemical inertness and better corrosion resistance. The films can satisfy the requirement of current density for bipolar plate materials. Incorporation of Si element into TiN film makes the passive current density more stable. Four-point probe measurement results show that the resistivity of both TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films reaches minimum when the deposition bias voltage is − 20 V. - Highlights: • Dense TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films are deposited by magnetron sputtering. • Preferred growth orientation of TiN depends on the bias voltage and Si doping. • TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films have excellent corrosion resistance. • Surface conductivity of TiN and Ti 0.9 Si 0.1 N films evolves with bias voltage

  11. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  12. Effect of applied voltage on the structural properties of SnO2 nanostuctures grown on indium-tin-oxide coated glass substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dea Uk; Yun, Dong Yeol; No, Young Soo; Hwang, Jun Ho; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Tae Whan

    2013-11-01

    SnO2 nanostuctures were formed on indium-tin-oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by using an electrochemical deposition (ECD) method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed the existence of elemental Sn and O in the samples, indicative of the formation of SnO2 materials. An XPS spectrum showing the O 1s peak at a binding energy of 531.5 eV indicated that the oxygen atoms were bonded to the SnO2. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) images showed that the samples formed by using the ECD method had SnO2 nanostructures with a size between 280 and 350 nm. FE-SEM images showed that the size of the SnO2 nanostructures formed at 65 degrees C for 30 min increased with decreasing applied voltage. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the SnO2 nanostrucures had tetragonal structures with cell parameters of a = 4.738 A and c = 3.187 A. XRD results showed that the peak intensity of the (110) plane increased with decreasing applied voltage, indicative of a preferencial orientation of the (110) plane.

  13. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  14. Characterization of crystallite morphology for doped strontium fluoride nanophosphors by TEM and XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, J.H. [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Lee, M.E., E-mail: Michael.lee@nmmu.ac.za [Centre for HRTEM, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, PO Box 77000, Port Elizabeth ZA6031 (South Africa); Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Coetsee, E. [Department of Physics, University of the Free State, PO Box 339, Bloemfontein ZA9300 (South Africa)

    2016-01-01

    Crystallite morphology for Eu-doped and undoped SrF{sub 2} nanophosphors have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The values for average crystallite size obtained by the application of the Scherrer equation and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for XRD peaks are compared to the results obtained using the hollow cone dark field (HCDF) TEM imaging technique. In the case of the TEM analysis, a bimodal crystallite size distribution was revealed with one of the distributions having a measured range of crystallite sizes which was in good agreement with the XRD data. HCDF in combination with FIB specimen preparation was found to be a promising technique for the determination of crystallite size distributions in nanophosphors which might facilitate a better understanding of their scintillation properties.

  15. Characterization of crystallite morphology for doped strontium fluoride nanophosphors by TEM and XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, J.H.; Lee, M.E.; Yagoub, M.Y.A.; Swart, H.C.; Coetsee, E.

    2016-01-01

    Crystallite morphology for Eu-doped and undoped SrF_2 nanophosphors have been determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The values for average crystallite size obtained by the application of the Scherrer equation and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) values for XRD peaks are compared to the results obtained using the hollow cone dark field (HCDF) TEM imaging technique. In the case of the TEM analysis, a bimodal crystallite size distribution was revealed with one of the distributions having a measured range of crystallite sizes which was in good agreement with the XRD data. HCDF in combination with FIB specimen preparation was found to be a promising technique for the determination of crystallite size distributions in nanophosphors which might facilitate a better understanding of their scintillation properties.

  16. Gas Sensing Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyou Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium Tin Oxide (ITO nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning process. The morphology and crystal structure of ITO nanofibers were studied by SEM, XRD, and TEM respectively. The results showed that polycrystalline ITO nanofibers with an average diameter of 80 nm were obtained. Sensors based on these nanofibers were fabricated by collecting these nanofibers on the integrated sensor platforms. The ITO nanofiber-based sensors showed very fast and high sensor responses at both room and elevated temperatures for NO2. The ratios of resistance in NO2 over that in air were 5 at room temperature and 34 at the optimal working temperature, respectively. The ITO nanofiber-based sensor can be repeatedly used. The details for the fast, enhanced sensor responses and the optimal temperature were discussed.

  17. Properties of fluorine and tin co-doped ZnO thin films deposited by sol–gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zhanchang; Zhang, Pengwei; Tian, Xinlong; Cheng, Guo; Xie, Yinghao; Zhang, Huangchu; Zeng, Xiangfu; Xiao, Chumin; Hu, Guanghui; Wei, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •F and Sn co-doped ZnO thin films were synthesized by sol–gel method. •The effects of different F doping concentrations were investigated. •The co-doped nanocrystals exhibit good crystal quality. •The origin of the photoluminescence emissions was discussed. •The films showed high transmittance and low resistivity. -- Abstract: Highly transparent and conducting fluorine (F) and tin (Sn) co-doped ZnO (FTZO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by the sol–gel processing. The structure and morphology of the films are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with various F doping concentrations. SEM images showed that the hexagonal ZnO crystals were well-arranged on the glass substrates and the HRTEM images indicated that the individual nanocrystals are highly oriented and exhibited a perfect lattice structure. Owing to its high carrier concentration and mobility, as well as good crystal quality, a minimum resistivity of 1 × 10 −3 Ω cm was obtained from the FTZO thin film with 3% F doping, and the average optical transmittance in the entire visible wavelength region was higher than 90%. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study confirmed the substitution of Zn 2+ by Sn ions and Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) observed for pure and FTZO thin films suggested the films exhibit a good crystallinity with a very low defect concentration

  18. [Identification of Dens Draconis and Os Draconis by XRD method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guang-Yun; Wu, Qi-Nan; Shen, Bei; Chen, Rong

    2012-04-01

    To establish an XRD method for evaluating the quality of Os Draconis and Dens Draconis and applying in judgement of the counterfeit. Dens Draconis, Os Draconis and the counterfeit of Os Draconis were analyzed by XRD. Their diffraction patterns were clustered analysis and evaluated their similarity degree. Established the analytical method of Dens Draconis and Os Draconis basing the features fingerprint information of the 10 common peaks by XRD pattern. Obtained the XRD pattern of the counterfeit of Os Draconis. The similarity degree of separate sources of Dens Draconis was high,while the similarity degree of separate sources of Os Draconis was significant different from each other. This method can be used for identification and evaluation of Os Draconis and Dens Draconis. It also can be used for identification the counterfeit of Os Draconis effectively.

  19. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  20. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  1. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Noel; Viveros, Tomás

    1999-11-01

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO2 on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied.

  2. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Noel; Viveros, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO 2 on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied

  3. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  4. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO_2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO_2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF_2. The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO_2 is caused by the reformed SnO_2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO_2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li"+/Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF_2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li"+/Li is due to the fact that SnF_2 is formed below the SnO_2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO_2/Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  5. In-Situ Growth and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO nanocrystal rods were synthesized in-situ by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method and electron beam evaporation technique. When the electron-beam gun bombarded indium oxide (In2O3 and tin oxide (SnO2 mixed sources, indium and tin droplets appeared and acted as catalysts. The nanocrystal rods were in-situ grown on the basis of the metal catalyst point. The nanorods have a single crystal structure. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. During the evaporation, a chemical process was happened and an In2O3 and SnO2 solid solution was formed. The percentage of doped tin oxide was calculated by Vegard’s law to be 3.18%, which was in agreement with the mixture ratio of the experimental data. The single crystal rod had good semiconductor switch property and its threshold voltage of single rod was approximately 2.5 V which can be used as a micro switch device. The transmission rate of crystalline nanorods ITO film was over 90% in visible band and it was up to 95% in the blue green band as a result of the oxygen vacancy recombination luminescence.

  6. Evaluation of dislocation density in copper and brass α deformed by XRD peak width analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, Talita Gama de

    2014-01-01

    The determination of dislocation density in metallic materials has been available for many years in scientific environment. This is due to the fact that the dislocations are the main responsible for plastic deformation, which, thereafter, markedly influences the mechanical properties. In this work, the dislocation density was analyzed through peak broadening of Xray diffraction (XRD) using Convolutional Multiple Whole Profile (CMWP) program. The measurements obtained by XRD were compared with those obtained from images observed by transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The materials used in this study were pure copper and brass α as alloy 268 (6 % Cu and 34 % Zn), deformed by rolling and ECA (equal channel angular extrusion) processes. The results indicate that the XRD is a powerful tool for the characterization of the microstructure in relation to the dislocation density, as they were consistent to the TEM measurements, and also showed good relationship with measurements of hardness. Furthermore, through the dislocation density it was possible to verify the influence of stacking fault energy (SFE) in the evolution of the copper samples deformation process and its alloy, and that the presence of texture in rolled samples did not impair the measurements obtained by XRD technique. (author)

  7. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal; Caracterizacao de nanoparticulas de oxido de estanho sintetizado via oxidacao do metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M., E-mail: afael.abruzzi@acad.pucrs.br [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUC-RS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2014-07-01

    The tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO{sub 2} powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  8. Influence of current density on surface morphology and properties of pulse plated tin films from citrate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Bhattacharya, Sumit; Das, Siddhartha; Das, Karabi, E-mail: karabi@metal.iitkgp.ernet.in

    2014-01-30

    Bulk polycrystalline tin films have been processed by pulse electrodeposition technique from a simple solution containing triammonium citrate and stannous chloride. The cathodic investigations have been carried out by galvanostatic methods. As deposited samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). XRD analysis of the deposited films shows microcrystalline grains having β-Sn form. The surface morphology is very rough at lower current density, but becomes smooth at higher current density, and exhibits pyramid type morphology at all the current densities. The effect of current density on microhardness, melting behavior, and electrical resistivity are also reported here.

  9. Process for making lyophilized radiographic imaging kit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grogg, T.W.; Bates, P.E.; Bugaj, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    A process for making a lyophilized composition useful for skeletal imaging whereby an aqueous solution containing an ascorbate, gentisate, or reductate stabilizer is contacted with tin metal or an alloy containing tin and, thereafter, lyophilized. Preferably, such compositions also comprise a tissue-specific carrier and a stannous compound. It is particularly preferred to incorporate stannous oxide as a coating on the tin metal

  10. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  11. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  12. Electrochemical dissolution of tin in methanesulphonic acid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, R.A.T.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    High-rate electroplating of tin on a moving steel strip is generally carried out in cells with dimensionally stable anodes. To obtain a matt tin deposit a concentrated acidic tin methanesulphonate solution containing a small concentration of sulphuric acid is used. The concentrated tin

  13. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  14. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrNCoated AISI 1070 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cakan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN and chromium nitride (CrN are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The wear properties of TiN- and CrNcoated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples.

  15. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  16. Scintigraphic visualization of extrahepatic portal circulation in patients with portal hypertension using /sup 99m/Tc-tin-colloid and /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hussoni, M H; Jasim, M N; Shubbar, A H

    1985-01-01

    Rapid dynamic sequential scintigraphy of the abdomen with /sup 99m/Tc-tin-colloid and /sup 99m/Tc-HIDA has been used to evaluate two patients with portal hypertension. /sup 99m/Tc-tin-colloid was useful for visualization of diliated vessels in the abdomen. Radionuclide hepatobiliary imaging was useful in such cases in evaluation of the hepatobiliary system.

  17. XRD spectra of new YBaCuO superconductors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    superconductors of YBaCuO materials by solid state reac- tion. They used the ... The XRD spectra and critical temperatures are shown to be the same as that of ... samples were synthesized by solid state reaction using raw materials Y2O3 ...

  18. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  19. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-01-01

    A dislocation density of as high as 10 17 /m 2 in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10 3 A/ cm 2 . The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining

  20. Qualitative soil mineral analysis by EDXRF, XRD and AAS probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Virendra; Agrawal, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Soil minerals study is vital in terms of investigating the major soil forming compounds and to find out the fate of minor and trace elements, essential for the soil–plant interaction purpose. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been a popular technique to search out the phases for different types of samples. For the soil samples, however, employing XRD is not so straightforward due to many practical problems. In the current approach, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to have an idea of the minerals present, in qualitative manner, in the soil under study. PCA was used on the elemental concentrations data of 17 elements, determined by the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. XRD analysis of soil samples has been done also to identify the minerals of major elements. Some prior treatments, like removal of silica by polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) slurry and grinding with alcohol, were given to samples to overcome the peak overlapping problems and to attain fine particle size which is important to minimize micro-absorption corrections, to give reproducible peak intensities and to minimize preferred orientation. A 2θ step of 0.05°/min and a longer dwell time than normal were used to reduce interferences from background noise and to increase the counting statistics. Finally, the sequential extraction procedure for metal speciation study has been applied on soil samples. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used to find the concentrations of metal fractions bound to various forms. Applying all the three probes, the minerals in the soils can be studied and identified, successfully. - Highlights: ► Qualitative soil minerals analysis by EDXRF, AAS and XRD methods. ► There is a requirement of other means and methods due to inadequacy of XRD. ► Principal component analysis (PCA) provides an idea of minerals present in soil. ► Trace elements complexes can be determined by AAS probe. ► EDXRF, AAS and XRD, in combination, enable

  1. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-01-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II

  2. XRD Investigation of Some Thermal Degraded Starch Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Todica

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal degradation of some starch based materials was investigated using XRD method. The samples were obtained by thermal extrusion of mixtures of different proportions of starch, glycerol, and water. Such materials are suitable for the manufacturing of low pollutant packaging. Thermal degradation is one of the simplest ways to destroy such materials and this process is followed by structural modification of the local ordering of samples, water evaporation, crystallization, oxidation, or destruction of the chemical bonds. These modifications need to be studied in order to reduce to the minimum production of pollutant residues by burning process. XRD measurements show modification of the local ordering of the starch molecules depending on the temperature and initial composition of the samples. The molecular ordering perturbation is more pronounced in samples with low content of starch.

  3. X-ray filtration in dental radiography: comparative study between aluminium, zinc and tin filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, Luiz C.

    1995-01-01

    This work performs a comparison between aluminium, zinc and tin filters concerning about radiographic image quality (radiographic density and contrast) and effective dose of ionizing radiation. The evaluation was made by laboratorial way and clinical way and intra and inter groups. (author). 101 refs., 5 figs., 19 tabs

  4. Quantitative XRD analysis of {110} twin density in biotic aragonites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Michio; Kim, Hyejin; Mukai, Hiroki; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Kogure, Toshihiro

    2012-12-01

    {110} Twin densities in biotic aragonite have been estimated quantitatively from the peak widths of specific reflections in powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns, as well as direct confirmation of the twins using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Influence of the twin density on the peak widths in the XRD pattern was simulated using DIFFaX program, regarding (110) twin as interstratification of two types of aragonite unit layers with mirrored relationship. The simulation suggested that the twin density can be estimated from the difference of the peak widths between 111 and 021, or between 221 and 211 reflections. Biotic aragonite in the crossed-lamellar microstructure (three species) and nacreous microstructure (four species) of molluscan shells, fish otoliths (two species), and a coral were investigated. The XRD analyses indicated that aragonite crystals in the crossed-lamellar microstructure of the three species contain high density of the twins, which is consistent with the TEM examination. On the other hand, aragonite in the nacre of the four species showed almost no difference of the peak widths between the paired reflections, indicating low twin densities. The results for the fish otoliths were varied between the species. Such variation of the twin density in biotic aragonites may reflect different schemes of crystal growth in biomineralization. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. XRD and HREM studies of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieman, G.W.; Weertmen, J.R.; Siegel, R.W.

    1991-01-01

    Consolidated powders of nanocrystalline Cu and Pd have been studied by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and high resolution electron microscopy (HREM) as part of an investigation of the mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline pure metals. XRD line broadening measurements were made to estimate rain size, qualitative grain size distribution and average long range strains in a number of samples. Mean grain sized range from 4-60 nm and have qualitatively narrow grain size distributions. Long range lattice strains are of the order of 0.2-3% in consolidated samples. These strains apparently persist and even increase in Cu samples after annealing at 0.35 Tm (498K) for 2h, accompanied by an apparent increase in grain size of ≥2x. Grain size, grain size distribution width and internal strains vary somewhat among samples produced under apparently identical processing conditions. HREM studies show that twins, stacking faults and low-index facets are abundant in as-consolidated nanocrystalline Cu samples. In this paper methodology, results and analysis of XRD and HREM experiments are presented

  6. XRD is the main key to the mechanochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozaffari, M.; Amighian, J.

    2000-01-01

    Mechanochemical processing is a process that makes use of chemical reactions mechanically activated by high-energy ball milling (HEBM). This technique has been the subject of great interest in recent years due to its promise for producing improved novel materials. Ultra fine powders in the range 10-100 nm can be obtained by mixing the right ratio of the components, appropriate for a desired phase. These raw materials together with several hardened-steel vial and milled for an optimum time using Spex or Planetary mills. In this process 2 factors, milling time and the ball to powder mass ratio, should carefully be optimized. These will be checked by successive XRD patterns. To see the ability of XRD in this technique, some single phase Ni-Al and Mn ferrites were prepared. The main key to the formation of different phases at any stage of processing was XRD patterns. Also by using Scherrer formula it was possible to measure the particle size of the milled powders. (Author)

  7. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  8. XRD and FTIR crystallinity indices in sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Gasga, José; Martínez-Piñeiro, Esmeralda L; Rodríguez-Álvarez, Galois; Tiznado-Orozco, Gaby E; García-García, Ramiro; Brès, Etienne F

    2013-12-01

    The crystallinity index (CI) is a measure of the percentage of crystalline material in a given sample and it is also correlated to the degree of order within the crystals. In the literature two ways are reported to measure the CI: X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. Although the CI determined by these techniques has been adopted in the field of archeology as a structural order measure in the bone with the idea that it can help e.g. in the sequencing of the bones in chronological and/or stratigraphic order, some debate remains about the reliability of the CI values. To investigate similarities and differences between the two techniques, the CI of sound human tooth enamel and synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP) was measured in this work by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), at room temperature and after heat treatment. Although the (CI)XRD index is related to the crystal structure of the samples and the (CI)FTIR index is related to the vibration modes of the molecular bonds, both indices showed similar qualitative behavior for heat-treated samples. At room temperature, the (CI)XRD value indicated that enamel is more crystalline than synthetic HAP, while (CI)FTIR indicated the opposite. Scanning (SEM) and transmission (TEM) images were also used to corroborate the measured CI values. © 2013.

  9. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  10. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Yousefi, Ramin; Niknia, Farhad; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Sookhakian, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn_2S_3, and hexagonal phase of SnS_2. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  11. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamali-Sheini, Farid, E-mail: faridjamali@iauahvaz.ac.ir [Advanced Surface Engineering and Nano Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ramin [Department of Physics, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University (I.A.U), Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknia, Farhad [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Sherafat, University of Farhangian, 15916, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sookhakian, Mehran [Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and hexagonal phase of SnS{sub 2}. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  12. The\tutility\tof\tneuroimaging\tin\tthe\tmanagement\tof\tdementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak\tE\tWilliams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive\tdomains\tassociated\twith\timpairment\tof\tactivities\tof\tdaily\tliving. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis\tis\timportant\tin\tthe\tpursuit\tof\tpossible\tdisease\tmodifying\ttherapy for\tdementia.\tNeuroimaging\thas\tgreatly\ttransformed\tthis\tfield\tof\tresearch as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This\treview\tfocuses\ton\tthe\tdiagnostic\tutility\tof\tneuroimaging\tin the\tmanagement\tof\tprogressive\tdementias.\tStructural\timaging\ttechniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography\tand\tblood\toxygen\tlevel-dependent\tfunctional\tmagnetic\tresonance\timaging\tfocuses\ton\tchemistry, circulatory\tstatus\tand\tphysiology\tof\tthe\tdifferent\tbrain\tstructures\tand\tregions.

  13. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena V [Troitsk, RU; Zhuikov, Boris L [Troitsk, RU; Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Ermolaev, Stanislav V [Obninsk, RU; Togaeva, Natalia R [Obninsk, RU

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  14. XRD and SEM study of alumina silicate porcelain insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duddi, Dharmender; Singh, G. P.; Kalra, Swati; Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.

    2018-05-01

    Higher strength electrical porcelain is a requirement of industry. This will be achieved by a specific composition of raw materials, which is consisted of clays and feldspars. Water absorption, particle size and insulating properties are of special interest now a day. China clay, Ball clay and Quartz are widely used by ceramic industries in Bikaner district of Rajasthan. Sample for present study were prepared by mixing of above clay, feldspar with MnO2, then shrinkage is observed. Bar shaped samples were prepared and heated up to a temperature of about 1185° C to observe shrinkage. For phase study of XRD and SEM are observed.

  15. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population.

  16. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin ... elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. .... nal level below 1 V, interfaced to a minicomputer for data.

  17. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Marek [Warszawa, PL; Kostecki, Robert [Lafayette, CA

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  18. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their characterization by XRD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, B. K.; Chhajlani, Meenal; Shrivastava, B. D.

    2017-05-01

    A cost effective and environment friendly technique for green synthesis of silver nanoparticles has been reported. Silver nanoparticles have been synthesized using ethanol extract of fruits of Santalum album (Family Santalaceae), commonly known as East Indian sandalwood. Fruits of S.album were collected and crushed. Ethanol was added to the crushed fruits and mixture was exposed to microwave for few minutes. Extract was concentrated by Buchi rotavaporator. To this extract, 1mM aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) was added. After about 24 hr incubation Ag+ ions in AgNO3 solution were reduced to Ag atoms by the extract. Silver nanoparticles were obtained in powder form. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern of the prepared sample of silver nanoparticles was recorded The diffractogram has been compared with the standard powder diffraction card of JCPDS silver file. Four peaks have been identified corresponding to (hkl) values of silver. The XRD study confirms that the resultant particles are silver nanoparticles having FCC structure. The average crystalline size D, the value of the interplanar spacing between the atoms, d, lattice constant and cell volume have been estimated. Thus, silver nanoparticles with well-defined dimensions could be synthesized by reduction of metal ions due to fruit extract of S.album.

  19. Polycrystalline Mn-alloyed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Xu, Qingyu; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Kolitsch, Andreas; Helm, Manfred; Iacomi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic ITO films are interesting for integrating ITO into magneto-optoelectronic devices. We investigated n-conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films with different Mn doping concentration which have been grown by chemical vapour deposition using targets with the atomic ratio In:Sn:Mn=122:12:0,114:12:7, and 109:12:13. The average film roughness ranges between 30 and 50 nm and XRD patterns revealed a polycrystalline structure. Magnetotransport measurements revealed negative magnetoresistance for all the samples, but high field positive MR can be clearly observed at 5 K with increasing Mn doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to prove the existence of midgap states in the Mn-alloyed ITO films revealing a transmittance less than 80%. A reasonable model for the ca. 250 nm thick Mn-alloyed ITO films has been developed to extract optical constants from SE data below 3 eV. Depending on the Mn content, a Lorentz oscillator placed between 1 and 2 eV was used to model optical absorption below the band gap

  20. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  1. A Combined XRD/XRF Instrument for Lunar Resource Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.; Blacic, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    Robotic surface missions to the Moon should be capable of measuring mineral as well as chemical abundances in regolith samples. Although much is already known about the lunar regolith, our data are far from comprehensive. Most of the regolith samples returned to Earth for analysis had lost the upper surface, or it was intermixed with deeper regolith. This upper surface is the part of the regolith most recently exposed to the solar wind; as such it will be important to resource assessment. In addition, it may be far easier to mine and process the uppermost few centimeters of regolith over a broad area than to engage in deep excavation of a smaller area. The most direct means of analyzing the regolith surface will be by studies in situ. In addition, the analysis of the impact-origin regolith surfaces, the Fe-rich glasses of mare pyroclastic deposits, are of resource interest, but are inadequately known; none of the extensive surface-exposed pyroclastic deposits of the Moon have been systematically sampled, although we know something about such deposits from the Apollo 17 site. Because of the potential importance of pyroclastic deposits, methods to quantify glass as well as mineral abundances will be important to resource evaluation. Combined x ray diffraction (XRD) and x ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis will address many resource characterization problems on the Moon. XRF methods are valuable for obtaining full major-element abundances with high precision. Such data, collected in parallel with quantitative mineralogy, permit unambiguous determination of both mineral and chemical abundances where concentrations are high enough to be of resource grade. Collection of both XRD and XRF data from a single sample provides simultaneous chemical and mineralogic information. These data can be used to correlate quantitative chemistry and mineralogy as a set of simultaneous linear equations, the solution of which can lead to full characterization of the sample. The use of

  2. Effect of various additives on morphological and structural characteristics of pulse electrodeposited tin coatings from stannous sulfate electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ashutosh, E-mail: stannum.ashu@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Das, Karabi [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India); Fecht, Hans-J. [Institut für Mikro- und Nanomaterialien, Universität Ulm, D-89081 Ulm (Germany); Das, Siddhartha [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721302 (India)

    2014-09-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • PEG and thiourea act as grain refiners, and Triton X-100 acts as brightener in bath. • Additives refine the crystallite size and modify the orientation of lattice planes. • Dendritic and nodular growths are reduced when additives are used in combination. - Abstract: The pulse electrodeposited tin coatings are synthesized from an acidic electrolyte (stannous sulfate, SnSO{sub 4}30 g/L and sulfuric acid, H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}—200 g/L) containing various additives (polyethylene glycol (PEG), thiourea and Triton X-100). The effect of the additives on surface morphology, preferred orientation of grains, grain size, and surface roughness has been studied. The final coatings are characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and surface profilometry. In the absence of additives, tin deposition is associated with prominent hydrogen evolution reaction giving rise to rough deposits. Both PEG and thiourea act as grain refiner while Triton X-100 acts as a brightener in the electrolyte. The cathodic polarization on the reduction of the tin (II) ions is more pronounced when a combination of additives is used and further, fine-grained, smooth and shiny electrodeposits of tin are obtained due to a synergistic effect of the adsorbed species.

  3. High temperature XRD of Cu2GeSe3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premkumar, D. S.; Malar, P.; Chetty, Raju; Mallik, Ramesh Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The Cu 2 GeSe 3 is prepared by solid state synthesis method. The high temperature XRD has been done at different temperature from 30 °C to 450 °C. The reitveld refinement confirms Cu 2 GeSe 3 phase and orthorhombic crystal structure. The lattice constants are increasing with increase in the temperature and their rate of increase with respect to temperature are used for finding the thermal expansion coefficient. The calculation of the linear and volume coefficient of thermal expansion is done from 30 °C to 400 °C. Decrease in the values of linear expansion coefficients with temperature are observed along a and c axis. Since thermal expansion coefficient is the consequence of the distortion of atoms in the lattice; this can be further used to find the minimum lattice thermal conductivity at given temperature

  4. Identification of unknown sample using NAA, EDXRF, XRD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi A.; Swain, K.K.; Chavan, Trupti; Remya Devi, P.S.; Wagh, D.N.; Verma, R.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Chemistry Division (ACD), Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) receives samples from law enforcement agencies such as Directorate of Revenue Intelligence, Customs for analysis. Five unknown grey powdered samples were received for identification and were suspected to be Iridium (Ir). Identification of unknown sample is always a challenging task and suitable analytical techniques have to be judiciously utilized for arriving at the conclusion. Qualitative analysis was carried out using Jordan Valley, EX-3600 M Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometer at ACD, BARC. A SLP series LEO Si (Li) detector (active area: 30 mm 2 ; thickness: 3.5 mm; resolution: 140 eV at 5.9 keV of Mn K X-ray) was used during the measurement and only characteristic X-rays of Ir (Lα: 9.17 keV and Lβ: 10.70 keV) was seen in the X-ray spectrum. X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurement results indicated that the Ir was in the form of metal. To confirm the XRD data, neutron activation analysis (NAA) was carried out by irradiating samples and elemental standards (as comparator) in graphite reflector position of Advanced Heavy Water Reactor Critical Facility (AHWR CF) reactor, BARC, Mumbai. After suitable decay period, gamma activity measurements were carried out using 45% HPGe detector coupled to 8 k multi channel analyzer. Characteristic gamma line at 328.4 keV of the activation product 194 Ir was used for quantification of iridium and relative method of NAA was used for concentration calculations. NAA results confirmed that all the samples were Iridium metal. (author)

  5. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  6. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Naiming; Huang Xiaobo; Zhang Xiangyu; Fan Ailan; Qin Lin; Tang Bin

    2012-01-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  7. Epitaxial integration of CoFe2O4 thin films on Si (001) surfaces using TiN buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Marco, José F.; Prieto, José E.; Ruiz-Gomez, Sandra; Perez, Lucas; del Real, Rafael P.; Vázquez, Manuel; de la Figuera, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Epitaxial cobalt ferrite thin films with strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy have been grown on Si (001) substrates using a TiN buffer layer. The epitaxial films have been grown by ion beam sputtering using either metallic, CoFe2, or ceramic, CoFe2O4, targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling configuration have been used to determine the epitaxial relationship CoFe2O4 [100]/TiN [100]/Si [100]. Mössbauer spectroscopy, in combination with XRD and RBS, has been used to determine the composition and structure of the cobalt ferrite thin films. The TiN buffer layer induces a compressive strain in the cobalt ferrite thin films giving rise to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The degree of in-plane anisotropy depends on the lattice mismatch between CoFe2O4 and TiN, which is larger for CoFe2O4 thin films grown on the reactive sputtering process with ceramic targets.

  8. The incidence of IgG4-positive plasma cells staining TIN in patients with biopsy-proven tubulointerstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac, Kathy; Wu, Xiao Juan; Mai, Jun; Howlin, Kenneth; Suranyi, Michael; Yong, Jim; Makris, Angela

    2017-06-01

    IgG4 disease is rare. However, IgG4 tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) is the most common renal manifestation. IgG4 disease is usually associated with elevated serum IgG4 levels and other organ involvement, low-density renal lesions on enhanced CT imaging and immune activation. The incidence of IgG4-TIN may be underestimated, as staining for IgG4 is not routine. This study sought to describe the prevalence of previously undiagnosed IgG4-TIN. Due to the complexity of the diagnosis, we only attempt to look at IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN as a potential indication for IgG4 renal disease. A retrospective review of native renal biopsies performed between 2002 and 2012 with a primary diagnosis of TIN was selected. Samples for which interstitial nephritis was secondary to a glomerular disease were excluded. The tissues were stained for IgG4 and scored by two blinded observers. Demographic and follow-up details were collected. This study was approved by the local ethics committee. 82 cases of interstitial nephritis from a total of 1238 renal biopsies (2002-2012) were available after staining for further assessment. 12 samples demonstrated staining consistent with the criteria for IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN, of which 3 had mildly positive staining, 7 moderately positive staining and 2 had markedly positive staining. There were no statistically significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the positive and negative staining groups. A number of cases of IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN were observed histologically that had been previously diagnosed as non-specific chronic TIN. IgG4-positive plasma cell TIN made up 1% of all renal biopsies performed over 10 years and 13% of all biopsies demonstrating TIN not related to glomerular disease. IgG4 staining should be considered routinely in biopsies demonstrating primary TIN. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium to be used in radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2009-01-01

    This work presents the results of synthesis and characterization of an inorganic ion exchanger based on tin/titanium mixed oxides doped with europium (SnO 2 /TiO 2 :Eu 3+ ) to be used in environmental field. The adsorption study of nickel was realized in this exchanger to recover the nickel metal which is in thorium-nickel alloys used as electrode of discharge lamps. The studied exchanger was synthesized by neutralization of tin chloride (IV) and titanium chloride (III) mixed solution and characterized by thermogravimetric measurement (TG), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The adsorption study showed that these inorganic ion exchangers are good materials to recovery nickel with high weight distribution ratios (Dw Ni 2+ ) and percent adsorption. (author)

  10. Work Function Tuning in Sub-20nm Titanium Nitride (TiN) Metal Gate: Mechanism and Engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Hasan, Mehdi

    2011-07-01

    Scaling of transistors (the building blocks of modern information age) provides faster computation at the expense of excessive power dissipation. Thus to address these challenges, high-k/metal gate stack has been introduced in commercially available microprocessors from 2007. Since then titanium nitride (TiN) metal gate’s work function (Wf) tunability with its thickness (thickness increases, work function increases) is a well known phenomenon. Many hypotheses have been made over the years which include but not limited to: trap charge and metal gate nucleation, nitrogen concentration, microstructure agglomeration and global stress, metal oxide formation, and interfacial oxide thickness. However, clear contradictions exist in these assumptions. Also, nearly all these reports skipped a comprehensive approach to explain this complex paradigm. Therefore, in this work we first show a comprehensive physical investigation using transmission electron microcopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM/EELS), x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) to show replacement of oxygen by nitrogen in the metal/dielectric interface, formation of TiONx, reduction of Ti/N concentration and grain size increment happen with TiN thickness increment and thus may increase the work function. Then, using these finding, we experimentally show 100meV of work function modulation in 10nm TiN Metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor by using low temperature oxygen annealing. A low thermal budget flow (replicating gate-last) shows similar work function boost up. Also, a work function modulation of 250meV has been possible using oxygen annealing and applying no thermal budget. On the other hand, etch-back of TiN layer can decrease the work function. Thus this study quantifies role of various factors in TiN work function tuning; it also reproduces the thickness varied TiN work function modulation in single thickness TiN thus reducing the

  11. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M. [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain); Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Bushiri, M. Junaid, E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates. • Samples on hydrophobic substrates are having comparatively larger lattice volume. • Films on hydrophobic substrates have larger particles and low density distribution. • Substrate dependent photoluminescence emission is observed and studied. • SnO{sub 2} thin films grown over hydrophobic substrates may find potential applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO{sub 2} thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3–4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11–20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO{sub 2} films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO{sub 2} thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  12. Characterization of North American lignite fly ashes. II. XRD Mineralogy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCarthy, G.J.; Johansen, D.M.; Thedchanamoorthy, A.; Steinwand, S.J.; Swanson, K.D.

    1988-01-01

    X-ray powder diffraction has been used to determine the crystalline phase mineralogy in samples of fly ash from each of the lignite mining areas of North America. The characteristic phases of North Dakota lignite fly ashes were periclase, lime, merwinite and the sulfate phases anhydrite, thenardite and a sodalite-structure phase. Mullite was absent in these low-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ ashes. Montana lignite ash mineralogy had characteristics of ND lignite and MT subbituminous coal fly ashes; mullite and C/sub 3/A were present and the alkali sulfates were absent. Texas and Louisiana lignite fly ashes had the characteristic mineralogy of bituminous coal fly ash: quartz, mullite, ferrite-spinel (magnetite) and minor hematite. Even though their analytical CaO contents were 7-14%, all but one lacked crystalline CaO-containing phases. Lignite fly ashes from Saskatchewan were generally the least crystalline of those studied and had a mineralogy consisting of quartz, mullite, ferrite spinel and periclase. Quantitative XRD data were obtained. The position of the diffuse scattering maximum in the x-ray diffractograms was indicative of the glass composition of the lignite fly ash

  13. Improvement of the optoelectronic properties of tin oxide transparent conductive thin films through lanthanum doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mrabet, C., E-mail: chokri.mrabet@hotmail.com; Boukhachem, A.; Amlouk, M.; Manoubi, T.

    2016-05-05

    This work highlights some physical investigations on tin oxide thin films doped with different lanthanum content (ratio La–to-Sn = 0–3%). Such doped thin films have been successfully grown by spray pyrolysis onto glass substrates at 450 °C. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that SnO{sub 2}:La thin films were polycrystalline with tetragonal crystal structure. The preferred orientation of crystallites for undoped SnO{sub 2} thin film was along (110) plane, whereas La-doped ones have rather preferential orientations along (200) direction. Although the grain size values exhibited a decreasing tendency with increasing doping content confirming the role of La as a grain growth inhibitor, dislocation density and microstrain values showed an increasing tendency. Also, Raman spectroscopy shows the bands corresponding to the tetragonal structure for the entire range of La doping. The same technique confirms the presence of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} as secondary phase. Moreover, SEM images showed a porous architecture with presence of big clusters with different sizes and shapes resulting from the agglomeration of small grains round shaped. Photoluminescence spectra of SnO{sub 2}:La thin films exhibit a decrease in the emission intensity with La concentration due to the decrease in grain size. Optical transmittance spectra of the films showed high transparency (∼80%) in the visible region. The dispersion of the refractive index is discussed using both Cauchy model and Wemple–Di-Domenico method. The optical band gap values vary slightly with La doping and were found to be around 3.8 eV. It has been found that La doping causes a pronounced decrease in the sheet resistance by up to two orders of magnitude and allows improving the Haacke's figure of merit (Φ) of the sprayed thin films. Moreover, we have introduced for a first time a new figure of merit for qualifying photo-thermal conversion applications. The obtained high conducting and transparent SnO{sub 2}:La

  14. In-situ laser processing and microstructural characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films on Si with TiN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.; Zheleva, T.; Narayan, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have prepared high-quality superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -δ (YBCO) thin films on Si(100) with TiN as a buffer layer using in-situ multitarget deposition system. Both TiN and YBCO thin films were deposited sequentially by KrF excimer laser ( | = 248 nm ) at substrate temperature of 650 C . Thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point-probe ac resistivity, scanning electron microscopy (S E M), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). The TiN buffer layer was epitaxial and the epitaxial relationship was found to be cube on cube with TiN parallel Si. YBCO thin films on Si with TiN buffer layer showed the transition temperature of 90-92K with T co (zero resistance temperature) of 84K. The authors have found that the quality of the buffer layer is very important in determining the superconducting transition temperature of the thin film. The effects of processing parameters and the correlation of microstructural features with superconducting properties are discussed in detail

  15. Growth Structural and Optical Properties of the Thermally Evaporated Tin Diselenide (SnSe2) Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sachdeva1,; M. Sharma1,; A. Devi1,; U. Parihar1,; N. Kumar1,; N. Padha1,; C.J. Panchal

    2011-01-01

    Tin diselenide (SnSe2) compound was prepared by melt-quenching technique from its constituent elements. The phase structure and composition of the chemical constituents present in the bulk has been determined using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersion X-ray analysis (EDAX) respectively. SnSe2 thin films were grown using direct thermal evaporation of SnSe2 compound material on chemically cleaned glass substrate, which were held at different substrate temperatures. X-ray diffraction an...

  16. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM and in situ XRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal

    2012-01-01

    Paar furnace and a mass spectrometer to complement and extrapolate the ETEM data to higher pressures and gas flows. Diffraction peak intensities, crystallite sizes (obtained using the Scherrer formula) and H2/H2O mass spectrometer signals are monitored. The recorded images and diffraction patterns show...... that the presence and stagnation of H2O vapour created upon reduction blocks H2 access to the reactive sites, decreasing the reaction rate at a high conversion fraction. The gas flow is low and may not evacuate the product gas efficiently around the Ni(O) particles. Complementary XRD experiments point towards...... the same conclusion and underline the impact of the pressure and gas flow on the kinetics. It is possible to determine an approximate activation energy for NiO reduction inside the ETEM using the Kissinger method [8], which is based on measurements of the shift in the temperature at which the reaction rate...

  17. XRD characterisation of nanoparticle size and shape distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, N.; Kalceff, W.; Cline, J.P.; Bonevich, J.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The form of XRD lines and the extent of their broadening provide useful structural information about the shape, size distribution, and modal characteristics of the nanoparticles comprising the specimen. Also, the defect content of the nanoparticles can be determined, including the type, dislocation density, and stacking faults/twinning. This information is convoluted together and can be grouped into 'size' and 'defect' broadening contributions. Modern X-ray diffraction analysis techniques have concentrated on quantifying the broadening arising from the size and defect contributions, while accounting for overlapping of profiles, instrumental broadening, background scattering and noise components. We report on a combined Bayesian/Maximum Entropy (MaxEnt) technique developed for use in the certification of a NIST Standard Reference Material (SRM) for size-broadened line profiles. The approach used was chosen because of its generality in removing instrumental broadening from the observed line profiles, and its ability to determine not only the average crystallite size, but also the distribution of sizes and the average shape of crystallites. Moverover, this Bayesian/MaxEnt technique is fully quantitative, in that it also determines uncertainties in the crystallite-size distribution and other parameters. Both experimental and numerical simulations of size broadened line-profiles modelled on a range of specimens with spherical and non-spherical morphologies are presented to demonstrate how this information can be retrieved from the line profile data. The sensitivity of the Bayesian/MaxEnt method to determining the size distribution using varying a priori information are emphasised and discussed

  18. Accurate quantitative XRD phase analysis of cement clinkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, A.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Knowledge about the absolute phase abundance in cement clinkers is a requirement for both, research and quality control. Traditionally, quantitative analysis of cement clinkers has been carried out by theoretical normative calculation from chemical analysis using the so-called Bogue method or by optical microscopy. Therefore chemical analysis, mostly performed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), forms the basis of cement plan control by providing information for proportioning raw materials, adjusting kiln and burning conditions, as well as cement mill feed proportioning. In addition, XRF is of highest importance with respect to the environmentally relevant control of waste recovery raw materials and alternative fuels, as well as filters, plants and sewage. However, the performance of clinkers and cements is governed by the mineralogy and not the elemental composition, and the deficiencies and inherent errors of Bogue as well as microscopic point counting are well known. With XRD and Rietveld analysis a full quantitative analysis of cement clinkers can be performed providing detailed mineralogical information about the product. Until recently several disadvantages prevented the frequent application of the Rietveld method in the cement industry. As the measurement of a full pattern is required, extended measurement times made an integration of this method into existing automation environments difficult. In addition, several drawbacks of existing Rietveld software such as complexity, low performance and severe numerical instability were prohibitive for automated use. The latest developments of on-line instrumentation, as well as dedicated Rietveld software for quantitative phase analysis (TOPAS), now make a decisive breakthrough possible. TOPAS not only allows the analysis of extremely complex phase mixtures in the shortest time possible, but also a fully automated online phase analysis for production control and quality management, free of any human interaction

  19. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2 were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany. The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products contain agglomerated selenide particlesconsisting of numerous idiomorphic tin selenide crystals, measuring from 2 to more than 100 nm in diameter, which were also documentedby TEM. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed that tin selenide particles do not behave as quantum dots.

  20. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-01-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  1. Effect of thickness on optoelectrical properties of Nb-doped indium tin oxide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-na; Ma, Rui-xin; Ma, Chun-hong; Li, Dong-ran; Xiao, Yu-qin; He, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hong-min

    2013-05-01

    Niobium-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Nb) thin films are prepared on glass substrates with various film thicknesses by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from one piece of ceramic target material. The effects of thickness (60-360 nm) on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO: Nb films are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. XRD patterns show the highly oriented (400) direction. The lowest resistivity of the films without any heat treatment is 3.1×10-4Ω·cm-1, and the resistivity decreases with the increase of substrate temperature. The highest Hall mobility and carrier concentration are 17.6 N·S and 1.36×1021 cm-3, respectively. Band gap energy of the films depends on substrate temperature, which varies from 3.48 eV to 3.62 eV.

  2. Preparation of textural lamellar tin deposits via electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoyu; Pan, Xiaona; Wu, Libin; Li, Ruinan; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar tin deposits were prepared by galvanostatical electroplating from the aqueous acidic-sulfate bath, with gelatin and benzalacetone dissolved in ethanol (ABA+EtOH) as additive, and their morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Cathodic polarization curves revealed that the absorbability of ABA+EtOH on the cathode surface was higher than that of gelatin. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated preferred orientations of tin growth led to the formation of lamellar structure and distortion of tin lattice. The growth mechanism of lamellar tin was also discussed.

  3. Atomic dynamics of tin nanoparticles embedded into porous glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, P. P.; Zemlyanov, M. G., E-mail: zeml@isssph.kiae.ru; Panova, G. Kh.; Shikov, A. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Sergueev, I.; Crichton, W. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France); Chumakov, A. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Rueffer, R. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France)

    2012-03-15

    The method of resonant nuclear inelastic absorption of synchrotron radiation has been used to study the phonon spectrum for tin nanoparticles (with a natural isotope mixture) embedded into a porous glassy (silica) matrix with an average pore diameter of 7 nm in comparison to the analogous spectrum of bulk tin enriched with {sup 119}Sn isotope. Differences between the spectra have been observed, which are related to both the dimensional effects and specific structural features of the porous glass-tin nanocomposite. Peculiarities in the dynamics of tin atoms embedded into nanopores of glass are interpreted in terms of a qualitative model of the nanocomposite structure.

  4. Atomic dynamics of tin nanoparticles embedded into porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, P. P.; Zemlyanov, M. G.; Panova, G. Kh.; Shikov, A. A.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Sergueev, I.; Crichton, W.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R.

    2012-01-01

    The method of resonant nuclear inelastic absorption of synchrotron radiation has been used to study the phonon spectrum for tin nanoparticles (with a natural isotope mixture) embedded into a porous glassy (silica) matrix with an average pore diameter of 7 nm in comparison to the analogous spectrum of bulk tin enriched with 119 Sn isotope. Differences between the spectra have been observed, which are related to both the dimensional effects and specific structural features of the porous glass-tin nanocomposite. Peculiarities in the dynamics of tin atoms embedded into nanopores of glass are interpreted in terms of a qualitative model of the nanocomposite structure.

  5. Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN thin films deposited on tool steel in the 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yun Ha; Le, Diem Phuong; Kim, Jung Gu; Kim, Sun Kyu; Vinh, Pham Van

    2008-01-01

    TiN, TiAlN and TiAlSiN hard coatings were deposited onto AISI H13 tool steel by cathodic arc plasma method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed that incorporation of Al and Si into TiN led to refinement of microstructure. From the results of potentiodynamic polarization test and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test conducted in an aerated 3.5% NaCl solution, the TiAlSiN film showed the best corrosion resistance with the lowest corrosion current density and porosity, the highest protective efficiency and total resistance (pore resistance plus charge transfer resistance)

  6. Mn-implanted, polycrystalline indium tin oxide and indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Xu Qingyu; Buerger, Danilo; Zhou Shengqiang; Kolitsch, Andreas; Grenzer, Joerg; Helm, Manfred; Schmidt, Heidemarie

    2009-01-01

    Polycrystalline conducting, ca. 250 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) and indium oxide (IO) films grown on SiO 2 /Si substrates using reactive magnetron sputtering, have been implanted with 1 and 5 at.% of Mn, followed by annealing in nitrogen or in vacuum. The effect of the post-growth treatment on the structural, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties has been studied. The roughness of implanted films ranges between 3 and 15 nm and XRD measurements revealed a polycrystalline structure. A positive MR has been observed for Mn-implanted and post-annealed ITO and IO films. It has been interpreted by considering s-d exchange. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used to prove the existence of midgap electronic states in the Mn-implanted ITO and IO films reducing the transmittance below 80%.

  7. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macedo, Andreia G. [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni [Laboratorio de Polimeros Paulo Scarpa, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil); Reis, Francoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L. [Laboratorio de Sistemas Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Roman, Lucimara S., E-mail: lsroman@fisica.ufpr.br [Laboratorio de Dispositivos Nanoestruturados, Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)

    2012-05-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO{sub 2} films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  8. Preparation of porous titanium oxide films onto indium tin oxide for application in organic photovoltaic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macedo, Andreia G.; Mattos, Luana L.; Spada, Edna R.; Serpa, Rafael B.; Campos, Cristiani S.; Grova, Isabel R.; Ackcelrud, Leni; Reis, Françoise T.; Sartorelli, Maria L.; Roman, Lucimara S.

    2012-01-01

    In this work, porous ordered TiO 2 films were prepared through sol gel route by using a monolayer of polystyrene spheres as template on indium-tin oxide/glass substrate. These films were characterized by SEM, AFM, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis absorbance and XRD. The UV-vis absorbance spectrum show a pseudo band gap (PBG) with maxima at 460 nm arising from the light scattering and partial or total suppression of the photon density of states, this PBG can be controlled by the size of the pore. We also propose the use of this porous film as electron acceptor electrode in organic photovoltaic cells; we show that devices prepared with porous titania displayed higher efficiencies than devices using compact titania films as electrode. Such behaviour was observed in both bilayer and bulk heterojunction devices.

  9. Synthesis and properties of ternary mixture of nickel/cobalt/tin oxides for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, C. S.; Passos, R. R.; Pocrifka, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    The present study reports the synthesis and morphological, structural and electrochemical characterization of ternary oxides mixture containing nickel, cobalt and tin. The ternary oxide is synthesized by Pechini method with subsequent deposition onto a titanium substrate in a thin-film form. XRD and EDS analysis confirm the formation of ternary film with amorphous nature. SEM analysis show that cracks on the film favor the gain of the surface area that is an interesting feature for electrochemical capacitors. The ternary film is investigated in KOH electrolyte solution using cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge study with a specific capacitance of 328 F g-1, and a capacitance retention of 86% over 600 cycles. The values of specific power and specific energy was 345.7 W kg-1 and 18.92 Wh kg-1, respectively.

  10. An Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Composed of Carbon-Coated Nano Tin Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jei Chung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a biosensor, based on a glucose oxidase (GOx immobilized, carbon-coated tin sulfide (SnS assembled on a glass carbon electrode (GCE was developed, and its direct electrochemistry was investigated. The carbon coated SnS (C-SnS nanoparticle was prepared through a simple two-step process, using hydrothermal and chemical vapor deposition methods. The large reactive surface area and unique electrical potential of C-SnS could offer a favorable microenvironment for facilitating electron transfer between enzymes and the electrode surface. The structure and sensor ability of the proposed GOx/C-SnS electrode were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and cyclic voltammetry study (CV.

  11. Gas Sensing of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. YADAV

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (F: SnO2 films have been prepared onto the amorphous glass substrates by a spray pyrolysis. XRD studies reveal that the material deposited is polycrystalline SnO2 and have tetragonal structure. It is observed that films are highly orientated along (200 direction. The direct optical band gap energy for the F: SnO2 films are found to be 4.15 eV. Gas sensing properties of the sensor were checked against combustible gases like H2, CO2 CO, C3H8, CH4.The H2 sensitivity of the F-doped SnO2 sensor was found to be increased. The increase in the sensitivity is discussed in terms of increased resistivity and reduced permeation of gaseous oxygen into the underlying sensing layer due to the surface modification of the sensor.

  12. Fabrication of nickel oxide and Ni-doped indium tin oxide thin films using pyrosol process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakasa, Akihiko; Adachi, Mami; Usami, Hisanao; Suzuki, Eiji; Taniguchi, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) need indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes with highly smooth surface. The work function of ITO, about 4.8 eV, is generally rather lower than the optimum level for application to OLEDs. In this work, NiO was deposited by pyrosol process on pyrosol ITO film to increase the work function of the ITO for improving the performance of OLEDs. It was confirmed that NiO was successfully deposited on pyrosol ITO film and the NiO deposition increased the work function of pyrosol ITO, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and atmospheric photoelectron spectroscopy. Furthermore, doping ITO with Ni succeeded in producing the Ni-doped ITO film with high work function and lower sheet resistance

  13. Electrodeposition of white copper-tin alloys from alkaline cyanide solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwadaria, H.S.; Zainal Arifin Ahmad

    2007-01-01

    Electrodeposition of white copper-tin alloys (including with mir alloys) has been done onto planar mild steel substrates from alkaline cyanide solutions at 65 degree C. The chemical composition of the coating is influenced by plating bath composition and current density. White mir alloy can be produced from the test solution containing 10 g/l CuCN 2 ,45 g/l Na 2 SnO 3 , 25 g/l NaCN, and 12 g/l NaOH at current density about 5 mA/cm?2. The local compositions of the coating cross section were analyzed using EDX installed in a FESEM operated at an accelerating voltage of 20 kV. The phases formed during co-deposition process were identified using XRD at 25 mA current and 35 kV voltage. (Author)

  14. The Preparation and Property of Graphene /Tin Oxide Transparent Conductive Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUN Tao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Graphene doped tin oxide composites were prepared with SnCIZ·2HZ 0 and graphene oxide as raw materials with sol-gel method and then spincoated on the quartz glass to manufacture a new transparent conductive film. The composite film was characterized with X-ray diffraction(XRDand scanning electron microscopy(SEM analysis. XRD results show that the graphene oxide was successfully prepared with Hummers method. The graphene layers and particulate SnOZ can be clearly observed in SEM photos. The transmittance and conductivity of the thin films were tested with ultraviolet visible spectrophotometer and Hall effect measurement. The results show that the transmittivity of composite film in visible region is more than 90% and surface square resistance is 41 S2/口.The graphene/ SnOZ film exhibits a higher performance in transparence and conductivity than commercial FTO glass.

  15. XRD and 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization of SnSe obtained from a simple chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes-Silva, Ana Claudia; Mesquita, A.F.; Moura de Neto, E.; Porto, A.O.; Ardisson, J.D.; Lima, G.M. de; Lameiras, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline tin selenide semiconductor was synthesized by a chemical route. Selenium powder reacted with potassium boronhydride, giving a soluble selenium species potassium seleniumhydride. The reaction of potassium seleniumhydride with tin chloride produced crystalline tin selenide, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The material was thermally treated, in nitrogen flow, at 300 and 600 deg. C for 2 h and the particle size evolution was studied by X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction and 119 Sn Moessbauer results showed that a mixture of tin oxides and orthorhombic tin selenide was obtained

  16. Physicochemical characterization of point defects in fluorine doped tin oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkad, Fikry El; Joseph, Sudeep

    2012-07-01

    The physical and chemical properties of spray deposited FTO films are studied using FESEM, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), electrical and optical measurements. The results of XRD measurements showed that the films are polycrystalline (grain size 20-50 nm) with Rutile structure and mixed preferred orientation along the (200) and (110) planes. An angular shift of the XRD peaks after F-doping is observed and interpreted as being due to the formation of substitutional fluorine defects (FO) in presence of high concentration of oxygen vacancies (VO) that are electrically neutral. The electrical neutrality of oxygen vacancies is supported by the observation that the electron concentration n is two orders of magnitude lower than the VO concentration calculated from chemical analyses using XPS measurements. It is shown that an agreement between XPS, XRD, and Hall effect results is possible provided that the degree of deviation from stoichiometry is calculated with the assumption that the major part of the bulk carbon content is involved in O-C bonds. High temperature thermal annealing is found to cause an increase in the FO concentration and a decrease in both n and VO concentrations with the increase of the annealing temperature. These results could be interpreted in terms of a high temperature chemical exchange reaction between the SnO2 matrix and a precipitated fluoride phase. In this reaction, fluorine is released to the matrix and Sn is trapped by the fluoride phase, thus creating substitutional fluorine FO and tin vacancy VSn defects. The enthalpy of this reaction is determined to be approximately 2.4 eV while the energy of formation of a VSn through the migration of SnSn host atom to the fluoride phase is approximately 0.45 eV.

  17. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Wallez, Gilles; Mottin, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of µ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Département des Arts Graphiques, Musée du Louvre and in the Musée des Beaux- Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special µ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique.

  18. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm) were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.

  19. Spectroscopic and luminescent properties of Co2+ doped tin oxide thin films by spray pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Durga Venkata Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The wide variety of electronic and chemical properties of metal oxides makes them exciting materials for basic research and for technological applications alike. Oxides span a wide range of electrical properties from wide band-gap insulators to metallic and superconducting. Tin oxide belongs to a class of materials called Transparent Conducting Oxides (TCO which constitutes an important component for optoelectronic applications. Co2+ doped tin oxide thin films were prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis synthesis and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, SEM, TEM, FT-IR, optical, EPR and PL techniques to collect the information about the crystal structure, coordination/local site symmetry of doped Co2+ ions in the host lattice and the luminescent properties of the prepared sample. Powder XRD data revealed that the crystal structure belongs to tetragonal rutile phase and its lattice cell parameters are evaluated. The average crystallite size was estimated to be 26 nm. The morphology of prepared sample was analyzed by using SEM and TEM studies. Functional groups of the prepared sample were observed in the FT-IR spectrum. Optical absorption and EPR studies have shown that on doping, Co2+ ions enter in the host lattice as octahedral site symmetry. PL studies of Co2+ doped SnO2 thin films exhibit blue and yellow emission bands. CIE chromaticity coordinates were also calculated from emission spectrum of Co2+ doped SnO2 thin films.

  20. Initial growth and texture formation during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T Q; Tsuji, Y; Ohsawa, T; Komiyama, H

    2002-01-01

    The initial growth and texture formation mechanism of titanium nitride (TiN) films were investigated by depositing TiN films on (111) silicon substrates by using reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti metallic target under a N sub 2 /Ar atmosphere, and then analyzing the films in detail by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Two power sources for the sputtering, dc and rf, were compared. At the initial growth stage, a continuous amorphous film containing randomly oriented nuclei was observed when the film thickness was about 3 nm. The nuclei grew and formed a polycrystalline layer when the film thickness was about 6 nm. As the film grew further, its orientation changed depending on the deposition conditions. For dc sputtering, the appearance of (111) or (200)-preferred orientations depended on the N sub 2 partial pressure, and the intensity of the preferred orientation increased with increasing film thickness. For rf sputtering, however, when the film thickness was small (...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of single-crystalline zinc tin oxide nanowires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jen-Bin; Wu, Po-Feng; Lin, Hsien-Sheng; Lin, Ya-Ting; Lee, Hsuan-Wei; Kao, Chia-Tze; Liao, Wei-Hsiang; Young, San-Lin

    2014-05-01

    Crystalline zinc tin oxide (ZTO; zinc oxide with heavy tin doping of 33 at.%) nanowires were first synthesized using the electrodeposition and heat treatment method based on an anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane, which has an average diameter of about 60 nm. According to the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) results, the synthesized ZTO nanowires are highly ordered and have high wire packing densities. The length of ZTO nanowires is about 4 μm, and the aspect ratio is around 67. ZTO nanowires with a Zn/(Zn + Sn) atomic ratio of 0.67 (approximately 2/3) were observed from an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns demonstrated that the ZTO nanowire is hexagonal single-crystalline. The study of ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) absorption showed that the ZTO nanowire is a wide-band semiconductor with a band gap energy of 3.7 eV.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanocomposites Tin Oxide-Graphene Doping Pd Using Polyol Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminuddin Debataraja

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper report on polyol method for Pd doped tin oxide-graphene nanocomposite thin film. XRD result shows sharp peaks at certain 2θ value and match with tin oxide, graphene, and Pd database. FTIR result shows peak from alcohol chain for –OH strong bonded absorption (3444 cm-1, also there are aldehyde and ketone which are indicated by C=O strong absorption (1751 cm-1. Moreover, alkene is also formed for decreasing symmetry intensity C=C (1616 cm-1, while alkyne is formed at strong deformation absorption at 646 and 613 cm-1. SEM and TEM result show SnO2 particles are attached uniformly on graphene surface layer. The composition for C, O, Sn, and Pd are 33.13, 25.58, 35.35 and 5.94%, respectively. This result indicated that the good composition is formed for Pd doped SnO2-graphene nanocomposite. The nanocomposite is promising materials for toxic gas sensor application at low temperature.

  3. MAGIC NUCLEI: Tin-100 turns up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the same way as the Periodic Table of chemical elements reflects the successive filling of orbital electron shells, in nuclear physics the socalled 'magic' numbers correspond to closed shells of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126,... neutrons and/or protons. More tightly bound than other nuclei, these are the nuclear analogues of the inert gases. 'Doubly magic' nuclei have closed shells of both neutrons and protons. Examples in nature are helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons), oxygen-16 (8 and 8), calcium-40 (20 and 20) and calcium-48 (20 and 28). Radioactive tin-132 (50+82) has been widely studied

  4. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  5. Novel Sample-handling Approach for XRD Analysis with Minimal Sample Preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Chipera, S.; Bish, D.; Blake, D.; Feldman, S.; Vaniman, D.; Bryson, C.

    2004-01-01

    Sample preparation and sample handling are among the most critical operations associated with X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. These operations require attention in a laboratory environment, but they become a major constraint in the deployment of XRD instruments for robotic planetary exploration. We are developing a novel sample handling system that dramatically relaxes the constraints on sample preparation by allowing characterization of coarse-grained material that would normally be impossible to analyze with conventional powder-XRD techniques.

  6. The role of tin-promoted Pd/MWNTs via the management of carbonaceous species in selective hydrogenation of high concentration acetylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esmaeili, Elaheh; Mortazavi, Yadollah; Khodadadi, Abbas Ali; Rashidi, Ali Morad; Rashidzadeh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Synthesis of highly active tin-promoted catalysts by polyol method for selective hydrogenation of high concentration of acetylene. ► A positive change in the catalytic activities of tin-promoted catalysts results from distinct geometric and electronic effects. ► Change in the coverage of acetylenic overlayers for different temperature regions corresponds to the change of the number of isolated adsorption sites. ► The isolated adsorption sites are responsible for the enhancement of selectivity to ethylene with increased temperatures, via the management of the carbonaceous species over the catalyst surface. - Abstract: In the present study, Pd/MWNTs are synthesized using polyol process and modified by tin as a promoter for selective hydrogenation of high concentrated acetylene feedstock. Polyol method results in highly dispersed nanoparticles with a depletion of particle size for tin-promoted Pd catalysts as characterized by TEM. Tin promoter plays a considerable role in hydrogenation of pure acetylene stream. This is attributed to formation of Pd 2 Sn structural phase, confirmed by XRD and TPR techniques, composed mainly of intermetallic species. Catalytic behavior of tin-promoted Pd catalysts is affected by geometric and electronic factors which are more pronounced in the case of Sn/Pd = 0.25. A discontinuity in Arrhenius plots for the Sn-promoted catalysts is appeared, which seems to be due to a kinetic factor as a result of change in acetylene coverage on Pd metallic ensembles at low and high temperature ranges. Higher selectivity of the catalysts to ethylene is attributed to the presence of more isolated adsorption sites on the catalyst surface originated from both intermetallic compounds confirmed by XPS and the ones formed via the carbonaceous species upon the acetylene hydrogenation reaction.

  7. Determination of Size Distributions in Nanocrystalline Powders by TEM, XRD and SAXS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik; Pedersen, Jørgen Houe; Jørgensen, Jens Erik

    2006-01-01

    Crystallite size distributions and particle size distributions were determined by TEM, XRD, and SAXS for three commercially available TiO2 samples and one homemade. The theoretical Guinier Model was fitted to the experimental data and compared to analytical expressions. Modeling of the XRD spectra...... the size distribution obtained from the XRD experiments; however, a good agreement was obtained between the two techniques. Electron microscopy, SEM and TEM, confirmed the primary particle sizes, the size distributions, and the shapes obtained by XRD and SAXS. The SSEC78 powder and the commercially...

  8. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  9. Investigation of thermal and hot-wire chemical vapor deposition copper thin films on TiN substrates using CupraSelect as precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadimitropoulos, G; Davazoglou, D

    2011-09-01

    Copper films were deposited on oxidized Si substrates covered with TiN using a novel chemical vapor deposition reactor in which reactions were assisted by a heated tungsten filament (hot-wire CVD, HWCVD). Liquid at room temperature hexafluoroacetylacetonate Cu(I) trimethylvinylsilane (CupraSelect) was directly injected into the reactor with the aid of a direct-liquid injection (DLI) system using N2 as carrier gas. The deposition rates of HWCVD Cu films obtained on TiN covered substrates were found to increase with filament temperature (65 and 170 degrees C were tested). The resistivities of HWCVD Cu films were found to be higher than for thermally grown films due to the possible presence of impurities into the Cu films from the incomplete dissociation of the precursor and W impurities caused by the presence of the filament. For HWCVD films grown at a filament temperature of 170 degrees C, smaller grains are formed than at 65 degrees C as shown from the taken SEM micrographs. XRD diffractograms taken on Cu films deposited on TiN could not reveal the presence of W compounds originating from the filament because the relative peak was masked by the TiN [112] peak.

  10. Tin and tin-titanium as catalyst components for reversible hydrogen storage of sodium aluminium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Jia Fu; Shik Chi Tsang [University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). Surface and Catalysis Research Centre, School of Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the effects of adding tin and/or titanium dopant to sodium aluminium hydride for both dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation reactions during their reversible storage of molecular hydrogen. Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) measurements show that the dehydrogenation kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4} are significantly enhanced upon doping the material with 2 mol% of tributyltin hydride, Sn(Bu)3H but the tin catalyst dopant is shown to be inferior than titanium. On the other hand, in this preliminary work, a significant synergetic catalytic effect is clearly revealed in material co-doped with both titanium and tin catalysts which shows the highest reversible rates of dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation (after their hydrogen depletion). The re-hydrogenation rates of depleted Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} evaluated at both 9.5 and 140 bars hydrogen are also found to be favourable compared to the Ti/NaAlH{sub 4}, which clearly suggest the importance of the catalyst choice. Basing on these results some mechanistic insights for the catalytic reversible dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation processes of Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} are therefore made. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Remote In-Situ Quantitative Mineralogical Analysis Using XRD/XRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Bish, D.; Vaniman, D.; Chipera, S.; Sarrazin, P.; Collins, S. A.; Elliott, S. T.

    2001-01-01

    X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is the most direct and accurate method for determining mineralogy. The CHEMIN XRD/XRF instrument has shown promising results on a variety of mineral and rock samples. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  13. Electrodeposition of rhenium-tin nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naor-Pomerantz, Adi; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rhenium-tin nanowires were formed electrochemically, without using a template. → The nanowires consisted of a crystalline-Sn-core/amorphous-Re-shell structure. → The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated. → A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the core/shell structure. → The nanowires may be attractive for a variety of applications. - Abstract: Rhenium (Re) is a refractory metal which exhibits an extraordinary combination of properties. Thus, nanowires and other nanostructures of Re-alloys may possess unique properties resulting from both Re chemistry and the nanometer scale, and become attractive for a variety of applications, such as in catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and microelectronics. Rhenium-tin coatings, consisting of nanowires with a core/shell structure, were electrodeposited on copper substrates under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated, and the chemistry and structure of the coatings were studied by a variety of analytical tools. A Re-content as high as 77 at.% or a Faradaic efficiency as high as 46% were attained. Ranges of Sn-to-Re in the plating bath, applied current density and applied potential, within which the nanowires could be formed, were determined. A mechanism was suggested, according to which Sn nanowires were first grown on top of Sn micro-particles, and then the Sn nanowires reduced the perrhenate chemically, thus forming a core made of crystalline Sn-rich phase, and a shell made of amorphous Re-rich phase. The absence of mutual solubility of Re and Sn may be the driving force for this phase separation.

  14. Moessbauer and XRD Characterization of the Mineral Matter of Coal from the Guachinte Mine in Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes, F.; Perez Alcazar, G. A.; Barraza, J. M.; Bohorquez, A.; Tabares, J. A.; Speziali, N. L.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was the characterization and differentiation, using Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), of coal samples with different ash and sulfur contents obtained in three places corresponding at cuts in different seams from the Guachinte mine, Valle, Colombia. The mineral phases identified by XRD were in general kaolinite, quartz, pyrite and gypsum, and in particular dolomite and calcite. MS confirms the presence of pyrite and kaolinite, besides evidences the additional presence of jarosite which was not detected by the XRD results due their low amounts. In the high mineral matter ash sample quartz and hematite was identified by XRD, the last one confirmed by MS results. A second phase in this sample was detected by Moessbauer spectroscopy, which could be superparamagnetic hematite. Rietveld refinement for XRD pattern from a sample is reported.

  15. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed c...

  16. Synthesis, XRD, TEM, EPR, and Optical Absorption Spectral Studies of CuZnO2 Nanocompound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Ravindra Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of nano CuZnO2 compound is carried out by thermal decomposition method. The crystalline phase of the material is characterized by XRD. The calculated unit cell constants are a=3.1 Å and c=3.4786 Å and are of tetragonal structure. The unit cell constants are different from wurtzite (hexagonal which indicate that a nanocompound is formed. Further TEM images reveal that the metal ion is in tetragonal structure with oxygen ligands. The prepared CuZnO2 is then characterized for crystallite size analysis by employing transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The size is found to be 100 nm. Uniform bright rings are noticed in the TEM picture suggesting that the nanocrystals have preferential instead of random orientations. The selected-area electron diffraction (SAED pattern clearly indicates the formation of CuO-ZnO nanocompound. The nature of bonding is studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR. The covalency character is about 0.74 and thus the compound is electrically less conductive. Optical absorption spectral studies suggest that Cu(II is placed in tetragonal elongation crystal field. The spin-orbit coupling constant, λ, is calculated using the EPR and optical absorption spectral results suggest some covalent bond between metal and ligand. Near infrared (NIR spectra are due to hydroxyl and water fundamentals.

  17. One step aqueous solution preparation of nanosize iron-doped tin oxide from SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)]. E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)

    2006-03-15

    Nanosized iron-doped tin oxide solid solution was prepared by mixing tin oxide gel SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The XRD data of the as-prepared and annealed sample at 773 K show that the patterns are indexed to the rutile phase without any trace of an extra phase. SEM and TEM results performed on different selected area of the samples reveal a homogeneous composition of 8 at.% of Fe content and a size of about 2 nm of the particles. The particles size was found to increase slightly with temperature; about 7 nm after 24 h at 773 K. Structural and magnetic results seem to indicate that Fe{sup 3+} substitute for Sn{sup 4+} on the as-prepared sample. The system presents some weak ferromagnetic character at room temperature.

  18. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion investigations of galvanic tin-zinc layers from pyrophosphate baths

    OpenAIRE

    STOPIC MILENA D.; FRIEDRICH BERND G.

    2016-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy deposits are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant coatings. Tin-zinc alloy layers offer outstanding corrosion protection for steel by combining the barrier protection of tin with the galvanic protection of zinc. Tin-zinc coatings have been used on the chassis of electrical and electronic apparatus and on critical automotive parts such as fuel and brake line components. In this study, tin-zinc alloy deposits were successfully prepared fro...

  19. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows

  20. Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)

  1. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This method may be extended to the synthesis of other metal nitrides. ... direct current magnetron sputtering17, and mechanical mill- ... recent years, autoclaved synthesis of TiN nanomaterials from ... 3.2 XPS Characterization of the Samples.

  2. 188Re radiopharmaceuticals for radiosynovectomy: evaluation and comparison of tin colloid, hydroxyapatite and tin-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo; Ures, María Cristina; Zeledón, Patricia; Trindade, Victoria; Paolino, Andrea; Mockford, Virginia; Malanga, Antonio; Fernández, Marcelo; Gaudiano, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Radiosynovectomy is a therapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases. In this study three 188 Re particulate compounds were characterized according to their physico-chemical properties and their biological behavior in rabbits. The results were compared in order to establish which was the radiopharmaceutical that better fits the requirements of this kind of radiotherapy. Three radiopharmaceutical formulations, tin colloid, hydroxyapatite particles (HA) and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates coated with tin colloid (FHMA), were physically characterized (number, volume and surface of the particles). For this purpose laser diffraction methodology was used. To evaluate cavity leakage of activity the following studies in New Zealand rabbits were performed: scintigraphic images for 48 hr after intraarticular injection of each radiopharmaceutical, biodistribution at 48 hr and urine samples collection during the first 24 hr post-radiopharmaceutical administration. Labeling procedures for 188 Re-HA and 188 Re-Sn-FHMA were labour intensive while 188 Re-Sn was easily prepared. Furthermore, 188 Re-Sn colloid offered the greatest surface area in the 2–10 microm range and was obtained with a radiochemical purity over 95%, while percentage of bound activity for 188 Re-HA and 188 Re-Sn-FHMA were 55% and 92% respectively. Stability was verified for the three radiopharmaceuticals for 24 hr. Scintigraphic studies and biodistribution in rabbits after intraarticular administration of the radiopharmaceuticals showed relevant activity only in the knee, this being over 90% of the residual activity in the whole body at 48 hr in every case. Renal elimination of 188 Re-Sn colloid and 188 Re-Sn-FHMA was detected by activity measurements in urine samples, during the first 12 hr post-radiopharmaceutical injection. The percentage of activity retained in the knee was 69.1% for 188 Re-Sn colloid, 55.1% for 188 Re-Sn-FHMA and 33.6% for 188 Re-HA. The 188

  3. The effect of the atmosphere on the optical properties of as-synthesized colloidal indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozzi, Charles J; Joshi, Salil; Gerhardt, Rosario A; Ivanov, Ilia N

    2009-01-01

    The optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) have often been explored when it is in the form of deposited thin films. In this study, a colloidal chemistry approach is taken to investigate the influence of the atmosphere on the optical properties of ITO nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) were used to characterize colloidal ITO samples, synthesized under aerated and inert conditions, with the same composition. In both cases, the ITO can be completely dispersed in a non-polar solvent without any evidence of agglomeration. For the ITO made in air, the nanoparticle-solvent solution exhibits a pale green color, and XRD and TEM indicate an average particle size of ∼7 nm and small shrinkage in the lattice structure. When the ITO is synthesized under inert conditions, the solution turns blue, and XRD and TEM indicate an average particle size of ∼8 nm and even less strain in the lattice than for the ITO synthesized under aerated conditions. The change in color and lattice strain is attributed to the difference in oxygen vacancy concentration for the ITO nanoparticles synthesized under aerated and inert conditions, which exhibit different optical band gap values of 3.89 eV and 4.05 eV, respectively. Our work here shows that thin film deposition or sintering steps may not be required for studying the optical properties of as-synthesized ITO nanoparticles.

  4. Preparation of high quality spray-deposited fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films using dilute di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate precursor solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Premalal, E.V.A., E-mail: vikum777@gmail.com [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Dematage, N. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Kaneko, S. [SPD Laboratory Inc, Hi-Cube 3-1-7, Wajiyama, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan); Konno, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2012-09-01

    Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films were prepared, at different substrate temperatures, using dilute precursor solutions of di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate (0.1 M DBTDA) by varying the F{sup -} concentration in the solution. It is noticed that conductivity of FTO film is increasing by increasing the fluorine amount in the solution. Morphology of SEM image reveals that grain size and its distribution are totally affected by the substrate temperature in which conductivity is altered. Among these FTO films, the best film obtained gives an electronic conductivity of 31.85 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 2} {Omega}{sup -1} cm{sup -1}, sheet resistance of 4.4 {Omega}/{open_square} ({rho} = 3.14 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} {Omega} cm) with over 80% average normal transmittance between the 400 and 800 nm wavelength range. The best FTO film consists of a large distribution of grain sizes from 50 nm to 400 nm range and the optimum conditions used are 0.1 M DBTDA, 0.3 M ammonium fluoride, in a mixture of propan-2-ol and water, at 470 Degree-Sign C substrate temperature. The large distribution of grain sizes can be easily obtained using low DBTDA concentration ({approx} 0.1 M or less) and moderate substrate temperature (470 Degree-Sign C). - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer F-doped SnO{sub 2} (FTO) thin films prepared using di(n-butyl)tin(iv) diacetate (DBTDA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substrate temperature and DBTDA concentration affect grain size and distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Large distribution of grain sizes can optimize the conductivity of FTO film. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 0.1 M DBTDA, substrate temperature of 470 Degree-Sign C allows a large grain size distribution.

  5. Comparison of mechanical behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC, TiN/TiNC films on 9Cr18 steel by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Zhang, Yanshuai; Hu, Hanjun; Zheng, Yugang; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhou, Hui

    2017-11-01

    TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films were deposited on 9Cr18 steel using magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology, composition, chemical state and crystalline structure of the films were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness and adhesion force were tested by nanoindentation and scratch tester, respectively. The friction and wear behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films sliding against GCr15 balls were investigated and compared synthetically using ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that Tisbnd N, Tisbnd C, Tisbnd Nsbnd C and Csbnd C bonds were formed. The TiN/TiNC film was composed of TiN, TiC and TiNC phases. Hardness and adhesion force results indicated that although the TiN film possessed the highest hardness, its adhesion force was lowest among all the films. Tribological test results showed that the friction coefficient of TiN/TiNC was much lower than that of TiN and the wear rate decreases remarkably from 2.3 × 10-15 m3/Nm to 7.1 × 10-16 m3/Nm, which indicated the TiN/TiNC film has better wear resistance.

  6. Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide/epoxy composite film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Xia; Guo Chun-Wei; Chen Yu; Su Zhi-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The electrical and optical properties of the indium tin oxide (ITO)/epoxy composite exhibit dramatic variations as functions of the ITO composition and ITO particle size. Sharp increases in the conductivity in the vicinity of a critical volume fraction have been found within the framework of percolation theory. A conductive and insulating transition model is extracted by the ITO particle network in the SEM image, and verified by the resistivity dependence on the temperature. The dependence of the optical transmittance on the particle size was studied. Further decreasing the ITO particle size could further improve the percolation threshold and light transparency of the composite film. (condensed matter: structural, mechanical, and thermal properties)

  7. Studies in group IV organometallic chemistry XXX. Synthesis of compounds containing tin---titanium and tin---zirconium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Verbeek, F.; Noltes, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Starting from the tetrakis(diethylamino) derivatives of titanium and zirconium and pheyltin hydrides six intermetalic compounds contianing up to nine tin and titanium(or zirconium) atoms have been obtained by hydrostannolysis type reactions.

  8. Acetylene Gas-Sensing Properties of Layer-by-Layer Self-Assembled Ag-Decorated Tin Dioxide/Graphene Nanocomposite Film

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chuanxing; Zhang, Dongzhi; Yin, Nailiang; Yao, Yao; Shaymurat, Talgar; Zhou, Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an acetylene gas sensor based on an Ag-decorated tin dioxide/reduced graphene oxide (Ag–SnO2/rGO) nanocomposite film, prepared by layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly technology. The as-prepared Ag–SnO2/rGO nanocomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectrum. The acetylene sensing properties were investigated using different working temperatures and gas concentrations. A...

  9. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  10. Karakteristik Beberapa Jenis Antibiotik Berdasarkan Pola Difraksi Sinar-X (XRD Dan Spektrum FTIR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzan T Razzak

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan pengukuran karakteristik difraksi sinar-x (XRD terhadap beberapa jenisantibiotik. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk memahami karakteristik difraksi sinar-x suatuantibiotik sebagai upaya untuk identifikasi antibiotik secara cepat. Dalam penelitian ini diamatikarakteristik difraksi sinar-x dari 15 (lima belas antibiotik yang tersedia di pasaran. SpektrumXRD diukur pada sudut 2 antara 5 – 75 untuk dibandingkan dan dievaluasi mengenai bentukkristalnya. Selanjutnya diukur pula spektrum XRD dari pencampuran antibiotik dengan tepungtapioka. Pengukuran spektrum infrared dengan FTIR juga dilakukan untuk menguji konsistensihasil evaluasi spektrum XRD. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa amoxicillin dan ampicillinmempunyai struktur kristal yang sama, yaitu orthorombic primitif. Sayangnya baik XRDmaupun FTIR, tidak memberikan nilai kuantitatif pada antibiotik. Oleh sebab itu, perbedaankonsentrasi dengan pencampuran tepung tapioka tidak dapat dideteksi. Walaupun demikian,metode ini terbukti dapat digunakan untuk membedakan komposisi zat penyusun antibiotiksecara cepat dan akurat.

  11. Mineralogical Composition of the Mexican Ordinary Chondrite Type Meteorite: A Raman, Infrared and XRD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.

  12. Synthesis and Characterization of Tin (IV Tungstate Nanoparticles – A Solid Acid Catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Sadanandan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin (IV tungstate, a tetravalent metal acid salt was synthesized in the nanoform by chemical coprecipitation method using EDTA as capping agent. The material was found to be stable in mineral acids, bases and organic solvents except  in HF and aquaregia. The material was characterized using EDS, TG/DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM, HRTEM and BET surface area measurement. The molecular formula of the compound is 2SnO2 3WO3.5H2O determined from elemental analysis using TG/DTA. Surface morphology and particle size were obtained using SEM and HRTEM. The surface area was found to be 205-225m2/g. The Na+ exchange capacity found to be 3.8 meq/g, indicates the presence of surface hydroxyl group and hence the presence of Bronsted acid sites. The catalytic activity of the material was tested by using esterification and oxidation as model reactions. For the esterification of different alcohols, the percentage yield was found to be high for n-alcohol compared to isomeric alcohols. Oxidation of benzyl alcohol gives benzaldehyde and benzoic acid as the only products. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 12nd June 2012, Revised: 23rd July 2012, Accepted: 29th July 2012[How to Cite: S. Manoj, R. Beena, (2012. Synthesis and Characterization of tin(IV Tungstate Nanoparticles – A Solid Acid Catalyst. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7 (2: 105-111. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3622.105-111] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.3622.105-111 ] | View in 

  13. Determination of grain size by XRD profile analysis and TEM counting in nano-structured Cu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Yong; Ping Dehai; Song Xiaoyan; Yin Fuxing

    2009-01-01

    In this work, a serial of pure copper sample with different grain sizes from nano- to micro-scale were prepared by sparkle plasma sintering (SPS) and following anneal treatment at 873 K and 1073 K, respectively. The grain size distributions of these samples were determined by both X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile analysis and transmission electronic microscope (TEM) micrograph counting. Although these two methods give similar distributions of grain size in the case of as-SPS sample with nano-scale grain size (around 10 nm), there are apparent discrepancies between the grain size distributions of the annealed samples obtained from XRD and TEM, especially for the sample annealed at 1073 K after SPS with micro-scale grain size (around 2 μm), which TEM counting provides much higher values of grain sizes than XRD analysis does. It indicates that for large grain-sized material, XRD analysis lost its validity for determination of grain size. It might be due to some small sized substructures possibly existed in even annealed (large grain-sized) samples, whereas there is no substructures in as-SPS (nanocrystalline) sample. Moreover, it has been found that the effective outer cut-off radius R e derived from XRD analysis coincides with the grain sizes given by TEM counting. The potential relationship between grain size and R e was discussed in the present work. These results might provide some new hints for deeper understanding of the physical meaning of XRD analysis and the parameters derived.

  14. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  15. Clay pigment structure characterisation as a guide for provenance determination--a comparison between laboratory powder micro-XRD and synchrotron radiation XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Švarcová, Silvie; Bezdička, Petr; Hradil, David; Hradilová, Janka; Žižak, Ivo

    2011-01-01

    Application of X-ray diffraction (XRD)-based techniques in the analysis of painted artworks is not only beneficial for indisputable identification of crystal constituents in colour layers, but it can also bring insight in material crystal structure, which can be affected by their geological formation, manufacturing procedure or secondary changes. This knowledge might be helpful for art historic evaluation of an artwork as well as for its conservation. By way of example of kaolinite, we show that classification of its crystal structure order based on XRD data is useful for estimation of its provenance. We found kaolinite in the preparation layer of a Gothic wall painting in a Czech church situated near Karlovy Vary, where there are important kaolin deposits. Comparing reference kaolin materials from eight various Czech deposits, we found that these can be differentiated just according to the kaolinite crystallinity. Within this study, we compared laboratory powder X-ray micro-diffraction (micro-XRD) with synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysing the same real sample. We found that both techniques led to the same results.

  16. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Sun; Yuehua Hu; Wei Sun; Zhiyong Gao; Mengjie Tian

    2017-01-01

    Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin...

  17. Synthesize of Graphene-Tin Oxide Nanocomposite and Its Photocatalytic Properties for the Degradation of Organic Pollutants Under Visible Light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, M; Jayavel, R

    2015-09-01

    Graphene-tinoxide nanocomposite has been synthesised by coating SnO2 nanoparticles on graphene sheets by the redox reaction between graphene oxide (GO) and tin chloride. Graphene oxide was reduced to graphene and Sn2+ was oxidized to SnO2 during the redox reaction, resulting in the uniform distribution of SnO2 nanoparticles on graphene sheets. The synthesised material was characterized by XRD, SEM, AFM, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA and Raman spectroscopic studies. SEM and AFM studies reveal the formation of wrinkled paper like structure of graphene sheets with uniform coating of SnO2 nanoparticles on either side. The strong photocatalytic degradation of Methylene orange (MO) dye was analysed using G-SnO2 nanocomposite under the visible light irradiation.

  18. Tin-oxide-coated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles supporting platinum electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Ryan S; Higgins, Drew; Chen Zhongwei

    2010-01-01

    Novel tin-oxide (SnO 2 )-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles supporting platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation were developed for direct ethanol fuel cells. SnO 2 -coated SWNT (SnO 2 -SWNT) bundles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route. SnO 2 -SWNT bundles supporting Pt (Pt/SnO 2 -SWNTs) electrocatalysts and SWNT-supported Pt (Pt/SWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared by an ethylene glycol reduction method. The catalysts were physically characterized using TGA, XRD and TEM and electrochemically evaluated through cyclic voltammetry experiments. The Pt/SnO 2 -SWNTs showed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in acid medium, compared to the Pt/SWNT. The optimal SnO 2 loading of Pt/SnO 2 -SWNT catalysts with respect to specific catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was also investigated.

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ferromagnetism in Co-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Revealed Using X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. H. R. Hakimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high-temperature annealing on ferromagnetic Co-doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO thin films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetometry, and X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD. Following annealing, the magnetometry results indicate the formation of Co clusters with a significant increase in the saturation magnetization of the thin films arising from defects introduced during cluster formation. However, sum rule analysis of the element-specific XMCD results shows that the magnetic moment at the Co sites is reduced after annealing. The effects of annealing demonstrate that the ferromagnetism observed in the as-deposited Co-doped ITO films arises from intrinsic defects and cannot be related to the segregation of metallic Co clusters.

  20. Electrooxidation of ethanol on novel multi-walled carbon nanotube supported platinum-antimony tin oxide nanoparticle catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Dao-Jun [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, The Key Laboratory of Life-Organic Analysis, Qufu Normal University, Qufu, Shandong 273165 (China)

    2011-01-15

    We synthesize the new Pt based catalyst for direct ethanol fuel cells using novel multi-walled carbon nanotubes supported platinum-antimony tin oxide (Pt-ATO/MWCNT) nanoparticle as new catalyst support for the first time. The structure of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst is characterized by transmission electron micrograph (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrocatalytic properties of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst for ethanol electrooxidation reactions are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and chronoamperometric experiments in acidic medium. The electrocatalytic activity for ethanol electrooxidation reaction shows that high carbon monoxide tolerance and good stability of Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst compared with Pt-SnO{sub 2}/MWCNT and commercial Pt/C are observed. These results imply that Pt-ATO/MWCNT catalyst has promising potential applications in direct alcohol fuel cells. (author)

  1. Tin-oxide-coated single-walled carbon nanotube bundles supporting platinum electrocatalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ryan S; Higgins, Drew; Chen, Zhongwei

    2010-04-23

    Novel tin-oxide (SnO(2))-coated single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) bundles supporting platinum (Pt) electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation were developed for direct ethanol fuel cells. SnO(2)-coated SWNT (SnO(2)-SWNT) bundles were synthesized by a simple chemical-solution route. SnO(2)-SWNT bundles supporting Pt (Pt/SnO(2)-SWNTs) electrocatalysts and SWNT-supported Pt (Pt/SWNT) electrocatalysts were prepared by an ethylene glycol reduction method. The catalysts were physically characterized using TGA, XRD and TEM and electrochemically evaluated through cyclic voltammetry experiments. The Pt/SnO(2)-SWNTs showed greatly enhanced electrocatalytic activity for ethanol oxidation in acid medium, compared to the Pt/SWNT. The optimal SnO(2) loading of Pt/SnO(2)-SWNT catalysts with respect to specific catalytic activity for ethanol oxidation was also investigated.

  2. Electrochemical deposition of gold-platinum alloy nanoparticles on an indium tin oxide electrode and their electrocatalytic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Yan; Ma Yuting; Wang Yuan [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Di Junwei, E-mail: djw@suda.edu.c [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China); Tu Yifeng [Department of Chemistry, Soochow University, Suzhou, Jiangsu 215123 (China)

    2010-07-01

    Gold-platinum (Au-Pt) hybrid nanoparticles (Au-PtNPs) were successfully deposited on an indium tin oxide (ITO) surface using a direct electrochemical method. The resulting nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and electrochemical methods. It was found that the size of the Au-PtNPs depends on the number of electrodeposition cycles. Au-PtNPs obtained by 20 electrodeposition cycles had a cauliflower-shaped structure with an average diameter of about 60 nm. These Au-PtNPs exhibited alloy properties. Electrochemical measurements showed that the charge transfer resistivity was significantly decreased for the Au-PtNPs/ITO electrode. Additionally, the Au-PtNPs displayed an electrocatalytic activity for nitrite oxidation and oxygen reduction. The Au-PtNPs/ITO electrodes reported herein could possibly be used as electrocatalysts and sensors.

  3. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  5. Surface Modification of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles to Improve Its Distribution in Epoxy-Silica Polymer Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Jafari

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A semiconducting nanoparticle indium tin oxide (ITO was modified with silane groups and for this purpose trimethoxysilane (TMOS precursor was used under specific experimental conditions for surface modification of ITO nanoparticles. It is found that the modification of ITO nanoparticles increases the interactions between the filler and the matrix and subsequently improves the distibution of indium tin oxide nanoparticles in the polymer matrix. The epoxisilica polymer matrix was produced using trimethoxysilane and 3-glycidyloxypropyl trimethoxysilane precursors and ethylenediamine (EDA as curing agent at low temperature by sol-gel process. The sol-gel process was very useful due to its easily controllable process, solution concentration and homogeneity without using expensive and complicated equipments in comparison with other methods. Then, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy was employed to study the formation of Si-O-Si and Si-OH groups on ITO nanoparticles. X-Ray diffraction (XRD technique and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA were employed to investigate the modification and weight loss of the modified ITO, respectively, as an indication of the presence of organic groups on these nanoparticles. The separation analyzer tests were performed to check the stability of the nanoparticles suspension and it revealed that due to better interaction of nanoparticles with the polymer matrix the stability of modified ITO suspention is higher than the unmodified sample. The morphology and particle distribution were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. It was found that the distibution of modified indium tin oxide in epoxy-silica polymer matrix was improved in comparison with pure ITO.

  6. Measurements of void fraction in a water-molten tin system by X-ray absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, Michael C.; Bonazza, Riccardo; Corradini, Michael L.

    1998-01-01

    A facility has been developed to study the explosive interactions of gas-water injection into a molten tin pool. The experimental apparatus allows for variable nitrogen gas and water injection into the base of a steel tank containing up to 25 kg of molten tin. Due to the opaque nature of the molten metal-gas-water mixture and steel tank, a visualization and measurement technique using continuous high energy x-rays had to be developed. Visualization of the multiphase mixture can be done at 220 Hz with 256x256 pixel resolution or at 30 Hz with 480x1128 pixel resolution. These images are stored digitally and subsequently processed to obtain two dimensional mappings of the chordal average void fraction in the mixture. The image processing method has been used to measure void fraction in experiments that did not include water in the injection mixture. This work includes a comparison to previous studies of integral void fraction data in pools of molten metal with gas injection. (author)

  7. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  8. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; To, An; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components. Methods Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol. Conclusions Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality. PMID:26406602

  9. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  10. Vanadocene reactions with mixed acylates of silicon, germanium and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Gordetsov, A.S.; Dergunov, Yu.I.

    1981-01-01

    Vanadocene interaction with di-and tri-alkyl (aryl)-derivatives of silicon, tin and germanium is studied. Dibutyltin dibenzoate under mild conditions (20 deg C, toluene) oxidates vanadocene to [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 , at that, the splitting off of one Cp group in the form of cyclopentadiene and formation of the products of tin-organic fragment disproportionation (tributyltin benzoate, dibutyltin, metallic tin) take place. Tributyltin benzoate oxidates vanadocene at the mole ratio 2:1 and during prolong heating (120 deg C) in the absence of the solvent, [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 and hexabutyldistannate are the products of the reaction. Acetates R 3 SnOCOCH 3 react in the similar way. The reactivity of mono- and diacylates of germanium and silicon decreases in the series of derivatives Sn>Ge>Si [ru

  11. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  13. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  14. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluev, A.V.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Krasnikov, L.V.; Galkin, B.Ya.; Besnosyuk, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125 Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125 Sb was 95 -98 % of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98 ± 0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 10 6 -10 7 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125 Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di-n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di-n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125 Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125 Sb has been developed. (author)

  15. Response Time Measurements of the NIF DANTE XRD-31 X-Ray Diodes (Pre-print)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellinen, Don; Griffin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The XRD-31 is a fast, windowless X-ray vacuum photodiode developed by EG and G. It is currently the primary fast X-ray detector used to diagnose the X-rays on NIF and OMEGA on the multichannel DANTE spectrometer. The XRD-31 has a dynamic range of less than 1e-12 amps to more than 10 amps. A technique is described to measure the impulse response of the diodes to a 150 fs pulse of 200 nm laser light and a method to calculate the 'risetime' for a square pulse and compare it with the computed electron transit time from the photocathode to the anode. Measured response time for 5 XRD-31s assembled in early 2004 was 149.7 ps +-2.75 ps

  16. Definitive Mineralogical Analysis of Mars Analog Rocks Using the CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, D. F.; Sarrazin, P.; Bish, D. L.; Feldman, S.; Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Collins, S.

    2004-01-01

    Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.

  17. Stress-strain relationship and XRD line broadening in [0001] textured hexagonal polycrystalline materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokoyama, Ryouichi

    2011-01-01

    Stress analysis with X-ray diffraction (XRD) for hexagonal polycrystalline materials in the Laue classes 6/mmm and 6/m has been studied on the basis of the crystal symmetry of the constituent crystallites which was proposed by R. Yokoyama and J. Harada ['Re-evaluation of formulae for X-ray stress analysis in polycrystalline specimens with fibre texture', Journal of Applied Crystallography, Vol.42, pp.185-191 (2009)]. The relationship between the stress and strain observable by XRD in a hexagonal polycrystalline material with [0001] fibre texture was formulated in terms of the elastic compliance defined for its single crystal. As a result, it was shown that the average strains obtained in the crystallites for both symmetries of 6/mmm and 6/m are different from each other under the triaxial or biaxial stress field. Then, it turned out that the line width of XRD changes depending on the measurement direction. (author)

  18. The thermal behaviour of cuprite: An XRD-EXAFS combined approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dapiaggi, M.; Tiano, W.; Artioli, G.; Sanson, A.; Fornasini, P.

    2003-01-01

    Cuprite (Cu 2 O) is a low thermal expansion material with a negative thermal expansion coefficient below room temperature. Its peculiar thermal behaviour encompasses the increase of the shear modulus with increasing temperature, and the presence of rather intense symmetry-forbidden eeo reflections below room temperature. The thermal expansion of cuprite was studied at low temperature (between 5 and 298 K) by means of high-resolution (10 -5 A) X-ray powder diffraction at European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (Grenoble, BM16) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) (BM29). Negative thermal expansion is confirmed up to 200 K, by EXAFS as well as by XRD measurements, and no sign of transition was found in XRD data. The comparison between EXAFS and XRD results provides a valuable insight into vibrational behaviour of cuprite at low temperature

  19. Growth and characterization of tin disulfide (SnS2) thin film deposited by successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, N.G.; Sagade, A.A.; Gudage, Y.G.; Lokhande, C.D.; Sharma, Ramphal

    2007-01-01

    Thin films of tin disulfide (SnS 2 ) have been deposited by using low cost successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique. The deposition parameters such as SILAR cycles (60), immersion time (20 s), rinsing time (10 s) and deposition temperature (27 o C) were optimized to obtain good quality of films. Physical investigations were made to study the structural, optical and electrical properties. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns reveal that the deposited SnS 2 thin films have hexagonal crystal structure. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDAX) indicated elemental ratio close to those for tin disulfide (SnS (2.02) ). Uniform deposition of the material over the entire glass substrate was revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed the film is uniform and the substrate surface is well covered with small spherical grains merged in each other. A direct band gap of 2.22 eV was obtained. Photoluminescence (PL) showed two strong peaks corresponding to green and red emission. Ag/SnS 2 junction showed Schottky diode like I-V characteristics. The barrier height calculated was 0.22 eV. Thermoelectric power (TEP) properties showed that tin disulfide exhibits n-type conductivity

  20. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600deg. C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature

  1. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  2. Using of XRD in Industrial Sample Analysis and TENORM in Nuclear Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulus, W.; Nurhaslinda Ee Abdullah; Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2011-01-01

    Industrial waste such as aluminium dross and TENORM waste, oil sludge has been used as sample in this research. Determination of main elements by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) in Material Technology Group, Malaysian Nuclear Agency. Results shows that main elements in these samples, aluminium hydroxide (gibbsite) and quartz low, respectively. Thereby, this research shows that XRD can be considered as one of the techniques that can be used in waste characterization and furthermore, it can help researchers and engineer in the research related to waste treatment especially radioactive waste. (author)

  3. Determination of Stress Profiles in Expanded Austenite by Combining Successive Layer Removal and GI-XRD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandes, Frederico Augusto Pires; Christiansen, Thomas Lundin; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the evaluation of the residual-stress profile in expanded-austenite by successive removal steps using GI-XRD. Preliminary results indicate stresses of several GPa's from 111 and 200 diffraction lines. These stresses appear largest for the 200 reflection. The strain......-free lattice parameter decayed smoothly with depth, while for the compressive stress a maximum value is observed at some depth below the surface. Additionally a good agreement was found between the nitrogen profile determined with GDOES analysis and the strain-free lattice parameter from XRD....

  4. Morphologic characterization for XRD and TEM of polyamide 6 and 66 nanocomposites with bentonite regional clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, Amanda M.D.; Medeiros, Vanessa da N.; Maia, Larissa F.; Araujo, Edcleide M.; Lira, Helio L.

    2009-01-01

    Polyamide 6 and 66 nanocomposites with clay consisting of silicates layer from Paraiba were produced. The clay was modified being used the quaternary salt of ammonium Cetremide, this so there is a better interaction of the clay with polymeric matrix. The clay without treatment (MMT) and treated clay was evaluated by XRD that showed the insertion of the salt molecules into silicates layer. The nanocomposites were obtained from polyamide 6 and 66 were verified that these presented morphological structure composed of exfoliated/partially exfoliated, analyzed by XRD and TEM. (author)

  5. Moessbauer and NMR study of novel Tin(IV)-lactames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, Erno; Szalay, Roland; Homonnay, Zoltan, E-mail: homonnay@ludens.elte.hu; Nagy, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    N-tributylstannylated 2-pyrrolidinone was reacted with tributyltin triflate in different molar ratios and the complex formation monitored using {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. Comparing the carbon NMR and tin Moessbauer results, a reaction scheme is suggested for the complexation which assumes the formation of a simultaneously O- and N-tributylstannylated pyrrolidinone cation. The formation of the only O-stannylated pyrrolidinone is also assumed to account for the non-constant Moessbauer parameters of the two tin environments in the distannylated pyrrolidinone cation when the ratio of tributyltin triflate is increased in the reaction.

  6. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-03-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash was used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapor explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapor explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapor explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343/sup 0/C.

  7. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash has been used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapour explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapour explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapour explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343 0 C. (author)

  8. Discovery of the calcium, indium, tin, and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin, and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. - Highlights: Documentation of the discovery of all calcium, indium, tin and platinum isotopes. → Summary of author, journal, year, place and country of discovery for each isotope. → Brief description of discovery history of each isotope.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  10. Application of argon atmospheric cold plasma for indium tin oxide (ITO) based diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari Nia, S.; Jalili, Y. Seyed; Salar Elahi, A.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) layers due to transparency, high conductivity and hole injection capability have attracted a lot of attention. One of these layers is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). ITO due to low resistance, transparency in the visible spectrum and its proper work function is widely used in the manufacture of organic light emitting diodes and solar cells. One way for improving the ITO surface is plasma treatment. In this paper, changes in surface morphology, by applying argon atmospheric pressure cold plasma, was studied through Atomic Force Microscopic (AFM) image analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. FTIR analysis showed functional groups were not added or removed, but chemical bond angle and bonds strength on the surface were changed and also AFM images showed that surface roughness was increased. These factors lead to the production of diodes with enhanced Ohmic contact and injection mechanism which are more appropriate in industrial applications.

  11. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, N., E-mail: nisar.ali@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate Jehanzeb College Saidu Sharif, Swat, 19200 (Pakistan); Hussain, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Ahmed, R., E-mail: rashidahmed@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Wan Shamsuri, W.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new and novel material for solar cell applications is demonstrated as a replacement for toxic and expansive compounds. • The materials used in this compound are abundant and low cost. • Compound exhibit unusual optical and electrical properties. • The band gap was found to be comparable with that of GaAs. - Abstract: Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs – one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  12. Optical and Electrical Properties of Tin-Doped Cadmium Oxide Films Prepared by Electron Beam Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Mohamed, H. A.; Wakkad, M. M.; Hasaneen, M. F.

    2009-04-01

    Tin-doped cadmium oxide films were deposited by electron beam evaporation technique. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) study reveals that the films are polycrystalline in nature. As composition and structure change due to the dopant ratio and annealing temperature, the carrier concentration was varied around 1020 cm-3, and the mobility increased from less than 10 to 45 cm2 V-1 s-1. A transmittance value of ˜83% and a resistivity value of 4.4 ×10-4 Ω cm were achieved for (CdO)0.88(SnO2)0.12 film annealed at 350 °C for 15 min., whereas the maximum value of transmittance ˜93% and a resistivity value of 2.4 ×10-3 Ω cm were obtained at 350 °C for 30 min. The films exhibited direct band-to-band transitions, which corresponded to optical band gaps of 3.1-3.3 eV.

  13. Preparation and characterization of tin sulphide thin films by a spray pyrolysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Haj Salah, H.; Bouzouita, H.; Rezig, B.

    2005-01-01

    We have attempted the preparation and characterization of Sn 2 S 3 thin films by using the spray pyrolysis technique. We started with acidic aqueous solutions including tin (II) chloride and thiourea, which were atomized with compressed air as carrier gas. The Sn 2 S 3 thin films were obtained on glass substrates. Thin layers of Sn-S have been grown at various temperatures in the range of 275-325 deg. C and various [S/Sn] ratios. The structural properties have been determined by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The changes observed in the structural phases during the film formation in dependence of growth temperatures are reported and discussed. The optical constants of the deposited films were obtained using the experimentally recorded transmission and reflectance spectral data as functions of the wavelength, in the range of 300-1800 nm. An analysis of the deduced spectral absorption of the deposited films revealed an optical indirect band gap energy of 1.9-2.2 eV for Sn 2 S 3 layers

  14. Preparation and optical properties of Eu3+-doped tin oxide nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Guofeng; Yang, Yiping; Mu, Qiuying; Wang, Yude

    2010-01-01

    Eu 3+ -doped SnO 2 nanoparticles with high surface area were generated within the template of the cationic surfactant (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB) micelle assembly by surfactant-mediated method from the hydrous tin chloride (SnCl 4 .5H 2 O) and europium chloride (EuCl 3 .6H 2 O). The as-synthesized product was amorphous and transformed into crystalline calcined at 500 o C for 2 h. DSC-TGA, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to examine the morphology and microstructure of the final products. The results showed that the Eu 3+ -doped SnO 2 nanoparticles with diameter of 3-7 nm were obtained. The influences of the molar ratios of Eu 3+ and CTAB on the room temperature photoluminescence (RTPL) properties of Eu 3+ -doped SnO 2 nanoparticles were investigated. The results showed that the contents of Eu 3+ and CTAB had a great influence on the crystallite sizes and RTPL properties of Eu 3+ :SnO 2 nanoparticles. The maximum of the RTPL intensity can be observed at the molar ratio 5.0% Eu 3+ and 10.0% CTAB.

  15. A study of the characteristics of indium tin oxide after chlorine electro-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moonsoo; Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Byoungdeog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The presence of Chlorine in the outer surface resulted in a highly electro-negative surface states and an increase in the vacuum energy level. - Highlights: • We investigated the influence of chlorine surface treatment on ITO properties. • Chlorination induced the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface. • Chlorine electro-chemical treatment of ITO is a simple, fast and effective technique. - Abstract: In this work, we investigate the influence of a chlorine-based electro-chemical surface treatment on the characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) including the work function, chemical composition, and phase transition. The treated ITOs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 4-point probe measurements, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). We confirmed a change of the chemical composition in the near-surface region of the ITO and the formation of indium-chlorine (In-Cl) bonds and surface dipoles (via XPS). In particular, the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface was caused by chlorination. Due to the vacuum-level shift after the electro-chemical treatment in a dilute hydrochloric acid, the ITO work function was increased by ∼0.43 eV (via UPS); furthermore, the electro-negativity of the chlorine anions attracted electrons to emit them from the hole transport layer (HTL) to the ITO anodes, resulting in an increase of the hole-injection efficiency.

  16. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Bao-jia; Huang, Li-jing; Ren, Nai-fei; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO 2 )/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO 2 tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , higher than 1.78 × 10 −2 Ω −1 for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO 2 /FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10 −2 Ω −1 , indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  17. Improving the performance of fluorine-doped tin oxide by adding salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purwanto, Agus, E-mail: Aguspur@uns.ac.id [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Widiyandari, Hendri [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences and Mathematics, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Dr. Soedarto, Tembalang, Semarang 50275 (Indonesia); Suryana, Risa [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia); Jumari, Arif [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Sebelas Maret University, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36 A, Surakarta, Central Java 57126 (Indonesia)

    2015-07-01

    High-performance fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) films were fabricated via a spray deposition technique with salt added to the precursor. The addition of NaCl in the precursor improved the conductivity of the FTO films. Increasing the NaCl concentration to its optimal concentration reduced the sheet resistance of the FTO film. The optimal values for the addition of a NaCl were 0.5, 0.5, 1.5, and 1.5 at.% for the FTO film prepared using NH{sub 4}F concentration of 4, 10, 16, and 22 at.%, respectively. The lowest sheet resistance of the salt-added FTO film was 4.8 Ω/□. The FTO film averaged a transmittance of more than 80% in the visible range region (λ = 400–800 nm). XRD diffractograms confirmed that the crystal structure of the as-grown FTO film was that of a tetragonal SnO{sub 2} and that the addition of salt improved its crystallinity. This film has the potential for use as an electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). - Highlights: • A method to improve FTO performance using the addition of salt • The FTO film exhibited high performance of conductivity and light transmittance. • This technique is low-cost, fast and scales-up easily using simple devices.

  18. Contribution of tin in electrochemical properties of zinc antimonate nanostructures: An electrode material for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, M.; Balakumar, S.

    2018-04-01

    Tin (Sn) doped ZnSb2O6 nanostructures was synthesized by chemical precipitation method and was used as an electrode material for supercapacitors to explore its electrochemical stability and potentiality as energy storage materials. Their characteristic structural, morphological and compositional features were investigated through XRD, FESEM and XPS analysis. Results showed that the nanostructures have well ordered crystalline features with spherical particle morphology. As the size and morphology are the vital parameters in exhibiting better electrochemical properties, the prepared nanostructures exhibited a significant specific capacitance of 222 F/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g respectively. While charging and discharging for 1000 cycles, the capacitance retention was enhanced to 105.0% which depicts the stability and activeness of electrochemical sites present in the Sn doped ZnSb2O6 nanostructures even after cycling. Hence, the inclusion of Sn into ZnSb2O6 has contributed in improving the electrochemical properties thereby it represents itself as a potential electrode material for supercapacitors.

  19. Effect of Zn and Ni substitution on structural, morphological and magnetic properties of tin oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhuvana, S. [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641046, Tamilnadu (India); Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamilnadu (India); Ramalingam, H.B.; Vadivel, K. [Department of Physics, Government Arts College, Udumalpet 642126, Tamilnadu (India); Ranjith Kumar, E., E-mail: ranjueaswar@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Dr. NGP Institute of Technology, Coimbatore 641048, Tamilnadu (India); Ayesh, Ahmad I. [Department of Math., Stat. and Physics, Qatar University, Doha (Qatar)

    2016-12-01

    Structural, morphological, optical and magnetic properties of Zn and Zn–Ni co-doped tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel method. The influence of doping concentration on phase and particle size of the nanoparticles was determined by X-ray diffraction. The XRD study reveals that the lattice constant and crystallite size of the samples decrease with the increase of doping concentration. The change in the band gap energy of SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles influenced more by doping with Zn and Ni. The external morphology and particle size were recorded by SEM and TEM. The results indicated that Ni{sup 2+} ions would uniformly substituted into the Zn{sup 2+} sites of SnO{sub 2} lattice. The substitution of Ni creates a vital change in magnetic properties that has been measured by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). - Highlights: • Sn{sub 2-(x+y)} Ni{sub x}Zn{sub y}O{sub 2}, (x=y=0.07 to 0.10) nano particles are prepared by simple sol gel method. • X-ray diffraction data confirms the single phase rutile tetragonal structure. • The VSM was used to confirm, the codoping of (Ni, Zn) increases the magnetic moment of the sample prepared. • Inducing ferromagnetism in sample makes it suitable for future spintronics applications.

  20. Influence of Thermal Annealing on the Microstructural Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Nam; Kim, Seung Bin [Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyun Chul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this work, we studied the microstructural changes of ITO during the annealing process. ITO nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel method using indium tin hydroxide as the precursor. The prepared sample was investigated using TEM, powder XRD, XPS, DRIFT, and 2D correlation analysis. The O 1s XPS spectra suggested that the microstructural changes during the annealing process are closely correlated with the oxygen sites of the ITO nanoparticles. The temperature-dependent in situ DRIFT spectra suggested that In-OH in the terminal sites is firstly decomposed and, then, Sn-O-Sn is produced in the ITO nanoparticles during the thermal annealing process. Based on the 2D correlation analysis, we deduced the following sequence of events: 1483 (due to In-OH bending mode) → 2268, 2164 (due to In-OH stretching mode) → 1546 (due to overtones of Sn- O-Sn modes) → 1412 (due to overtones of Sn-O-Sn modes) cm{sup -1}.

  1. Titanium dioxide-coated fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films for improving overall photoelectric property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Bao-jia, E-mail: bjia_li@126.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Huang, Li-jing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Ren, Nai-fei [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory of Center for Photon Manufacturing Science and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); School of Mechanical Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013 (China); Zhou, Ming [The State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-30

    Titanium (Ti) layers were deposited by direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering on commercial fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glasses, followed by simultaneous oxidation and annealing treatment in a tubular furnace to prepare titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})/FTO bilayer films. Large and densely arranged grains were observed on all TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films. The presence of TiO{sub 2} tetragonal rutile phase in the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer films was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The results of parameter optimization indicated that the TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, which was formed by adopting a temperature of 400 °C and an oxygen flow rate of 15 sccm, had the optimal overall photoelectric property with a figure of merit of 2.30 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, higher than 1.78 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1} for the FTO single-layer film. After coating a 500 nm-thick AZO layer by DC magnetron sputtering on this TiO{sub 2}/FTO bilayer film, the figure of merit of the trilayer film achieved to a higher figure of merit of 3.12 × 10{sup −2} Ω{sup −1}, indicating further improvement of the overall photoelectric property. This work may provide a scientific basis and reference for improving overall photoelectric property of transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films.

  2. Facile synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide nanoparticles by a polymer-pyrolysis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yuan-Qing; Wang, Jian-Lei; Fu, Shao-Yun; Mei, Shi-Gang; Zhang, Jian-Min; Yong, Kang

    2010-01-01

    In this article, antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles was synthesized by a facile polymer-pyrolysis method. The pyrolysis behaviors of the polymer precursors prepared via in situ polymerization of metal salts and acrylic acid were analyzed by simultaneous thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC). The structural and morphological characteristics of the products were studied by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results reveal that the ATO nanoparticles calcined at 600 o C show good crystallinity with the cassiterite structure and cubic-spherical like morphology. The average particle size of ATO decreases from 200 to 15 nm as the Sb doping content increases from 5 mol% to 15 mol%. Electrical resistivity measurement shows that the resistivity for the 10-13 mol% Sb-doped SnO 2 nanoparticles is reduced by more than three orders compared with the pure SnO 2 nanoparticles. In addition, due to its versatility this polymer-pyrolysis method can be extended to facile synthesis of other doped n-type semiconductor, such as In, Ga, Al doped ZnO, Sn doped In 2 O 3 .

  3. Novel synthesis of tin oxide/graphene aerogel nanocomposites as anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Zheyu; Li, Xifei; Tai, Limin; Song, Haoze; Zhang, Yiyan; Yan, Bo; Fan, Linlin; Shan, Hui; Li, Dejun

    2015-01-01

    A novel method of mechanical exfoliation followed by hydrothermal approach was proposed to synthesize the tin oxide/graphene aerogels (SnO 2 /GAs) nanocomposites. Homogeneous distribution of SnO 2 nanocrystals on GAs was confirmed by SEM, XRD and TEM characterization. It was found that optimized exfoliation of the SnS 2 is the key factor to obtain high electrochemical lithiation/delithiation performance of the anodes. The as-prepared SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites exhibited high reversible capacity (up to 1086.7 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles) and excellent cycling stability. The improved rate capability was also obtained, for instance, the reversible capacity at a current density of 800 mA g −1 is over 447.9 mAh g −1 , and then recovered to as high as 784.4 mAh g −1 at a current density of 100 mA g −1 . - Highlights: • A novel approach was employed to synthesize the SnO 2 /GA nanocomposites. • The designed SnO 2 /GAs exhibited high reversible capacity and excellent cycling stability. • The volume change challenge of SnO 2 was markedly alleviated by the GA matrix. • The novel synthesis method can be extended for other materials in lithium ion batteries

  4. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  5. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murciego, A.; Alvarez-Ayuso, E.; Pellitero, E.; Rodriguez, M.A.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.; Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F.; Rubin, J.

    2011-01-01

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As 2 O 5 ). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  6. Electrochemical lithiation/delithiation of SnP₂O₇ observed by in situ XRD and ex situ⁷Li/³¹P NMR, and ¹¹⁹Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezza, Ilham; Kaus, Maximilian; Riekehr, Lars; Pfaffmann, Lukas; Doyle, Stephen; Indris, Sylvio; Ehrenberg, Helmut; Solhy, Abderrahim; Saadoune, Ismael

    2016-04-21

    SnP2O7 was prepared by a sol-gel route. The structural changes of tin pyrophosphate during the electrochemical lithiation were followed by using in situ XRD measurements that reveal the existence of a crystalline phase at the beginning of the discharge process. Nevertheless, it becomes amorphous after the full discharge as a result of a conversion reaction leading to the formation of LixSny alloys. The electrochemical tests show a high capacity with high retention upon cycling. To better understand the reaction mechanism of SnP2O7 with Li, several techniques were applied, such as ex situ(119)Sn Mössbauer and ex situ(7)Li and (31)P NMR spectroscopies with which we can follow the changes in the local environment of each element during cycling.

  7. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  8. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  9. The tin mining and heavy mineral processing industry in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Swee Ching

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the tin mining and heavy mineral processing in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia was presented. Amang, a mixture composed of tin ore, sand, ilmenite, monazite, zircon, xenotime, struvite, etc , as a product from tin mining activities was discussed too in this paper

  10. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2010... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products...

  11. 76 FR 14902 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2009... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products...

  12. 77 FR 34938 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of...: Background On August 28, 2000, the Department published the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill...

  13. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  14. The effect of size-selective samplers (cyclones) on XRD response

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Pretorius, CJ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated five size-selective samplers used in the South African mining industry to determine how their performance affects the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) response when respirable dust samples are analysed for quartz using direct...

  15. EPXMA survey of shelf sediments (Southern Bight, North Sea): A glance beyond the XRD-invisible

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Maeyer-Worobiec, A.; Dekov, V.M.; Laane, R.W.P.M.; van Grieken, R.

    2009-01-01

    Shelf sediments of the southern North Sea, were studied with a microanalytical [electron probe X-ray microanalysis (EPXMA)] and two bulk [X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF)] techniques. The investigation proved that the promptness of the microanalytical method is combined with a

  16. Chemical Species, Micromorphology, and XRD Fingerprint Analysis of Tibetan Medicine Zuotai Containing Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cen; Yang, Hongxia; Du, Yuzhi; Xiao, Yuancan; Zhandui; Sanglao; Wang, Zhang; Ladan, Duojie; Bi, Hongtao; Wei, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Zuotai ( gTso thal ) is one of the famous drugs containing mercury in Tibetan medicine. However, little is known about the chemical substance basis of its pharmacodynamics and the intrinsic link of different samples sources so far. Given this, energy dispersive spectrometry of X-ray (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to assay the elements, micromorphology, and phase composition of nine Zuotai samples from different regions, respectively; the XRD fingerprint features of Zuotai were analyzed by multivariate statistical analysis. EDX result shows that Zuotai contains Hg, S, O, Fe, Al, Cu, and other elements. SEM and AFM observations suggest that Zuotai is a kind of ancient nanodrug. Its particles are mainly in the range of 100-800 nm, which commonly further aggregate into 1-30  μ m loosely amorphous particles. XRD test shows that β -HgS, S 8 , and α -HgS are its main phase compositions. XRD fingerprint analysis indicates that the similarity degrees of nine samples are very high, and the results of multivariate statistical analysis are broadly consistent with sample sources. The present research has revealed the physicochemical characteristics of Zuotai , and it would play a positive role in interpreting this mysterious Tibetan drug.

  17. Crystallographic Investigation of Ag (4 mol%) Doped ZnO (SZO) Thin Films by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lwin Lwin Nwe; Sandar Dwe; Khant Khant Lin; Khin Thuzar; Than Than Win; Ko Ko Kyaw Soe

    2008-03-01

    Silver doped ZnO(SZO) thin films are prepared by sol-based method. The silver dopant concentration is 4 mol % in this case. XRD analysis carried out to determine, crystallographic properties such as lattice parameters and crystallite size of SZO thin films.

  18. XRD and TEM analysis of microstructure in the welding zone of 9Cr ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    XRD and TEM analysis of microstructure in the welding zone of. 9Cr–1Mo–V–Nb ... steel, which has highest Cr content in the heat-resisting. Cr–Mo ... This research provides essential ... film samples were observed under TEM and select elec-.

  19. Effect of sample moisture content on XRD-estimated cellulose crystallinity index and crystallite size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh P. Agarwal; Sally A. Ralph; Carlos Baez; Richard S. Reiner; Steve P. Verrill

    2017-01-01

    Although X-ray diffraction (XRD) has been the most widely used technique to investigate crystallinity index (CrI) and crystallite size (L200) of cellulose materials, there are not many studies that have taken into account the role of sample moisture on these measurements. The present investigation focuses on a variety of celluloses and cellulose...

  20. Morphology and phase transformations of tin oxide nanostructures synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of dicarboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zima, Tatyana; Bataev, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures with different morphologies and the phase compositions has been evaluated. The nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of dicarboxylic acids ― aminoterephthalic or oxalic ― with nanocrystalline SnO 2 powder, which was obtained via the sol-gel technology. The products were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and XRD analysis. It was shown that the controlled addition of a dicarboxylic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO 2 –SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 –Sn 3 O 4 –SnO phase transformations. A single-phase Sn 3 O 4 in the form of the well-separated hexagonal nanoplates and mixed SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 phases in the form of hierarchical flower-like structures were obtained in the presence of organic additives. The effects of concentration, redox activity of the acids and heat treatment on the basic characteristics of the synthesized tin oxide nanostructures and phase transformations in the synthesized materials are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The controlled addition of aminoterephthalic or oxalic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO 2 –SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 –Sn 3 O 4 –SnO phase transformations. - Highlights: • A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures is studied. • Tin oxide structures are synthesized via hydrothermal method with dicarboxylic acids. • Morphology and phase composition are changed with redox activity and dosage of acid. • The redox activity of acid has an effect on ratio of SnO and SnO 2 in crystal structure. • A pure phase Sn 3 O 4 nanoplates and SnO 2 /Sn 3 O 4 hierarchical structures are formed.

  1. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  2. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1994-04-01

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  3. Generalized KKR-theory for non-muffin-tin potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.

    1989-01-01

    The author shows that the secular equation in KKR (Korringa, Kohn and Rostoker) theory retains its separable structure also in the case of non-muffin-tin potentials. This generalisation has been extensively discussed recently. During this discussion, in which the possible necessity of so-called near

  4. Variationally-optimized muffin-tin potentials for band calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, M.M.

    1979-09-01

    A method is suggested to determine the best local periodic crystal potential V(r) by minimizing the Hartree-Fock expectation value of the energy. The explicit form of the integral equation for the local exchange potential is obtained for the special case of the Muffin-tin aproximation. (author)

  5. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  6. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  7. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  8. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  9. Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.M.B. van; Chae, Y.; McDaniel, A.H.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Tin oxide thin layers have very beneficial properties such as a high transparency for visible light and electrical conductivity making these coatings suitable for a wide variety of applications, such as solar cells, and low-emissivity coatings for architectural glass windows. Each application

  10. Quadtree of TIN: a new algorithm of dynamic LOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Fei, Lifan; Chen, Zhen

    2009-10-01

    Currently, Real-time visualization of large-scale digital elevation model mainly employs the regular structure of GRID based on quadtree and triangle simplification methods based on irregular triangulated network (TIN). TIN is a refined means to express the terrain surface in the computer science, compared with GRID. However, the data structure of TIN model is complex, and is difficult to realize view-dependence representation of level of detail (LOD) quickly. GRID is a simple method to realize the LOD of terrain, but contains more triangle count. A new algorithm, which takes full advantage of the two methods' merit, is presented in this paper. This algorithm combines TIN with quadtree structure to realize the view-dependence LOD controlling over the irregular sampling point sets, and holds the details through the distance of viewpoint and the geometric error of terrain. Experiments indicate that this approach can generate an efficient quadtree triangulation hierarchy over any irregular sampling point sets and achieve dynamic and visual multi-resolution performance of large-scale terrain at real-time.

  11. Determination of tungsten and tin ions after preconcentration by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, U.; Kunze, S.

    1990-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective combined method of flotation followed by spectrophotometry/d.c. polarography for the determination of tungsten and tin ions in acid and alkaline waste waters and hydrometallurgical solutions is presented here. Both kinds of ions are coprecipitated in the analyte solution with zirconium hydroxide after addition of ZrOCl 2 solution and ammonia. Afterwards, the collector precipitate is separated from the aqueous phase and preconcentrated by flotation for which sodium oleate and a frother are added. The precipitate is dissolved in a small amount of acid, with the organic reagents being destroyed by oxidation. The enrichment factor of the proposed technique is 100, with variations possible. Recovery is 94 % for tungsten and 99 % for tin. Spectrophotometry of the thiocyanate complex and d.c. polarography are applied as determination techniques for tungsten and tin, respectively. Detection limits attainable by this technique are 6 ng.ml -1 for tungsten and 5 ng.ml -1 for tin for the initial sample. (Authors)

  12. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  13. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  14. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Po-Hsun; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui; Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen; Sze, Simon M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O_2 inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O_2 plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O_2 plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O_2 plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O_2 plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O_2 plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  15. Effect of Cr doping on the structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaee, Majid; Dolati, Abolghasem

    2015-03-01

    We report on the preparation and characterization of high-purity chromium (0.5-2.5 at.%)-doped indium tin oxide (ITO, In:Sn = 90:10) films deposited by sol-gel-mediated dip coating. The effects of different Cr-doping contents on structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of the films were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), UV-Vis spectroscopy and four-point probe methods. XRD showed high phase purity cubic In2O3 and indicated a contraction of the lattice with Cr doping. FESEM micrographs show that grain size decreased with increasing the Cr-doping content. A method to determine chromium species in the sample was developed through the decomposition of the Cr 2 p XPS spectrum in Cr6+ and Cr3+ standard spectra. Optical and electrical studies revealed that optimum opto-electronic properties, including minimum sheet resistance of 4,300 Ω/Sq and an average optical transmittance of 85 % in the visible region with a band gap of 3.421 eV, were achieved for the films doped with Cr-doping content of 2 at.%.

  16. Effects of plasma treatment time on surface characteristics of indium-tin-oxide film for resistive switching storage applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Po-Hsun [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Ting-Chang, E-mail: tcchang3708@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Advanced Optoelectronics Technology Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chang, Kuan-Chang, E-mail: kcchang@pkusz.edu.cn [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); School of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Peking University, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Pan, Chih-Hung; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Wu, Cheng-Hsien; Yang, Chih-Cheng; Chen, Wen-Chung; Lin, Jiun-Chiu; Wang, Ming-Hui [Department of Materials and Optoelectronic Science, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Zheng, Hao-Xuan; Chen, Min-Chen [Department of Physics, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan, ROC (China); Sze, Simon M. [Department of Electronics Engineering and Institute of Electronics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-08-31

    In this paper, we implement a post-oxidation method to modify surface characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) films by using an O{sub 2} inductively coupled plasma (ICP) treatment. Based on field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM) analysis, we found that the surface morphologies of the ITO films become slightly flatter after the O{sub 2} plasma treatment. The optical characteristics and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments of either pure ITO or O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films were also verified. Even though the XRD results showed no difference from bulk crystallizations, the oxygen concentrations increased at the film surface after O{sub 2} plasma treatment, according to the XPS inspection results. Moreover, this study investigated the effects of two different plasma treatment times on oxygen concentration in the ITO films. The surface sheet resistance of the plasma treated ITO films became nearly non-conductive when measured with a 4-point probe. Finally, we applied the O{sub 2} plasma treated ITO films as the insulator in resistive random access memory (RRAM) to examine their potential for use in resistive switching storage applications. Stable resistance switching characteristics were obtained by applying the O{sub 2} plasma treatment to the ITO-based RRAM. We also confirmed the relationship between plasma treatment time and RRAM performance. These material analyses and electrical measurements suggest possible advantages in using this plasma treatment technique in device fabrication processes for RRAM applications.

  17. Enhanced visible-light photocatalysis and gas sensor properties of polythiophene supported tin doped titanium nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M. Ravi; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Rao, T. Siva; Pammi, S. V. N.; Siva Kumar, K.; Vijay Babu, K.; Kiran Kumar, Ch.; Hemalatha, K. P. J.

    2017-06-01

    The polythiophene supported tin doped titanium nanocomposites (PTh/Sn-TiO2) were synthesized by modified sol-gel process through oxidative polymerization of thiophene. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) analysis confirms the existence of synergetic interaction between metal oxide and polymer along with extension of absorption edge to visible region. The composites are found to be in spherical form with core-shell structure, which is confirmed by scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the presence of all respective elements of composite are proven by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The importance of polythiophene on surface of metal oxide has been were studied as a function of photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic pollutant congo red and gas sensor behavior towards liquid petroleum gas (LPG). All the composites are photocatalytically active and the composite with 1.5 wt% thiophene degrades the pollutant congo red within 120 min when compared to remaining catalysts under visible light irradiation. On the other hand, same composite have shown potential gas sensor properties towards LPG at 300 °C. Considering all the results, it can be noted that polythiophene acts as good sensitizer towards LPG and supporter for the tin doped titania that improve the photocatalytic activity under visible light.

  18. Work function tuning of tin-doped indium oxide electrodes with solution-processed lithium fluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow-Yang, C.W., E-mail: cleva@sabanciuniv.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Nanotechnology Application Center, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Jia, J. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan); Aytun, T. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Zamboni, M.; Turak, A. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4L8 (Canada); Saritas, K. [Materials Science and Engineering Program, Sabanci University, Orhanli, Tuzla, 34956 Istanbul (Turkey); Shigesato, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 252-5258 (Japan)

    2014-05-30

    Solution-processed lithium fluoride (sol-LiF) nanoparticles synthesized in polymeric micelle nanoreactors enabled tuning of the surface work function of tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films. The micelle reactors provided the means for controlling surface coverage by progressively building up the interlayer through alternating deposition and plasma etch removal of the polymer. In order to determine the surface coverage and average interparticle distance, spatial point pattern analysis was applied to scanning electron microscope images of the nanoparticle dispersions. The work function of the sol-LiF modified ITO, obtained from photoelectron emission yield spectroscopy analysis, was shown to increase with surface coverage of the sol-LiF particles, suggesting a lateral depolarization effect. Analysis of the photoelectron emission energy distribution in the near threshold region revealed the contribution of surface states for surface coverage in excess of 14.1%. Optimization of the interfacial barrier was achieved through contributions from both work function modification and surface states. - Highlights: • Work function of indium tin oxide increased with LiF nanoparticle coverage. • Work function was analyzed via photoelectron emission yield (PEYS). • At higher surface coverage, the energy distribution of PEYS increased. • Pre-threshold increase in PEYS consistent with emission from surface states.

  19. Room temperature ferromagnetism of tin oxide nanocrystal based on synthesis methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Hema, M. [Department of Physics, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, Virudhunagar 626001, Tamil Nadu (India); Balachandrakumar, K. [Department of Physics, Raja Doraisingam Government Arts College, Sivagangai 630561, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-04-15

    The experimental conditions used in the preparation of nanocrystalline oxide materials play an important role in the room temperature ferromagnetism of the product. In the present work, a comparison was made between sol–gel, microwave assisted sol–gel and hydrothermal methods for preparing tin oxide nanocrystal. X-ray diffraction analysis indicates the formation of tetragonal rutile phase structure for all the samples. The crystallite size was estimated from the HRTEM images and it is around 6–12 nm. Using optical absorbance measurement, the band gap energy value of the samples has been calculated. It reveals the existence of quantum confinement effect in all the prepared samples. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra confirms that the luminescence process originates from the structural defects such as oxygen vacancies present in the samples. Room temperature hysteresis loop was clearly observed in M–H curve of all the samples. But the sol–gel derived sample shows the higher values of saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) and remanence (M{sub r}) than other two samples. This study reveals that the sol–gel method is superior to the other two methods for producing room temperature ferromagnetism in tin oxide nanocrystal.

  20. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno [Centre de Recherche et de Restauration des Musees de France, C2RMF, Paris (France); Wallez, Gilles [PSL Research University, Chimie ParisTech-CNRS, Institut de Recherche de Chimie Paris, UMR8247, Paris (France); Sorbonne University, UPMC Univ., Paris 06 (France)

    2015-11-15

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  1. Leonardo da Vinci's drapery studies: characterization of lead white pigments by μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Victor; Calligaro, Thomas; Pichon, Laurent; Mottin, Bruno; Wallez, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the composition and microstructure of the lead white pigment employed in a set of paintworks, using a combination of μ-XRD and 2D scanning XRF, directly applied on five drapery studies attributed to Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) and conserved in the Departement des Arts Graphiques, Musee du Louvre and in the Musee des Beaux-Arts de Rennes. Trace elements present in the composition as well as in the lead white highlights were imaged by 2D scanning XRF. Mineral phases were determined in a fully noninvasive way using a special μ-XRD diffractometer. Phase proportions were estimated by Rietveld refinement. The analytical results obtained will contribute to differentiate lead white qualities and to highlight the artist's technique. (orig.)

  2. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  3. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  6. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  7. NMR as a tool for kinetic studies: application to the assessment of organo tin reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, E.; Roulet, T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Pianet, I. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Talence (France) CNRS, Centre d`Etudes Structurales et d`Analyse des Molecules Organiques; Willem, R. [Brussels University (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    There is a growing interest for the research of an answer to the environmental problems related to the industrial use of tetra organo tins. An interesting alternative would be to develop the chemistry of mono organo tins because of their lower toxicity and of the easy removal of ``inorganic`` tin side products. In this work, halogen exchange rates are measured for various mono organo tins with NMR techniques (EXSY spectra and 1 D {sup 119} Sn NMR), and an exchange mechanism is proposed. A correlation between kinetic data and the reactivity of the mono organo tins is then exemplified with radical allylic transfer and palladium catalyzed coupling reactions. (authors) 14 refs.

  8. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  9. Highly conducting and crystalline doubly doped tin oxide films fabricated using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravichandran, K., E-mail: kkr1365@yahoo.co [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India); Muruganantham, G.; Sakthivel, B. [P.G. and Research Department of Physics, AVVM. Sri Pushpum College, Poondi, Thanjavur District, Tamil Nadu 613503 (India)

    2009-11-15

    Doubly doped (simultaneous doping of antimony and fluorine) tin oxide films (SnO{sub 2}:Sb:F) have been fabricated by employing an inexpensive and simplified spray technique using perfume atomizer from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor. The structural studies revealed that the films are highly crystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (2 0 0) plane. It is found that the size of the crystallites of the doubly doped tin oxide films is larger (69 nm) than that (27 nm) of their undoped counterparts. The dislocation density of the doubly doped film is lesser (2.08x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}) when compared with that of the undoped film (13.2x10{sup 14} lines/m{sup 2}), indicating the higher degree of crystallinity of the doubly doped films. The SEM images depict that the films are homogeneous and uniform. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap of the doubly doped films are 71% and 3.56 eV respectively. The sheet resistance (4.13 OMEGA/square) attained for the doubly doped film in this study is lower than the values reported for spray deposited fluorine or antimony doped tin oxide films prepared from aqueous solution of SnCl{sub 2} precursor (without using methanol or ethanol).

  10. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide studied by the XRD, TEM and electron spectroscopy methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stobinski, L.; Lesiak, B.; Malolepszy, A.; Mazurkiewicz, M.; Mierzwa, B.; Zemek, J.; Jiricek, P.; Bieloshapka, I.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene oxide (FL-GOc) and reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc): XRD, TEM, XPS, REELS. • FL-GOc: stacking nanostructure—22 × 6 nm (DxH), 0.9 nm layers separation (XRD). • FL-RGOc: stacking nanostructure—8 × 1 nm (DxH), 0.4 nm layers separation (XRD). • Reduction: oxygen group degradation, decreasing distance between graphene layers. • Number of graphene layers in stacking nanostructure: 6–7 (FL-GOc), 2–3 (FL-RGOc). - Abstract: The commercial and synthesised few-layer graphene oxide, prepared using oxidation reactions, and few-layer reduced graphene oxide samples were structurally and chemically investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and electron spectroscopy methods, i.e. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS). The commercial graphene oxide (FL-GOc) shows a stacking nanostructure of about 22 × 6 nm average diameter by height with the distance of 0.9 nm between 6-7 graphene layers, whereas the respective reduced graphene oxide (FL-RGOc)—about 8 × 1 nm average diameter by height stacking nanostructure with the distance of 0.4 nm between 2-3 graphene layers (XRD). The REELS results are consistent with those by the XRD indicating 8 (FL-GOc) and 4 layers (FL-RGOc). In graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide prepared from the graphite the REELS indicates 8–11 and 7–10 layers. All graphene oxide samples show the C/O ratio of 2.1–2.3, 26.5–32.1 at% of C sp 3 bonds and high content of functional oxygen groups (hydroxyl—C-OH, epoxy—C-O-C, carbonyl—C=O, carboxyl—C-OOH, water) (XPS). Reduction increases the C/O ratio to 2.8–10.3, decreases C sp 3 content to 11.4–20.3 at% and also the content of C-O-C and C=O groups, accompanied by increasing content of C-OH and C-OOH groups. Formation of additional amount of water due to functional oxygen group reduction leads to layer delamination. Removing of functional oxygen groups

  11. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  12. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  13. Radiopharmaceutical chelates and method of external imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The preparation of the following chemicals is described: chelates of technetium-99m, cobalt-57, gallium-67, gallium-68, indium-111 or indium-113m and a substituted iminodiacetic acid or an 8-hydroxyquinoline useful as a radiopharmaceutical external imaging agent. The compounds described are suitable for intravenous injection, have an excellent in vivo stability and are good organ seekers. Tin(II) choride or other tin(II) compounds are used as chelating agents

  14. Synthesis of Co/MCM-41catalysts and characterization by XRD, EDX, DTA/TG, SEM and TEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, B.V.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In this work, molecular sieve MCM-41 was prepared as well as the Co/MCM-41 catalyst, via humid impregnation with concentration of 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% Co/MCM- 41. The attainment of the mesoporous molecular sieve, Si-MCM-41, was confirmed by the x-ray diffractogram. It was verified that after the calcination all the bromine (Br) was removed indicating that the calcination process removed all surfactant in the mesoporous structure. XRD and EDX analyses indicated that cobalt was found in the form of Co3O2 in the Co/MCM-41 catalysts. The diffraction standards showed that the impregnation and calcination processes caused changes in the structure only for catalyst with 10 wt.% Co/MCM-41. The DTA/TG curves showed that cobalt nitrate was totally decomposed on the MCM-41. From the images of SEM, it was possible to observe that the Co/MCM-41 catalysts were composed by clusters of small crystals. The images obtained from TEM showed clearly the presence of metal cobalt particles in a well dispersed form for catalyst with 5 wt.% Co/MCM41, except for the catalyst with 10 wt.% Co/MCM41. (author)

  15. XRD, SEM and infrared study into the intercalation of sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS) into hydrocalumite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Tianqi; Zhang, Longlong; Wu, Daishe; Frost, Ray L

    2015-12-05

    Hydrocalumite (CaAl-LDH-Cl) interacted with a natural anionic surfactant, sodium hexadecyl sulfate (SHS), was performed using an intercalation method. To understand the intercalation behavior and characterize the resulting products, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scan electron microscopy (SEM) and mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy combined with near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy technique were used. The XRD analysis indicated that SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl successfully, resulting in an expansion of the interlayer (from 0.78 nm to 2.74 nm). The bands of C-H stretching vibrations of SHS were observed in the near-infrared spectra, which indicated that the resulting products were indeed CaAl-LDH-SHS. In addition, the bands of water stretching vibrations and OH groups shifted to higher wavenumbers when SHS was intercalated into CaAl-LDH-Cl interlayer space. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In Situ Synchrotron XRD on a Capillary Li-O2 Battery Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Mie Møller; Johnsen, Rune; Norby, Poul

    2014-01-01

    of a electrolyte filled capillary with anode and cathode in each end suspended on stainless steel wires, the oxygen in-let is placed on the cathode side of the capillary with a flushing system for oxygen in-let. In this study we present a flexible design of a capillary based Li-O2 battery with discharge and charge...... a stainless steel wire where the cathode is attached. The in situ XRD measurements show how the Li2O2 growth depend on current discharge rate and how the FWHM changes dependent on reflection and charge/discharge.Several cells were tested both ex situ and in situ, and in situ XRD for 1st discharge/charge and 2...

  17. Characterising palladium-silver and palladium-nickel alloy membranes using SEM, XRD and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keuler, J.N.; Lorenzen, L.; Sanderson, R.D.; Prozesky, V.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Palladium alloy membranes were prepared by successive electroless plating steps on an alumina-zirconia support membrane. Palladium, silver and nickel were deposited in layers and then the metal films were heat treated for 5 h in a hydrogen atmosphere at 650 deg. C. The topography of the metal coatings and cross-sections of the films (before and after heating) were characterised using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD was used to determine the crystal phase of the alloy coatings. Both SEM and XRD provide only surface information and therefore micro-PIXE was used to extract depth information of the alloy coating. Concentration profiles across the thickness of the films were constructed to determine penetration of the coating into the support membrane pores during electroless plating and to investigate diffusion of coated layers during the heating step

  18. XRD and SEM analysis of hydroxyapatite during immersion in stimulated physiological solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusof Abdullah; Idris Besar; Rosmamuhamadani Ramli; Abd Razak Daud

    2000-01-01

    XRD and SEM techniques were used to analyse the apatite layer developed on the synthetic hydroxyapatite surface following immersion in the simulated body fluid (SBF) that mimics the conditions of material experiences after implantation in the human body. Initially, the new layers formed after 7 day's incubation and increased with immersion time as crystallization of apatite phase. The XRD confirmed that the deposited layer was hydroxyapatite and crystallographically. With time, the crystal growth become more random and the intensity of the peaks decreased. During immersion, hydroxyapatite was precipitated from the SBF and coherently scattered with very small crystal. The SEM observation shows that the new precipitates were increased as well as incubation period increased. Therefore, hydroxyapatite ceramics are suggested to have very good biocompatibility. (Author)

  19. X-ray diffraction (XRD) characterization of microstrain in some iron and uranium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, G.; Dayan, D.; Frank, G.A.; Landau, A.

    1996-01-01

    The high linear attenuation coefficient of steel, uranium and uranium based alloys is associated with the small penetration depth of X-rays with the usual wavelength used for diffraction. Nevertheless, by using the proper surface preparation technique, it is possible of obtaining surfaces with bulk properties (free of residual mechanical microstrain). Taking advantage of the feasibility to obtain well prepared surfaces, extensive work has been conducted in studying XRD line broadening effects from flat polycrystalline samples of steel, uranium and uranium alloys

  20. In-situ high temperature XRD of calcium phosphate biomaterial using DEHPA as the starting material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman; Masliana Muslim

    2009-01-01

    A process to produce calcium phosphate biomaterial was done using an organic based phosphoric acid (DEHPA) as its starting material. The gel obtained from this reaction was used to study calcium phosphate transformation using in-situ XRD with temperature ranges from room temperature to 1300 degree C. The results obtained from this analysis show the following phase transformation: Gel β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 β-TCP + HA α-TCP + HA, β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 forms at 400 degree C and as we heat the sample at 1000 degree C peaks belonging to β- TCP and HA appears showing the transformation of the β-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 phase. When the sample is heated up further to 1200 degree C, β-TCP is transform into α-TCP. In the cold in-situ study, XRD analysis was performed on the sample from room temperature to -140 degree C. At room the XRD diffractogram shows the sample as an amorphous material and as the temperature was further lowered sharp peaks begins to form indicating that the material had becomes crystalline. The peaks were identified to be that calcium hydrogen phosphate (Ca(H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ) and this indicates that there is no hydroxyl group removal during the cooling process. The relative crystallinity values obtained for the different cooling temperatures show a slow exponential increase on the initial cooling of 0 to -100 degree C and at further cooling temperatures resulted fast and linear process. Also unlike the in-situ XRD analysis performs at high temperature no phase transformation occurred at this low temperature. (Author)

  1. A Study on Factors Affecting Strength of Solidified Peat through XRD and FESEM Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, J. A.; Napia, A. M. A.; Nazri, M. A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Al-Geethi, A. S.

    2018-04-01

    Peat is soft soil that often causes multiple problems to construction. Peat has low shear strength and high deformation characteristics. Thus, peat soil needs to be stabilized or treated. Study on peat stabilization has been conducted for decades with various admixtures and mixing formulations. This project intends to provide an overview of the solidification of peat soil and the factors that affecting the strength of solidified peat soil. Three types of peats which are fabric, hemic and sapric were used in this study to understand the differences on the effect. The understanding of the factors affecting strength of solidified peat in this study is limited to XRD and FESEM analysis only. Peat samples were collected at Pontian, Johor and Parit Raja, Johor. Peat soil was solidified using fly ash, bottom ash and Portland cement with two mixing formulation following literature review. The solidified peat were cured for 7 days, 14 days, 28 days and 56 days. All samples were tested using Unconfined Compressive Strength Test (UCS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM). The compressive strength test of solidified peat had shown consistently increase of sheer strength, qu for Mixing 1 while decrease of its compressive strength value for Mixing 2. All samples were tested and compared for each curing days. Through XRD, it is found that all solidified peat are dominated with pargasite and richterite. The highest qu is Fabric Mixing 1(FM1) with the value of 105.94 kPa. This sample were proven contain pargasite. Samples with high qu were observed to be having fly ash and bottom ash bound together with the help of pargasite. Sample with decreasing strength showed less amount of pargasite in it. In can be concluded that XRD and FESEM findings are in line with UCS values.

  2. Influence of Amang (Tin Tailing) on Geotechnical Properties of Clay Soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfahmi, A.R.; Zuhairi, W.Y.W.; Raihan, M.T.; Sahibin, A.R.; Razi, I.W.M.; Tukimat, L.; Syakireen, Z.S.N.; Noorulakma, A.

    2012-01-01

    Amang or tin tailing is commonly found in the vicinity of disused mining area and responsible in downgrading the water quality, landscape and mechanical behaviour of soils. It was generated from extraction process of separating valuable metal from particular ore. This paper presents the geotechnical characteristics of amang-contaminated clay soil. The geotechnical properties of uncontaminated soils were studied in order to compare to that of amang contaminated soils. The base soil used in this study represents completely weathered horizon of meta sedimentary rock. Meanwhile, tin tailing sample was taken from the disused mine at Sungai Lembing, Pahang. The geotechnical characterisations of base soil and contaminated soils were determined based on consistency index, compaction behaviour, hydraulic conductivity and undrained shear strength (UU tests). Contaminated soil samples were prepared by adding 5, 10 and 20 % of tailing, based on dry weigh of the studied base soil. The results from the particle size distribution analysis showed that residual soil from meta sedimentary rock comprised 42.6 % clay, 32.2 % silt and 25.2 % sand whilst tailing was dominated by 98 % of sand fraction. XRD analysis indicated the presence of quartz, kaolinite and muscovite minerals in the studied soil. The specific gravity of soil used is 2.67 and the pH is 3.88. Tailing found to have higher specific gravity of 3.37. The consistency index of contaminated soils showed that liquid limit, wL and plastic limit, wP decreased with the increase in the percentage of tailing added to the soil samples. The value of maximum dry density, ρ dry max increased while optimum moisture content decreased due to the increase in tailing content in soil sample. The permeability of contaminated soil also increased with the increase in tailing contents ranged from 19.8 cm/ hr to 23.8 cm/ hr. The undrained shear strength, Cu, of contaminated soil decreased from 646 kPa (5 % of tailing) to 312 kPa (20 % of

  3. Study the oxidation kinetics of uranium using XRD and Rietveld method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yanzhi; Guan Weijun; Wang Qinguo; Wang Xiaolin; Lai Xinchun; Shuai Maobing, E-mail: yanzhizh@163.com [China Academy of Engineering Physics, PO Box 919-71, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China)

    2010-03-15

    The surface oxidation of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld method in the range of 50{approx}300deg. C in air. The oxidation processes are analyzed by XRD to determine the extent of surface oxidation and the oxide structure. The dynamics expression for the formation of UO{sub 2} was derived. At the beginning, the dynamic expression was nonlinear, but switched to linear subsequently for uranium in air and humid oxygen. That is, the growth kinetics of UO{sub 2} can be divided into two stages: nonlinear portion and linear portion. Using the kinetic data of linear portion, the activation energy of reaction between uranium and air was calculated about 46.0 kJ/mol. However the content of oxide as a function of time was linear in humid helium ambience. Contrast the dynamics results, it prove that the absence of oxygen would accelerate the corrosion rate of uranium in the humid gas. We can find that the XRD and Rietveld method are a useful convenient method to estimate the kinetics and thermodynamics of solid-gas reaction.

  4. Mineralogical composition of the meteorite El Pozo (Mexico): a Raman, infrared and XRD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, Mikhail; Hernández-Bernal, Maria del Sol

    2011-12-01

    The Raman (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of El Pozo meteorite (an ordinary chondrite L5 type; village Valle of Allende, founded in State of Chihuahua, Mexico: 26°56'N and 105°24'W, 1998). RMP measurements in the range of 100-3500 cm(-1) revealed principal characteristic bands of the major minerals: olivine, two polymorph modifications of pyroxene (OPx and CPx) and plagioclase. Some bands of the minor minerals (hematite and goethite) were also identified. All these minerals were clearly distinguished using IR and XRD techniques. XRD technique has shown the presence of some metallic phases such as kamacite and taenite as well as troilite and chromite. These minerals do not have characteristic Raman spectra because Fe-Ni metals have no active modes for Raman spectroscopy and troilite is a weak Raman scatterer. Raman mapping microspectroscopy was a key part in the investigation of El Pozo meteorite's spatial distribution of the main minerals because these samples are structurally and chemically complex and heterogeneous. The mineral mapping by Raman spectroscopy has provided information for a certain spatial region on which a spatial distribution coexists of the three typical mineral assemblages: olivine; olivine+orthopyroxene; and orthopyroxene. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Validation of enhanced stabilization of municipal solid waste under controlled leachate recirculation using FTIR and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sapna; Kothiyal, N C; Nema, Arvind K

    2012-07-01

    Leachate recirculation at neutral PH accompanied with buffer/nutrients addition has been used successfully in earlier stabilization of municipal solid waste in bioreactor landfills. In the present study, efforts were made to enhance the stabilization rate of municipal solid waste (MSW) and organic solid waste (OSW) in simulated landfill bioreactors by controlling the pH of recirculated leachate towards slightly alkaline side in absence of additional buffer and nutrients addition. Enhanced stabilization in waste samples was monitored with the help of analytical tools like Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Predominance of bands assigned to inorganic compounds and comparatively lower intensities of bands for organic compounds in the FTIR spectra of waste samples degraded with leachate recirculation under controlled pH confirmed higher rate of biodegradation and mineralization of waste than the samples degraded without controlled leachate recirculation. XRD spectra also confirmed to a greater extent of mineralization in the waste samples degraded under leachate recirculation with controlled pH. Comparison of XRD spectra of two types of wastes pointed out higher degree of mineralization in organic solid waste as compared to municipal solid waste.

  6. [Study on the vibrational spectra and XRD characters of Huanglong jade from Longling County, Yunnan Province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jing-cheng; Fan, Lu-wei; Xie, Hao

    2014-12-01

    Based on the conventional test methods, the infrared absorption spectrum, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were employed to study the characters of the vibration spectrum and mineral composition of Huanglong jade. The testing results show that Huanglong jade shows typical vibrational spectrum characteristics of quartziferous jade. The main infrared absorption bands at 1162, 1076, 800, 779, 691, 530 and 466 cm(-1) were induced by the asymmetric stretching vibration, symmetrical stretching vibration and bending vibration of Si-O-Si separately. Especially the absorption band near 800 cm(-1) is split, which indicates that Huanglong jade has good crystallinity. In Raman spectrum, the main strong vibration bands at 463 and 355 cm(-1) were attributed to bending vibration of Si-O-Si. XRD test confirmed that Quartz is main mineral composition of Huanglong jade and there is a small amount of hematite in red color samples which induced the red color of Huanglong jade. This is the first report on the infrared, Raman and XRD spectra feature of Huanglong jade. It will provide a scientific basis for the identification, naming and other research for huanglong jade.

  7. Matching 4.7-Å XRD spacing in amelogenin nanoribbons and enamel matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanii, B; Martinez-Avila, O; Simpliciano, C; Zuckermann, R N; Habelitz, S

    2014-09-01

    The recent discovery of conditions that induce nanoribbon structures of amelogenin protein in vitro raises questions about their role in enamel formation. Nanoribbons of recombinant human full-length amelogenin (rH174) are about 17 nm wide and self-align into parallel bundles; thus, they could act as templates for crystallization of nanofibrous apatite comprising dental enamel. Here we analyzed the secondary structures of nanoribbon amelogenin by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tested if the structural motif matches previous data on the organic matrix of enamel. XRD analysis showed that a peak corresponding to 4.7 Å is present in nanoribbons of amelogenin. In addition, FTIR analysis showed that amelogenin in the form of nanoribbons was comprised of β-sheets by up to 75%, while amelogenin nanospheres had predominantly random-coil structure. The observation of a 4.7-Å XRD spacing confirms the presence of β-sheets and illustrates structural parallels between the in vitro assemblies and structural motifs in developing enamel. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  8. Study the oxidation kinetics of uranium using XRD and Rietveld method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzhi; Guan, Weijun; Wang, Qinguo; Wang, Xiaolin; Lai, Xinchun; Shuai, Maobing

    2010-03-01

    The surface oxidation of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rietveld method in the range of 50~300°C in air. The oxidation processes are analyzed by XRD to determine the extent of surface oxidation and the oxide structure. The dynamics expression for the formation of UO2 was derived. At the beginning, the dynamic expression was nonlinear, but switched to linear subsequently for uranium in air and humid oxygen. That is, the growth kinetics of UO2 can be divided into two stages: nonlinear portion and linear portion. Using the kinetic data of linear portion, the activation energy of reaction between uranium and air was calculated about 46.0 kJ/mol. However the content of oxide as a function of time was linear in humid helium ambience. Contrast the dynamics results, it prove that the absence of oxygen would accelerate the corrosion rate of uranium in the humid gas. We can find that the XRD and Rietveld method are a useful convenient method to estimate the kinetics and thermodynamics of solid-gas reaction.

  9. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishii, Masaomi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 502-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe{sub 3}Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed

  10. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe 3 Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed in

  11. Method for palliation of pain in human bone cancer using therapeutic tin-117m compositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Mausner, L.F.; Atkins, H.L.

    1998-01-01

    The invention provides a method for the palliation of bone pain due to cancer by the administration of a unique dosage of a tin-117m (Sn-117m) stannic chelate complex in a pharmaceutically acceptable composition. In addition, the invention provides a method for simultaneous palliation of bone pain and radiotherapy in cancer patients using compositions containing Sn-117m chelates. The invention also provides a method for palliating bone pain in cancer patients using Sn-117m-containing compositions and monitoring patient status by imaging the distribution of the Sn-117m in the patients. Also provided are pharmaceutically acceptable compositions containing Sn-117m chelate complexes for the palliation of bone pain in cancer patients. 5 figs

  12. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  13. Electronegativity-dependent tin etching from thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachecka, M., E-mail: m.pachecka@utwente.nl; Sturm, J. M.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    The influence of a thin film substrate material on the etching of a thin layer of deposited tin (Sn) by hydrogen radicals was studied. The amount of remaining Sn was quantified for materials that cover a range of electronegativities. We show that, for metals, etching depends on the relative electronegativity of the surface material and Sn. Tin is chemically etched from surfaces with an electronegativity smaller than Sn, while incomplete Sn etching is observed for materials with an electronegativity larger than Sn. Furthermore, the amount of remaining Sn increases as the electronegativity of the surface material increases. We speculate, that, due to Fermi level differences in the material’s electronic structure, the energy of the two conduction bands shift such that the availability of electrons for binding with hydrogen is significantly reduced.

  14. Gap enhancement in phonon-irradiated superconducting tin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.D.; Rutledge, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of tin-tin tunnel junctions driven out of equilibrium by a flux of near-thermal phonons from a heater. The reduced ambient temperature was T/T/sub c/ = 0.41. The nonequilibrium I-V curves are compared to equilibrium thermal I-V curves at an elevated temperature chosen to match the total number of quasiparticles. The nonequilibrium curves show a smaller current near zero bias and a larger gap than the thermal curves. This is the first experimental evidence of phonon-induced gap enhancement far below T/sub c/. The results are discussed in terms of the coupled kinetic equations of Chang and Scalapino

  15. TDPAC characterization of tin oxides using 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.S.; Desimoni, J.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with a general study of the evolution of tin-oxygen thin films, we report here on the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta substitutionally replacing tin in the isolated phases SnO and SnO 2 . For this purpose, pure SnO pressed powder and a thin SnO 2 film were implanted with 181 Hf. In both cases, unique quadrupole frequencies were found after thermal annealing treatments. The results indicate that the following hyperfine parameters: ν Q =740.6(2.1) MHz, η=0.07(2) and ν Q =971.5(1.9) MHz, η=0.72(1) characterize 181 Ta and SnO and SnO 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  16. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  17. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  18. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on the chemical states of surface layers of corroded tin plates and tin-coated iron plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akinori; Endo, Kazutoyo; Sano, Hirotoshi

    1980-01-01

    By means of the conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), we studied surface layers of ''tin'' plates and tin-coated iron plates corroded by various acids. Transmission Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were also measured. Metastannic acid was formed, when the ''tin'' plate was corroded by nitric acid solution. In corrosion by phosphoric acid solution, the X-ray diffractometry revealed the formation of tin(IV) pyrophosphate. In corrosion by various organic acid solutions, the formation of oxides was identified by the 119 Sn CEMS, but not by the X-ray diffractometry because of the too thin corrosion layer. In corrosion of tin-coated iron plates, maleic acid, malonic acid, formic acid, and oxalic acid were used. It was determined by CEMS that the corrosion products caused by these acids were tin(IV) oxides, although they could not be identified by the X-ray diffractometry. CEMS also confirmed that the surface of uncorroded tin-coated iron plate was already oxidized by air. Colorimetric determinations of Sn and Fe dissolved from tin-coated iron plates to various acid solutions confirmed that maleic acid had the strongest corrosion effect among the organic acids studied. (author)

  19. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  20. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Dynamics of implanted muons at low temperatures in white tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solt, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Herlach, D.

    2008-01-01

    The low temperature lattice site of the implanted μ + particle and its subsequent delocalization at higher temperatures was investigated in single crystal white tin for 2 + was found to reside at the interstitial sites of type d. With increasing temperature thermally activated hopping sets in at T=48±2K, resulting in complete delocalization near 60 K. The activation energy for hopping, E a =113±15meV, is substantially higher than that found previously for the equally tetragonal indium

  3. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  4. Radiodiagnostic complexes employing fluorine-containing tin reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.K.; Kubik, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic agents for use in mammalian bodies comprising a radiocomplex which is the reaction product of Tc99m-pertechnetate ion, a diagnostic ligand and a tin (II) reducing agent selected from the group consisting of SnF 2 , MSnF 3 , MSn 2 F 5 and mixtures thereof, wherein M is NH 4 , Na, K, Li, Rb or Cs. Radiocomplex precursor compositions and methods of making the radiocomplex and radiodiagnostic agents are described

  5. Evaluation on the characteristics of tin-silver-bismuth solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2002-02-01

    Tin-silver-bismuth solder is characterized by its lower melting point, good wetting behavior, and good mechanical property for which it is expected to be a new lead-free solder to replace tin-lead solder. In this article, Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder was investigated concerning its physical, spreading, and mechanical properties under specific conditions. Cooling curves and DSC results showed that it was close to eutectic composition (m.p. 210° 212 °C). Coefficiency of thermal expansion (CTE) of this solder, between that of PCBs and copper substrates, was beneficial to alleviate the thermal mismatch of the substrates. It was also a good electrical and thermal conductor. Using a rosin-based, mildly activated (RMA) flux, a spreading test indicated that SnAgBi solder paste had good solderability. Meanwhile, the solder had high tensile strength and fracture energy. Its fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture morphology. The metallographic and EDAX analyses indicated that it was composed of a tin-based solid solution and some intermetallic compound (IMC) that could strengthen the substrate. However, these large needle-like IMCs would cut the substrate and this resulted in the decreasing of the toughness of the solder.

  6. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  7. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic application of silica supported tin oxide nanoparticles for synthesis of 2,4,5-tri and 1,2,4,5-tetrasubstituted imidazoles under solvent-free conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok V. Borhade

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Highly efficient and eco-friendly, one pot synthesis of 1,2,4,5-tetra substituted imidazoles and 2,4,5-trisubstituted imidazoles was reported under solvent free conditions using nanocrystalline silica supported tin oxide (SiO2:SnO2 as a catalyst with excellent yield. The present methodology offers several advantages such as mild reaction conditions, short reaction time, good yield, high purity of product, recyclable catalyst without a noticeable decrease in catalytic activity and can be used for large scale synthesis. The synthesized SiO2:SnO2 nanocrystalline catalyst was characterized by XRD, BET surface area and TEM techniques.

  9. JST Thesaurus Headwords and Synonyms: XRD [MeCab user dictionary for science technology term[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available MeCab user dictionary for science technology term XRD 名詞 一般 * * * * X線回折 Xセンカイセツ エックスセンカイセツ Thesaurus2015 200906089250080619 C PA11/PA08 UNKNOWN_1 XRD

  10. [Analysis of XRD spectral characteristics of soil clay mineral in two typical cultivated soils].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi-Dan; Luo, Xiang-Li; Jiang, Hai-Chao; Li, Qiao; Shen, Cong-Ying; Liu, Hang; Zhou, Ya-Juan; Zhao, Lan-Po; Wang, Ji-Hong

    2014-07-01

    The present paper took black soil and chernozem, the typical cultivated soil in major grain producing area of Northeast, as the study object, and determinated the soil particle composition characteristics of two cultivated soils under the same climate and location. Then XRD was used to study the composition and difference of clay mineral in two kinds of soil and the evolutionary mechanism was explored. The results showed that the two kinds of soil particles were composed mainly of the sand, followed by clay and silt. When the particle accumulation rate reached 50%, the central particle size was in the 15-130 microm interval. Except for black soil profile of Shengli Xiang, the content of clay showed converse sequence to the central particle in two soils. Clay accumulated under upper layer (18.82%) in black soil profile while under caliche layer (17.41%) in chernozem profile. Clay content was the least in parent material horizon except in black profile of Quanyanling. Analysis of clay XRD atlas showed that the difference lied in not only the strength of diffraction peak, but also in the mineral composition. The main contents of black soil and chernozem were both 2 : 1 clay, the composition of black soil was smectite/illite mixed layer-illite-vermiculite and that of chernozem was S/I mixture-illite-montmorillonite, and both of them contained little kaolinite, chlorite, quartz and other primary mineral. This paper used XRD to determine the characteristics of clay minerals comprehensively, and analyzed two kinds of typical cultivated soil comparatively, and it was a new perspective of soil minerals study.

  11. Composition and microstructure of MTA and Aureoseal Plus: XRF, EDS, XRD and FESEM evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianconi, L; Palopoli, P; Campanella, V; Mancini, M

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the chemical composition and the phases' microstructure of Aureoseal Plus (OGNA, Italy) and ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental, USA) and to compare their characteristics. Study Design: Comparing Aureoseal Plus and ProRoot MTA microstructure by means of several analyses type. The chemical analysis of the two cements was assessed following the UNI EN ISO 196-2 norm. X-Ray fluorescence (XRF) was used to determine the element composition. The crystalline structure was analysed quantitatively using x-ray diffraction (XRD). Powders morphology was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with backscattering detectors, and a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Elemental analysis was performed by energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS). The semi-quantitative XRF analysis showed the presence of heavy metal oxides in both cements. The XRD spectra of the two cements reported the presence of dicalcium silicate, tricalcium silicate, tricalcium aluminate, tetracalcium aluminoferrite, bismuth oxide and gypsum. SEM analysis showed that ProRoot MTA powder is less coarse and more homogeneous than Aureoseal. Both powders are formed by particles of different shapes: round, prismatic and oblong. The EDS analysis showed that some ProRoot MTA particles, differently from Aureoseal, contain Ca, Si, Al and Fe. Oblong particles in ProRoot and Aureoseal are rich of bismuth. The strong interest in developing new Portland cement-based endodontic sealers will create materials with increased handling characteristics and physicochemical properties. A thorough investigation on two cement powders was carried out by using XRF, XRD, SEM and EDS analysis. To date there was a lack of studies on Aureoseal Plus. This cement is similar in composition to ProRoot MTA. Despite that it has distinctive elements that could improve its characteristics, resulting in a good alternative to MTA.

  12. Quantitative XRD analysis: tools to investigate link between hydrous strain and clay mineral CEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oueslati, W.; Ammar, M.; Ben Rhaiem, H.; Ben Haj Amara, A.

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. This work aims at examining, by quantitative XRD analysis, the effect of an applied hydrous strain in the cationic exchange process of a di-octahedral smectite (Na-rich montmorillonite SWy-2). The hydrous constraint was created by a continuous, in situ, hydration-dehydration cycles using a variation of the %RH rate. Respectively, The starting, the intermediate and the final stressed samples was deposed in contact with saturated Me 2+ (i.e. Cd 2+ , Co 2+ , Zn 2+ and Ni 2+ ) chloride solutions respectively in order to examine the effect of the retained materials stress on the CEC of the host materials. An XRD profile modelling approach is adopted to describe all structural changes created by the environmental evolution of the %RH rate. This investigation allowed us to determine several structural parameters related to the nature, abundance, size, position and organization of exchangeable cation and water molecule in the inter-lamellar space along the c* axis. The obtained qualitative results show a considerable change in the hydration behaviour, versus the number of hydration - dehydration cycle, from homogeneous '2W' to heterogeneous '1W-2W' hydration state indicating an interstratified hydration phases and due probably to a new organization of the inter-lamellar space content. Quantitatively, the theoretical Mixed Layer Structure MLS suggest the coexistence of more one 'crystallite' species. Which are saturated by more than one exchangeable cations, indicating a partial saturation of all exchangeable sites. Using optimum structural parameter values, deduced from XRD modelling profile approach, some equations which described the evolution of exchangeable cation amount versus the applied hydrous strain were derived. (authors)

  13. Influence of smectite suspension structure on sheet orientation in dry sediments: XRD and AFM applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbik, Marek S; Frost, Ray L

    2010-06-15

    The structure-building phenomena within clay aggregates are governed by forces acting between clay particles. Measurements of such forces are important to understand in order to manipulate the aggregate structure for applications such as dewatering of mineral processing tailings. A parallel particle orientation is required when conducting XRD investigation on the oriented samples and conduct force measurements acting between basal planes of clay mineral platelets using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To investigate how smectite clay platelets were oriented on silicon wafer substrate when dried from suspension range of methods like SEM, XRD and AFM were employed. From these investigations, we conclude that high clay concentrations and larger particle diameters (up to 5 microm) in suspension result in random orientation of platelets in the substrate. The best possible laminar orientation in the clay dry film, represented in the XRD 001/020 intensity ratio of 47 was obtained by drying thin layers from 0.02 wt.% clay suspensions of the natural pH. Conducted AFM investigations show that smectite studied in water based electrolytes show very long-range repulsive forces lower in strength than electrostatic forces from double-layer repulsion. It was suggested that these forces may have structural nature. Smectite surface layers rehydrate in water environment forms surface gel with spongy and cellular texture which cushion approaching AFM probe. This structural effect can be measured in distances larger than 1000 nm from substrate surface and when probe penetrate this gel layer, structural linkages are forming between substrate and clay covered probe. These linkages prevent subsequently smooth detachments of AFM probe on way back when retrieval. This effect of tearing new formed structure apart involves larger adhesion-like forces measured in retrieval. It is also suggested that these effect may be enhanced by the nano-clay particles interaction. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All

  14. Micro-XRD and temperature-modulated DSC investigation of nickel-titanium rotary endodontic instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alapati, Satish B; Brantley, William A; Iijima, Masahiro; Schricker, Scott R; Nusstein, John M; Li, Uei-Ming; Svec, Timothy A

    2009-10-01

    Employ Micro-X-ray diffraction and temperature-modulated differential scanning calorimetry to investigate microstructural phases, phase transformations, and effects of heat treatment for rotary nickel-titanium instruments. Representative as-received and clinically used ProFile GT and ProTaper instruments were principally studied. Micro-XRD analyses (Cu Kalpha X-rays) were performed at 25 degrees C on areas of approximately 50 microm diameter near the tip and up to 9 mm from the tip. TMDSC analyses were performed from -80 to 100 degrees C and back to -80 degrees C on segments cut from instruments, using a linear heating and cooling rate of 2 degrees C/min, sinusoidal oscillation of 0.318 degrees C, and period of 60s. Instruments were also heat treated 15 min in a nitrogen atmosphere at 400, 500, 600 and 850 degrees C, and analyzed. At all Micro-XRD analysis regions the strongest peak occurred near 42 degrees , indicating that instruments were mostly austenite, with perhaps some R-phase and martensite. Tip and adjacent regions had smallest peak intensities, indicative of greater work hardening, and the intensity at other sites depended on the instrument. TMDSC heating and cooling curves had single peaks for transformations between martensite and austenite. Austenite-finish (A(f)) temperatures and enthalpy changes were similar for as-received and used instruments. Heat treatments at 400, 500 and 600 degrees C raised the A(f) temperature to 45-50 degrees C, and heat treatment at 850 degrees C caused drastic changes in transformation behavior. Micro-XRD provides novel information about NiTi phases at different positions on instruments. TMDSC indicates that heat treatment might yield instruments with substantial martensite and improved clinical performance.

  15. Analysis of synthetic profile of CZTS as photovoltaic material obtained with variations of titanium and TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M.; Vera, E.; Gómez, J.; Pineda, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Semiconductor type Cu2ZnTiS4 (CZTiS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS),were synthetized starting from a hydrothermal route from precursor powders such as copper, zinc, tin, titanium isopropoxide and tiocarbammide metal nitrates dissolved in deionized water in concentrations of 1molL-1. Dosed and placed in a steel autoclave equipped with a Teflon jacket under magnetic stirring (150rpm) and at a temperature of 300°C for 24 hours in order to promote the formation of the respective ceramic phases. Segregates have been repeatedly washed with ethanol at all times until obtaining crystalline-looking solids. Subsequently, in order to promote the production of pure crystalline phases, the materials were subjected to a second reaction stage in a tubular furnace at 400°C in flow (50mLmin-1) for the purpose of Reduce the concentration of secondary phases of sulphides. The characterization of the CZTiS and CZTS materials was performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy where the presence of Kesterite type crystalline structures was confirmed in the two materials revealing that the effect of titanium with a higher ionic radius than tin produces a distortion in the cell of the CZTiS material compared to the report for the CZTS system. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm the regular aggregates obtained with composition consistent with the proposal theoretically and validated by Energy-Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) techniques and comparison between secondary emission spectra and Retro-dispersed.

  16. Styrene–tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of organic dye in presence of visible light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathore, Bhim Singh [School of Chemistry, Shoolini University, Solan 173 212, Himachal Pradesh (India); Department of Chemistry, Government P.G. College, Solan 173 212, Himachal Pradesh (India); Pathania, Deepak, E-mail: dpathania74@gmail.com [School of Chemistry, Shoolini University, Solan 173 212, Himachal Pradesh (India)

    2014-09-01

    Highlights: • Styrene–tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite (ST/TPNC) ion exchanger was chemically prepared by simple sol–gel method at pH 0–1. • ST/TPNC exhibited higher ion exchange capacity as compared to its inorganic component. • ST/TPNC retained about 35.5% of the initial value of ion exchange capacity after heating up to 400 °C. • ST/TPNC was used as efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of MB dye from aqueous system in the presence of solar light. • The pH titrations studies confirmed the monofunctional strong cationic nature of ST/TPNC. - Abstract: Styrene–tin (IV) phosphate nanocomposite (ST/TPNC) ion exchanger was used as efficient photocatalyst for the degradation of methylene blue dye from aqueous system in the presence of solar light. ST/TPNC exhibited a high efficiency in heterogeneous photocatalytic process for the removal of MB from the water system. The degradation efficiency after 2 h illumination was 80%. The degradation of MB follows the pseudo-first-order kinetics with rate constant 0.00702 min{sup −1}. The nanocomposite ion exchanger was explored for its ion exchange capacity, pH titration, elution behavior, elution concentration and distribution coefficient (K{sub d}). ST/TPNC exhibited a higher ion exchange capacity (1.83 meg/g) compared to its inorganic counterpart (0.55 meg/g). ST/TPNC was characterized using some techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA)

  17. Oxidation resistance of TiN, CrN, TiAlN and CrAlN coatings deposited by lateral rotating cathode arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chim, Y.C.; Ding, X.Z.; Zeng, X.T.; Zhang, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, four kinds of hard coatings, TiN, CrN, TiAlN and CrAlN (with Al/Ti or Al/Cr atomic ratio around 1:1), were deposited on stainless steel substrates by a lateral rotating cathode arc technique. The as-deposited coatings were annealed in ambient atmosphere at different temperatures (500-1000 o C) for 1 h. The evolution of chemical composition, microstructure, and microhardness of these coatings after annealing at different temperatures was systematically analyzed by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nanoindentation experiments. The oxidation behaviour and its influence on overall hardness of these four coatings were compared. It was found that the ternary TiAlN and CrAlN coatings have better oxidation resistance than their binary counterparts, TiN and CrN coatings. The Cr-based coatings (CrN and CrAlN) exhibited evidently better oxidation resistance than the Ti-based coatings (TiN and TiAlN). TiN coating started to oxidize at 500 o C. After annealing at 700 o C no N could be detected by EDX, indicating that the coating was almost fully oxidized. After annealed at 800 o C, the coating completely delaminated from the substrate. TiAlN started to oxidize at 600 o C. It was nearly fully oxidized (with little residual nitrogen detected in the coating by EDX) and partially delaminated at 1000 o C. Both CrN and CrAlN started to oxidize at 700 o C. CrN was almost fully oxidized (with little residual nitrogen detected in the coating by EDX) and partially delaminated at 900 o C. The oxidation rate of the CrAlN coating is quite slow. After annealing at 1000 o C, only about 19 at.% oxygen was detected and the coating showed no delamination. The Ti-based (TiN and TiAlN) coatings were not able to retain their hardness at higher temperatures (≥ 700 o C). On the other hand, the hardness of CrAlN was stable at a high level between 33 and 35 GPa up to an annealing temperature of 800 o C and still kept at a comparative high value of

  18. Spectral studies of 2-pyrazoline derivatives: structural elucidation through single crystal XRD and DFT calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnaraja, D; Rajalakshmi, R; Srinivasan, T; Velmurugan, D; Jayabharathi, J

    2014-04-24

    A series of biologically active N-thiocarbamoyl pyrazoline derivatives have been synthesized using anhydrous potassium carbonate as the catalyst. All the synthesized compounds were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectral studies, LCMS, CHN Analysis and X-ray diffraction analysis (compound 7). In order to supplement the XRD parameters, molecular modelling was carried out by Gaussian 03W. From the optimized structure, the energy, dipolemoment and HOMO-LUMO energies of all the systems were calculated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The XRD Amorphous Component in John Klein Drill Fines at Yellowknife Bay, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Ming,, Douglas W.; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Bish, David L; Chipera, Steve; Downs, Robert; Morrison, Shaunna; Gellert, Ralf; Campbell, Iain; hide

    2013-01-01

    Drill fines of mudstone (targets John Klein and Cumberland) from the Sheepbed unit at Yel-lowknife Bay were analyzed by MSL payload elements including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin), APXS (Alpha Particle X-Ray Spectrometer), and Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instruments. CheMin XRD results show a variety of crystalline phases including feldspar, pyroxene, olivine, oxides, oxyhydroxides, sulfates, sulfides, a tri-octahedral smectite, and XRD amorphous material. The drill fines are distinctly different from corresponding analyses of the global soil (target Rocknest) in that the mudstone samples contained detectable phyllosilicate. Here we focus on John Klein and combine CheMin and APXS data to calculate the chemical composition and concentration of the amorphous component. The chemical composition of the amorphous plus smectite component for John Klein was calculated by subtracting the abundance-weighted chemical composition of the individual XRD crystalline components from the bulk composition of John Kline as measured by APXS. The chemical composition of individual crystalline components was determined either by stoichiometry (e.g., hematite and magnetite) or from their unit cell parameters (e.g., feldspar, olivine, and pyroxene). The chemical composition of the amorphous + smectite component (approx 71 wt.% of bulk sample) and bulk chemical composition are similar. In order to calculate the chemical composition of the amorphous component, a chemical composition for the tri-octahedral smectite must be assumed. We selected two tri-octahedral smectites with very different MgO/(FeO + Fe2O3) ratios (34 and 1.3 for SapCa1 and Griffithite, respectively). Relative to bulk sample, the concentration of amorphous and smectite components are 40 and 29 wt.% for SapCa1 and 33 and 36 wt.% for Griffithite. The amount of smectite was calculated by requiring the MgO concentration to be approx 0 wt.% in the amorphous component. Griffithite is the preferred smectite because

  20. Analytical electron microscopy of Mg-SiO smokes - A comparison with infrared and XRD studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Nuth, J. A.; Mackinnon, I. D. R.

    1986-01-01

    Analytical electron microscopy conducted for Mg-SiO smokes (experimentally obtained from samples previously characterized by IR spectroscopy) indicates that the microcrystallinity content of unannealed smokes increases with increased annealing for up to 30 hr. The growth of forsterite microcrystallites in the initially nonstoichiometric smokes may give rise to the contemporaneous growth of the SiO polymorph tridymite and MgO; after 4 hr of annealing, these react to form enstatite. It is suggested that XRD analysis and IR spectroscopy should be conducted in conjunction with detailed analytical electron microscopy for the detection of emerging crystallinity in vapor-phase condensates.

  1. Early Medieval ceramics from the Viile Tecii archaeological site (Romania: an optical and XRD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Ionescu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical and petrographic studies of Early Medieval potshards exhumed in the Viile Tecii archaeological site (North Transylvania, Romania show a ceramic body composed of a microcrystalline to amorphous matrix, various clasts and voids. The microscopical features and XRD patterns indicate that illitic-kaolinitic clays were used as raw materials, together with quartzitic sands as tempering material. The ceramic vessels were obtained with the potter’s wheel, but the fabric is only slightly oriented, due either to the fast modeling or to the coarseness of the clayish paste. The thermal alteration of mineral phases points to relatively high firing-temperatures, between 800 and 900°C.

  2. XRD analysis and microstructure of milled and sintered V, W, C, and Co powders

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bolokang, AS

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available on the starting compositions of pure elements, their lattice coherency according to Hume-Rothery rules on crystal structure and atomic size, and enough milling time that provides adequate kinetics. Keywords ? X-ray analysis; ? (V,W)C; ? Co15W8C6...-1 International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials Volume 29, Issue 1, January 2011, Pages 108?111 XRD analysis and microstructure of milled and sintered V, W, C, and Co powders ? A.S. Bolokang ? M.J. Phasha ? C. Oliphant ? D. Motaung ? a...

  3. XRD, lead equivalent and UV-VIS properties study of Ce and Pr lead silicate glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias, Nor Hayati; Abdullah, Wan Shafie Wan; Isa, Norriza Mohd; Isa, Muhammad Jamal Md; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Abdullah, Nuhaslinda Ee; Muhammad, Azali

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Cerium (Ce) and Praseodymium (Pr) containing lead silicate glasses were produced with 2 different molar ratios low (0.2 wt%) and high (0.4wt%). These types of glasses can satisfy the characteristics required for radiation shielding glasses and minimize the lead composition in glass. The radiation shielding properties of the synthesized glasses is explained in the form of lead equivalent study. The XRD diffraction and UV-VIS analysis were performed to observe the structural changes of the synthesis glasses at 1.5 Gy gamma radiation exposures

  4. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  5. Tin-Silver Alloys for Flip-Chip Bonding Studied with a Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Pedersen, E.H.; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Electrodeposition of solder for flip-chip bonding is studied in the form of a pyrophosphate/iodide tin-silver alloy bath. The objective is to obtain a uniform alloy composition, with 3.8 At.% silver, over a larger area. This specific alloy will provide an eutectic solder melting at 221°C (or 10°C...... photoresist, have shown a stable and promising alternative to pure tin and tin-lead alloys for flip-chip bonding applications....

  6. Shanghai Futures Exchange Published Draft of Tin and Nickel Futures Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai Futures Exchange published draft for soliciting opinions for tin and nickel futures contract on its official website on January 19,which implies the marketing time of the long awaited tin and nickel futures is drawing near.According to the draft for soliciting opinions,the transaction unit of tin futures contract is 1tonne/lot,minimum variation unit is 10 yuan/tonne,daily maximum price fluctuation shall

  7. Reformulation of Business Strategies for Increasing Sales of TIN Product Stabilizer at PT Timah Industri

    OpenAIRE

    Sundoyo, Hadi; Hamsal, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    PT. Timah Industri (PT TI) is a subsidiary of PT. Timah (Persero) Tbk which exploit comparative advantage of its parent company as the second largest tin producer in the world. With these advantages PT TI entered the downstream PVC stabilizer tin base. Starting from the difficulty of selling their products and then raised the question in inventory management. PT TI should immediately take strategic steps to save the tin chemical business continues to lose money from time to time. From the res...

  8. Structural and magnetic studies of tin doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (α-Sn{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles prepared by microwave assisted synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindu, K.; Nagaraja, H. S., E-mail: hosakoppa@gmail.com [Material Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar, Mangalore-575 025, Karnataka (India); Chowdhury, P. [Nanomaterials Research Laboratory, Surface Engineering Division, National Aerospace Laboratories, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Bangalore-560 017, Karnataka (India); Ajith, K. M. [Computational Physics Laboratory, Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal, Srinivasnagar, Mangalore-575 025, Karnataka (India)

    2016-05-06

    Hematite (α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) doped with tetravalent ions have potential applications in various fields such as gas sensors, memories, energy storage devices because of their electrical and magnetic properties. Microwave assisted synthesis was used to prepare Tin doped α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} [α-Sn{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 3}]. The structural and morphological studies were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD patterns revealed that α-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and α-Sn{sub x}Fe{sub 2-x}O{sub 3} were having rhombohedral structure. The compositional study was done by Energy dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The magnetic properties were studied by Vibrating Sample Magnetometry (VSM). Results shows that the prepared samples were found to be antiferromagnetic in nature and the results are discussed in detail.

  9. Effect of the weather in the aging of asphalts by XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Edson da R.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: ecardoso@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Motta, Laura M.G. da, E-mail: Laura@coc.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Construcao Civil/Geotecnia; Barroso, Regina C., E-mail: cely@uerj.b [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    2009-07-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. As is well known, asphalt has been the preferential choice in pavement construction since excellent utility of pavement, however, as other organic substances, it is also subjected to aging phenomena evolving with time. Asphalt aging is one of the principal factors causing deterioration of asphalt pavements. The photodegradation of asphalts must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in geographical regions where high solar radiation intensity occurs. It has an important influence in asphalt aging in tropical places as Brazil. Many methods have been applied to simulate aging of bitumen. It was just a simulation but not real aging asphalt. In this study we submitted the asphalt to the weather as sun and rain. Periodically, during 430 days, the XRD profiles were done and the results analyzed. The scattering measurements were carried out in 0-20 reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05 deg. The parameters FWHM and peak centroid were analyzed. From 0 until 180 days the aging was faster. The peaks were marked and analyzed with the pass of time. The crystallinity of asphalt increase with weather exposition. Some angles of profiles changed the position indicating change of atomics plans. (author)

  10. Structure and surface morphology studies of cerium oxide system using XRD and SEM analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Jais Alimin; Farid Nasir Ani; Wan Azelee Wan Abu Bakar

    2000-01-01

    Conventional Precious Group Materials (PGM) catalyst systems have been using CeO 2 as an Oxygen Storage Capacity component in the catalyst washcoat. Due to the limitations of the PGM catalyst, researches are now focusing on improving or replacing this conventional system. In a previous work, the potential of a copper-ceria (Cu-Ce) oxide as a catalyst system has been identified. In this paper, the morphology and characterisation of Cu-Ce oxides analysed using XRD and SEM will be described. The Cu-Ce samples were prepared at a fixed ratio under temperatures of 400 o C and 800 o C. XRD diffractograms showed CeO 2 is in a cubic phase at 400 o C and 800 o C. At 800 o C, the CuO particle is visible, presumably has incorporated with the lattice structure of ceria, indicating an absent of solid state condition between copper and ceria. Analysis by SEM revealed significant increase in particle sizes with increasing calcination temperatures. (Author)

  11. Effects of acid treatment on the clay palygorskite: XRD, surface area, morphological and chemical composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xavier, Katiane Cruz Magalhaes; Santos, Maria do Socorro Ferreira dos; Santos, Maria Rita Morais Chaves; Oliveira, Marilia Evelyn Rodrigues; Osajima, Josy Antevelli; Silva Filho, Edson Cavalcanti da [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Carvalho, Maria Wilma Nunes Cordeiro, E-mail: edsonfilho@ufpi.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2014-08-15

    The palygorskite is an aluminum-magnesium silicate that has a fibrous morphology. Their physicochemical characteristics are the result of high surface area, porosity and thermal resistance which make it an attractive adsorbent. Its adsorption capacity can be increased through chemical reactions and/or heat treatments. The objective of this work is to verify the effects of acid activation on the palygorskite, treated with HCl at 90 °C at concentrations of 2, 4 and 6 mol L{sup -1} in 2 and 4 hours, with clay/acid solution ratio 1 g 10 mL{sup -1} and characterized by techniques: XRF, XRD and surface area. A significant increase in specific surface area was observed in the sample treated with HCl at the concentration 6 mol L{sup -1}. The changes were more pronounced at stricter concentrations of acidity, with decreasing intensity of reflection of the clay indicated in the XRD. These changes were confirmed in the XRF with the leaching of some oxides and with increasing concentration of SiO{sub 2}. (author)

  12. Effect of the weather in the aging of asphalts by XRD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Edson da R.; Braz, Delson; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Motta, Laura M.G. da; Barroso, Regina C.

    2009-01-01

    Asphalt is a sticky, black and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid that is presented in most crude petroleum and in some natural deposits. As is well known, asphalt has been the preferential choice in pavement construction since excellent utility of pavement, however, as other organic substances, it is also subjected to aging phenomena evolving with time. Asphalt aging is one of the principal factors causing deterioration of asphalt pavements. The photodegradation of asphalts must be considered in the study of the performance of asphalt pavement, especially in geographical regions where high solar radiation intensity occurs. It has an important influence in asphalt aging in tropical places as Brazil. Many methods have been applied to simulate aging of bitumen. It was just a simulation but not real aging asphalt. In this study we submitted the asphalt to the weather as sun and rain. Periodically, during 430 days, the XRD profiles were done and the results analyzed. The scattering measurements were carried out in 0-20 reflection geometry using a powder diffractometer Shimadzu XRD-6000. Scans were typically done from 8 deg to 28 deg every 0.05 deg. The parameters FWHM and peak centroid were analyzed. From 0 until 180 days the aging was faster. The peaks were marked and analyzed with the pass of time. The crystallinity of asphalt increase with weather exposition. Some angles of profiles changed the position indicating change of atomics plans. (author)

  13. Understanding changes in cellulose crystalline structure of lignocellulosic biomass during ionic liquid pretreatment by XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiafu; Wang, Yixun; Zhang, Liye; Zhang, Ruihong; Liu, Guangqing; Cheng, Gang

    2014-01-01

    X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to understand the interactions of cellulose in lignocellulosic biomass with ionic liquids (ILs). The experiment was designed in such a way that the process of swelling and solubilization of crystalline cellulose in plant cell walls was followed by XRD. Three different feedstocks, switchgrass, corn stover and rice husk, were pretreated using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C4mim][OAc]) at temperatures of 50-130°C for 6h. At a 5 wt.% biomass loading, increasing pretreatment temperature led to a drop in biomass crystallinity index (CrI), which was due to swelling of crystalline cellulose. After most of the crystalline cellulose was swollen with IL molecules, a low-order structure was found in the pretreated samples. Upon further increasing temperature, cellulose II structure started to form in the pretreated biomass samples as a result of solubilization of cellulose in [C4mim][OAc] and subsequent regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FTIR, XRD and DSC studies of nanochitosan, cellulose acetate and polyethylene glycol blend ultrafiltration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodhini, P Angelin; K, Sangeetha; Thandapani, Gomathi; P N, Sudha; Jayachandran, Venkatesan; Sukumaran, Anil

    2017-11-01

    In the present work, a series of novel nanochitosan/cellulose acetate/polyethylene glycol (NCS/CA/PEG) blend flat sheet membranes were fabricated in different ratios (1:1:1, 1:1:2, 2:1:1, 2:1:2, 1:2:1, 2:2:1) in a polar solvent of N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) using the most popular phase inversion method. Nanochitosan was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method and its average particle size has been analyzed using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) method. The effect of blending of the three polymers was investigated using FTIR and XRD studies. FTIR results confirmed the formation of well-blended membranes and the XRD analysis revealed enhanced amorphous nature of the membrane ratio 2:1:2. DSC study was conducted to find out the thermal behavior of the blend membranes and the results clearly indicated good thermal stability and single glass transition temperature (T g ) of all the prepared membranes. Asymmetric nature and rough surface morphology was confirmed using SEM analysis. From the results it was evident that the blending of the polymers with higher concentration of nanochitosan can alter the nature of the resulting membranes to a greater extent and thus amorphous membranes were obtained with good miscibility and compatibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological, chemical and structural characterisation of deciduous enamel: SEM, EDS, XRD, FTIR and XPS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamudio-Ortega, C M; Contreras-Bulnes, R; Scougall-Vilchis, R J; Morales-Luckie, R A; Olea-Mejía, O F; Rodríguez-Vilchis, L E

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterise the enamel surface of sound deciduous teeth in terms of morphology, chemical composition, structure and crystalline phases. The enamel of 30 human deciduous teeth was examined by: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). Chemical differences between incisors and canines were statistically evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test (p ≤ 0.05). Three enamel patterns were observed by SEM: 'mostly smooth with some groves', 'abundant microporosities' and 'exposed prisms'. The average Ca/P molar ratios were 1.37 and 1.03 by EDS and XPS, respectively. The crystallite size determined by XRD was 210.82 ± 16.78 Å. The mean ratio between Ca bonded to phosphate and Ca bonded to hydroxyl was approximately 10:1. The enamel of sound deciduous teeth showed two main patterns: 'mostly smooth with some groves' and 'abundant microporosities'. 'Exposed prisms' was a secondary pattern. There were slight variations among the Ca/P molar ratios found by EDS and XPS, suggesting differences in the mineral content from the enamel surface to the interior. The crystalline phases found in enamel were hydroxyapatite and carbonate apatite, with major type B than type A carbonate incorporation.

  16. Trace elemental analysis of Indian natural moonstone gems by PIXE and XRD techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, R; Venkateswarulu, P; Kasipathi, C; Sivajyothi, S

    2013-12-01

    A selected number of Indian Eastern Ghats natural moonstone gems were studied with a powerful nuclear analytical and non-destructive Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique. Thirteen elements, including V, Co, Ni, Zn, Ga, Ba and Pb, were identified in these moonstones and may be useful in interpreting the various geochemical conditions and the probable cause of their inceptions in the moonstone gemstone matrix. Furthermore, preliminary XRD studies of different moonstone patterns were performed. The PIXE technique is a powerful method for quickly determining the elemental concentration of a substance. A 3MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. The chemical constituents of moonstones from parts of the Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India were determined, and gemological studies were performed on those gems. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters of the moonstones were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies, trace and minor elements were determined using the PIXE technique, and major compositional elements were confirmed by XRD. In the present work, the usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique for research in geo-scientific methodology is established. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An Integrated XRF/XRD Instrument for Mars Exobiology and Geology Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, L. N.; Franco, E. D.; Kerner, J. A.; Fonda, M. L.; Schwartz, D. E.; Marshall, J. R.

    1993-01-01

    By employing an integrated x-ray instrument on a future Mars mission, data obtained will greatly augment those returned by Viking; details characterizing the past and present environment on Mars and those relevant to the possibility of the origin and evolution of life will be acquired. A combined x-ray fluorescence/x-ray diffraction (XRF/XRD) instrument was breadboarded and demonstrated to accommodate important exobiology and geology experiment objectives outlined for MESUR and future Mars missions. Among others, primary objectives for the exploration of Mars include the intense study of local areas on Mars to establish the chemical, mineralogical, and petrological character of different components of the surface material; to determine the distribution, abundance, and sources and sinks of volatile materials, including an assessment of the biologic potential, now and during past epoches; and to establish the global chemical and physical characteristics of the Martian surface. The XRF/XRD breadboard instrument identifies and quantifies soil surface elemental, mineralogical, and petrological characteristics and acquires data necessary to address questions on volatile abundance and distribution. Additionally, the breadboard is able to characterize the biogenic element constituents of soil samples providing information on the biologic potential of the Mars environment. Preliminary breadboard experiments confirmed the fundamental instrument design approach and measurement performance.

  18. XRD- and infrared-probed anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanraj, J; Capria, E; Benevoli, L; Perucchi, A; Demitri, N; Fraleoni-Morgera, A

    2018-01-17

    The anisotropic thermal expansion properties of an organic semiconducting single crystal constituted by 4-hydroxycyanobenzene (4HCB) have been probed by XRD in the range 120-300 K. The anisotropic thermal expansion coefficients for the three crystallographic axes and for the crystal volume have been determined. A careful analysis of the crystal structure revealed that the two different H-bonds stemming from the two independent, differently oriented 4HCB molecules composing the unit cell have different rearrangement patterns upon temperature variations, in terms of both bond length and bond angle. Linearly Polarized Mid InfraRed (LP-MIR) measurements carried out in the same temperature range, focused on the O-H bond spectral region, confirm this finding. The same LP-MIR measurements, on the basis of a semi-empirical relation and of geometrical considerations and assumptions, allowed calculation of the -CNH-O- hydrogen bond length along the a and b axes of the crystal. In turn, the so-calculated -CNH-O- bond lengths were used to derive the thermal expansion coefficients along the corresponding crystal axes, as well as the volumetric one, using just the LP-MIR data. Reasonable to good agreement with the same values obtained from XRD measurements was obtained. This proof-of-principle opens interesting perspectives about the possible development of a rapid, low cost and industry-friendly assessment of the thermal expansion properties of organic semiconducting single crystals (OSSCs) involving hydrogen bonds.

  19. XRD, TEM, and thermal analysis of Arizona Ca-montmorillonites modified with didodecyldimethylammonium bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhiming; Park, Yuri; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L

    2013-10-15

    An Arizona SAz-2 calcium montmorillonite was modified by a typical dialkyl cationic surfactant (didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, abbreviated to DDDMA) through direct ion exchange. The obtained organoclays were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), high-resolution thermogravimetric analysis (HR-TG), and infrared emission spectroscopy (IES). The intercalation of surfactants greatly increased the basal spacing of the interlayers and the conformation arrangement of the loaded surfactant were assessed based on the XRD and TEM measurements. This work shows that the dialkyl surfactant can be directly intercalated into the montmorillonite without first undergoing Na(+) exchange. Moreover, the thermal stability of organoclays and the different arrangements of the surfactant molecules intercalated in the SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite were determined by a combination of TG and IES techniques. The detailed conformational ordering of different intercalated surfactants under different conditions was also studied. The surfactant molecule DDDMA has proved to be thermally stable even at 400°C which indicates that the prepared organoclay is stable to significantly high temperatures. This study offers new insights into the structure and thermal stabilities of SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonite modified with DDDMA. The experimental results also confirm the potential applications of organic SAz-2 Ca-montmorillonites as adsorbents and polymer-clay nanocomposites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling and measurements of XRD spectra of extended solids under high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batyrev, I. G.; Coleman, S. P.; Stavrou, E.; Zaug, J. M.; Ciezak-Jenkins, J. A.

    2017-06-01

    We present results of evolutionary simulations based on density functional calculations of various extended solids: N-Si and N-H using variable and fixed concentration methods of USPEX. Predicted from the evolutionary simulations structures were analyzed in terms of thermo-dynamical stability and agreement with experimental X-ray diffraction spectra. Stability of the predicted system was estimated from convex-hull plots. X-ray diffraction spectra were calculated using a virtual diffraction algorithm which computes kinematic diffraction intensity in three-dimensional reciprocal space before being reduced to a two-theta line profile. Calculations of thousands of XRD spectra were used to search for a structure of extended solids at certain pressures with best fits to experimental data according to experimental XRD peak position, peak intensity and theoretically calculated enthalpy. Comparison of Raman and IR spectra calculated for best fitted structures with available experimental data shows reasonable agreement for certain vibration modes. Part of this work was performed by LLNL, Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. We thank the Joint DoD / DOE Munitions Technology Development Program, the HE C-II research program at LLNL and Advanced Light Source, supported by BES DOE, Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH112.

  1. The chaotic points and XRD analysis of Hg-based superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslan, Oe [Anatuerkler Educational Consultancy and Trading Company, Orhan Veli Kanik Cad., 6/1, Kavacik 34810 Beykoz, Istanbul (Turkey); Oezdemir, Z Gueven [Physics Department, Yildiz Technical University, Davutpasa Campus, Esenler 34210, Istanbul (Turkey); Keskin, S S [Department of Environmental Eng., University of Marmara, Ziverbey, 34722, Istanbul (Turkey); Onbasli, Ue, E-mail: ozdenaslan@yahoo.co [Physics Department, University of Marmara, Ridvan Pasa Cad. 3. Sok. 85/12 Goztepe, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2009-03-01

    In this article, high T{sub c} mercury based cuprate superconductors with different oxygen doping rates have been examined by means of magnetic susceptibility (magnetization) versus temperature data and X-ray diffraction pattern analysis. The under, optimally and over oxygen doping procedures have been defined from the magnetic susceptibility versus temperature data of the superconducting sample by extracting the Meissner critical transition temperature, T{sub c} and the paramagnetic Meissner temperature, T{sub PME}, so called as the critical quantum chaos points. Moreover, the optimally oxygen doped samples have been investigated under both a.c. and d.c. magnetic fields. The related a.c. data for virgin(uncut) and cut samples with optimal doping have been obtained under a.c. magnetic field of 1 Gauss. For the cut sample with the rectangular shape, the chaotic points have been found to occur at 122 and 140 K, respectively. The Meissner critical temperature of 140 K is the new world record for the high temperature oxide superconductors under normal atmospheric pressure. Moreover, the crystallographic lattice parameters of superconducting samples have a crucial importance in calculating Josephson penetration depth determined by the XRD patterns. From the XRD data obtained for under and optimally doped samples, the crystal symmetries have been found in tetragonal structure.

  2. Radiometric, SEM and XRD investigation of the Chituc black sands, southern Danube Delta, Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margineanu, R.M.; Blebea-Apostu, Ana-Maria; Celarel, Aurelia; Gomoiu, Claudia-Mariana; Costea, C.; Dumitras, Delia; Ion, Adriana; Duliu, O.G.

    2014-01-01

    The black sand of the Chituc marine sand bank, northern of the city of Navodari (Romania), presents anomalous high radioactivity. Field measurements recorded in some places dose rate up to 200 nSv/h, significantly overpassing the average value of 44 ± 20 nSv/h along the entire Southern sector of Romanian Black Sea shore. Gamma ray spectrometry performed on both Slanic-Prahova Underground Low Background Laboratory and Geological Institute of Romania Radiometric Facilities showed with clarity the dominance of 228 Ac radioisotope in the 50 microns fraction together with the 226 Ra and traces of 40 K. No significant amount of anthropogenic 137 Cs was identified. Based on radiometric as well as on SEM–EDAX and XRD determinations we come to the conclusion that the evidenced radioactivity could be attributed to both uranium and thorium series in the zircon and monazite fractions and to a lesser extent to potassium in the feldspars. - Highlights: • High background radioactivity (up to 200 nSv/h) evidenced. • Radiometric measurements showed a maximum radioactivity of U and Th confined to 50–100 μm fraction. • XRD and SEM–EDAX data revealed the presence of k-feldspars, ilmenite, zircone, monazite and garnets

  3. Lupeol and its esters: NMR, powder XRD data and in vitro evaluation of cancer cell growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Teixeira Maciel e Silva

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The triterpene lupeol (1 and some of its esters are secondary metabolites produced by species of Celastraceae family, which have being associated with cytotoxic activity. We report herein the isolation of 1, the semi-synthesis of eight lupeol esters and the evaluation of their in vitro activity against nine strains of cancer cells. The reaction of carboxylic acids with 1 and DIC/DMAP was used to obtain lupeol stearate (2, lupeol palmitate (3 lupeol miristate (4, and the new esters lupeol laurate (5, lupeol caprate (6, lupeol caprilate (7, lupeol caproate (8 and lupeol 3’,4’-dimethoxybenzoate (9, with high yields. Compounds 1-9 were identified using FT-IR, 1H, 13C-NMR, CHN analysis and XRD data and were tested in vitro for proliferation of human cancer cell activity. In these assays, lupeol was inactive (GI50> 250µg/mL while lupeol esters 2 -4 and 7 - 9 showed a cytostatic effect. The XRD method was a suitable tool to determine the structure of lupeol and its esters in solid state. Compound 3 showed a selective growth inhibition effect on erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562 cells in a concentration-dependent way. Lupeol esters 4 and 9 showed a selective cytostatic effect with low GI50 values representing promising prototypes for the development of new anticancer drugs.

  4. Determination of equilibrium humidities using temperature and humidity controlled X-ray diffraction (RH-XRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linnow, Kirsten; Steiger, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Confined growth of crystals in porous building materials is generally considered to be a major cause of damage. We report on the use of X-ray diffraction under controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity (RH-XRD) for the investigation of potentially deleterious phase transition reactions. An improved procedure based on rate measurements is used for the accurate and reproducible determination of equilibrium humidities of deliquescence and hydration reactions. The deliquescence humidities of NaCl (75.4 ± 0.5% RH) and Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .4H 2 O (50.8 ± 0.7% RH) at 25 deg. C determined with this improved RH-XRD technique are in excellent agreement with available literature data. Measurement of the hydration of anhydrous Ca(NO 3 ) 2 to form Ca(NO 3 ) 2 .2H 2 O revealed an equilibrium humidity of 10.2 ± 0.3%, which is also in reasonable agreement with available data. In conclusion, dynamic X-ray diffraction measurements are an appropriate method for the accurate and precise determination of equilibrium humidities with a number of interesting future applications

  5. Moessbauer and XRD study of pulse plated Fe-P and Fe-Ni thin layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miko, Annamaria [Bay Zoltan Institute for Material Science (Hungary); Kuzmann, Erno, E-mail: kuzmann@para.chem.elte.hu [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Lakatos-Varsanyi, Magda [Bay Zoltan Institute for Material Science (Hungary); Kakay, Attila [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics (Hungary); Nagy, Ferenc [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Research Group for Nuclear Methods in Structural Chemistry, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Department of Nuclear Chemistry (Hungary); Varga, Lajos Karoly [Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics (Hungary)

    2005-09-15

    {sup 57}Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical and magnetic measurements were used to study pulse electroplated Fe-P and Ni-Fe coatings. XRD and {sup 57}Fe CEMS measurements revealed the amorphous character of the novel pulse plated Fe-P alloys. CEM spectra indicated significant differences in the short range order and in the magnetic anisotropy between the Fe-P deposits pulse plated at medium long deposition time (t{sub on} = 2 ms), with short relaxation time (t{sub off} = 9 ms) and low current density (I{sub p} = 0.05 Acm{sup -2}) or at short deposition time (t{sub on} = 1 ms) with long relaxation time (t{sub off} = 250 ms) and high current density (I{sub p} = 1.0 Acm{sup -2}). The broad peaks centred around the fcc reflections in XRD of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe deposit reflected a microcrystalline Ni-Fe alloy with a very fine, 5-8 nm, grain size. The CEM spectrum of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe coating corresponded to a highly disordered solid solution alloy containing a minute amount of ferrihydrite. Extreme favourable soft magnetic properties were observed with these Ni-Fe and Fe-P pulse plated thin layers.

  6. Moessbauer and XRD study of pulse plated Fe-P and Fe-Ni thin layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miko, Annamaria; Kuzmann, Erno; Lakatos-Varsanyi, Magda; Kakay, Attila; Nagy, Ferenc; Varga, Lajos Karoly

    2005-01-01

    57 Fe conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, electrochemical and magnetic measurements were used to study pulse electroplated Fe-P and Ni-Fe coatings. XRD and 57 Fe CEMS measurements revealed the amorphous character of the novel pulse plated Fe-P alloys. CEM spectra indicated significant differences in the short range order and in the magnetic anisotropy between the Fe-P deposits pulse plated at medium long deposition time (t on = 2 ms), with short relaxation time (t off = 9 ms) and low current density (I p = 0.05 Acm -2 ) or at short deposition time (t on = 1 ms) with long relaxation time (t off = 250 ms) and high current density (I p = 1.0 Acm -2 ). The broad peaks centred around the fcc reflections in XRD of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe deposit reflected a microcrystalline Ni-Fe alloy with a very fine, 5-8 nm, grain size. The CEM spectrum of the pulse plated Ni-22 wt.% Fe coating corresponded to a highly disordered solid solution alloy containing a minute amount of ferrihydrite. Extreme favourable soft magnetic properties were observed with these Ni-Fe and Fe-P pulse plated thin layers.

  7. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  8. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  9. Swift heavy ion induced modification in morphological and physico-chemical properties of tin oxide nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-15

    Nanocomposite thin films of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2})/titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) were grown on silicon (1 0 0) substrates by electron beam evaporation deposition technique using sintered nanocomposite pellet of SnO{sub 2}/TiO{sub 2} in the percentage ratio of 95:5. Sintering of the nanocomposite pellet was done at 1300 °C for 24 h. The thicknesses of these films were measured to be 100 nm during deposition using piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. TiO{sub 2} doped SnO{sub 2} nanocomposite films were irradiated by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ion beam at fluence range varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2} at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi, India. Chemical properties of pristine and ion irradiation modified thin films were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. FTIR peak at 610 cm{sup −1} confirms the presence of O–Sn–O bridge of tin (IV) oxide signifying the composite nature of pristine and irradiated thin films. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) in tapping mode was used to study the surface morphology and grain growth due to swift heavy ion irradiation at different fluencies. Grain size calculations obtained from sectional analysis of AFM images were compared with results obtained from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) measurements using Scherrer’s formulae. Phase transformation due to irradiation was observed from Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) results. The prominent 2θ peaks observed in GAXRD spectrum are at 30.67°, 32.08°, 43.91°, 44.91° and 52.35° in the irradiated films.

  10. Fabricate heterojunction diode by using the modified spray pyrolysis method to deposit nickel-lithium oxide on indium tin oxide substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ching; Yang, Cheng-Fu

    2013-06-12

    P-type lithium-doped nickel oxide (p-LNiO) thin films were deposited on an n-type indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrate using the modified spray pyrolysis method (SPM), to fabricate a transparent p-n heterojunction diode. The structural, optical, and electrical properties of the p-LNiO and ITO thin films and the p-LNiO/n-ITO heterojunction diode were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-visible spectroscopy, Hall effect measurement, and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. The nonlinear and rectifying I-V properties confirmed that a heterojunction diode characteristic was successfully formed in the p-LNiO/n-ITO (p-n) structure. The I-V characteristic was dominated by space-charge-limited current (SCLC), and the Anderson model demonstrated that band alignment existed in the p-LNiO/n-ITO heterojunction diode.

  11. The role of MgCl2 compounds in preparation of Tin oxide micro particles by one-step solid - state chemical reaction method and characterization of microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hojabry, A.; Rezainik, Y.; Abdoljavad, N.; Moghimi, N.; Shakib, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, Tin oxide (SnO 2 ) nano crystals have been synthesized by one-step solid-state chemical reactions method. In the first step, the powder of SnCl 4 . 5H 2 O was mixed with MgCl 2 and Mg(OH) 2 with a weight ratio of Sn to Mg (2:1) in the air atmosphere at room, and then annealed at 200 d egree C , 400 d egree C and 600 d egree C in air for 4 h to give different size of nanoparticles. This method is a simple, efficient and economic preparation for SnO 2 nanoparticles with adjustable grain sizes in the range of 7-32 nm in high yield. The microstructure and morphology of SnO 2 nanoparticles have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis (thermogravimetric analysis -differential thermal analysis).

  12. Preparation and photovoltaic properties of CdS quantum dot-sensitized solar cell based on zinc tin mixed metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiupeng; Zhao, Yifan; Zhu, Yatong; Yang, Xiaoyu; Shi, Peng; Xiao, Hongdi; Du, Na; Hou, Wanguo; Qi, Genggeng; Liu, Jianqiang

    2017-07-15

    The present study reports a new type of quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) using the zinc tin mixed metal oxides (MMO) as the anode materials, which were obtained from the layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursor. The successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method is applied to deposit CdS quantum dots. The effects of sensitizing cycles on the performance of CdS QDSSC are studied. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscope (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) are used to identify the surface profile and crystal structure of the mixed metal oxides anode. The photovoltaic performance of the QDSSC is studied by the electrochemical method. The new CdS QDSSC exhibits power conversion efficiency (PCE) up to 0.48% when the anode was sensitized for eight cycles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of surface-modified LiMn2O4 cathode materials with indium tin oxide (ITO) coatings and their electrochemical performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chang-Sam; Kwon, Soon-Ho; Yoon, Jong-Won

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: • Indium tin oxide (ITO) is used to modify the surface of LiMn 2 O 4 by a sol–gel method. • The surface-modified layer was observed at a scale of several nanometers on LiMn 2 O 4 . • The ITO-coated LiMn 2 O 4 shows better capacity retention at 30 and 55 °C than pristine LiMn 2 O 4 . -- Abstract: Indium tin oxide (ITO) is used to modify the surface of LiMn 2 O 4 by a sol–gel method in an attempt to improve its electrochemical performance at elevated temperatures. The surface-modified LiMn 2 O 4 is characterized via XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The surface layer modified by substitution with indium was observed at a scale of several nanometers near the surface on LiMn 2 O 4 . The concentration of ITO for electrochemical performance was varied from 0.3 wt% to 0.8 wt%. The 0.5 wt% ITO coated LiMn 2 O 4 showed the best electrochemical performance. This enhancement in electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to the effect of the surface layer modified through ITO, which could suppress Mn dissolution and reduce the charge transfer resistance at the solid electrolyte interface

  14. Synthesis and characterization of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed oxide tin-titanium to be used in recovery of cadmium and nickel and photoluminescent studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula Pinheiro

    2007-01-01

    This work presents the synthesis, characterization and adsorption studies of inorganic ion exchangers based on mixed tin-titanium oxide for recovery of cadmium and nickel metals from aqueous effluents, discarded in the environment mainly through Ni-Cd battery. The exchangers were synthesized by sol-gel modified method using a mixture of tin(IV) chloride and titanium(III) chloride and ammonium hydroxide, as precursors reagents. The materials obtained: SnO 2 /TiO 2 and SnO 2 /TiO 2 :Eu 3+ were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermal analysis, scattering electronic microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) (powder method) and electronic spectroscopy (excitation and emission) for the europium doped exchanger. The same materials also were synthesized in polymeric matrix too and can be used in column, because the synthesized materials showed crystals size in nano metric scale. It was determined by the distribution ratios for metals taking as parameters the influence of pH, the concentration of metals (by adsorption isotherms) and the contact time (by adsorption kinetic). The inorganic ion exchanger presented high exchange capacity with adsorption percent above 90 por cent for the studied conditions, quickly kinetic, heterogeneous exchange surfaces, physic adsorption and spontaneous process of exchange. To the doped exchanger spectroscopy properties were studied and also it was calculated the intensity parameters and it was found a satisfactory quantum yield. (author)

  15. Effect of oxidizer on grain size and low temperature DC electrical conductivity of tin oxide nanomaterial synthesized by gel combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajeeva, M. P.; Jayanna, H. S.; Ashok, R. L.; Naveen, C. S.; Bothla, V. Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Tin oxide material with different grain size was synthesized using gel combustion method by varying the fuel (C 6 H 8 O 7 ) to oxidizer (HNO 3 ) molar ratio by keeping the amount of fuel as constant. The prepared samples were characterized by using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Analysis X-ray Spectroscopy (EDAX). The effect of fuel to oxidizer molar ratio in the gel combustion method was investigated by inspecting the grain size of nano SnO 2 powder. The grain size was found to be reduced with the amount of oxidizer increases from 0 to 6 moles in the step of 2. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the calcined product showed the formation of high purity tetragonal tin (IV) oxide with the grain size in the range of 12 to 31 nm which was calculated by Scherer's formula. Molar ratio and temperature dependence of DC electrical conductivity of SnO 2 nanomaterial was studied using Keithley source meter. DC electrical conductivity of SnO 2 nanomaterial increases with the temperature from 80K to 300K. From the study it was observed that the DC electrical conductivity of SnO 2 nanomaterial decreases with the grain size at constant temperature

  16. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  17. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  18. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  19. Charge radii and moments of tin nuclei by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselment, M.; Bekk, K.; Hanser, A.; Hoeffgen, H.; Meisel, G.; Goering, S.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1986-04-01

    The isotope shift and hyperfine structure of the optical Sn I resonance transition 5p 2 3 P 0 ->5p6s 3 P 1 at lambda=286.3 nm have been studied for 18 Sn nuclei including 2 isomers. Laser induced resonance fluorescence from a collimated atomic beam of tin was observed using a tunable cw dye laser with frequency doubler. The electromagnetic nuclear moments and changes of the mean square charge radii of the nuclear charge distributions were determined. The results are discussed with respect to the information they provide on the nuclear structure of the nuclei investigated; they are compared with various theoretical models. (orig.) [de

  20. Pretreatment of Platinum/Tin Oxide-Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Miller, Irvin M.; Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Wood, George M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of CO to He pretreatment doubles catalytic activity. In sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser, CO and O2 form as decomposition products of CO2 in laser discharge zone. Products must be recombined, because oxygen concentration of more than few tenths of percent causes rapid deterioration of power, ending in unstable operation. Promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide. New development increases activity of catalyst so less needed for recombination process.

  1. Reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Hess, Robert V. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Sidney, Barry D. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Paulin, Patricia A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for the reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst of a CO.sub.2 laser is provided. First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during usage, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature which is the operating temperature of the laser and 400.degree. C. for approximately one hour. The catalyst is exposed to the same laser gas mixture during this period. The temperature of the heated zone is then lowered to the operating temperature of the CO.sub.2 laser.

  2. Influence of Nitrogen Gas Flow Rate on The Microstructural and Mechanical Properties of Tin Deposited Carbon Steel Synthesized by Cae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mubarak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the preparation of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on carbon steel plates, using cathodic arc evaporation CAE PVD technique. We studied and discussed the effect of various nitrogen gas flow rates on microstructural and mechanical properties of TiN-coated carbon steel plates. The coating properties investigated in this work included the surface morphology, thickness of deposited coating, adhesion between the coating and substrate, coating composition, coating crystallography, hardness and surface characterization using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, Xray diffraction (XRD with glazing incidence angle (GIA technique, scratch tester, hardness testing machine, surface roughness tester and atomic force microscope (AFM. SEM analyses showed that all the films had columnar and dense structures with clearly defined substrate-film interfacial layers. The hardness of TiN-coated carbon steel was noted six times more than the hardness of uncoated one. An increase in nitrogen gas flow rate showed; decrease in the formation of macro-droplets, average roughness (Ra and root-mean-square (RMS values in CAE PVD technique. During XRD-GIA studies, it was observed that by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate, the main peak [1,1,1] shifted toward the lower angular position. Microhardness of TiN-coated carbon steel showed about six times increase in hardness than the uncoated one. Scratch tester results showed an average adhesion between the coating material and substrate. Thanks to the high resolution power could be observed that by increasing nitrogen gas flow rate there was percentage increase in the bearing ratio while percentage decrease in histogram.

  3. XRD and SEM study on the phase separation and crystallization behavior for an amorphous Cu+ conductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yuan; Hou Jianguo; Yu Wenhai

    1990-01-01

    The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) study was carried out for an amorphous Cu + conductor 0.4 CuI-0.3 Cu 2 O-0.3 P 2 O 5 with the simultaneous conductivity measurement in the isothermal heat treament process. The results indicated that the initial amorphous material was phase-separated. In the course of time the separated amorphous phase disappeared, the crystalline γ-CuI and Cu 2 P 2 O 7 formed in sequence and grew up gradually. The correlation of the phase separation and crystallization behavior with the conductivity anomaly confirmed again the interface effect between different phases in amorphous fast ionic conductors and its universality

  4. Investigation of synthetic spider silk crystallinity and alignment via electrothermal, pyroelectric, literature XRD, and tensile techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Troy; Putzeys, Tristan; Copeland, Cameron G; Xing, Changhu; Lewis, Randolph V; Ban, Heng; Glorieux, Christ; Wubbenhorst, Michael

    2017-04-01

    The processes used to create synthetic spider silk greatly affect the properties of the produced fibers. This paper investigates the effect of process variations during artificial spinning on the thermal and mechanical properties of the produced silk. Property values are also compared to the ones of the natural dragline silk of the N. clavipes spider, and to unprocessed (as-spun) synthetic silk. Structural characterization by scanning pyroelectric microscopy is employed to provide insight into the axial orientation of the crystalline regions of the fiber and is supported by XRD data. The results show that stretching and passage through liquid baths induce crystal formation and axial alignment in synthetic fibers, but with different structural organization than natural silks. Furthermore, an increase in thermal diffusivity and elastic modulus is observed with decreasing fiber diameter, trending towards properties of natural fiber. This effect seems to be related to silk fibers being subjected to a radial gradient during production.

  5. Laboratory Detection and Analysis of Organic Compounds in Rocks Using HPLC and XRD Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoi, D.; Kanik, I.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Sherrit, S.; Tsapin, A.; Kulleck, J.

    2004-01-01

    In this work we describe an analytical method for determining the presence of organic compounds in rocks, limestone, and other composite materials. Our preliminary laboratory experiments on different rocks/limestone show that the organic component in mineralogical matrices is a minor phase on order of hundreds of ppm and can be better detected using high precision liquid chromatography (HPLC). The matrix, which is the major phase, plays an important role in embedding and protecting the organic molecules from the harsh Martian environment. Some rocks bear significant amounts of amino acids therefore, it is possible to identify these phases using powder x-ray diffraction (XRD) by crystallizing the organic. The method of detection/analysis of organics, in particular amino acids, that have been associated with life will be shown in the next section.

  6. XRD analysis of undoped and Fe doped TiO2 nanoparticles by Williamson Hall method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Bandna; Barman, P. B.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Undoped and Fe doped titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel method at room temperature. The synthesized samples were annealed at 500°C. For structural analysis, the prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The crystallite size of TiO 2 and Fe doped TiO 2 nanoparticles were calculated by Scherer’s formula, and was found to be 15 nm and 11 nm, respectively. Reduction in crystallite size of TiO 2 with Fe doping was observed. The anatase phase of Fe-doped TiO 2 nanoparticles was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction. By using Williamson-Hall method, lattice strain and crystallite size were also calculated. Williamson–Hall plot indicates the presence of compressive strain for TiO 2 and tensile strain for Fe-TiO 2 nanoparticles annealed at 500°C

  7. XRD total scattering of the CZTS nanoparticle absorber layer for the thin film solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Symonowicz, Joanna; Jensen, Kirsten M. Ø.; Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin

    Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin film solar cells are cheap, non-toxic and present an efficiency up to 9,2% [1]. They can be easily manufactured by the deposition of the nanoparticle ink as a thin film followed by a thermal treatment to obtain large grains [2]. Therefore, CZTS has the potential...... to revolutionize the solar energy market. However, to commercialize CZTS nanoparticle thin films, the efficiency issues must yet be resolved. In order to do so, it is vital to understand in detail their nanoscale atomic structure. CZTS crystallize in the kesterite structure, where Cu and Zn is distributed between......-ray Diffraction data with X-ray total scattering with Pair Distribution Function analysis. Powder neutron diffraction will furthermore allow characterization of the cation disorder on the metal sites in the kesterite structure. The nanoparticle ink is also characterized by XRD, EDS, and Raman spectroscopy...

  8. Different β-alanine dimeric forms in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid salts. XRD and vibrational studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Łukasz; Ilczyszyn, Maria M.

    2018-03-01

    Two new crystalline salts: β-alaninium trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-AlaOTf) and bis(β-alanine) trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-2AlaOTf) were obtained. The former one contains diprotonated β-alanine dimer, the latter one monoprotonated β-alanine dimer. Both compounds were studied by single crystal XRD, vibrational (IR and Raman) spectroscopy and calorimetric method. The quantum-mechanical calculations (DFT/B3LYP/6-311 ++G(2d,2p)) for the diprotonated dimer were carried out. The β-AlaOTf salt crystallizes in the P 1 bar space group of triclinic system (Z = 2), the β-2AlaOTf in the P21/m space group of monoclinic system (Z = 2). The vibrational data for the studied compounds are discussed in relation to their crystal structure, and provide insight into the character of hydrogen bonds and β-alanine protonation. The studied crystals do not exhibit phase transitions in the solid state.

  9. Crystal imperfection studies of pure and silicon substituted hydroxyapatite using Raman and XRD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shuo; Huang, Jie; Best, Serena; Bonfield, William

    2005-12-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is important in biomedical applications because of its chemical similarity to the mineral content of bone and its consequent bioactivity. Silicon substitution into the hydroxyapatite crystal lattice was found to enhance its bioactivity both in vitro and in vivo [1, 2]. However, the mechanism for the enhancement is still not well understood. In this paper, the crystal imperfections introduced by silicon substitution were studied using XRD and Raman spectroscopy. It was found that silicon substitution did not introduce microstrain, but deceased the crystal size in the hk0 direction. Three new vibration modes and peak broadening were observed in Raman spectra following silicon incorporation. The imperfections introduced by silicon substitution may play a role in enhancing bioactivity. A phenomenological relationship between the width of the PO4 v1 peak and crystal size was established.

  10. Spectroscopic, DFT, and XRD Studies of Hydrogen Bonds in N-Unsubstituted 2-Aminobenzamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mphahlele, Malose Jack; Maluleka, Marole Maria; Rhyman, Lydia; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Mampa, Richard Mokome

    2017-01-04

    The structures of the mono- and the dihalogenated N -unsubstituted 2-aminobenzamides were characterized by means of the spectroscopic (¹H-NMR, UV-Vis, FT-IR, and FT-Raman) and X-ray crystallographic techniques complemented with a density functional theory (DFT) method. The hindered rotation of the C(O)-NH₂ single bond resulted in non-equivalence of the amide protons and therefore two distinct resonances of different chemical shift values in the ¹H-NMR spectra of these compounds were observed. 2-Amino-5-bromobenzamide ( ABB ) as a model confirmed the presence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds between oxygen and the amine hydrogen. However, intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl oxygen and the amine protons was not observed in the solution phase due to a rapid exchange of these two protons with the solvent and fast rotation of the Ar-NH₂ single bond. XRD also revealed the ability of the amide unit of these compounds to function as a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor simultaneously to form strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between oxygen of one molecule and the NH moiety of the amine or amide group of the other molecule and between the amine nitrogen and the amide hydrogen of different molecules. DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set revealed that the conformer ( A ) with oxygen and 2-amine on the same side predominates possibly due to the formation of a six-membered intramolecular ring, which is assisted by hydrogen bonding as observed in the single crystal XRD structure.

  11. Reduction of mixed Mn-Zr oxides: in situ XPS and XRD studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulavchenko, O A; Vinokurov, Z S; Afonasenko, T N; Tsyrul'nikov, P G; Tsybulya, S V; Saraev, A A; Kaichev, V V

    2015-09-21

    A series of mixed Mn-Zr oxides with different molar ratios Mn/Zr (0.1-9) have been prepared by coprecipitation of manganese and zirconium nitrates and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and BET methods. It has been found that at concentrations of Mn below 30 at%, the samples are single-phase solid solutions (MnxZr1-xO2-δ) based on a ZrO2 structure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements showed that manganese in these solutions exists mainly in the Mn(4+) state on the surface. An increase in Mn content mostly leads to an increase in the number of Mn cations in the structure of solid solutions; however, a part of the manganese cations form Mn2O3 and Mn3O4 in the crystalline and amorphous states. The reduction of these oxides with hydrogen was studied by a temperature-programmed reduction technique, in situ XRD, and near ambient pressure XPS in the temperature range from 100 to 650 °C. It was shown that the reduction of the solid solutions MnxZr1-xO2-δ proceeds via two stages. During the first stage, at temperatures between 100 and 500 °C, the Mn cations incorporated into the solid solutions MnxZr1-xO2-δ undergo partial reduction. During the second stage, at temperatures between 500 and 700 °C, Mn cations segregate on the surface of the solid solution. In the samples with more than 30 at% Mn, the reduction of manganese oxides was observed: Mn2O3 → Mn3O4 → MnO.

  12. Thermal decomposition of dolomite under CO2: insights from TGA and in situ XRD analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Jose Manuel; Perejon, Antonio; Medina, Santiago; Perez-Maqueda, Luis A

    2015-11-28

    Thermal decomposition of dolomite in the presence of CO2 in a calcination environment is investigated by means of in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The in situ XRD results suggest that dolomite decomposes directly at a temperature around 700 °C into MgO and CaO. Immediate carbonation of nascent CaO crystals leads to the formation of calcite as an intermediate product of decomposition. Subsequently, decarbonation of this poorly crystalline calcite occurs when the reaction is thermodynamically favorable and sufficiently fast at a temperature depending on the CO2 partial pressure in the calcination atmosphere. Decarbonation of this dolomitic calcite occurs at a lower temperature than limestone decarbonation due to the relatively low crystallinity of the former. Full decomposition of dolomite leads also to a relatively low crystalline CaO, which exhibits a high reactivity as compared to limestone derived CaO. Under CO2 capture conditions in the Calcium-Looping (CaL) process, MgO grains remain inert yet favor the carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO especially in the solid-state diffusion controlled phase. The fundamental mechanism that drives the crystallographic transformation of dolomite in the presence of CO2 is thus responsible for its fast calcination kinetics and the high carbonation reactivity of dolomitic CaO, which makes natural dolomite a potentially advantageous alternative to limestone for CO2 capture in the CaL technology as well as SO2in situ removal in oxy-combustion fluidized bed reactors.

  13. Spectroscopic, DFT, and XRD Studies of Hydrogen Bonds in N-Unsubstituted 2-Aminobenzamides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malose Jack Mphahlele

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The structures of the mono- and the dihalogenated N-unsubstituted 2-aminobenzamides were characterized by means of the spectroscopic (1H-NMR, UV-Vis, FT-IR, and FT-Raman and X-ray crystallographic techniques complemented with a density functional theory (DFT method. The hindered rotation of the C(O–NH2 single bond resulted in non-equivalence of the amide protons and therefore two distinct resonances of different chemical shift values in the 1H-NMR spectra of these compounds were observed. 2-Amino-5-bromobenzamide (ABB as a model confirmed the presence of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds between oxygen and the amine hydrogen. However, intramolecular hydrogen bonding between the carbonyl oxygen and the amine protons was not observed in the solution phase due to a rapid exchange of these two protons with the solvent and fast rotation of the Ar–NH2 single bond. XRD also revealed the ability of the amide unit of these compounds to function as a hydrogen bond donor and acceptor simultaneously to form strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding between oxygen of one molecule and the NH moiety of the amine or amide group of the other molecule and between the amine nitrogen and the amide hydrogen of different molecules. DFT calculations using the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p basis set revealed that the conformer (A with oxygen and 2-amine on the same side predominates possibly due to the formation of a six-membered intramolecular ring, which is assisted by hydrogen bonding as observed in the single crystal XRD structure.

  14. Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellum, C.D.; Fisher, L.M.; Tegtmeyer, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the advantages of the use of excretory urography for diagnosis. According to the authors, excretory urography remains the basic radiologic examination of the urinary tract and is the foundation for the evaluation of suspected urologic disease. Despite development of the newer diagnostic modalities such as isotope scanning, ultrasonography, CT, and magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), excretory urography has maintained a prominent role in ruorradiology. Some indications have been altered and will continue to change with the newer imaging modalities, but the initial evaluation of suspected urinary tract structural abnormalities; hematuria, pyuria, and calculus disease is best performed with excretory urography. The examination is relatively inexpensive and simple to perform, with few contraindictions. Excretory urography, when properly performed, can provide valuable information about the renal parenchyma, pelvicalyceal system, ureters, and urinary bladder

  15. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu 3 SnS 4 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn 4+ ions leads to the formation of Cu 3 SnS 4 . These Cu 3 SnS 4 nanocrystals form Au-Cu 3 SnS 4 hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  16. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  17. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  18. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  19. Self-consistent approximation for muffin-tin models of random substitutional alloys with environmental disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, T.; Gray, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The self-consistent approximation of Kaplan, Leath, Gray, and Diehl is applied to models for substitutional random alloys with muffin-tin potentials. The particular advantage of this approximation is that, in addition to including cluster scattering, the muffin-tin potentials in the alloy can depend on the occupation of the surrounding sites (i.e., environmental disorder is included)

  20. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn and copper (Cu were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin minerals were partially recovered by shaking table concentrators with a low recovery rate. Based on the mineralogical analysis, flotation recovery was used for the first time on the fine particles of copper–tin minerals, including mushistonite, from shaking table tailings. Single factor flotation experiments, open circuit flotation tests, and closed circuit flotation tests were performed to determine the optimized flotation conditions. Results indicated that benzohydroxamic acid (C6H5CONHOH and lead nitrate could effectively recover the mushistonite, cooperating with other depressants. The final concentrate contained 13.28% Sn, with a recovery rate of 61.56%, and 18.51% Cu, with a recovery rate of 86.52%. This method proved effective for the exploitation and use of this type of copper–tin resource in Tajikistan.

  1. Moessbauer study of the lattice dynamics of tin atoms in antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect probability f was investigated for tin impurity atoms in the SnSb solution (the impurity varied from 3 at% to 15 at%). The absolute value of the Moessbauer effect probability was determined from Moessbauer absorption spectra by the area method using a calibration absorber of a β-tin foil with known f. (Z.S.)

  2. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...

  3. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed throu...

  4. Reversible storage of lithium in a rambutan-like tin-carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang

    2009-01-01

    Fruity electrodes: A simple bottom-up self-assembly method was used to fabricate rambutan-like tin-carbon (Sn@C) nanoarchitecture (see scheme, green Sn) to improve the reversible storage of lithium in tin. The mechanism of the growth of the pear-like hairs is explored.

  5. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  6. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  7. Colorimetric properties of TiN coating implanted by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: zhouqg99@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Bai, X.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xue, X.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, X.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, J. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China); Wang, D.R. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2005-04-05

    TiN coating was prepared by cathodic arc deposition and implanted aluminum using a metal vacuum vapor arc ion source with doses ranging from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The purpose of this work was to determine the dependence of the colorimetric properties of TiN films on the implanting conditions, especially by the aluminum ion implantation. The colorimetry of coatings was evaluated quantitatively in terms of CIE L * a * b *. The color coordinate values L *, a *, and b * provide a numerical representation of the color of the surface. With the dose increasing, the surface color has no obvious change but the surface turns brighter, and a * as well as b * values all decline. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the aluminum implantation induced a slight shift of diffraction peaks. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was employed to analyze the surface valence states. The oxygen in surface top layer does not decrease a * and b * values, it partially combined with nitrogen.

  8. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B. D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Murphy, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Burr, P. A. [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2015-02-28

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The Sn{sub Zr}{sup ×} defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} charge compensated by V{sub O}{sup ••} occurring at partial pressures below 10{sup −31 }atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  9. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  10. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  11. Amdel on-line analyser at Rooiberg Tin Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    An Amdel on line analysis system was installed on the 'A' mine tin flotation plant at Rooiberg in April 1984. The motivation for the installation was made on account of the large variations in the feed grade to the plant and the resulting need for rapid operational adjustments to control concentrate grades thereby maximising the financial returns. An 'on-line' analyser system presented itself as a suitable alternative to the existing control method of smaller laboratory x-ray fluorescence analysers. On the system as installed at Rooiberg, two probes were fitted in each analysis zone, viz a density probe using high energy gamma radiation from a Cesium 127 source and a specific element absorption probe using low energy gamma radiation from a Americium 241 source. The signals as received from the probes are fed to a line receiver unit in the control room where a micro computer is doing the processing and prints out the information as required. Several advantages of this type of installation were gained at Rooiberg Tin Limited

  12. The Surface Extraction from TIN based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Myoung-Jong; Howat, Ian M.

    2017-07-01

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) provide critical information for a wide range of scientific, navigational and engineering activities. Submeter resolution, stereoscopic satellite imagery with high geometric and radiometric quality, and wide spatial coverage are becoming increasingly accessible for generating stereo-photogrammetric DEMs. However, low contrast and repeatedly-textured surfaces, such as snow and glacial ice at high latitudes, and mountainous terrains challenge existing stereo-photogrammetric DEM generation techniques, particularly without a-priori information such as existing seed DEMs or the manual setting of terrain-specific parameters. To utilize these data for fully-automatic DEM extraction at a large scale, we developed the Surface Extraction from TIN-based Search-space Minimization (SETSM) algorithm. SETSM is fully automatic (i.e. no search parameter settings are needed) and uses only the sensor model Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs). SETSM adopts a hierarchical, combined image- and object-space matching strategy utilizing weighted normalized cross-correlation with both original distorted and geometrically corrected images for overcoming ambiguities caused by foreshortening and occlusions. In addition, SETSM optimally minimizes search-spaces to extract optimal matches over problematic terrains by iteratively updating object surfaces within a Triangulated Irregular Network, and utilizes a geometric-constrained blunder and outlier detection in object space. We prove the ability of SETSM to mitigate typical stereo-photogrammetric matching problems over a range of challenging terrains. SETSM is the primary DEM generation software for the US National Science Foundation's ArcticDEM project.

  13. Electrochemical migration of tin in electronics and microstructure of the dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2011-01-01

    The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electr...... by the dehydration of the hydrated oxide originally formed in solution ex-situ in ambient air.......The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron...... microscopy including Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The tin dendrites were formed under 5 or 12V potential bias in 10ppm by weight NaCl electrolyte as a micro-droplet on the resistor during electrochemical migration experiments. The dendrites formed were found to have...

  14. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian

    2004-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb 2 O 3 . The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m 2 /g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6

  15. VO2 /TiN Plasmonic Thermochromic Smart Coatings for Room-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Li, Wan; Xu, Huiyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Yin; Wang, Huaiyu; Ma, Libo; Ma, Fei; Jiang, Xuchuan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Chu, Paul K

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide/titanium nitride (VO 2 /TiN) smart coatings are prepared by hybridizing thermochromic VO 2 with plasmonic TiN nanoparticles. The VO 2 /TiN coatings can control infrared (IR) radiation dynamically in accordance with the ambient temperature and illumination intensity. It blocks IR light under strong illumination at 28 °C but is IR transparent under weak irradiation conditions or at a low temperature of 20 °C. The VO 2 /TiN coatings exhibit a good integral visible transmittance of up to 51% and excellent IR switching efficiency of 48% at 2000 nm. These unique advantages make VO 2 /TiN promising as smart energy-saving windows. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Feng, Song; Hai-Feng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Zhang; Yan-Hong, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature, by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. In the MSG model, the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior. The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS, and they agree well with the experimental data. Combined with the MEOS and MSG models, hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment. Moreover, by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin, we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  17. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Research into tin and arsenical copper artefacts using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This study includes the chemical analysis, sourcing and historical metallurgy of tin and arsenical copper artefacts discovered at Rooiberg and elsewhere in the Northern Transvaal and at Great Zimbabwe. A complete chemical analysis method for tin and cassiterite is presented, based on INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) and supplemented by PIXE or AAS for elements such as lead, bismuth and niobium. This is apparently the first study in which tin artefacts were analysed by INAA without chemical processing of the samples. INAA and PIXE returned the same results when a homogenized tin alloy block was analysed, but the structure and distribution of hardhead phases appear to produce an iron quantification problem in ancient tin. Ores and slags were analysed for light matrix elements by XRF or PIXE and INAA for the heavy trace metals. 108 refs., 24 figs., 130 tabs

  19. NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage http://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage provides general information and GSFC Code 562 experimentation results regarding the well known phenomenon of tin whisker formation from pure tin plated substrates. The objective of this www site is to provide a central repository for information pertaining to this phenomenon and to provide status of the GSFC experiments to understand the behavior of tin whiskers in space environments. The Tin Whisker www site is produced by Code 562. This www site does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in this www site is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at international conferences.

  20. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  1. Preparation of indium tin oxide anodes using energy filtrating technique for top-emitting organic light-emitting diode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhaoyong, Wang [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); School of Mathematics and Physics, Henan Urban Construction University, Pingdingshan 467036 (China); Ning, Yao, E-mail: yaoning@zzu.edu.cn [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Changbao, Han; Xing, Hu [School of Physical Engineering and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes were deposited by an improved magnetron sputtering technique (energy filtrating magnetron sputtering technique, EFMS) for top-emitting organic light-emitting diodes (TOLEDs). The phases, surface morphologies and optical properties were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopic ellipsometer. The sheet resistances were measured by the sheet resistance meter. The electrical properties were tested by the Hall measurement system. The electro-optic characteristics were examined by a special home-made measurement system. Results indicated that ITO anode deposited by EFMS had a more uniform and smoother surface with smaller grains. ITO film was prepared with the electrical property of the lowest resistivity (4.56 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm), highest carrier density (6.48 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup −3}) and highest carrier mobility (21.1 cm{sup 2}/V/s). The average transmissivity of the ITO film was 87.0% in the wavelength range of 400–800 nm. The TOLEDs based on this ITO anode had a lower turn-on voltage of 2 V (>0.02 mA/cm{sup 2}), higher current density of 58.4 mA/cm{sup 2} at 30 V, higher current efficiency of 1.374 cd/A and higher luminous efficiency of 0.175 lm/W. The possible mechanism of the technique was discussed in detail.

  2. Influence of Ti addition on the room temperature ferromagnetism of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) nanocrystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Balachandrakumar, K., E-mail: dkbaldr@gmail.com

    2015-12-01

    Nano-crystalline Sn{sub 1−x}Ti{sub x}O{sub 2} (x=0.00, 0.02, 0.05 and 0.07) particles were synthesized by the sol–gel method without any surfactant and dispersant material. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern shows the formation of the tetragonal rutile phase structure for the undoped SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle and Ti doping does not alter the structure of undoped tin oxide. Due to quantum confinement effect, a larger optical band gap for as-synthesized materials was found. Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) result demonstrates the undoped and 2% Ti doped SnO{sub 2} samples exhibit perfect room temperature ferromagnetism (RTFM) but 5% and 7% of Ti doped samples show a weak ferromagnetism with diamagnetic contribution. The ferromagnetic property of the material was initiated with the help of oxygen vacancy. The amount of oxygen vacancy present in the samples were identified from the photoluminescence spectra and the value of oxygen vacancy decreased with increasing Ti concentration. - Highlights: • Pure Ti doped and undoped SnO{sub 2} nanocrystal were prepared using sol–gel method. • Oxygen vacancy induced RTFM was observed in SnO{sub 2} nanostructures. • Higher amount of ferromagnetism was detected in pristine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystal. • Ferromagnetic property was decreased with increasing Ti concentration. • Redshift of energy band gap was noted with increasing Ti content.

  3. Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide (ITO Nanoparticles Recovered by Lift-off Method from TFT-LCD Panel Scraps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongchul Choi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, indium-tin-oxide (ITO nanoparticles were simply recovered from the thin film transistor-liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD panel scraps by means of lift-off method. This can be done by dissolving color filter (CF layer which is located between ITO layer and glass substrate. In this way the ITO layer was easily lifted off the glass substrate of the panel scrap without panel crushing. Over 90% of the ITO on the TFT-LCD panel was recovered by using this method. After separating, the ITO was obtained as particle form and their characteristics were investigated. The recovered product appeared as aggregates of particles less than 100 nm in size. The weight ratio of In/Sn is very close to 91/9. XRD analysis showed that the ITO nanoparticles have well crystallized structures with (222 preferred orientation even after recovery. The method described in this paper could be applied to the industrial recovery business for large size LCD scraps from TV easily without crushing the glass substrate.

  4. Molecular beam epitaxy of InN layers on Sapphire, GaN and indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denker, Christian; Landgraf, Boris; Schuhmann, Henning; Malindretos, Joerg; Seibt, Michael; Rizzi, Angela [IV. Physikalisches Institut, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen (Germany); Segura-Ruiz, Jaime; Gomez-Gomez, Maribel; Cantarero, Andres [Materials Science Institute, University of Valencia, Paterna (Spain)

    2009-07-01

    Among the group-III nitrides semiconductors, InN is the one with the narrowest gap (0.67 eV), lowest effective electron mass and highest peak drift velocity. It is therefore a very interesting material for several applications, in particular semiconductor solar cells. Furthermore, the high electron affinity makes it suitable also as electrode material for organic solar cells. InN layers were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on MOCVD GaN templates, on bare c-plane sapphire and on polycrystalline indium tin oxide. On all substrates the III-V ratio as well as the substrate temperature was varied. A RHEED analysis of InN growth on GaN showed a relatively sharp transition from N-rich and columnar growth to In-rich growth with droplet formation by increasing the In flux impinging on the surface. The InN layers on single crystalline substrates were characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, PL and Raman. The InN layers on ITO were mainly analyzed with respect to the surface morphology with SEM. HRTEM in cross section gives insight into the structure of the interface to the ITO substrate.

  5. Study of quantum dot based on tin/yttrium mixed oxide doped with terbium to be used as biomarker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Kodaira, Claudia A.; Brito, Hermi F.; Nunes, Luiz Antonio O.

    2009-01-01

    Quantum dots (semiconductors nanocrystals) have brought a promising field to develop a new generation of luminescent biomarkers. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. These luminescent dots are functionalized with biomolecules. For the luminophore particle to be connect with biologicals molecules (for example covalent antibody) is necessary a previous chemical treatment to modify luminophore particle surface and this process is called functionalization. A prior chemical treatment with changes on the surface luminophore particle is necessary to couple the luminophore to biological molecules. This process can be used as coating which can protect these particles from being dissolved by acid as well as provide functional groups for biological conjugation. This work presents a photoluminescence study of nanoparticles based on tin/yttrium mixed oxides doped with terbium (SnO 2 /Y 2 O 3 :Tb 3+ ), synthesized by coprecipitation method. The nanoparticles were submitted to thermal treatment and characterized by X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) that showed cassiterite phase formation and the influence of thermal treatment on nanoparticles structures. These nanoparticles going to be functionalized with a natural polysaccharide (chitosan) in order to form microspheres. These microspheres going to be irradiated with gamma radiation to sterilization and it can be evaluated if the nanoparticles are resistant to irradiation and they do not lose functionality with this process. (author)

  6. Quantum dot based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C.; Brito, Hermi F.

    2011-01-01

    Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)

  7. Quantum dot based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paganini, Paula P.; Felinto, Maria Claudia F.C., E-mail: paulapaganini@usp.b, E-mail: mfelinto@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Brito, Hermi F., E-mail: hefbrito@iq.usp.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (IQ/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Lab. de Elementos do Bloco f

    2011-07-01

    Special luminescence biomarkers have been developed to find more sensitive fluoroimmunoassay methods. A new generation of these biomarkers is the semiconductors nanocrystals, known as quantum dots, doped with lanthanides. The use of lanthanides ions as luminescent markers has many advantages, for example a security method, low cost, high specificity and also the luminescence can be promptly measured with high sensibility and accuracy. The protein sol-gel is a modification of conventional method, in which the coconut water replacing the alkoxides normally used. The advantage is that, the proteins present in coconut water bind chemically with metal salts forming a polymer chain. This work presents nanoparticles based on tin/titanium mixed oxide doped with 3% of europium synthesized by protein sol-gel method. The nanoparticles were burned at 300 deg C, 500 deg C, 800 deg C and 1100 deg C. The samples were analyzed and characterized by thermal analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The synthesis was effective and the nanoparticles showed nanometric size and structural differences with the annealing. To be used in the fluoroimmunoassays tests, these particles need to be functionalized before be connect with biological molecules and after this process, these nanoparticles going to be submitted at gamma radiation for sterilization. (author)

  8. The Optimum Fabrication Condition of p-Type Antimony Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu Phuc Dang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Transparent Sb-doped tin oxide (ATO thin films were fabricated on quartz glass substrates via a mixed (SnO2 + Sb2O3 ceramic target using direct current (DC magnetron sputtering in ambient Ar gas at a working pressure of 2 × 10−3 torr. X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, Hall-effect, and UV-vis spectra measurements were performed to characterize the deposited films. The substrate temperature of the films was investigated in two ways: (1 films were annealed in Ar ambient gas after being deposited at room temperature or (2 they were deposited directly at different temperatures. The first process for fabricating the ATO films was found to be easier than the second process. The deposited films showed p-type electrical properties, a polycrystalline tetragonal rutile structure, and their average transmittance was greater than 80% in the visible light range at the optimum annealing temperature of 500°C. The best electrical properties of the film were obtained on a 10 wt% Sb2O3-doped SnO2 target with a resistivity, hole concentration, and Hall mobility of 0.55 Ω·cm, 1.2 × 1019 cm−3, and 0.54 cm2V−1s−1, respectively.

  9. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  10. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  11. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff [[Page... on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five...

  12. A High Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-01-01

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  13. Sources and historical record of tin and butyl-tin species in a Mediterranean bay (Toulon Bay, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Frédérique; Schäfer, Jörg; Dutruch, Lionel; Garnier, Cédric; Tessier, Erwan; Dang, Duc Huy; Lanceleur, Laurent; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Lenoble, Véronique; Blanc, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Concentrations of inorganic tin (Sn(inorg)), tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were measured in surface sediments and in two cores from the Toulon Bay, hosting the major French military harbour. Anticipating planned dredging, the aim of the present work is to map and evaluate for the first time the recent and historic contamination of these sediments by inorganic and organic Sn species derived from antifouling paints used for various naval domains including military, trade, tourism and leisure. Tin and butyl-Sn concentrations in the bay varied strongly (4 orders of magnitude), depending on the site, showing maximum values near the shipyards. The concentrations of total Sn (1.3-112 μg g(-1)), TBT (product Sn(inorgBT) is by far the dominant species after 10-12 half-life periods and (c) using recent data to reliably assess former TBT contamination requires the use of a modified butyl-Sn degradation index BDI(mod). Resuspension of extremely contaminated subsurface sediments by the scheduled dredging will probably result in mobilization of important amounts of butyl-Sn species.

  14. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  15. Study of copper deposit on a porous electrode of carbon and stainless steel by sem-xrd and image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Constanzo-R., Robinson; Pagliero-N., Antonio; Vergara-G., Froilán

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue realizar un análisis cualitativ o de la distribución de un electrodepósito de cobre en el inter ior de electrodos porosos (EP) de acero inoxidable y carbono grafito. Para ello, se reali zaron pruebas de electrodepositación de cobre a nivel de labora torio, con un posterior análisis de cortes de muestras de acero y grafito vía Microscopía Estereoscópica, Microscopía SEM-DRX y Análisis de Imagen, los cuales mostraron que el cobre no se deposita en forma uniforme ...

  16. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, D.V., E-mail: dvrao_9@yahoo.com [Science Based Applications to Engineering (SBAI), Physics Division, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Scarpa 10, 00161 Roma (Italy); Gigante, G.E. [Science Based Applications to Engineering (SBAI), Physics Division, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Via Scarpa 10, 00161 Roma (Italy); Cesareo, R.; Brunetti, A. [Istituto di Matematica e Fisica, Università di Sassari, Via Vienna 2, 07100 Sassari (Italy); Schiavon, N. [Hercules Laboratory, University of Evora (Portugal); Akatsuka, T.; Yuasa, T. [Department of Bio-System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Yamagata University, Yonezawa-shi, Yamagata 992-8510 (Japan); Takeda, T. [Allied Health Science, Kitasato University, 1-15-1 Kitasato, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228-8555 (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35–48%), has been acquired with 15 keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15 keV X-rays (λ = 0.82666 A{sup 0}). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P6{sub 3}/m with the lattice parameters of a = 9.4328 Å and c = 6.8842 Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15 kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100 μm resolution. - Highlights: • For

  17. Synchrotron-based XRD from rat bone of different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, D V; Gigante, G E; Cesareo, R; Brunetti, A; Schiavon, N; Akatsuka, T; Yuasa, T; Takeda, T

    2017-05-01

    Synchrotron-based XRD spectra from rat bone of different age groups (w, 56 w and 78w), lumber vertebra at early stages of bone formation, Calcium hydroxyapatite (HAp) [Ca 10 (PO 4 ) 6 (OH) 2 ] bone fill with varying composition (60% and 70%) and bone cream (35-48%), has been acquired with 15keV synchrotron X-rays. Experiments were performed at Desy, Hamburg, Germany, utilizing the Resonant and Diffraction beamline (P9), with 15keV X-rays (λ=0.82666 A 0 ). Diffraction data were quantitatively analyzed using the Rietveld refinement approach, which allowed us to characterize the structure of these samples in their early stages. Hydroxyapatite, received considerable attention in medical and materials sciences, since these materials are the hard tissues, such as bone and teeth. Higher bioactivity of these samples gained reasonable interest for biological application and for bone tissue repair in oral surgery and orthopedics. The results obtained from these samples, such as phase data, crystalline size of the phases, as well as the degree of crystallinity, confirm the apatite family crystallizing in a hexagonal system, space group P6 3 /m with the lattice parameters of a=9.4328Å and c=6.8842Å (JCPDS card #09-0432). Synchrotron-based XRD patterns are relatively sharp and well resolved and can be attributed to the hexagonal crystal form of hydroxyapatite. All the samples were examined with scanning electron microscope at an accelerating voltage of 15kV. The presence of large globules of different sizes is observed, in small age groups of the rat bone (8w) and lumber vertebra (LV), as distinguished from, large age groups (56 and 78w) in all samples with different magnification, reflects an amorphous phase without significant traces of crystalline phases. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the morphology and crystalline properties of Hap, for all the samples, from 2 to 100μm resolution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Data from the Mars Science Laboratory CheMin XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Tom; DesMarais, David; Achilles, Cherie; Anderson, Robert; Crips, Joy; Morookian, John Michael; Spanovich, Nicole; Vasavada, Ashwin; hide

    2013-01-01

    The CheMin instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity uses a Co tube source and a CCD detector to acquire mineralogy from diffracted primary X-rays and chemical information from fluoresced X-rays. CheMin has been operating at the MSL Gale Crater field site since August 5, 2012 and has provided the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses in situ on a body beyond Earth. Data from the first sample collected, the Rocknest eolian soil, identify a basaltic mineral suite, predominantly plagioclase (approx.An50), forsteritic olivine (approx.Fo58), augite and pigeonite, consistent with expectation that detrital grains on Mars would reflect widespread basaltic sources. Minor phases (each XRD. This amorphous component is attested to by a broad rise in background centered at approx.27deg 2(theta) (Co K(alpha)) and may include volcanic glass, impact glass, and poorly crystalline phases including iron oxyhydroxides; a rise at lower 2(theta) may indicate allophane or hisingerite. Constraints from phase chemistry of the crystalline components, compared with a Rocknest bulk composition from the APXS instrument on Curiosity, indicate that in sum the amorphous or poorly crystalline components are relatively Si, Al, Mg-poor and enriched in Ti, Cr, Fe, K, P, S, and Cl. All of the identified crystalline phases are volatile-free; H2O, SO2 and CO2 volatile releases from a split of this sample analyzed by the SAM instrument on Curiosity are associated with the amorphous or poorly ordered materials. The Rocknest eolian soil may be a mixture of local detritus, mostly crystalline, with a regional or global set of dominantly amorphous or poorly ordered components. The Rocknest sample was targeted by MSL for "first time analysis" to demonstrate that a loose deposit could be scooped, sieved to <150 microns, and delivered to instruments in the body of the rover. A drilled sample of sediment in outcrop is anticipated. At the time of writing this abstract, promising outcrops are

  19. XRD monitoring of α self-irradiation in uranium-americium mixed oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlait, Denis; Lebreton, Florent; Roussel, Pascal; Delahaye, Thibaud

    2013-12-16

    The structural evolution under (241)Am self-irradiation of U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) transmutation fuels (with x ≤ 0.5) was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Samples first underwent a preliminary heat treatment performed under a reducing atmosphere (Ar/H2(4%)) aiming to recover the previously accumulated structural defects. Over all measurements (carried out over up to a full year and for integrated doses up to 1.5 × 10(18) α-decay events·g(-1)), only fluorite U(1-x)Am(x)O(2±δ) solid solutions were observed. Within a few days after the end of the heat treatment, each of the five studied samples was slowly oxidized as a consequence of their move to air atmosphere, which is evidenced by XRD by an initial sharp decrease of the unit cell parameter. For the compounds with x ≤ 0.15, this oxidation occurred without any phase transitions, but for U0.6Am0.4O(2±δ) and U0.5Am0.5O(2±δ), this process is accompanied by a transition from a first fluorite solid solution to a second oxidized one, as the latter is thermodynamically stable in ambient conditions. In the meantime and after the oxidation process, (241)Am α self-irradiation caused a structural swelling up to ∼0.8 vol %, independently of the sample composition. The kinetic constants of swelling were also determined by regression of experimental data and are, as expected, dependent on x and thus on the dose rate. The normalization of these kinetic constants by sample α-activity, however, leads to very close swelling rates among the samples. Finally, evolutions of microstrain and crystallite size were also monitored, but for the considered dose rates and cumulated doses, α self-irradiation was found, within the limits of the diffractometer used, to have almost no impact on these characteristics. Microstrain was found to be influenced instead by the americium content in the materials (i.e., by the impurities associated with americium starting material and the increase of cationic charge heterogeneity with

  20. Mineralogical In-situ Investigation of Acid-Sulfate Samples from the Rio Tinto River, Spain, with a Portable XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrazin, P.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Fernandez-Remolar, D.; Amils, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Blake, D.; Bish, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A field campaign was organized in September 2006 by Centro de Astobiologica (Spain) and Washington University (St Louis, USA) for the geological study of the Rio Tinto river bed sediments using a suite of in-situ instruments comprising an ASD reflectance spectrometer, an emission spectrometer, panoramic and close-up color imaging cameras, a life detection system and NASA's CheMin 4 XRD/XRF prototype. The primary objectives of the field campaign were to study the geology of the site and test the potential of the instrument suite in an astrobiological investigation context for future Mars surface robotic missions. The results of the overall campaign will be presented elsewhere. This paper focuses on the results of the XRD/XRF instrument deployment. The specific objectives of the CheMin 4 prototype in Rio Tinto were to 1) characterize the mineralogy of efflorescent salts in their native environments; 2) analyze the mineralogy of salts and oxides from the modern environment to terraces formed earlier as part of the Rio Tinto evaporative system; and 3) map the transition from hematite-dominated terraces to the mixed goethite/salt-bearing terraces where biosignatures are best preserved.

  1. Mössbauer, XRD and TEM Study on the Intercalation and the Release of Drugs in/from Layered Double Hydroxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kuzmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Layered double hydroxides (LDHs are one of the very important nano-carriers for drug delivery, due to their many advantageous features, such as the ease and low-cost of preparation, low cytotoxicity, good biocompatibility, protection for the intercalated drugs, and the capacity to facilitate the uptake of the loaded drug in the cells. In our previous studies, Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to monitor structural changes occurring during the incorporation of Fe(III in MgFe- and CaFe-LDHs, and the intercalation of various organic compounds in anionic form. Recently, we have successfully elaborated a protocol for the intercalation and release of indol-2-carboxylate and L-cysteinate in CaFe-LDH. The corresponding structural changes in the LDH samples were studied by XRD, HR-TEM and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy. The Mössbauer spectra reflected small but significant changes upon both the intercalation and the release of drugs. The changes in the basal distances could be followed by XRD measurements, and HR-TEM images made these changes visible.

  2. Evaluation of Rock Powdering Methods to Obtain Fine-grained Samples for CHEMIN, a Combined XRD/XRF Instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chipera, S. J.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Sarrazin, P.; Feldman, S.; Blake, D. F.; Bearman, G.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2004-01-01

    A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.

  3. Preparation, characterization and applications of novel carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO2 nanoparticles from annealing TiN under CO atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mingxuan; Song, Peng; Li, Jing; Cui, Xiaoli

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were firstly fabricated by calcining TiN powder under CO atmosphere at different temperatures between 400 and 600 °C, both the improved photocatalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue and enhanced photovoltaic performance for dye sensitized solar cells were demonstrated. - Highlights: • CN-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles were prepared by calcining TiN under CO atmosphere. • More visible light response was confirmed by UV–vis DRS and photocatalytic results. • Enhanced conversion efficiency was observed for the DSSCs from CN-TiO 2 photoanode. • CN-codoping played an important role to improve the photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Carbon and nitrogen codoped titania (CN-TiO 2 ) nanoparticles were fabricated by calcining titanium nitride (TiN) nanoparticles under carbon monoxide (CO) atmosphere at four different temperatures in a range of 400–600 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD), field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Enhanced light absorption in both the UV and visible light region was observed for the resulted CN-TiO 2 nanoparticles in ultraviolet-visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV–vis DRS). Improved photocatalytic activity toward the degradation of methylene blue by the CN-TiO 2 nanoparticles was demonstrated under UV and visible light, respectively. The highest degradation rate was achieved for CN-TiO 2 nanoparticles (13%) compared to N-TiO 2 (10%) and the commercial P25 (5%) under visible light illumination for 40 min. Furthermore, the improved photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO 2 was also confirmed by the degradation of colorless resorcinol under UV–vis light irradiation. Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) were fabricated using P25, N-TiO 2 and CN-TiO 2 photoanodes, respectively. The highest conversion efficiency of 3.31% was achieved by the DSSCs based on the

  4. Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Caifu; Liu Zhiquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Large amount of intact tin whiskers were firstly prepared without post handling, and their microstructures were investigated systematically with TEM. A growth model was proposed to explain the observed growth characteristics from Sn–RE alloys. - Abstract: An exclusive method was developed to prepare intact tin whiskers as transmission electron microscope specimens, and with this technique in situ observation of tin whisker growth from RESn 3 (RE = Nd, La, Ce) film specimen was first achieved. Electron irradiation was discovered to have an effect on the growth of a tin whisker through its root. Large quantities of tin whiskers with diameters from 20 nm to 10 μm and lengths ranging from 50 nm to 500 μm were formed at a growth rate of 0.1–1.8 nm s −1 on the surface of RESn 3 compounds. Most (>85%) of these tin whiskers have preferred growth directions of 〈1 0 0〉, 〈0 0 1〉, 〈1 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 3〉, as determined by statistics. This kind of tin whisker is single-crystal β-Sn even if it has growth striations, steps and kinks, and no dislocations or twin or grain boundaries were observed within the whisker body. RESn 3 compounds undergo selective oxidation during whisker growth, and the oxidation provides continuous tin atoms for tin whisker growth until they are exhausted. The driving force for whisker growth is the compressive stress resulting from the restriction of the massive volume expansion (38–43%) during the oxidation by the surface RE(OH) 3 layer. Tin atoms diffuse and flow to feed the continuous growth of tin whiskers under a compressive stress gradient formed from the extrusion of tin atoms/clusters at weak points on the surface RE(OH) 3 layers. A growth model was proposed to discuss the characteristics and growth mechanism of tin whiskers from RESn 3 compounds.

  5. Defect Engineering and Interface Phenomena in Tin Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2017-04-05

    The advance in transparent electronics requires high-performance transparent conducting oxide materials. The microscopic properties of these materials are sensitive to the presence of defects and interfaces and thus fundamental understanding is required for materials engineering. In this thesis, first principles density functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of tuning the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tin oxide by means of defects and interfaces. Our aim is to reveal unique properties and the parameters to control them as well as to explain the origin of unique phenomena in oxide materials. The stability of native defect in tin monoxide (SnO) under strain is investigated using formation energy calculations. We find that the conductivity (which is controlled by native defects) can be switched from p-type to either n-type or undoped semiconducting by means of applied pressure. We then target inducing magnetism in SnO by 3d transition metal doping. We propose that V doping is efficient to realize spin polarization at high temperature. We discuss different tin oxide interfaces. Metallic states are found to form at the SnO/SnO2 interface with electronic properties that depend on the interface terminations. The origin of these states is explained in terms of charge transfer caused by chemical bonding and band alignment. For the SnO/SnO2 heterostructure, we observe the formation of a two dimensional hole gas at the interface, which is surprising as it cannot be explained by the standard polar catastrophe model. Thus, we propose a charge density discontinuity model to explain our results. The model can be generalized to other polar-polar interfaces. Motivated by technological applications, the electronic and structural properties of the MgO (100)/SnO2 (110) interface are investigated. Depending on the interface termination, we observe the formation of a two dimensional electron gas or spin polarized hole gas. Aiming to identify further

  6. {mu}-XRF/{mu}-RS vs. SR {mu}-XRD for pigment identification in illuminated manuscripts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snickt, G. van der; Nolf, W. de; Vekemans, B.; Janssens, K. [University of Antwerp, Department of Chemistry, Antwerp (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    For the non-destructive identification of pigments and colorants in works of art, in archaeological and in forensic materials, a wide range of analytical techniques can be used. Bearing in mind that every method holds particular limitations, two complementary spectroscopic techniques, namely confocal {mu}-Raman spectroscopy ({mu}-RS) and {mu}-X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy ({mu}-XRF), were joined in one instrument. The combined {mu}-XRF and {mu}-RS device, called PRAXIS unites both complementary techniques in one mobile setup, which allows {mu}- and in situ analysis. {mu}-XRF allows one to collect elemental and spatially-resolved information in a non-destructive way on major and minor constituents of a variety of materials. However, the main disadvantages of {mu}-XRF are the penetration depth of the X-rays and the fact that only elements and not specific molecular combinations of elements can be detected. As a result {mu}-XRF is often not specific enough to identify the pigments within complex mixtures. Confocal Raman microscopy ({mu}-RS) can offer a surplus as molecular information can be obtained from single pigment grains. However, in some cases the presence of a strong fluorescence background limits the applicability. In this paper, the concrete analytical possibilities of the combined PRAXIS device are evaluated by comparing the results on an illuminated sheet of parchment with the analytical information supplied by synchrotron radiation {mu}-X-ray diffraction (SR {mu}-XRD), a highly specific technique. (orig.)

  7. Mössbauer, XRD, and Complex Thermal Analysis of the Hydration of Cement with Fly Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vili Lilkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydration of cement with and without fly ash is studied with Mössbauer spectroscopy, XRD, and thermal analysis. Iron in cement is present as Fe3+-ions and occupies two octahedral positions, with close isomer shifts and quadrupole splittings. Iron in fly ash is present as Fe2+ and Fe3+, and the Mössbauer spectra display three doublets—two for Fe3+ in octahedral coordination and one for Fe2+. A third doublet was registered in the hydrating plain cement pastes after the 5th day, due to Fe3+ in tetrahedral coordination in the structure of the newly formed monosulphate aluminate. In cement pastes with fly ash, the doublet of tetrahedral iron is formed earlier because the quantity of ettringite and portlandite is low and more monosulphate crystallizes. No Fe(OH3 phase forms during hydration of C4AF. The fly ash displays pozzolanic properties, which lead to lowering of the portlandite quantity in the cement mixtures and increasing of the high temperature products.

  8. Size distribution of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles using Warren-Averbach XRD analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, S.; Behera, S. P.; Gnanaprakash, G.; Jayakumar, T.; Philip, J.; Rao, B. P. C.

    2012-07-01

    We use the Fourier transform based Warren-Averbach (WA) analysis to separate the contributions of X-ray diffraction (XRD) profile broadening due to crystallite size and microstrain for magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The profile shape of the column length distribution, obtained from WA analysis, is used to analyze the shape of the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. From the column length distribution, the crystallite size and its distribution are estimated for these nanoparticles which are compared with size distribution obtained from dynamic light scattering measurements. The crystallite size and size distribution of crystallites obtained from WA analysis are explained based on the experimental parameters employed in preparation of these magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. The variation of volume weighted diameter (Dv, from WA analysis) with saturation magnetization (Ms) fits well to a core shell model wherein it is known that Ms=Mbulk(1-6g/Dv) with Mbulk as bulk magnetization of iron oxide and g as magnetic shell disorder thickness.

  9. XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR Spectroscopy of In Situ Crystallization of Lithium Disilicate Glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, T.; Mogus-Milankovic, A.; Ray, C. S.; Lesher, C. E.; Youngman, R.; Day, D. E.

    2006-01-01

    The structure of a Li2O-2SiO2 (LS2) glass was investigated as a function of pressure and temperature up to 6 GPa and 750 C respectively, using XRD, TEM, IR, Raman and NMR spectroscopy. Glass densified at 6 GPa has an average Si-O-Si bond angle approx.7deg lower than that found in glass processed at 4.5 GPa. At 4.5 GPa, lithium disilicate crystallizes from the glass, while at 6 GPa a new high pressure form of lithium metasilicate crystallizes. The new phase, while having lithium metasilicate crystal symmetry, contains at least 4 different Si sites. NMR results for 6 GPa sample indicate the presence of Q4 species with (Q(sup 4))Si-O-Si(Q(sup 4)) bond angles of approx.157deg. This is the first reported occurrence of Q(sup 4) species with such large bond angles in alumina free alkali silicate glass. No five- or six- coordinated Si are found.

  10. Different β-alanine dimeric forms in trifluoromethanesulfonic acid salts. XRD and vibrational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wołoszyn, Łukasz; Ilczyszyn, Maria M

    2018-03-15

    Two new crystalline salts: β-alaninium trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-AlaOTf) and bis(β-alanine) trifluoromethanesulfonate (β-2AlaOTf) were obtained. The former one contains diprotonated β-alanine dimer, the latter one monoprotonated β-alanine dimer. Both compounds were studied by single crystal XRD, vibrational (IR and Raman) spectroscopy and calorimetric method. The quantum-mechanical calculations (DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(2d,2p)) for the diprotonated dimer were carried out. The β-AlaOTf salt crystallizes in the P1¯ space group of triclinic system (Z=2), the β-2AlaOTf in the P2 1 /m space group of monoclinic system (Z=2). The vibrational data for the studied compounds are discussed in relation to their crystal structure, and provide insight into the character of hydrogen bonds and β-alanine protonation. The studied crystals do not exhibit phase transitions in the solid state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Synchrotron Radiation XRD Analysis of Indialite in Y-82094 Ungrouped Carbonaceous Chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Hagiya, K.; Sawa, N.; Kimura, M.; Ohsumi, K.; Komatsu, M.; Zolensky, M.

    2016-01-01

    Y-82094 is an ungrouped type 3.2 carbonaceous chondrite, with abundant chondrules making 78 vol.% of the rock. Among these chondrules, an unusual porphyritic Al-rich magnesian chondrule is reported that consists of a cordierite-like phase, Al-rich orthopyroxene, cristobalite, and spinel surrounded by an anorthitic mesostasis. The reported chemical formula of the cordierite-like phase is Na(0.19)Mg(1.95)Fe(0.02)Al(3.66)Si(5.19)O18, which is close to stoichiometric cordierite (Mg2Al3[AlSi5O18]). Although cordierite can be present in Al-rich chondrules, it has a high temperature polymorph (indialite) and it is therefore necessary to determine whether it is cordierite or indialite in order to better constrain its formation conditions. In this abstract we report on our synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction (SR-XRD) study of the cordierite-like phase in Y-82094.

  12. In situ synchrotron XRD analysis of the kinetics of spodumene phase transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L Moore, Radhika; Mann, Jason P; Montoya, Alejandro; Haynes, Brian S

    2018-04-25

    The phase transition by thermal activation of natural α-spodumene was followed by in situ synchrotron XRD in the temperature range 896 to 940 °C. We observed both β- and γ-spodumene as primary products in approximately equal proportions. The rate of the α-spodumene inversion is first order and highly sensitive to temperature (apparent activation energy ∼800 kJ mol-1). The γ-spodumene product is itself metastable, forming β-spodumene, with the total product mass fraction ratio fγ/fβ decreasing as the conversion of α-spodumene continues. We found the relationship between the product yields and the degree of conversion of α-spodumene to be the same at all temperatures in the range studied. A model incorporating first order kinetics of the α- and γ-phase inversions with invariant rate constant ratio describes the results accurately. Theoretical phonon analysis of the three phases indicates that the γ phase contains crystallographic instabilities, whilst the α and β phases do not.

  13. A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole: Microwave assisted synthesis, spectral, thermal, XRD and biological studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmane, S. V.; Ubale, V. P.; Lawand, A. S.; Nalawade, A. M.; Karale, N. N.; More, P. G.

    2013-11-01

    A 4-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-aminothiazole (CPAT) has been synthesized by reacting o-chloroacetophenone, iodine and thiourea under microwave irradiation as a green chemistry approach. The reactions proceed selectively and within a couple of minutes giving high yields of the products. The compound was characterized by elemental, spectral (UV-visible, IR, NMR and GC-MS), XRD and thermal analyses. The TG curve of the compound was analyzed to calculate various kinetic parameters (n, E, Z, ΔS and ΔG) by using Coats-Redfern (C.R.), MacCallum-Tanner (M.T.) and Horowitz-Metzger (H.M.) method. The compound was tested for the evaluation of antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli and antifungal activity against A. niger and C. albicans. The compound was evaluated for their in vitro nematicidal activity on plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and molluscicidal activity on fresh water helminthiasis vector snail Lymnea auricularia. The compound is biologically active in very low concentration. X-ray diffraction study suggests a triclinic crystal system for the compound.

  14. Application of XRF and XRD in the study of ceramics and pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meor Yusoff Meor Sulaiman

    2004-01-01

    Ceramic artefacts are made from clay-based mineral and their elemental and mineral compositions tend to vary from one locality to another. The elemental and mineral composition data's besides able to verify the originality of the artifact also helps in regard to provenance, fabrication technology and also manufacturing technique. X-ray fluorescence XRF is a non-destructive technique to identify and quantify elements ranging from sodium (atomic number = 11 to uranium atomic number = 92). The paper also looks into recent advances of this technique in the study of ceramics and pottery. Microfocus XRF, besides able to do qualitative and quantitative elemental analysis, it also can perform accurate elemental mapping. Another aspect there is important in this study is the capability to do in-situ analysis. With the recent introduction of the peltiered-cooled silicon detector, in-situ analysis had become more easily available. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis on the other hand, helps to identify correctly the different mineral composition present in the ceramic artifact. This could also help in identifying the type of clay that is used in the manufacturing of these ceramic artifacts as well as its origin. Both x-ray techniques complement each other and are very important tool in the archaeological study of ceramic and pottery samples. (Author)

  15. EXAFS and XRD studies of nanocrystalline cerium oxide: the effect of preparation method on the microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savin, S.L.P.; Chadwick, A.V.; Smith, M.E.; O'Dell, L.A.

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable interest in nanocrystalline materials due to their unusual properties, such as enhanced ionic conductivity in the case of nanocrystalline ionic solids. This has potential commercial applications, particularly for oxide ion conductors. However, a detailed knowledge of the microstructure is important in fully understanding the novel properties exhibited by nanocrystalline materials. The final microstructure of a material is dependent on the preparation method used, for example, sol-gel and ball-milling methods are commonly used in the preparation of nanocrystalline oxides. Additionally, there is a problem in maintaining the materials in nanocrystalline form when they are subjected to elevated temperatures. We have been exploring strategies to restrict the growth of nanocrystalline oxides and have found that adding a small amount of an inert material, e.g. SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 , is particularly effective. We will report XRD and EXAFS studies of nanocrystalline ceria prepared by sol-gel, sol-gel pinned and ball-milling methods and the effect of preparation method on the final microstructure. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. Multielemental analyses of isomorphous Indian garnet gemstones by XRD and external pixe techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkateswarulu, P; Srinivasa Rao, K; Kasipathi, C; Ramakrishna, Y

    2012-12-01

    Garnet gemstones were collected from parts of Eastern Ghats geological formations of Andhra Pradesh, India and their gemological studies were carried out. Their study of chemistry is not possible as they represent mixtures of isomorphism nature, and none of the individual specimens indicate independent chemistry. Hence, non-destructive instrumental methodology of external PIXE technique was employed to understand their chemistry and identity. A 3 MeV proton beam was employed to excite the samples. In the present study geochemical characteristics of garnet gemstones were studied by proton induced X-ray emission. Almandine variety of garnet is found to be abundant in the present study by means of their chemical contents. The crystal structure and the lattice parameters were estimated using X-Ray Diffraction studies. The trace and minor elements are estimated using PIXE technique and major compositional elements are confirmed by XRD studies. The technique is found very useful in characterizing the garnet gemstones. The present work, thus establishes usefulness and versatility of the PIXE technique with external beam for research in Geo-scientific methodology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The effect of reaction temperature on the room temperature ferromagnetic property of sol-gel derived tin oxide nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthiraj, K.; Hema, M.; Balachandra Kumar, K.

    2018-06-01

    In the present study, nanocrystalline tin oxide materials were prepared using sol-gel method with different reaction temperatures (25 °C, 50 °C, 75 °C & 90 °C) and the relation between the room temperature ferromagnetic property of the sample with processing temperature has been analysed. The X-ray diffraction pattern and infrared absorption spectra of the as-prepared samples confirm the purity of the samples. Transmission electron microscopy images visualize the particle size variation with respect to reaction temperature. The photoluminescence spectra of the samples demonstrate that luminescence process in materials is originated due to the electron transition mediated by defect centres. The room temperature ferromagnetic property is observed in all the samples with different amount, which was confirmed using vibrating sample magnetometer measurements. The saturation magnetization value of the as-prepared samples is increased with increasing the reaction temperature. From the photoluminescence & magnetic measurements we accomplished that, more amount of surface defects like oxygen vacancy and tin interstitial are created due to the increase in reaction temperature and it controls the ferromagnetic property of the samples.

  18. [Study of the phase transformation of TiO2 with in-situ XRD in different gas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li-Jing; Guo, Lie-Jin

    2011-04-01

    TiO2 sample was prepared by sol-gel method from chloride titanium. The phase transformation of the prepared TiO2 sample was studied by in-situ XRD and normal XRD in different gas. The experimental results showed that the phase transformation temperatures of TiO2 were different under in-situ or normal XRD in different kinds of gas. The transformation of amorphous TiO2 to anatase was controlled by kinetics before 500 degrees C. In-situ XRD showed that the growth of anatase was inhibited, but the transformation of anatase to rutile was accelerated under inactive nitrogen in contrast to air. Also better crystal was obtained under hydrogen than in argon. These all showed that external oxygen might accelerate the growth of TiO2, but reduced gas might partly counteract the negative influence of lack of external oxygen. The mechanism of phase transformation of TiO2 was studied by in-situ XRD in order to control the structure in situ.

  19. Transmission X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Patterns Relevant to the MSL Chemin Amorphous Component: Sulfates And Silicates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Graff, T. G.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Le, L.; Ming, D. W.; Sutter, B.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) CheMin instrument on the Curiosity rover is a transmission X-ray diffractometer (Co-Kalpha radiation source and a approx.5deg to approx.52deg 2theta range) where the analyzed powder samples are constrained to have discrete particle diameters XRD amorphous component. Estimates of amorphous component abundance, based on the XRD data itself and on mass-balance calculations using APXS data crystalline component chemistry derived from XRD data, martian meteorites, and/or stoichiometry [e.g., 6-9], range from approx.20 wt.% to approx.50 wt.% of bulk sample. The APXSbased calculations show that the amorphous component is rich in volatile elements (esp. SO3) and is not simply primary basaltic glass, which was used as a surrogate to model the broad band in the RN CheMin pattern. For RN, the entire volatile inventory (except minor anhydrite) is assigned to the amorphous component because no volatile-bearing crystalline phases were reported within detection limits [2]. For JK and CB, Fesaponite, basanite, and akaganeite are volatile-bearing crystalline components. Here we report transmission XRD patterns for sulfate and silicate phases relevant to interpretation of MSL-CheMin XRD amorphous components.

  20. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  1. Characterization of tin dioxide film for chemical vapors sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafaiedh, I.; Helali, S.; Cherif, K.; Abdelghani, A.; Tournier, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, oxide semiconductor material used as transducer has been the central topic of many studies for gas sensor. In this paper we investigated the characteristic of a thick film of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) film for chemical vapor sensor. It has been prepared by screen-printing technology and deposited on alumina substrate provided with two gold electrodes. The morphology, the molecular composition and the electrical properties of this material have been characterized respectively by Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The electrical properties showed a resistive behaviour of this material less than 300 deg. C which is the operating temperature of the sensor. The developed sensor can identify the nature of the detected gas, oxidizing or reducing

  2. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  3. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  4. Chemical Thermodynamics Vol. 12 - Chemical Thermodynamics of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsjaeger, Heinz; GAJDA, Tamas; Sangster, James; Saxena, Surendra K.; Voigt, Wolfgang; Perrone, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This is the 12th volume of a series of expert reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of key chemical elements in nuclear technology and waste management. This volume is devoted to the inorganic species and compounds of tin. The tables contained in Chapters III and IV list the currently selected thermodynamic values within the NEA TDB Project. The database system developed at the NEA Data Bank, see Section II.6, assures consistency among all the selected and auxiliary data sets. The recommended thermodynamic data are the result of a critical assessment of published information. The values in the auxiliary data set, see Tables IV-1 and IV-2, have been adopted from CODATA key values or have been critically reviewed in this or earlier volumes of the series

  5. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  6. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer

  7. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L J; Sood, D K; Manory, R R [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  9. Coordination compounds of titanium, zirconium, tin, thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.G.; Jain, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Reactions of isatin, furoic acid and picolinic acid have been carried out with titanium tetrachloride, tin tetrachloride, thorium tetrachloride, zirconyl chloride and uranyl nitrate. While 2:3(metal:ligand) type compounds of isatin have been obtained with Ti(IV) and Sn(IV), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV), and uranium(VI) do not react with the ligand under similar experimental conditions. Furoic acid (FAH) and picolinic acid(PicH) form various chloro furoates and picolinates when reacted with TiCl 4 , ZrOCl 2 and ThCl 4 , but do not react with SnCl 4 . The various compounds synthesised have been characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared studies, conductivity and thermogravimetric measurements. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  10. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Roesgaard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si1−x−ySnxCy, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 ∘C to 900 ∘C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈1017 cm−3 and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 ∘C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed.

  11. Determination of tin(II) in reagents for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosanova, E.I.; Loginova, K. A.; Epstein, N.B.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to elaborate a procedure for rapid and simple determination of tin(II) in reagents for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals based on a system albumin-Tc-99m. Original test tools for the determination of various analytes have been suggested in our lab based on the use of small glass tubes (1-2 mm i.d. - 50-70 mm) filled with indicator powders containing suitable immobilized chromogenic reagents. An analytical signal (a length of colored zone which is proportional to the concentration of an analyte) is detected after a sample passing through the indicator tube. Heteropoly compounds are well-known analytical reagents for a photometric determination of various reductants. For elaboration of indicator tubes abilities of Mo,P-heteropoly compounds to give deeply colored blue compounds after reduction were used. (authors)

  12. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  13. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 μm thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10 17 - 8x10 17 ions cm -2 . Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs

  14. Construction of an open tin cell at Inmetro

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R.; Teixeira, R. N.

    2013-09-01

    For the last decade, the Thermometry Laboratory of the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO) has been developing its own primary standards. In late 2010, a brand new fixed point cell containing high purity tin (99.9999 %) was constructed as the continuation of a project for constructing metal fixed-point cells in the positive range, in accordance with the temperature fixed-points described by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) [1]. This is the fourth temperature fixed-point constructed by the laboratory team, which enables the performance of some calibrations without having to rely solely on commercially available cells. The materials and their preparation, the design, the procedures for the construction of the cell, the equipment, the investigation on its performance and its results will be detailed in the present paper. In addition, it is worth mentioning that this cell has recently taken part in a bilateral comparison with the National Physical Laboratory - NPL.

  15. Systematics of the electric dipole response in stable tin isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Tamii, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    The electric dipole is an important property of heavy nuclei. Precise information on the electric dipole response provides information on the electric dipole polarisability which in turn allows to extract important constraints on neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei and parameters of the symmetry energy. The tin isotope chain is particularly suited for a systematic study of the dependence of the electric dipole response on neutron excess as it provides a wide mass range of accessible isotopes with little change of the underlying structure. Recently an inelastic proton scattering experiment under forward angles including 0º on 112,116,124Sn was performed at the Research Centre for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Japan with a focus on the low-energy dipole strength and the polarisability. First results are presented here. Using data from an earlier proton scattering experiment on 120Sn the gamma strength function and level density are determined for this nucleus.

  16. Systematics of the electric dipole response in stable tin isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric dipole is an important property of heavy nuclei. Precise information on the electric dipole response provides information on the electric dipole polarisability which in turn allows to extract important constraints on neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei and parameters of the symmetry energy. The tin isotope chain is particularly suited for a systematic study of the dependence of the electric dipole response on neutron excess as it provides a wide mass range of accessible isotopes with little change of the underlying structure. Recently an inelastic proton scattering experiment under forward angles including 0º on 112,116,124Sn was performed at the Research Centre for Nuclear Physics (RCNP, Japan with a focus on the low-energy dipole strength and the polarisability. First results are presented here. Using data from an earlier proton scattering experiment on 120Sn the gamma strength function and level density are determined for this nucleus.

  17. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  18. Influence of Microstructure on the Electrical Properties of Heteroepitaxial TiN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial TiN films were deposited on Si substrates by pulse laser deposition at different substrate temperature. The microstructure and surface morphology of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (θ-2θ scan, ω-scan, and ϕ-scan) and atomic force microscopy. The electrical properties of the prepared TiN films were studied using a physical property measurement system. The experimental results showed that the crystallinity and surface morphology of the TiN films were improved gradually with increasing substrate temperature below 700 °C. Specially, single crystal TiN films were prepared when substrate temperature is above 700 °C; However, the quality of TiN films gradually worsened when the substrate temperature was increased further. The electrical properties of the films were directly correlated to their crystalline quality. At the optimal substrate temperature of 700 °C, the TiN films exhibited the lowest resistivity and highest mobility of 25.7 μΩ cm and 36.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In addition, the mechanism concerning the influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of TiN films is discussed in detail.

  19. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  20. Differentiation of urinary calculi with dual energy CT: effect of spectral shaping by high energy tin filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Christoph; Krauss, Bernhard; Ketelsen, Dominik; Tsiflikas, Ilias; Reimann, Anja; Werner, Matthias; Schilling, David; Hennenlotter, Jörg; Claussen, Claus D; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Heuschmid, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In dual energy (DE) computed tomography (CT), spectral shaping by additional filtration of the high energy spectrum can theoretically improve dual energy contrast. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the influence of an additional tin filter for the differentiation of human urinary calculi by dual energy CT. A total of 36 pure human urinary calculi (uric acid, cystine, calciumoxalate monohydrate, calciumoxalate dihydrate, carbonatapatite, brushite, average diameter 10.5 mm) were placed in a phantom and imaged with 2 dual source CT scanners. One scanner was equipped with an additional tin (Sn) filter. Different combinations of tube voltages (140/80 kV, 140/100 kV, Sn140/100 kV, Sn140/80 kV, with Sn140 referring to 140 kV with the tin filter) were applied. Tube currents were adapted to yield comparable dose indices. Low- and high energy images were reconstructed. The calculi were segmented semiautomatically in the datasets and DE ratios (attenuation@low_kV/attenuation@high_kV) and were calculated for each calculus. DE contrasts (DE-ratio_material1/DE-ratio_material2) were computed for uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi and compared between the combinations of tube voltages. Using exclusively DE ratios, all uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi (as a group) could be differentiated in all protocols; the calcified calculi could not be differentiated among each other in any examination protocol. The highest DE ratios and DE contrasts were measured for the Sn140/80 protocol (53%-62% higher DE contrast than in the 140/80 kV protocol without additional filtration). The DE ratios and DE contrasts of the 80/140 kV and 100/Sn140 kV protocols were comparable. Uric acid, cystine and calcified calculi could be reliably differentiated by any of the protocols. A dose-neutral gain of DE contrast was found in the Sn-filter protocols, which might improve the differentiation of smaller calculi (Sn140/80 kV) and improve image quality and calculi differentiation in

  1. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  2. Radiation levels and countermeasure research on radiological protection in tin mine in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fengfang; Yuan Yongling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of radiation level in our nation's tin mine, therefore comes up with proposals on radiological protection and provide scientific evidence on how to protect lives and health of worker underground in tin mine. Methods: To get the radiation level of the underground workplaces in tin mine by analysis of research papers and the measuring results from on-scene investigations. Results: Majority of the absorbed dose rates of γ radiation in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine falls within the range of radiation levels of normal background. Earlier, the typical values of radon concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine are 3.12 kBq/m 3 and 5.61 μJ/m 3 respectively. Now, radon concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters in the air of underground workplaces in majority of tin mine are lower than 1000 Bq/m 3 and 3.57 μJ/m 3 . Conclusion: For these tin mine workers with an average of annual effective dose greater than 1 mSv or these of their specific activity for natural uranium in materials are greater than 1 Bq/g need to have regulation of radiological protection. The control limits for the radon concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters and the absorbed dose rates of γ radiation in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine are 1000 Bq/m3, 3.57 μJ/m 3 and 1 μGy/h respectively. The administrative individual dose for workers working under the ground of tin mine is 10 mSv/a. If a worker's total annual effective dose is greater than 10 mSv, he/she should be considered as radioactive worker. (authors)

  3. Correlation of index tests with smectite content determined with XRD in bentonite and smectite rich clays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumpulainen, Sirpa; Kiviranta, Leena; Korkeakoski, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Various index tests are used by bentonite producers and users to assess the amount of swelling minerals in bentonites and smectite rich clays. Index tests are meant to provide relative fast and inexpensive way of testing the amount of swelling minerals, and their performance should not require sophisticated equipment. Such index tests are e.g. methylene blue absorption test, liquid limit and swelling index test (free swelling). In order to select appropriate index test to control the quality of buffer and backfill materials to be used in nuclear waste end disposal in Finland, results from various index tests were correlated with the smectite content determined with XRD and Rietveld refinement. Tests evaluated were: water absorption capacity (WAC) based on DIN 18132, swelling index (SI) based on ASTM D 5890-06, cation exchange capacity (CEC) based on Cu(II)-trien adsorption by Meier and Kahr (1999) and Ammann et al. (2005), liquid limit (LL) based on CEN ISO/TS 17892- 12:2004, methylene blue absorption (MB) based on SFS-EN 933-9, and specific surface area based on absorption of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether (EGME) described by Cerato and Lutenegger (2002). The number of samples tested was 6-25 (exact number of samples was dependent on the test method), and included natural Na-bentonites, natural Ca-bentonites, sodium activated Ca-bentonites and smectite rich clays from Wyoming/USA, Milos/Greece, Gujarat/India and Friedland/Germany. Smectite content in samples was determined after Kiviranta and Kumpulainen (2011) by x-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy, chemical analyses, and full-pattern fitting with the Rietveld method using Siroquant software. Exchangeable cation composition was determined after Belyayeva (1967) and Jackson (1975). In order to achieve correlation of index test results with smectite content, water absorption capacity, liquid limit, and swelling index methods required additional information

  4. Swelling induced by alpha decay in monazite and zirconolite ceramics: A XRD and TEM comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschanels, X.; Seydoux-Guillaume, A. M.; Magnin, V.; Mesbah, A.; Tribet, M.; Moloney, M. P.; Serruys, Y.; Peuget, S.

    2014-05-01

    Zirconolite and monazite matrices are potential ceramics for the containment of actinides (Np, Cm, Am, Pu) which are produced over the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. Actinides decay mainly through the emission of alpha particles, which in turn causes most ceramics to undergo structural and textural changes (amorphization and/or swelling). In order to study the effects of alpha decays on the above mentioned ceramics two parallel approaches were set up. The first involved the use of an external irradiation source, Au, which allowed the deposited recoil energy to be simulated. The second was based on short-lived actinide doping with 238Pu, (i.e. an internal source), via the incorporation of plutonium oxide into both the monazite and zirconolite structures during synthesis. In both types of irradiation experiments, the zirconolite samples became amorphous at room temperature with damage close to 0.3 dpa; corresponding to a critical dose of 4 × 1018 α g-1 (i.e. ∼1.3 × 1021 keV cm-3). Both zirconolite samples also showed the same degree of macroscopic swelling at saturation (∼6%), with ballistic processes being the predominant damaging effect. In the case of the monazite however, the macroscopic swelling and amorphization were dependent on the nature of the irradiation. Externally, (Au), irradiated samples became amorphous while also demonstrating a saturation swelling of up to 8%. In contrast to this, the swelling of the 238Pu doped samples was much smaller at ∼1%. Also, unlike the externally (Au) irradiated monazite these 238Pu doped samples remained crystalline up to 7.5 × 1018 α g-1 (0.8 dpa). XRD, TEM and swelling measurements were used to fully characterize and interpret this behavior. The low swelling and the conservation of the crystalline state of 238Pu doped monazite samples indicates that alpha annealing took place within this material.

  5. Potato Starch/Montmorillonite-Based Nanocomposites: Water Sensitivity, Mechanical and Thermal Properties and XRD Profile Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Gholami

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the effect of adding different percentages of montmorillonite (3, 5, 7 and 9% of starch weight on the physical properties of potato starch-MMT nanocomposites. Heat resistance and mechanical properties of films were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and tensile test. Nanoparticles distribution in polymer matrix was investigated using X-ray diffraction test (XRD. For investigation of water vapor resistance of film samples, moisture sorption and water vapor permeability (WVP were measured. The results showed that the distribution of nanoparticles in the polymer matrix was exfoliated. WVP in pure starch films was 2.62×10-7 g/mhPa and with the addition of 9% MMT it was reduced to 1.43×10-7 g/mhPa. With the addition of nanoclay from zero to 9%, the ultimate tensile strength of nanocomposite samples was increased from 5.9 to 6.63 MPa and strain-to-break was decreased from 34.82 to 26.83%. But the rising trend was not significant for nanocomposite samples containing low concentrations of nanoclay (0-7%. The main reasons for the enhancement of mechanical properties due to the addition of nanoclay were to establish hydrogen bonding between polymer chains and clay layers, filling the empty spaces and increase the crystalline domains. Investigation of thermal resistance of nanocomposite samples showed that they have higher thermal resistance and melting point in comparison with pure starch films. With the addition of nanoclay from zero to 9%, the melting point of film samples was increased from 218 to 232.1°C. With the addition of nanoclay, probably the mobility of amylopectin chains decreased and crystalline domains increased. Also, with increasing nanoclay content, the glass transition temperature of nanocomposite samples was increased. This result corresponded to shrinkage in free volume and thus reduction in the polymer chains mobility in amorphous regions.

  6. A facile way to control phase of tin selenide flakes by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Pang, Fei

    2018-06-01

    Although two-dimensional (2D) tin selenides are attracting intense attentions, studies on its phase transition are still relatively few. Here we report a facile way to control the phase growth of tin selenide flakes on mica and SiO2/Si by only adjusting nominal Sn:Se ratio, which refers to the amount of loaded SnO2 and Se precursors. High normal Sn:Se ratio induced SnSe flakes, conversely SnSe2 flakes formed. It could be used as a practical guide to selectively synthesize pure phase of single crystalline 2D layered chalcogenide materials similar to tin selenides.

  7. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly...... respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite...

  8. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chulwoong; Kim Young-Min; Son Seong Ho; Choi Hanshin; Kim Tae Bum; Kim Yong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail o...

  9. Separation of substandard tin ores by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Konovalov, V.M.; Kamenskij, Yu.V.; Neverov, A.D.; Ogorodnikov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of pure tin ores on X-ray fluorescence separation (XFS) is carried out. The volumes of lump sampling are substantiated; several variants of technical and economical efficiency of XFS application have been calculated. It is shown that at XFS of -400+25 mm classes conditional as to tin content intermediate product with high efficiency factor may be prepared. Separation of -25+10 mm class is unsuitable, as it doesn't allow to increase tin content to conditional, and the process efficiency is low

  10. Modification of structure and properties of tin – fullerite films irradiated by boron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    By methods of raster electronic, atomic force and electronic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction the research of change of structure, phase composition and local electronic properties of the tin - fullerite films, subjected to implantation by B + ions (E = 80 keV, F = 5×10 17 ions/cm 2 ) are submitted. It is established, that as a result of boron ion implantation of two-layered tin - fullerite films, tin and fullerite interfusion on sues, that is the solid-phase interaction and as a result of which forms the heterophase with heterogeneous local electric properties. (authors)

  11. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of tin oxide-based composite by rheological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zeqiang; Li Xinhai; Xiong Lizhi; Wu Xianming; Xiao Zhuobing; Ma Mingyou

    2005-01-01

    Novel rheological technique was developed to synthesize tin oxide-based composites. The microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. The particles of tin oxide-based materials form an inactive matrix. The average size of the particles is about 150 nm. The material delivers a charge capacity of more than 570 mAh g -1 . The capacity loss per cycle is about 0.15% after being cycled 30 times. The good electrochemical performance indicates that this kind of tin oxide-based material is promising anode for lithium-ion battery

  12. Indium--tin oxide films radio frequency sputtered from specially formulated high density indium--tin oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Bayard, M.

    1991-01-01

    High density ITO (indium--tin oxide) targets doped with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 manufactured in the Tektronix Ceramics Division have been used to rf sputter ITO films of various thicknesses on borosilicate glass substrates. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in forming gas, resulted in ITO films exhibiting 90% transmission at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq for a thickness of 1100 A. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in air increased sheet resistance without a large effect on the transmission. Films sputtered in argon gas alone were transparent in the visible and the sheet resistance was found to be 100--180 Ω/sq for the same thickness, without annealing

  13. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Lab.

    2014-08-15

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn{sup 4+} ions leads to the formation of Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4}. These Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanocrystals form Au-Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  14. Studying the melting behavior of coal, biomass, and coal/biomass ash using viscosity and heated stage XRD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Folkedahl, B.; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2006-01-01

    by the cocombustion tests appeared to be somewhat different compared to that of the laboratory-prepared ash samples. The heated stage XRD data provide useful information regarding the reactions among the various ash compounds and the phase transformations during the heating and cooling of the ash samples and helped...... a high-temperature rotational viscometer and a hot stage XRD. The produced data were used to calculate the operating temperature of a pilot-scale entrained flow reactor during the cocombustion of biomass/ coal samples in order to ensure the slag flow and to avoid corrosion of the walls due to liquid slag...

  15. Self-assembly of tin wires via phase transformation of heteroepitaxial germanium-tin on germanium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-06-14

    This work demonstrates and describes for the first time an unusual strain-relaxation mechanism by the formation and self-assembly of well-ordered tin wires during the thermal annealing of epitaxial Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}-on-Ge(001) substrate. Fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}) were epitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} during thermal annealing is studied by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. Under certain annealing conditions, the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} layer decomposes into two stable phases, and well-defined Sn wires that are preferentially oriented along two orthogonal 〈100〉 azimuths are formed. The formation of the Sn wires is related to the annealing temperature and the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} thickness, and can be explained by the nucleation of a grain with Sn islands on the outer front, followed by grain boundary migration. The Sn wire formation process is found to be thermally activated, and an activation enthalpy (E{sub c}) of 0.41 eV is extracted. This thermally activated phase transformation, i.e., 2D epitaxial layer to 3D wires, occurs via a mechanism akin to “cellular precipitation.” This synthesis route of Sn wires opens new possibilities for creation of nanoscale patterns at high-throughput without the need for lithography.

  16. Ultrafast modulation of the plasma frequency of vertically aligned indium tin oxide rods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tice, Daniel B; Li, Shi-Qiang; Tagliazucchi, Mario; Buchholz, D Bruce; Weiss, Emily A; Chang, Robert P H

    2014-03-12

    Light-matter interaction at the nanoscale is of particular interest for future photonic integrated circuits and devices with applications ranging from communication to sensing and imaging. In this Letter a combination of transient absorption (TA) and the use of third harmonic generation as a probe (THG-probe) has been adopted to investigate the response of the localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) of vertically aligned indium tin oxide rods (ITORs) upon ultraviolet light (UV) excitation. TA experiments, which are sensitive to the extinction of the LSPR, show a fluence-dependent increase in the frequency and intensity of the LSPR. The THG-probe experiments show a fluence-dependent decrease of the LSPR-enhanced local electric field intensity within the rod, consistent with a shift of the LSPR to higher frequency. The kinetics from both TA and THG-probe experiments are found to be independent of the fluence of the pump. These results indicate that UV excitation modulates the plasma frequency of ITO on the ultrafast time scale by the injection of electrons into, and their subsequent decay from, the conduction band of the rods. Increases to the electron concentration in the conduction band of ∼13% were achieved in these experiments. Computer simulation and modeling have been used throughout the investigation to guide the design of the experiments and to map the electric field distribution around the rods for interpreting far-field measurement results.

  17. Tin DioxideNanostructure Gas Sensor for Acetone and Methanol Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osama Abdul Azeez Dakhil

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Simple and efficient technique were successfully used to prepare Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructure by simple evaporation method, using single stage horizontal tube furnace under atmosphere pressure and quartz tube with Argon flow without additive. SnO2 thick films were synthesized using simple, homemade, low-cost efficient screen print technique. The thick films were heated at 500 0Cfor one hour to vanish the organic material and any residual impurities. The prepared thick films were investigated using different techniques and apparatus, X-Ray and FESEM to study the structural and morphology of the films, the X-ray results show that the films are polycrystalline with sharp and high intensity peaks indicating high crystalinity of the product. The FESEM Images show homogenous nanostructure with high porosity the dimension range 40-70 nm, optical properties was studied with photoluminescence emission (PL and transmittance in UV-Visible range. SnO2 sensor was built up by electroding the thick films and used for Acetone and methanol detection.

  18. The optical and structural properties of graphene nanosheets and tin oxide nanocrystals composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farheen, Parveen, Azra; Azam, Ameer

    2018-05-01

    A nanocomposite material consisting of metal oxide and reduced graphene oxide was prepared via simple, economic, and effective chemical reduction method. The synthesis strategy was based on the reduction of GO with Sn2+ ion that combines tin oxidation and GO reduction in one step, which provides a simple, low-cost and effective way to prepare graphene nanosheets/SnO2 nanocrystals composites because no additional chemicals were needed. SEM and TEM images shows the uniform distribution of the SnO2 nanocrystals on the Graphene nanosheets (GNs) surface and transmission electron microscope shows an average particle size of 2-4 nm. The mean crystallite size was calculated by Debye Scherrer formula and was found to be about 4.0 nm. Optical analysis was done by using UV-Visible spectroscopy technique and the band gap energy of the GNs/SnO2 nanocomposite was calculated by Tauc relation and came out to be 3.43eV.

  19. Copper tin sulfide (CTS) absorber thin films obtained by co-evaporation: Influence of the ratio Cu/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robles, V., E-mail: victor.robles@ciemat.es; Trigo, J.F.; Guillén, C.; Herrero, J.

    2015-09-05

    Highlights: • Copper tin sulfide (CTS) thin films were grown by co-evaporation at different Cu/Sn atomic ratios. • Smooth Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} layers with large grains are obtained at Cu/Sn ⩾ 1.5 and T ⩾ 350 °C. • At 450 °C, the cubic Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase changes to tetragonal phase. • Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} presents suitable optical and electrical properties for use as photovoltaic absorbers. - Abstract: Copper tin sulfide thin films have been grown on soda-lime glass substrates from the elemental constituents by co-evaporation. The synthesis was performed at substrate temperatures of 350 °C and 450 °C and different Cu/Sn ratios, adjusting the deposition time in order to obtain thicknesses above 1000 nm. The evolution of the morphological, structural, chemical, optical and electrical properties has been analyzed as a function of the substrate temperature and the Cu/Sn ratio. For the samples with Cu/Sn ⩽ 1, Cu{sub 2}Sn{sub 3}S{sub 7} and Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} have been observed by XRD. Increasing the Cu/Sn to 1.5, the Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase was the majority, being the formation completed at Cu/Sn ratio around 2. The increment of the substrate temperature leads to a change of cubic structure to tetragonal of the Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} phase. The chemical treatment with KCN was effective to eliminate CuS excess detected in the samples with Cu/Sn > 2.2. The samples with Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} structure show a band gap energy increasing from 0.9 to 1.25 eV and an electrical resistivity decreasing from 7 ∗ 10{sup −2} Ω cm to 3 ∗ 10{sup −3} Ω cm when the Cu/Sn atomic ratio increases from 1.5 to 2.2.

  20. Interaction of selenite with reduced Fe and/or S species: An XRD and XAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finck, Nicolas; Dardenne, Kathy

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the interaction between selenite and either Fe((II))aq or S((-II))aq in solution, and the results were used to investigate the interaction between Se((IV))aq and FeS in suspension. The reaction products were characterized by a combination of methods (SEM, XRD and XAS) and the reaction mechanisms were identified. In a first experiment, Se((IV))aq was reduced to Se((0)) by interaction with Fe((II))aq which was oxidized to Fe((III)), but the reaction was only partial. Subsequently, some Fe((III)) produced akaganeite (β-FeOOH) and the release of proton during that reaction decreased the pH. The pH decrease changed the Se speciation in solution which hindered further Se((IV)) reduction by Fe((II))aq. In a second experiment, Se((IV))aq was quantitatively reduced to Se((0)) by S((-II))aq and the reaction was fast. Two sulfide species were needed to reduce one Se((IV)), and the observed pH increase was due to a proton consumption. For both experiments, experimental results are consistent with expectations based on the oxidation reduction potential of the various species. Upon interaction with FeS, Se((IV))aq was reduced to Se((0)) and minute amounts of pyrite were detected, a consequence of partial mackinawite oxidation at surface sulfur sites. These results are of prime importance with respect to safe deep disposal of nuclear waste which contains the long-lived radionuclide (79)Se. This study shows that after release of (79)Se((IV)) upon nuclear waste matrix corrosion, selenite can be reduced in the near field to low soluble Se((0)) by interaction with Fe((II))aq and/or S((-II))aq species. Because the solubility of Se((0)) species is significantly lower than that of Se((IV)), selenium will become much less (bio)available and its migration out of deep HLW repositories may be drastically hindered. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Surface modification of indium tin oxide films by amino ion implantation for the attachment of multi-wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Jiao; Liu Chenyao; Chen Qunxia; Li Shuoqi; Hu Jingbo; Li Qilong

    2010-01-01

    Amino ion implantation was carried out at the energy of 80 keV with fluence of 5 x 10 15 ions cm -2 for indium tin oxide film (ITO) coated glass, and the existence of amino group on the ITO surface was verified by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectra. Scanning electron microscopy images show that multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) directly attached to the amino ion implanted ITO (NH 2 /ITO) surface homogeneously and stably. The resulting MWCNTs-attached NH 2 /ITO (MWCNTs/NH 2 /ITO) substrate can be used as electrode material. Cyclic voltammetry results indicate that the MWCNTs/NH 2 /ITO electrode shows excellent electrochemical properties and obvious electrocatalytic activity towards uric acid, thus this material is expected to have potential in electrochemical analysis and biosensors.

  2. Surface characterization of sol–gel derived indium tin oxide films on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , India ... 1. Introduction. Indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on glass is an important item in the field ..... In addition, contamination of carbon from environment cannot be ruled ..... processing of ceramics, glasses and composites (eds) L L. Hench and ...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  4. Tin (Sn) - An Unlikely Ally to Extend Moore's Law for Silicon CMOS?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2012-01-01

    growth in device performance. To overcome this problem, novel channel materials are being developed to enhance carrier mobility and hence increase device performance. This work explores a novel semiconducting alloy - Silicon-tin (SiSn) as a channel

  5. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  6. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  7. PCBs with immersion tin finish - some experiences with lead-free reflow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukat, K.; Koziol, G.; Sitek, J.; Borecki, J.; Hackiewicz, H. [Tele and Radio Research Inst., Warsaw (Poland); Merkle, H.; Schroeder, S. [Ormecon Chemie GmbH and Co. KG, Ammersbek (Germany); Girulska, A.; Gardela, K. [Eldos Sp. z o.o., Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Substitution of lead-free solders in electronic assemblies requires changes in the conventional SnPb finishes of PCBs. The Craft project ''PRINT'' objectives respond to this challenge. Its main goal is to develop and implement the new technology of high solderability immersion tin for printed circuit boards at small and medium enterprises. The subject of the research was organic based immersion tin coating which would fulfil demands of SMT. In the paper the results of reflow soldering process on PCBs covered by Ormecon registered immersion tin finish with using lead-free solder pastes will be described. Solderability of tin coating as well as wettability of lead-free solder paste will be presented. (orig.)

  8. Preparation of tin -heparin complex to be applied for myocardial infarct diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badi, J. M.; Al-Azzawi, H. A.; Resen, H. M.; Abed, I. G.; Owiad, H.; Manji, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    Tin-heparin complex has been prepared (liquid form) to be labeled with technetium-99 can be applied for diagnosis of myocardial infarcts vascular diseases and deep vein thrombosis. The preparation contents are 0.1mg tin chloride dehydrate and 1250 1.U of heparin. The results of the pH effect on the labeling yield indicated that high percentage of labeling yield (96.1%) was obtained in the optimal pH (5.50). The obtained results showed that the quantity of reducing agent (tin chloride dehydrate) and chelating agent (heparin) has no effect on the labeling yield. Results of radio analytical studies by paper chromatography technique wear confirmed by data obtained by Gel chromatography column scanning techniques. These techniques showed the high labeling yield of the tin-heparin complex. The persistence of high labeling yield for 8 hours is a good indication for its stability and efficiency for radio diagnosis examination in nuclear medicine centers. (Author)

  9. Amphibolites in the Rare Metal- and Tin-bearing Bastar – Malkangiri ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    33

    21-10-284/1, Begumpet, Brahmanwadi Lane no. ... Odisha states of India, is well known for primary and secondary commercial deposits of tin .... carried out using the rapid wet chemical methods, essentially after Shapiro and Brannock. (1955).

  10. Studying the melting behaviour of fly ash from the incineration of MSW using viscosity and heated stage XRD data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arvelakis, Stelios; Folkedahl, B.; Frandsen, F. J.

    2008-01-01

    , by use of a high-temperature rotational viscometer in order to determine the rheology of the ash material, and by a hot-stage XRD in order to identify phase changes and transformations during the heating and cooling of the ash samples. Knowledge of the ash melting properties as well as phase changes...

  11. XRF, XRD and SEM facilities in the School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azmi Rahmat

    1996-01-01

    The School has acquired excellent facilities for elemental analysis by XRF and EDX and phase analysis by XRD. The type of research work carried out in the School is described. The school also assists the local industries in trying to solve their problems fully utilizing these facilities along with other testing units

  12. Phase evaluation of YSZ upon doping with Ta"5"+, Ti"4"+ and Ca"2"+ with combined Raman and XRD analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shklover, V.; Wermelinger, T.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the phase stability of 7YSZ (7 wt%-Y_2O_3-doped ZrO_2), it has been doped with larger (Ca"2"+) and smaller (Ti"4"+ or Ta"5"+) ions. Complementary Raman and XRD studies of these stabilized systems have been performed. The tetragonal symmetry of the Ta"5"+-ion-doped YSZ sample and the Ti"4"+-doped YSZ sample, and the cubic symmetry of Ca"2"+-doped YSZ have been confirmed both by means of XRD and Raman analyses. Raman scattering measurements show shifts of characteristic peaks when the YSZ is doped with Ta"5"+, Ti"4"+ and Ca"2"+ cations. The peak shift increased with increasing dopant concentration in the ZrO_2 lattice. The Ta-doped YSZ sample heat-treated below 1500 C contained some YTaO_4 phase, which was confirmed by means of XRD as well as by Raman spectroscopy. The effect of Ca"2"+ ion doping on the Raman peak shift was much higher than that of Y"3"+ ion doping. In this work it has been highlighted that Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool complementing XRD, for qualitative comparison of the doping effect on the lattice parameters of ZrO_2.

  13. XRD Investigation of the relaxation of InAsP layers grown by CBE on (100) InP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marschner, T.H.; Leijs, M.R.; Vonk, H.; Wolter, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    We present X-ray diffraction (XRD) investigations of the influence of the substrate off-orientation on the relaxation of InAsP layers grown on InP by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE). Our measurements show that with beginning relaxation the As-concentration increases drastically and stays constant if the

  14. XRD Analysis of Nanocrystalline Anatase Powders Prepared by Various Chemical Routes: Correlations between Micro-structure and Crystal Structure Parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matěj, Z.; Matějová, Lenka; Kužel, R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, Suppl. 2 (2013), s. 161-183 ISSN 0885-7156 Grant - others:UK(CZ) UNCE 204023/2012; MŠk(CZ) GAP108/11/1539 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : anatase * crystallite size * lattice parameters * XRD * vacancies * anisotropy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.586, year: 2013

  15. The C-terminal extension unique to the long isoform of the shelterin component TIN2 enhances its interaction with TRF2 in a phosphorylation- and dyskeratosis congenita-cluster-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nya D; Dodson, Lois M; Escudero, Laura; Sukumar, Ann T; Williams, Christopher L; Mihalek, Ivana; Baldan, Alessandro; Baird, Duncan M; Bertuch, Alison A

    2018-03-26

    TIN2 is central to the shelterin complex, linking the telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 with TPP1/POT1. Mutations in TINF2 , which encodes TIN2, that are found in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) result in very short telomeres and cluster in a region shared by the two TIN2 isoforms, TIN2S (short) and TIN2L (long). Here we show that TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is phosphorylated. TRF2 interacts more with TIN2L than TIN2S, and both the DC-cluster and phosphorylation promote this enhanced interaction. The binding of TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is affected by TRF2-F120, which is also required for TRF2's interaction with end processing factors such as Apollo. Conversely, TRF1 interacts more with TIN2S than with TIN2L. A DC-associated mutation further reduces TIN2L-TRF1, but not TIN2S-TRF1, interaction. Cells overexpressing TIN2L or phosphomimetic-TIN2L are permissive to telomere elongation, whereas cells overexpressing TIN2S or phosphodead-TIN2L are not. Telomere lengths are unchanged in cell lines in which TIN2L expression has been eliminated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation. These results indicate that TIN2 isoforms are biochemically and functionally distinguishable, and that shelterin composition could be fundamentally altered in patients with TINF2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Nelson et al.

  16. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  17. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  18. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl 2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant

  19. RF measurements of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Pritzkau, D.P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    A measuring system at the table-top scale was developed for RF measurements of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz). Both perturbation and non-perturbation methods are employed to characterize the RF properties of a muffin-tin structure. Conventional bead pull measurements are extended to millimeter wavelengths. Design of the measuring system and preliminary results of RF measurements are presented

  20. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.