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Sample records for tin sulfide thin

  1. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  2. The impact of sodium contamination in tin sulfide thin-film solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Steinmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Through empirical observations, sodium (Na has been identified as a benign contaminant in some thin-film solar cells. Here, we intentionally contaminate thermally evaporated tin sulfide (SnS thin-films with sodium and measure the SnS absorber properties and solar cell characteristics. The carrier concentration increases from 2 × 1016 cm−3 to 4.3 × 1017 cm−3 in Na-doped SnS thin-films, when using a 13 nm NaCl seed layer, which is detrimental for SnS photovoltaic applications but could make Na-doped SnS an attractive candidate in thermoelectrics. The observed trend in carrier concentration is in good agreement with density functional theory calculations, which predict an acceptor-type NaSn defect with low formation energy.

  3. Synthesis, Deposition, and Microstructure Development of Thin Films Formed by Sulfidation and Selenization of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernomordik, Boris David

    Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emission and pollution associated with the global power demand can be accomplished by supplying tens-of-terawatts of power with solar cell technologies. No one solar cell material currently on the market is poised to meet this challenge due to issues such as manufacturing cost, material shortage, or material toxicity. For this reason, there is increasing interest in efficient light-absorbing materials that are comprised of abundant and non-toxic elements for thin film solar cell. Among these materials are copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu2ZnSnS4, or CZTS), copper zinc tin selenide (Cu2ZnSnSe4, or CZTSe), and copper zinc tin sulfoselenide alloys [Cu2ZnSn(SxSe1-x )4, or CZTSSe]. Laboratory power conversion efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells have risen to almost 13% in less than three decades of research. Meeting the terawatt challenge will also require low cost fabrication. CZTSSe thin films from annealed colloidal nanocrystal coatings is an example of solution-based methods that can reduce manufacturing costs through advantages such as high throughput, high material utilization, and low capital expenses. The film microstructure and grain size affects the solar cell performance. To realize low cost commercial production and high efficiencies of CZTSSe-based solar cells, it is necessary to understand the fundamental factors that affect crystal growth and microstructure evolution during CZTSSe annealing. Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) nanocrystals were synthesized via thermolysis of single-source cation and sulfur precursors copper, zinc and tin diethyldithiocarbamates. The average nanocrystal size could be tuned between 2 nm and 40 nm, by varying the synthesis temperature between 150 °C and 340 °C. The synthesis is rapid and is completed in less than 10 minutes. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm that the nanocrystals are nominally

  4. Surface modification of cadmium sulfide thin film honey comb nanostructures: Effect of in situ tin doping using chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, K.C., E-mail: wilsonphy@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Govt. Polytechnic College Kothamangalam, Chelad P O, Ernakulam, Kerala 686681 (India); Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India); Basheer Ahamed, M. [Department of Physics, B. S. Abdur Rahman University, Vandaloor, Chennai, Tamilnadu 600048 (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Novel honey comb like cadmium sulfide thin film nanostructures prepared using chemical bath deposition on glass substrates. • Honey comb nanostructure found in two layers: an ultra thin film at bottom and well inter connected with walls of < 25 nm thick on top; hence maximum surface area possible for CdS nanostructure. • Shell size of the nanostructures and energy band gaps were controlled also an enhanced persistent conductivity observed on Sn doping. - Abstract: Even though nanostructures possess large surface to volume ratio compared to their thin film counterpart, the complicated procedure that demands for the deposition on a substrate kept them back foot in device fabrication techniques. In this work, a honey comb like cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films nanostructure are deposited on glass substrates using simple chemical bath deposition technique at 65 °C. Energy band gaps, film thickness and shell size of the honey comb nanostructures are successfully controlled using tin (Sn) doping and number of shells per unit area is found to be maximum for 5% Sn doped (in the reaction mixture) sample. X-ray diffraction and optical absorption analysis showed that cadmium sulfide and cadmium hydroxide coexist in the samples. TEM measurements showed that CdS nanostructures are embedded in cadmium hydroxide just like “plum pudding”. Persistent photoconductivity measurements of the samples are also carried out. The decay constants found to be increased with increases in Sn doping.

  5. Processing of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystal Dispersions for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryce Arthur

    A scalable and inexpensive renewable energy source is needed to meet the expected increase in electricity demand throughout the developed and developing world in the next 15 years without contributing further to global warming through CO2 emissions. Photovoltaics may meet this need but current technologies are less than ideal requiring complex manufacturing processes and/or use of toxic, rare-earth materials. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu 2ZnSnS4, CZTS) solar cells offer a true "green" alternative based upon non-toxic and abundant elements. Solution-based processes utilizing CZTS nanocrystal dispersions followed by high temperature annealing have received significant research attention due to their compatibility with traditional roll-to-roll coating processes. In this work, CZTS nanocrystal (5-35 nm diameters) dispersions were utilized as a production pathway to form solar absorber layers. Aerosol-based coating methods (aerosol jet printing and ultrasonic spray coating) were optimized for formation of dense, crack-free CZTS nanocrystal coatings. The primary variables underlying determination of coating morphology within the aerosol-coating parameter space were investigated. It was found that the liquid content of the aerosol droplets at the time of substrate impingement play a critical role. Evaporation of the liquid from the aerosol droplets during coating was altered through changes to coating parameters as well as to the CZTS nanocrystal dispersions. In addition, factors influencing conversion of CZTS nanocrystal coatings into dense, large-grained polycrystalline films suitable for solar cell development during thermal annealing were studied. The roles nanocrystal size, carbon content, sodium uptake, and sulfur pressure were found to have pivotal roles in film microstructure evolution. The effects of these parameters on film morphology, grain growth rates, and chemical makeup were analyzed from electron microscopy images as well as compositional analysis

  6. Transient terahertz photoconductivity measurements of minority-carrier lifetime in tin sulfide thin films: Advanced metrology for an early stage photovoltaic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo, R.; Sher, Meng-Ju; Ofori-Okai, Benjamin K.; Steinmann, V.; Yang, Chuanxi; Hartman, Katy; Nelson, Keith A.; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; Gordon, Roy G.; Buonassisi, T.

    2016-01-01

    Materials research with a focus on enhancing the minority-carrier lifetime of the light-absorbing semiconductor is key to advancing solar energy technology for both early stage and mature material platforms alike. Tin sulfide (SnS) is an absorber material with several clear advantages for manufacturing and deployment, but the record power conversion efficiency remains below 5%. We report measurements of bulk and interface minority-carrier recombination rates in SnS thin films using optical-pump, terahertz-probe transient photoconductivity (TPC) measurements. Post-growth thermal annealing in H2S gas increases the minority-carrier lifetime, and oxidation of the surface reduces the surface recombination velocity. However, the minority-carrier lifetime remains below 100 ps for all tested combinations of growth technique and post-growth processing. Significant improvement in SnS solar cell performance will hinge on finding and mitigating as-yet-unknown recombination-active defects. We describe in detail our methodology for TPC experiments, and we share our data analysis routines in the form freely available software.

  7. Synthesis, Internal Structure, and Formation Mechanism of Monodisperse Tin Sulfide Nanoplatelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Pouget, Stéphanie; Zuo, Jian-Min; Lebrun, Colette; Chandezon, Frédéric; Aldakov, Dmitry; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tin sulfide nanoparticles have a great potential for use in a broad range of applications related to solar energy conversion (photovoltaics, photocatalysis), electrochemical energy storage, and thermoelectrics. The development of chemical synthesis methods allowing for the precise control of size,

  8. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamali-Sheini, Farid, E-mail: faridjamali@iauahvaz.ac.ir [Advanced Surface Engineering and Nano Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ramin [Department of Physics, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University (I.A.U), Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknia, Farhad [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Sherafat, University of Farhangian, 15916, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sookhakian, Mehran [Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and hexagonal phase of SnS{sub 2}. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  9. Nontoxic and Abundant Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystals for Potential High-Temperature Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A.; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P.; Wu, Yue

    2012-01-01

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase...

  10. Subnanometer Thin β-Indium Sulfide Nanosheets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Shinjita; Sarkar, Suresh; Pradhan, Narayan

    2012-12-20

    Nanosheets are a peculiar kind of nanomaterials that are grown two-dimensionally over a micrometer in length and a few nanometers in thickness. Wide varieties of inorganic semiconductor nanosheets are already reported, but controlling the crystal growth and tuning their thickness within few atomic layers have not been yet explored. We investigate here the parameters that determine the thickness and the formation mechanism of subnanometer thin (two atomic layers) cubic indium sulfide (In2S3) nanosheets. Using appropriate reaction condition, the growth kinetics is monitored by controlling the decomposition rate of the single source precursor of In2S3 as a function of nucleation temperature. The variation in the thickness of the nanosheets along the polar [111] direction has been correlated with the rate of evolved H2S gas, which in turn depends on the rate of the precursor decomposition. In addition, it has been observed that the thickness of the In2S3 nanosheets is related to the nucleation temperature.

  11. Optical and structural characteristics of lead sulfides thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim Deraman; Bakar Ismail; Samsudi Sakrani; Gould, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Tin sulfide films have been prepared by evaporation technique at 1x10 - 4 torr and at substrate temperatures between 100 to 300 0 C. The films thickness were 52 to 370 nm. From the absorption 1.47 eV and X-ray diffraction patent shows that the composition of films have changed from SnS 2 (at low temperature) to SnS (at higher temperature)

  12. Photoinduced conductivity in tin dioxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muraoka, Y.; Takubo, N.; Hiroi, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet light irradiation on the conducting properties of SnO 2-x thin films grown epitaxially on TiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 single-crystal substrates are studied at room temperature. A large increase in conductivity by two to four orders of magnitude is observed with light irradiation in an inert atmosphere and remains after the light is removed. The high-conducting state reverts to the original low-conducting state by exposing it to oxygen gas. These reversible phenomena are ascribed to the desorption and adsorption of negatively charged oxygen species at the grain boundaries, which critically change the mobility of electron carriers already present inside grains by changing the potential barrier height at the grain boundary. The UV light irradiation provides us with an easy and useful route to achieve a high-conducting state even at low carrier density in transparent conducting oxides and also to draw an invisible conducting wire or a specific pattern on an insulating film.

  13. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh E. Patil; D. D. Kajale; D. N. Chavan; N. K. Pawar; V. B. Gaikwad; G. H. Jain

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT). The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol vapors (C2H5OH), NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 an...

  14. An Enzymatic Glucose Sensor Composed of Carbon-Coated Nano Tin Sulfide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-Jei Chung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a biosensor, based on a glucose oxidase (GOx immobilized, carbon-coated tin sulfide (SnS assembled on a glass carbon electrode (GCE was developed, and its direct electrochemistry was investigated. The carbon coated SnS (C-SnS nanoparticle was prepared through a simple two-step process, using hydrothermal and chemical vapor deposition methods. The large reactive surface area and unique electrical potential of C-SnS could offer a favorable microenvironment for facilitating electron transfer between enzymes and the electrode surface. The structure and sensor ability of the proposed GOx/C-SnS electrode were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD, Raman spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and cyclic voltammetry study (CV.

  15. Nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide nanocrystals for potential high-temperature thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoran; Jauregui, Luis A; Zhang, Genqiang; Chen, Yong P; Wu, Yue

    2012-02-08

    Improving energy/fuel efficiency by converting waste heat into electricity using thermoelectric materials is of great interest due to its simplicity and reliability. However, many thermoelectric materials are composed of either toxic or scarce elements. Here, we report the experimental realization of using nontoxic and abundant copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystals for potential thermoelectric applications. The CZTS nanocrystals can be synthesized in large quantities from solution phase reaction and compressed into robust bulk pellets through spark plasma sintering and hot press while still maintaining nanoscale grain size inside. Electrical and thermal measurements have been performed from 300 to 700 K to understand the electron and phonon transports. Extra copper doping during the nanocrystal synthesis introduces a significant improvement in the performance. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  16. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang-Wook; Shin, Hee-Sun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Han, Min-Koo; Pang, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Yong; Chung, In-Jae; Pyo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN x ). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 μmx6 μm. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05∼0.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10 5 in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 μm, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown

  17. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  18. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  19. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols, H Hier, and M Neupane Approved for public release; distribution...Laboratory Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols... Semiconductor Tin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols, H Hier, and M

  20. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present details of preparation of tin oxide (SnO2) thin film by sol–gel process. The film was synthesized on a glass (Corning 7059) plate by dip coating method. Here, we used tin (II) chloride as precursor and methanol as solvent. Optical characteristics and physical properties like refractive index, ...

  1. Influence of Direct Current Electric Field on Corrosion Behavior of Tin Under a Thin Electrolyte Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. L.; Bu, F. R.; Tian, J.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of a direct current electric field (DCEF) on corrosion behavior of tin under a thin electrolyte layer was investigated based on an array electrode technology by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface analysis. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion rate of tin near the positive plate of DCEF increases with increased electric field intensity, which could be attributed to the acceleration of the migration of ions, the removal of corrosion products under DCEF and the damage of tin surface oxide film. Furthermore, tin at different positions in a DCEF exhibits different corrosion behavior, which could be ascribed to the difference of the local corrosion environment caused by the DCEF.

  2. Tin dioxide nanostructured thin films obtained through polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antônio Dal Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructured thin films with low proportion of defects and low roughness were produced through the systematic control of temperature and viscosity of the precursor solutions used for thin films deposition. These solutions were obtained through the citrate method and the films were deposited through the ‘dip-coating’ technique on glass substrate and after thermal treatment at 470ºC/4h, they were characterized both structurally and morphologically through the X-ray diffractometry, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray excited photoelectrons spectroscopy. The film thickness was obtained through scanning electronic microscopy of the films cross-section and correlated to the proportion of Sn and Si obtained through X-ray fluorescence. X-ray diffractometry of the films revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to the SnO2 crystalline phase, overlapping a wide peak between 20 and 30º (2?, characteristic of the glass substrate. Optic microscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed homogeneous films, with low roughness, suitable to several applications such as sensors and transparent electrodes. It could be observed through the UV-Vis absorption analysis that the films presented high optical transparency and ‘band gap’ energy 4.36 eV. The X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SnO2, as well as traces of the elements present in the glass substrate and residual carbon from the thermal treatment of the films.

  3. Experiments on In2S3:Sn Thin Films with up to 1% Tin Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraini, M.; Bouguila, N.; Koaib, J.; Vázquez-Vázquez, C.; López-Quintela, M. A.; Alaya, S.

    2016-11-01

    Tin-doped indium sulfide (In2S3:Sn) thin films with different Sn:In molar ratios (0% to 1% by mol in solution) have been deposited on glass substrates by a chemical spray pyrolysis method. The films were investigated by x-ray diffraction analysis, optical absorption, Raman, and photoluminescence spectroscopies, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The structural properties revealed that the In2S3:Sn thin films had polycrystalline cubic structure with average crystallite size increasing from 16.3 nm to 25.5 nm. The surface morphology of the films was continuous and crack free. The average and root-mean-square roughness increased from 13.12 nm to 31.65 nm and from 16.14 nm to 39.39 nm, respectively, with increasing Sn:In molar ratio. Raman studies revealed the presence of vibration modes related to In2S3 phase, with no signature of secondary phases. The transmission coefficient was about 65% to 70% in the visible region and 70% to 90% in the near-infrared region. The optical bandgap values for allowed direct transitions in In2S3:Sn were found to lie in the range from 2.68 eV to 2.80 eV. The refractive index of the In2S3:Sn thin films decreased from 2.45 to 2.37 while the k values lay in the range from 0.02 to 0.25 for all wavelengths. Defect-related photoluminescence properties are also discussed. These In2S3:Sn films are promising candidates for use in optoelectronic and photovoltaic devices.

  4. Solvothermal synthesis of tin sulfide (SnS) nanorods and investigation of its field emission properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhorde, Ajinkya; Pawbake, Amit; Sharma, Priyanka; Nair, Shruthi; Funde, Adinath; Bankar, Prashant; More, Mahendra; Jadkar, Sandesh

    2018-02-01

    In the present study, we report synthesis of tin sulfide (SnS) nano-rods using a simple solvothermal method at different reaction time period. The formation of single phase SnS has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman analysis. The XRD analysis revealed that the predominant phase in all prepared samples is orthorhombic SnS. The formation of nano-rods of SnS was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) analysis. To investigate the optical properties of SnS nano-rods UV-visible spectroscopy analysis was carried out. We observed that the band gap of SnS nano-rods decreases with increase in reaction time and can be attributed to the quantum confinement effect. Finally, field emission investigations on the SnS nano-rods at the base pressure of 1 × 10- 8 mbar were carried out and found to be superior to the other chalcogenide nanostructures. As-synthesized SnS nano-rods emitter exhibits excellent field emission properties such as low turn-on field ( 2.5 V/µm for 10 µA/ cm2), high emission current density ( 647 µA/cm2 at 3.9 V/µm) and superior current stability ( 5 h for 1 µA). Thus, the facile one-step synthesis approach and robust nature of SnS nano-rods emitter can provide prospects for the future development of large-area emitter applications such as flat-panel-display devices.

  5. Localized tail state distribution and hopping transport in ultrathin zinc-tin-oxide thin film transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jeng-Ting; Liu, Li-Chih; Chen, Jen-Sue; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Liao, Po-Yung; Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Nugraha, Mohamad Insan; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    Carrier transport properties of solution processed ultra thin (4 nm) zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistor are investigated based on its transfer characteristics measured at the temperature ranging from 310K to 77K. As temperature decreases, the transfer curves show a parellel shift toward more

  6. The production of UV Absorber amorphous cerium sulfide thin film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariper, İshak Afşin, E-mail: akariper@gmail.com [Faculty of Education, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)

    2017-10-15

    This study investigates the production of cerium sulfide (CeSx) amorphous thin films on substrates (commercial glass) by chemical bath deposition at different pH levels. The transmittance, absorption, optical band gap and refractive index of the films are measured by UV/VIS Spectrum. According to XRD analysis, the films show amorphous structure in the baths with pH: 1 to 5. It has been observed that the optical and structural properties of the films depend on pH value of the bath. The optical band gap (2.08 eV to 3.16 eV) of the films changes with the film thickness (23 nm to 1144 nm). We show that the refractive index has a positive relationship with the film thickness, where the values of 1.93, 1.45, 1.42, 2.60 and 1.39 are obtained for the former, and 34, 560, 509, 23 and 1144 nm (at 550 nm wavelength) for the latter. We compare the optical properties of amorphous and crystal form of CeSx thin films. We show that the optical band gaps of the amorphous CeS{sub x} are lower than that of crystal CeS{sub x} . (author)

  7. Cadmium sulfide thin films growth by chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariech, S.; Aida, M. S.; Bougdira, J.; Belmahi, M.; Medjahdi, G.; Genève, D.; Attaf, N.; Rinnert, H.

    2018-03-01

    Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films have been prepared by a simple technique such as chemical bath deposition (CBD). A set of samples CdS were deposited on glass substrates by varying the bath temperature from 55 to 75 °C at fixed deposition time (25 min) in order to investigate the effect of deposition temperature on CdS films physical properties. The determination of growth activation energy suggests that at low temperature CdS film growth is governed by the release of Cd2+ ions in the solution. The structural characterization indicated that the CdS films structure is cubic or hexagonal with preferential orientation along the direction (111) or (002), respectively. The optical characterization indicated that the films have a fairly high transparency, which varies between 55% and 80% in the visible range of the optical spectrum, the refractive index varies from 1.85 to 2.5 and the optical gap value of which can reach 2.2 eV. It can be suggested that these properties make these films perfectly suitable for their use as window film in thin films based solar cells.

  8. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela; Dascula, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol–gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  9. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Dascalu, Dan; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela

    1997-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol¿gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  10. Optical, structural and electrical properties of Mn doped tin oxide thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The dopant concentration was varied by controlling the thickness of the metal layer. The overall thickness of the film was 115 nm with ... Tin oxide; transparent conductors; thin films. 1. Introduction. Transparent conducting oxides have ... sited sequentially on top of the metal films. The weight of metals in each deposition was ...

  11. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  12. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmros, Anna; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30–200 °C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/°C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of − 470 ppm/°C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to − 60 and 100 ppm/°C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  13. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmros, Anna, E-mail: anna.malmros@chalmers.se; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30-200 Degree-Sign C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of - 470 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to - 60 and 100 ppm/ Degree-Sign C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  14. Toward an Understanding of Thin-Film Transistor Performance in Solution-Processed Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO) Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Shawn; Koslowski, Nico; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Guhl, Conrad; Erdem, Emre; Weber, Stefan; Schneider, Jörg J

    2017-06-28

    Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films are accessible by a molecular precursor approach using mononuclear zinc(II) and tin(II) compounds with methoxyiminopropionic acid ligands. Solution processing of two precursor solutions containing a mixture of zinc and tin(II)-methoxyiminopropinato complexes results in the formation of smooth homogeneous thin films, which upon calcination are converted into the desired semiconducting amorphous ZTO thin films. ZTO films integrated within a field-effect transistor (FET) device exhibit an active semiconducting behavior in the temperature range between 250 and 400 °C, giving an increased performance, with mobility values between μ = 0.03 and 5.5 cm 2 /V s, with on/off ratios increasing from 10 5 to 10 8 when going from 250 to 400 °C. Herein, our main emphasis, however, was on an improved understanding of the material transformation pathway from weak to high performance of the semiconductor in a solution-processed FET as a function of the processing temperature. We have correlated this with the chemical composition and defects states within the microstructure of the obtained ZTO thin film via photoelectron spectroscopy (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy), Auger electron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence investigations. The critical factor observed for the improved performance within this ZTO material could be attributed to a higher tin concentration, wherein the contributions of point defects arising from the tin oxide within the final amorphous ZTO material play the dominant role in governing the transistor performance.

  15. Trace hydrogen sulfide gas sensor based on tungsten sulfide membrane-coated thin-core fiber modal interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dashen; Feng, Wenlin; Wei, Jianwei; Qin, Xiang; Chen, Rong

    2017-11-01

    A novel fiber-optic hydrogen sulfide sensor based on a thin-core Mach-Zehnder fiber modal interferometer (TMZFI) is demonstrated and fabricated. This in-line interferometer is composed of a short section of thin-core fiber sandwiched between two standard single mode fibers, and the fast response to hydrogen sulfide is achieved via the construction of tungsten sulfide film on the outside surface of the TMZFI using the dip-coating and calcination technique. The fabricated sensing nanofilm is characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectrometer, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and spectroscopic analysis technology, etc. Experimental results showed that the WS2 sensing film has a hexagonal structure with a compact and porous morphology. The XPS and FTIR indicate that the existence of two elements (W and S) is demonstrated. With the increasing concentration of hydrogen sulfide, the interference spectra appear blue shift. In addition, a high sensitivity of 18.37 pm/ppm and a good linear relationship are obtained within a measurement range from 0 to 80 ppm. In addition, there is an excellent selectivity for H2S, which has also been proved by the surface adsorption energy results of tungsten sulfide with four gases (H2S, N2, O2 and CO2) by using the density functional theory calculations. This interferometer has the advantages of simple structure, high sensitivity and easy manufacture, and could be used in the safety monitoring field of hydrogen sulfide gas.

  16. Effects of Annealing on TiN Thin Film Growth by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jafari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on stainless steel substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering method and annealing at different annealing temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C for 120 min in nitrogen/argon atmospheres. Effects of annealing temperatures on the structural and the optical properties of TiN films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscope (AFM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Our experimental studies reveal that the annealing temperature appreciably affected the structures, crystallite sizes, and reflection of the films. By increasing the annealing temperature to 700°C crystallinity and reflection of the film increase. These results suggest that annealed TiN films can be good candidate for tokamak first wall due to their structural and optical properties.

  17. Growth and Characterisation of Pulsed-Laser Deposited Tin Thin Films on Cube-Textured Copper at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwachta G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-quality titanium nitride thin films have been grown on a cube-textured copper surface via pulsed laser deposition. The growth of TiN thin films has been very sensitive to pre-treatment procedure and substrate temperature. It is difficult to grow heteroexpitaxial TiN films directly on copper tape due to large differences in lattice constants, thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials as well as polycrystalline structure of substrate. The X-Ray diffraction measurement revealed presence of high peaks belonged to TiN(200 and TiN(111 thin films, depending on used etcher of copper surface. The electron diffraction patterns of TiN(200/Cu films confirmed the single-crystal nature of the films with cube-on-cube epitaxy. The high-resolution microscopy on our films revealed sharp interfaces between copper and titanium nitride with no presence of interfacial reaction.

  18. Magnetron sputtered TiN thin films toward enhanced performance supercapacitor electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Binbin

    2018-04-09

    Supercapacitors as a new type of energy storage devices bridging the gap between conventional capacitors and batteries have aroused widespread concern. Herein, binder-free titanium nitride (TiN) thin film electrodes for supercapacitors prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering technology are reported. The effect of N2 content on the supercapacitor performance is evaluated. A highest specific capacitance of 27.3 mF cm−2 at a current density of 1.0 mA cm−2, together with excellent cycling performance (98.2% capacitance retention after 20,000 cycles at 2.0 mA cm−2) is achieved in a 0.5 M H2SO4 aqueous electrolyte. More importantly, a symmetric supercapacitor device assembled on the basis of TiN thin films can deliver a maximum energy density of 17.6 mWh cm−3 at a current density of 0.2 mA cm−2 and a maximum power density of 10.8 W cm−3 at a current density of 2 mA cm−2 with remarkable cycling stability. As a consequence, TiN thin films demonstrate great potential as promising supercapacitor electrode materials.

  19. Investigation of hexadecanethiol self-assembled monolayers on cadmium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Crissy L.; Brewer, Scott H.; Folmer, Jaap; Franzen, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This study reports the use of variable angle reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy to investigate the formation of a 1-hexadecanethiol adlayer on cadmium tin oxide (CTO) thin film surfaces. These adlayers appear to be robust, ordered monolayers. The optical and electronic properties of CTO thin films chemically vapor deposited onto glass substrates were also investigated. The reflectance of the CTO films was dependent upon the incident angle of the impinging radiation and revealed a reflectance decrease indicative of a plasma frequency in the mid-IR using p-polarized radiation

  20. Investigation of the Optoelectronic Properties of Ti-doped Indium Tin Oxide Thin Film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Nen-Wen; Liu, Wei-Sheng; Cheng, Huai-Ming; Hu, Hung-Chun; Hsieh, Wei-Ting; Yu, Hau-Wei; Liang, Shih-Chang

    2015-09-21

    : In this study, direct-current magnetron sputtering was used to fabricate Ti-doped indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The sputtering power during the 350-nm-thick thin-film production process was fixed at 100 W with substrate temperatures increasing from room temperature to 500 °C. The Ti-doped ITO thin films exhibited superior thin-film resistivity (1.5 × 10 - ⁴ Ω/cm), carrier concentration (4.1 × 10 21 cm - ³), carrier mobility (10 cm²/Vs), and mean visible-light transmittance (90%) at wavelengths of 400-800 nm at a deposition temperature of 400 °C. The superior carrier concentration of the Ti-doped ITO alloys (>10 21 cm - ³) with a high figure of merit (81.1 × 10 - ³ Ω - ¹) demonstrate the pronounced contribution of Ti doping, indicating their high suitability for application in optoelectronic devices.

  1. Solar cells with PbS quantum dot sensitized TiO2-multiwalled carbon nanotube composites, sulfide-titania gel and tin sulfide coated C-fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokal, Ramesh K; Deepa, Melepurath; Kalluri, Ankarao; Singh, Shrishti; Macwan, Isaac; Patra, Prabir K; Gilarde, Jeff

    2017-10-04

    Novel approaches to boost quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) efficiencies are in demand. Herein, three strategies are used: (i) a hydrothermally synthesized TiO 2 -multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite instead of conventional TiO 2 , (ii) a counter electrode (CE) that has not been applied to QDSCs until now, namely, tin sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) coated over a conductive carbon (C)-fabric, and (iii) a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte composed of S 2- , an inert polymer and TiO 2 nanoparticles as opposed to a polysulfide solution based hole transport layer. MWCNTs by virtue of their high electrical conductivity and suitably positioned Fermi level (below the conduction bands of TiO 2 and PbS) allow fast photogenerated electron injection into the external circuit, and this is confirmed by a higher efficiency of 6.3% achieved for a TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS based (champion) cell, compared to the corresponding TiO 2 /PbS/ZnS based cell (4.45%). Nanoscale current map analysis of TiO 2 and TiO 2 -MWCNTs reveals the presence of narrowly spaced highly conducting domains in the latter, which equips it with an average current carrying capability greater by a few orders of magnitude. Electron transport and recombination resistances are lower and higher respectively for the TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS cell relative to the TiO 2 /PbS/ZnS cell, thus leading to a high performance cell. The efficacy of SnS/C-fabric as a CE is confirmed from the higher efficiency achieved in cells with this CE compared to the C-fabric based cells. Lower charge transfer and diffusional resistances, slower photovoltage decay, high electrical conductance and lower redox potential impart high catalytic activity to the SnS/C-fabric assembly for sulfide reduction and thus endow the TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS cell with a high open circuit voltage (0.9 V) and a large short circuit current density (∼20 mA cm -2 ). This study attempts to unravel how simple strategies can amplify QDSC performances.

  2. Multi-phase structures of boron-doped copper tin sulfide nanoparticles synthesized by chemical bath deposition for optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakspun, Jariya; Kantip, Nathakan; Vailikhit, Veeramol; Choopun, Supab; Tubtimtae, Auttasit

    2018-04-01

    We investigated the influence of boron doping on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of copper tin sulfide (CTS) nanoparticles coated on a WO3 surface and synthesized using chemical bath deposition. Boron doping at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 wt% was investigated. The X-ray diffraction pattern of CTS showed the presence of monoclinic Cu2Sn3S7, cubic Cu2SnS3, and orthorhombic Cu4SnS4. Boron doping influenced the preferred orientation of the nanoparticles for all phase structures and produced a lattice strain effect and changes in the dislocation density. Increasing the concentration of boron in CTS from 0.5 wt% to 2.0 wt% reduced the band gap for all phases of CTS from 1.46 to 1.29 eV and reduced the optical transmittance. Optical constants, such as the refractive index, extinction coefficient, and dissipation factor, were also obtained for B-doped CTS. The dispersion behavior of the refractive index was investigated in terms of a single oscillator model and the physical parameters were determined. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirmed the successful synthesis of CTS nanoparticles. Cyclic voltammetry indicated that optimum boron doping (<1.5 wt% for all phases) resulted in desirable p-n junction behavior for optoelectronic applications.

  3. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  4. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  5. Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Response from Copper Antimony Zinc Sulfide Thin Films on Transparent Conducting Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant K. Sarswat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper antimony sulfide (CAS is a relatively new class of sustainable absorber material, utilizing cost effective and abundant elements. Band gap engineered, modified CAS thin films were synthesized using electrodeposition and elevated temperature sulfurization approach. A testing analog of copper zinc antimony sulfide (CZAS film-electrolyte interface was created in order to evaluate photoelectrochemical performance of the thin film of absorber materials. Eu3+/Eu2+ redox couple was selected for this purpose, based on its relative band offset with copper antimony sulfide. It was observed that zinc has a significant effect on CAS film properties. An enhanced photocurrent was observed for CAS film, modified with zinc addition. A detailed investigation has been carried out by changing stoichiometry, and corresponding surface and optical characterization results have been evaluated. A summary of favorable processing parameters of the films showing enhanced photoelectrochemical response is presented.

  6. Organic photovoltaics using thin gold film as an alternative anode to indium tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haldar, Amrita; Yambem, Soniya D.; Liao, Kang-Shyang; Alley, Nigel J.; Dillon, Eoghan P.; Barron, Andrew R.; Curran, Seamus A.

    2011-01-01

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) is the most commonly used anode as a transparent electrode and more recently as an anode for organic photovoltaics (OPVs). However, there are significant drawbacks in using ITO which include high material costs, mechanical instability including brittleness and poor electrical properties which limit its use in low-cost flexible devices. We present initial results of poly(3-hexylthiophene): phenyl-C 61 -butyric acid methyl ester OPVs showing that an efficiency of 1.9% (short-circuit current 7.01 mA/cm 2 , open-circuit voltage 0.55 V, fill factor 0.49) can be attained using an ultra thin film of gold coated glass as the device anode. The initial I-V characteristics demonstrate that using high work function metals when the thin film is kept ultra thin can be used as a replacement to ITO due to their greater stability and better morphological control.

  7. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ong, Hui-Yng; Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window

  8. Microscopically crumpled indium-tin-oxide thin films as compliant electrodes with tunable transmittance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, Hui-Yng [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore); School of Engineering, Nanyang Polytechnic, Singapore 569830 (Singapore); Shrestha, Milan; Lau, Gih-Keong, E-mail: mgklau@ntu.edu.sg [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798 (Singapore)

    2015-09-28

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films are perceived to be stiff and brittle. This letter reports that crumpled ITO thin films on adhesive poly-acrylate dielectric elastomer can make compliant electrodes, sustaining compression of up to 25% × 25% equi-biaxial strain and unfolding. Its optical transmittance reduces with crumpling, but restored with unfolding. A dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) using the 14.2% × 14.2% initially crumpled ITO thin-film electrodes is electrically activated to produce a 37% areal strain. Such electric unfolding turns the translucent DEA to be transparent, with transmittance increased from 39.14% to 52.08%. This transmittance tunability promises to make a low-cost smart privacy window.

  9. Optical Analysis of Iron-Doped Lead Sulfide Thin Films for Opto-Electronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidambara Kumar, K. N.; Khadeer Pasha, S. K.; Deshmukh, Kalim; Chidambaram, K.; Shakil Muhammad, G.

    Iron-doped lead sulfide thin films were deposited on glass substrates using successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method (SILAR) at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction pattern of the film shows a well formed crystalline thin film with face-centered cubic structure along the preferential orientation (1 1 1). The lattice constant is determined using Nelson Riley plots. Using X-ray broadening, the crystallite size is determined by Scherrer formula. Morphology of the thin film was studied using a scanning electron microscope. The optical properties of the film were investigated using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. We observed an increase in the optical band gap from 2.45 to 3.03eV after doping iron in the lead sulfide thin film. The cutoff wavelength lies in the visible region, and hence the grown thin films can be used for optoelectronic and sensor applications. The results from the photoluminescence study show the emission at 500-720nm. The vibrating sample magnetometer measurements confirmed that the lead sulfide thin film becomes weakly ferromagnetic material after doping with iron.

  10. Facile solution synthesis and photoelectric properties of monolithic tin(II) sulfide nanobelt arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xing; Yang, Long; Jiang, Yan; Yu, Bin-Bin; Zou, Yu-Gang; Fang, Ying; Hu, Jin-Song; Wan, Li-Jun

    2013-10-01

    The tremendous future energy demand and environmental concerns prompt the lasting search for new materials for low-cost and high-efficiency solar cells. SnS, as a low-cost, earth-abundant, and environmentally friendly material with proper band gap and absorption coefficient, has received attention as a potential candidate for solar absorber, but it is still under-developed due to insufficient conversion efficiency. Fabricating SnS nanostructured films for solar cell design could be effective to boost photovoltaic performance and pave the way for applications in photovoltaics. Herein, a facile surfactant-free solution-based approach has been developed to prepare monolithic SnS nanostructured films directly on tin foil substrate. The morphologies of nanostructured films could be tuned from well-defined orthorhombic SnS nanobelt arrays to nanorods, nanosheets, or nanoflakes by simply changing the ratio of used solvents. The photoelectric response and electronic transportation properties of SnS nanobelts were investigated by fabricating single-nanobelt-based nanodevices. The SnS nanobelt exhibited a fast and reliable photoresponse even at illumination intensity as weak as 0.103 mW cm(-2). The measurements on SnS FET devices also indicated that the synthesized SnS nanobelts demonstrated a hole mobility as high as 12.33 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). These results reveal that the reported approach for preparing monolithic SnS nanostructured films could be useful to further develop SnS as an alternative material for low-cost solar cells and electronic devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, A. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carreras, P. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Bertomeu, J. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Antony, A. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band.

  12. Characterization and Electrochemical Performance at High Discharge Rates of Tin Dioxide Thin Films Synthesized by Atomic Layer Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maximov, M. Yu.; Novikov, P. A.; Nazarov, D. V.; Rymyantsev, A. M.; Silin, A. O.; Zhang, Y.; Popovich, A. A.

    2017-11-01

    In this study, thin films of tin dioxide have been synthesized on substrates of silicon and stainless steel by atomic layer deposition (ALD) with tetraethyl tin and by inductively coupled remote oxygen plasma as precursors. Studies of the surface morphology by scanning electron microscopy show a strong dependence on synthesis temperature. According to the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements, the samples contain tin in the oxidation state +4. The thickness of the thin films for electrochemical performance was approximately 80 nm. Electrochemical cycling in the voltage range of 0.01-0.8 V have shown that tin oxide has a stable discharge capacity of approximately 650 mAh/g during 400 charge/discharge cycles with an efficiency of approximately 99.5%. The decrease in capacity after 400 charge/discharge cycles was around 5-7%. Synthesized SnO2 thin films have fast kinetics of lithium ions intercalation and excellent discharge efficiency at high C-rates, up to 40C, with a small decrease in capacity of less than 20%. Specific capacity and cyclic stability of thin films of SnO2 synthesized by ALD exceed the values mentioned in the literature for pure tin dioxide thin films.

  13. Ovonic switching in tin selenide thin films. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, C. R.

    1974-01-01

    Amorphous tin selenide thin films which possess Ovonic switching properties were fabricated using vacuum deposition techniques. Results obtained indicate that memory type Ovonic switching does occur in these films the energy density required for switching from a high impedance to a low impedance state is dependent on the spacing between the electrodes of the device. The switching is also function of the magnitude of the applied voltage pulse. A completely automated computer controlled testing procedure was developed which allows precise control over the shape of the applied voltage switching pulse. A survey of previous experimental and theoretical work in the area of Ovonic switching is also presented.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of copper antimony tin sulphide thin films for solar cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, N., E-mail: nisar.ali@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Department of Physics, Govt. Post Graduate Jehanzeb College Saidu Sharif, Swat, 19200 (Pakistan); Hussain, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Ahmed, R., E-mail: rashidahmed@utm.my [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Wan Shamsuri, W.N. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, UTM Skudai, 81310 Johor (Malaysia); Fu, Y.Q., E-mail: richard.fu@northumbria.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Environment, University of Northumbria, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE1 8ST (United Kingdom)

    2016-12-30

    Highlights: • A new and novel material for solar cell applications is demonstrated as a replacement for toxic and expansive compounds. • The materials used in this compound are abundant and low cost. • Compound exhibit unusual optical and electrical properties. • The band gap was found to be comparable with that of GaAs. - Abstract: Low price thin film modules based on Copper antimony tin sulphide (CATS) are introduced for solar harvesting to compete for the already developed compound semiconductors. Here, CATS thin films were deposited on soda lime glass by thermal evaporation technique followed by a rapid thermal annealing in an argon atmosphere. From Our XRD analysis, it was revealed that the annealed samples were poly-crystalline and their crystallinity was improved with increasing annealing temperature. The constituent elements and their corresponding chemical states were identified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The obtained optical band gap of 1.4 eV for CATS thin film is found nearly equal to GaAs – one of the highly efficient thin film material for solar cell technology. Furthermore, our observed good optical absorbance and low transmittance for the annealed CATS thin films in the visible region of light spectrum assured the aptness of the CATS thin films for solar cell applications.

  15. Crack density and electrical resistance in indium-tin-oxide/polymer thin films under cyclic loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-11-01

    Here, we propose a damage model that describes the degradation of the material properties of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on polymer substrates under cyclic loading. We base this model on our earlier tensile test model and show that the new model is suitable for cyclic loading. After calibration with experimental data, we are able to capture the stress-strain behavior and changes in electrical resistance of ITO thin films. We are also able to predict the crack density using calibrations from our previous model. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of our model based on simulations using material properties reported in the literature. Our model is implemented in the commercially available finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT.[Figure not available: see fulltext.].

  16. The characterization of TiN thin films using optical reflectivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glew, M R L; Vollmer, A; Schroeder, S L M; Barber, Z H

    2002-01-01

    Thin films of TiN have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputter deposition in varying partial pressures of nitrogen. Reflectivity measurements have been carried out between 1.5 and 3.5 eV and a correlation made between the film properties and optical data. Resistivity measurements carried out at room temperature are shown to exhibit the same trends as those obtained from reflectivity experiments. X-ray absorption fine structure measurements, in both electron-yield and fluorescence-yield modes, have shown the films to be identical and stoichiometric to within ±5 at.%. The use of reflectivity spectra to form the basis of a characterization tool for physical vapour deposited thin films is discussed

  17. Highly stable amorphous zinc tin oxynitride thin film transistors under positive bias stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, K. M.; Bayer, B. C.; Meyer, J. C.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2017-09-01

    The stability of amorphous zinc tin oxynitride thin film transistors (a-ZTON TFTs) under positive bias stress (PBS) is investigated. Thin films are deposited by remote plasma reactive sputtering and are annealed at 300 °C in air for 1 h, after which films are confirmed to be highly amorphous by transmission electron microscopy. Typical a-ZTON TFTs exhibit a threshold voltage of 2.5 V, a field effect mobility of 3.3 cm2 V-1 s-1, a sub-threshold slope of 0.55 V dec-1, and a switching ratio over 106. Using a thermalization energy analysis, the threshold voltage shift under PBS is analysed. A maximum energy barrier to defect conversion up to 0.91 eV is found, which is significantly greater than that of the ˜0.75 eV energy barrier for amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide and amorphous zinc tin oxide TFTs previously reported. The improved stability of these oxynitride TFTs over amorphous oxide TFTs is explained by the elimination of less stable oxygen vacancies due to the passivation of oxygen vacancies with nitrogen. The higher attempt-to-escape frequency of 108 to 109 s-1 in a-ZTON TFTs compared with 107 s-1 in amorphous oxide semiconductor TFTs, on the other hand, is attributed to the high homogeneity of the amorphous film leading to strong carrier localization in the band tails.

  18. Structural and optical studies of 100 MeV Au irradiated thin films of tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshkumaripu@gmail.com [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, New Delhi 110 078 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Thin films of tin(IV) oxide (SnO{sub 2}) of 100 nm thickness were grown on silicon (1 0 0) matrices by electron beam evaporation deposition technique under high vacuum. The thicknesses of these films were monitored by piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. Nanocrystallinity is achieved in these thin films by 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} using 1 pnA current at normal incidence with ion fluences varying from 1 × 10{sup 11} ions/cm{sup 2} to 5 × 10{sup 13} ions/cm{sup 2}. Swift Heavy Ion beam irradiation was carried out by using 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Optical studies of pristine and ion irradiated thin films were characterized by UV–Visible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prominent peak at 610 cm{sup −1} in FTIR spectrum confirmed the O–Sn–O bonding of tin(IV) oxide. For Surface topographical studies and grain size calculations, these films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using Nanoscope III-A. Crystallinity and phase transformation due to irradiation of pristine and irradiated films were characterized by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) using Brucker-D8 advance model. GAXRD results show improvement in crystallinity and phase transformation due to swift heavy ion irradiation. Grain size distribution was verified by AFM and GAXRD results. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in thin films of SnO{sub 2} were confirmed by the presence of prominent peaks at 2θ values of 30.65°, 32.045°, 43.94°, 44.96° and 52.36° in GAXRD spectrum.

  19. Structural and optical studies of 100 MeV Au irradiated thin films of tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Manoj Kumar; Kanjilal, D.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-11-01

    Thin films of tin(IV) oxide (SnO2) of 100 nm thickness were grown on silicon (1 0 0) matrices by electron beam evaporation deposition technique under high vacuum. The thicknesses of these films were monitored by piezo-sensor attached to the deposition chamber. Nanocrystallinity is achieved in these thin films by 100 MeV Au8+ using 1 pnA current at normal incidence with ion fluences varying from 1 × 1011 ions/cm2 to 5 × 1013 ions/cm2. Swift Heavy Ion beam irradiation was carried out by using 15 UD Pelletron Accelerator at IUAC, New Delhi, India. Optical studies of pristine and ion irradiated thin films were characterized by UV-Visible spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Prominent peak at 610 cm-1 in FTIR spectrum confirmed the O-Sn-O bonding of tin(IV) oxide. For Surface topographical studies and grain size calculations, these films were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) using Nanoscope III-A. Crystallinity and phase transformation due to irradiation of pristine and irradiated films were characterized by Glancing Angle X-ray Diffraction (GAXRD) using Brucker-D8 advance model. GAXRD results show improvement in crystallinity and phase transformation due to swift heavy ion irradiation. Grain size distribution was verified by AFM and GAXRD results. Swift heavy ion induced modifications in thin films of SnO2 were confirmed by the presence of prominent peaks at 2θ values of 30.65°, 32.045°, 43.94°, 44.96° and 52.36° in GAXRD spectrum.

  20. Influence of deposition time on the properties of chemical bath deposited manganese sulfide thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Kassim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Manganese sulfide thin films were chemically deposited from an aqueous solution containing manganese sulfate, sodium thiosulfate and sodium tartrate. The influence of deposition time (2, 3, 6 and 8 days on the properties of thin films was investigated. The structure and surface morphology of the thin films were studied by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the optical properties of the thin films, the UV-visible spectrophotometry was used. The XRD results indicated that the deposited MnS2 thin films exhibited a polycrystalline cubic structure. The number of MnS2 peaks on the XRD patterns initially increased from three to six peaks and then decreased to five peaks, as the deposition time was increased from 2 to 8 days. From the AFM measurements, the film thickness and surface roughness were found to be dependent on the deposition time.

  1. Physical/chemical properties of tin oxide thin film transistors prepared using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Kook [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Eunae; Kim, Seok Hwan; Moon, Dae Chul; Lee, Sun Sook; Park, Bo Keun [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin Ha [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); An, Ki-Seok, E-mail: ksan@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with tin oxide films as the channel layer were fabricated by means of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). The as-deposited tin oxide films show n-type conductivity and a nano-crystalline structure of SnO{sub 2}. Notwithstanding the relatively low deposition temperatures of 70, 100, and 130 °C, the bottom gate tin oxide TFTs show an on/off drain current ratio of 10{sup 6} while the device mobility values were increased from 2.31 cm{sup 2}/V s to 6.24 cm{sup 2}/V s upon increasing the deposition temperature of the tin oxide films.

  2. Thin films of copper antimony sulfide: A photovoltaic absorber material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornelas-Acosta, R.E. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Shaji, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-CIIDIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Avellaneda, D.; Castillo, G.A.; Das Roy, T.K. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Krishnan, B., E-mail: kbindu_k@yahoo.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León 66450 (Mexico); Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León-CIIDIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • CuSbS{sub 2} thin films were prepared by heating Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu layers. • Analyzed the structure, composition, optical, and electrical properties. • PV structures: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/n-CdS/p-CuSbS{sub 2}/C/Ag were formed at different conditions. • The PV parameters (J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and FF) were evaluated from the J–V characteristics. • J{sub sc}: 0.52–3.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, V{sub oc}:187–323 mV, FF: 0.27–0.48 were obtained. - Abstract: In this work, we report preparation and characterization of CuSbS{sub 2} thin films by heating glass/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu layers and their use as absorber material in photovoltaic structures: glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/n-CdS/p-CuSbS{sub 2}/C/Ag. The Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films of 600 nm were prepared by chemical bath deposition on which copper thin films of 50 nm were thermally evaporated, and the glass/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Cu multilayers were heated in vacuum at different temperatures. X-ray diffraction analysis showed the formation of orthorhombic CuSbS{sub 2} after heating the precursor layers. Studies on identification and chemical state of the elements were done using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical band gap of the CuSbS{sub 2} thin films was 1.55 eV and the thin films were photoconductive. The photovoltaic parameters of the devices using CuSbS{sub 2} as absorber and CdS as window layer were evaluated from the J–V curves, yielding J{sub sc}, V{sub oc}, and FF values in the range of 0.52–3.20 mA/cm{sup 2}, 187–323 mV, and 0.27–0.48, respectively, under illumination of AM1.5 radiation.

  3. Nondestructive measurement of the residual stress TiN thin film coated on AISI 304 substrate by x-ray stress analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y. K.; Feng, A. X.; Lu, J. Z.; Kong, D. J.; Tang, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Titanium nitride films are deposited on AISI 304 steel with a hollow-cathode-discharge (HCD) ion-plating technique. The status of residual stresses in TiN thin film coated on AISI304 substrate by HCD is studied by x-ray diffraction stress analyzer. By analyzing morphology of the residual stress of TiN thin film at interface between TiN film and AISI 304 substrate, the adhering mechanism of TiN thin film is understood as follows: the mechanical interlocking had important contribution to the adhesion strength, the thermal stress is the major factor which resulting TiN thin film peeling off spontaneously. The results show that the value of thin film is -210MPa~-650Mpa, and the thermal stress is compressive, the intrinsic stress is tensile, origins of the residual stress are primarily discussed.

  4. Resistive Ammonia Gas Sensor Based on Non-Stoichiometric Copper Sulfide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay A. Sagade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Resistive ammonia gas sensor is fabricated by using solution growth technique deposited copper sulfide (Cu1.8S thin films. Structural and opto-electronic properties of the films are studied by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, optical absorbance and electrical resistance. Ammonia gas sensor response measured from 20 to 500 ppm concentration at room temperature (300 K. The sensor response is increases with gas concentration.

  5. Synthesis and semiconducting properties of tin(II) sulfide: Application to photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine B under sun light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabouche, S. [Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Metallurgy and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, U.S.T.H.B., BP 32, Algiers, 16111 (Algeria); Bellal, B. [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of the Chemistry, U.S.T.H.B., BP 32, Algiers, 16111 (Algeria); Louafi, Y. [Laboratory of Electrochemistry-Corrosion, Metallurgy and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, U.S.T.H.B., BP 32, Algiers, 16111 (Algeria); Trari, M., E-mail: solarchemistry@gmail.com [Laboratory of Storage and Valorization of Renewable Energies, Faculty of the Chemistry, U.S.T.H.B., BP 32, Algiers, 16111 (Algeria)

    2017-07-01

    We have investigated the semiconducting and photoelectrochemical properties of SnS grown by a template-free chemical route using thiourea as precursor. Tin(II) sulfide is characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, diffuse reflectance and Raman spectroscopy. The X-ray diffraction indicates an orthorhombic SnS phase (SG: Pbnm) with a crystallite size of 52 nm while the optical measurements give a direct band gap of 1.33 eV. The Mott–Schottky plot exhibits a linear behavior, characteristic of n-type conductivity with a flat band potential of 0.19 V{sub SCE} and a donor density of 4.12 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup -3}. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measured in the range (10{sup -2}–5 × 10{sup 4} Hz) shows one semicircle attributed to the bulk resistance (R{sub b} = 20.37 kΩ cm{sup 2}). The conduction band, located at 4.84 eV below vacuum, is made up of Sn{sup 2+:}5p while the valence band (6.17 eV) derives mainly from S{sup 2-}: 3p character. The energy band diagram, constructed from the photoelectrochemical characterization, predicts the photodegradation of Rhodamine B on SnS by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} generated photoelectrochemically. 88.46% of the initial concentration (10 mg L{sup -1}) disappears after adsorption and 4 h of exposure to solar light. The photoactivity is nearly restored during the second cycle and follows a second order kinetic with a rate constant of 1.55 × 10{sup -3} mg{sup -1} L min{sup -1}. - Highlights: • The semiconducting properties of SnS synthesized by chemical route are studied. • The n type conductivity is evidenced by chrono-amperometry and photoelectrochemistry. • The conduction band, located at 4.84 eV below vacuum, is made up of Sn{sup 2+}: 5p. • SnS was successfully used for the Rhodamine B oxidation under sunlight.

  6. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de [Department of Mechanics, Federal Institute of Education, Science, and Technology of Piaui, Praça da Liberdade, 1597, CEP 64000-040 Teresina, Piaui, Brazil and Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Piaui, Campus Min. Petronio Portela, Ininga, CEP 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P., E-mail: nascente@ufscar.br [Department of Materials Engineering, Federal University of Sao Carlos, Via Washington Luis km 235, CEP 13565-905 Sao Carlos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Viana, Bartolomeu C. [Department of Physics, Federal University of Piaui, Campus Min. Petronio Portela, Ininga, CEP 64049-550 Teresina, Piaui (Brazil); Alves, Clodomiro [Department of Exact and Natural Sciences, Federal Rural University of Semi Arido, Avenida Francisco Mota, 572, CEP 59625-900 Mossoro, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil); Nishimoto, Akio [Department of Chemistry and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, Materials and Bioengineering, Kansai University, 3-3-35 Yamate-cho, Suita, Osaka 564-8680 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.

  7. Thin film bismuth(III) sulfide/zinc sulfide composites deposited by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benattou, H.; Benramdane, N.; Berouaken, M.

    (Bi2S3)(x)(ZnS)(1-x) composites in thin films were successfully grown on glass substrates by the spray pyrolysis technique. The films growth were prepared by the reaction of aqueous solutions of bismuth(III) chloride (BiCl3) and zinc chloride (ZnCl) with Thiourea on substrates heated to a temperature of 280 °C. The structural properties have been identified using X-ray diffraction spectra. The deposited films are of polycrystalline natures. The both of the two phases mixed (Bi2S3 and ZnS) were well observed in the X-ray diffraction plots. The optical properties were also studied using transmittance and reflectance measurements in the wavelength range (200-2500 nm). Optical gaps were evaluated; we are found that (Bi2S3)(x)(ZnS)(1-x) (x = 0-1) composites in thin films are characterized by two optical gaps limited between the gap of Bi2S3 and that of ZnS films in the pure phase.

  8. Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Cindemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C.

  9. Antimony sulfide thin films prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaji, S., E-mail: sshajis@yahoo.com [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Garcia, L.V. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); Loredo, S.L. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados (CIMAV), Unidad Monterrey, PIIT, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); Krishnan, B. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Av. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, San Nicolás de los Garza, Nuevo León, 66455 (Mexico); CIIDIT—Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Apodaca, Nuevo León (Mexico); and others

    2017-01-30

    Highlights: • Antimony sulfide thin films were prepared by normal CBD and laser assisted CBD. • Characterized these films using XRD, XPS, AFM, optical and electrical measurements. • Accelerated growth was observed in the laser assisted CBD process. • These films were photoconductive. - Abstract: Antimony sulfide (Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films were prepared by laser assisted chemical bath deposition (LACBD) technique. These thin films were deposited on glass substrates from a chemical bath containing antimony chloride, acetone and sodium thiosulfate under various conditions of normal chemical bath deposition (CBD) as well as in-situ irradiation of the chemical bath using a continuous laser of 532 nm wavelength. Structure, composition, morphology, optical and electrical properties of the Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films produced by normal CBD and LACBD were analyzed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis spectroscopy and Photoconductivity. The results showed that LACBD is an effective synthesis technique to obtain Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films for optoelectronic applications.

  10. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  11. F2-laser patterning of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film on glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, M.Y.; Li, J.; Herman, P.R.; Lilge, L.D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the controlled micromachining of 100 nm thick indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films on glass substrates with a vacuum-ultraviolet 157 nm F 2 laser. Partial to complete film removal was observed over a wide fluence window from 0.49 J/cm 2 to an optimized single pulse fluence of 4.5 J/cm 2 for complete film removal. Optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis show little substrate or collateral damage by the laser pulse which conserved the stoichiometry, optical transparency and electrical conductivity of ITO coating adjacent to the trenches. At higher fluence, a parallel micron sized channel can be etched in the glass substrate. The high photon energy and top-hat beam homogenized optical system of the F 2 laser opens new means for direct structuring of electrodes and microchannels in biological microfluidic systems or in optoelectronics. (orig.)

  12. Translation Effects in Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Film Properties by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Afzaal

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the impact of translation rates in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO thin films using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD were studied. We demonstrated that by adjusting the translation speeds of the susceptor, the growth rates of the FTO films varied and hence many of the film properties were modified. X-ray powder diffraction showed an increased preferred orientation along the (200 plane at higher translation rates, although with no actual change in the particle sizes. A reduction in dopant level resulted in decreased particle sizes and a much greater degree of (200 preferred orientation. For low dopant concentration levels, atomic force microscope (AFM studies showed a reduction in roughness (and lower optical haze with increased translation rate and decreased growth rates. Electrical measurements concluded that the resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of films were dependent on the level of fluorine dopant, the translation rate and hence the growth rates of the deposited films.

  13. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  14. Effects of process parameters on sheet resistance uniformity of fluorine-doped tin oxide thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudaya, Chairul; Park, Ji Hun; Lee, Joong Kee

    2012-01-01

    An alternative indium-free material for transparent conducting oxides of fluorine-doped tin oxide [FTO] thin films deposited on polyethylene terephthalate [PET] was prepared by electron cyclotron resonance - metal organic chemical vapor deposition [ECR-MOCVD]. One of the essential issues regarding metal oxide film deposition is the sheet resistance uniformity of the film. Variations in process parameters, in this case, working and bubbler pressures of ECR-MOCVD, can lead to a change in resistance uniformity. Both the optical transmittance and electrical resistance uniformity of FTO film-coated PET were investigated. The result shows that sheet resistance uniformity and the transmittance of the film are affected significantly by the changes in bubbler pressure but are less influenced by the working pressure of the ECR-MOCVD system.

  15. Sensitivity and Response of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Tin Oxide Nanocomposite Multilayer Thin Film Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, G; Dhineshbabu, N R; Nithyavathy, N; Saminathan, K; Kaler, K V I S; Rajendran, V

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide (SnO₂) is Non-Stoichiometric in Nature with Functional Properties Suitable for gas sensing. In this study, SnO₂nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique, which were then characterised using X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles showed tetragonal structure with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. The stretching and vibration modes of SnO₂were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of SnO₂ nanoparticles was determined using particle size analyser, which was found be 60 ± 10 nm on average. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope, which showed irregular-sized agglomerated SnO₂nanostructures. In addition, primary particle size was evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which was found to be 50 nm on average. The polyvinyl alcohol/SnO₂ composite thin film was prepared on a glass substrate using spin-coating method. The values of band gap energy and electrical conductance of 13-layer thin film were found to be 2.96 eV and 0.0505 mho, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) was suitably tailored to verify the sensor response over a concentration range of 10-70 ppm at room temperature. The performance, response, and recovery time of sensors were increased by increasing the layers of the thin film.

  16. Tuning the properties of tin oxide thin films for device fabrications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudha, A.; Sharma, S. L.; Gupta, A. N.; Sharma, S. D.

    2017-11-01

    Tin oxide thin films were deposited on well cleaned glass substrates by thermal evaporation in vacuum and were annealed at 500 ∘C in the open atmosphere inside a furnace for 90 min for promoting the sensitivity of the films. The X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the as-deposited films were amorphous in nature and the annealed films showed appreciable crystalline behavior. The annealed thin films were then irradiated using 60Co gamma source. The radiation induced changes were then studied by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and I- V characterization. The remarkable increase in the average grain size, the decrement in the energy band gap and resistivity due to the gamma irradiations up to a certain dose and the reversal of these properties at higher doses are the important observations. The large changes in the conductivity and energy band gap of the annealed thin films due to gamma irradiation make these films quite important device material for the fabrication of gamma sensors and dosimeters.

  17. Laser scribing of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films deposited on various substrates for touch panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shih-Feng; Hsiao, Wen-Tse; Huang, Kuo-Cheng; Chiang, Donyau; Chen, Ming-Fei; Chou, Chang-Pin

    2010-12-01

    In this study, a Nd:YAG laser with wavelength of 1064 nm is used to scribe the indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films coated on three types of substrate materials, i.e. soda-lime glass, polycarbonate (PC), and cyclic-olefin-copolymer (COC) materials with thickness of 20 nm, 30 nm, and 20 nm, respectively. The effect of exposure time adjusted from 10 μs to 100 μs on the ablated mark width, depth, and electrical properties of the scribed film was investigated. The maximum laser power of 2.2 W was used to scribe these thin films. In addition, the surface morphology, surface reaction, surface roughness, optical properties, and electrical conductivity properties were measured by a scanning electron microscope, a three-dimensional confocal laser scanning microscope, an atomic force microscope, and a four-point probe. The measured results of surface morphology show that the residual ITO layer was produced on the scribed path with the laser exposure time at 10 μs and 20 μs. The better edge qualities of the scribed lines can be obtained when the exposure time extends from 30 μs to 60 μs. When the laser exposure time is longer than 60 μs, the partially burned areas of the scribed thin films on PC and COC substrates are observed. Moreover, the isolated line width and resistivity values increase when the laser exposure time increases.

  18. Atomic-layer chemical-vapor-deposition of TiN thin films on Si(100) and Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Y S; Kim, Y D; Kim, W M

    2000-01-01

    An atomic-layer chemical vapor deposition (AL-CVD) system was used to deposit TiN thin films on Si(100) and Si(111) substrates by cyclic exposures of TiCl sub 4 and NH sub 3. The growth rate was measured by using the number of deposition cycles, and the physical properties were compared with those of TiN films grown by using conventional deposition methods. To investigate the growth mechanism, we suggest a growth model for TiN n order to calculate the growth rate per cycle with a Cerius program. The results of the calculation with the model were compared with the experimental values for the TiN film deposited using the AL-CVD method. The stoichiometry of the TiN film was examined by using Auger electron spectroscopy, and the chlorine and the oxygen impurities were examined. The x-ray diffraction and the transmission electron microscopy results for the TiN film exhibited a strong (200) peak and a randomly oriented columnar microstructure. The electrical resistivity was found to decrease with increasing deposit...

  19. Structural, optical and electrical properties of tin oxide thin films for application as a wide band gap semiconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Riti; Ahmad, Shabir; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher Majid

    2015-08-01

    Tin oxide (SnO) thin films were synthesized using thermal evaporation technique. Ultra pure metallic tin was deposited on glass substrates using thermal evaporator under high vacuum. The thickness of the tin deposited films was kept at 100nm. Subsequently, the as-deposited tin films were annealed under oxygen environment for a period of 3hrs to obtain tin oxide films. To analyse the suitability of the synthesized tin oxide films as a wide band gap semiconductor, various properties were studied. Structural parameters were studied using XRD and SEM-EDX. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and the electrical parameters were calculated using the Hall-setup. XRD and SEM confirmed the formation of SnO phase. Uniform texture of the film can be seen through the SEM images. Presence of traces of unoxidised Sn has also been confirmed through the XRD spectra. The band gap calculated was around 3.6eV and the optical transparency around 50%. The higher value of band gap and lower value of optical transparency can be attributed to the presence of unoxidised Sn. The values of resistivity and mobility as measured by the Hall setup were 78Ωcm and 2.92cm2/Vs respectively. The reasonable optical and electrical parameters make SnO a suitable candidate for optoelectronic and electronic device applications.

  20. Structural, optical and electrical properties of tin oxide thin films for application as a wide band gap semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethi, Riti; Ahmad, Shabir; Aziz, Anver; Siddiqui, Azher Majid, E-mail: amsiddiqui@jmi.ac.in [Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025 (India)

    2015-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO) thin films were synthesized using thermal evaporation technique. Ultra pure metallic tin was deposited on glass substrates using thermal evaporator under high vacuum. The thickness of the tin deposited films was kept at 100nm. Subsequently, the as-deposited tin films were annealed under oxygen environment for a period of 3hrs to obtain tin oxide films. To analyse the suitability of the synthesized tin oxide films as a wide band gap semiconductor, various properties were studied. Structural parameters were studied using XRD and SEM-EDX. The optical properties were studied using UV-Vis Spectrophotometry and the electrical parameters were calculated using the Hall-setup. XRD and SEM confirmed the formation of SnO phase. Uniform texture of the film can be seen through the SEM images. Presence of traces of unoxidised Sn has also been confirmed through the XRD spectra. The band gap calculated was around 3.6eV and the optical transparency around 50%. The higher value of band gap and lower value of optical transparency can be attributed to the presence of unoxidised Sn. The values of resistivity and mobility as measured by the Hall setup were 78Ωcm and 2.92cm{sup 2}/Vs respectively. The reasonable optical and electrical parameters make SnO a suitable candidate for optoelectronic and electronic device applications.

  1. Impact of soft annealing on the performance of solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Nayak, Pradipta K.

    2013-05-08

    It is demonstrated that soft annealing duration strongly affects the performance of solution-processed amorphous zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors. Prolonged soft annealing times are found to induce two important changes in the device: (i) a decrease in zinc tin oxide film thickness, and (ii) an increase in oxygen vacancy concentration. The devices prepared without soft annealing exhibited inferior transistor performances, in comparison to devices in which the active channel layer (zinc tin oxide) was subjected to soft annealing. The highest saturation field-effect mobility - 5.6 cm2 V-1 s-1 with a drain-to-source on-off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of 2 × 108 - was achieved in the case of devices with 10-min soft-annealed zinc tin oxide thin films as the channel layer. The findings of this work identify soft annealing as a critical parameter for the processing of chemically derived thin-film transistors, and it correlates device performance to the changes in material structure induced by soft annealing. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. Studies of the micromorphology of sputtered TiN thin films by autocorrelation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagoń, Kamil; Stach, Sebastian; Ţălu, Ştefan; Arman, Ali; Achour, Amine; Luna, Carlos; Ghobadi, Nader; Mardani, Mohsen; Hafezi, Fatemeh; Ahmadpourian, Azin; Ganji, Mohsen; Grayeli Korpi, Alireza

    2017-12-01

    Autocorrelation techniques are crucial tools for the study of the micromorphology of surfaces: They provide the description of anisotropic properties and the identification of repeated patterns on the surface, facilitating the comparison of samples. In the present investigation, some fundamental concepts of these techniques including the autocorrelation function and autocorrelation length have been reviewed and applied in the study of titanium nitride thin films by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The studied samples were grown on glass substrates by reactive magnetron sputtering at different substrate temperatures (from 25 {}°C to 400 {}°C , and their micromorphology was studied by AFM. The obtained AFM data were analyzed using MountainsMap Premium software obtaining the correlation function, the structure of isotropy and the spatial parameters according to ISO 25178 and EUR 15178N. These studies indicated that the substrate temperature during the deposition process is an important parameter to modify the micromorphology of sputtered TiN thin films and to find optimized surface properties. For instance, the autocorrelation length exhibited a maximum value for the sample prepared at a substrate temperature of 300 {}°C , and the sample obtained at 400 {}°C presented a maximum angle of the direction of the surface structure.

  3. Deposit of thin films of TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, I.S.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Romero, S.; Muhl, S.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon (a-C), as well as bilayers of Ti/TiN/a-C were deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. It was investigated the effect that it has the laser fluence used to ablation the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the TiN deposited films. The TiN obtained films have a preferential orientation in the direction (200). The results show that the hardness of this material is influenced by the laser fluence. It is observed that the hardness is increased in an approximately lineal way with the increment of the fluence up to 19 J/cm 2 . The films of amorphous carbon present hardness of the order of 11.2 GPa. Likewise it was found that the multilayers of Ti/TiN/aC presented a bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  4. Electrochemical deposition of molybdenum sulfide thin films on conductive plastic substrates as platinum-free flexible counter electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chao-Kuang; Hsieh, Chien-Kuo, E-mail: jack_hsieh@mail.mcut.edu.tw

    2015-06-01

    In this study, pulsed electrochemical deposition (pulsed ECD) was used to deposit molybdenum sulfide (MoS{sub x}) thin films on indium tin oxide/polyethylene naphthalate (ITO/PEN) substrates as flexible counter electrodes (CEs) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The surface morphologies and elemental distributions of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The chemical states and crystallinities of the prepared MoS{sub x} thin films were examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction, respectively. The optical transmission (T (%)) properties of the prepared MoS{sub x} samples were determined by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometry. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and Tafel-polarization measurements were performed to analyze the electrochemical properties and catalytic activities of the thin films for redox reactions. The FE-SEM results showed that the MoS{sub x} thin films were deposited uniformly on the ITO/PEN flexible substrates via the pulsed ECD method. The CV and Tafel-polarization curve measurements demonstrated that the deposited MoS{sub x} thin films exhibited excellent performances for the reduction of triiodide ions. The photoelectric conversion efficiency (PCE) of the DSSC produced with the pulsed ECD MoS{sub x} thin-film CE was examined by a solar simulator. In combination with a dye-sensitized TiO{sub 2} working electrode and an iodine-based electrolyte, the DSSC with the MoS{sub x} flexible CE showed a PCE of 4.39% under an illumination of AM 1.5 (100 mW cm{sup −2}). Thus, we report that the MoS{sub x} thin films are active catalysts for triiodide reduction. The MoS{sub x} thin films are prepared at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and in a simple and rapid manner. This is an important practical contribution to the production of flexible low-cost thin-film CEs based on plastic substrates. The MoS{sub x

  5. Synthesizing photovoltaic thin films of high quality copper-zinc-tin alloy with at least one chalcogen species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teeter, Glenn; Du, Hui; Young, Matthew

    2013-08-06

    A method for synthesizing a thin film of copper, zinc, tin, and a chalcogen species ("CZTCh" or "CZTSS") with well-controlled properties. The method includes depositing a thin film of precursor materials, e.g., approximately stoichiometric amounts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), tin (Sn), and a chalcogen species (Ch). The method then involves re-crystallizing and grain growth at higher temperatures, e.g., between about 725 and 925 degrees K, and annealing the precursor film at relatively lower temperatures, e.g., between 600 and 650 degrees K. The processing of the precursor film takes place in the presence of a quasi-equilibrium vapor, e.g., Sn and chalcogen species. The quasi-equilibrium vapor is used to maintain the precursor film in a quasi-equilibrium condition to reduce and even prevent decomposition of the CZTCh and is provided at a rate to balance desorption fluxes of Sn and chalcogens.

  6. Low-temperature growth and electronic structures of ambipolar Yb-doped zinc tin oxide transparent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seol Hee; Ferblantier, Gerald; Park, Young Sang; Schmerber, Guy; Dinia, Aziz; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Jo, William

    2018-05-01

    The compositional dependence of the crystal structure, optical transmittance, and surface electric properties of the zinc tin oxide (Zn-Sn-O, shortened ZTO) thin films were investigated. ZTO thin films with different compositional ratios were fabricated on glass and p-silicon wafers using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The binding energy of amorphous ZTO thin films was examined by a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical transmittance over 70% in the visible region for all the ZTO films was observed. The optical band gap of the ZTO films was changed as a result of the competition between the Burstein-Moss effect and renormalization. An electron concentration in the films and surface work function distribution were measured by a Hall measurement and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. The mobility of the n- and p-type ZTO thin films have more than 130 cm2/V s and 15 cm2/V s, respectively. We finally constructed the band structure which contains band gap, work function, and band edges such as valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of ZTO thin films. The present study results suggest that the ZTO thin film is competitive compared with the indium tin oxide, which is a representative material of the transparent conducting oxides, regarding optoelectronic devices applications.

  7. Relationship between crystal morphology and photoluminescence in polynanocrystalline lead sulfide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaci, S.; Keffous, A.; Trari, M.; Fellahi, O.; Menari, H.; Manseri, A.; Guerbous, L.

    2010-01-01

    Thin films of lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were grown on corning glass and Si(1 0 0) substrates by polyethylene glycol-assisted chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. This paper compares the morphology and the luminescence properties (PL) of the deposited thin films in the presence (or absence) of PEG300 and investigates the effect of deposition temperatures. Surface morphology and photoluminescence properties of samples were analyzed. The PL data show a blue-shift from the normal emission at ∼2900 nm in PbS bulk to ∼360 nm in nanoparticles of PbS thin films. Furthermore, the PL emission of the films obtained without the addition of PEG300 (type 1) was slightly shifted from that of the films obtained in presence of PEG300 (type 2) from ∼360 to ∼470 nm. The blue-shifting of the emission wavelengths from 2900 to ∼360 or 470 nm is attributed to quantum confinement of charge carriers in the restricted volume of nanoparticles, while the shift between the two types of PbS nanoparticles thin films is speculated to be due to an increase in the defect concentration. The blue-shift increased with increase of the deposition temperature, which suggests that there has been a relative depletion in particle sizes during the CBD of the films at higher temperatures. The PbS nanocrystalline thin films obtained in the presence of PEG300 at 60 o C exhibit a high blue luminescence.

  8. Effect of Nitrogen Content on Physical and Chemical Properties of TiN Thin Films Prepared by DC Magnetron Sputtering with Supported Discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, A.; Kannan, R.; Gunasekhar, K. R.; Rajashabala, S.

    2017-10-01

    Amorphous titanium nitride (TiN) thin films have been prepared on silicon (Si) and glass substrates by direct-current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering with a supported discharge (triode). Nitrogen gas (N2) at partial pressure of 0.3 Pa, 0.4 Pa, 0.5 Pa, and 0.6 Pa was used to prepare the TiN thin films, maintaining total pressure of argon and N2 of about 0.7 Pa. The chemical, microstructural, optical, and electrical properties of the TiN thin films were systematically studied. Presence of different phases of Ti with nitrogen (N), oxygen (O2), and carbon (C) elements was revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy characterization. Increase in the nitrogen pressure from 0.3 Pa to 0.6 Pa reduced the optical bandgap of the TiN thin film from 2.9 eV to 2.7 eV. Photoluminescence study showed that TiN thin film deposited at N2 partial pressure of 0.3 Pa exhibited three shoulder peaks at 330 nm, 335 nm, and 340 nm, which disappeared when the sample was deposited with N2 partial pressure of 0.6 Pa. Increase in the nitrogen content decreased the electrical resistivity of the TiN thin film from 3200 μΩ cm to 1800 μΩ cm. Atomic force microscopy studies of the TiN thin films deposited with N2 partial pressure of 0.6 Pa showed a uniform surface pattern associated with accumulation of fine grains. The results and advantages of this method of preparing TiN thin films are also reported.

  9. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Praig, Vera G.; Szunerits, Sabine [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Piret, Gaelle; Boukherroub, Rabah [Institut de Recherche Interdisciplinaire (IRI), USR CNRS 3078 and Institut d' Electronique, de Microelectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN),UMR CNRS-8520, Cite Scientifique, Avenue Poincare, BP 60069, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Manesse, Mael [Laboratoire d' Electrochimie et de Physicochimie des Materiaux et des Interfaces (LEPMI), CNRS-INPG-UJF, 1130 rue de la piscine, BP 75, 38402 St. Martin d' Heres Cedex (France); Castel, Xavier [Institut d' Electronique et de Telecommunications de Rennes (IETR), UMR CNRS 6164, 18 rue H. Wallon, BP 406, 22004 Saint-Brieuc Cedex 1 (France)

    2008-11-15

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 . Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with {lambda}{sub max}=675{+-} 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices. (author)

  10. Seed-mediated electrochemical growth of gold nanostructures on indium tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praig, Vera G.; Piret, Gaelle; Manesse, Mael; Castel, Xavier; Boukherroub, Rabah; Szunerits, Sabine

    2008-01-01

    Two-dimensional gold nanostructures (Au NSs) were fabricated on amine-terminated indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films using constant potential electrolysis. By controlling the deposition time and by choosing the appropriate ITO surface, Au NSs with different shapes were generated. When Au NSs were formed directly on aminosilane-modified ITO, the surface roughness of the interface was largely enhanced. Modification of such Au NSs with n-tetradecanethiol resulted in a highly hydrophobic interface with a water contact angle of 144 deg. Aminosilane-modified ITO films further modified with colloidal Au seeds before electrochemical Au NSs formation demonstrated interesting optical properties. Depending on the deposition time, surface colors ranging from pale pink to beatgold-like were observed. The optical properties and the chemical stability of the interfaces were characterized using UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. Well-defined localized surface plasmon resonance signals were recorded on Au-seeded interfaces with λ max = 675 ± 2 nm (deposition time 180 s). The prepared interfaces exhibited long-term stability in various solvents and responded linearly to changes in the corresponding refractive indices

  11. Defect-induced instability mechanisms of sputtered amorphous indium tin zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinhee; Rim, You Seung; Li, Chao; Wu, Jiechen; Goorsky, Mark; Streit, Dwight

    2018-04-01

    We report the device performance and stability of sputtered amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide (ITZO) thin-film transistors as a function of oxygen ratio [O2/(Ar + O2)] during growth. Increasing the oxygen ratio enhanced the incorporation of oxygen during ITZO film growth and reduced the concentration of deep-level defects associated with oxygen vacancies. Under illumination with no bias stress, device stability and persistent photocurrent were improved with increased oxygen ratio. Bias stress tests of the devices were also performed with and without illumination. While high oxygen ratio growth conditions resulted in decreased deep-level oxygen vacancies in the ITZO material, the same conditions resulted in degradation of the interfacial layer between the ITZO channel and dielectric due to the migration of energetic oxygen ions to the interface. Therefore, when bias stress was applied, increased carrier trap density at the interface led to a decrease in device stability that offsets any improvement in the material itself. In order to take advantage of the improved ITZO material growth at a high oxygen ratio, the interface-related problems must be solved.

  12. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graberg, Till von; Hartmann, Pascal; Rein, Alexander; Janek, Juergen; Smarsly, Bernd M [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Justus-Liebig-University Giessen, Heinrich-Buff-Ring 58, D-35392 Giessen (Germany); Gross, Silvia [ISTM-CNR, Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche, Universita' degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 1, 5131-Padova (Italy); Seelandt, Britta; Wark, Michael [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie und Elektrochemie, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstrasse 3A, D-30167 Hannover (Germany); Roeger, Cornelia; Zieba, Roman; Traut, Alexander, E-mail: Bernd.Smarsly@phys.chemie.uni-giessen.de [BASF SE, D-67056 Ludwigshafen (Germany)

    2011-03-15

    We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene)-b-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PIB-PEO) copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000) are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 deg. C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 {Omega} cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20-25 and 35-45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material.

  13. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Graberg, Till; Hartmann, Pascal; Rein, Alexander; Gross, Silvia; Seelandt, Britta; Röger, Cornelia; Zieba, Roman; Traut, Alexander; Wark, Michael; Janek, Jürgen; Smarsly, Bernd M

    2011-01-01

    We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene)-b-poly(ethyleneoxide) (PIB-PEO) copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000) are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 °C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 Ω cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20–25 and 35–45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material. PMID:27877387

  14. Mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide thin films: effect of mesostructure on electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till von Graberg, Pascal Hartmann, Alexander Rein, Silvia Gross, Britta Seelandt, Cornelia Röger, Roman Zieba, Alexander Traut, Michael Wark, Jürgen Janek and Bernd M Smarsly

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a versatile method for the preparation of mesoporous tin-doped indium oxide (ITO thin films via dip-coating. Two poly(isobutylene-b-poly(ethyleneoxide (PIB-PEO copolymers of significantly different molecular weight (denoted as PIB-PEO 3000 and PIB-PEO 20000 are used as templates and are compared with non-templated films to clarify the effect of the template size on the crystallization and, thus, on the electrochemical properties of mesoporous ITO films. Transparent, mesoporous, conductive coatings are obtained after annealing at 500 °C; these coatings have a specific resistance of 0.5 Ω cm at a thickness of about 100 nm. Electrical conductivity is improved by one order of magnitude by annealing under a reducing atmosphere. The two types of PIB-PEO block copolymers create mesopores with in-plane diameters of 20–25 and 35–45 nm, the latter also possessing correspondingly thicker pore walls. Impedance measurements reveal that the conductivity is significantly higher for films prepared with the template generating larger mesopores. Because of the same size of the primary nanoparticles, the enhanced conductivity is attributed to a higher conduction path cross section. Prussian blue was deposited electrochemically within the films, thus confirming the accessibility of their pores and their functionality as electrode material.

  15. Characteristics of Hydrogen Sensors Based on Thin Tin Dioxide Films Modified with Gold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almaev, A. V.; Gaman, V. I.

    2017-11-01

    Effect of hydrogen in the concentration range from 10 to 2000 ppm on the characteristics of sensors based on thin films of tin dioxide modified with gold (Au/SnO2:Sb, Au) is studied in the thermo-cyclic mode at temperatures from 623 to 773 K and absolute humidity from 2.5 to 20 g/m3. Experimental data are discussed using expressions obtained within the framework of a model that takes into account the presence of three types of adsorbed particles (O¯, OH, and OH¯) on the surface of SnO2 nanocrystals. The characteristics of the sensors based on thin Pt/Pd/SnO2:Sb films (the first series) are compared with those of Au/SnO2:Sb, Au films (the second series). It is found that the degree of dissociation of molecular hydrogen into atoms during adsorption on the sensor under interaction with Au particles on the SnO2 surface is 4 times greater than that under interaction with Pt/Pd particles. The degree of dissociation of H2O molecules into hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups in pure moist air on the surface of the sensors of the second series is 1.6 times greater than that for the sensors of the first series. Thus, gold is a more effective stimulator of the dissociation of H2 and H2O molecules than platinum and palladium. A formula is obtained that describes more accurately the dependence of the response of the sensors of both series to the effect of hydrogen on the concentration of this gas and on the temperature of the measuring devices.

  16. Sulfide precursor concentration and lead source effect on PbS thin films properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beddek, L.; Messaoudi, M.; Attaf, N. [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Aida, M.S., E-mail: aida_salah2@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Couche Minces et Interfaces, Université frères Mentouri Constantine, 25000, Constantine (Algeria); Bougdira, J. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour UMR 7198, Vandoeuvre 54506 (France)

    2016-05-05

    Lead sulfide (PbS) thin films were synthesized using chemical bath deposition (CBD). Bath solutions are formed of various concentrations of thiourea, sulfide source, ranged from 0.6 to 1.2 M and two different salts as Pb source (lead acetate and lead nitrate). From the growth mechanism, we inferred that PbS is formed through the ion by ion process when using acetate lead source, while, using nitrate source yields to films growth through the complex-decomposition process. Due to the difference in the involved growth process, lead acetate produces films with larger crystallite size (from 4 to 16 nm), smooth and dense films. However, lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size (from 1 to 4 nm). Increasing the thiourea concentration results in crystallinity improvement when using lead acetate and, oppositely, in crystallinity degradation when using lead nitrate. Due to the quantum effect caused by the small crystallite sizes, the films optical gap is varied from 0.5 to 0.9 eV. - Highlights: • PbS thin films were synthesized by chemical bath deposition. • Ion by ion is the growth process when using the acetate lead source. • Deposition process is by complex-decomposition when using nitrate source. • Lead acetate yields to dense films with larger crystallite size. • Lead nitrate produces rough films with smaller crystallite size.

  17. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-01-01

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO2 and TiO2. In order to ach...

  18. Conventional and rapid thermal annealing of spray pyrolyzed copper indium gallium sulfide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Erkan; Sankir, Mehmet; Sankir, Nurdan Demirci

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Spray pyrolysis of copper indium gallium sulfide (CuInGaS 2 ) thin films. • Environmentally friendly method to produce solar cell quality absorber layers. • Effects of post-annealing process on the film properties of CuInGaS 2 . • Pros-and-cons of conventional and rapid thermal annealing. • Enhanced electrical and optical properties via annealing. - Abstract: With this study for the first time effects of post annealing on morphological, structural, optical and electrical properties of spray pyrolyzed copper–indium–gallium–sulfide (CuInGaS 2 ) thin films have been investigated. Pros-and-cons of conventional (CA) and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) have been discussed to obtain the high quality thin film absorbers for solar cell applications. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that all of the spray pyrolyzed CuInGaS 2 thin films have chalcopyrite structures with a highly (1 1 2) preferential orientation. Raman spectra also confirmed this structure. However, metal oxide secondary phases such as copper oxide and gallium oxide were detected when the temperature ramp rate was increased during RTA process. Energy dispersive X-ray measurements revealed that both copper and gallium diffused through the surface after annealing processes. Moreover, copper diffusion became pronounced especially at high annealing temperatures. Optical transmission measurements in the wavelength range between 600 and 1100 nm showed that band gap energy of CuInGaS 2 thin films was ranging between 1.36 and 1.51 eV depending on the annealing conditions. Very high mobility values have been observed for both processes. The maximum electrical mobility, 30.9 cm 2 /V s, was observed for the films annealed at 600 °C via CA. This is the highest reported value among the CuInGaS 2 thin film absorbers deposited by both solution and vacuum based techniques. As a result, post-annealing of spray pyrolyzed CuInGaS 2 thin films without usage of highly toxic gases, reported in this

  19. Indium sulfide thin films as window layer in chemically deposited solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugo-Loredo, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Peña-Méndez, Y., E-mail: yolapm@gmail.com [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico); Calixto-Rodriguez, M. [Universidad Tecnológica Emiliano Zapata del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad Tecnológica No. 1, C.P. 62760 Emiliano Zapata, Morelos (Mexico); Messina-Fernández, S. [Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, Ciudad de la Cultura “Amado Nervo” S/N, C.P. 63190 Tepic, Nayarit (Mexico); Alvarez-Gallegos, A. [Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Centro de Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, C.P. 62209, Cuernavaca Morelos (Mexico); Vázquez-Dimas, A.; Hernández-García, T. [Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, UANL, Fac. de Ciencias Químicas, Av. Universidad S/N Ciudad Universitaria San Nicolás de Los Garza Nuevo León, C.P. 66451 (Mexico)

    2014-01-01

    Indium sulfide (In{sub 2}S{sub 3}) thin films have been synthesized by chemical bath deposition technique onto glass substrates using In(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} as indium precursor and thioacetamide as sulfur source. X-ray diffraction studies have shown that the crystalline state of the as-prepared and the annealed films is β-In{sub 2}S{sub 3}. Optical band gap values between 2.27 and 2.41 eV were obtained for these films. The In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films are photosensitive with an electrical conductivity value in the range of 10{sup −3}–10{sup −7} (Ω cm){sup −1}, depending on the film preparation conditions. We have demonstrated that the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films obtained in this work are suitable candidates to be used as window layer in thin film solar cells. These films were integrated in SnO{sub 2}:F/In{sub 2}S{sub 3}/Sb{sub 2}S{sub 3}/PbS/C–Ag solar cell structures, which showed an open circuit voltage of 630 mV and a short circuit current density of 0.6 mA/cm{sup 2}. - Highlights: • In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films were deposited using the Chemical Bath Deposition technique. • A direct energy band gap between 2.41 to 2.27 eV was evaluated for the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} films. • We made chemically deposited solar cells using the In{sub 2}S{sub 3} thin films.

  20. Solution-Processed Gallium–Tin-Based Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of gallium (Ga and tin (Sn compositions on the structural and chemical properties of Ga–Sn-mixed (Ga:Sn oxide films and the electrical properties of Ga:Sn oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs. The thermogravimetric analysis results indicate that solution-processed oxide films can be produced via thermal annealing at 500 °C. The oxygen deficiency ratio in the Ga:Sn oxide film increased from 0.18 (Ga oxide and 0.30 (Sn oxide to 0.36, while the X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to Sn oxide significantly reduced. The Ga:Sn oxide film exhibited smaller grains compared to the nanocrystalline Sn oxide film, while the Ga oxide film exhibited an amorphous morphology. We found that the electrical properties of TFTs significantly improve by mixing Ga and Sn. Here, the optimum weight ratio of the constituents in the mixture of Ga and Sn precursor sols was determined to be 1.0:0.9 (Ga precursor sol:Sn precursor sol for application in the solution-processed Ga:Sn oxide TFTs. In addition, when the Ga(1.0:Sn(0.9 oxide film was thermally annealed at 900 °C, the field-effect mobility of the TFT was notably enhanced from 0.02 to 1.03 cm2/Vs. Therefore, the mixing concentration ratio and annealing temperature are crucial for the chemical and morphological properties of solution-processed Ga:Sn oxide films and for the TFT performance.

  1. Effects of air annealing on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of indium-tin oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trejo-Cruz, C.; Mendoza-Galvan, A.; Lopez-Beltran, A.M.; Gracia-Jimenez, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of air annealing on the optical, electrical, and structural properties of indium-tin oxide thin films were investigated using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the UV-visible range, reflectance-transmittance spectra at normal incidence in the infrared range, electrical resistivity measurements, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that annealing at 300 o C produces an overall shift to lower photon energies of the optical constant spectra, which is related to the increase in electrical resistivity. The electrical measurements performed in the 25-300 K range show a metallic behavior with large residual resistivity, quantity that increases with annealing temperature and is closely related with the change in the relative intensity of the main diffraction peaks. Also it is shown that under certain conditions of film deposition onto indium-tin oxide, some of its properties can change in a similar way as in air-annealing processing.

  2. Scalable production of microbially mediated zinc sulfide nanoparticles and application to functional thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Ji-Won; Ivanov, Ilia N; Joshi, Pooran C; Armstrong, Beth L; Wang, Wei; Jung, Hyunsung; Rondinone, Adam J; Jellison, Gerald E; Meyer, Harry M; Jang, Gyoung Gug; Meisner, Roberta A; Duty, Chad E; Phelps, Tommy J

    2014-10-01

    A series of semiconducting zinc sulfide (ZnS) nanoparticles were scalably, reproducibly, controllably and economically synthesized with anaerobic metal-reducing Thermoanaerobacter species. These bacteria reduced partially oxidized sulfur sources to sulfides that extracellularly and thermodynamically incorporated with zinc ions to produce sparingly soluble ZnS nanoparticles with ∼5nm crystallites at yields of ∼5gl(-1)month(-1). A predominant sphalerite formation was facilitated by rapid precipitation kinetics, a low cation/anion ratio and a higher zinc concentration compared to background to produce a naturally occurring hexagonal form at the low temperature, and/or water adsorption in aqueous conditions. The sphalerite ZnS nanoparticles exhibited narrow size distribution, high emission intensity and few native defects. Scale-up and emission tunability using copper doping were confirmed spectroscopically. Surface characterization was determined using Fourier transform infrared and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies, which confirmed amino acid as proteins and bacterial fermentation end products not only maintaining a nano-dimensional average crystallite size, but also increasing aggregation. The application of ZnS nanoparticle ink to a functional thin film was successfully tested for potential future applications. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. P-type thin films transistors with solution-deposited lead sulfide films as semiconductor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrillo-Castillo, A.; Salas-Villasenor, A.; Mejia, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Aguirre-Tostado, S. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados, S. C. Alianza Norte 202, Parque de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica, Apodaca, Nuevo Leon, C.P. 666000 (Mexico); Gnade, B.E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States); Quevedo-Lopez, M.A., E-mail: mxq071000@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas. 800 West Campbell Rd, Richardson, TX 75083 (United States)

    2012-01-31

    In this paper we demonstrate p-type thin film transistors fabricated with lead sulfide (PbS) as semiconductor deposited by chemical bath deposition methods. Crystallinity and morphology of the resulting PbS films were characterized using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Devices were fabricated using photolithographic processes in a bottom gate configuration with Au as source and drain top contacts. Field effect mobility for as-fabricated devices was {approx} 0.09 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} whereas the mobility for devices annealed at 150 Degree-Sign C/h in forming gas increased up to {approx} 0.14 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Besides the thermal annealing, the entire fabrications process was maintained below 100 Degree-Sign C. The electrical performance of the PbS-thin film transistors was studied before and after the 150 Degree-Sign C anneal as well as a function of the PbS active layer thicknesses. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thin film transistors with PbS as semiconductor deposited by chemical bath deposition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photolithography-based thin film transistors with PbS films at low temperatures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electron mobility for anneal-PbS devices of {approx} 0.14 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highest mobility reported in thin film transistors with PbS as the semiconductor.

  4. Optimization of nanoparticulate indium tin oxide slurries for the manufacture of ultra-thin indium tin oxide coatings with the slot-die coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, M.; Riess, K.; Roosen, A. [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of colloidal processing to achieve suitable nanoparticulate indium tin oxide (ITO) slurries for the production of sub-μm-thin ITO coatings with the slot die coating process. For application in printed electronics these ITO coatings, which are composite films consisting of nanoparticulate ITO and a polymeric binder, should offer high flexibility, transparency and electrical conductivity. To preserve their flexibility, the composite films are not subject to any heat treatment, instead they are used as deposited and dried. To achieve very good transparency and electrical conductivity at the same time, the slurries must exhibit excellent dispersivity to result in a dense particle packing during film formation and drying. To reduce materials costs, films with thicknesses of several 100 nm are of interest. Therefore, the slot-die technique was applied as a fast, pre-dosing technique to produce sub-μm-thin ITO/binder composite films. The resulting ITO/binder films were characterized with regard to their key properties such as total transmission and specific electrical resistance. With the colloidal optimization of ethanol- and water-based nanoparticulate ITO slurries using PVP and PVB as binders, it was possible to achieve films of 250 nm in thickness exhibiting high total transmission of ∝ 93 % and a low specific electrical resistance of ∝ 10 Ω.cm.

  5. Indium-tin-oxide thin film deposited by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, J.W.; Kim, J.S.; Yeom, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polycarbonate (PC) substrates at low temperatures (<90 deg. C) by a dual ion beam assisted e-beam evaporation system, where one gun (gun 1) is facing ITO flux and the other gun (gun 2) is facing the substrate. In this experiment, effects of rf power and oxygen flow rate of ion gun 2 on the electrical and optical properties of depositing ITO thin films were investigated. At optimal deposition conditions, ITO thin films deposited on the PC substrates larger than 20 cmx20 cm showed the sheet resistance of less than 40 Ω/sq., the optical transmittance of above 90%, and the uniformity of about 5%

  6. Characterization and Gas Sensing Properties of Copper-doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Deposited by Ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaoxia ZHAI

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide-based thin films are deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis technology, in which Cu addition is introduced to enhance the gas sensing performance by H2S detection. The thin films are porous and comprise nano-sized crystallites. One of the Cu-containing thin film sensors demonstrates a fast and significant response to H2S gas. The values of power law exponent n are calculated to discuss the sensitivity of the sensors, which is significantly promoted by Cu additive. The sensitivity of Cu-doped SnO2 gas sensors is determined by two mechanisms. One is the normal gas sensing mechanism of SnO2 grains, and the other is the promoted mechanism caused by the transformation between CuO and CuS in the H2S detection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.12917

  7. Combustion synthesized indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film for source/drain electrodes in all solution-processed oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tue, Phan Trong; Inoue, Satoshi; Takamura, Yuzuru; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    We report combustion solution synthesized (SCS) indium-tin-oxide (ITO) thin film, which is a well-known transparent conductive oxide, for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in solution-processed amorphous zirconium-indium-zinc-oxide TFT. A redox-based combustion synthetic approach is applied to ITO thin film using acetylacetone as a fuel and metal nitrate as oxidizer. The structural and electrical properties of SCS-ITO precursor solution and thin films were systematically investigated with changes in tin concentration, indium metal precursors, and annealing conditions such as temperature, time, and ambient. It was found that at optimal conditions the SCS-ITO thin film exhibited high crystalline quality, atomically smooth surface (RMS ∝ 4.1 Aa), and low electrical resistivity (4.2 x 10 -4 Ω cm). The TFT using SCS-ITO film as the S/D electrodes showed excellent electrical properties with negligible hysteresis. The obtained ''on/off'' current ratio, subthreshold swing factor, subthreshold voltage, and field-effect mobility were 5 x 10 7 , 0.43 V/decade, 0.7 V, and 2.1 cm 2 /V s, respectively. The performance and stability of the SCS-ITO TFT are comparable to those of the sputtered-ITO TFT, emphasizing that the SCS-ITO film is a promising candidate for totally solution-processed oxide TFTs. (orig.)

  8. Properties of combined TiN and Pt thin films applied to gas sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Aabom, A E; Eriksson, M; Twesten, R D

    2002-01-01

    TiN was introduced as a part of the sensing layer of gas sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Three types of metallic gate layer structures deposited by magnetron sputtering were investigated: TiN, a double layer with Pt on top of TiN, and two-phase Pt-TiN films formed by co-sputtering. The homogeneity of the co-sputtered layer was strongly dependent on the substrate temperature during film growth, with segregation of Pt as a result of high temperature deposition. During the deposition conditions in this work, Pt and TiN appear to be immiscible, resulting in growth of films consisting of the two phases. Furthermore, surface oxidation of TiN and enhanced oxidation of TiN at the grain boundaries to Pt in both the as-deposited films after exposure to atmosphere at room temperature and the films subjected to MIS device processing and to gas response analyses at a temperature of 140 deg. C resulted in a three-phase TiN-TiO sub x -Pt system. A segregation of Pt to the growth surface was observed d...

  9. In-situ laser processing and microstructural characteristics of YBa2Cu3O7-δ thin films on Si with TiN buffer layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, P.; Zheleva, T.; Narayan, J.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have prepared high-quality superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 -δ (YBCO) thin films on Si(100) with TiN as a buffer layer using in-situ multitarget deposition system. Both TiN and YBCO thin films were deposited sequentially by KrF excimer laser ( | = 248 nm ) at substrate temperature of 650 C . Thin films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), four-point-probe ac resistivity, scanning electron microscopy (S E M), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Rutherford backscattering (RBS). The TiN buffer layer was epitaxial and the epitaxial relationship was found to be cube on cube with TiN parallel Si. YBCO thin films on Si with TiN buffer layer showed the transition temperature of 90-92K with T co (zero resistance temperature) of 84K. The authors have found that the quality of the buffer layer is very important in determining the superconducting transition temperature of the thin film. The effects of processing parameters and the correlation of microstructural features with superconducting properties are discussed in detail

  10. Structural and optical studied of nano structured lead sulfide thin films prepared by the chemical bath deposition technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Din, Nasser Saad, E-mail: nsaadaldin@yahoo.com; Hussain, Nabiha, E-mail: nabihahssin@yahoo.com [Damascus University Faculty of Science, Department of physics, Homs (Syrian Arab Republic); Jandow, Nidhal, E-mail: nidhaljandow@yahoo.com [Al –Mustansiriyah University, College of Education, Department of physics, Baghdad (Iraq)

    2016-07-25

    Lead (II) Sulfide PbS thin films were deposited on glass substrates at 25°C by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The structural properties of the films were studied as a function of the concentration of Thiourea (CS (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}) as Source of Sulfide and deposition time. The surface morphology of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction and SEM. The obtained results showed that the as-deposited films Polycrystalline had cubic crystalline phase that belong to S.G: Fm3m. We found that they have preferred orientation [200]. Also the thickness of thin films decrease with deposition time after certain value and, it observed free sulfide had orthorhombic phase. Optical properties showed that the thin films have high transmission at visible range and low transmission at UV, IR range. The films of PbS have direct band gap (I.68 - 2.32 ev) at 300 K the values of band energy decreases with increases thickness of the Lead (II) Sulfide films.

  11. Crystalline phase evolution in nanostructured copper sulfide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method: the effect of annealing

    OpenAIRE

    Nazari Roshanak Rafiei; Taloobaghi Hoda Enayati; Eshghi Hosein

    2017-01-01

    In this study, physical properties of copper sulfide thin films deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method at different temperatures (260 °C, 285 °C and 310 °C) were investigated. The influence of annealing time on the physical properties of grown layers was also studied. According to FESEM images, the sizes of the compact copper sulfide grains were varied from about 100 nm to 60 nm. Hall effect and resistivity measurements confirmed that all samples had p-type conductivity. The ...

  12. Defect control in room temperature deposited cadmium sulfide thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Como, N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Martinez-Landeros, V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 66600, México (Mexico); Mejia, I. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States); Aguirre-Tostado, F.S. [Centro de Investigación en Materiales Avanzados, Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, 66600, México (Mexico); Nascimento, C.D.; Azevedo, G. de M; Krug, C. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, 91509-900 (Brazil); Quevedo-Lopez, M.A., E-mail: mquevedo@utdallas.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, TX, 75080 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The control of defects in cadmium sulfide thin films and its impact on the resulting CdS optical and electrical characteristics are studied. Sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial concentrations in the CdS films are controlled using the ambient pressure during pulsed laser deposition. CdS film resistivities ranging from 10{sup −1} to 10{sup 4} Ω-cm are achieved. Hall Effect measurements show that the carrier concentration ranges from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and is responsible for the observed resistivity variation. Hall mobility varies from 2 to 12 cm{sup 2}/V-s for the same pressure regime. Although the energy bandgap remains unaffected (∼ 2.42 eV), the optical transmittance is reduced due to the increase of defects in the CdS films. Rutherford back scattering spectroscopy shows the dependence of the CdS films stoichiometry with deposition pressure. The presence of CdS defects is attributed to more energetic species reaching the substrate, inducing surface damage in the CdS films during pulsed laser deposition. - Highlights: • CdS thin films deposited by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature. • The optical, electrical and structural properties were evaluated. • Carrier concentration ranged from 10{sup 19} to 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}. • The chemical composition was studied by Rutherford back scattering. • The density of sulfur vacancies and cadmium interstitial was varied.

  13. Solvent transfer of graphene oxide for synthesis of tin mono-sulfide graphene composite and application as anode of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Alok M.; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Destabilization of graphene oxide colloid and SnS graphene composite preparation for lithium-ion battery. - Abstract: Tin mono sulfide (SnS) graphene composite has been synthesized for anode of lithium-ion battery. For synthesis of composite, graphene oxide (GO)-water (H 2 O) colloid has been destabilized and ensured the complete transfer of graphene oxide into another organic solvent N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Mechanism for the destabilization of GO-H 2 O colloid is established. Surface to surface attachment of SnS on graphene sheet is achieved by solvothermal solution phase assembly of graphene sheets and SnS nanoparticles in DMF solvent. Graphene plays role in nanoparticle formation in composite. Such confined composite has been cycled reversibly at current rate of 160 mA g −1 , in voltage region of 0.01–2.5 V and exhibit a superior discharge capacity of 630 mAh g −1 after 50th cycle. Ex situ TEM analysis of used electrode reveal that the SnS nanoparticle-graphene composite with CMC binder perform better due to proper shape retention of electroactive materials during electrochemical cycling.

  14. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  15. Effects of different annealing atmospheres on the properties of cadmium sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, E., E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Güder, H.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. - Highlights: • Compactness and smoothness of the films were enhanced after sulfur annealing. • Micro-strain values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Dislocation density values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Band gap values of the films were improved after sulfur annealing. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. Compactness and smoothness of the films (especially for pH 10.5 and 11) enhanced after sulfur annealing. pH value of the precursor solution remarkably affected the roughness, uniformity and particle sizes of the films. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films, micro-strain and dislocation density values of the sulfur-annealed films (pH 10.5 and 11) were found to be lower than those of air-annealed films. Air-annealed films (pH 10.5, 11 and 11.5) exhibited higher transmittance than sulfur-annealed films in the wavelength region of 550–800 nm. Optical band gap values of the films were found between 2.31 eV and 2.36 eV.

  16. Deposit of thin films of TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C by laser ablation; Deposito de peliculas delgadas de TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, I.S.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Romero, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de mexico (Mexico); Muhl, S. [IIM, UNAM, A.P. 364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon (a-C), as well as bilayers of Ti/TiN/a-C were deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. It was investigated the effect that it has the laser fluence used to ablation the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the TiN deposited films. The TiN obtained films have a preferential orientation in the direction (200). The results show that the hardness of this material is influenced by the laser fluence. It is observed that the hardness is increased in an approximately lineal way with the increment of the fluence up to 19 J/cm{sup 2}. The films of amorphous carbon present hardness of the order of 11.2 GPa. Likewise it was found that the multilayers of Ti/TiN/aC presented a bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  17. Annealing study and thermal investigation on bismuth sulfide thin films prepared by chemical bath deposition in basic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachraoui, O.; Merino, J. M.; Mami, A.; León, M.; Caballero, R.; Maghraoui-Meherzi, H.

    2018-02-01

    Bismuth sulfide thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition using thiourea as sulfide ion source in basic medium. First, the effects of both the deposition parameters on film growth as well as the annealing effect under argon and sulfur atmosphere on as-deposited thin films were studied. The parameters were found to be influential using the Doehlert matrix experimental design methodology. Ranges for a maximum surface mass of films (3 mg cm-2) were determined. A well-crystallized major phase of bismuth sulfide with stoichiometric composition was achieved at 190 °C for 3 h. The prepared thin films were characterized using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Second, the bandgap energy value was found to be 1.5 eV. Finally, the thermal properties have been studied for the first time by means of the electropyroelectric (EPE) technique. Indeed, the thermal conductivity varied in the range of 1.20-0.60 W m-1 K-1, while the thermal diffusivity values increased in terms of the annealing effect ranging from 1.8 to 3.5 10-7 m2 s-1.

  18. Low temperature synthesis of wurtzite zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films by chemical spray pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xin; Pramana, Stevin S; Batabyal, Sudip K; Mhaisalkar, Subodh G; Chen, Xiaodong; Jinesh, K B

    2013-05-14

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) thin films have been synthesized by spray pyrolysis at 310 °C using an aqueous solution of zinc chloride (ZnCl2) and thioacetamide (TAA). Highly crystalline films were obtained by applying TAA instead of thiourea (TU) as the sulfur source. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses show that the films prepared by TAA contained a wurtzite structure, which is usually a high temperature phase of ZnS. The crystallinity and morphology of the ZnS films appeared to have a strong dependence on the spray rate as well. The asymmetric polar structure of the TAA molecule is proposed to be the intrinsic reason of the formation of highly crystalline ZnS at comparatively low temperatures. The violet and green emissions from photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy reflected the sulfur and zinc vacancies in the film. Accordingly, the photodetectors fabricated using these films exhibit excellent response to green and red photons of 525 nm and 650 nm respectively, though the band gaps of the materials, estimated from optical absorption spectroscopy, are in the range of 3.5-3.6 eV.

  19. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  20. Sensing properties of tin acetylacetonate-based thin films doped with platinum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fitl, P.; Myslík, V.; Vrňata, M.; Náhlík, J.; Kopecký, D.; Vlček, J.; Hofmann, J.; Lančok, Ján

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2012), s. 75-86 ISSN 0914-4935 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/11/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : gas sensing * tin acetylacetonate * pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method * selectivity tunable by temperature Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.288, year: 2012 http://122.249.91.209/myukk/Journal/Download.php?fn=SM0870.pdf

  1. Highly concentrated synthesis of copper-zinc-tin-sulfide nanocrystals with easily decomposable capping molecules for printed photovoltaic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngwoo; Woo, Kyoohee; Kim, Inhyuk; Cho, Yong Soo; Jeong, Sunho; Moon, Jooho

    2013-11-07

    Among various candidate materials, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a promising earth-abundant semiconductor for low-cost thin film solar cells. We report a facile, less toxic, highly concentrated synthetic method utilizing the heretofore unrecognized, easily decomposable capping ligand of triphenylphosphate, where phase-pure, single-crystalline, and well-dispersed colloidal CZTS nanocrystals were obtained. The favorable influence of the easily decomposable capping ligand on the microstructural evolution of device-quality CZTS absorber layers was clarified based on a comparative study with commonly used oleylamine-capped CZTS nanoparticles. The resulting CZTS nanoparticles enabled us to produce a dense and crack-free absorbing layer through annealing under a N2 + H2S (4%) atmosphere, demonstrating a solar cell with an efficiency of 3.6% under AM 1.5 illumination.

  2. Ultra-Thin Atomic Layer Deposited TiN Films: Non-Linear I–V Behaviour and the Importance of Surface Passivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.

    2011-01-01

    We report the electrical resistivity of atomic layer deposited TiN thin films in the thickness range 2.5-20 nm. The measurements were carried out using the circular transfer length method structures. For the films with thickness in the range of 10-20 nm, the measurements exhibited linear

  3. Nanocauliflower like structure of CdS thin film for solar cell photovoltaic applications: Insitu tin doping by chemical bath deposition technique

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wilson, KC

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on surface morphology changes of in situ tin (Sn) doped cadmium sulphide (CdS) thin film nanostructures prepared on a glass substrate using the chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. Sn-doping in the presence of triethanolammine (TEOA...

  4. Epitaxial integration of CoFe2O4 thin films on Si (001) surfaces using TiN buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Marco, José F.; Prieto, José E.; Ruiz-Gomez, Sandra; Perez, Lucas; del Real, Rafael P.; Vázquez, Manuel; de la Figuera, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Epitaxial cobalt ferrite thin films with strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy have been grown on Si (001) substrates using a TiN buffer layer. The epitaxial films have been grown by ion beam sputtering using either metallic, CoFe2, or ceramic, CoFe2O4, targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling configuration have been used to determine the epitaxial relationship CoFe2O4 [100]/TiN [100]/Si [100]. Mössbauer spectroscopy, in combination with XRD and RBS, has been used to determine the composition and structure of the cobalt ferrite thin films. The TiN buffer layer induces a compressive strain in the cobalt ferrite thin films giving rise to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The degree of in-plane anisotropy depends on the lattice mismatch between CoFe2O4 and TiN, which is larger for CoFe2O4 thin films grown on the reactive sputtering process with ceramic targets.

  5. Prediction of crack density and electrical resistance changes in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading

    KAUST Repository

    Mora Cordova, Angel

    2014-06-11

    We present unified predictions for the crack onset strain, evolution of crack density, and changes in electrical resistance in indium tin oxide/polymer thin films under tensile loading. We propose a damage mechanics model to quantify and predict such changes as an alternative to fracture mechanics formulations. Our predictions are obtained by assuming that there are no flaws at the onset of loading as opposed to the assumptions of fracture mechanics approaches. We calibrate the crack onset strain and the damage model based on experimental data reported in the literature. We predict crack density and changes in electrical resistance as a function of the damage induced in the films. We implement our model in the commercial finite element software ABAQUS using a user subroutine UMAT. We obtain fair to good agreement with experiments. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  6. Surface morphology modelling for the resistivity analysis of low temperature sputtered indium tin oxide thin films on polymer substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Xuesong; Tang Wu; Weng Xiaolong; Deng Longjiang

    2009-01-01

    Amorphous or weakly crystalline indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film samples have been prepared on polymethylmethacrylate and polyethylene terephthalate substrates by RF-magnetron sputtering at a low substrate temperature. The surface morphological and electrical properties of the ITO layers were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a standard four-point probe measurement. The effect of surface morphology on the resistivity of ITO thin films was studied, which presented some different variations from crystalline films. Then, a simplified film system model, including the substrate, continuous ITO layer and ITO surface grain, was proposed to deal with these correlations. Based on this thin film model and the AFM images, a quadratic potential was introduced to simulate the characteristics of the ITO surface morphology, and the classical Kronig-Penney model, the semiconductor electrical theory and the modified Neugebauer-Webb model were used to expound the detailed experimental results. The modelling equation was highly in accord with the experimental variations of the resistivity on the characteristics of the surface morphology.

  7. Wafer-level hermetic vacuum packaging by bonding with a copper-tin thin film sealing ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akashi, Teruhisa; Funabashi, Hirofumi; Takagi, Hideki; Omura, Yoshiteru; Hata, Yoshiyuki

    2018-04-01

    A wafer-level hermetic vacuum packaging technology intended for use with MEMS devices was developed based on a copper-tin (CuSn) thin film sealing ring. To allow hermetic packaging, the shear strength of the CuSn thin film bond was improved by optimizing the pretreatment conditions. As a result, an average shear strength of 72.3 MPa was obtained and a cavity that had been hermetically sealed using wafer-level packaging (WLP) maintained its vacuum for 1.84 years. The total pressures in the cavities and the partial pressures of residual gases were directly determined with an ultra-low outgassing residual gas analyzer (RGA) system. Hermeticity was evaluated based on helium leak rates, which were calculated from helium pressures determined with the RGA system. The resulting data showed that a vacuum cavity following 1.84 years storage had a total pressure of 83.1 Pa, contained argon as the main residual gas and exhibited a helium leak rate as low as 1.67  ×  10-17 Pa · m3 s-1, corresponding to an air leak rate of 6.19  ×  10-18 Pa · m3 s-1. The RGA data demonstrate that WLP using a CuSn thin film sealing ring permits ultra-high hermeticity in conjunction with long-term vacuum packaging that is applicable to MEMS devices.

  8. Excitation of epsilon-near-zero resonance in ultra-thin indium tin oxide shell embedded nanostructured optical fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minn, Khant; Anopchenko, Aleksei; Yang, Jingyi; Lee, Ho Wai Howard

    2018-02-05

    We report a novel optical waveguide design of a hollow step index fiber modified with a thin layer of indium tin oxide (ITO). We show an excitation of highly confined waveguide mode in the proposed fiber near the wavelength where permittivity of ITO approaches zero. Due to the high field confinement within thin ITO shell inside the fiber, the epsilon-near-zero (ENZ) mode can be characterized by a peak in modal loss of the hybrid waveguide. Our results show that such in-fiber excitation of ENZ mode is due to the coupling of the guided core mode to the thin-film ENZ mode. We also show that the phase matching wavelength, where the coupling takes place, varies depending on the refractive index of the constituents inside the central bore of the fiber. These ENZ nanostructured optical fibers have many potential applications, for example, in ENZ nonlinear and magneto-optics, as in-fiber wavelength-dependent filters, and as subwavelength fluid channel for optical and bio-photonic sensing.

  9. Growth of tin oxide thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates by spray pyrolysis technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloly, Abdul Rasheed; Satheesh, M. [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Martínez-Tomás, M. Carmen; Muñoz-Sanjosé, Vicente [Departamento de Física Aplicada y Electromagnetismo, Universitat de Valencia, c/Dr Moliner 50, Burjassot, Valencia 46100 (Spain); Rajappan Achary, Sreekumar [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India); Bushiri, M. Junaid, E-mail: junaidbushiri@gmail.com [Nano Functional Materials Lab, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682022, Kerala (India)

    2015-12-01

    Highlights: • SnO{sub 2} thin films were grown on hydrophilic and hydrophobic glass substrates. • Samples on hydrophobic substrates are having comparatively larger lattice volume. • Films on hydrophobic substrates have larger particles and low density distribution. • Substrate dependent photoluminescence emission is observed and studied. • SnO{sub 2} thin films grown over hydrophobic substrates may find potential applications. - Abstract: In this paper, we have demonstrated the growth of tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films composed of nanoparticles on hydrophobic (siliconized) and hydrophilic (non-siliconized) glass substrates by using the spray pyrolysis technique. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis confirmed the formation of SnO{sub 2} thin films with tetragonal rutile-phase structure. Average particle size of nanoparticles was determined to be in the range of 3–4 nm measured from the front view images obtained by a field emission gun scanning electron microscope (FESEM), while the size of nanoparticle clusters, when present, were in the range of 11–20 nm. Surface morphology of SnO{sub 2} films grown over hydrophobic substrates revealed larger isolated particles which are less crowded compared to the highly crowded and agglomerated smaller particles in films on hydrophilic substrates. Blue shift in the band gap is observed in samples in which the average particle size is slightly larger than the exciton Bohr radius. Photoluminescence (PL) analysis of samples grown over hydrophobic substrates exhibited an intense defect level emission and a weak near band edge emission. The enhanced visible emission from these SnO{sub 2} thin films is attributed to lattice defects formed during the film growth due to the mismatch between the film and the hydrophobic substrate surface.

  10. Characteristics of tin oxide-based thin film transistors prepared by DC magnetron sputtering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yeon-Keon; Kim, Woong-Sun; Kim, Kyung-Taek; Shin, Se-Young; Park, Jong-Wan

    2012-04-01

    Here we demonstrate the fabrication of SnO(x) thin-film transistors (TFTs), where SnO(x) thin films are deposited as an active channel layer by DC magnetron sputtering. We analyzed the effects of the oxygen partial pressure ratio and post-deposition heat treatment (PDHT) on the characteristics of the SnO(x) thin films. We found improved performance of the TFTs obtained by using interface modification with the optimized deposition condition of SnO(x) thin films. These results are helpful for fabricating oxide-TFTs, including simple binary oxide semiconductors, as an active channel layer.

  11. Synthesis of nanoflakes-like shapes of zinc sulfide grown at room temperature by electrodeposition method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, J. S.; Dhasade, S. S.; Babar, A. R.; Patil, Swati; Fulari, V. J.

    2015-07-01

    Zinc sulfide thin films were deposited on stainless steel and indium doped tin oxide substrates from an aqueous solution of ZnSO4, and Na2S2O3. This study reports the effect of bath conc. on the crystal structure, surface morphology, optical properties and compositional analysis of zinc sulfide nanostructured thin films. The electrodeposition time and bath concentration can be used to control the dimensions of the electrodeposited nanoflakes within nanometer range. Zinc sulfide thin films are polycrystalline with cubic crystal structure. SEM images indicate that the film surfaces are well-covered with zinc sulfide nanoflakes. The agglomeration of nanoflakes is enhanced due to the formation of large number of particles during growth process. A Raman shift of sample is detected at wave number 254 cm-1. Typical film deposited with optimized bath concentration shows optical band gap of about 3.83 eV.

  12. Functionalization of indium-tin-oxide electrodes by laser-nanostructured gold thin films for biosensing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna, E-mail: kgrochowska@imp.gda.pl [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Siuzdak, Katarzyna [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland); Karczewski, Jakub [Solid State Physics Department, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdańsk University of Technology, 11/12 Narutowicza St, 80-233, Gdańsk (Poland); Śliwiński, Gerard [Centre for Plasma and Laser Engineering, The Szewalski Institute, Polish Academy of Sciences, 14 Fiszera St, 80-231 Gdańsk (Poland)

    2015-12-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • ITO electrodes modified by NP arrays prepared by laser dewetting of thin Au films. • Enhanced activity, linear response and high sensitivity towards glucose. • Promising biosensor material AuNP-modified ITO of improved performance. - Abstract: The production and properties of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes functionalized by Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays of a relatively large area formed by pulsed laser nanostructuring of thin gold films are reported and discussed. The SEM inspection of modified electrodes reveals the presence of the nearly spherical and disc-shaped particles of dimensions in the range of 40–120 nm. The NP-array geometry can be controlled by selection of the laser processing conditions. It is shown that particle size and packing density of the array are important factors which determine the electrode performance. In the case of NP-modified electrodes the peak current corresponding to the glucose direct oxidation process shows rise with increasing glucose concentration markedly higher comparing to the reference Au disc electrode. The detection limit reaches 12 μM and linear response of the sensor is observed from 0.1 to 47 mM that covers the normal physiological range of the blood sugar detection.

  13. Structure, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide ultra thin films prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thirumoorthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO thin films have been prepared by jet nebulizer spray pyrolysis technique for different Sn concentrations on glass substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns reveal that all the films are polycrystalline of cubic structure with preferentially oriented along (222 plane. SEM images show that films exhibit uniform surface morphology with well-defined spherical particles. The EDX spectrum confirms the presence of In, Sn and O elements in prepared films. AFM result indicates that the surface roughness of the films is reduced as Sn doping. The optical transmittance of ITO thin films is improved from 77% to 87% in visible region and optical band gap is increased from 3.59 to 4.07 eV. Photoluminescence spectra show mainly three emissions peaks (UV, blue and green and a shift observed in UV emission peak. The presence of functional groups and chemical bonding was analyzed by FTIR. Hall effect measurements show prepared films having n-type conductivity with low resistivity (3.9 × 10−4 Ω-cm and high carrier concentrations (6.1 × 1020 cm−3.

  14. Synthesis of nano-structured tin oxide thin films with faster response to LPG and ammonia by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    PrasannaKumari, K.; Thomas, Boben

    2018-01-01

    Nanostructured SnO2 thin film have been efficiently fabricated by spray pyrolysis using atomizers of different types. The structure and morphology of as-prepared samples are investigated by techniques such as x-ray diffraction, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Significant morphological changes are observed in films by modifying the precursor atomization as a result of change of spray device. The optical characterization indicates that change in atomization, affects the absorbance and the band gap, following the varied crystallite size. Gas sensing investigations on ultrasonically prepared tin oxide films show NH3 response at operating temperatures lower down to 50 °C. For 1000 ppm of LPG the response at 350 °C for air blast atomizer film is about 99%, with short response and recovery times. The photoluminescence emmision spectra reveal the correlation between atomization process and the quantity of oxygen vacancies present in the samples. The favorable size reduction in microstructure with good crystallinity with slight change in lattice properties suggest their scope in gas sensing applications. On the basis of these characterizations, the mechanism of LPG and NH3 gas sensing of nanostructured SnO2 thin films has been proposed.

  15. Bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates: Facile single source precursors for the preparation of bismuth sulfide nanorods and bismuth phosphate thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswal, Jasmine B.; Garje, Shivram S.; Nuwad, Jitendra; Pillai, C.G.S.

    2013-01-01

    Two different phase pure materials (Bi 2 S 3 and Bi 2 P 4 O 13 ) have been prepared under different conditions using the same single source precursors. Solvothermal decomposition of the complexes, Bi(S 2 P(OR) 2 ) 3 [where, R=Methyl (Me) (1), Ethyl (Et) (2), n-Propyl (Pr n ) (3) and iso-Propyl (Pr i ) (4)] in ethylene glycol gave orthorhombic bismuth sulfide nanorods, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD) of the same precursors deposited monoclinic bismuth tetraphosphate (Bi 2 P 4 O 13 ) thin films on glass substrates. Surface study of the thin films using SEM illustrated the formation of variety of nanoscale morphologies (spherical-, wire-, pendent-, doughnut- and flower-like) at different temperatures. AFM studies were carried out to evaluate quality of the films in terms of uniformity and roughness. Thin films of average roughness as low as 1.4 nm were deposited using these precursors. Photoluminescence studies of Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films were also carried out. - Graphical abstract: Solvothermal decomposition of bismuth(III) dialkyldithiophosphates in ethylene glycol gave Bi 2 S 3 nanoparticles, whereas aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition of these single source precursors deposited Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Preparation of phase pure orthorhombic Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and monoclinic Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films. • Use of single source precursors for deposition of bismuth phosphate thin films. • Use of solvothermal decomposition and AACVD methods. • Morphology controlled synthesis of Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films. • Bi 2 S 3 nanorods and Bi 2 P 4 O 13 thin films using same single source precursors

  16. TiN thin film deposition by cathodic cage discharge: effect of cage configuration and active species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Freitas Daudt, N; Cavalcante Braz, D; Alves Junior, C; Pereira Barbosa, J C; Barbalho Pereira, M

    2012-01-01

    Plasma cathodic cage technique was developed recently in order to eliminate phenomena such as edge effects and overheating, which occur during conventional nitriding processes. In this work, the effect of plasma active species and cage configurations during thin film deposition of TiN were studied. This compound was chosen because its properties are very sensitive to slight variations in chemical composition and film thickness, becoming a good monitoring tool in fabrication process control. In order to verify the effect of cage geometry on the discharge and characteristics of the grown film, a cage made of titanium was used with different numbers and distribution of holes. Furthermore, different amounts of hydrogen were added to the Ar + N2 plasma atmosphere. Flow rates of Ar and N2 gas were fixed at 4 and 3 sccm, respectively and flow rates of H 2 gas was 0, 1 and 2 sccm. Plasma species, electrical discharge and physical characteristics of the grown film were analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction. It was observed by OES that the luminous intensity associated to Hα species is not proportional to flow rate of H 2 gas. Electrical efficiency of the system, crystal structure and topography of the TiN film are strongly influenced by this behavior. For constant flow rate of H 2 gas, it was found that with more holes at the top of the cage, deposition rate, crystallinity and roughness are higher, if compared to cages with a small number of holes at the top of cage. On the other hand, the opposite behavior was observed when more holes were located at the sidewall of cage.

  17. Reaction Mechanisms of the Atomic Layer Deposition of Tin Oxide Thin Films Using Tributyltin Ethoxide and Ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanayakkara, Charith E; Liu, Guo; Vega, Abraham; Dezelah, Charles L; Kanjolia, Ravindra K; Chabal, Yves J

    2017-06-20

    Uniform and conformal deposition of tin oxide thin films is important for several applications in electronics, gas sensing, and transparent conducting electrodes. Thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) is often best suited for these applications, but its implementation requires a mechanistic understanding of the initial nucleation and subsequent ALD processes. To this end, in situ FTIR and ex situ XPS have been used to explore the ALD of tin oxide films using tributyltin ethoxide and ozone on an OH-terminated, SiO 2 -passivated Si(111) substrate. Direct chemisorption of tributyltin ethoxide on surface OH groups and clear evidence that subsequent ligand exchange are obtained, providing mechanistic insight. Upon ozone pulse, the butyl groups react with ozone, forming surface carbonate and formate. The subsequent tributyltin ethoxide pulse removes the carbonate and formate features with the appearance of the bands for CH stretching and bending modes of the precursor butyl ligands. This ligand-exchange behavior is repeated for subsequent cycles, as is characteristic of ALD processes, and is clearly observed for deposition temperatures of 200 and 300 °C. On the basis of the in situ vibrational data, a reaction mechanism for the ALD process of tributyltin ethoxide and ozone is presented, whereby ligands are fully eliminated. Complementary ex situ XPS depth profiles confirm that the bulk of the films is carbon-free, that is, formate and carbonate are not incorporated into the film during the deposition process, and that good-quality SnO x films are produced. Furthermore, the process was scaled up in a cross-flow reactor at 225 °C, which allowed the determination of the growth rate (0.62 Å/cycle) and confirmed a self-limiting ALD growth at 225 and 268 °C. An analysis of the temperature-dependence data reveals that growth rate increases linearly between 200 and 300 °C.

  18. The role of Ar plasma treatment in generating oxygen vacancies in indium tin oxide thin films prepared by the sol-gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Deuk-Kyu; Misra, Mirnmoy; Lee, Ye-Eun; Baek, Sung-Doo; Myoung, Jae-Min; Lee, Tae Il

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Indium tin oxide thin film with about 41 nm thickness was obtained by the sol-gel process. • Thin film exhibited low resistivity. • Sheet resistance of thin film decreases with Ar plasma treatment time. • Ar plasma treatment on thin film does not alter the crystal structure and optical properties of the ITO thin-film. • There is no significant change in oxygen vacancies after 20 min of plasma treatment. - Abstract: Argon (Ar) plasma treatment was carried out to reduce the sheet resistance of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films. The Ar plasma treatment did not cause any significant changes to the crystal structure, surface morphology, or optical properties of the ITO thin films. However, an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study confirmed that the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film dramatically increased with the plasma treatment time. Thus, we concluded that the decrease in the sheet resistance was caused by the increase in the oxygen vacancy concentration in the film. Furthermore, to verify how the concentration of oxygen vacancies in the film increased with the Ar plasma treatment time, cumulative and continuous plasma treatments were conducted. The oxygen vacancies were found to be created by surface heating via the outward thermal diffusion of oxygen atoms from inside the film.

  19. Indium tin oxide thin-films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis for efficient silicon based solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simashkevich, Alexei, E-mail: alexeisimashkevich@hotmail.com [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Serban, Dormidont; Bruc, Leonid; Curmei, Nicolai [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Hinrichs, Volker [Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Rusu, Marin [Institute of Applied Physics, 5 Academiei str., Chisinau, MD-2028, Republic of Moldova (Moldova, Republic of); Institut für Heterogene Materialsysteme, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Lise-Meitner Campus, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The vapor phase pyrolysis deposition method was developed for the preparation of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with thicknesses ranging between 300 and 400 nm with the sheet resistance of 10–15 Ω/sq. and the transparency in the visible region of the spectrum over 80%. The layers were deposited on the (100) surface of the n-type silicon wafers with the charge carriers concentration of ~ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3}. The morphology of the ITO layers deposited on Si wafers with different surface morphologies, e.g., smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) was investigated. The as-deposited ITO thin films consist of crystalline columns with the height of 300–400 nm and the width of 50–100 nm. Photovoltaic parameters of mono- and bifacial solar cells of Cu/ITO/SiO{sub 2}/n–n{sup +} Si/Cu prepared on Si (100) wafers with different surface structures were studied and compared. A maximum efficiency of 15.8% was achieved on monofacial solar cell devices with the textured Si surface. Bifacial photovoltaic devices from 100 μm thick Si wafers with the smooth surface have demonstrated efficiencies of 13.0% at frontal illumination and 10% at rear illumination. - Highlights: • ITO thin films prepared by vapor phase pyrolysis on Si (100) wafers with a smooth (polished), rough (irregularly structured) and textured (by inversed pyramids) surface. • Monofacial ITO/SiO2/n-n+Si solar cells with an efficiency of 15.8% prepared and bifacial PV devices with front- and rear-side efficiencies up to 13% demonstrated. • Comparative studies of photovoltaic properties of solar cells with different morphologies of the Si wafer surface presented.

  20. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin film grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with tetramethyltin-precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zimin; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using tetramethyltin (TDMASn) as tin precursor. The as-grown ITO films are polycrystalline with (111) and (100) textures. A gradual transition of crystallographic orientation from (111) preferred to (100) preferred is observed as the composition of tin changes. By precisely controlling the Sn doping, the ITO thin films present promising optical and electrical performances at either near-infrared-visible or visible-near-ultraviolet ranges. At low Sn doping level, the as-grown ITO possesses high electron mobility of 48.8 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, which results in high near-infrared transmittance and low resistivity. At higher Sn doping level, high carrier concentration (8.9 × 1020 cm‑3) and low resistivity (3 × 10‑4 Ω cm) are achieved. The transmittance is 97.8, 99.1, and 82.3% at the wavelength of 550, 365, and 320 nm, respectively. The results strongly suggest that MOCVD with TDMASn as tin precursor is an effective method to fabricate high quality ITO thin film for near-infrared, visible light, and near-ultraviolet application.

  1. Analysis of thin-film PZT/LNO stacks on an encapsulated TiN electrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaleli, B.; Nguyen, Duc Minh; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Hueting, Raymond Josephus Engelbart

    2014-01-01

    We realized metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitors comprising high-quality ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate (Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 or PZT) thin films on an LaNiO3/poly-Si/titanium nitride (TiN)/SiO2 integrated on a 100 mm Si wafer. Promising effective piezoelectric coefficient and remnant

  2. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical characteristics and physical properties like refractive index, absorption coefficient and thickness of thin film were calculated from the study of transmission spectrum (wavelength vs transmission curve) data given by UV/VIS Spectrophotometer. Effect of number of coatings on transmittance and refractive index was ...

  3. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SnO2 thin film was synthesized on a glass substrate (Corn- ing 7059) by novel sol–gel dip coating technique. ... solution concentration, heat treatment temperature and with- drawal speed. According to Schroeder (1969), ... side of the substrate was required, so other side coat was removed by means of a sharp edge.

  4. Alcohol sensing of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol–gel process

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The present paper describes the alcohol sensing characteristics of spin coated SnO2 thin film deposited by using sol–gel process. The sensitivity of the film was measured at different temperatures and different concentrations of alcohol at ppm level. Alcohol detection result shows peak sensitivity at 623 K. The.

  5. Studies on high electronic energy deposition in transparent conducting indium tin oxide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, N G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Gudage, Y G [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Ghosh, A [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India); Vyas, J C [Technical and Prototype Engineering Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (MS) (India); Singh, F [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Tripathi, A [Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, Post Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Sharma, Ramphal [Thin Film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad-431004 (MS) (India)

    2008-02-07

    We have examined the effect of swift heavy ions using 100 MeV Au{sup 8+} ions on the electrical properties of transparent, conducting indium tin oxide polycrystalline films with resistivity of 0.58 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm and optical transmission greater than 78% (pristine). We report on the modifications occurring after high electronic energy deposition. With the increase in fluency, x-ray line intensity of the peaks corresponding to the planes (1 1 0), (4 0 0), (4 4 1) increased, while (3 3 1) remained constant. Surface morphological studies showed a pomegranate structure of pristine samples, which was highly disturbed with a high dose of irradiation. For the high dose, there was a formation of small spherical domes uniformly distributed over the entire surface. The transmittance was seen to be decreasing with the increase in ion fluency. At higher doses, the resistivity and photoluminescence intensity was seen to be decreased. In addition, the carrier concentration was seen to be increased, which was in accordance with the decrease in resistivity. The observed modifications after high electronic energy deposition in these films may lead to fruitful device applications.

  6. Effect of Tin Electrode (Sn, Electrode Distance and Thin Layer Size of Zinc Phthalocyanine (ZnPc to Resistance Changes With Ozone Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Mogi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to determine the effect of tin electrode distances and the thickness of a thin layer of ZnPc (Zinc phtyalocyanine toward changes in resistance with ozone exposure. Tin deposition on the glass surface was conducted using spraying method. The reaction between ozone and ZnPc produces electrical properties that can be read through the resistance value of the multimeter. Based on this study, it was investigated that the smaller a distance between the electrode and the thicker deposition of ZnPc lead to the less resistance. This showed that a thin layer of the conductivity increases along with the longer exposure to ozone gas. The movement of electrons with the hole was free.

  7. Improved Routes Towards Solution Deposition of Indium Sulfide Thin Films for Photovoltaic Applications:

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    deposited films were found to crystallise as tetragonal P- In2S3 , no evidence for incorporation of hydroxy-indium species was found by XPS measurements...INTRODUCTION The III-VI semiconductor indium sulfide ( In2S3 ) has been the focus of much attention during the past two decades, primarily due to its...sensitized solar cells [2]. Indium sulfide is an n-type semiconductor that exists in three forms, viz. a defect cubic structure (x- In2S3 under ambient

  8. X-Ray diffraction analysis of thermally evaporated copper tin selenide thin films at different annealing temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Amirul Syafiq Mohd Yunos; Zainal Abidin Talib; Wan Mahmood Mat Yunus; Josephine Liew Ying Chyi; Wilfred Sylvester Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Semiconductor thin films Copper Tin Selenide, Cu 2 SnSe 3 , a potential compound for semiconductor radiation detector or solar cell applications were prepared by thermal evaporation method onto well-cleaned glass substrates. The as-deposited films were annealed in flowing purified nitrogen, N 2 , for 2 hours in the temperature range from 100 to 500 degree Celsius. The structure of as-deposited and annealed films has been studied by X-ray diffraction technique. The semi-quantitative analysis indicated from the Reitveld refinement show that the samples composed of Cu 2 SnSe 3 and SnSe. These studies revealed that the films were structured in mixed phase between cubic space group F-43 m (no. 216) and orthorhombic space group P n m a (no. 62). The crystallite size and lattice strain were determined from Scherrer calculation method. The results show that increasing in annealing temperature resulted in direct increase in crystallite size and decrease in lattice strain. (author)

  9. Functionalization of indium-tin-oxide electrodes by laser-nanostructured gold thin films for biosensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowska, Katarzyna; Siuzdak, Katarzyna; Karczewski, Jakub; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    The production and properties of the indium-tin-oxide (ITO) electrodes functionalized by Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays of a relatively large area formed by pulsed laser nanostructuring of thin gold films are reported and discussed. The SEM inspection of modified electrodes reveals the presence of the nearly spherical and disc-shaped particles of dimensions in the range of 40-120 nm. The NP-array geometry can be controlled by selection of the laser processing conditions. It is shown that particle size and packing density of the array are important factors which determine the electrode performance. In the case of NP-modified electrodes the peak current corresponding to the glucose direct oxidation process shows rise with increasing glucose concentration markedly higher comparing to the reference Au disc electrode. The detection limit reaches 12 μM and linear response of the sensor is observed from 0.1 to 47 mM that covers the normal physiological range of the blood sugar detection.

  10. Experimental and Simulated Investigations of Thin Polymer Substrates with an Indium Tin Oxide Coating under Fatigue Bending Loadings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong-Shiun Hsu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Stress-induced failure is a critical concern that influences the mechanical reliability of an indium tin oxide (ITO film deposited on a transparently flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET substrate. In this study, a cycling bending mechanism was proposed and used to experimentally investigate the influences of compressive and tensile stresses on the mechanical stability of an ITO film deposited on PET substrates. The sheet resistance of the ITO film, optical transmittance of the ITO-coated PET substrates, and failure scheme within the ITO film were measured to evaluate the mechanical stability of the concerned thin films. The results indicated that compressive and tensile stresses generated distinct failure schemes within an ITO film and both led to increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance. In addition, tensile stress increased the sheet resistance of an ITO film more easily than compressive stress did. However, the influences of both compressive and tensile stress on increased optical transmittance were demonstrated to be highly similar. Increasing the thickness of a PET substrate resulted in increased sheet resistance and optical transmittance regardless of the presence of compressive or tensile stress. Moreover, J-Integral, a method based on strain energy, was used to estimate the interfacial adhesion strength of the ITO-PET film through the simulation approach enabled by a finite element analysis.

  11. Development and characterization of fluorine tin oxide electrodes modified with high area porous thin films containing gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quintana, Carmen, E-mail: carmen.quintana@uam.e [Dpto. Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Cantoblanco. 28049-Madrid (Spain); Atienzar, Pedro; Budroni, Gerolamo [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022-Valencia (Spain); Mora, Laura; Hernandez, Lucas [Dpto. Quimica Analitica y Analisis Instrumental. Facultad de Ciencias. Universidad Autonoma de Madrid. Cantoblanco. 28049-Madrid (Spain); Garcia, Hermenegildo; Corma, Avelino [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica de Valencia, UPV-CSIC, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Av. de los Naranjos s/n, 46022-Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-29

    Different electrode materials are prepared using fluoride doped tin oxide (FTO) electrodes modified with high area porous thin films of metal oxides containing gold nanoparticles. Three different metal oxides (TiO{sub 2}, MgO and SnO{sub 2}) have been assayed to this end. The effect of the metal oxide nature and gold loading on the structure and performance of the modified electrodes was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques. XRD measurements reveal that MgO electrodes present the smallest gold nanoparticles after the sintering step however, the electrochemical response of these electrodes shows important problems of mass transport derived from the high porosity of these materials (Brunauer Emmett Teller area of 125 m{sup 2}/g). The excellent sintering properties of titania nanoparticles result in robust films attached to the FTO electrodes which allow more reliable and reproducible results from an electroanalytical point of view.

  12. Transparent thin films of indium tin oxide: Morphology-optical investigations, inter dependence analyzes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prepelita, P.; Filipescu, M.; Stavarache, I.; Garoi, F.; Craciun, D.

    2017-12-01

    Using a fast and eco-friendly deposition method, ITO thin films with different thicknesses (0.5 μm-0.7 μm) were deposited on glass substrates by radio frequency magnetron sputtering technique. A comparative analysis of these oxide films was then carried out. AFM investigations showed that the deposited films were smooth, uniform and having a surface roughness smaller than 10 nm. X-ray diffraction investigations showed that all samples were polycrystalline and the grain sizes of the films, corresponding to (222) cubic reflection, were found to increase with the increasing film thickness. The optical properties, evaluated by UV-VIS-NIR (190-3000 nm) spectrophotometer, evidenced that the obtained thin films were highly transparent, with a transmission coefficient between 90 and 96%, depending on the film thickness. Various methods (Swanepoel and Drude) were employed to appreciate the optimal behaviour of transparent oxide films, in determining the dielectric optical parameters and refractive index dispersion for ITO films exhibiting interference patterns in the optical transmission spectra. The electrical conductivity also increased as the film thickness increased.

  13. Temperature Optimized Ammonia and Ethanol Sensing Using Ce Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films in a Novel Flow Metric Gas Sensing Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Govardhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple process of gas sensing is represented here using Ce doped tin oxide nanomaterial based thin film sensor. A novel flow metric gas chamber has been designed and utilized for gas sensing. Doping plays a vital role in enhancing the sensing properties of nanomaterials. Ce doped tin oxide was prepared by hydrothermal method and the same has been used to fabricate a thin film for sensing. The microstructure and morphology of the prepared materials were analysed by SEM, XRD, and FTIR analysis. The SEM images clearly show that doping can clamp down the growth of the large crystallites and can lead to large agglomeration spheres. Thin film gas sensors were formed from undoped pure SnO2 and Ce doped SnO2. The sensors were exposed to ammonia and ethanol gases. The responses of the sensors to different concentrations (50–500 ppm of ammonia and ethanol at different operating temperatures (225°C–500°C were studied. Results show that a good sensitivity towards ammonia was obtained with Ce doped SnO2 thin film sensor at an optimal operating temperature of 325°C. The Ce doped sensor also showed good selectivity towards ammonia when compared with ethanol. Pure SnO2 showed good sensitivity with ethanol when compared with Ce doped SnO2 thin film sensor. Response time of the sensor and its stability were also studied.

  14. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  15. Study of Structure and Electro-Optical Characteristics of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. M. Khusayfan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ITO thin films were prepared by electron beam evaporation of ceramic ITO target. The films were subsequently annealed in air atmosphere at the temperatures 300°C and 600°C in order to improve their optical and electrical properties. The crystal structure and morphology of the films are investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope techniques, respectively. The films exhibited cubic structure with predominant orientation of growth along (222 direction, and the crystallite size increases by rising annealing temperature. Transparency of the films, over the visible light region, is increased by annealing temperature. The resulting increase in the carrier concentration and in the carrier mobility decreases the resistivity of the films due to annealing. The absorption coefficient of the films is calculated and analyzed. The direct allowed optical band gap for as-deposited films is determined as 3.81 eV; this value is increased to 3.88 and 4.0 eV as a result of annealing at 300°C and 600°C, respectively. The electrical sheet resistance is significantly decreased by increasing annealing temperature, whereas figure of merit is increased.

  16. Crystalline phase evolution in nanostructured copper sulfide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis method: the effect of annealing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Roshanak Rafiei

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, physical properties of copper sulfide thin films deposited on glass substrates by spray pyrolysis method at different temperatures (260 °C, 285 °C and 310 °C were investigated. The influence of annealing time on the physical properties of grown layers was also studied. According to FESEM images, the sizes of the compact copper sulfide grains were varied from about 100 nm to 60 nm. Hall effect and resistivity measurements confirmed that all samples had p-type conductivity. The XRD patterns showed that, together with the dominant digenite phase (Cu1.8S in all samples, the copper-rich phases also appeared as a result of increasing substrate temperature. The optical UV-Vis spectra analysis showed that due to increasing the substrate temperature, the band gap of the layers was reduced from about 2.4 eV to 2.0 eV. We found that as a result of annealing at 400 °C for 1.5 h in Ar atmosphere, the sample which was initially grown at 310 °C with the highest copper content, totally transformed into the polycrystalline monoclinic chalcocite phase (Cu2S with 3D nanoporous architecture.

  17. On the role of tin doping in InOx thin films deposited by radio frequency-plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A; Brogueira, P; Lavareda, G; de Carvalho, C Nunes

    2010-04-01

    In view of the increasing need for larger-area display devices with improved image quality it becomes increasingly important to decrease resistivity while maintaining transparency in transparent conducting oxides (TCOs). Accomplishing the goal of increased conductivity and transparency will require a deeper understanding of the relationships between the structure and the electro-optical properties of these materials. In this work we study the role of tin doping in InOx thin films. Undoped indium oxide (InOx) and indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited at room temperature by radiofrequency plasma enhanced reactive thermal evaporation (rf-PERTE), a new technique recently developed in our laboratory using as evaporation source either In rods or a 90%In:10%Sn alloy, respectively. The two most important macroscopic properties-optical transparency and electrical resistivity-seem to be independent of the tin content in these deposition conditions. Results show that the films present a visible transmittance of the order of 82%, and an electrical resistivity of about 8 x 10(-4) omega x cm. Surface morphology characterization made by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that homogeneity of the films deposited from a 90%In:10%Sn alloy is enhanced (a film with small and compact grains is produced) and consequently a smooth surface with reduced roughness and with similar grain size and shape is obtained. Films deposited from pure In rods evaporation source show the presence of aggregates randomly distributed above a film tissue formed of thinner grains.

  18. Morphology reliance of cobalt sulfide thin films: A chemo-thermo-mechanical perception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, S.S. [Thin Film & Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Sikora, A. [Electrotechnical Institute, Division of Electrotechnology & Materials Science, ul. M Skłodowskiej-Curie 55/61, 50-369 Wroclaw (Poland); Pawar, S.T. [Thin Film & Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Kambale, R.C. [Department of Physics, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007, M.S. (India); Maldar, N.N. [School of Chemical Sciences, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India); Deshmukh, L.P., E-mail: laldeshmukh@gmail.com [Thin Film & Solar Studies Research Laboratory, Solapur University, Solapur 413 255, M.S. (India)

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Optimized heterogeneous growth process for the deposition of CoS thin films. • As-obtained CoS thin films exhibit hexagonal crystal structure. • Optimized CoS thin films were Co{sup 2+} rich in nature. • Magnetic force microscopy revealed randomly scattered magnetic constellations. - Abstract: We report onto the morphology dependency of CoS thin films by studying the role of mechanical agitation, thermal assistance and deposition duration in an aqueous alkaline bath (pH = 9 ± 0.1). The deposition of CoS thin films was carried out at different mechanical stirring rates, deposition temperatures and times. As-optimized CoS thin film were of polycrystalline nature and exhibited hexagonal crystal structure. Co{sup 2+} rich nature (≈85%) of optimistically grown thin film was detected. Complex multifaceted webbed network of as-grown elongated and threaded into each other CoS crystals was observed through a scanning electron microscope. Surface morphology was further studied by means of an atomic force microscopy. Existence of magnetic domains was marked in the magnetic force microscopy. As-grown CoS thin films were having transmission index of 0.5 with a band gap of ≈1.59 eV.

  19. Structural characterization of lead sulfide thin films by means of X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    This detector can operate at any temperature between 77 and 300 K (Johnson 1984). The possibility of using very thin (20–60 nm) chemically deposited PbS films as solar control coatings have been discussed by many workers. (Nair et al 1989). Analyses of the mechanism of photo- conductivity in PbS thin films are also ...

  20. Relative SHG measurements of metal thin films: Gold, silver, aluminum, cobalt, chromium, germanium, nickel, antimony, titanium, titanium nitride, tungsten, zinc, silicon and indium tin oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Che

    Full Text Available We have experimentally measured the surface second-harmonic generation (SHG of sputtered gold, silver, aluminum, zinc, tungsten, copper, titanium, cobalt, nickel, chromium, germanium, antimony, titanium nitride, silicon and indium tin oxide thin films. The second-harmonic response was measured in reflection using a 150 fs p-polarized laser pulse at 1561 nm. We present a clear comparison of the SHG intensity of these films relative to each other. Our measured relative intensities compare favorably with the relative intensities of metals with published data. We also report for the first time to our knowledge the surface SHG intensity of tungsten and antimony relative to that of well known metallic thin films such as gold and silver. Keywords: Surface second-harmonic generation, Nonlinear optics, Metal thin films

  1. Structural characterization of lead sulfide thin films by means of X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    X-ray diffraction patterns of chemically deposited lead sulphide thin films have been recorded and X-ray line profile analysis studies have been carried out. The lattice parameter, crystallite size, average internal stress and microstrain in the film are calculated and correlated with molarities of the solutions. Both size and strain ...

  2. Structural characterization of lead sulfide thin films by means of X ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    widely used in IR detectors. PbS is suitable for the detec- tion of the radiation between wavelengths 1 and 3 μm. This detector can operate at any temperature between 77 and 300 K (Johnson 1984). The possibility of using very thin (20–60 nm) chemically deposited PbS films as solar control coatings have been discussed ...

  3. Synthesis of manganese sulfide (MnS thin films by chemical bath deposition and their characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil H. Chaki

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Films of γ-MnS were deposited by chemical bath deposition (CBD technique on glass slide substrates. The EDAX analysis showed that the film contains Mn and S elements without any other impurity. The EDAX weight percentage showed the film to be in perfect stoichiometry. The XRD showed that the synthesized MnS thin film possess hexagonal structure. The determined lattice parameters a = b = 3.9 Å and c = 6.4 Å were in match with the reported values. The crystallite size determined using XRD pattern employing Scherrer's formula and Hall–Williamson plot were 8.35 nm and 7.42 nm, respectively. The SAED shows ring pattern, clearly stating the thin film to be polycrystalline in nature. The SEM image of MnS thin film clearly reveals that the film surface is homogenous consisting of two sizes of spheres. Smaller spherical grain particles of size ∼1.6–2 μm covers the substrate and on top of covered small grain size particles are the large size spherical grain particles having size ∼5.0–7.0 μm. The 2D AFM image of MnS thin film shows coalescences between spherical grains. The optical absorbance analysis of the MnS thin film confirmed that the film possesses direct and indirect optical bandgap values of 3.67 eV and 2.67 eV, respectively. All the obtained results have been deliberated in this paper.

  4. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoori, Muntaser; Al-Shaibani, Sahar; Al-Jaeedi, Ahlam; Lee, Jisung; Choi, Daniel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2017-12-01

    Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2). The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF)-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2) layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  5. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Al-Mansoori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2. The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2 layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  6. Kinetics of electroluminescence of thin-film emitters based on zinc sulfide at ultralow frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Gurin, N T; Sabitov, O Y

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents the results of investigation into kinetics of luminescence instantaneous luminance of thin-film electroluminescent structures excited by 0.1-2 Hz frequency triangular sing-variable voltage. One detected two regions with time rise of instantaneous luminance and of current (slow and quick ones) to which corresponded various regions at field and charge dependences of instantaneous luminance and at other electrophysical characteristics. On the basis of solution of kinetic equation one derived time dependences of instantaneous luminance and of inner quantum yield. The results are explained by generation of space charges within luminophore layer followed by reduction of the efficient thickness of the layer and by variation of mechanism of excitation of luminescence centers

  7. Structural origin of surface transformations in arsenic sulfide thin films upon UV-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalskiy, Andriy, E-mail: kovalskiya@apsu.edu [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, 601 College St., Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Vlcek, Miroslav [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, nam. Cs. Legii 565, 530 02 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Palka, Karel [Center of Materials and Nanotechnologies, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, nam. Cs. Legii 565, 530 02 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); Buzek, Jan [Department of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemical Technology, University of Pardubice, Studentska 573, 532 10 Pardubice (Czech Republic); York-Winegar, James; Oelgoetz, Justin; Golovchak, Roman [Department of Physics & Astronomy, Austin Peay State University, 601 College St., Clarksville, TN 37044 (United States); Shpotyuk, Oleh [Vlokh Institute of Physical Optics, 23 Dragomanov str., Lviv 79005 (Ukraine); Institute of Physics of Jan Dlugosz University, 13/15 al. Armii Krajowej, Czestochowa PL-42201 (Poland); Jain, Himanshu [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Lehigh University, 5 East Packer Ave., Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    Photostructural transformations within As{sub x}S{sub 100-x} (x = 30, 33, 35, 40) thin films upon exposure to LED light of different wavelengths, in both air and argon environments have been studied by high resolution XPS, Raman spectroscopy and LEIS methods. These complementary results show that light of energies close to the band gap does not modify chemical composition of the surface, but induces simple photopolymerization reactions. Superbandgap UV light, however, significantly increases S/As ratio on the surface due to formation of S-rich layer under both environmental conditions. It is proposed that photovaporization of both oxide and non-oxide cage-like molecules is responsible for the observed effect.

  8. Tin oxide thin films prepared by laser-assisted metal-organic CVD: Structural and gas sensing properties

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lančok, Ján; Santoni, A.; Penza, M.; Loreti, S.; Menicucci, I.; Minarini, C.; Jelínek, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 200, - (2005), s. 1057-1060 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP106/01/D017; GA MŠk(CZ) LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522 Keywords : tin dioxide * laser-assisted MOCVD * XPS * gas sensor Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.646, year: 2005

  9. Chemical Gated Field Effect Transistor by Hybrid Integration of One-Dimensional Silicon Nanowire and Two-Dimensional Tin Oxide Thin Film for Low Power Gas Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin-Woo; Rim, Taiuk; Baek, Chang-Ki; Meyyappan, M

    2015-09-30

    Gas sensors based on metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor with the polysilicon gate replaced by a gas sensitive thin film have been around for over 50 years. These are not suitable for the emerging mobile and wearable sensor platforms due to operating voltages and powers far exceeding the supply capability of batteries. Here we present a novel approach to decouple the chemically sensitive region from the conducting channel for reducing the drive voltage and increasing reliability. This chemically gated field effect transistor uses silicon nanowire for the current conduction channel with a tin oxide film on top of the nanowire serving as the gas sensitive medium. The potential change induced by the molecular adsorption and desorption allows the electrically floating tin oxide film to gate the silicon channel. As the device is designed to be normally off, the power is consumed only during the gas sensing event. This feature is attractive for the battery operated sensor and wearable electronics. In addition, the decoupling of the chemical reaction and the current conduction regions allows the gas sensitive material to be free from electrical stress, thus increasing reliability. The device shows excellent gas sensitivity to the tested analytes relative to conventional metal oxide transistors and resistive sensors.

  10. A layer-by-layer assembled graphene/zinc sulfide/polypyrrole thin-film electrode via electrophoretic deposition for solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookhakian, M., E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Amin, Y.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Baradaran, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Tajabadi, M.T. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Golsheikh, A. Moradi [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Nanotechnology and Catalysis Research Centre, Institute of Postgraduate Studies, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-02-03

    An organic–inorganic photovoltaic electrode consisting of graphene nanosheets, zinc sulfide nanoparticles (ZnS) and polypyrrole nanotubes (PPy) was fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass using layer-by-layer electrophoretic deposition. The morphology and structure of the as-fabricated electrode were confirmed by X-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The photovoltaic properties of the ZnS, ZnS/PPy (ZP) and graphene/ZnS/PPy (GZP) ternary composite films modified on ITO electrodes were investigated for their solar cell performance. Both transient photocurrent and current–voltage curve measurements illustrated that the photocurrent and the power conversion efficiency of the GZP ternary composite film were significantly enhanced compared to the ZnS and ZP films. Based on these results, PPy nanotubes are an excellent sensitizer and hole acceptor, ZnS nanoparticles act as a bridge and graphene nanosheets are an excellent conductive collector and transporter, which means that, altogether, this combination of materials can significantly increase the photovoltaic efficiency. - Highlights: • Zinc sulfide (ZnS)/polypyrrole(PPy)/graphene by electrophoretic deposition • Support of ZnS/PPy composite shows efficient performance of organic–inorganic solar cell. • Current–voltage curve and transient current improved in the presence of graphene.

  11. Microporous SiO2 with huge electric-double-layer capacitance for low-voltage indium tin oxide thin-film transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Aixia; Sun Jia; Jiang Jie; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    Electric-double-layer (EDL) effect is observed in microporous SiO 2 dielectric films deposited at room temperature by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition method. Indium tin oxide thin-film transistors gated by such microporous SiO 2 gate dielectric are fabricated at room temperature, and a low operating voltage of 1.5 V is obtained due to the huge EDL specific capacitance (2.14 μF/cm 2 ). The field-effect electron mobility is estimated to be 118 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . Current on/off ratio and subthreshold gate voltage swing are estimated to be 5x10 6 and 92 mV/decade, respectively. Room-temperature deposited microporous SiO 2 dielectric is promising for low-power field-effect transistors on temperature sensitive substrates.

  12. Preparation and optical characterization of lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate thin films on indium-doped tin oxide-coated glass substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodorov, A.; Gomes, M.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Lanthanum modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) thin films were fabricated on indium-doped tin oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrate by sol-gel method. The structure of the films was characterized with X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The optical properties were investigated in the wavelength range of 220-2400 nm. The sample was modelled as a three layer structure on finite substrate, and optical constants of this system were calculated from the transmission and reflection spectra. The calculated dielectric function was fitted with the Drude model in the case of ITO and a sum of Lorentzian oscillators in the case of PLZT films. For PLZT film the anomalous behaviour of imaginary part of dielectric function was observed below the absorption edge. The possible reasons of that behaviour were discussed

  13. Thin film formation at the air–water interface and on solid substrates of soluble axial substituted cis-bis-decanoate tin phthalocyanine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campos-Terán, José; Garza, Cristina; Beltrán, Hiram I.; Castillo, Rolando

    2012-01-01

    Herein we study thin films of a recent kind of soluble axial substituted cis-bis-decanoate-tin IV phthalocyanine (PcSn10) at the air/water interface, which were compressed isothermally and observed with Brewster Angle Microscopy. The air/water interfacial behavior of the films suggests that there are strong interactions among the PcSn10 molecules, which produces multilayers and 3D self-assemblies that prevent the formation of a Langmuir monolayer. Langmuir–Blodgett deposits of these films on both mica (negatively charged) and mild steel (positively charged) surfaces were developed. Information about the morphology of the film was obtained by using atomic force microscopy. We found structural differences in the PcSn10 thin films deposited on both substrates, suggesting that a combination of π–π, σ–π and Van der Waals interactions are the leading factors for the deposition, and consequently, for the control of supramolecular order. Our findings provide insights in the design of phthalocyanine molecules for the development of highly ordered and reproducible thin films.

  14. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects on tin ...

  15. Correlation of Mn charge state with the electrical resistivity of Mn doped indium tin oxide thin films

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, S. R. Sarath

    2010-09-15

    Correlation of charge state of Mn with the increase in resistivity with Mn concentration is demonstrated in Mn-doped indium tin oxide films. Bonding analysis shows that Mn 2p3/2 core level can be deconvoluted into three components corresponding to Mn2+ and Mn4+ with binding energies 640.8 eV and 642.7 eV, respectively, and a Mn2+ satellite at ∼5.4 eV away from the Mn2+ peak. The presence of the satellite peak unambiguously proves that Mn exists in the +2 charge state. The ratio of concentration of Mn2+ to Mn4+ of ∼4:1 suggests that charge compensation occurs in the n-type films causing the resistivity increase.

  16. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition of indium tin oxide thin films in different gases and organic light emitting device applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Tou, T.Y. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: tytou@mmu.edu.my; Yow, H.K. [Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Cyberjaya, 63100 Selangor (Malaysia); Safran, G. [Research Institute for Technical Physics and Materials Science, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, 1121 Konkoly-Thege ut 29-33, Budapest XII (Hungary)

    2008-04-30

    The microstructures, electrical and optical properties of indium-doped tin oxide (ITO) films, deposited on glass substrates in different background gases by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser, were characterized. The optimal pressure for obtaining the lowest resistivity in ITO thin film is inversely proportional to the molecular weight of the background gases, namely the argon (Ar), oxygen (O{sub 2}), nitrogen (N{sub 2}) and helium (He). While substrate heating to 250 deg. C decreased the ITO resistivity to < 4 x 10{sup -4} {omega} cm, obtaining the optical transmittance of higher than 90% depended mainly on the background gas pressure for O{sub 2} and Ar. Obtaining the lowest ITO resistivity, however, did not beget a high optical transmittance for ITO deposition in N{sub 2} and He. Scanning electron microscope pictures show distinct differences in microstructures due to the background gas: nanostructures when using Ar and N{sub 2} but polycrystalline for using O{sub 2} and He. The ITO surface roughness varied with the deposition distance. The effects on the molecularly doped, single-layer organic light emitting device (OLED) operation and performance were also investigated. Only ITO thin films prepared in O{sub 2} and Ar are suitable for the fabrication OLED with performance comparable to that fabricated on the commercially available, magnetron-sputtered ITO.

  17. Direct imprinting of indium–tin-oxide precursor gel and simultaneous formation of channel and source/drain in thin-film transistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Ken-ichi; Kamiya, Yuusuke; Tokumitsu, Eisuke

    2018-02-01

    We report on a new fabrication process for thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a new structure and a new operation principle. In this process, both the channel and electrode (source/drain) are formed simultaneously, using the same oxide material, using a single nano-rheology printing (n-RP) process, without any conventional lithography process. N-RP is a direct thermal imprint technique and deforms oxide precursor gel. To reduce the source/drain resistance, the material common to the channel and electrode is conductive indium–tin-oxide (ITO). The gate insulator is made of a ferroelectric material, whose high charge density can deplete the channel of the thin ITO film, which realizes the proposed operation principle. First, we have examined the n-RP conditions required for the channel and source/drain patterning, and found that the patterning properties are strongly affected by the cooling rate before separating the mold. Second, we have fabricated the TFTs as proposed and confirmed their TFT operation.

  18. Structural, optical and electrical properties of copper antimony sulfide thin films grown by a citrate-assisted single chemical bath deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loranca-Ramos, F. E.; Diliegros-Godines, C. J.; Silva González, R.; Pal, Mou

    2018-01-01

    Copper antimony sulfide (CAS) has been proposed as low toxicity and earth abundant absorber materials for thin film photovoltaics due to their suitable optical band gap, high absorption coefficient and p-type electrical conductivity. The present work reports the formation of copper antimony sulfide by chemical bath deposition using sodium citrate as a complexing agent. We show that by tuning the annealing condition, one can obtain either chalcostibite or tetrahedrite phase. However, the main challenge was co-deposition of copper and antimony as ternary sulfides from a single chemical bath due to the distinct chemical behavior of these metals. The as-deposited films were subjected to several trials of thermal treatment using different temperatures and time to find the optimized annealing condition. The films were characterized by different techniques including Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), profilometer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), UV-vis spectrophotometer, and Hall Effect measurements. The results show that the formation of chalcostibite and tetrahedrite phases is highly sensitive to annealing conditions. The electrical properties obtained for the chalcostibite films varied as the annealing temperature increases from 280 to 350 °C: hole concentration (n) = 1017-1018 cm-3, resistivity (ρ) = 1.74-2.14 Ωcm and carrier mobility (μ) = 4.7-9.26 cm2/Vseg. While for the tetrahedrite films, the electrical properties were n = 5 × 1019 cm-3, μ = 18.24 cm2/Vseg, and ρ = 5.8 × 10-3 Ωcm. A possible mechanism for the formation of ternary copper antimony sulfide has also been proposed.

  19. Magnetic field and temperature dependent measurements of hall coefficient in thermal evaporated Tin-Doped Cadmium Oxide Thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamadi, O.; Shakir, N.; Mohammed, F.

    2010-01-01

    CdO:Sn thin films are deposited onto glass substrates by thermal evaporation under vacuum. The studied films are polycrystalline and have an NaCl structure. The Hall effect is studied for films with different thickness as substrates are maintained at different temperatures. The temperature dependence of the Hall mobility is also investigated. (authors)

  20. Room-temperature processed tin oxide thin film as effective hole blocking layer for planar perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Hong; Ma, Zhibin; Yang, Guang; Wang, Haoning; Long, Hao; Zhao, Hongyang; Qin, Pingli; Fang, Guojia

    2018-03-01

    Tin oxide (SnO2) film with high mobility and good transmittance has been reported as a promising semiconductor material for high performance perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this study, ultrathin SnO2 film synthesized by radio frequency magnetron sputtering (RFMS) method at room temperature was employed as hole blocking layer for planar PSCs. The room-temperature sputtered SnO2 film not only shows favourable energy band structure but also improves the surface topography of fluorine doped SnO2 (FTO) substrate and perovskite (CH3NH3PbI3) layer. Thus, this SnO2 hole blocking layer can efficiently promote electron transport and suppress carrier recombination. Furthermore, the best efficiency of 13.68% was obtained for planar PSC with SnO2 hole blocking layer prepared at room temperature. This research highlights the room-temperature preparation process of hole blocking layer in PSC and has a certain reference significance for the usage of flexible and low-cost substrates.

  1. Indium-tin-oxide thin film transistor biosensors for label-free detection of avian influenza virus H5N1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Di; Zhuo, Ming [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Zhang, Xiaoai [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Xu, Cheng; Jiang, Jie [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Gao, Fu [State Key Laboratory of Pathogen and Biosecurity, Beijing Institute of Microbiology and Epidemiology, Beijing (China); Wan, Qing, E-mail: wanqing7686@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Qiuhong, E-mail: liqiuhong2004@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Wang, Taihong, E-mail: thwang@hnu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro-Nano Optoelectronic Devices of Ministry of Education, State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-04-22

    Highlights: ► A highly selective label-free biosensor is established based on indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs). ► AI H5N1 virus was successfully detected through shift in threshold voltage and field-effect mobility of ITO TFT. ► The ITO TFT is applied in biosensor for the first time and shows good reusability and stability. ► Fabrication of the platform is simple with low cost, which is suitable for mass commercial production. -- Abstract: As continuous outbreak of avian influenza (AI) has become a threat to human health, economic development and social stability, it is urgently necessary to detect the highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 virus quickly. In this study, we fabricated indium-tin-oxide thin-film transistors (ITO TFTs) on a glass substrate for the detecting of AI H5N1. The ITO TFT is fabricated by a one-shadow-mask process in which a channel layer can be simultaneously self-assembled between ITO source/drain electrodes during magnetron sputtering deposition. Monoclonal anti-H5N1 antibodies specific for AI H5N1 virus were covalently immobilized on the ITO channel by (3-glycidoxypropyl)trimethoxysilane. The introduction of target AI H5N1 virus affected the electronic properties of the ITO TFT, which caused a change in the resultant threshold voltage (V{sub T}) and field-effect mobility. The changes of I{sub D}–V{sub G} curves were consistent with an n-type field effect transistor behavior affected by nearby negatively charged AI H5N1 viruses. The transistor based sensor demonstrated high selectivity and stability for AI H5N1 virus sensing. The sensor showed linear response to AI H5N1 in the concentrations range from 5 × 10{sup −9} g mL{sup −1} to 5 × 10{sup −6} g mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.8 × 10{sup −10} g mL{sup −1}. Moreover, the ITO TFT biosensors can be repeatedly used through the washing processes. With its excellent electric properties and the potential for mass commercial production, ITO TFTs

  2. Electrochemical deposition of Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} thin film semiconductors on tin oxide substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, M.; Kashyout, A.B.; Osman, M.; El-Gamal, M. [Alexandria University (Egypt). Institute of Graduate Studies and Research

    2005-10-01

    Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} semiconductor thin films were prepared by electrodeposition technique form aqueous solutions. The deposition mechanism was investigated by cyclic voltammetry technique. Crystal structure, morphology and composition of as deposited and annealed Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} thin films grown on SnO{sub 2}/glass substrates were determined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. X-ray diffraction data indicated the formation of Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} as the predominant phase for both as-deposited and annealed films. The compositions of the deposited films were controlled by the bath temperature, deposition potential and Zn/P ratio in the solution. The dark current-voltage measurements of SnO{sub 2}/Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2}/C devices indicated a rectifying behavior and a reverse saturation current density of 1.7 x 10{sup -7} A/cm{sup 2}, which is in good accordance with that obtained from films prepared using vacuum technique. Also, the capacitance-voltage measurements showed that the number of interface states and the built in potential are in the order of 5 x 10{sup -9} cm{sup -3} and 0.85 V, respectively. These preliminary results for Zn{sub 3}P{sub 2} thin films reveal that, this semiconductor material can be used for solar cell applications. (author)

  3. Influence of Oxygen Concentration on the Performance of Ultra-Thin RF Magnetron Sputter Deposited Indium Tin Oxide Films as a Top Electrode for Photovoltaic Devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jephias Gwamuri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity for substantial efficiency enhancements of thin film hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H solar photovoltaic (PV cells using plasmonic absorbers requires ultra-thin transparent conducting oxide top electrodes with low resistivity and high transmittances in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. Fabricating ultra-thin indium tin oxide (ITO films (sub-50 nm using conventional methods has presented a number of challenges; however, a novel method involving chemical shaving of thicker (greater than 80 nm RF sputter deposited high-quality ITO films has been demonstrated. This study investigates the effect of oxygen concentration on the etch rates of RF sputter deposited ITO films to provide a detailed understanding of the interaction of all critical experimental parameters to help create even thinner layers to allow for more finely tune plasmonic resonances. ITO films were deposited on silicon substrates with a 98-nm, thermally grown oxide using RF magnetron sputtering with oxygen concentrations of 0, 0.4 and 1.0 sccm and annealed at 300 °C air ambient. Then the films were etched using a combination of water and hydrochloric and nitric acids for 1, 3, 5 and 8 min at room temperature. In-between each etching process cycle, the films were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, 4-point probe (electrical conductivity, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry. All the films were polycrystalline in nature and highly oriented along the (222 reflection. Ultra-thin ITO films with record low resistivity values (as low as 5.83 × 10−4 Ω·cm were obtained and high optical transparency is exhibited in the 300–1000 nm wavelength region for all the ITO films. The etch rate, preferred crystal lattice growth plane, d-spacing and lattice distortion were also observed to be highly dependent on the nature of growth environment for RF sputter deposited ITO films. The structural, electrical

  4. Novel nanostructure zinc zirconate, zinc oxide or zirconium oxide pastes coated on fluorine doped tin oxide thin film as photoelectrochemical working electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossein Habibi, Mohammad; Askari, Elham; Habibi, Mehdi; Zendehdel, Mahmoud

    2013-03-01

    Zinc zirconate (ZnZrO(3)) (ZZ), zinc oxide (ZnO) (ZO) and zirconium oxide (ZrO(2)) (ZRO) nano-particles were synthesized by simple sol-gel method. ZZ, ZO and ZRO nano-particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectrum (DRS). Nanoporous ZZ, ZO and ZRO thin films were prepared doctor blade technique on the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and used as working electrodes in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Their photovoltaic behavior were compared with standard using D35 dye and an electrolyte containing [Co(bpy)(3)](PF(6))(2), [Co(pby)(3)](PF(6))(3), LiClO(4), and 4-tert-butylpyridine (TBP). The properties of DSSC have been studied by measuring their short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc), open-circuit voltage (VOC) and fill factor (ff). The application of ZnZrO(3) as working electrode produces a significant improvement in the fill factor (ff) of the dye-sensitized solar cells (ff=56%) compared to ZnO working electrode (ff=40%) under the same condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Electrochemical Characterization of Nanoporous Nickel Oxide Thin Films Spray-Deposited onto Indium-Doped Tin Oxide for Solar Conversion Scopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Awais

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonstoichiometric nickel oxide (NiOx has been deposited as thin film utilizing indium-doped tin oxide as transparent and electrically conductive substrate. Spray deposition of a suspension of NiOx nanoparticles in alcoholic medium allowed the preparation of uniform NiOx coatings. Sintering of the coatings was conducted at temperatures below 500°C for few minutes. This scalable procedure allowed the attainment of NiOx films with mesoporous morphology and reticulated structure. The electrochemical characterization showed that NiOx electrodes possess large surface area (about 1000 times larger than their geometrical area. Due to the openness of the NiOx morphology, the underlying conductive substrate can be contacted by the electrolyte and undergo redox processes within the potential range in which NiOx is electroactive. This requires careful control of the conditions of polarization in order to prevent the simultaneous occurrence of reduction/oxidation processes in both components of the multilayered electrode. The combination of the open structure with optical transparency and elevated electroactivity in organic electrolytes motivated us to analyze the potential of the spray-deposited NiOx films as semiconducting cathodes of dye-sensitized solar cells of p-type when erythrosine B was the sensitizer.

  6. Flexible Zinc-Tin Oxide Thin Film Transistors Operating at 1 kV for Integrated Switching of Dielectric Elastomer Actuators Arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marette, Alexis; Poulin, Alexandre; Besse, Nadine; Rosset, Samuel; Briand, Danick; Shea, Herbert

    2017-08-01

    Flexible high-voltage thin-film transistors (HVTFTs) operating at more than 1 kV are integrated with compliant dielectric elastomer actuators (DEA) to create a flexible array of 16 independent actuators. To allow for high-voltage operation, the HVTFT implements a zinc-tin oxide channel, a thick dielectric stack, and an offset gate. At a source-drain bias of 1 kV, the HVTFT has a 20 µA on-current at a gate voltage bias of 30 V. Their electrical characteristics enable the switching of DEAs which require drive voltages of over 1 kV, making control of an array simpler in comparison to the use of external high-voltage switching. These HVTFTs are integrated in a flexible haptic display consisting of a 4 × 4 matrix of DEAs and HVTFTs. Using a single 1.4 kV supply, each DEA is independently switched by its associated HVTFT, requiring only a 30 V gate voltage for full DEA deflection. The 4 × 4 display operates well even when bent to a 5 mm radius of curvature. By enabling DEA switching at low voltages, flexible metal-oxide HVTFTs enable complex flexible systems with dozens to hundreds of independent DEAs for applications in haptics, Braille displays, and soft robotics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Dense CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated glass by high-rate microreactor-assisted solution deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, Yu-Wei, E-mail: suyuweiwayne@gmail.com [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ramprasad, Sudhir [Energy Processes and Materials Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Corvallis, OR 9730 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Han, Seung-Yeol; Wang, Wei [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Ryu, Si-Ok [School of Display and Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, 214-1 Dae-dong, Gyeonsan, Gyeongbuk 712-749 (Korea, Republic of); Palo, Daniel R. [Barr Engineering Co., Hibbing, MN 55747 (United States); Paul, Brian K. [School of Mechanical, Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States); Chang, Chih-hung [School of Chemical, Biological and Environmental Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97330 (United States); Microproducts Breakthrough Institute and Oregon Process Innovation Center, Corvallis, Oregon 97330 (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition is demonstrated for the deposition of CdS thin films on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) coated glass. The continuous flow system consists of a microscale T-junction micromixer with the co-axial water circulation heat exchanger to control the reacting chemical flux and optimize the heterogeneous surface reaction. Dense, high quality nanocrystallite CdS thin films were deposited at an average rate of 25.2 nm/min, which is significantly higher than the reported growth rate from typical batch chemical bath deposition process. Focused-ion-beam was used for transmission electron microscopy specimen preparation to characterize the interfacial microstructure of CdS and FTO layers. The band gap was determined at 2.44 eV by UV–vis absorption spectroscopy. X-ray photon spectroscopy shows the binding energies of Cd 3d{sub 3/2}, Cd 3d{sub 5/2}, S 2P{sub 3/2} and S 2P{sub 1/2} at 411.7 eV, 404.8 eV, 162.1 eV and 163.4 eV, respectively. - Highlights: ► CdS films deposited using continuous microreactor-assisted solution deposition (MASD) ► Dense nanocrystallite CdS films can be reached at a rate of 25.2 [nm/min]. ► MASD can approach higher film growth rate than conventional chemical bath deposition.

  8. Onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures on indium tin oxide thin films for clean ablation using a repetitively pulsed picosecond laser at low fluence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, N.; Dasgupta, P.; O’Connor, G. M.

    2018-04-01

    The onset and evolution of laser induced periodic surface structures (LIPSS) is of key importance to obtain clean ablated features on indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films at low fluences. The evolution of subwavelength periodic nanostructures on a 175 nm thick ITO film, using 10 ps laser pulses at a wavelength of 1032 nm, operating at 400 kHz, is investigated. Initially nanoblisters are observed when a single pulse is applied below the damage threshold fluence (0.45 J cm‑2) the size and distribution of nanoblisters are found to depend on fluence. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations support the hypothesis that conductive nanoblisters can enhance the local intensity of the applied electromagnetic field. The LIPSS are observed to evolve from regions where the electric field enhancement has occurred; LIPSS has a perpendicular orientation relative to the laser polarization for a small number (pulses. The LIPSS periodicity depends on nanoblister size and distribution; a periodicity down to 100 nm is observed at the lower fluence periphery of the Gaussian irradiated area where nanoblisters are smallest and more closely arranged. Upon irradiation with successive (>5) pulses, the orientation of the periodic structures appears to rotate and evolve to become aligned in parallel with the laser polarization at approximately the same periodicity. These orientation effects are not observed at higher fluence—due to the absence of the nanoblister-like structures; this apparent rotation is interpreted to be due to stress-induced fragmentation of the LIPSS structure. The application of subsequent pulses leads to clean ablation. LIPSS are further modified into features of a shorter period when laser scanning is used. Results provide evidence that the formation of conductive nanoblisters leads to the enhancement of the applied electromagnetic field and thereby can be used to precisely control laser ablation on ITO thin films.

  9. Influence of the substrate temperature on the structural, optical, and electrical properties of tin selenide thin films deposited by thermal evaporation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Sharma, V.; Padha, N. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Dr. Ambedkar Road, University of Jammu, Jammu-180 006, Jammu and Kashmir State (India); Shah, N.M.; Desai, M.S.; Panchal, C.J. [Applied Physics Department, Faculty of Technology and Engineering, M. S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390 001, Gujarat State (India); Protsenko, I.Yu. [Appl. Physics Dept., Faculty of Electronic and Information Technologies, Sumy State University (Ukraine)

    2010-01-15

    Thin films of tin selenide (SnSe) were deposited on sodalime glass substrates, which were held at different temperatures in the range of 350-550 K, from the pulverized compound material using thermal evaporation method. The effect of substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the structural, morphological, optical, and electrical properties of the films were investigated using x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission measurements, and Hall-effect characterization techniques. The temperature dependence of the resistance of the films was also studied in the temperature range of 80-330 K. The XRD spectra and the SEM image analyses suggest that the polycrystalline thin films having uniform distribution of grains along the (111) diffraction plane was obtained at all T{sub s}. With the increase of T{sub s} the intensity of the diffraction peaks increased and well-resolved peaks at 550 K, substrate temperature, were obtained. The analysis of the data of the optical transmission spectra suggests that the films had energy band gap in the range of 1.38-1.18 eV. Hall-effect measurements revealed the resistivity of films in the range 112-20 {omega} cm for films deposited at different T{sub s}. The activation energy for films deposited at different T{sub s} was in the range of 0.14 eV-0.28 eV as derived from the analysis of the data of low-temperature resistivity measurements. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Properties of transparent conducting tin monoxide(SnO) thin films prepared by chemical spray pyrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eqbal, Ebitha; Anila, E. I.

    2018-01-01

    Transparent conducting Stannous Oxide (SnO) thin films were obtained by chemical spray pyrolysis method on glass substrates for 0.1 M and 0.25 M concentration of precursor solutions. Their structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) study shows polycrystalline nature of the films with orthorhombic crystal structure. The morphological analysis was carried out by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and elemental analysis was done by Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The band gap of 0.1 M and 0.25 M thin film samples were found to be 3.58eV with 82% transmission and 3 eV with 30% transmission respectively. The film thickness, refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) of the films were obtained by ellipsometric technique. Hall effect measurements reveal p-type conduction with mobility 7.8 cm2V-1s-1 and 15 cm2V-1s-1 and conductivity of 8.5 S/cm and 17.1 S/cm respectively for the 0.1 M and 0.25 M samples. Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum of the samples show a broad emission which covers near band edge (NBE) as well as deep level emission (DLE) in the region 380 nm-620 nm.

  11. Deposition of very thin uniform indium sulfide layers over metallic nano-rods by the Spray-Ion Layer Gas Reaction method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genduso, G. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Inguanta, R.; Sunseri, C.; Piazza, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Gestionale, Informatica, Meccanica, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90100 Palermo (Italy); Kelch, C.; Sáez-Araoz, R. [Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Zykov, A. [Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); present address: Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Newtonstr. 15,12489 Berlin (Germany); Fischer, Ch.-H., E-mail: fischer@helmholtz-berlin.de [Institut for Heterogeneous Material Systems, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); second affiliation: Free University Berlin, Chemistry Institute, Takustr. 3, D-14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2013-12-02

    Very thin and uniform layers of indium sulfide were deposited on nickel nano-rods using the sequential and cyclical Spray-ILGAR® (Ion Layer Gas Reaction) technique. Substrates were fabricated by electrodeposition of Ni within the pores of polycarbonate membranes and subsequent chemical dissolution of the template. With respect to the depositions on flat substrates, experimental conditions were modified and optimized for the present geometry. Our results show that nano-rods up to a length of 10 μm were covered uniformly along their full length and with an almost constant film growth rate, thus allowing a good control of the coating thickness; the effect of the deposition temperature was also investigated. However, for high numbers of process steps, i.e. thickness, the films became uneven and crusty, especially at higher temperature, mainly owing to the simultaneous side reaction of the metallic Ni forming nickel sulfide at the surface of the rods. However, such a problem occurs only in the case of reactive nano-rod materials, such as less noble metals. It could be strongly reduced by doubling the spray step duration and thereby sealing the metallic surface before the process step of the sulfurization. Thus, quite smooth, about 100 nm thick coatings could be obtained. - Highlights: • Ni nano-rod substrates were grown within polycarbonate membranes. • We can coat nano-rods uniformly by the Ion Layer Gas Reaction method. • As a model we deposited up to about 100 nm In{sub 2}S{sub 3} on Ni nanorods (250 nm × 10 μm). • Element mapping at insulated rods showed homogenous coating over the full length. • Parameter optimization reduced effectively the Ni sulfide formation.

  12. Influence of texture coefficient on surface morphology and sensing properties of W-doped nanocrystalline tin oxide thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manjeet; Kumar, Akshay; Abhyankar, A C

    2015-02-18

    For the first time, a new facile approach based on simple and inexpensive chemical spray pyrolysis (CSP) technique is used to deposit Tungsten (W) doped nanocrystalline SnO2 thin films. The textural, optical, structural and sensing properties are investigated by GAXRD, UV spectroscopy, FESEM, AFM, and home-built sensing setup. The gas sensing results indicate that, as compared to pure SnO2, 1 wt % W-doping improves sensitivity along with better response (roughness values of 3.82 eV and 3.01 nm, respectively. Reduction in texture coefficient along highly dense (110) planes with concomitant increase along loosely packed (200) planes is found to have prominent effect on gas sensing properties of W-doped films.

  13. Nanostructured metal sulfides for energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rui, Xianhong; Tan, Huiteng; Yan, Qingyu

    2014-09-07

    Advanced electrodes with a high energy density at high power are urgently needed for high-performance energy storage devices, including lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs), to fulfil the requirements of future electrochemical power sources for applications such as in hybrid electric/plug-in-hybrid (HEV/PHEV) vehicles. Metal sulfides with unique physical and chemical properties, as well as high specific capacity/capacitance, which are typically multiple times higher than that of the carbon/graphite-based materials, are currently studied as promising electrode materials. However, the implementation of these sulfide electrodes in practical applications is hindered by their inferior rate performance and cycling stability. Nanostructures offering the advantages of high surface-to-volume ratios, favourable transport properties, and high freedom for the volume change upon ion insertion/extraction and other reactions, present an opportunity to build next-generation LIBs and SCs. Thus, the development of novel concepts in material research to achieve new nanostructures paves the way for improved electrochemical performance. Herein, we summarize recent advances in nanostructured metal sulfides, such as iron sulfides, copper sulfides, cobalt sulfides, nickel sulfides, manganese sulfides, molybdenum sulfides, tin sulfides, with zero-, one-, two-, and three-dimensional morphologies for LIB and SC applications. In addition, the recently emerged concept of incorporating conductive matrices, especially graphene, with metal sulfide nanomaterials will also be highlighted. Finally, some remarks are made on the challenges and perspectives for the future development of metal sulfide-based LIB and SC devices.

  14. The Effect of Tin Addition to ZnO Nanosheet Thin Films for Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Yuliarto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The requirements of green environmental and public health monitoring have become stricter along with greater world attention for global warming. The most common pollutants in the environment that need tightened control are volatile organic compounds (VOC. Compared to other kinds of sensors, semiconductor sensors have certain advantages, including high sensitivity, fast response, simplicity, high reliability and low cost. In this work, ZnO and Sn-doped ZnO nanostructure materials with high surface nanosheet areas were synthesized using chemical bath deposition. The X-ray diffraction patterns could be indexed according to crystallinity mainly to a hexagonal wurzite ZnO structure. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM results showed that in all samples, the thin films after the addition of Sn consisted of many kinds of microstructure patterns on a nanoscale, with various sheet shapes. The sensor performance characterizations showed that VOC levels as low as 3 vol% of isopropyl alcohol (IPA and ethanol could be detected at sensitivities of 83.86% and 85.57%, respectively. The highest sensitivity of all sensors was found at an Sn doping of 1.4 at%. This high sensor sensitivity is a result of the high surface area and Sn doping, which in turn produced a higher absorption of the targeted gas.

  15. Oxidation behaviors of poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) on indium tin oxide surfaces without and with additional TiO2 thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Han; Kim, Young Dok

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) layers spin-coated on bare and TiO 2 -coated indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces with two different TiO 2 film thicknesses were exposed to visible light and humid atmosphere, and the oxidation behaviors these layers were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. S atoms in P3HT were oxidized to sulfoxide without ring opening of P3HT under our experimental conditions. When the mean thickness of TiO 2 on ITO was ⁓19 nm, oxidation of the S atoms on this substrate was more pronounced than on bare ITO and ITO covered with thinner TiO 2 films (mean thickness: ⁓7 nm). Studies using photoluminescence (PL) suggest that electron–hole pairs created in P3HT on bare ITO can be transferred into the ITO and most likely recombine efficiently in ITO by electron–electron scattering. Relatively thin TiO 2 films on ITO do not show much change in PL with respect to the case of bare ITO; however, when a thicker TiO 2 film is deposited between ITO and P3HT, charge transfer from optically excited P3HT to ITO seems to be suppressed. Therefore, the probability for charge transfer from optically excited P3HT to O 2 and H 2 O, forming strong oxidizing agents such as math formula and OH radicals, can be increased in the presence of a thicker TiO 2 film on ITO

  16. Fabrication and characterization of cadmium telluride, lead telluride and cadmium telluride/lead telluride superlattice thin films on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Fei

    The objective of this work was to fabricate nanolayer films CdTe, PbTe and CdTe/PbTe superlattice structures on Indium Tin Oxide (ITO)/glass substrates. The purpose of this work is aimed at improving the efficiency of solar cells by enhanced optical absorption of light. The optical bandgap properties of the CdTe/PbTe superlattice structures were engineered to be employed as an absorber layer of a solar cell in order to optimize the absorption of the solar spectrum. Electrochemical Atomic Layer Deposition (EC-ALD) has been used to fabricate CdTe, PbTe and three different superlattice structures of CdTe/PbTe thin films on ITO-coated glass: (CdTe20/PbTe20)3, (CdTe10/PbTe20)3 and (CdTe5/PbTe20)3. These are intended to serve as the absorber layer of a solar cell. In our experiments, Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) and current monitoring helped us obtain appropriate deposition potentials. The grain sizes of the superlattices were studied by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The chemical composition of the films was determined by Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). Optical absorption measurements were made in order to determine the band gap energy of the deposited films. We successfully shifted the bandgaps of CdTe/PbTe superlattices on ITO from 1.9 eV to 3.2 eV by changing the proportion of CdTe in the CdTe/PbTe films.

  17. Investigations of RF magnetron sputtered CZTS absorber layer thin films prepared using sulfur induced binary targets without sulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaji, G.; Balasundaraprabhu, R.; Prasanna, S.; Prabavathy, N.; McIlroy, D. N.; Kannan, M. D.

    2018-01-01

    Thin films of copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS), a quaternary semiconductor, was deposited onto well-cleaned soda lime glass substrates using binary sulfur based sputtering targets - copper sulfide (CuS), zinc sulfide (ZnS), and tin sulfide (SnS) by RF Magnetron Sputtering at 300 °C. The stacking order of ZnS/CuS/SnS was used to deposit CZTS thin films. The composition of CZTS thin films were confirmed using X- Ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and the atomic ratio of the individual elements were quantitatively estimated. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies were used to understand the CZTS phase formation and the presence of CZTS kesterite phase along direction was detected with the secondary phase of SnS and ZnS. XRD results were validated with Raman results were the presence of CZTS and SnS was corroborated. The optical properties of CZTS thin films were studied using UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer where the optical band gap was 1.46 eV and as well as other optical parameters such as interference and optical band gap were ascertained and the results are discussed.

  18. Control of the optical and crystalline properties of TiO2 in visible-light active TiO2/TiN bi-layer thin-film stacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, Wilson; Fakhouri, Houssam; Pulpytel, Jerome; Arefi-Khonsari, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Multi-layered thin films of TiO 2 and TiN were created by rf reactive magnetron sputtering, and their crystalline, optical, and photoelectrochemical properties were measured. The overall composition of the films (TiO 2 -to-TiN ratio) was kept constant with the height of each film. The number of layers and thickness of each layer was controlled to create bi-layer thin films that were composed of: 9 bi-layers, 18 bi-layers, 27 bi-layers, 36 bi-layers, and 45 bi-layers. XRD patterns were observed for each film after annealing to measure the grain size and composition of anatase and rutile as a function of temperature. It was found that the phase-transition temperature is able to be substantially controlled (between 550 deg. C and 850 deg. C) for the anatase to rutile transition by varying the number of layers/thickness of each layer. In addition, bi-layer stacking significantly affected the film's optical properties by lowering the bandgap into the visible-light region, and also showed up to three times the improvement in photoelectrochemical performance under uv and visible irradiation. Overall, bi-layer stacking of TiO 2 /TiN films has shown a unique and highly desirable control over several important physical characteristics that can be beneficial for many applications, such as high-temperature sensors and optoelectronic devices.

  19. Elucidating doping driven microstructure evolution and optical properties of lead sulfide thin films grown from a chemical bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Bhaskar Chandra; Bector, Keerti; Laha, Ranjit

    2018-03-01

    Doping driven remarkable microstructural evolution of PbS thin films grown by a single-step chemical bath deposition process at 60 °C is reported. The undoped films were discontinuous with octahedral-shaped crystallites after 30 min of deposition, whereas Cu doping led to a distinctly different surface microstructure characterized by densely packed elongated crystallites. A mechanism, based on the time sequence study of microstructural evolution of the films, and detailed XRD and Raman measurements, has been proposed to explain the contrasting microstructure of the doped films. The incorporation of Cu forms an interface layer, which is devoid of Pb. The excess Cu ions in this interface layer at the initial stages of film growth strongly interact and selectively stabilize the charged {111} faces containing either Pb or S compared to the uncharged {100} faces that contain both Pb and S. This interaction interferes with the natural growth habit resulting in the observed surface features of the doped films. Concurrently, the Cu-doping potentially changed the optical properties of the films: A significant widening of the bandgap from 1.52 eV to 1.74 eV for increase in Cu concentration from 0 to 20% was observed, making it a highly potential absorber layer in thin film solar cells.

  20. Growth of manganese sulfide (α-MnS) thin films by thermal vacuum evaporation: Structural, morphological and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hannachi, Amira, E-mail: amira.hannachi88@gmail.com [MALTA-Consolider Team, Institut de Ciència dels Materials – Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, LR99ES15, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Segura, Alfredo [MALTA-Consolider Team, Institut de Ciència dels Materials – Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, University of Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Maghraoui-Meherzi, Hager [Université de Tunis El-Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique et Electrochimie, LR99ES15, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia)

    2016-09-15

    MnS thin films have been successfully prepared by thermal evaporation method at different substrate temperatures using different masses of MnS powder. The prepared films were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) and UV–visible spectrophotometry. The XRD measurements show that the films crystallized in the pure α-MnS for substrate temperatures above 100 °C. The optical bandgap of thin films is found to be in the range of 3.2–3.3 eV. A factorial experimental design was used for determining the influence of the two experimental parameters on the films growth. - Highlights: • α-MnS films were deposited on glass and quartz substrates using the thermal evaporation technique. • The effect of substrate temperature on the properties of the MnS films has been studied. • The factorial design was used to determine the most influence parameters.

  1. Fabrication of high crystalline SnS and SnS2 thin films, and their switching device characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeongsu; Lee, Jeongsu; Shin, Seokyoon; Lee, Juhyun; Lee, Seungjin; Park, Hyunwoo; Kwon, Sejin; Lee, Namgue; Bang, Minwook; Lee, Seung-Beck; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2018-05-01

    Representative tin sulfide compounds, tin monosulfide (SnS) and tin disulfide (SnS2) are strong candidates for future nanoelectronic devices, based on non-toxicity, low cost, unique structures and optoelectronic properties. However, it is insufficient for synthesizing of tin sulfide thin films using vapor phase deposition method which is capable of fabricating reproducible device and securing high quality films, and their device characteristics. In this study, we obtained highly crystalline SnS thin films by atomic layer deposition and obtained highly crystalline SnS2 thin films by phase transition of the SnS thin films. The SnS thin film was transformed into SnS2 thin film by annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in H2S atmosphere. This phase transition was confirmed by x-ray diffractometer and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and we studied the cause of the phase transition. We then compared the film characteristics of these two tin sulfide thin films and their switching device characteristics. SnS and SnS2 thin films had optical bandgaps of 1.35 and 2.70 eV, and absorption coefficients of about 105 and 104 cm‑1 in the visible region, respectively. In addition, SnS and SnS2 thin films exhibited p-type and n-type semiconductor characteristics. In the images of high resolution-transmission electron microscopy, SnS and SnS2 directly showed a highly crystalline orthorhombic and hexagonal layered structure. The field effect transistors of SnS and SnS2 thin films exhibited on–off drain current ratios of 8.8 and 2.1 × 103 and mobilities of 0.21 and 0.014 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, respectively. This difference in switching device characteristics mainly depends on the carrier concentration because it contributes to off-state conductance and mobility. The major carrier concentrations of the SnS and SnS2 thin films were 6.0 × 1016 and 8.7 × 1013 cm‑3, respectively, in this experiment.

  2. Electrical and optical properties of thin indium tin oxide films produced by pulsed laser ablation in oxygen or rare gas atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup, B.; Schou, Jørgen; Nordskov, A.

    1999-01-01

    Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate temperatu......Films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been produced in different background gases by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The Films deposited in rare gas atmospheres on room temperature substrates were metallic, electrically conductive, but had poor transmission of visible light. For substrate...... temperatures at 200 degrees C, the specific resistivity was reduced and the transmission of visible light enhanced for all background gases. Films produced in oxygen turned out to be superior to films deposited in other gases at the same temperature. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Growth and characterization of tin sulphide thin films by chemical bath deposition using ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid as the complexing agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayasree, Y.; Chalapathi, U.; Sundara Raja, V., E-mail: sundararajav@rediffmail.com

    2013-06-30

    Tin sulphide (SnS), a promising, non-toxic and low-cost solar cell absorber layer, is grown using Chemical Bath Deposition technique at room temperature. The effects of concentration of ethlene diamine tetra-acetic acid, the complexing agent in the starting solution, as well as thioacetamide, the source of sulphur, on the growth of tin sulphide films are investigated to obtain single phase SnS films. The films deposited under optimized conditions are found to be near-stoichiometric, single phase SnS with orthorhombic structure. The lattice parameters are found to be a = 0.428 nm, b = 1.141 nm and c = 0.396 nm. The direct optical band gap of these films is found to be 1.55 eV. - Highlights: • Growth of SnS, a potential solar cell absorber layer, by chemical bath deposition • Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as complexing agent for SnS film growth • Effect of EDTA concentration on the growth and properties of tin sulphide films • Effect of thioacetamide concentration on the growth and properties of films • X-ray diffraction and Raman Spectra studies for phase analysis.

  4. SnS and SnS2 thin films deposited using a spin-coating technique from intramolecularly coordinated organotin sulfides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řečica, T.; Střižík, L.; Dostál, L.; Bouška, M.; Vlček, Milan; Beneš, L.; Wágner, T.; Jambor, R.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 3 (2015), s. 176-180 ISSN 0268-2605 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : organotin sulfide * single - source precursor * spin - coating process Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.452, year: 2015

  5. Structural and optical characteristics of SnS thin film prepared by SILAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukherjee A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SnS thin films were grown on glass substrates by a simple route named successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR method. The films were prepared using tin chloride as tin (Sn source and ammonium sulfide as sulphur (S source. The structural, optical and morphological study was done using XRD, FESEM, FT-IR and UV-Vis spectrophotometer. XRD measurement confirmed the presence of orthorhombic phase. Particle size estimated from XRD was about 45 nm which fitted well with the FESEM measurement. The value of band gap was about 1.63 eV indicating that SnS can be used as an important material for thin film solar cells. The surface morphology showed a smooth, homogenous film over the substrate. Characteristic stretching vibration mode of SnS was observed in the absorption band of FT-IR spectrum. The electrical activation energy was about 0.306 eV.

  6. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2-Ar sputtering gas mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; de Andrés, A.; Prieto, C.

    2015-07-01

    The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H2 in the gas mixture of H2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H2/(Ar + H2) ratio in the range of 0.3-0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, ΦTC = T10/RS, than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices.

  7. Thin-film encapsulation of inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells by atomic layer deposition with improvement on stability and efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kan; Fan, Huanhuan; Huang, Chaofan; Hong, Xia; Fang, Xu; Li, Haifeng; Liu, Xu; Li, Chengshuai; Huang, Zhuoyin; Zhen, Hongyu

    2012-12-01

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) technology is employed to encapsulate inverted indium-tin-oxide-free polymer solar cells (IFSCs) with a structure of Al/TiOx/P3HT:PC61BM/PEDOT:PSS. The encapsulation layer, Al2O3, is deposited by ALD on the light incident surface. The thickness of the Al2O3 layer can thus be optimized through optical simulation to minimize light loss of IFSCs. Based on optical calculation, we encapsulated the device (85 nm thick active layer) with a 30 nm thick Al2O3 layer. The resulting ALD encapsulated IFSCs show much better device performance and higher stability than the glass-encapsulated ones.

  8. Scalability and stability of very thin roll-to-roll processed large area indium-tin-oxide free polymer solar cell modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angmo, Dechan; Gevorgyan, Suren; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2013-01-01

    Polymer solar cell modules were prepared directly on thin flexible barrier polyethylene terephthalate foil. The performance of the modules was found to be scalable from a single cell with an area of 6 cm2 to modules with a total area of up to 186 cm2. The substrate thickness was also explored and...

  9. Infrared spectroscopy of solid hydrogen sulfide and deuterium sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathe, Kristin; Holt, Jennifer S; Oxley, Susan P; Pursell, Christopher J

    2006-09-21

    The infrared spectra of solid hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and deuterium sulfide (D2S) were collected at very low temperatures. Vapor deposition of thin films at the lowest temperature of 10 K produced amorphous solids while deposition at 70 K yielded the crystalline phase III. Infrared interference fringe patterns produced by the films during deposition were used to determine the film thickness. Careful measurement of the integrated absorbance peaks, along with the film thickness, allowed determination of the integrated band intensities. This report represents the first complete presentation of the infrared spectra of the amorphous solids. Observations of peaks near 3.915 and 1.982 microm (ca. 2554 and 5045 cm(-1), respectively) may be helpful in the conclusive identification of solid hydrogen sulfide on the surface of Io, a moon of Jupiter.

  10. Study on Optoelectronic Characteristics of Sn-Doped ZnO Thin Films on Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Indium Tin Oxide/Poly(ethylene terephthalate) Flexible Substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Hwa; Chen, Mi; Chiou, Chin-Lung; Liu, Xing-Yang; Weng, Lin-Song; Koo, Horng-Show

    2013-05-01

    Transparent conductive oxides of Sn-doped ZnO (SZO) films with doping weight ratios of 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 wt % have been deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO)/poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and PET flexible substrates at room temperature by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Resultant films of SZO on ITO/PET and PET flexible substrates are amorphous in phase. It is found that undoped and SZO films on ITO/PET is anomalously better than films on PET in optical transmittance in the range of longer wavelength, possibly due to the refraction index difference between SZO, ITO films, and PET substrates, Burstein-Moss effect and optical interference of SZO/ITO bilayer films and substrate materials, and furthermore resulting in the decrement of reflection. The lowest electrical resistivity (ρ) of 4.0 wt % SZO films on flexible substrates of PET and ITO/PET are 3.8×10-2 and ρ= 1.2×10-2 Ω.cm, respectively. It is found that electrical and optical properties of the resultant films are greatly dependent on various amount of Sn element doping effect and substrate material characteristics.

  11. Mineralogy of the Santa Fe Tin deposit, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Alfonso, Pura; Canet, Carles; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Elvys Trujillo, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Santa Fe is a Sn-Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit located in the Oruro district, Central Andean Tin Belt, Bolivia. Mineralization occurs in veins and disseminations. It is hosted in Silurian shales and greywackes. The sedimentary sequence is folded and unconformably covered by a volcanic complex of the Morococala Formation, mainly constituted by tuffs of Miocene age. A wide Nº40 shear zone and two systems of fracture are developed. A Nº40 fracture system, dipping 60ºW, which hosts Sn and Zn minerals, and other in the same direction but dipping 75ºE, which is related to Zn-Pb-Ag veins. The mineralization is associated to intrusive felsic magmatism. Although there are not intrusive rocks in Santa Fe, a dyke and the felsic San Pablo stock occur at a distance of about 10 km. In the present work we describe the geology and mineralogy of the Santa Fe deposit. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses were used to characterize the minerals. Veins are filled with quartz and an ore mineral assemblage of cassiterite, sulfides and sulfosalts. Cassiterite constitutes the earliest formed mineralization. Preliminar microprobe analyses indicate that it is nearly pure, with negligible contents in Nb and Ta. Rutile occurs as a late phase associated with a late generation of cassiterite. It forms thin neddle-like crystals. In addition, Sn is also present in sulfides as stannite, stannoidite and kësterite. Other sulfides are pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, marchasite and argentite. Bismuthinite and berndite are found nin trace amounts. Sulfosalts include tetrahedrite, myarhyrite, boulangerite, jamesonite, franckeite, zinckenite, cilindrite and andorite. Associated with the mineralization, several phosphate minerals are found filling cavities and small fractures. The most abundant are monacite (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4 and plumbogummite (PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O)). Crandallite CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O) and vivianite (Fe3+(PO4)2•8(H2O)) also

  12. Interfacial Properties of CZTS Thin Film Solar Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Muhunthan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu-deficient CZTS (copper zinc tin sulfide thin films were grown on soda lime as well as molybdenum coated soda lime glass by reactive cosputtering. Polycrystalline CZTS film with kesterite structure was produced by annealing it at 500°C in Ar atmosphere. These films were characterized for compositional, structural, surface morphological, optical, and transport properties using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, glancing incidence X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurement. A CZTS solar cell device having conversion efficiency of ~0.11% has been made by depositing CdS, ZnO, ITO, and Al layers over the CZTS thin film deposited on Mo coated soda lime glass. The series resistance of the device was very high. The interfacial properties of device were characterized by cross-sectional SEM and cross-sectional HRTEM.

  13. Sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1985-11-26

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  14. Technology for complex processing of tin-rare earth raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumarev, V.M.; Okunev, A.I.; Krasikov, S.A.; Fedorov, V.D.; Safonov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The tested technology for processing of tin-rare earth raw materials with complicated composition, including the stage of reducing-sulfidizing melting of raw materials with tin and rare earth elements (gallium, thulium) transition in fumes, with rare refractory metals (tantalum, niobium, tungsten) transition in iron-base or matter-base alloy and transition of radionuclides in dump slag is offered. 4 fig., 5 refs

  15. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  16. Complex sulfides and thiosalts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehlls, A.

    1987-01-01

    Different types of the structures of complex sulfides, thiosalts of alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth, transition and actinide metals are considered in the review of the papers published before 1980 and devoted to the crystal structure of complex sulfides

  17. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  18. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different pre- paration conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of un-.

  19. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated ...

  20. Comparison of several analytical methods for the determination of tin in geochemical samples as a function of tin speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J.S.; Evans, J.R.; Jackson, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate and precise determinations of tin in geological materials are needed for fundamental studies of tin geochemistry, and for tin prospecting purposes. Achieving the required accuracy is difficult because of the different matrices in which Sn can occur (i.e. sulfides, silicates and cassiterite), and because of the variability of literature values for Sn concentrations in geochemical reference materials. We have evaluated three methods for the analysis of samples for Sn concentration: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HGA-AAS) following iodide extraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Two of these methods (HGA-AAS and ICP-OES) required sample decomposition either by acid digestion or fusion, while the third (EDXRF) was performed directly on the powdered sample. Analytical details of all three methods, their potential errors, and the steps necessary to correct these errors were investigated. Results showed that similar accuracy was achieved from all methods for unmineralized samples, which contain no known Sn-bearing phase. For mineralized samples, which contain Sn-bearing minerals, either cassiterite or stannous sulfides, only EDXRF and fusion ICP-OES methods provided acceptable accuracy. This summary of our study provides information which helps to assure correct interpretation of data bases for underlying geochemical processes, regardless of method of data collection and its inherent limitations. ?? 1989.

  1. Room Temperature Detection of Benzene Vapours by Tin Oxide Nano Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. PANCHAL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide with nano clusters were deposited using Chemical Vapour Transport technique. The annealed films were used as sensor to detect benzene vapours at room temperature. The response was studied for the concentration range 300-1000 ppm. A comparative study of the response of the nano clustered films to benzene vapours in this range with the response of thin films of Indium tin oxide and tin oxide deposited by the physical vapour deposition method was taken up.

  2. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association be...... and diseases based on ontology classes, and displays a scatter plot with two proposed new bibliometric statistics: Importance and Novelty. Availability and Implementation: http://www.newdrugtargets.org. Contact: cbologa@salud.unm.edu....

  3. Tin and tin-resistant microrganisms in Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallas, L.E.; Cooney, J.J.

    1981-02-01

    Sediment and water samples from nine stations in Chesapeake Bay were examined for tin content and for microbial populations resistant to inorganic tin (75 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ as SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O) or to the organotin compound dimethyltin chloride (15 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ ad (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/). Tin concentrations in sediments were higher (3.0 to 7.9 mg kg/sup -1/) at sites impacted by human activity than at open water sites (0.8 to 0.9 mg kg/sup -1/), and they were very high (239.6 mg kg/sup -1/) in Baltimore Harbor, which is impacted by both shipping and heavy industry. Inorganic tin (75 mg Sn liter/sup -1/) in agar medium significantly decreased viable counts, but its toxicity was markedly reduced in liquid medium; it was not toxic in medium solidified with silica gel. Addition of SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O to these media produced a tin precipitate which was not involved in the metal's toxicity. The data suggest that a soluble tin-agar complex which is toxic to cells is formed in agar medium. Thus, the toxicity of tin depends more on the chemical species than on the metal concentration in the medium. All sites in Chesapeake Bay contained organisms resistant to tin. The microbial flora was more sensitive to (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/ than to SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O. The elevated level of tin-resistant microorganisms in some areas not containing unusually high tin concentrations suggests that factors other than tin may participate in the selection for a tin-tolerant microbial flora.

  4. Electrochemical synthesis of nanoplatelets-like CuS0.2Se0.8 thin film for photoluminescence applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Copper sulfide-selenide (CuS0.2Se0.8 thin films were deposited on FTO coated glass substrate (fluorine doped tin oxide and stainless steel substrates using electrodeposition technique. Deposited thin films were characterized using different characterization techniques viz. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, UV-Vis spectroscopy, photoluminescence spectroscopy and surface wettability. XRD study showed polycrystalline nature with cubic phase of the films. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the surface area of the substrate was covered by the nanoplatelets structure of a thickness of 140 to 150 nm and optical study showed that the direct band gap was ~1.90 eV. Surface wettability showed hydrophobic nature of the CuS0.2Se0.8 thin films.

  5. EUV resists based on tin-oxo clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardineau, Brian; Del Re, Ryan; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Marnell, Miles; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Sarma, Chandra; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the photolysis of tin clusters of the type [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2 using extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) light, and developed these clusters into novel high-resolution photoresists. A thin film of [(BuSn)12O14(OH)6][p-toluenesulfonate]2 (1) was prepared by spin coating a solution of (1) in 2-butanone onto a silicon wafer. Exposure to EUV light caused the compound (1) to be converted into a substance that was markedly less soluble in aqueous isopropanol. To optimize the EUV lithographic performance of resists using tin-oxo clusters, and to gain insight into the mechanism of their photochemical reactions, we prepared several compounds based on [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2. The sensitivity of tin-oxide films to EUV light were studied as a function of variations in the structure of the counter-anions (X, primarily carboxylates) and organic ligands bound to tin (R). Correlations were sought between the EUV sensitivity of these complexes vs. the strength of the carbon-carboxylate bonds in the counteranions and vs. the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. No correlation was observed between the strength of the carboncarboxylate bonds in the counter-anions (X) and the EUV photosensitivity. However, the EUV sensitivity of the tinoxide films appears to be well-correlated with the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. We hypothesize this correlation indicates a mechanism of carbon-tin bond homolysis during exposure. Using these tin clusters, 18-nm lines were printed showcasing the high resolution capabilities of these materials as photoresists for EUV lithography.

  6. Drivers of sulfide intrusion in Zostera muelleri in a moderately affected estuary in south-eastern Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmer, Marianne; Bennett, William W.; Ferguson, Angus J. P.

    2017-01-01

    at stations dominated by seagrass detritus, probably because of lower sulfide pressure from the less labile nature of organic matter. Porewater diffusive gradients in thin-film (DGT) sulfide samplers showed efficient sulfide reoxidation in the rhizosphere, with high sulfur incorporation in the plants from...

  7. Three of a Kind: Genetically Similar Tsukamurella Phages TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Zoe A; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J; Petrovski, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Three Tsukamurella phages, TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4, were isolated from activated sludge treatment plants located in Victoria, Australia, using conventional enrichment techniques. Illumina and 454 whole-genome sequencing of these Siphoviridae viruses revealed that they had similar genome sequences, ranging in size between 76,268 bp and 76,964 bp. All three phages shared 74% nucleotide sequence identity to the previously described Gordonia phage GTE7. Genome sequencing suggested that phage TIN3 had suffered a mutation in one of its lysis genes compared to the sequence of phage TIN4, to which it is genetically very similar. Mass spectroscopy data showed the unusual presence of a virion structural gene in the DNA replication module of phage TIN4, disrupting the characteristic modular genome architecture of Siphoviridae phages. All three phages appeared highly virulent on strains of Tsukamurella inchonensis and Tsukamurella paurometabola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Mocvd of Tin Oxide for Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Peter Stanislaw

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Thin films of a wide variety of materials can be produced using an assortment of physical and chemical techniques. Such techniques are reviewed and compared, with particular reference to the deposition of tin oxide films. In the present study, MOCVD (Metal organic chemical vapour deposition) was used to grow thin films of tin oxide from dibutyltin diacetate precursor on a variety of substrates. A series of reactor prototypes were developed in accordance with specific requirements of reproducibility and process control. The evolution of the designs leading to the final working system is detailed. The theory of MOCVD is given with particular reference to the reactor used in this project. The effects of various deposition parameters on tin oxide film growth rates were investigated, and the results are discussed with reference to the deposition kinetics in the system. Films were characterised by optical interferometry, optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and electrical measurements. The films were generally uniform, conducting and polycrystalline, and were comprised of very small grains, resulting in a high density. A specific application of metal oxide materials is in solid state gas sensors, which are available in various forms and operate according to different mechanisms. These are compared and a detailed account is given on the theory of operation of surface conductivity modulated devices. The application of such devices based on tin oxide in thin film form was investigated in the present work. The prepared sensor samples were comprised of very small grains, resulting in a high density. The observation that preferred (310) orientation occured in thicker films, can be attributed to dendritic growth. The sensors generally showed response to numerous reducing gas ambients, although there was evidence of a degree of selectivity against methane

  9. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  10. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  11. Cadmium zinc sulfide by solution growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen S.

    1992-05-12

    A process for depositing thin layers of a II-VI compound cadmium zinc sulfide (CdZnS) by an aqueous solution growth technique with quality suitable for high efficiency photovoltaic or other devices which can benefit from the band edge shift resulting from the inclusion of Zn in the sulfide. A first solution comprising CdCl.sub.2 2.5H.sub.2 O, NH.sub.4 Cl, NH.sub.4 OH and ZnCl.sub.2, and a second solution comprising thiourea ((NH.sub.2).sub.2 CS) are combined and placed in a deposition cell, along with a substrate to form a thin i.e. 10 nm film of CdZnS on the substrate. This process can be sequentially repeated with to achieve deposition of independent multiple layers having different Zn concentrations.

  12. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  13. Extraction and Separation of Tin from Tin-Bearing Secondary Resources: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zijian; Zhang, Yuanbo; Liu, Bingbing; Lu, Manman; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    The proven global tin reserves were reported to be approximately 4.7 million tons (Mts) in 2016, and among these resources, only approximately 2.2 Mts can be recovered economically. The original tin deposits will be exhausted in several years, therefore, tin-bearing secondary resources, such as tin alloy, tin anode slime, e-wastes, tin slag and tin-bearing tailings, will become the primary source from which tin can be extracted. Many investigations have been conducted on the recovery of tin from these tin-bearing materials. However, the separation and recovery approaches of tin vary significantly, since the content and phase compositions of tin are totally different in these secondary resources. This paper reviews these methods of extracting and separating tin from different kinds of tin-bearing secondary resources.

  14. Atomic layer deposition of TiN films : growth and electrical behavior down to sub-nanometer scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.

    2013-01-01

    During the last several decades, titanium nitride (TiN) has gained much interest because of its low resistivity, chemical inertness and compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Thin films of TiN are commonly used as diffusion barrier and gate material for CMOS

  15. Thermal atomic layer deposition and oxidation of TiN monitored by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Thin TiN films have many important applications in Integrated Circuit (IC) technology. In spite of its chemical inertness, it is reported that TiN can be oxidized when exposed to oxidants (O2, H2O, etc.). To avoid an undesired oxidation of the metal-nitride layers, a study on this process is

  16. Tin recovery from tin slag using electrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Nur, Adrian; Budiman, Annata Wahyu; Lerian, Metty; Paramita, Fransisca A.

    2018-02-01

    The process in industry, including in mining industry, would surely give negative effect such as waste polluting to the environment. Some of waste could be potentially reutilized to be a commodity with the higher economic value. Tin slag is one of them. The aim of this research was to recover the tin contained in tin slag. Before coming to the electrolysis, tin slag must be treated by dissolution. The grinded tin slag was dissolved into HCl solution to form a slurry. During dissolution, the slurry was agitated and heated, and finally filtered. The filtrate obtained was then electrolyzed. During the process of electrolysis, solid material precipitated on the used cathode. The precipitated solid was then separated and dried. The solid was then analyzed using XRD, XRF and SEM. The XRD analysis showed that the longest time of dissolution and electrolysis the highest the purity obtained in the product. The SEM analysis showed that the longest time of electrolysis the smallest tin particle obtained. Optimum time achieved in this research was 2 hours for the recovering time and 3 hours for the electrolysis time, with 9% tin recovered.

  17. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  19. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Margolin, Len G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  20. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  1. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  2. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    stannosilicates have been investigated: Sn-BEA, Sn-MFI, Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. When comparing the properties of tin sites in the structures, substantial differences are observed. Sn-beta displays the highest Lewis acid strength, as measured by probe molecule studies using infrared spectroscopy, which gives......The selective conversion of biomass-derived substrates is one of the major challenges facing the chemical industry. Recently, stannosilicates have been employed as highly active and selective Lewis acid catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. In the present work, four different...... it a significantly higher activity at low temperatures than the other structures investigated. Furthermore, the increased acid strength translates into large differences in selectivity between the catalysts, thus demonstrating the influence of the structure on the active site, and pointing the way forward...

  3. Antitumor Allium Sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohara, Toshihiro; Fujiwara, Yukio; El-Aasr, Mona; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Masateru; Nakano, Daisuke; Kinjo, Junei

    2017-01-01

    We examined the sulfides in onion (Allium cepa L.), Welsh onion (A. fistulosum L.), and garlic (A. sativum L.), and obtained three new thiolane-type sulfides (onionins A 1 -A 3 ) from onion; two new thiabicyclic-type sulfides (welsonins A 1 , A 2 ), together with onionins A 1 -A 3 , from Welsh onion; and six new acyclic-type sulfides (garlicnins L-1-L-4, E, and F), ten new thiolane-type sulfides (garlicnins A, B 1 -B 4 , C 1 -C 3 , K 1 , and K 2 ), and three new atypical cyclic-type sulfides (garlicnins G, I, and J) from garlic. Acetone extracts showed the potential of these sulfides in inhibiting the polarization of M2 activated macrophages that are capable of suppressing tumor-cell proliferation. The effect of the thiolane-type sulfide of a major component, onionin A 1 , on tumor progression and metastasis in both osteosarcoma and ovarian cancer-bearing mouse models was then examined. Tumor proliferation was depressed, and tumor metastasis was controlled by regulating macrophage activation. These results showed that onionin A 1 is an effective agent for controlling tumors in both in vitro and in vivo models, and that the antitumor effects observed in vivo are likely caused by reversing the antitumor immune system. Activation of the antitumor immune system by onionin A 1 might be an effective adjuvant therapy for patients with osteosarcoma, ovarian cancer and other malignant tumors. Based on these findings, pharmacological investigations will be conducted in the future to develop natural and healthy foods and anti-cancer agents that can prevent or combat disease.

  4. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L., E-mail: wlg@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  6. TDPAC characterization of tin oxides using 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.S.; Desimoni, J.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with a general study of the evolution of tin-oxygen thin films, we report here on the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta substitutionally replacing tin in the isolated phases SnO and SnO 2 . For this purpose, pure SnO pressed powder and a thin SnO 2 film were implanted with 181 Hf. In both cases, unique quadrupole frequencies were found after thermal annealing treatments. The results indicate that the following hyperfine parameters: ν Q =740.6(2.1) MHz, η=0.07(2) and ν Q =971.5(1.9) MHz, η=0.72(1) characterize 181 Ta and SnO and SnO 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors. 85 tron irradiation dose. Under low irradiation dose, <300 kGy, the sensitivity of SnO2 thin film shifts slightly, from 300–. 850 kGy, the sensitivity increases greatly, at 850 kGy and it reaches 24⋅8. Then the sensitivity reaches maximum and remains stable while ...

  8. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  9. Rotating autoclave hydrogenation test with flue dust containing tin from Kayser Smelter A. G. , Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl

    1942-10-01

    A content breakdown of the dust was given with large traces of Pb and Zn and lesser traces of Cu, Sb, As. Comparison tests were run in hope that these metals would be a usable substitute for tin oxalate, which was rapidly becoming scarce. Since Scholven was looking for a nitrogen-free chlorine compound to replace ammonium chloride, tests were run on NH/sub 4/Cl as well as sulfur monochloride. The dust offered a more favorable decomposition of solid carbon. If ammonium chloride were added to the dust, differences between it and tin oxalate in asphalt reduction, splitting and gasification were not measurable. Sulfur monochloride seemed to work better with the dust than with tin oxalate in asphalt reduction, probably because of the sulfides formed from other metals in the dust. Were the dust used in a sulfide state instead of an oxide, it was stated that 0.2% would give the same results as 0.06% tin oxalate. Temperatures were given in milli-volts (MV or mV). As the test instruments and test materials differed, so apparently did the MV readings in relation to /sup 0/C. 1 table.

  10. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  11. Formaldehyde assisted reduction achieved p-type orthorhombic tin oxide film prepared by an inexpensive chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Chen, Zequn; Nie, Sha; Yu, Zhigen; Yan, Shenghui; Gong, Hao; Tang, Chunhua; Bai, Xue; Xu, Jianmei; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qing

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of tin oxide thin film of orthorhombic phase has been succeeded under the high pressures from 1.5 GPa to 50 GPa. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of p-type tin oxide thin film at atmosphere pressure of 0.1 MPa, by a chemical method employing formaldehyde (HCHO) during the annealing process. By using formaldehyde to form formaldehyde-argon mixed reducing ambiance in the chemical sol-gel process, limited oxidation is reached and p-type tin oxide films of orthorhombic phase under ambient pressure are eventually achieved under optimized experimental conditions. Specifically, we have developed a p-type tin oxide thin film with an optimal Hall mobility of 8.6 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. Besides, our results reveal that a Sn rich environment can lead to a higher hole mobility experimentally.

  12. Room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline pure tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Seal, S

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (6-8 nm) tin oxide (SnO2) thin film (100-150 nm) sensor is synthesized via sol-gel dip-coating process. The thin film is characterized using focused ion-beam microscopy (FIB) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques to determine the film thickness and the nanocrystallite size. The utilization of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film to sense a typical reducing gas such as hydrogen, at room temperature, is demonstrated in this investigation. The grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 is analyzed, which shows very low activation energy (9 kJ/mol) for the grain growth within the nanocrystallite size range of 3-20 nm. This low activation energy value is correlated, via excess oxygen-ion vacancy concentration, with the room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of the nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film sensor.

  13. Chemical spray pyrolysis of β-In2S3 thin films deposited at different temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sall, Thierno; Marí Soucase, Bernabé; Mollar, Miguel; Hartitti, Bouchaib; Fahoume, Mounir

    2015-01-01

    In2S3 thin films were deposited onto indium tin oxide-coated glass substrates by chemical spray pyrolysis while keeping the substrates at different temperatures. The structures of the sprayed In2S3 thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XFD). The quality of the thin films was determined by Raman spectroscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy were used to explore the surface morphology and topography of the thin films, respectively. The optical band gap was determined based on optical transmission measurements. The indium sulfide phase exhibited a preferential orientation in the (0, 0, 12) crystallographic direction according to the XRD analysis. The phonon vibration modes determined by Raman spectroscopy also confirmed the presence of the In2S3 phase in our samples. According to SEM, the surface morphologies of the films were free of defects. The optical band gap energy varied from 2.82 eV to 2.95 eV.

  14. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  15. Indium-tin oxide thin films deposited at room temperature on glass and PET substrates: Optical and electrical properties variation with the H2–Ar sputtering gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez-Fraga, L.; Jiménez-Villacorta, F.; Sánchez-Marcos, J.; Andrés, A. de; Prieto, C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • ITO deposition on glass and PET at room temperature by using H. • High transparency and low resistance is obtained by tuning the H. • The figure of merit for ITO films on PET becomes maximal for thickness near 100 nm. - Abstract: The optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited at room temperature on glass and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates were investigated. A clear evolution of optical transparency and sheet resistance with the content of H 2 in the gas mixture of H 2 and Ar during magnetron sputtering deposition is observed. An optimized performance of the transparent conductive properties ITO films on PET was achieved for samples prepared using H 2 /(Ar + H 2 ) ratio in the range of 0.3–0.6%. Moreover, flexible ITO-PET samples show a better transparent conductive figure of merit, Φ TC = T 10 /R S , than their glass counterparts. These results provide valuable insight into the room temperature fabrication and development of transparent conductive ITO-based flexible devices

  16. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  17. Titanocene sulfide chemistry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 314, MAY 2016 (2016), s. 83-102 ISSN 0010-8545 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP207/12/2368 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : titanocene sulfide chemistry * photolysis * titanocene hydrosulfides Ti-(SH)n Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 13.324, year: 2016

  18. Sulfidation kinetics of silver nanoparticles reacted with metal sulfides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Basilius; Voegelin, Andreas; Sinnet, Brian; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Kaegi, Ralf

    2014-05-06

    Recent studies have documented that the sulfidation of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NP), possibly released to the environment from consumer products, occurs in anoxic zones of urban wastewater systems and that sulfidized Ag-NP exhibit dramatically reduced toxic effects. However, whether Ag-NP sulfidation also occurs under oxic conditions in the absence of bisulfide has not been addressed, yet. In this study we, therefore, investigated whether metal sulfides that are more resistant toward oxidation than free sulfide, could enable the sulfidation of Ag-NP under oxic conditions. We reacted citrate-stabilized Ag-NP of different sizes (10-100 nm) with freshly precipitated and crystalline CuS and ZnS in oxygenated aqueous suspensions at pH 7.5. The extent of Ag-NP sulfidation was derived from the increase in dissolved Cu(2+) or Zn(2+) over time and linked with results from X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of selected samples. The sulfidation of Ag-NP followed pseudo first-order kinetics, with rate coefficients increasing with decreasing Ag-NP diameter and increasing metal sulfide concentration and depending on the type (CuS and ZnS) and crystallinity of the reacting metal sulfide. Results from analytical electron microscopy revealed the formation of complex sulfidation patterns that seemed to follow preexisting subgrain boundaries in the pristine Ag-NP. The kinetics of Ag-NP sulfidation observed in this study in combination with reported ZnS and CuS concentrations and predicted Ag-NP concentrations in wastewater and urban surface waters indicate that even under oxic conditions and in the absence of free sulfide, Ag-NP can be transformed into Ag2S within a few hours to days by reaction with metal sulfides.

  19. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  20. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  1. Application of SnO2 nanoparticle as sulfide gas sensor using UV/VIS/NIR spectrophotometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliasih, N.; Buchari; Noviandri, I.

    2017-04-01

    Sulfide gas monitoring is required to protect organisms from its toxicity. Nanoparticles of metal oxides have characteristics that applicable as sensors for controlling environmental pollution like sulfide gas. Thin film of SnO2 as one part of the sulfide gas sensor was synthesized with the chemical liquid deposition method, and characterized by UV/VIS/NIR-Spectrophotometer before and after gas application, also using FTIR, SEM and XRD. Characterization studies showed nanoparticle sizes from the diameters range of 38-71 nm. Application of SnO2 thin film to sulfide gas detected by UV/VIS/NIR Spectrophotometer with diffuse reflectance showed chemical reaction by the shifting of maximum % R peak at wavelength of 1428 cm. The benefit of measurement of sulfide gas using this SnO2 nano thin film is that it could be done at the room temperature.

  2. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  3. Suicide with hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Ralph Newton; Carver, H Wayne; Catanese, Charles; Gilson, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    This presentation will address the recent rise of suicide deaths resulting from the asphyxiation by hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas.Hydrogen sulfide poisoning has been an infrequently encountered cause of death in medical examiner practice. Most H2S deaths that have been reported occurred in association with industrial exposure.More recently, H2S has been seen in the commission of suicide, particularly in Japan. Scattered reports of this phenomenon have also appeared in the United States.We have recently observed 2 intentional asphyxial deaths in association with H2S. In both cases, the decedents committed suicide in their automobiles. They generated H2S by combining a sulfide-containing tree spray with toilet bowl cleaner (with an active ingredient of hydrogen chloride acid). Both death scenes prompted hazardous materials team responses because of notes attached to the victims' car windows indicating the presence of toxic gas. Autopsy findings included discoloration of lividity and an accentuation of the gray matter of the brain. Toxicology testing confirmed H2S exposure with the demonstration of high levels of thiosulfate in blood.In summary, suicide with H2S appears to be increasing in the United States.

  4. Surface properties of W-implanted TiN coatings post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bin; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao; Liu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PVD TiN coatings are implanted with W ions at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . • Low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) is adopted on W-implanted TiN coatings. • W content and depth in the W-implanted coatings reduce after LTIS. • LTIS cannot well improve friction and wear of W-implanted TiN under dry sliding. - Abstract: TiN coatings were implanted with W ions by metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 , and then they were post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) at 160 °C. The W-implanted TiN samples were characterized before and after post-treatment of LTIS, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Nano Indenter System. Friction and wear properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding in air. After post-treatment of LTIS, XRD results showed no diffraction peaks of tungsten sulfides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings; W-implanted TiN coatings were sputtered by the sulfur plasma with about 36% reducing of W depth. Further, the nano-hardness decreased mainly due to the amount decreasing of Ti 2 N and the formation of more metal oxides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings after LTIS. As a result, LTIS treatment could not well improve tribological properties of W-implanted TiN coatings.

  5. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  6. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  7. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Dezhao, Liu; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    oxidizing bacteria but several fungal families including Trichocomaceae. A positive correlation was found between the presence of mold and sulfide uptake. However there have been no reports on fungi metabolizing hydrogen sulfide. We hypothesize that the mold increases the air exposed surface, enabling...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  8. Sulfide oxidation in a biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus Lunde; Liu, Dezhao; Hansen, Michael Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    oxidizing bacteria but several fungal families including Trichocomaceae. A positive correlation was found between the presence of mold and sulfide uptake. However there have been no reports on fungi metabolizing hydrogen sulfide. We hypothesize that the mold increases the air exposed surface, enabling...... higher hydrogen sulfide uptake followed by oxidation catalyzed by iron-containing enzymes such as cytochrome c oxidase in a process uncoupled from energy conservation....

  9. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  10. Design, synthesis, thin film deposition and characterization of new indium tin oxide anode functionalization/hole transport organic materials and their application to high performance organic light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinglan

    The primary goals of this dissertation were to understand the physical and chemical aspects of organic light-emitting diode (OLED) fundamentals, develop new materials as well as device structures, and enhance OLED electroluminescent (EL) response. Accordingly, this dissertation analyzes the relative effects of indium tin oxide (ITO) anode-hole transporting layer (HTL) contact vs. the intrinsic HTL material properties on OLED EL response. Two siloxane-based HTL materials, 4,4'-bis[(4″ -trichlorosilylpropyl-1″-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB-Si2) and 4,4'-bis[(p-trichlorosilylpropylphenyl)phenylamino]biphenyl (TPD-Si2) have thereby been designed, synthesized and covalently bound to ITO surface. They afford a 250% increase in luminance and ˜50% reduction in turn-on voltage vs. comparable 4,4'-bis(1-naphthylphenylamino)biphenyl (NPB) HTL-based devices. These results suggest new strategies for developing OLED HTL structures, with focus on the anode-HTL contact. Furthermore, archetypical OLED device structures have been refined by simultaneously incorporating the TPD-Si2 layer and a hole- and exciton-blocking/electron transport layer (2,9-dimethyl-4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) in tris(8-hydroxyquinolato)aluminum(III) and tetrakis(2-methyl-8-hydroxyquinolinato)borate-based OLEDs. The refined device structures lead to high performance OLEDs such as green-emitting OLEDs with maximum luminance (Lmax) ˜ 85,000 cd/m2, power and forward external quantum efficiencies (eta p and etaext) as high as 15.2 lm/W and 4.4 +/- 0.5%, respectively, and blue-emitting OLEDs with Lmax 30,000 cd/m 2, and ˜5.0 lm/W and 1.6 +/- 0.2% etap and eta ext, respectively. The high performance is attributed to synergistically enhanced hole/electron injection and recombination efficiency. In addition, molecule-scale structure effects at ITO anode-HTL interfaces have been systematically probed via a self-assembly approach. A series of silyltriarylamine precursors differing in aryl group and

  11. Thermal and mechanical testings of TiC and TiN coating materials with Mo substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomay, Y.; Koizumi, H.; Ishihara, H.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal and Mechanical characteristics of TiC and TiN coating materials with Mo substrates are reported. The coating method applied is chemical vapor deposition. In the case of TiC coating, thin TiN layers were coated before TiC coating to avoid formation of molybdenum carbide during TiC coating. thermal testing by electron beam showed that both the TiC-TiN and TiN coating layers survived without observable erosion till the substrates were melted

  12. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  13. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  14. Degradation process in organic thin film devices fabricated using ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    hexylthiophene); organic semiconductors; conducting polymers; degradation. ... The stability of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene 2,5-diyl) (P3HT) thin films sandwiched between indium tin oxide (ITO) and aluminium (Al) electrodes have ...

  15. Optical and electrical properties of nickel xanthate thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Nickel xanthate thin film; organometallic thin film; chemical bath deposition. Abstract. Nickel xanthate thin films (NXTF) were successfully deposited by chemical bath deposition, on to amorphous glass substrates, as well as on - and -silicon, indium tin oxide and poly(methyl methacrylate). The structure of the ...

  16. Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion DAU Defense Acquisition University DI...below 2.0% PCB Printed Circuit Board synonymous with PWB PWB Printed Wiring Board synonymous with PCB PCTC Simulated power cycling thermal cycling ...DoD focused tin whisker risk assessments and whisker growth mechanisms (long term testing, corrosion/oxidation in humidity, and thermal cycling

  17. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  18. Mineral resource of the month: tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Tin was one of the earliest-known metals. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. Bronze, a copper-tin alloy that can be sharpened and is hard enough to retain a cutting edge, was used during the Bronze Age in construction tools as well as weapons for hunting and war. The geographical separation between tin-producing and tin-consuming nations greatly influenced the patterns of early trade routes. Historians think that as early as 1500 B.C., Phoenicians traveled by sea to the Cornwall district of England to obtain tin. The pure metal was not used unalloyed until about 600 B.C.

  19. Lead Sulfide Cathode for Quantum Dot Solar Cells: Electrosynthesis and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Le, Nghiem; Nguyen, Hoang Thai; Le, Hai Viet; Nguyen, Thoa Thi Phuong

    2017-01-01

    Deposition of lead sulfide (PbS) nanocrystalline thin films onto conducting fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass has been performed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 1.5 mM solution of lead nitrate and sodium thiosulfate at 100 mV s-1 scan rate in the potential range of -1.0 V to 0.0 V versus saturated calomel electrode. X-ray diffraction analysis and scanning electron microscopy revealed formation of cubic PbS crystals with size of 100 nm to 150 nm after 50 cycles. High electrocatalytic activity of the synthesized PbS film for the S2-/S n 2- redox couple, used as a mediator for quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs), was demonstrated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and CV measurements. The prepared PbS/FTO was used as a counterelectrode to fabricate PbS-QDSCs with a photoanode consisting of CdS/CdSe quantum dots adsorbed on mesoporous TiO2 film and a polysulfide solution electrolyte. The performance of the PbS-QDSC was compared with a QDSC with a platinum counterelectrode (Pt-QDSC). It was found that, using the same fabrication conditions, the performance of the PbS-QDSC was better than that of the Pt-QDSC. At 1 sun (100 mW cm-2) simulated light, average energy conversion efficiency of 2.14%, short-circuit current of 9.22 mA cm-2, open-circuit potential of 0.50 V, and fill factor of 0.47 were achieved by the fabricated PbS-QDSC.

  20. Characterization of tin phosphate coatings by CEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Ujihira, Yusuke; Takai, Osamu; Kojima, Ryuji

    1992-01-01

    The structure and chemical state of tin in converted tin phosphate coatings, obtained by a treatment of Zn and Mn phosphate in SnCl 2 solution, were characterized by CEMS. Converted Sn(II) phosphate and adsorbed SnO 2 species were main products in the ∝1/3 top layers of Mn and Zn phosphate coatings, and metallic tin was occasionally recognized in deeper layers. Tin phosphate layers, coated directly on a steel substrate by RF sputtering of Ar ions, were composed of two kinds of Sn(IV) species. (orig.)

  1. Comparative studies of spray pyrolysis deposited copper sulfide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical measurements showed that all these materials have a relatively high absorption coefficient (∼5 ×. 104–2·3 × 105 cm−1) in the visible ... The deposition of co- pper sulfide thin films was carried out with two Cu to S molar ratios of 1:3 = 0·33 and 1:2·28 = 0·43 at a substrate tem- perature of 285. ◦. C on glass substrate ...

  2. The Influence of Pseudomonas fluorescens on Corrosion Products of Archaeological Tin-Bronze Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiara, G.; Grande, C.; Ferrando, S.; Piccardo, P.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, tin-bronze analogues of archaeological objects were investigated in the presence of an aerobic Pseudomonas fluorescens strain in a solution, containing chlorides, sulfates, carbonates and nitrates according to a previous archaeological characterization. Classical fixation protocols were employed in order to verify the attachment capacity of such bacteria. In addition, classical metallurgical analytical techniques were used to detect the effect of bacteria on the formation of uncommon corrosion products in such an environment. Results indicate quite a good attachment capacity of the bacteria to the metallic surface and the formation of the uncommon corrosion products sulfates and sulfides is probably connected to the bacterial metabolism.

  3. Jig protects transistors from heat while tinning leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, A. J.; Willis, G. A.

    1966-01-01

    In tinning transistor leads, an aluminum jig is used to dip the leads into the molten tin. The jigs mass shunts excess heat given off by the molten tin before it reaches and damages the transistor body.

  4. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  5. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    Sulfide intrusion in seagrasses represents a global threat to seagrasses. In contrast seegrasses grow in hostile sediments, where they are constantly exposed to sulfide intrusion. Little is known about the strategies to survive sulfide intrusion, if there are detoxification mechanisms and sulfur...... indicating a possible role of sulfide in the sulfur nutrition beside the detoxification function. Our results suggest different adaptations of Z. marina to reduced sediments and sulfide intrusion ranging from bacterial and chemical reoxidation of sulfide to sulfate to incorporation of sulfide into organic...

  6. Prevention of sulfide oxidation in sulfide-rich waste rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyström, Elsa; Alakangas, Lena

    2015-04-01

    The ability to reduce sulfide oxidation in waste rock after mine closure is a widely researched area, but to reduce and/or inhibit the oxidation during operation is less common. Sulfide-rich (ca 30 % sulfur) waste rock, partially oxidized, was leached during unsaturated laboratory condition. Trace elements such as As and Sb were relatively high in the waste rock while other sulfide-associated elements such as Cu, Pb and Zn were low compared to common sulfide-rich waste rock. Leaching of unsaturated waste rock lowered the pH, from around six down to two, resulting in continuously increasing element concentrations during the leaching period of 272 days. The concentrations of As (65 mg/L), Cu (6.9 mg/L), Sb (1.2 mg/L), Zn (149 mg/L) and S (43 g/L) were strongly elevated at the end of the leaching period. Different alkaline industrial residues such as slag, lime kiln dust and cement kiln dust were added as solid or as liquid to the waste rock in an attempt to inhibit sulfide oxidation through neo-formed phases on sulfide surfaces in order to decrease the mobility of metals and metalloids over longer time scale. This will result in a lower cost and efforts of measures after mine closure. Results from the experiments will be presented.

  7. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  8. Apparatus for use in sulfide chemiluminescence detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurlin, S.R.; Yeung, E.S.

    1987-01-06

    A method is described for chemiluminescently determining a sulfide which is either hydrogen sulfide or methyl mercaptan by reacting the sulfide with chlorine dioxide at low pressure and under conditions which allow a longer reaction time in emission of a single photon for every two sulfide containing species, and thereafter, chemiluminescently detecting and determining the sulfide. The invention also relates not only to the detection method, but the novel chemical reaction and a specifically designed chemiluminescence detection cell for the reaction. 4 figs.

  9. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  10. One-step fabrication of copper sulfide nanoparticles decorated on graphene sheets as highly stable and efficient counter electrode for CdS-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessein, Amr; Wang, Feiju; Masai, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Kazunari; Abd El-Moneim, Ahmed

    2016-11-01

    Quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are thin-film photovoltaics and highly promising as next-generation solar cells owing to their high theoretical efficiency, easy fabrication process, and low production cost. However, the practical photoconversion efficiencies (PCEs) of QDSSCs are still far below the theoretically estimated value owing to the lack of an applicable design of the materials and electrodes. In this work, we developed a highly stable and efficient counter electrode (CE) from copper sulfide nanocrystals and reduced graphene oxide (Cu x S@RGO) for QDSSC applications. The Cu x S@RGO electrocatalyst was successfully prepared by a facile one-pot hydrothermal method, then directly applied to a fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO)-coated glass substrate by the simple drop-casting technique. Owing to the synergistic effect between Cu x S nanocrystals and conductive RGO sheets, the Cu x S@RGO CE showed high electrocatalytic activity for polysulfide electrolyte reduction. A CdS QDSSC based on the Cu x S@RGO CE yielded a high and reproducible PCE of 2.36%, exceeding those of 1.57 and 1.33% obtained with the commonly used Cu2S/brass and Pt CEs, respectively. Moreover, the QDSSC with the Cu x S@RGO CE showed excellent photostability in a light-soaking test without any obvious decay in the photocurrent, whereas the cell based on the Cu2S/brass CE was severely degraded.

  11. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO 2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO 2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF 2 . The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO 2 is caused by the reformed SnO 2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO 2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li + /Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF 2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li + /Li is due to the fact that SnF 2 is formed below the SnO 2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO 2 /Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Luminescence in Sulfides: A Rich History and a Bright Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe F. Smet

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide-based luminescent materials have attracted a lot of attention for a wide range of photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with Ce3+ and Eu2+, the luminescence can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the sulfide host. Main application areas are flat panel displays based on thin film electroluminescence, field emission displays and ZnS-based powder electroluminescence for backlights. For these applications, special attention is given to BaAl2S4:Eu, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. Recently, sulfide materials have regained interest due to their ability (in contrast to oxide materials to provide a broad band, Eu2+-based red emission for use as a color conversion material in white-light emitting diodes (LEDs. The potential application of rare-earth doped binary alkaline-earth sulfides, like CaS and SrS, thiogallates, thioaluminates and thiosilicates as conversion phosphors is discussed. Finally, this review concludes with the size-dependent luminescence in intrinsic colloidal quantum dots like PbS and CdS, and with the luminescence in doped nanoparticles.

  13. Luminescence in Sulfides: A Rich History and a Bright Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, Philippe F.; Moreels, Iwan; Hens, Zeger; Poelman, Dirk

    2010-01-01

    Sulfide-based luminescent materials have attracted a lot of attention for a wide range of photo-, cathodo- and electroluminescent applications. Upon doping with Ce3+ and Eu2+, the luminescence can be varied over the entire visible region by appropriately choosing the composition of the sulfide host. Main application areas are flat panel displays based on thin film electroluminescence, field emission displays and ZnS-based powder electroluminescence for backlights. For these applications, special attention is given to BaAl2S4:Eu, ZnS:Mn and ZnS:Cu. Recently, sulfide materials have regained interest due to their ability (in contrast to oxide materials) to provide a broad band, Eu2+-based red emission for use as a color conversion material in white-light emitting diodes (LEDs). The potential application of rare-earth doped binary alkaline-earth sulfides, like CaS and SrS, thiogallates, thioaluminates and thiosilicates as conversion phosphors is discussed. Finally, this review concludes with the size-dependent luminescence in intrinsic colloidal quantum dots like PbS and CdS, and with the luminescence in doped nanoparticles.

  14. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pachecka, Malgorzata; Lee, Christopher James; Sturm, J.M.; Bijkerk, Frederik

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show

  15. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  16. Oxygen-free atomic layer deposition of indium sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Robert F; Weimer, Matthew S; Emery, Jonathan D; Hock, Adam S; Martinson, Alex B F

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 225 °C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low-temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150 °C, while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225 °C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  17. Oxygen-Free Atomic Layer Deposition of Indium Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, Robert F.; Weimer, Matthew S.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Hock, Adam S.; Martinson, Alex B. F.

    2014-08-13

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of indium sulfide (In2S3) films was achieved using a newly synthesized indium precursor and hydrogen sulfide. We obtain dense and adherent thin films free from halide and oxygen impurities. Self-limiting half-reactions are demonstrated at temperatures up to 200°C, where oriented crystalline thin films are obtained without further annealing. Low temperature growth of 0.89 Å/cycle is observed at 150°C while higher growth temperatures gradually reduce the per-cycle growth rate. Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) together with depth-profiling Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) reveal a S/In ratio of 1.5 with no detectable carbon, nitrogen, halogen, or oxygen impurities. The resistivity of thin films prior to air exposure decreases with increasing deposition temperature, reaching <1 ohm-cm for films deposited at 225°C. Hall measurements reveal n-type conductivity due to free electron concentrations up to 1018 cm-3 and mobilities of order 1 cm2/(V*s). The digital synthesis of In2S3 via ALD at temperatures up to 225°C may allow high quality thin films to be leveraged in optoelectronic devices including photovoltaic absorbers, buffer layers, and intermediate band materials.

  18. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1 ± 0.01 nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300 °C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3 Ω cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  19. In vitro formation of oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber treated with a palladium/tin salt mixture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, F; Westerhof, M; Busscher, HJ; van Luyn, MJA; van der Mei, HC

    2000-01-01

    Adhesion of yeasts and bacteria to silicone rubber is one of the first steps in the biodeterioration of indwelling, silicone rubber voice prostheses. In this paper, silicone rubber, so-called "Groningen button," voice prostheses were treated with a colloidal palladium/tin solution to form a thin

  20. Titanium nitride (TiN) precipitation in a maraging steel during the vacuum arc remelting (VAR) process - Inclusions characterization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descotes, V.; Bellot, J.-P.; Perrin-Guérin, V.; Witzke, S.; Jardy, A.

    2016-07-01

    Titanium Nitride (TiN) inclusions are commonly observed in a Maraging steel containing Nitrogen and Titanium and remelted in a VAR furnace. They can be easily detected by optical microscopy. A nucleus is observed next to a large number of TiN inclusions. A TEM analysis was carried out on a biphasic nucleus composed of a calcium sulfide (CaS) and a spinel (MgAl2O4), surrounded by a TiN particle. An orientation relationship between these three phases was revealed, which suggests a heterogeneous germination of the TiN particle on the nucleus by epitaxial growth. Based on this observation, on thermodynamic considerations and on previous work, a model has been developed and coupled to a numerical simulation of the VAR process to study the formation and evolution of a TiN distribution in the VAR ingot. Microsegregation is modeled using the lever rule, while the kinetics of precipitation is mainly driven by the supersaturation of the liquid bath. This model highlights the influence of the melt rate on the final size of TiN particles.

  1. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  2. Oxidation process of cadmium sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Koshiro; Toda, Yoshitomo; Sato, Takayori

    1977-01-01

    Complicated thermogravimetric curve was observed on oxidation process of cadmium sulfide precipitate in air. Phases of various oxidation stage were identified by X-ray diffraction method. Cadmium sulfide was first oxidized to cadmium oxide at 400 0 C, while the successive reaction with sulfur dioxide and oxygen gases gave rise to cadmium sulfate. The phases such as 2 CdS. CdSO 4 , Cd 3 SO 6 and β-CdSO 4 appeared during the oxidation process up to 1100 0 C, at which all the particles were converted into cadmium oxide at 1100 0 C. Cadmium sulfide kept in nitrogen gas above 700 0 C was directly converted into cadmium oxide when oxygen gas was introduced into the furnace. (auth.)

  3. Stress-Strain Analysis in TiN Nanocoating Deposited on Polymer with respect to Au Nanointerlayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kopernik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiscale analysis in the authors’ finite element code confirmed possibility of fracture, because of not sufficiently high level of compressive residual stress in the TiN deposited by physical deposition method and varied mechanical properties of the thin film and substrate. The residual stress cannot be identified by X-ray technique for amorphous polymer and layer with domains of crystalline TiN. It is assumed that the buffer biocompatible thin film of Au in the TiN/Bionate II material system will alter the evolution of residual stress and, therefore, will allow to determine the residual stress in profilometry studies, and helps to improve toughness of the connection between TiN and Bionate II. The introduction of Au nanocoating in the material system results in bending of the sample and a compressive residual stress in the TiN coating. Results of finite element simulation show improvement of connection between the polymer and TiN, and an increase of compressive residual stress in the coating by introduction of Au nanointerlayer results in reduction of stress and strain in the substrate (close to the boundary between substrate and coating.

  4. 30 CFR 250.604 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.604 Section 250.604... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Workover Operations § 250.604 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-workover operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  5. 30 CFR 250.808 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.808 Section 250.808... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems § 250.808 Hydrogen sulfide. Production operations in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in zones where the presence of H2S...

  6. 30 CFR 250.504 - Hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hydrogen sulfide. 250.504 Section 250.504... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Oil and Gas Well-Completion Operations § 250.504 Hydrogen sulfide. When a well-completion operation is conducted in zones known to contain hydrogen sulfide (H2S) or in...

  7. Ultrathin films of homeotropically aligned columnar liquid crystals on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlet, E.; Grelet, E.; Brettes, P.; Bock, H.; Saadaoui, H.; Cisse, L.; Destruel, P.; Gherardi, N.; Seguy, I.

    2008-01-01

    We report the achievement of very thin films (thickness of about 50nm) of thermotropic columnar liquid crystal in homeotropic (columns normal to the interface) orientation on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. The face-on alignment of the discotic compound has been obtained by thermal annealing without any intermediate coating between the mesophase and the ITO substrate. Such a columnar mesophase alignment is thus shown on a substrate of technological interest in open supported thin film reaching the thickness range suitable for organic photovoltaic devices.

  8. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  9. Sulfide intrusion and detoxification in seagrasses ecosystems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    is known about the strategies of seagrasses to survive sulfide intrusion, their potential detoxification mechanisms and sulfur nutrition in general. By a global review of sulfide intrusion, coupled with a series of field studies and in situ experiments we elucidate sulfide intrusion and different...... not present in terrestrial plants at that level. Sulfide is not necessarily toxic but used as sulfur nutrition, presupposing healthy seagrass ecosystems that can support detoxification mechanisms. Presence or absence of those mechanisms determines susceptibility of seagrass ecosystems to sediment sulfide...

  10. Cadmium sulfide quantum dots sensitized tin dioxide-titanium dioxide heterojunction for efficient photoelectrochemical hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zemin; Chen, Lulu; Liu, Zhongping; Cheng, Jianli; Ni, Wei; Xie, Erqing; Wang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    CdS quantum dots (QDs)-sensitized branched TiO2/SnO2 heterojunction (B-SnO2 NF-CdS) with suitable combination of band gap and band alignment constitutes a promising architecture for photoanode for H2 generation. This novel structure combines the conflicting advantageous features of slow interfacial electron recombination, long electron life time, fast electron transport and visible light absorption. Remarkable photocurrent density of 3.40 mA cm-2 at zero bias (vs. standard calomel electrode) has been obtained in a three electrode configuration, more than two times as large as that of TiO2-CdS photoanode. The B-SnO2 NF-CdS yields a high maximum applied bias photon-to-current efficiency (ABPE) of 2.18% at an applied bias of ∼0.316 V vs. reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), indicating excellent hydrogen generation performance at low bias. Moreover, on the basis of experimental results, we ascribe the remarkable "dark current/voltage" to the effect of primary cell. The influence of the primary cell on PEC hydrogen production is discussed.

  11. Synthesis of zinc sulfide by chemical vapor deposition using an organometallic precursor: Di-tertiary-butyl-disulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasekar, Parag; Dhakal, Tara; Ganta, Lakshmikanth; Vanhart, Daniel; Desu, Seshu

    2012-01-01

    Zinc sulfide has gained popularity in the last few years as a cadmium-free heterojunction partner for thin film solar cells and is seen as a good replacement for cadmium sulfide due to better blue photon response and non-toxicity. In this work, zinc sulfide films are prepared using an organic sulfur source. We report a simple and repeatable process for development of zinc sulfide using a cost-effective and less hazardous organic sulfur source. The development of zinc sulfide has been studied on zinc oxide-coated glass where the zinc oxide is converted into zinc sulfide. Zinc oxide grown by atomic layer deposition as well as commercially available zinc oxide-coated glass was used. The zinc sulfide synthesis has been studied and the films are characterized using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and a UV–VIS spectrophotometer. XRD, XPS and optical characterization confirm the zinc sulfide phase formation. - Highlights: ► Synthesis of ZnS using a less-hazardous precursor, di-tertiary-butyl-disulfide. ► ZnS process optimized for two types of ZnO films. ► Preliminary results for a solar cell show an efficiency of 1.09%.

  12. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  13. Numerical studies on PACVD processes used for TiN multifunctional films using metal organic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok-Jae; Yi, Kyung-Woo; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Mahrholz, J.; Rie, K.-T.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we performed a numerical simulation of the low-temperature thin-film growth of TiN layers in a plasma-assisted MOCVD reaction chamber for the purpose of eventual scale-up. Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium (TDMAT) or tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) is commonly employed as a precursor for TiN layers to avoid chlorine contamination on the substrate. A reaction mechanism of TiN layer formation from TDMAT/TDEAT under the plasma-activated condition suggested by the mass spectrum analysis is employed for numerical calculations. This study is expected to make significant contributions to the understanding of the plasma-activated TiN reaction pathways, which are not yet clearly understood. The deposition rate is dependent on the process parameters such as the flow rate, pressure and plasma power, as well as the concentration gradient near the substrate. In this study, the multiple parameters described above are examined through numerical analysis to determine the deposition rate as well as to provide optimal processing conditions.

  14. Thermodynamic modeling of the formation and stability of small tin clusters and their ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodlaa, A.; Suliman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results of previous quantum-chemical study of electronic structure properties for neutral and single positively and negatively charged thin clusters in the size range of N 2-17 atoms, and on the thermodynamic laws, we have studied the thermodynamic properties of tin clusters and their ions. The characteristic amounts (cohesive enthalpy, formation enthalpy, fragmentation enthalpy, entropy and free enthalpy) for the formation and stability of these clusters at different temperatures were calculated. From the results, which are presented and discussed in this work, one can observe the following: The tin clusters Sn N (N=2-17) and their cations Sn + N and anions Sn - N are formed in the gas phase, and this agrees with experimental results. The clusters Sn 3 and Sn 1 0 are the most stable clusters of all. Here we also, find a correspondence with the results of the experimental studies. Our results go beyond that since we have found Sn 1 5 is also specially stable. By this thermodynamic study we could evaluate approximately the formation and stability of small neutral, single positively and negatively charged tin clusters. It has also allowed us to study the effects of the temperature on the formation and stability of these clusters. The importance of such study is not only what mentioned above, but it is also the first thermodynamic study for modeling the formation and stability of small tin clusters. (author)

  15. Comparative study of ITO and TiN fabricated by low-temperature RF biased sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Daniel K., E-mail: daniel.simon@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Dirnstorfer, Ingo; Fengler, Franz P. G.; Jordan, Paul M.; Krause, Andreas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Tröger, David [Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Fachgruppe Nanotechnologie, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2a, 08056 Zwickau (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and TU Dresden, Institut für Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM), 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Radio frequency (RF) biasing induced by a second plasma source at the substrate is applied to low-temperature sputtering processes for indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride (TiN) thin films. Investigations on crystal structure and surface morphology show that RF-biased substrate plasma processes result in a changed growth regime with different grain sizes and orientations than those produced by processes without a substrate bias. The influence of the RF bias is shown comparatively for reactive RF-sputtered ITO and reactive direct-current-sputtered TiN. The ITO layers exhibit an improved electrical resistivity of 0.5 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 0.5 × 10{sup 4 }cm{sup −1} without substrate heating. Room-temperature sputtered TiN layers are deposited that possess a resistivity (0.1 mΩ cm) of 3 orders of magnitude lower than, and a density (5.4 g/cm{sup 3}) up to 45% greater than, those obtained from layers grown using the standard process without a substrate plasma.

  16. The Pemali tin deposit, Bangka, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Surjono

    1991-04-01

    The Pemali tin deposit is located in a Triassic granite pluton the magmatic evolution of which is characterized by a decrease of compatible Ca, Mg, Ti, P and Zr in the sequence: medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite, megacrystic medium-grained biotite granite, two-mica granite/muscovite granite. The tin mineralization is confined to the two-mica granite and consists of disseminated cassiterite as well as greisen-bordered veins. The highly evolved muscovite granite is tin-barren and is distinguished from the two-mica granite by its low mica content and low loss-on-ignition values. The fluid inclusions in quartz and fluorite of the two-mica granite and of the greisen homogenize in the 115 410 °C temperature range; the salinities are in the range of 0.4 23 equiv wt% NaCl and the CO2 concentrations are < 2 mole%.

  17. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  18. The effects of Ti implantation on corrosion and adhesion of TiN coated stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.; Nagata, S.; Hatada, R.; Daikoku, T.; Hasaka, M.

    1993-06-01

    Thin titanium nitride (TiN) films of 40 and 70 nm in thickness were deposited on austenitic-type 304 stainless steel substrates by a rf ion plating process, and these specimens were irradiated with 70 kV titanium ions at a fluence of 1 × 10 17/cm 2 by use of MEVVA IV metallic ion source at room temperature. After that TiN films of 2 μm were deposited by the same method. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that implanted titanium penetrated into the substrate and interfacial mixing was verified. The adhesion strength was estimated by a scratch test. It was found that ion implantation can enhance the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate. The corrosion resistance of the specimens was evaluated in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid by an electrochemical method. Titanium implantation was extremely effective in suppressing the anodic dissolution of stainless steel.

  19. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO 2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  20. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  1. Effect of substrate temperature and input power on TiN film deposition by low-frequency (60 Hz) PECVD

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H T; Han, D H; Park, D K

    2000-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films were prepared by low-frequency (60 Hz) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (LF-PECVD) using a mixture of TiCl sub 4 and N sub 2 as source materials and H sub 2 as an atmospheric material. The LF sub P ECVD can be used as a new method for process control at a lower deposition temperature, and the apparatus is simpler than others. The effects of the substrate temperature and the input power on the characteristics of the TiN films deposited by using LF-PECVD were investigated. The SEM results showed that the deposition rate increased as the substrate temperature and the input power increased. The crystalline TiN films had a strong crystallographically preferred orientation of (200) on the XRD patterns. The electrical resistivity of the TiN films had a tendency to decrease with increasing substrate temperature, but did not exhibit any unique tendency with increasing input power. The TiN films had high IR reflection and an edge in the visible region. The reflectance of the f...

  2. Sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillis, Marina Fuser

    2001-01-01

    Alloys for use in high temperature environments rely on the formation of an oxide layer for their protection. Normally, these protective oxides are Cr 2 O 3 , Al 2 O 3 and, some times, SiO 2 . Many industrial gaseous environments contain sulfur. Sulfides, formed in the presence of sulfur are thermodynamically less stable, have lower melting points and deviate much more stoichiometrically, compared to the corresponding oxides. The mechanism of sulfidation of various metals is as yet not clear, in spite of the concerted efforts during the last decade. To help address this situation, the sulfidation behavior of Fe20Cr has been studied as a function of compositional modifications and surface state of the alloy. The alloys Fe20Cr, Fe20Cr0.7Y, Fe20Cr5Al and Fe20Cr5Al0.6Y were prepared and three sets of sulfidation tests were carried out. In the first set, the alloys were sulfidized at 700 deg C and 800 deg C for 10h. In the second set, the alloys were pre-oxidized at 1000 deg C and then sulfidized at 800 deg C for up to 45h. In the third set of tests, the initial stages of sulfidation of the alloys was studied. All the tests were carried out in a thermobalance, in flowing H 2 /2%H 2 S, and the sulfidation behavior determined as mass change per unit area. Scanning electron microscopy coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis were used to characterize the reaction products. The addition of Y and Al increased sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr. The addition of Y altered the species that diffused predominantly during sulfide growth. It changed from predominant cationic diffusion to predominant anionic diffusion. The addition of Al caused an even greater increase in sulfidation resistance of Fe20Cr, with the parabolic rate constant decreasing by three orders of magnitude. Y addition to the FeCrAl alloy did not cause any appreciable alteration in sulfidation resistance. Pre-oxidation of the FeCrAl and FeCrAlY alloys resulted in an extended

  3. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  4. SnS thin films realized from colloidal nanocrystal inks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kergommeaux, Antoine de, E-mail: antoine@dekergommeaux.com [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); INES, CEA-DRT/LITEN/DTS/LMPV, Institut National de l' Energie Solaire, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Faure-Vincent, Jérôme [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Pron, Adam [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France); Faculty of Chemistry, Warsaw University of Technology, Noakowskiego 3, Warsaw (Poland); Bettignies, Rémi de [INES, CEA-DRT/LITEN/DTS/LMPV, Institut National de l' Energie Solaire, Le Bourget du Lac (France); Reiss, Peter, E-mail: peter.reiss@cea.fr [CEA Grenoble, INAC-SPrAM (UMR 5819 CEA/CNRS/UJF-Grenoble 1), Laboratoire d' Electronique Moléculaire, Organique et Hybride, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2013-05-01

    Tin sulfide (SnS), having a direct band gap of 1.3 eV, is a promising absorber material for solar energy conversion. We synthesized colloidal SnS nanocrystals with a size tuneable from 5 to 20 nm and low size dispersion. These nanocrystals can be processed as thin films using low-cost solution phase methods. They also offer the possibility of controlling the crystalline phase before deposition. With the goal to obtain dense and crack-free films of high conductivity, we used a layer-by-layer deposition technique. In the first step, the substrate was dipped in the nanocrystal colloidal solution (“ink”). Next, exchange of the nanocrystal surface ligands (oleylamine, trioctylphosphine, oleic acid) was carried out by dipping the substrate into a solution of small cross-linking molecules (1,4-benzenedithiol). This exchange enhances the electronic coupling and charge carrier mobilities by reducing the interparticle distance. At the same time it assures the immobilization of the nanocrystals to avoid their removal during subsequent depositions. The thickness of the nanocrystal thin films was controlled in a range of 100–250 nm by varying the number of the alternating nanocrystal deposition and ligand exchange steps. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy investigations show that the obtained films are dense and homogeneous with a surface roughness as low as 3 to 4 nm root mean square. Using an inverted structure, the heterojunction of a SnS nanocrystals film with n-type ZnO nanocrystals shows a strongly increased current density under white light irradiation with respect to the dark. - Highlights: ► We synthesized 5–20 nm diameter SnS colloidal nanocrystals. ► Thin films of 100–250 nm can be obtained with layer-by-layer deposition method. ► Ligand exchange procedure is performed to enhance the conductivity. ► Electrical measurements under light exhibit an increase of the current density.

  5. Electrochemical mechanism of tin membrane electrodeposition under ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Yang, Jianguang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Tin was electrodeposited from chloride solutions using a membrane cell under ultrasonic waves. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHR), and chronopotentiometry were applied to investigate the electrochemical mechanism of tin electrodeposition under ultrasonic field. Chronoamperometry curves showed that the initial process of tin electrodeposition followed the diffusion controlled three-dimensional nucleation and grain growth mechanism. The analysis of the cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry diagrams showed that the application of ultrasound can change the tin membrane electro-deposition reaction from diffusion to electrochemical control, and the optimum parameters for tin electrodeposition were H + concentration 3.5 mol·L -1 , temperature 35 °C and ultrasonic power 100 W. The coupling ultrasonic field played a role in refining the grain in this process. The growth of tin crystals showed no orientation preferential, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form a regular network structure after ultrasonic coupling. While in the absence of ultrasonic coupling, the growth of tin crystals has a high preferential orientation, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form tin whiskers. Ultrasonic coupling was more favorable for obtaining a more compact and smoother cathode tin layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermochemical, structural and electronic properties of amorphous oxides, nitrides and sulfides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Pawel; Lany, Stephan

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous thin films materials become increasingly important components of many functional devices such as thin film displays, photovoltaic cells or thin film transistors. Due to lack of grain boundaries, they have superior uniformity and smoothest, flexibility and corrosion resistance. Amorphous thin films are typically prepared using physical vapor deposition (PVD) techniques at temperatures well below the melting point of deposited material (<0.2Tm). Computational models of amorphous structures, however, are almost elusively constructed from a high temperature equilibrated crystal melt using simulated annealing (SA) protocol. To account for low temperature growth conditions of amorphous thin films we recently developed a new simulation technique. The method, kinetically limited minimization (KLM), starts from a randomly initialized structure and minimizes the total energy in a number of local structural perturbation-relaxation events. We apply KLM to model amorphous structures of 20 binary oxides, nitrides and sulfides and compare their thermochemical, structural and electronic properties.

  7. Nanomechanical properties of dip coated indium tin oxide films on glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Nilormi; Ghosh, Priyanka; Sarkar, Saswati; Moitra, Debabrata; Biswas, Prasanta Kumar; Jana, Sunirmal; Mukhopadhyay, Anoop Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films dip coated from precursor sols of varying equivalent oxide weight percentage (wt.%) onto commercial soda lime silica (SLS) glass substrate were evaluated by nanoindentation technique at an ultralow load of 50 μN. It was found that the increase in wt.% beyond 6 in the precursor sols, had an adverse effect on nanohardness and Young's modulus of the films. Moreover, relatively thicker triple layered film (about 240 nm) had inferior nanomechanical properties as compared to the single layered film. Interestingly, the ITO foam coating on SLS glass substrate had nanomechanical properties nearly as good as those of the single layered films. These observations are explained in terms of the relative differences in crystallinity, stiffness and elastic deformation ability of the films. - Highlights: • Sol–gel indium tin oxide thin films and foam coating • Crystallinity and nanomechanical property inversely relate to sol oxide content. • Foam coating behaves like the thin films

  8. Luminescence of defects in the structural transformation of layered tin dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutter, P.; Komsa, H.-P.; Krasheninnikov, A. V.; Huang, Y.; Sutter, E.

    2017-12-01

    Layered tin sulfide semiconductors are both of fundamental interest and attractive for energy conversion applications. Sn sulfides crystallize in several stable bulk phases with different Sn:S ratios (SnS2, Sn2S3, and SnS), which can transform into phases with a lower sulfur concentration by introduction of sulfur vacancies (VS). How this complex behavior affects the optoelectronic properties remains largely unknown but is of key importance for understanding light-matter interactions in this family of layered materials. Here, we use the capability to induce VS and drive a transformation between few-layer SnS2 and SnS by electron beam irradiation, combined with in-situ cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and ab-initio calculations to probe the role of defects in the luminescence of these materials. In addition to the characteristic band-edge emission of the endpoint structures, our results show emerging luminescence features accompanying the SnS2 to SnS transformation. Comparison with calculations indicates that the most prominent emission in SnS2 with sulfur vacancies is not due to luminescence from a defect level but involves recombination of excitons bound to neutral VS in SnS2. These findings provide insight into the intrinsic and defect-related optoelectronic properties of Sn chalcogenide semiconductors.

  9. Sulfide toxicity kinetics of a uasb reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Paula Jr.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of sulfide toxicity on kinetic parameters of anaerobic organic matter removal in a UASB (up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor is presented. Two lab-scale UASB reactors (10.5 L were operated continuously during 12 months. The reactors were fed with synthetic wastes prepared daily using glucose, ammonium acetate, methanol and nutrient solution. One of the reactors also received increasing concentrations of sodium sulfide. For both reactors, the flow rate of 16 L.d-1 was held constant throughout the experiment, corresponding to a hydraulic retention time of 15.6 hours. The classic model for non-competitive sulfide inhibition was applied to the experimental data for determining the overall kinetic parameter of specific substrate utilization (q and the sulfide inhibition coefficient (Ki. The application of the kinetic parameters determined allows prediction of methanogenesis inhibition and thus the adoption of operating parameters to minimize sulfide toxicity in UASB reactors.

  10. An experimental study on the characteristics and delamination of TiN coatings deposited on Al 7075-T6 under fatigue cycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oskouei, R.H.; Ibrahim, R.N.; Barati, M.R.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, delamination of a titanium nitride (TiN) thin film from an aluminium alloy 7075-T6 substrate has been studied under fatigue loading conditions. TiN coatings of 3 μm in thickness were deposited onto the aluminium substrate using a physical vapour deposition process. Fatigue fracture surfaces of the coated specimens, failed under a range of low to high cyclic loads, were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM analyses showed that the coating layer remained well-adhered to the substrate under fatigue loading with maximum stresses less than 200 MPa. However, local delaminations were observed at maximum cyclic stresses higher than 200 MPa. The coated specimens were found to beneficially resist maximum cyclic stresses up to 350 MPa without showing delaminations when subjected to a modified post heat treatment with a high solutionising temperature. This was associated with an average improvement of 27% in the fatigue life of the coated specimens subjected to the post heat treatment in a controlled atmosphere (argon) when compared to uncoated Al 7075-T6 for tested maximum alternating stress levels. Characterisation of TiN coatings confirmed the presence of single phase TiN film onto the substrate without any oxidisation when heat treated in argon atmosphere. Moreover, compressive residual stresses in TiN coatings increased from − 4.54 to − 7.56 GPa after the post heat treatment as a result of thermal stresses introduced during the quenching stage of the heat treatment. The actual lattice parameters were determined using the Cohen–Wagner method and were found to increase from 4.257 (Å) for the as-deposited TiN coatings to 4.262 (Å) for TiN coatings subjected to the post heat treatment. - Highlights: ► Improvement in fatigue life of TiN coated Al 7075-T6 after a post heat treatment ► Excellent adhesion of TiN film to the substrate at low and moderate cyclic loads ► Local delaminations of TiN film from Al 7075-T6 substrate

  11. Microstructured extremely thin absorber solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biancardo, Matteo; Krebs, Frederik C

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed by press......In this paper we present the realization of extremely thin absorber (ETA) solar cells employing conductive glass substrates functionalized with TiO2 microstructures produced by embossing. Nanocrystalline or compact TiO2 films on Indium doped tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates were embossed...... by pressing a silicon stamp containing a mu m size raised grid structure into the TiO2 by use of a hydraulic press (1 ton/50 cm(2)). The performance of these microstructured substrates in a ETA cell sensitized by a thermally evaporated or chemical bath deposited PbS film and completed by a PEDOT:PSS hole...

  12. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    By the example of sp3-bonded semiconductors, we illustrate what 3rd-generation muffin–tin orbi- ... there is one, and only one, such MTO per electron. To .... Computational steps. The radial Schrödinger (Dirac) equation (2) is integrated numerically from r = 0 to sR. This yields the radial func- tions, ϕRl(ε, r), and their phase ...

  13. Temperature and pressure determination of the tin melt boundary from a combination of pyrometry, spectral reflectance, and velocity measurements along release paths

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Lone, Brandon; Asimow, Paul; Fatyanov, Oleg; Hixson, Robert; Stevens, Gerald

    2017-06-01

    Plate impact experiments were conducted on tin samples backed by LiF windows to determine the tin melt curve. Thin copper flyers were used so that a release wave followed the 30-40 GPa shock wave in the tin. The release wave at the tin-LiF interface was about 300 ns long. Two sets of experiments were conducted. In one set, spectral emissivity was measured at six wavelengths using a flashlamp illuminated integrating sphere. In the other set, thermal radiance was measured at two wavelengths. The emissivity and thermal radiance measurements were combined to obtain temperature histories of the tin-LiF interface during the release. PDV was used to obtain stress histories. All measurements were combined to obtain temperature vs. stress release paths. A kink or steepening in the release paths indicate where the releases merge onto the melt boundary, and release paths originating from different shock stresses overlap on the melt boundary. Our temperature-stress release path measurements provide a continuous segment of the tin melt boundary that is in good agreement with some of the published melt curves. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy, and supported by the Site-Directed Research and Development Program. DOE/NV/259463133.

  14. High-performance Li-ion Sn anodes with enhanced electrochemical properties using highly conductive TiN nanotubes array as a 3D multifunctional support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Jun; Du, Hongxiu; Wang, Jian; Wu, Wenlu; Shen, Zihan; Liu, Jinyun; Zhang, Huigang

    2017-08-01

    High capacity electrodes are demanded to increase the energy and power density of lithium ion batteries. However, the cycling and rate properties are severely affected by the large volume changes caused by the lithium insertion and extraction. Structured electrodes with mechanically stable scaffolds are widely developed to mitigate the adverse effects of volume changes. Tin, as a promising anode material, receives great attentions because of its high theoretic capacity. There is a critical value of tin particle size above which tin anodes readily crack, leading to low cyclability. The electrode design using mechanical scaffolds must retain tin particles below the critical size and concurrently enable high volumetric capacity. It is a challenge to guarantee the critical size for high cyclability and space utilization for high volumetric capacity. This study provides a highly conductive TiN nanotubes array with submicron diameters, which enable thin tin coating without sacrificing the volumetric capacity. Such a structured electrode delivers a capacity of 795 mAh gSn-1 (Sn basis) and 1812 mAh cmel-3 (electrode basis). The long-term cycling shows only 0.04% capacity decay per cycle.

  15. Transparent thin-film transistor exploratory development via sequential layer deposition and thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, David; Chiang, Hai Q.; Presley, Rick E.; Dehuff, Nicole L.; Bender, Jeffrey P.; Park, Cheol-Hee; Wager, John F.; Keszler, Douglas A.

    2006-01-01

    A novel deposition methodology is employed for exploratory development of a class of high-performance transparent thin-film transistor (TTFT) channel materials involving oxides composed of heavy-metal cations with (n - 1)d 10 ns 0 (n ≥ 4) electronic configurations. The method involves sequential radio-frequency sputter deposition of thin, single cation oxide layers and subsequent post-deposition annealing in order to obtain a multi-component oxide thin film. The viability of this rapid materials development methodology is demonstrated through the realization of high-performance TTFTs with channel layers composed of zinc oxide/tin oxide, and tin oxide/indium oxide

  16. Effect of copper content and sulfurization process on optical, structural and electrical properties of ultrasonic spray pyrolysed Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kermadi, S., E-mail: kermadisalim@yahoo.fr [CRTSE- Division DDCS 02, Bd Dr Frantz Fanon BP: 140, Les 07 Merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Sali, S.; Ait Ameur, F.; Zougar, L.; Boumaour, M. [CRTSE- Division DDCS 02, Bd Dr Frantz Fanon BP: 140, Les 07 Merveilles, 16038, Algiers (Algeria); Toumiat, A. [Ceramics Laboratory, Physics Department, Constantine University 1, 25017, Constantine (Algeria); Melnik, N.N. [Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninskii pr. 53, Moscow, 119991 (Russian Federation); Hewak, D.W. [Optoelectronics Research Centre, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom); Duta, Anca [Transilvania University of Brasov, Department of Renewable Energy Systems and Recycling, Eroilor 29, 500036, Brasov (Romania)

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports the effect of copper content and of the sulfurization process (using elemental sulfur vapor) on the growth, structure, elemental composition, and on the optical and electrical properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films deposited on glass substrates using ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis. For this purpose, a series of aqueous solutions consisting of copper (II) and tin (IV) chlorides, zinc (II) acetate and thiourea with different copper concentrations (x = Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 0.8, 1, 1.2 and 1.4 while Zn/Sn = 1) were prepared. X-ray diffraction, raman spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, ultraviolet–visible–near infrared absorbance spectroscopy and sheet resistance analyses were used to follow the evolution of the investigated properties. The results outlined a Kesterite type CZTS phase and a secondary copper sulfide (Cu{sub 2-x}S) phase, and their ratio strongly depends on the copper salt concentration and heat-treatment atmosphere. No traces of secondary phases of zinc or tin sulfides are found while high purity CZTS was obtained with the post-sulfurized film at x = 1.2. It was found that the application of additional sulfurization enhances the grain growth to reach 300 nm in size and induces significant improvement of both CZTS crystallinity and electrical conductivity. The optical band gap ranges between 1.44 and 1.57 eV depending on the composition and the sulfur deficiency is strongly reduced leading to Cu-poorer and Zn-richer compounds, as compared to those annealed in nitrogen atmosphere. This study shows promising results, as a first step in developing photovoltaic applications, using sprayed CZTS as absorber. - Highlights: • Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were obtained by ultrasonic Spray Pyrolysis. • The copper content and sulfurization process affect the Cu{sub 2}S/CZTS ratio. • Cu/(Zn + Sn) = 1.2 found to be optimum composition

  17. Crystal Orientation and Electrical Properties of Tin Oxide Transparent Conducting Films Deposited on Rutile Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawada, Y.; Hashimoto, Y.; Hoshi, Y.; Uchida, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Sun, L.; Yue, B.

    2017-10-01

    Thin films of tin oxide (SnO2) without doping are attractive transparent conducting film since environmentally unfavorable elements of antimony or fluorine are eliminated. Tin oxide films without doping were fabricated very cheaply on (001) and (100) planes of single crystal of rutile (TiO2) by spray chemical vapor deposition (mist CVD). The film deposited on rutile (001) surface was poorly epitaxial (double domain) but with higher mobility (24 cm2 V-1 s-1) and lower resistivity (1.6×10-3 Ω cm) than that deposited on glass substrate (16 cm2 V-1 s-1 and 2.4×10-3 Ω cm) for reference. Deposition on rutile (100) surface resulted in better epitaxial growth (single domain). The mobility (39 cm2 V-1 s-1) and the carrier electron density (2.7×1020 cm-3) were much higher. The resistivity (6.2×10-4 Ω cm) was compatible with those doped with antimony or fluorine and will be the lowest among tin oxide films without doping.

  18. OPTIMISATION OF SPRAY DEPOSITED Sno2 THIN FILM FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    1987-09-01

    Sep 1, 1987 ... ABSTRACT. The use of conducting tin-oxide (SnO2 ) films for fabrication of solar cell is becoming increasingly important because of reasonably high efficiency and ease in fabrication. The role of the thin-oxide film is very critical for high efficiency. Resistivity, thickness and transmittance of the film should be ...

  19. Liquid Tin Anode SOFC JP-8 Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    and excessive soot build up on the stand off. ............................. 15 Figure 11: The JP-8 flow rate as a function of air leak rate...high fuel utilization is the solubility limit of oxygen in liquid tin. Work by CellTech Power has shown experimentally and theoretically that 80% fuel...operational temperature, 1000°C. This prevents detrimental formation of tin dioxide ( SnO2 ) as opposed to the formation of tin monoxide (SnO) which is

  20. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-01-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  1. Thermal stability of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dian; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Tan, Chuan Seng; Tok, Eng Soon; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of germanium-tin (Ge1-xSnx) fins under rapid thermal annealing in N2 ambient. The Ge1-xSnx fins were formed on a GeSn-on-insulator substrate and were found to be less thermally stable than blanket Ge1-xSnx films. The morphology change and material quality of the annealed Ge1-xSnx fin are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Obvious degradation of crystalline quality of the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin was observed, and a thin Ge layer was formed on the SiO2 surface near the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin region after 500 °C anneal. A model was proposed to explain the morphology change of the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin.

  2. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  3. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  4. Sulfide Intrusion and Detoxification in the Seagrass Zostera marina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Holmer, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Gaseous sulfide intrusion into seagrasses growing in sulfidic sediments causes little or no harm to the plant, indicating the presence of an unknown sulfide tolerance or detoxification mechanism. We assessed such mechanism in the seagrass Zostera marina in the laboratory and in the field...... as sulfate throughout the plant. We conclude that avoidance of sulfide exposure by reoxidation of sulfide in the rhizosphere or aerenchyma and tolerance of sulfide intrusion by incorporation of sulfur in the plant are likely major survival strategies of seagrasses in sulfidic sediments....

  5. SELF-ORGANIZATION OF LEAD SULFIDE QUANTUM DOTS INTO SUPERSTRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena V. Ushakova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The method of X-ray structural analysis (X-ray scattering at small angles is used to show that the structures obtained by self-organization on a substrate of lead sulfide (PbS quantum dots are ordered arrays. Self-organization of quantum dots occurs at slow evaporation of solvent from a cuvette. The cuvette is a thin layer of mica with teflon ring on it. The positions of peaks in SAXS pattern are used to calculate crystal lattice of obtained ordered structures. Such structures have a primitive orthorhombic crystal lattice. Calculated lattice parameters are: a = 21,1 (nm; b = 36,2 (nm; c = 62,5 (nm. Dimensions of structures are tens of micrometers. The spectral properties of PbS QDs superstructures and kinetic parameters of their luminescence are investigated. Absorption band of superstructures is broadened as compared to the absorption band of the quantum dots in solution; the luminescence band is slightly shifted to the red region of the spectrum, while its bandwidth is not changed much. Luminescence lifetime of obtained structures has been significantly decreased in comparison with the isolated quantum dots in solution, but remained the same for the lead sulfide quantum dots close-packed ensembles. Such superstructures can be used to produce solar cells with improved characteristics.

  6. Characterization of Sn Doped ZnS Thin Films Synthesized by CBD

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, Ayan; Mitra, Partha

    2017-01-01

    Zinc sulphide (ZnS) thin film were prepared using chemical bath deposition (CBD) process and tin (Sn) doping was successfully carried out in ZnS. Structural, morphological and microstructural characterization was carried out using XRD, TEM, FESEM and EDX. XRD and SAED pattern confirms presence of hexagonal phase. Reitveld analysis using MAUD software was used for particle size estimation. A constantly decreasing trend in particle size was observed with increasing tin incorporation in ZnS film...

  7. Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    M. Rahimi-Nasarabadi

    2014-01-01

    Electrosynthesis process has been used for preparation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Zinc sulfide nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of zinc plate as anode in sodium sulfide solution. Effects of several reaction variables, such as electrolysis voltage, sulfide ion concentration as reactant, stirring rate of electrolyte solution and temperature on particle size of prepared zinc sulfide were investigated. The significance of these parameters in tun...

  8. Platinum Metals in Magmatic Sulfide Ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naldrett, A. J.; Duke, J. M.

    1980-06-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) are mined predominantly from deposits that have formed by the segregation of molten iron-nickel-copper sulfides from silicate magmas. The absolute concentrations of PGE in sulfides from different deposits vary over a range of five orders of magnitude, whereas those of other chalcophile elements vary by factors of only 2 to 100. However, the relative proportions of the different PGE in a given deposit are systematically related to the nature of the parent magma. The absolute and relative concentrations of PGE in magmatic sulfides are explained in terms of the degree of partial melting of mantle peridotite required to produce the parent magma and the processes of batch equilibration and fractional segregation of sulfides. The Republic of South Africa and the U.S.S.R. together possess more than 97 percent of the world PGE reserves, but significant undeveloped resources occur in North America. The Stillwater complex in Montana is perhaps the most important example.

  9. Crossett Hydrogen Sulfide Air Sampling Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report summarizes the results of the EPA’s hydrogen sulfide air monitoring conducted along Georgia Pacific’s wastewater treatment system and in surrounding Crossett, AR, neighborhoods in 2017.

  10. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J.P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A

    2002-11-30

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrol onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM)

  11. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J.P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A.

    2002-01-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM)

  12. Spectroscopic ellipsometry studies of index profile of indium tin oxide films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Rhaleb, H.; Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Roger, J. P.; Hakam, A.; Ennaoui, A.

    2002-11-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has proven to be a very powerful diagnostic for thin film characterisation. It was used to determine thin film parameters such as film thickness and optical functions of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films deposited by spray pyrolysis onto Pyrex substrates. Dielectric ITO films often present microstructures which give rise to a variation of the refractive index with the distance from substrate. In this work, it was found that the fit between ellipsometric data and optical models results could be significantly improved when it was assumed that the refractive index of ITO films varied across the upper 60 nm near the film surface. Also, the surface roughness was modelled and compared with that given by the atomic force microscope (AFM).

  13. MAGIC NUCLEI: Tin-100 turns up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the same way as the Periodic Table of chemical elements reflects the successive filling of orbital electron shells, in nuclear physics the socalled 'magic' numbers correspond to closed shells of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126,... neutrons and/or protons. More tightly bound than other nuclei, these are the nuclear analogues of the inert gases. 'Doubly magic' nuclei have closed shells of both neutrons and protons. Examples in nature are helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons), oxygen-16 (8 and 8), calcium-40 (20 and 20) and calcium-48 (20 and 28). Radioactive tin-132 (50+82) has been widely studied

  14. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  15. Real-time x-ray diffraction measurements of shocked polycrystalline tin and aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Dane V.; Macy, Don; Stevens, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    A new, fast, single-pulse x-ray diffraction (XRD) diagnostic for determining phase transitions in shocked polycrystalline materials has been developed. The diagnostic consists of a 37-stage Marx bank high-voltage pulse generator coupled to a needle-and-washer electron beam diode via coaxial cable, producing line and bremsstrahlung x-ray emission in a 35 ns pulse. The characteristic Kα lines from the selected anodes of silver and molybdenum are used to produce the diffraction patterns, with thin foil filters employed to remove the characteristic Kβ line emission. The x-ray beam passes through a pinhole collimator and is incident on the sample with an approximately 3×6 mm2 spot and 1° full width half maximum angular divergence in a Bragg-reflecting geometry. For the experiments described in this report, the angle between the incident beam and the sample surface was 8.5°. A Debye-Scherrer diffraction image was produced on a phosphor located 76 mm from the polycrystalline sample surface. The phosphor image was coupled to a charge-coupled device camera through a coherent fiber-optic bundle. Dynamic single-pulse XRD experiments were conducted with thin foil samples of tin, shock loaded with a 1 mm vitreous carbon back window. Detasheet high explosive with a 2-mm-thick aluminum buffer was used to shock the sample. Analysis of the dynamic shock-loaded tin XRD images revealed a phase transformation of the tin beta phase into an amorphous or liquid state. Identical experiments with shock-loaded aluminum indicated compression of the face-centered-cubic aluminum lattice with no phase transformation.

  16. The effect of substrate temperature on atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Johan; Hägglund, Carl; Wätjen, J. Timo; Edoff, Marika; Törndahl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the film properties were investigated for varying deposition temperatures in the range of 90 to 180 °C. It was found that the [Sn]/([Sn] + [Zn]) composition is only slightly temperature dependent, while properties such as growth rate, film density, material structure and band gap are more strongly affected. The growth rate dependence on deposition temperature varies with the relative number of zinc or tin containing precursor pulses and it correlates with the growth rate behavior of pure ZnO and SnO x ALD. In contrast to the pure ZnO phase, the density of the mixed ZTO films is found to depend on the deposition temperature and it increases linearly with about 1 g/cm 3 in total over the investigated range. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy suggests that zinc rich ZTO films contain small (~ 10 nm) ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, and that these crystallites increase in size with increasing zinc content and deposition temperature. These crystallites are small enough for quantum confinement effects to reduce the optical band gap of the ZTO films as they grow in size with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • Zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition. • The structure and optical properties were studied at different growth temperatures. • The growth temperature had only a small effect on the composition of the films. • Small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites were observed by TEM in zinc rich ZTO films. • The growth temperature affects the crystallite size, which influences the band gap

  17. Electrical properties of tin-doped zinc oxide nanostructures doped at different dopant concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. F., E-mail: babaibaik2002@yahoo.com; Zainol, M. N., E-mail: nizarzainol@yahoo.com; Hannas, M., E-mail: mhannas@gmail.com [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Mamat, M. H., E-mail: mhmamat@salam.uitm.edu.my; Rusop, Mohamad, E-mail: rusop@salam.uitm.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-SciTech Centre (NST), Institute of Science (IOS), Universiti Teknologi MARA - UiTM, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Rahman, S. A., E-mail: saadah@um.edu.my [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Low Dimensional Materials Research Centre, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2016-07-06

    This project has been focused on the electrical and optical properties respectively on the effect of Tin doped zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films at different dopant concentrations. These thin films were doped with different Sn dopant concentrations at 1 at%, 2 at%, 3 at%, 4 at% and 5 at% was selected as the parameter to optimize the thin films quality while the annealing temperature is fixed 500 °C. Sn doped ZnO solutions were deposited onto the glass substrates using sol-gel spin coating method. This project was involved with three phases, which are thin films preparation, deposition and characterization. The thin films were characterized using Current Voltage (I-V) measurement and ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR) spectrophotometer (Perkin Elmer Lambda 750) for electrical properties and optical properties. The electrical properties show that the resistivity is the lowest at 4 at% Sn doping concentration with the value 3.08 × 10{sup 3} Ωcm{sup −1}. The absorption coefficient spectrum obtained shows all films exhibit very low absorption in the visible (400-800 nm) and near infrared (NIR) (>800 nm) range but exhibit high absorption in the UV range.

  18. Sulfide as a soil phytotoxin - A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon P M Lamers

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In wetland soils and underwater sediments of marine, brackish and freshwater systems, the strong phytotoxin sulfide may accumulate as a result of microbial reduction of sulfate during anaerobiosis, its level depending on prevailing edaphic conditions. In this review, we compare an extensive body of literature on phytotoxic effects of this reduced sulfur compound in different ecosystem types, and review the effects of sulfide at multiple ecosystem levels: the ecophysiological functioning of individual plants, plant-microbe associations, and community effects including competition and facilitation interactions. Recent publications on multi-species interactions in the rhizosphere show even more complex mechanisms explaining sulfide resistance. It is concluded that sulfide is a potent phytotoxin, profoundly affecting plant fitness and ecosystem functioning in the full range of wetland types including coastal systems, and at several levels. Traditional toxicity testing including hydroponic approaches generally neglect rhizospheric effects, which makes it difficult to extrapolate results to real ecosystem processes. To explain the differential effects of sulfide at the different organizational levels, profound knowledge about the biogeochemical, plant physiological and ecological rhizosphere processes is vital. This information is even more important, as anthropogenic inputs of sulfur into freshwater ecosystems and organic loads into freshwater and marine systems are still much higher than natural levels, and are steeply increasing in Asia. In addition, higher temperatures as a result of global climate change may lead to higher sulfide production rates in shallow waters.

  19. Air-water transfer of hydrogen sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yongsiri, C.; Vollertsen, J.; Rasmussen, M. R.

    2004-01-01

    The emissions process of hydrogen sulfide was studied to quantify air–water transfer of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks. Hydrogen sulfide transfer across the air–water interface was investigated at different turbulence levels (expressed in terms of the Froude number) and pH using batch...... experiments. By means of the overall mass–transfer coefficient (KLa), the transfer coefficient of hydrogen sulfide (KLaH2S), referring to total sulfide, was correlated to that of oxygen (KLaO2) (i.e., the reaeration coefficient). Results demonstrate that both turbulence and pH in the water phase play...... a significant role for KLaH2S. An exponential expression is a suitable representation for the relationship between KLaH2S and the Froude number at all pH values studied (4.5 to 8.0). Because of the dissociation of hydrogen sulfide, KLaH2S increased with decreasing pH at a constant turbulence level. Relative...

  20. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  1. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the application of microwave heating for the melting of powdered tin. The morphology and particle size of powdered tin prepared by the centrifugal atomization method were characterized. The tin particles were uniform and spherical in shape, with 90% of the particles in the size range of 38–75 μm. The microwave absorption characteristic of the tin powder was assessed by an estimation of the dielectric properties. Microwave penetration was found to have good volumetric heating on powdered tin. Conduction losses were the main loss mechanisms for powdered tin by microwave heating at temperatures above 150 °C. A 20 kW commercial-scale microwave tin-melting unit was designed, developed, and utilized for production. This unit achieved a heating rate that was at least 10 times higher than those of conventional methods, as well as a far shorter melting duration. The results suggest that microwave heating accelerates the heating rate and shortens the melting time. Tin recovery rate was 97.79%, with a slag ratio of only 1.65% and other losses accounting for less than 0.56%. The unit energy consumption was only 0.17 (kW·h·kg–1—far lower than the energy required by conventional melting methods. Thus, the microwave melting process improved heating efficiency and reduced energy consumption.

  2. Effects of Loading Frequency and Film Thickness on the Mechanical Behavior of Nanoscale TiN Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jin-na; Xu, Bin-shi; Wang, Hai-dou; Cui, Xiu-fang; Jin, Guo; Xing, Zhi-guo

    2017-09-01

    The mechanical properties of a nanoscale-thickness film material determine its reliability and service life. To achieve quantitative detection of film material mechanical performance based on nanoscale mechanical testing methods and to explore the influence of loading frequency of the cycle load on the fatigue test, a TiN film was prepared on monocrystalline silicon by magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the nanoscale-thickness film material was characterized by using scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The residual stress distribution of the thin film was obtained by using an electronic film stress tester. The hardness values and the fatigue behavior were measured by using a nanomechanical tester. Combined with finite element simulation, the paper analyzed the influence of the film thickness and loading frequency on the deformation, as well as the equivalent stress and strain. The results showed that the TiN film was a typical face-centered cubic structure with a large amount of amorphous. The residual compressive stress decreased gradually with increasing thin film thickness, and the influence of the substrate on the elastic modulus and hardness was also reduced. A greater load frequency would accelerate the dynamic fatigue damage that occurs in TiN films.

  3. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  4. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  5. Nanocrystalline CdTe thin films by electrochemical synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh S. Kapadnis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium telluride thin films were deposited onto different substrates as copper, Fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO, Indium tin oxide (ITO, Aluminum and zinc at room temperature via electrochemical route. The morphology of the film shows the nanostructures on the deposited surface of the films and their growth in vertical direction. Different nanostructures developed on different substrates. The X-ray diffraction study reveals that the deposited films are nanocrystalline in nature. UV-Visible absorption spectrum shows the wide range of absorption in the visible region. Energy-dispersive spectroscopy confirms the formation of cadmium telluride.

  6. Structural, Optical and Electrical Properties of ITO Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, A. H.; Shah, M. A.; Asokan, K.

    2018-02-01

    Transparent and conductive thin films of indium tin oxide were fabricated on glass substrates by the thermal evaporation technique. Tin doped indium ingots with low tin content were evaporated in vacuum (1.33 × 10-7 kpa) followed by an oxidation for 15 min in the atmosphere in the temperature range of 600-700°C. The structure and phase purity, surface morphology, optical and electrical properties of thin films were studied by x-ray diffractometry and Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microcopy and atomic force microscopy, UV-visible spectrometry and Hall measurements in the van der Pauw configuration. The x-ray diffraction study showed the formation of the cubical phase of polycrystalline thin films. The morphological analysis showed the formation of ginger like structures and the energy dispersive x-ray spectrum confirmed the presence of indium (In), tin (Sn) and oxygen (O) elements. Hall measurements confirmed n-type conductivity of films with low electrical resistivity ( ρ) ˜ 10-3 Ω cm and high carrier concentration ( n) ˜ 1020 cm-3. For prevalent scattering mechanisms in the films, experimental data was analyzed by calculating a mean free path ( L) using a highly degenerate electron gas model. Furthermore, to investigate the performance of the deposited films as a transparent conductive material, the optical figure of merit was obtained for all the samples.

  7. Sulfide response analysis for sulfide control using a pS electrode in sulfate reducing bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Villa Gomez, D.K.; Cassidy, J.; Keesman, K.J.; Sampaio, R.M.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2014-01-01

    Step changes in the organic loading rate (OLR) through variations in the influent chemical oxygen demand (CODin) concentration or in the hydraulic retention time (HRT) at constant COD/SO4 2- ratio (0.67) were applied to create sulfide responses for the design of a sulfide control in sulfate reducing

  8. Solution synthesis of stannous sulfide and stannic disulfide quantum dots for their optical and electronic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Han; Zhou, Liyan; Yan, Shancheng; Song, Haizeng; Shi, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Quantum dot devices have been viewed as one of solutions for the next step in the development of integrated circuit. Two-dimensional (2D) layered semiconductors such as tin sulfide (SnS) and tin disulfide (SnS2) are promising materials for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) devices. However, the challenges in the synthesis of QDs with pure phases severely limit applications in such fields. In this work, uniform SnS and SnS2 QDs were synthesized via a convenient and facile ultrasonic method. TEM and AFM images confirmed the morphology of the SnS and SnS2 QDs. The optical characteristics of the QDs were obtained via UV-vis absorption and Raman spectroscopy. Finally, volt-current measurements of devices fabricated using the SnS and SnS2 QDs were carried out. Our results demonstrate the potential of SnS and SnS2 QDs for optical and electronic applications.

  9. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  10. Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damati, Artemis; Vlastos, Dimitris; Philippopoulos, Athanassios I; Matthopoulos, Demetrios P

    2014-04-01

    The genotoxic evaluation (in vitro analysis) of a series of eight inorganic tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds [tin(II) acetate, tin(II) chloride, tin(II) ethylhexanoate, tin(II) oxalate, tin(II) oxide, tin(IV) acetate, tin(IV) chloride and tin(IV) oxide], for the detection of micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes, was performed in the absence of metabolic activation by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Human lymphocytes were treated for over one cell cycle (31 hours), with concentrations ranging from 1 to 75 μM (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 75 μM), of tin(II) and tin(IV) salts dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The above-listed concentrations cover the values that have been detected in humans with no occupational exposure to tin compounds. The experimental results show the absence of genotoxicity for all inorganic compounds tested in the specific concentrations and experimental conditions. Cytotoxic effects of tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds were evaluated by the determination of cytokinesis block proliferation index and cytotoxicity percentage. Our observations on the cytotoxicity pattern of the tested tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds indicate that they are cytotoxic in several tested concentrations to human lymphocytes treated in vitro. The observed differences in cytotoxicity of each tested compound might reflect differences in their chemical structure.

  11. Pulse electrodeposition of Prussian Blue thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najafisayar, P.; Bahrololoom, M.E.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of pulse electrodeposition parameters like peak current density and frequency on the electrochemical properties of Prussian Blue thin films were investigated. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Cyclic Voltammetry and Chronoamperometry tests were carried out on Prussian Blue thin films which were pulse electrodeposited on Indium Tin Oxide coated glass substrates. The results showed that increase in the peak current densities and using higher pulsating frequencies during electrodeposition decreases the charge transfer resistance of the thin films while the diffusion coefficient of electroactive species in the films is increased as a consequence of using the same pulsating parameters. In addition, pulse electrodeposition technique does not alter deposition mechanism and morphology of the Prussian Blue thin films. - Highlights: • Prussian Blue thin films were pulse electrodeposited onto the ITO coated glass. • Pulse current condition affected thin films' electrochemical properties. • High pulsating current and frequency lower thin films' charge transfer resistance. • High pulsating current and frequency increase diffusion coefficient in thin films

  12. A green and facile hydrothermal approach for the synthesis of high-quality semi-conducting Sb2S3 thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meng; Gong, Yongshuai; Li, Zhilin; Dou, Meiling; Wang, Feng

    2016-11-01

    High-quality semi-conducting antimony sulfide (Sb2S3) thin films were directly deposited on the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates by a green and facile one-step approach based on a hydrothermal reaction and post-annealing process without any assistance of complexing agents. The obtained Sb2S3 films possessed a relatively ideal S/Sb atomic ratio and a compact and continuous surface as the grain size of Sb2S3 was increased by high temperature annealing. The Sb2S3 film annealed at 450 °C exhibited the improved optical and electrical performances, with a narrow band gap of 1.63 eV, an electrical resistivity of 1.3 × 104 Ω cm, a carrier concentration of 7.3 × 1013 cm-3 and a carrier mobility of 6.4 cm2 V-1 s-1. This environmentally friendly synthetic route is promising for the preparation of high-quality Sb2S3 films to be used as absorber layer materials for high-performance solar cells.

  13. Photoemission from tin and lead cluster anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantefoer, G.; Gausa, M.; Meiwes-Broer, K.H.; Lutz, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Photoelectrons from mass-identified jet-cooled tin and lead cluster anions (Sn n - , Pb n - ) are detached by ultraviolet laser light (hν=3.68 eV). The photoelectron energy spectra give the detachment energies of ground state cluster anions (electron affinities) as well as excitation energies of neutral clusters in the geometry of the anions. The energy spectra for Sn n - are dominated by flat thresholds with an n-dependence similar to that of other group IV clusters. In contrast, for Pb n - we find pronounced narrow lines close to threshold, generally followed by a 0.3-1.4 eV gap which indicates closed-shell behaviour of Pb n - for nearly all n. (orig.)

  14. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  15. Novel inorganic tin phosphate gel: multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyan; Komarneni, Sridhar; Noh, Young Dong; Ma, Jianfeng; Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng; Xue, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Bibiao

    2018-03-08

    Here, we report a remarkable 15 Å nanolayered tin phosphate, Sn(HPO 4 ) 2 ·3H 2 O (SnP-H + or SnP), and its clay-like gel, which are multifunctional and are prepared using earth-abundant Sn and P chemicals by a facile, environmentally benign and potentially cost-effective process. This new energy material is discovered here as the best proton conductor among all the known layered phosphates with a very high proton conductivity of over 1 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 100 °C for potential use in PEM fuel cells. But it is also a very good capacitor material with fast Li-storage kinetics (charging time of 13 s).

  16. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  17. Fabrication and photoelectrochemical characteristics of the patterned CdS microarrays on indium tin oxide substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xu; Lu, Yongjuan; Yang, Baoping; Yi, Gewen; Jia, Junhong

    2010-12-01

    In an effort to investigate the extraordinary photoelectrochemical characteristics of nanostructured CdS thin films in promising photovoltaic device applications, the patterned CdS microarrays with different feature sizes (50, 130, and 250 μm in diameter) were successfully fabricated on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass substrates using the chemical bath deposition method. The ultraviolet lithography process was employed for fabricating patterned octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) as the functional organic thin layer template. The results show that the regular and compact patterned CdS microarrays had been deposited onto ITO glass surfaces, with clear edges demarcating the boundaries between the patterned CdS region and substrate under an optimal depositing condition. The microarrays consisted of pure nanocrystalline CdS with average crystallite size of about 10.7 nm. The photocurrent response and the optical adsorption of the patterned CdS microarray thin films increased with the decrease of the feature size, which was due to the increased CdS surface area, as well as the increased optical path length within the patterned CdS thin films, resulting from multiple reflection of incident light. The resistivity values increase with the increase of feature size, due to the increase of the relative amount of gaps between CdS microarrays with increasing the feature size of patterned CdS microarrays.

  18. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodighiero, Simona; Torre, Bruno; Sogne, Elisa; Ruffilli, Roberta; Cagnoli, Cinzia; Francolini, Maura; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Rodighiero, Simona

    2015-03-22

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The new ret process for hydrogen sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, S.; Onishi, H.

    1977-11-01

    It was developed for gas streams from rayon production containing either 4500 ppM hydrogen sulfide and 5 ppM carbon disulfide or 900 ppM hydrogen sulfide and 16 ppM carbon disulfide (average values). The process consists of absorption towers, alkali scrubbers for the recovery of carbon disulfide, and an oxidation reactor. The process is catalyzed by an organic iron complex catalyst. For the removal of 1 kg hydrogen sulfide, the process uses 130 g sodium hydroxide, catalyst (20 yen), 2.5 kw-hr electricity, 15 kg steam (3 kg in winter), 2 cu m cooling water (1 cu m in winter), and 8 l. fresh water. The recovered sulfur (99%) is 99.9% pure. Eight litres of 0.03 kg COD wastewater are also produced. The process equipment is described. Flow diagrams, graph, and tables.

  1. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed...

  2. Surface analysis of thin film coatings on container glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhargava, A.; Wood, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Container glass is generally coated with a tin oxide layer followed by a coating of polymer. These coatings are believed to improve the mechanical properties of container glass as well as aid in the application of advertising labels to glass. The tin oxide layer on commercial beer bottles has a total thickness of about 15-20nm which consists of an interfacial layer comprising 70-85% of the total thickness. The polymer coating is about 2-5nm thick and also possesses an interfacial layer with tin oxide. A PHI Model 560 XPS/ SAM/ SIMS multi-technique system Is used to estimate concentration profiles of Sn, O, C, Si, Ca, Na and O. A combination of XPS, AES and SIMS is necessary to describe the coatings. Instrumental conditions and sample preparation methods are developed to optimize the analysis of thin films on glass. The coating comprises of three areas, namely (A) where polymer and tin co-exist (B) a pure tin oxide layer and (C) where tin co-exists with glass. By varying the chemical source of tin, it is possible to systematically vary the thickness of the interface and the concentration profile of Sn. Using XRD, crystalline phase(s) could be detected in tin oxide films as thin as 15nm. While the principle phase is cassiterite, a second phase is also detected which is believed to originate from the interface. Using a UMIS 2000 nanoindentor system, instrumental parameters are optimized for measurement of elastic modulus of films at varying depths, i.e. from surface of coating to the bulk of the glass. A sharp rise is observed at depth corresponding to the interface which is indicative of the significance of the interfacial layer. Samples are prepared by systematic ion-milling which are representative of various regions of the coating, namely (A), (B) and (C). These samples are analyzed by XRD and TEM. Based on these studies, a structural model of tin oxide layer and interface is presented to explain increase in elastic modulus at the interface. Copyright

  3. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...... of tin tetrachloride on industrial soda glass at ~800K to thicknesses of ~3×10-8 and 3×10 -7 m, commercially by the `titanising' process on industrial soda glass at ~800K to a thickness of ~3.10-9 m, and in the laboratory by radio frequency sputtering from tin oxide powder over a range of glass...

  4. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  5. Refractory sulfides as IR window materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, William B.

    1990-10-01

    The development of sulfide materials as infrared-transmitting optical ceramics is limited by intrinsic optical properties, thermomechanical properties, and considerations of chemical stability. Screening procedures with respect to band gap, electronic absorption, chemical stability, and refractory character reduced the set of all sulfides to about a dozen structural families. Systematic relationships were developed between crystal chemistry and phonon absorption edge, vibrational modes frequencies, and coefficient of thermal expansion which allow possible ranges of properties to be estimated. It is concluded that improved materials are possible but that radically improved new materials are unlikely.

  6. Iron-sulfide crystals in probe deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming

    1998-01-01

    Iron-sulfides were observed in deposits collected on a probe inserted at the top of the furnace of a coal-fired power station in Denmark. The chemical composition of the iron-sulfides is equivalent to pyrrhotite (FeS). The pyrrhotites are present as crystals and, based on the shape of the crystals......, it was deduced that they were not deposited but instead grew within the deposit. The presence of unburned char particles within the deposits supports the concept that a reducing environment existed in the deposits. Two processes are proposed for explaining the existence of pyrrhotite crystals within a deposit...

  7. Acute inhalation toxicity of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, J.M.; Hahn, F.F.; Barr, E.B. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS), a colorless gas, is a side product of industrial procedures sure as coal hydrogenation and gasification. It is structurally related to and is a metabolite of carbon disulfide. COS is metabolized in the body by carbonic anhydrase to hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S), which is thought to be responsible for COS toxicity. No threshold limit value for COS has been established. Results of these studies indicate COS (with an LC{sub 50} of 590 ppm) is slightly less acutely toxic than H{sub 2}S (LC{sub 50} of 440 ppm).

  8. Membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.

    2007-01-16

    A membrane for hydrogen recovery from streams containing hydrogen sulfide is provided. The membrane comprises a substrate, a hydrogen permeable first membrane layer deposited on the substrate, and a second membrane layer deposited on the first layer. The second layer contains sulfides of transition metals and positioned on the on a feed side of the hydrogen sulfide stream. The present invention also includes a method for the direct decomposition of hydrogen sulfide to hydrogen and sulfur.

  9. Use of biogenic sulfide for ZnS precipitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esposito, G.; Veeken, A.; Weijma, J.; Lens, P.N.L.

    2006-01-01

    A 600 ml continuously stirred tank reactor was used to assess the performance of a zinc sulfide precipitation process using a biogenic sulfide solution (the effluent of a sulfate-reducing bioreactor) as sulfide source. In all experiments, a proportional-integral (PI) control algorithm was used to

  10. A physiologically based kinetic model for bacterial sulfide oxidation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klok, J.B.M.; Graaff, de C.M.; Bosch, van den P.L.F.; Boelee, N.C.; Keesman, K.J.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2013-01-01

    In the biotechnological process for hydrogen sulfide removal from gas streams, a variety of oxidation products can be formed. Under natron-alkaline conditions, sulfide is oxidized by haloalkaliphilic sulfide oxidizing bacteria via flavocytochrome c oxidoreductase. From previous studies, it was

  11. 40 CFR 425.03 - Sulfide analytical methods and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 425.03 Sulfide analytical methods and applicability. (a) The potassium ferricyanide titration method... ferricyanide titration method for the determination of sulfide in wastewaters discharged by plants operating in... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sulfide analytical methods and...

  12. Thin metal electrodes for semitransparent organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyusung

    2013-08-01

    We demonstrate semitransparent organic photovoltaics (OPVs) based on thin metal electrodes and polymer photoactive layers consisting of poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester. The power conversion efficiency of a semitransparent OPV device comprising a 15-nm silver (Ag) rear electrode is 1.98% under AM 1.5-G illumination through the indium-tin-oxide side of the front anode at 100 mW/cm2 with 15.6% average transmittance of the entire cell in the visible wavelength range. As its thickness increases, a thin Ag electrode mainly influences the enhancement of the short circuit current density and fill factor. Its relatively low absorption intensity makes a Ag thin film a viable option for semitransparent electrodes compatible with organic layers. © 2013 ETRI.

  13. Surface oxidation of tin chalcogenide nanocrystals revealed by 119Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Pron, Adam; de Bettignies, Rémi; Malaman, Bernard; Reiss, Peter

    2012-07-18

    Narrow band gap tin(II) chalcogenide (SnS, SnSe, SnTe) nanocrystals are of high interest for optoelectronic applications such as thin film solar cells or photodetectors. However, charge transfer and charge transport processes strongly depend on nanocrystals' surface quality. Using (119)Sn-Mössbauer spectroscopy, which is the most sensitive tool for probing the Sn oxidation state, we show that SnS nanocrystals exhibit a Sn((IV))/Sn((II)) ratio of around 20:80 before and 40:60 after five minutes exposure to air. Regardless of the tin or sulfur precursors used, similar results are obtained using six different synthesis protocols. The Sn((IV)) content before air exposure arises from surface related SnS(2) and Sn(2)S(3) species as well as from surface Sn atoms bound to oleic acid ligands. The increase of the Sn((IV)) content upon air exposure results from surface oxidation. Full oxidation of the SnS nanocrystals without size change is achieved by annealing at 500 °C in air. With the goal to prevent surface oxidation, SnS nanocrystals are capped with a cadmium-phosphonate complex. A broad photoluminescence signal centered at 600 nm indicates successful capping, which however does not reduce the air sensitivity. Finally we demonstrate that SnSe nanocrystals exhibit a very similar behavior with a Sn((IV))/Sn((II)) ratio of 43:57 after air exposure. In the case of SnTe nanocrystals, the ratio of 55:45 is evidence of a more pronounced tendency for oxidation. These results demonstrate that prior to their use in optoelectronics further surface engineering of tin chalcogenide nanocrystals is required, which otherwise have to be stored and processed under inert atmosphere.

  14. Arsenic Sulfide Nanowire Formation on Fused Quartz Surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olmstead, J.; Riley, B.J.; Johnson, B.R.; Sundaram, S.K.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic sulfide (AsxSy) nanowires were synthesized by an evaporation-condensation process in evacuated fused quartz ampoules. During the deposition process, a thin, colored film of AsxSy was deposited along the upper, cooler portion of the ampoule. The ampoule was sectioned and the deposited film analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize and semi-quantitatively evaluate the microstructural features of the deposited film. A variety of microstructures were observed that ranged from a continuous thin film (warmer portion of the ampoule), to isolated micron- and nano-scale droplets (in the intermediate portion), as well as nanowires (colder portion of the ampoule). Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ampoule cleaning methods (e.g. modify surface chemistry) and quantity of source material on nanowire formation. The evolution of these microstructures in the thin film was determined to be a function of initial pressure, substrate temperature, substrate surface treatment, and initial volume of As2S3 glass. In a set of two experiments where the initial pressure, substrate thermal gradient, and surface treatment were the same, the initial quantity of As2S3 glass per internal ampoule volume was doubled from one test to the other. The results showed that AsxSy nanowires were only formed in the test with the greater initial quantity of As2S3 per internal ampoule volume. The growth data for variation in diameter (e.g. nanowire or droplet) as a function of substrate temperature was fit to an exponential trendline with the form y = Aekx, where y is the structure diameter, A = 1.25×10-3, k = 3.96×10-2, and x is the temperature with correlation coefficient, R2 = 0.979, indicating a thermally-activated process.

  15. Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)

  16. Study of radiation synovectomy using 188Re-sulfide in hemophilic arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, P.Y.; Cheng, G.; Jiang, X.F.; Wang, X.F.; Shen, Z.M.; Zhang, Z.H.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Based on results of previous animal studies, the efficacy of 188 Re-sulfide on radiation synovectomy in hemophilia synovitis.was evaluated. Material and Methods: 188 Re-sulfide suspension was produced by dispersion method. 25 hemophilic patients with 30 synovitic joints including 22 knees and 8 ankles received the radiation synovectomy. The stage of synovitic joint was classified by joint score including the pain, stability and range of motion and MR score. The doses of 188 Re-sulfide injected into knee and ankle were determined as 12mCi and 6mCi respectively, according to the depth and curve and the results of our previous animal study. To exam the distribution of 188 Re-sulfide in vivo after the injection, a whole-body scan was taken 24 and 48 hours later to calculate the retention of 188 Re-sulfide in joint by percentage of join counts in whole body. The follow up was take place at 6-12 months after the synovectomy by joint score, MRI score, synovial structure, the times and interval of hemorrhage of the joints. Results: Few patients complained discomfort after the injection such as hurt of the superficial tissues around the injected point and swelling (2 patients,.8%).The symptoms in this two patients continued up to 3 days and gradually decreased in severity. All patients felt relief of the pain and swelling in joints. 90% joints including 20 knees and 7 ankles did not bleed any more during the 3-month term of follow up, 3 joints from 2 patients with intra-article bleeding had hemorrhage in one month after long distance walk. 16%(5/30) of joints including 4 knees and 1 ankles had recurrent hemorrhage in 12 months after the radiation synovectomy. However, their interval of intra-article bleeding was prolonged MRI showed the thick synovium became thin, villi reduced and the joint edema relieved. The retention of 188 Re-sulfide in administrated joint was more than 95% until 48 hours later. No any sign of radioactive distribution was found in bone marrow

  17. Aqueous Barbier Allylation of Aldehydes Mediated by Tin

    OpenAIRE

    Ivani Malvestiti; Lothar W. Bieber; Marcelo Navarro; Fernando Hallwass; Lívia N. Cavalcanti; Maria Ester S. B. Barros; Dimas J. P. Lima; Ricardo L. Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols...

  18. Microaeration reduces hydrogen sulfide in biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although there are a variety of biological and chemical treatments for removal of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from biogas, all require some level of chemical or water inputs and maintenance. In practice, managing biogas H2S remains a significant challenge for agricultural digesters where labor and opera...

  19. REACTION PROCESSES OF ARSENIC IN SULFIDIC SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fate of arsenic in the environment is fundamentally linked to its speciation. Arsenic in aerobic environments is predominantly arsenate, however under reducing conditions arsenite species dominate. In anoxic or sulfidic environments thioarsenite ((As(OH)x(SH)yz-) species alon...

  20. Microbial Fuel Cells for Sulfide Removal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rabaey, K.; Sompel, van de S.; Maignien, L.; Boon, N.; Aelterman, P.; Clauwaert, P.; Schamphelaire, de L.; The Pham, H.; Vermeulen, J.; Verhaege, M.; Lens, P.N.L.; Verstraete, W.

    2006-01-01

    Thus far, microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to convert carbon-based substrates to electricity. However, sulfur compounds are ubiquitously present in organic waste and wastewater. In this study, a MFC with a hexacyanoferrate cathodic electrolyte was used to convert dissolved sulfide to

  1. Support Effect in Hydrodesulfurization over Ruthenium Sulfide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gulková, Daniela; Kaluža, Luděk; Vít, Zdeněk; Zdražil, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2009), s. 146-149 ISSN 1337-7027 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/06/0705 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ruthenium sulfide * hydrodesulfurization * support effect Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  2. Mitochondrial Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase Prevents Activation of the Unfolded Protein Response in Hydrogen Sulfide*

    OpenAIRE

    Horsman, Joseph W.; Miller, Dana L.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenously produced gaseous molecule with important roles in cellular signaling. In mammals, exogenous H2S improves survival of ischemia/reperfusion. We have previously shown that exposure to H2S increases the lifespan and thermotolerance in Caenorhabditis elegans, and improves protein homeostasis in low oxygen. The mitochondrial SQRD-1 (sulfide quinone oxidoreductase) protein is a highly conserved enzyme involved in H2S metabolism. SQRD-1 is generally considere...

  3. New technology of lead-tin plating of superconducting RF resonators for the ANU LINAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobanov, N.R.; Weisser, D.C.

    2003-01-01

    The RF accelerating resonators for the ANU superconducting LINAC have been re-plated with lead-tin and their performance substantially improved. The re-plating was at first derailed by the appearance of dendrites on the surface. This problem was overcome by a new combination of two techniques. Rather than the standard process of chemically stripping the old Pb and hand polishing the Cu substrate the unsatisfactory Pb surface was mechanically polished and then re-plated. This is enormously easier, faster and doesn't put at risk the thin cosmetic electron beam welds or the repaired ones. Reverse pulse plating was then used to re-establish an excellent superconducting surface. Average acceleration fields of 3.5 to 3.9 MV/m have been achieved. The re-plated resonators will double the energy gain of the accelerator significantly extending capability of the facility research. Lead-tin plating provides fast adequate results with modest equipment and at relatively low cost. SUNY re-plated six high-beta SLRs with 2 microns of Pb-Sn using a modern, commercial, methane-sulfonate process (Lea Ronal Solderon MHS-L) and a simple open-air procedure. This proven success motivated ANU to adopt MSA chemistry and to re-plate the first SLR in November 1998 followed by re-plating all twelve SLRs by November 2002. This increased the booster energy gain by almost 100%

  4. Microcontroller based instrumentation for heater control circuit of tin oxide based hydrogen sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premalatha, S.; Krithika, P.; Gunasekaran, G.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Ramanarayanan, R.R.; Prabhu, E.; Jayaraman, V.; Parthasarathy, R.

    2015-01-01

    A thin film sensor based on tin oxide developed in IGCAR is used to monitor very low levels of hydrogen (concentration ranging from 2 ppm to 80 ppm). The heater and the sensor patterns are integrated on a miniature alumina substrate and necessary electrical leads are taken out. For proper functioning of the sensor, the heater has to be maintained at a constant temperature of 350°C. The sensor output (voltage signal) varies with H 2 concentration. In fast breeder reactors, liquid sodium is used as coolant. The sensor is used to detect water/steam leak in secondary sodium circuit. During the start up of the reactor, steam leak into sodium circuit generates hydrogen gas as a product that doesn't dissolve in sodium, but escapes to the surge tank containing argon i.e. in cover gas plenum of sodium circuit. On-line monitoring of hydrogen in cover gas is done to detect an event of water/steam leakage. The focus of this project is on the instrumentation pertaining to the temperature control for the sensor heater. The tin oxide based hydrogen sensor is embedded in a substrate which consists of a platinum heater, essentially a resistor. There is no provision of embedding a temperature sensor on the heater surface due to the physical constraints, without which maintaining a constant heater temperature is a complex task

  5. Substrate temperature effect on the photophysical and microstructural properties of fluorine-doped tin oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abideen, Ibiyemi; Gbadebo, Yusuf; Abass, Faremi

    2017-07-01

    Transparent conducting oxide of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) thin films was deposited from chemical solutions of tin chloride and ammonium fluoride using streaming process for electroless and electrochemical deposition (SPEED) at substrate temperature 450, 500, and 530 °C respectively. The effect of substrate temperatures on the microstructural properties such as crystallite size, dislocation density, micro strain, volume of the unit cell, volume of the nanoparticles, number of the unit cell, bond length and the lattice constants were examined using XRD technique. Only reflections from (110) and (200) planes of tetragonal SnO2 crystal structure were obvious. The peaks are relatively weak indicating that the deposited materials constitute grains in the nano dimension. Hall measurements, which were done using van der Pauw technique, showed that the FTO films are n-type semiconductors. The most favorable electrical values were achieved for the film grown at 530 °C with low resistivity of 7.64 × 10-4Ω·cm and Hall mobility of -9.92 cm2/(V·s).

  6. Platinum and Palladium Exsolution Textures in Quenched Sulfide Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reo, G.; Frank, M. R.; Loocke, M. P.; Macey, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    Magmatic sulfide ore deposits account for over 80% of the world's platinum group element (PGE) reserves. Layered mafic intrusions (LMIs), a type of magmatic sulfide ore deposit, contain alternating layers of silicate and sulfide mineralization that are thought to have coexisted as an immiscible silicate + sulfide melt pair. Platinum and palladium, the most common PGEs found in LMIs, heavily favor the sulfide melt. Nernst partition coefficients for Pt (D = wt% of Pt in sulfide/wt% of Pt in silicate) range from 102 to 109. This study examined the Pt- and Pd-bearing phases that formed from the quenched sulfide melts to better constrain the PGE-rich sulfide layers of LMIs system. Experiments were conducted with a basalt melt, sulfide melt, and Pt-Pd metal in a vertical tube furnace at 1100°C and 1 atm and with oxygen fugacity buffered to QFM (quartz-fayalite-magnetite). Following the experiments, run products containing both sulfide and silicate glasses (quenched melts) were analyzed by a Shimadzu EPMA-1720HT Electron Probe Microanalyzer. The focus here is on the quenched Fe-rich sulfides whereas data on the partitioning of Pt and Pd between the coexisting silicate and sulfide melts will be presented in the future. The sulfide samples were imaged in back-scattering mode and major and trace element concentrations of separate metal-rich phases in the sulfide matrix were ascertained through wavelength-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy. Three discernable PGE-rich phases were found to have exsolved from the sulfide matrix upon quenching of the sulfide melt. All of these phases had Fe and S of 21-24 and 16-22 wt.%, respectively. An irregularly shaped Pd- and Cu-rich sulfide phase ( 36 and 14 wt.%, respectively) makes up the majority of the exsolution product. A separate Pd- and Ni-rich phase ( 22 and 14 wt%, respectively) can be found as grains or rims adjacent to the exsolved Pd- and Cu-rich phase. A third Pd- and Pt-rich phase ( 26 and 18 wt.%, respectively) exhibits a

  7. Transparent conductive electrodes of mixed TiO2−x–indium tin oxide for organic photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2012-05-22

    A transparent conductive electrode of mixed titanium dioxide (TiO2−x)–indium tin oxide (ITO) with an overall reduction in the use of indium metal is demonstrated. When used in organic photovoltaicdevices based on bulk heterojunction photoactive layer of poly (3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester, a power conversion efficiency of 3.67% was obtained, a value comparable to devices having sputtered ITO electrode. Surface roughness and optical efficiency are improved when using the mixed TiO2−x–ITO electrode. The consumption of less indium allows for lower fabrication cost of such mixed thin filmelectrode.

  8. Nature of active tin species and promoting effect of nickle in silica supported tin oxide for dehydrogenation of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoren; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiuyi; Li, Chunyi

    2017-06-01

    Different with Wang et. al.'s study, we found that polymeric Si-O-Sn2+ rather than Ni-Sn alloy and metallic Sn are active species in silica-supported tin oxide catalysts for dehydrogenation of propane. The results showed that high surface area of mesoporous silica brought about high dispersion of tin oxide species, as a result, catalytic activity and stability were both improved. DRUV-vis, XPS, TPR and XRD studies of fresh and reduced catalysts indicated that the deactivation was related to the reduction of active species rather than the coke formation since active tin species cannot maintain its oxidation state at reaction conditions (high temperature and reducing atmosphere). The formed Ni3Sn2 alloy after reduction just functioned as promoter which accelerated the desorption of H2 and regeneration of active site. A synergy effect between active tin species and Ni3Sn2 alloy were observed.

  9. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  10. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  11. Oxidation and Precipitation of Sulfide in Sewer Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, A. H.

    (Fe(II)) and precipitated subsequently with dissolved sulfide as ferrous sulfide (FeS). The ferrous sulfide precipitation was relatively fast, but not immediate. Despite the very low solubility of ferrous sulfide, initially present iron did not react completely with sulfide. This observation...... were studied in both wastewater and biofilms. Particular emphasis was on the importance of iron in the sulfur cycle. Iron is typically among the dominant metals in wastewater. The experiments showed that, ferric iron (Fe(III)) that was added to anaerobic wastewater was rapidly reduced to ferrous iron...... was probably explained by the presence of ligands in the wastewater, which reacted with the iron. The biofilm experiments showed that sulfide accumulated along with several metals in anaerobic biofilms as the result of metal sulfide precipitation. Particularly, zinc and cupper were important...

  12. Electrochemical Synthesis and Characterization of Zinc Sulfide Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rahimi-Nasarabadi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Electrosynthesis process has been used for preparation of zinc sulfide nanoparticles. Zinc sulfide nanoparticles in different size and shapes were electrodeposited by electrolysis of zinc plate as anode in sodium sulfide solution. Effects of several reaction variables, such as electrolysis voltage, sulfide ion concentration as reactant, stirring rate of electrolyte solution and temperature on particle size of prepared zinc sulfide were investigated. The significance of these parameters in tuning the size of zinc sulfide particles was quantitatively evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Also, optimum conditions for synthesis of zinc sulfide nanoparticles via electrosynthesis reaction were proposed. The structure and composition of prepared nanoparticles under optimum condition was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and UV-Vis spectrophotometry techniques.

  13. In vitro formation of oropharyngeal biofilms on silicone rubber treated with a palladium/tin salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, F; Westerhof, M; Busscher, H J; van Luyn, M J; van Der Mei, H C

    2000-09-05

    Adhesion of yeasts and bacteria to silicone rubber is one of the first steps in the biodeterioration of indwelling, silicone rubber voice prostheses. In this paper, silicone rubber, so-called "Groningen button," voice prostheses were treated with a colloidal palladium/tin solution to form a thin metal coat intended to discourage biofilm formation. First it was demonstrated that this treatment did not negatively affect the airflow resistance of the prostheses or induce any cytotoxicity. Subsequently, palladium/tin-treated voice prostheses were placed in a modified Robbins device together with untreated control prostheses to evaluate biofilm formation. Biofilms were formed by inoculating the device for 3 days with the total cultivable microflora obtained from an explanted, malfunctioning voice prosthesis supplemented with separately isolated yeasts (Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis). After 3 days the device was perfused three times daily with growth medium and phosphate-buffered saline. The device was allowed to drain between perfusions to better mimic the conditions in the oropharynx (moist but not always fully wetted). After 9 days the total number of bacterial and fungal colony-forming units on the prostheses were determined microbiologically, and scanning electron micrographs were taken of the valve sides. Biofilm formation was significantly less on the heavily treated palladium/tin prostheses than it was on the untreated prostheses although some ingrowing microcolonies also were observed on the treated prostheses. The spread of the biofilms was smaller on the treated prostheses than on the untreated ones. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Fabrication of flexible indium tin oxide-free polymer solar cells with silver nanowire transparent electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ming-Yi; Chen, Tsun-Jui; Xu, Wei-Feng; Hsiao, Li-Jen; Budiawan, Widhya; Tu, Wei-Chen; Chen, Shih-Lun; Chu, Chih-Wei; Wei, Pei-Kuen

    2018-03-01

    Flexible indium tin oxide (ITO)-free poly(3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PC61BM) solar cells with a spin-coated silver nanowire transparent electrode are demonstrated. The solution-processed silver nanowire thin film not only exhibits high transmission (∼87%), but also shows low sheet resistance R s (∼25 Ω/sq). For solar cells with a conventional structure, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) of devices based on silver nanowires can reach around 2.29%. For the inverted structure, the PCE of devices can reach 3.39%. Conventional and inverted flexible ITO-based P3HT:PC61BM solar cells are also fabricated as a reference for comparison. For both types of solar cells, the PCE of ITO-free devices is very close that of an ITO-based polymer solar cell.

  15. High-speed, inkjet-printed carbon nanotube/zinc tin oxide hybrid complementary ring oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bongjun; Jang, Seonpil; Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; Hersam, Mark C; Dodabalapur, Ananth

    2014-06-11

    The materials combination of inkjet-printed single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and zinc tin oxide (ZTO) is very promising for large-area thin-film electronics. We compare the characteristics of conventional complementary inverters and ring oscillators measured in air (with SWCNT p-channel field effect transistors (FETs) and ZTO n-channel FETs) with those of ambipolar inverters and ring oscillators comprised of bilayer SWCNT/ZTO FETs. This is the first such comparison between the performance characteristics of ambipolar and conventional inverters and ring oscillators. The measured signal delay per stage of 140 ns for complementary ring oscillators is the fastest for any ring oscillator circuit with printed semiconductors to date.

  16. Investigation of pH effect on chemically synthesized tin selenide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okereke, N.A.; Ekpunobi, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Semiconducting thin films of tin selenide (SnSe) were chemically synthesized at room temperature by varying two different pH. X-ray diffraction data revealed that the crystallinity of SnSe films prepared at pH 11.0 slightly increased. XRD patterns of SnSe showed polycrystalline nature. The optical properties of the films were studied in the wavelength range of 0.36-1.10 μm. Optical absorption studies show that the pH has no effect on the band gap energy of the grown SnSe films; hence, the band gap remains the same as pH increases from 10.0 to 11.0. (authors)

  17. Nanocomposite of tin sulfide nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide in high-efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Zuo, Xueqin; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Lei; Yang, Xiao; Zhang, Haijun; Li, Guang; Wu, Mingzai; Ma, Yongqing; Jin, Shaowei; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2015-01-14

    A nanocomposite of SnS2 nanoparticles with reduced graphene oxide (SnS2@RGO) had been successfully synthesized as a substitute conventional Pt counter electrode (CE) in a dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) system. The SnS2 nanoparticles were uniformly dispersed onto graphene sheets, which formed a nanosized composite system. The effectiveness of this nanocomposite exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic properties upon reducing the triiodide, owning to synergistic effects of SnS2 nanoparticles dispersed on graphene sheet and improved conductivity. Consequently, the DSSC equipped with SnS2@RGO nanocomposite CE achieved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 7.12%, which was higher than those of SnS2 nanoparticles (5.58%) or graphene sheet alone (3.73%) as CEs and also comparable to the value (6.79%) obtained with pure Pt CE as a reference.

  18. Direct observation of the superconducting gap in thin films of titanium nitride using terahertz spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pracht, Uwe Santiago; Scheffler, Marc; Dressel, Martin [1. Physikalisches Institut, University of Stuttgart (Germany); Baturina, Tatyana [A. V. Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS (Russian Federation); Kalok, David; Strunk, Christoph [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    Thin films of superconducting titanium nitride (TiN) have recently gained attention for both applications (such as single-photon detectors) and fundamental research (as model system for the superconductor-insulator transition which is accompanied by uncommon superconducting properties). TiN has been studied comprehensively with (magneto-)transport studies, but only little is known about it's electrodynamical properties. We report on the charge carrier dynamics of TiN thin films with critical temperatures of 3.4 K and below, which we study with THz spectroscopy in the frequency range 90-510 GHz. Our analysis provides access to superconducting properties like the real and imaginary parts of the complex conductivity, energy gap and penetration depth. These findings as well as the normal-state properties strongly suggest conventional weak-coupling BCS superconductivity.

  19. Synthesis of a mixed-valent tin nitride and considerations of its possible crystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Christopher M; Holder, Aaron; Shulda, Sarah; Christensen, Steven T; Diercks, David; Schwartz, Craig P; Biagioni, David; Nordlund, Dennis; Kukliansky, Alon; Natan, Amir; Prendergast, David; Orvananos, Bernardo; Sun, Wenhao; Zhang, Xiuwen; Ceder, Gerbrand; Ginley, David S; Tumas, William; Perkins, John D; Stevanovic, Vladan; Pylypenko, Svitlana; Lany, Stephan; Richards, Ryan M; Zakutayev, Andriy

    2016-04-14

    Recent advances in theoretical structure prediction methods and high-throughput computational techniques are revolutionizing experimental discovery of the thermodynamically stable inorganic materials. Metastable materials represent a new frontier for these studies, since even simple binary non-ground state compounds of common elements may be awaiting discovery. However, there are significant research challenges related to non-equilibrium thin film synthesis and crystal structure predictions, such as small strained crystals in the experimental samples and energy minimization based theoretical algorithms. Here, we report on experimental synthesis and characterization, as well as theoretical first-principles calculations of a previously unreported mixed-valent binary tin nitride. Thin film experiments indicate that this novel material is N-deficient SnN with tin in the mixed ii/iv valence state and a small low-symmetry unit cell. Theoretical calculations suggest that the most likely crystal structure has the space group 2 (SG2) related to the distorted delafossite (SG166), which is nearly 0.1 eV/atom above the ground state SnN polymorph. This observation is rationalized by the structural similarity of the SnN distorted delafossite to the chemically related Sn3N4 spinel compound, which provides a fresh scientific insight into the reasons for growth of polymorphs of metastable materials. In addition to reporting on the discovery of the simple binary SnN compound, this paper illustrates a possible way of combining a wide range of advanced characterization techniques with the first-principle property calculation methods, to elucidate the most likely crystal structure of the previously unreported metastable materials.

  20. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  1. Indium oxide thin film based ammonia gas and ethanol vapour sensor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    For the fabrication of miniature heater indium tin oxide thin film was grown on special high temperature corning glass substrate by flash evaporation method. Gold was deposited on the film using thermal evaporation technique under high vacuum. The film was then annealed at 700 K for an hour. The thermocouple attached ...

  2. Band structure of thin films by the linear augmented-plane-wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, O.; Madsen, J.; Andersen, Ole Krogh

    1978-01-01

    We present a linear augmented-plane-wave method for solving the band-structure problem in thin crystalline films. The potential is separated into a muffin-tin potential inside the film, a potential depending exclusively on the normal coordinate outside the film, and corrections in both regions...

  3. Optimisation of Spray Deposited SnO 2 Thin Film for Solar Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of conducting tin-oxide (SnO2 ) films for fabrication of solar cell is becoming increasingly important because of reasonably high efficiency and ease in fabrication. The role of the thin-oxide film is very critical for high efficiency. Resistivity, thickness and transmittance of the film should be of correct order. The most ...

  4. Patterning of organic photovoltaic on R2R processed thin film barriers using IR laser sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fledderus, H.; Akkerman, H.B.; Salem, A.; Friedrich Schilling, N.; Klotzbach, U.

    2017-01-01

    We present the development of laser processes for flexible OPV on roll-to-roll (RR2R) produced thin film barrier with indium tin oxide (ITO) as transparent conductive (TC) bottom electrode. Direct laser structuring of ITO on such barrier films (so-called P1 process) is very challenging since the

  5. Study of annealing effects in In–Sb bilayer thin films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    The thin films of In–Sb having different thicknesses of antimony keeping constant thickness of indium was deposited by thermal evaporation method on ITO coated conducting glass substrates at room tempera- ture and a pressure of 10. –5 .... Some peaks of indium tin oxide (ITO) are deleted from these XRD data. Present ...

  6. Investigation of ultra-thin titania films as hole-blocking contacts for organic photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungchul [School of Mechanical Engineering; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta, USA; Ou, Kai-Lin [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry; University of Arizona; Tucson, USA; Wu, Xin [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry; University of Arizona; Tucson, USA; Ndione, Paul F. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Golden, USA; Berry, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Golden, USA; Lambert, Yannick [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN); Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Villeneuve d' Ascq, France; Mélin, Thierry [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie (IEMN); Le Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS); Villeneuve d' Ascq, France; Armstrong, Neal R. [Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry; University of Arizona; Tucson, USA; Graham, Samuel [School of Mechanical Engineering; Georgia Institute of Technology; Atlanta, USA; School of Materials Science and Engineering; Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics

    2015-01-01

    Ultra-thin (0.5–10 nm) plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposited titanium oxide (TiOx) films deposited on indium-tin-oxide contacts, are investigated as hole-blocking interlayers using conventional electrochemistry, Si-diodes, and heterojunction (P3HT:PCBM) organic photovoltaics (OPVs).

  7. Iron-sulfide redox flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Guan-Guang; Yang, Zhenguo; Li, Liyu; Kim, Soowhan; Liu, Jun; Graff, Gordon L

    2013-12-17

    Iron-sulfide redox flow battery (RFB) systems can be advantageous for energy storage, particularly when the electrolytes have pH values greater than 6. Such systems can exhibit excellent energy conversion efficiency and stability and can utilize low-cost materials that are relatively safer and more environmentally friendly. One example of an iron-sulfide RFB is characterized by a positive electrolyte that comprises Fe(III) and/or Fe(II) in a positive electrolyte supporting solution, a negative electrolyte that comprises S.sup.2- and/or S in a negative electrolyte supporting solution, and a membrane, or a separator, that separates the positive electrolyte and electrode from the negative electrolyte and electrode.

  8. Oxidation of Reduced Sulfur Species: Carbonyl Sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glarborg, Peter; Marshall, Paul

    2013-01-01

    A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts satisfact......A detailed chemical kinetic model for oxidation of carbonyl sulfide (OCS) has been developed, based on a critical evaluation of data from the literature. The mechanism has been validated against experimental results from batch reactors, flow reactors, and shock tubes. The model predicts...... satisfactorily oxidation of OCS over a wide range of stoichiometric air–fuel ratios (0.5 ≤λ≤7.3), temperatures (450–1700 K), and pressures (0.02–3.0 atm) under dry conditions. The governing reaction mechanisms are outlined based on calculations with the kinetic model. The oxidation rate of OCS is controlled...

  9. Layered metal sulfides capture uranium from seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manos, Manolis J; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G

    2012-10-03

    Uranium is the main source for nuclear energy but also one of the most toxic heavy metals. The current methods for uranium removal from water present limitations, such as narrow pH operating range, limited tolerance to high salt concentrations, or/and high cost. We show here that a layered sulfide ion exchanger K(2)MnSn(2)S(6) (KMS-1) overcomes these limitations and is exceptionally capable in selectively and rapidly sequestering high (ppm) as well as trace (ppb) quantities of UO(2)(2+) under a variety of conditions, including seawater. KMS-1 can efficiently absorb the naturally occurring U traces in seawater samples. The results presented here reveal the exceptional potential of sulfide-based ion-exchangers for remediating of uranium-containing wastes and groundwater and for extracting uranium from the sea.

  10. Ferrocene sulfonates as electrocatalysts for sulfide detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, Nathan S.; Tustin, Gary J.; Faulkner, Michael; Jones, Timothy G.J.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical characterization of both the mono- and di-substituted forms of ferrocene sulfonate are given. The results show both species produce voltammograms consistent with quasi-irreversible diffusion controlled redox reactions. The FcSO 3 - species was found to be easier to oxidize than its Fc(SO 3 ) 2 2- counterpart, due to the electron withdrawing affect of the sulfonate group on the Fe centre. In the presence of sulfide, the voltammetric response of FcSO 3 - is shown to be consistent with the occurrence of an electrocatalytic EC' reaction. This analytical response was utilized as a means of determining sulfide and was found to be linear over the concentration 0.02-1 mM with a limit of detection of 14 μM

  11. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  12. Various communications concerning sulfigran (sodium sulfide)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, H.; Montfort, F.; Wickert; Horn; Junkermann; Wissel, K.; Pier, M.

    1943-01-01

    Most of these communications concerned the problems experienced by Poelitz when its regular supplier of Sulfigran (sodium sulfide), the I.G. Farbenindustrie plant at Luverkusen, had to shut down for repairs and Poelitz had to get an impure form of Sulfigran mixture (a crude melt of ore) from other suppliers, including the I.G. Farbenindustrie plant at Wolfen (Bitterfeld). Various problems arose in the transition, including the fact that the mixture supplied was not ground finely enough for the coal-paste-preparing machinery at Poelitz to handle without damage. An analysis of one sample of the raw melt mixture gave 68.8% sodium sulfide, 12.0% carbon, 1.5% hydrogen, 1.6% silicon dioxide, 1.8% iron, 1.0% aluminum, 0.6% calcium, traces of magnesium and sulfate, and 15.4% water-insoluble. An analysis for another sample showed about 1.8% less sodium sulfide, 1.5% more silicon dioxide, 0.7% less iron, 0.5% less aluminum, 0.6% more calcium, etc., than the previous analysis. Finally one of the communications was a letter in which Ludwigshafen responded favorably to Poelitz's question about whether it would be advantageous to add Sulfigran directly to the first oven of a hydrogenation chamber instead of grinding it with the coal paste. Ludwigshafen said that in some experiments it had observed deposits at places where Sulfigran and coal paste encountered each other in preheater tubes. The deposits consisted of sodium sulfide and iron compounds. 3 tables.

  13. Hydrogen sulfide prodrugs—a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yueqin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is recognized as one of three gasotransmitters together with nitric oxide (NO and carbon monoxide (CO. As a signaling molecule, H2S plays an important role in physiology and shows great potential in pharmaceutical applications. Along this line, there is a need for the development of H2S prodrugs for various reasons. In this review, we summarize different H2S prodrugs, their chemical properties, and some of their potential therapeutic applications.

  14. Single-layer transition metal sulfide catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Steven G [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-05-31

    Transition Metal Sulfides (TMS), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS.sub.2), are the petroleum industry's "workhorse" catalysts for upgrading heavy petroleum feedstocks and removing sulfur, nitrogen and other pollutants from fuels. We have developed an improved synthesis technique to produce SLTMS catalysts, such as molybdenum disulfide, with potentially greater activity and specificity than those currently available. Applications for this technology include heavy feed upgrading, in-situ catalysis, bio-fuel conversion and coal liquefaction.

  15. Sulfide Precipitation in Wastewater at Short Timescales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Bruno; van de Ven, Wilbert; Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning

    2017-01-01

    that this is not the case for sulfide precipitation by ferric iron. Instead, the reaction time was found to be on a timescale where it must be considered when performing end-of-pipe treatment. For real wastewaters at pH 7, a stoichiometric ratio around 14 mol Fe(II) (mol S(−II))−1 was obtained after 1.5 s, while the ratio...

  16. Crystalline Indium Sulphide thin film by photo accelerated deposition technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanya, A. C.; Preetha, K. C.; Deepa, K.; Remadevi, T. L.

    2015-02-01

    Indium sulfide thin films deserve special attention because of its potential application as buffer layers in CIGS based solar cells. Highly transparent indium sulfide (InS) thin films were prepared using a novel method called photo accelerated chemical deposition (PCD). Ultraviolet source of 150 W was used to irradiate the solution. Compared to all other chemical methods, PCD scores its advantage for its low cost, flexible substrate and capable of large area of deposition. Reports on deposition of high quality InS thin films at room temperature are very rare in literature. The precursor solution was initially heated to 90°C for ten minutes and then deposition was carried out at room temperature for two hours. The appearance of the film changed from lemon yellow to bright yellow as the deposition time increased. The sample was characterized for its structural and optical properties. XRD profile showed the polycrystalline behavior of the film with mixed phases having crystallite size of 17 nm. The surface morphology of the films exhibited uniformly distributed honey comb like structures. The film appeared to be smooth and the value of extinction coefficient was negligible. Optical measurements showed that the film has more than 80% transmission in the visible region. The direct band gap energy was 2.47eV. This method is highly suitable for the synthesis of crystalline and transparent indium sulfide thin films and can be used for various photo voltaic applications.

  17. Dimethyl Sulfide is a Chemical Attractant for Reef Fish Larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foretich, Matthew A; Paris, Claire B; Grosell, Martin; Stieglitz, John D; Benetti, Daniel D

    2017-05-31

    Transport of coral reef fish larvae is driven by advection in ocean currents and larval swimming. However, for swimming to be advantageous, larvae must use external stimuli as guides. One potential stimulus is "odor" emanating from settlement sites (e.g., coral reefs), signaling the upstream location of desirable settlement habitat. However, specific chemicals used by fish larvae have not been identified. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is produced in large quantities at coral reefs and may be important in larval orientation. In this study, a choice-chamber (shuttle box) was used to assess preference of 28 pre-settlement stage larvae from reef fish species for seawater with DMS. Swimming behavior was examined by video-tracking of larval swimming patterns in control and DMS seawater. We found common responses to DMS across reef fish taxa - a preference for water with DMS and change in swimming behavior - reflecting a switch to "exploratory behavior". An open water species displayed no response to DMS. Affinity for and swimming response to DMS would allow a fish larva to locate its source and enhance its ability to find settlement habitat. Moreover, it may help them locate prey accumulating in fronts, eddies, and thin layers, where DMS is also produced.

  18. Minority Carrier Transport in Lead Sulfide Quantum Dot Photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekemeyer, Paul H; Chuang, Chia-Hao M; Bawendi, Moungi G; Gradečak, Silvija

    2017-10-11

    Lead sulfide quantum dots (PbS QDs) are an attractive material system for the development of low-cost photovoltaics (PV) due to their ease of processing and stability in air, with certified power conversion efficiencies exceeding 11%. However, even the best PbS QD PV devices are limited by diffusive transport, as the optical absorption length exceeds the minority carrier diffusion length. Understanding minority carrier transport in these devices will therefore be critical for future efficiency improvement. We utilize cross-sectional electron beam-induced current (EBIC) microscopy and develop methodology to quantify minority carrier diffusion length in PbS QD PV devices. We show that holes are the minority carriers in tetrabutylammonium iodide (TBAI)-treated PbS QD films due to the formation of a p-n junction with an ethanedithiol (EDT)-treated QD layer, whereas a heterojunction with n-type ZnO forms a weaker n + -n junction. This indicates that modifying the standard device architecture to include a p-type window layer would further boost the performance of PbS QD PV devices. Furthermore, quantitative EBIC measurements yield a lower bound of 110 nm for the hole diffusion length in TBAI-treated PbS QD films, which informs design rules for planar and ordered bulk heterojunction PV devices. Finally, the low-energy EBIC approach developed in our work is generally applicable to other emerging thin-film PV absorber materials with nanoscale diffusion lengths.

  19. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  20. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Ferromagnetism in Co-Doped Indium Tin Oxide Revealed Using X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. H. R. Hakimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of high-temperature annealing on ferromagnetic Co-doped Indium Tin Oxide (ITO thin films have been investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, magnetometry, and X-Ray Magnetic Circular Dichroism (XMCD. Following annealing, the magnetometry results indicate the formation of Co clusters with a significant increase in the saturation magnetization of the thin films arising from defects introduced during cluster formation. However, sum rule analysis of the element-specific XMCD results shows that the magnetic moment at the Co sites is reduced after annealing. The effects of annealing demonstrate that the ferromagnetism observed in the as-deposited Co-doped ITO films arises from intrinsic defects and cannot be related to the segregation of metallic Co clusters.

  1. Effect of cesium assistance on the electrical and structural properties of indium tin oxide films grown by magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Jaewon; Hwang, Cheol Seong; Park, Sung Jin; Yoon, Neung Ku [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Inter-university Semiconductor Research Center, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Sorona Inc., Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi 451-841 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-07-15

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited by cesium (Cs)-assisted dc magnetron sputtering in an attempt to achieve a high performance at low temperatures. The films were deposited on SiO{sub 2}/Si wafer and glass (Eagle 2000) substrates at a substrate temperature of 100 degree sign C with a Cs vapor flow during the deposition process. The ITO thin films deposited in the presence of Cs vapor showed better crystallinity than the control films grown under normal Ar/O{sub 2} plasma conditions. The resistivity of the films with the Cs assistance was lower than that of the control films. The lowest resistivity of 6.2x10{sup -4} {Omega} cm, which is {approx}20% lower than that of the control sample, was obtained without any postdeposition thermal annealing. The surface roughness increased slightly when Cs vapor was added. The optical transmittance was >80% at wavelengths ranging from 380 to 700 nm.

  2. Insights from investigations of tin dioxide and its composites: electron-beam irradiation, fractal assessment, and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C. M.

    2015-09-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is a unique strategic functional material with widespread technological applications, particularly in fields such as solar batteries, optoelectronic devices, and solid-state gas sensors owing to advances in its optical and electronic properties. In this review, we introduce the recent progress of tin dioxide and its composites, including the synthesis strategies, microstructural evolution, related formation mechanism, and performance evaluation of SnO2 quantum dots (QDs), thin films, and composites prepared by electron-beam irradiation, pulsed laser ablation, and SnO2 planted graphene strategies, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the electron-beam irradiation strategies for the growth behavior of SnO2 nanocrystals. This method is a potentially powerful technique to achieve the nucleation and growth of SnO2 QDs. In addition, the fractal assessment strategies and gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thin films with interesting micro/nanostructures induced by pulsed delivery will be discussed experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we emphasize the fabrication process and formation mechanism of SnO2 QD planted graphene nanosheets. This review may provide a new insight that the versatile strategies for microstructural evolution and related performance of SnO2-based functional materials are of fundamental importance in the development of new materials.

  3. Solidification mechanism of highly undercooled metal alloys. [tin-lead and nickel-tin alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Y.; Chu, M. G.; Macisaac, D. G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on metal droplet undercooling, using Sn-25wt%Pb and Ni-34wt%Sn alloys. To achieve the high degree of undercooling, emulsification treatments were employed. Results show the fraction of supersaturated primary phase is a function of the amount of undercooling, as is the fineness of the structures. The solidification behavior of the tin-lead droplets during recalescence was analyzed using three different hypotheses; (1) solid forming throughout recalescence is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; (2) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature, and solid forming thereafter is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; and (3) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature with solid forming thereafter that is of the maximum thermodynamically metastable composition that is possible. The T sub o temperature is calculated from the equal molar free energies of the liquid solid using the regular solution approximation.

  4. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwib, Lawrence L.; Zapata, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  5. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-07-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.

  6. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  7. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  8. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  10. Microaeration for hydrogen sulfide removal in UASB reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayzelova, Lucie; Bartacek, Jan; Kolesarova, Nina; Jenicek, Pavel

    2014-11-01

    The removal of hydrogen sulfide from biogas by microaeration was studied in Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactors treating synthetic brewery wastewater. A fully anaerobic UASB reactor served as a control while air was dosed into a microaerobic UASB reactor (UMSB). After a year of operation, sulfur balance was described in both reactors. In UASB, sulfur was mainly presented in the effluent as sulfide (49%) and in biogas as hydrogen sulfide (34%). In UMSB, 74% of sulfur was detected in the effluent (41% being sulfide and 33% being elemental sulfur), 10% accumulated in headspace as elemental sulfur and 9% escaped in biogas as hydrogen sulfide. The efficiency of hydrogen sulfide removal in UMSB was on average 73%. Microaeration did not cause any decrease in COD removal or methanogenic activity in UMSB and the elemental sulfur produced by microaeration did not accumulate in granular sludge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Zinc sulfide and terbium-doped zinc sulfide films grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, S J; Nam, K S

    1998-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and terbium-doped ZnS (ZnS:Tb) thin films were grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). In the present work, ZnCl sub 2 , H sub 2 S, and tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandionato) terbium (Tb(tmhd) sub 3) were used as the precursors. The dependence of crystallinity and Cl content of ZnS films was investigated on the growth temperature. ZnS and ZnS:Tb films grown at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 .deg. C showed a hexagonal-2H crystalline structure. The crystallinity of ZnS film was greatly enhanced as the temperature increased. At growth temperatures higher than 450.deg.C, the films showed preferred orientation with mainly (002) diffraction peak. The Cl content decreased from approximately 9 to 1 at.% with the increase in growth temperature from 400 to 500 .deg. C. The segregation of Cl near the surface region and the incorporation of O from Tb(tmhd) sub 3 during ALE process were also observed using Auger electron spectroscopy. The ALE-grown ZnS and ZnS:Tb films re...

  12. Modeling Sulfides, pH and Hydrogen Sulfide Gas in the Sewers of San Francisco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollertsen, Jes; Revilla, Nohemy; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild

    2015-01-01

    An extensive measuring campaign targeted on sewer odor problems was undertaken in San Francisco. It was assessed whether a conceptual sewer process model could reproduce the measured concentrations of total sulfide in the wastewater and H2S gas in the sewer atmosphere, and to which degree...... (WATS) sewer process concept, which never had been calibrated to such an extensive dataset. The study showed that the model was capable of reproducing the general levels of wastewater sulfide, wastewater pH, and sewer H2S gas. It could also reproduce the general variability of these parameters, albeit...

  13. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  14. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  15. Thin Places

    OpenAIRE

    Lockwood, Sandra Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This inquiry into the three great quests of the twentieth century–the South Pole, Mount Everest, and the Moon–examines our motivations to venture into these sublime, yet life-taking places. The Thin Place was once the destination of the religious pilgrim seeking transcendence in an extreme environment. In our age, the Thin Place quest has morphed into a challenge to evolve beyond the confines of our own physiology; through human ingenuity and invention, we reach places not meant to accommod...

  16. Recent findings on sinks for sulfide in gravity sewer networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Asbjørn Haaning; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Vollertsen, Jes

    2006-01-01

    Sulfide buildup in sewer networks is associated with several problems, including health impacts, corrosion of sewer structures and odor nuisance. In recent years, significant advances in the knowledge of the major processes governing sulfide buildup in sewer networks have been made. This paper...... summarizes this newly obtained knowledge and emphasizes important implications of the findings. Model simulations of the in-sewer processes important for the sulfur cycle showed that sulfide oxidation in the wetted biofilm is typically the most important sink for dissolved sulfide in gravity sewers. However...

  17. Incorporation of tin affects crystallization, morphology, and crystal composition of Sn-Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Katerinopoulou, A.; Falcone, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization of Sn-Beta in fl uoride medium is greatly in fl uenced by the amount and type of tin source present in the synthesis gel. By varying the amount of tin in the form of tin( IV ) chloride pentahydrate, the time required for crystallization was studied. It was found that tin not o...... to the minimum time required for obtaining full crystallinity. At excessive crystallization times, the catalytic activity decreased, presumably due to Ostwald ripening...

  18. Carbon steel protection in G.S. (Girlder sulfide) plants. Iron sulfide scales formation conditions. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruzzoni, P.; Burkart, A.L.; Garavaglia, R.N.

    1981-11-01

    An ASTM A 516 degree 60 carbon steel superficial protection technique submitted to a hydrogen-water sulfide corrosive medium at 2 MPa of pressure and 40-125 deg C forming on itself an iron sulfide layer was tested. Studies on pH influence, temperature, passivating mean characteristics and exposure time as well as the mechanical resistance of sulfide layers to erosion are included. (Author) [es

  19. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2010... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products...

  20. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  1. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  2. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  3. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  4. Thin book

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    En lille bog om teater og organisationer, med bidrag fra 19 teoretikere og praktikere, der deltog i en "Thin Book Summit" i Danmark i 2005. Bogen bidrager med en state-of-the-art antologi om forskellige former for samarbejde imellem teater og organisationer. Bogen fokuserer både på muligheder og...

  5. Thin Film

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    organic substances. KEY WORDS: Photoelectrocatalysis, Titanium dioxide, Cuprous oxide, Composite thin film, Photo electrode. INTRODUCTION ... reddish p-type semiconductor with a direct band gap of 2.0-2.2 eV [18, 19]. ... Photoelectrocatalytic removal of color from water using TiO2 and TiO2/Cu2O electrodes. Bull.

  6. 76 FR 64022 - Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... Hydrogen Sulfide; Community Right-to-Know Toxic Chemical Release Reporting AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Lifting of Administrative Stay for Hydrogen Sulfide. SUMMARY: EPA is announcing... (EPCRA) section 313 toxic chemical release reporting requirements for hydrogen sulfide (Chemical...

  7. Record mobility in transparent p-type tin monoxide films and devices by phase engineering

    KAUST Repository

    Caraveo-Frescas, Jesus Alfonso

    2013-06-25

    Here, we report the fabrication of nanoscale (15 nm) fully transparent p-type SnO thin film transistors (TFT) at temperatures as low as 180 C with record device performance. Specifically, by carefully controlling the process conditions, we have developed SnO thin films with a Hall mobility of 18.71 cm2 V-1 s-1 and fabricated TFT devices with a linear field-effect mobility of 6.75 cm2 V-1 s -1 and 5.87 cm2 V-1 s-1 on transparent rigid and translucent flexible substrates, respectively. These values of mobility are the highest reported to date for any p-type oxide processed at this low temperature. We further demonstrate that this high mobility is realized by careful phase engineering. Specifically, we show that phase-pure SnO is not necessarily the highest mobility phase; instead, well-controlled amounts of residual metallic tin are shown to substantially increase the hole mobility. A detailed phase stability map for physical vapor deposition of nanoscale SnO is constructed for the first time for this p-type oxide. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  8. Sulfidation behavior of rhenium and cobalt-rhenium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiring, R.; Douglass, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    The sulfidation behavior of Re and three Co-Re alloys, 15, 30, and 45 w/o, was studied over the temperature range 700--800 C at sulfur pressures of 10 -4 and 10 -2 atm. The kinetics of sulfidation followed the parabolic rate law and the activation energies for all alloys were similar to that of pure cobalt. A positive rate dependency on sulfur pressure was observed and Pt markers were located at the metal-scale interface, both observations clearly suggesting that outward cation diffusion through a P-type sulfide scale occurred. Two dominant sulfides, Co 9 S 8 and ReS 2 , formed. Weight gains decreased for a given set of conditions with increasing rhenium content. An order of magnitude decrease in the sulfidation rate occurred as the rhenium content increased from 15 to 45 w/o. Preferential sulfidation of cobalt initially occurred, causing a rhenium-enriched zone to form in the substrate beneath the cobalt-sulfide scale. The initial sulfide to form was Co 3 S 4 , but, subsequently, Co 9 S 8 became the dominant sulfide, forming beneath the outer Co 3 S 4 layer. ReS 2 formed at lower cobalt levels. Pure Re was also studied, the sulfidation rate being about 10 4 times slower than that of cobalt. The decreasing rate of sulfidation with increasing Re content is attributed primarily to slower cobalt diffusion outward through the Re-enriched substrate, a phenomenon similar to that observed by C. Wagner for the oxidation of Ni-Pt alloys

  9. Comparative study between the electrochemical behavior of TiN, TiCxNy and CrN hard coatings by using microscopy and electrochemical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Senna

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Hard thin TiN, TiCxNy and CrN films deposited by Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD techniques onto steel substrates were immersed in an aggressive environment and evaluated by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS. The mechanical and electrochemical behavior, as well as the microstructure of TiCxNy depended directly on the contents of carbon and nitrogen in the coating. The best results were obtained with stoichiometric coatings that are presented in this work. Although a small amount of pinholes could be observed, the electrochemical performance of TiN film was poorer than the stoichiometric TiCxNy coating. However, the CrN films showed the highest initial and residual corrosion resistance values, probably due to their dense structure.

  10. NiCo2O4@TiN Core-shell Electrodes through Conformal Atomic Layer Deposition for All-solid-state Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi

    2016-03-04

    Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo2O4 show great promise as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo2O4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo2O4@TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo2O4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm−3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm−3. To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo2O4-based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo2O4@TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2. These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes for sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.

  11. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  12. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 6, November 2002, pp. 505–507. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 505. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts. NIMAI CHAND ... et al 1996; Yanagisawa and Udawatte 2000; Denoy and. Pradeep 1997) with low Sn content (In : Sn ≥ 90 ...

  13. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  14. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  15. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1994-04-01

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  16. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences.

  17. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences. Component

  18. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  19. Hypnosis: emotions for the tin man (the schizoid personality).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E M

    1989-01-01

    Insight psychotherapy had been ineffective in helping a schizoid patient experience affect. He remained cold, aloof, and without overt expression of affect. When hypnosis was utilized, the patient overtly demonstrated affect. Hence the title for the article--hypnosis was effective in changing the tin man into a person with emotions and feelings. A discussion indicates some possible variables associated with this phenomenon.

  20. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  1. Residual stress in magnetron sputtered TiN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Brebbia, CA; Kenny, JM

    1999-01-01

    In this study magnetron sputtered TiN layers are investigated with X-ray diffraction. The measurements show that there is a texture present and in these layers a non-linear d-sin(2)psi behavior for the (200) planes was found. The latter cannot be explained by the well-known causes that may generate

  2. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  3. Succession on tin-mined land in Bangka Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurtjahya, E.; Setiadi, D.; Guhardja, E.; Muhadiono,; Setiadi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative study of floristic composition and vegetation structure was conducted at Bangka Island, Indonesia. Six different vegetation types were chosen, riparian forest, abandoned farmland, and natural regeneration of tin-mined lands of different ages: 0 and barren, 7, 11 and 38 years’ old

  4. Functionalized alkoxy tin clusters as nanobuilding blocks for hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez-Ferrero, E.; Ribot, F.; Rozes, L.; Sanchez, C.; Matějka, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, 2-4 (2005), s. 89-97 ISSN 0079-6786 Grant - others:European Community Human Potential Program HPRN-CT-2002-00306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : tin clusters * polymer hybrids * nanobuilding blocks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 15.167, year: 2005

  5. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  6. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Electron beam; irradiation; gas sensor; tin dioxide. 1. Introduction. The theory, fabrication and application of semiconducting gas sensors, has been well developed in the last thirty years. However, their limited selectivity and sensitivity are still problematic. The usual methods to improve gas sensing properties of SnO2 gas ...

  7. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    As the indium tin oxide (ITO) is an advanced ceramic material with many electronic and optical applications due to its high electrical conductivity and transparency .... Caulton K G and Hubert-Pfalzgraf L G 1990 Chem. Rev. 90. 969. Denoy M D and Pradeep B 1997 Bull. Mater. Sci. 20 1029. Gehman B L, Jonson S, Rudolf T, ...

  8. Oxidative Additions of Homoleptic Tin(II) Amidinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupatý, T.; Růžičková, Z.; Horáček, Michal; Alonso, M.; de Proft, F.; Kampová, H.; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2015), s. 606-615 ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : oxidative additions * homoleptic Tin(II) amidinate * DFT methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2015

  9. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  10. Dynamic fragmentation of laser shock-melted tin: experiment and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Resseguier, T. [CNRS ENSMA, Lab Combust and Deton, F-86961 Futuroscope (France); Signor, L.; Dragon, A. [CNRS ENSMA, Mecan and Phys Mat Lab, F-86961 Futuroscope (France); Signor, L.; Roy, G. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals is an issue of considerable importance for both basic science and a variety of technological applications, such as pyrotechnics or inertial confinement fusion, the latter involving high energy laser irradiation of thin metallic shells. Whereas spall fracture in solid materials has been extensively studied for many years, little data can be found yet about the evolution of this phenomenon after partial or full melting on compression or on release. Here, we present an investigation of dynamic fragmentation in laser shock-melted tin, from the 'micro-spall' process (ejection of a cloud of fine droplets) occurring upon reflection of the compressive pulse from the target free surface, to the late rupture observed in the un-spalled melted layer (leading to the formation of larger spherical fragments). Experimental results consist of time-resolved velocity measurements and post-shock observations of recovered targets and fragments. They provide original information regarding the loss of tensile strength associated with melting, the cavitation mechanism likely to occur in the melted metal, the sizes of the subsequent fragments and their ejection velocities. A theoretical description based on an energetic approach adapted to the case of a liquid metal is implemented as a failure criterion in a one-dimensional hydro-code including a multi-phase equation of state for tin. The resulting predictions of the micro-spall process are compared with experimental data. In particular, the use of a new experimental technique to quantify the fragment size distributions leads to a much better agreement with theory than previously reported. Finally, a complementary approach focused on cavitation is proposed to evaluate the role of this phenomenon in the fragmentation of the melted metal. (authors)

  11. Plasmon polaritons in the near infrared on fluorine doped tin oxide films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominici, Lorenzo; Michelotti, Francesco; Brown, Thomas M; Reale, Andrea; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2009-06-08

    Here we investigate plasmon polaritons in fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) films. By fitting reflectance and transmittance measurements as a function of wavelength lambda epsilon [1.0microm, 2.5microm] we derive a Drude dispersion relation of the free electrons in the transparent conducting oxide films. Then we compute the dispersion curves for the bulk and surface modes together with a reflectance map over an extended wavelength region (lambda==>10microm). Although the surface polariton dispersion for a single FTO/air interface when neglecting damping should appear clearly in the plots in the considered region (since it is supposedly far and isolated from other resonances), a complex behaviour can arise. This is due to different characteristic parameters, such as the presence of a finite extinction coefficient, causing an enlargement and backbending of the feature, and the low film thickness, via coupling between the modes from both the glass/FTO and FTO/air interfaces. Taking into account these effects, computations reveal a general behaviour for thin and absorbing conducting films. They predict a thickness dependent transition region between the bulk polariton and the surface plasmon branches as previously reported for indium tin oxide. Finally, attenuated total reflection measurements vs the incidence angle are performed over single wavelengths lines R(theta) (lambda= 0.633,0.830,1.300,1.550microm) and over a two dimensional domain R(theta,lambda) in the near infrared region lambda epsilon [1.45microm, 1.59microm]. Both of these functions exhibit a feature which is attributed to a bulk polariton and not to a surface plasmon polariton on the basis of comparison with spectrophotometer measurements and modeling. The predicted range for the emergence of a surface plasmon polariton is found to be above lambda >or= 2.1microm, while the optimal film thickness for its observation is estimated to be around 200nm.

  12. The use of a hierarchically platinum-free electrode composed of tin oxide decorated polypyrrole on nanoporous copper in catalysis of methanol electrooxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asghari, Elnaz, E-mail: elnazasghari@yahoo.com; Ashassi-Sorkhabi, Habib; Vahed, Akram; Rezaei-Moghadam, Babak; Charmi, Gholam Reza

    2016-01-01

    Tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized through a galvanostatic pathway on polypyrrole, PPy, coated nanoporous copper. The morphology and surface analysis of the assemblies were evaluated by field emission scanning electron microscopy, FESEM, and energy dispersive X-ray, EDX, analysis, respectively. The electrocatalytic behavior of electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution. FESEM results showed that uniformly distributed nanoparticles with diameters of about 20–30 nm have been dispersed on PPy matrix. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests in methanol solution showed a significant enhancement in the catalytic action of PPy after decoration of tin oxide nanoparticles. Porous Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} electrodes showed enhanced anodic peak current density for methanol oxidation compared to smooth Cu/PPy/SnO{sub x} and porous Cu/PPy. The effects of synthesis current density and time on the electrocatalytic behavior of the electrodes were evaluated. The significant enhancement of electrocatalytic behavior of the Cu/PPy electrode after decoration of SnO{sub x} overlayer was attributed to the effect of tin oxide on the adsorption of intermediates of methanol oxidation as well as oxidation of bi-products such as CO; huge tendency of tin oxides for dehydrogenation of the alcohols and the increase in microscopic surface area of the electrodes were introduced as other affecting factors. - Highlights: • Nanoporous copper–zinc substrates were formed by chemical leaching of zinc. • Polypyrrole thin film was electrodeposited on nanoporous copper. • Thin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized electrochemically on polypyrrole layer. • The catalytic performance of the electrodes was evaluated for methanol oxidation.

  13. Junctionless Thin-Film Transistors Gated by an H₃PO₄-Incorporated Chitosan Proton Conductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huixuan; Xun, Damao

    2018-04-01

    We fabricated an H3PO4-incorporated chitosan proton conductor film that exhibited the electric double layer effect and showed a high specific capacitance of 4.42 μF/cm2. Transparent indium tin oxide thin-film transistors gated by H3PO4-incorporated chitosan films were fabricated by sputtering through a shadow mask. The operating voltage was as low as 1.2 V because of the high specific capacitance of the H3PO4-incorporated chitosan dielectrics. The junctionless transparent indium tin oxide thin film transistors exhibited good performance, including an estimated current on/off ratio and field-effect mobility of 1.2 × 106 and 6.63 cm2V-1s-1, respectively. These low-voltage thin-film electric-double-layer transistors gated by H3PO4-incorporated chitosan are promising for next generation battery-powered "see-through" portable sensors.

  14. Technetium behavior in sulfide and ferrous iron solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.Y.; Bondietti, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    Pertechnetate oxyanion ( 99 TcO 4- ), a potentially mobile species in leachate from a breached radioactive waste repository, was removed from a brine solution by precipitation with sulfide, iron, and ferrous sulfide at environmental pH's. Maghemite (ν-Fe 2 O 3 ) and geothite (α-FeOOH) were the dominant minerals in the precipitate obtained from the TcO 4- -ferrous iron reaction. The observation of small particle size and poor crystallinity of the minerals formed in the presence of Tc suggested that the Tc was incorporated into the mineral structure after reduction to a lower valence state. Amorphous ferrous sulfide, an initial phase precipitating in the TcO 4- -ferrous iron-sulfide reaction, was transformed to goethite and hematite (α-Fe 2 O 3 ) on aging. The black precipitate obtained from the TcO 4- -sulfide reaction was poorly crystallized technetium sulfide (Tc 2 S 7 ) which was insoluble in both acid and alkaline solution in the absence of strong oxidents. The results suggested that ferrous- and/or sulfide-bearing groundwaters and minerals in host rocks or backfill barriers could reduce the mobility of Tc through the formation of less-soluble Tc-bearing iron and/or sulfide minerals

  15. Petroleum sulfides, sulfoxides, and sulfones used as extragents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitin, Yu.E.; Lyapina, N.K.; Murinov, Yu.I.

    1988-01-01

    Possibilities of using petroleum sulfides, sulfoxides and sulfones for extraction and separation of wide range of elements are considered. It is shown that petroleum sulfides appear to be effective and selective extractants in extraction and separation of noble metals (Ru, Au, Pt, etc.). Petroleum sulfoxides are promising for solvent extraction of transition metals, actinides, rare earths etc

  16. Effect of Soluble Sulfide on the Activity of Luminescent Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Sulfide is an important water pollutant widely found in industrial waste water that has attracted much attention. S2−, as a weak acidic anion, is easy hydrolyzed to HS and H2S in aqueous solution. In this study, biological tests were performed to establish the toxicity of sulfide solutions on luminescent bacteria. Considering the sulfide solution was contained three substances—S2−, HS and H2S—the toxicity test was performed at different pH values to investigate which form of sulfide increased light emission and which reduced light emission. It was shown that the EC50 values were close at pH 7.4, 8.0 and 9.0 which were higher than pH 5 and 10. The light emission and sulfide concentrations displayed an inverse exponential dose-response relationship within a certain concentration range at pH 5, 6.5 and 10. The same phenomenon occurred for the high concentration of sulfide at pH 7.4, 8 and 9, in which the concentration of sulfide was HS >> H2S > S2−. An opposite hormesis-effect appeared at the low concentrations of sulfide.

  17. Structural and Optoelectronic Properties of SnO2 Thin Films Doped by Group-Ia Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhebal, Hadj; Benrabah, Bedhiaf; Ammari, Aek; Madoune, Yacine; Lambert, Stéphanie D.

    This paper presents the results of an experimental work devoted to the synthesis and the characterization of tin dioxide (SnO2) thin layers doped with group-IA elements (Li, Na and K). The materials were synthesized by the sol-gel method and deposited by dip-coating, using tin (II) chloride dihydrate as a source of tin and absolute ethyl alcohol as solvent. Thin films prepared were characterized by several techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), visible and ultraviolet spectroscopy and complex impedance method. The results obtained show that the materials kept their tetragonal rutile structure with preferred orientation of (101), whereas doping leads to a reduction of their energy band gap. The complex impedance analysis suggests that the different processes occurring at the electrode interface are modeled by an electrical circuit not affected by the doping.

  18. NiCo2O4@TiN Core-shell Electrodes through Conformal Atomic Layer Deposition for All-solid-state Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruiqi; Xia, Chuan; Wei, Nini; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanostructures are prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. • Outer shell of TiN is then grown through conformal atomic layer deposition. • Electrodes exhibit significantly enhanced rate capability with TiN coating. • Solid-state polymer electrolyte is employed to improve cycling stability. • Full devices show a stack power density of 58.205 mW cm −3 at 0.061 mWh cm −3 . - Abstract: Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo 2 O 4 show great potential as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo 2 O 4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo 2 O 4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm −3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm −3 . To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo 2 O 4 -based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm −2 . These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN electrodes within sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.

  19. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  20. Thin melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David E

    2011-03-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma is increasing and a preponderance of the melanomas diagnosed today are "thin in terms of Breslow criteria. Although thin melanomas, as a group, are associated with a very good prognosis, a subset of these tumors may metastasize and cause death. These cases can be identified by using prognostic models, including the "standard" American Joint Committee on Cancer criteria, and other attributes identified in follow-up studies. To review the history of concepts of prognostic modeling in melanoma, focusing on thin melanomas. Selected literature. About 40 years ago, it was realized that malignant melanoma, once almost uniformly fatal, could be divided into categories with better or worse prognosis through the use of prognostic models. The first simple models, Clark levels of invasion and Breslow thickness, are still in use. Thickness remains the single most useful variable. Breslow recognized that melanomas less than 0.76 mm in thickness were associated with a very good prognosis, with no metastases in his limited initial study. The American Joint Committee on Cancer selected a cutoff of 1.0 mm, which achieves a similar result, with stage modifiers, although some metastases and deaths do occur with stage I lesions. Clark demonstrated an almost equally good prognosis for his level II invasive melanomas and recognized that most of these lesions, although invasive, lacked the ability to form tumors or to undergo mitosis in the dermis and were therefore "nontumorigenic" and "nonmitogenic" and lacked competence for metastasis. Studies of these low-risk melanomas have led to the development of criteria for earlier diagnosis and a steady, but still inadequate, improvement in prognosis for melanoma overall. Multivariable models currently can identify groups of patients within the "thin melanoma" category whose prognosis varies, from a disease-free survival of close to 100% to about 70%. Prognosis declines more or less linearly with increasing