WorldWideScience

Sample records for tin dioxide-based composites

  1. Preparation and Electrochemical Properties of Mesoporous Manganese Dioxide-Based Composite Electrode for Supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanhua; Cui, Xiuguo; Zu, Lei; Hu, Zhongkai; Gan, Jing; Lian, Huiquin; Liu, Yanag; Xing, Guangjian

    2017-01-01

    The mesoporous manganese dioxide with high specific surface area was obtained through a one-pot prepare procedure at ambient temperature under acidic conditions. And the graphene/mesoporous manganese dioxide composite was synthesized by a simple hydrothermal approach. As a comparison, silver nanowires also as a conductor was added to the mesoporous manganese dioxide. Both of the graphene and silver nanowires can increase the capacitance of the mesoporous manganese dioxide-based composite electrode materials. Compared with the graphene/mesoporous manganese dioxide composite, the silver nanowires/mesoporous manganese dioxide mixture has a better electrochemical performance, the specific capacitance and energy density is almost 2.2 times larger than that of the composites. The morphology and detail structure were investigated by the Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and Nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms. The electrochemical performance was assessed by the cyclic voltammograms, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  2. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  3. Silicon-tin oxynitride glassy composition and use as anode for lithium-ion battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neudecker, Bernd J.; Bates, John B.

    2001-01-01

    Disclosed are silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions which are especially useful in the construction of anode material for thin-film electrochemical devices including rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, electrochromic mirrors, electrochromic windows, and actuators. Additional applications of silicon-tin oxynitride glassy compositions include optical fibers and optical waveguides.

  4. Analyzing the kinetic response of tin oxide-carbon and tin oxide-CNT composites gas sensors for alcohols detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamble, Vinayak, E-mail: vinbk@mrc.iisc.ernet.in; Umarji, Arun [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, 560012 (India)

    2015-03-15

    Tin oxide nanoparticles are synthesized using solution combustion technique and tin oxide – carbon composite thick films are fabricated with amorphous carbon as well as carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and porosity measurements show that the as-synthesized nanoparticles are having rutile phase with average crystallite size ∼7 nm and ∼95 m{sup 2}/g surface area. The difference between morphologies of the carbon doped and CNT doped SnO{sub 2} thick films, are characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The adsorption-desorption kinetics and transient response curves are analyzed using Langmuir isotherm curve fittings and modeled using power law of semiconductor gas sensors.

  5. Production of multifilamentary Nb3Sn composites incorporating a high tin bronze

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovich, A.; Zeithlin, B.A.; Walker, M.S.

    1977-01-01

    The economics and processing methods have been examined for the fabrication of multifilamentary Nb 3 Sn using a high tin bronze reactive matrix. Four conductor configurations utilizing the high tin bronze were compared with a conventional Cu-13 wt % Sn bronze. The most promising of these designs is potentially 40% lower in cost per ampere meter than the conventional composite. Large hydrostatic extrusion facilities, which are required for the high tin processing, are not presently available in this country but can be made by conversion of conventional presses. They exist in Europe. Experiments were conducted to investigate the applicability of hydrostatic extrusion, and billet components were successfully prepared using the hydrostatic extrusion technique. We have concluded that the economics, availability of facilities and initial fabrication results are favorable for this type of conductor and that the next stage in this program of scale up to extrusion and drawing of 2'' to 3'' diameter composite billets should be undertaken

  6. Development of Nafion/Tin Oxide Composite MEA for DMFC applications

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang; Mecheri, Barbara; D'Epifanio, Alessandra; Traversa, Enrico; Licoccia, Silvia

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Nafion composite membranes containing either hydrated tin oxide (SnO2?nH2O) or sulfated tin oxide (S-SnO2) at 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% were prepared and characterized. The structural and electrochemical features of the samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, methanol crossover, and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) tests. Highest conductivity values were obtained by using S-SnO2 as filler (0.094 Scm-1 at T=110?C and RH=100%). The...

  7. Polyacrylonitrile and cobalt-tin compounds based composite and its electrochemical properties in lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nacimiento, Francisco; Alcantara, Ricardo; Tirado, Jose L.

    2009-01-01

    A novel composite electrode material has been prepared by easy and inexpensive route. Nanocrystalline grains of the tin-based phases CoSn 2 , CoSn and SnO 2 are embedded in an amorphous layer based on the polyacrylonitrile (PAN) polymer. Maximum reversible capacities around 600 mAh/g are observed. The PAN-based layer and the oxygen atoms contribute to stabilize the intermetallic phases upon electrochemical cycling, thus improving capacity retention. The mechanisms of the reactions are explored by using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. In the first discharge process, the cassiterite phase is destroyed and amorphous Li y CoSn x phases are formed, while some grains of CoSn and CoSn 2 remained unaffected. Lithium-tin intermetallic phases are not detected. In the charge process, the segregation of tin-based phases into Co-rich and Co-poor regions takes place.

  8. Three-dimensional reticular tin-manganese oxide composite anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, X.J.; Guo, Z.P.; Zhang, P.; Du, G.D.; Poh, C.K.; Chen, Z.X.; Li, S.; Liu, H.K.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-manganese oxide film with three-dimensional (3D) reticular structure has been prepared by electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicate that the film is amorphous. X-ray-photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) demonstrates that the 3D grid is composed of tin-manganese oxide. As an anode electrode for the lithium ion battery, the tin-manganese oxide film has 1188.3 mAh g -1 of initial discharge capacity and very good capacity retention of 656.2 mAh g -1 up to the 30th cycle. Such a composite film can be used as an anode for lithium ion batteries with higher energy densities.

  9. Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2012-01-01

    based on tin pyrophosphates as the catalyst support. The materials showed an overall conductivity of 0.57 S cm−1 at 130 °C under the water vapor atmosphere with a contribution of the proton conduction. Using this composite support, iridium oxide nanoparticle catalysts were prepared and characterized......Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers operating at typically 80 °C or at further elevated temperatures suffer from insufficient catalyst activity and durability. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and further doped with an inorganic proton conducting phase...

  10. Antimony doped tin oxides and their composites with tin pyrophosphates as catalyst supports for oxygen evolution reaction in proton exchange membrane water electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Hansen, Martin Kalmar

    2012-01-01

    based on tin pyrophosphates as the catalyst support. The materials showed an overall conductivity of 0.57 S cm−1 at 130 °C under the water vapor atmosphere with a contribution of the proton conduction. Using this composite support, iridium oxide nanoparticle catalysts were prepared and characterized...... in sulfuric and phosphoric acid electrolytes, showing much enhanced catalytic activity. Electrolyzer tests were conducted at both 80 °C with an Aquivion™ membrane and at 130 °C with a phosphoric acid doped Aquivion™ membrane. Significant improvement in the anodic kinetics was achieved on the composite...

  11. Synthesis of composite gold/tin-oxide nanoparticles by nano-soldering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajaj, Geetika; Soni, R. K.

    2010-01-01

    Composite Au-SnO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) are synthesized by nano-soldering of pure Au and SnO 2 NPs. The multi-step process involves synthesis of pure Au and SnO 2 NPs separately by nanosecond pulse laser ablation of pure gold and pure tin targets in deionized water and post-ablation laser heating of mixed solution of Au colloidal and SnO 2 colloidal to form nanocomposite. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and High-Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) were used to study the effect of laser irradiation time on morphology of the composite Au-SnO 2 NPs. The spherical particles of 4 nm mean size were obtained for 5 min of post-laser heating. Increased mean size and elongated particles were observed on further laser heating. UV-vis spectra of Au-SnO 2 nanocomposites show red shift in the plasmon resonance absorption peak and line shape broadening with respect to pure Au NPs. The negative binding energy shift of Au 4f 7/2 peak observed in X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) indicates charge transfer in the nano-soldered Au-SnO 2 between gold and tin oxide and formation of soldered nanocomposite.

  12. Composition control of tin-zinc electrodeposits through means of experimental strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; De Petris-Wery, M.; Saurat, M.; Ayedi, H.F.

    2007-01-01

    Tin-zinc coatings offer excellent corrosion protection and do not suffer the drawback of the voluminous white corrosion product of pure zinc or high zinc alloy coatings. The aim of this study was to determine the suitable electroplating conditions (i.e. electrolyte composition and cathode current density) to produce 70Sn-30Zn electrodeposits. Thus, a fractional factorial design (FFD) was carried out to evaluate the effects of experimental parameters (Zn II concentration, Sn IV concentration, pH and current density) on the Zn content of the electrodeposit. On the other hand, the electrodeposits were characterised by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Correlation between operating conditions, composition and morphology was attempted

  13. Incorporation of tin affects crystallization, morphology, and crystal composition of Sn-Beta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolborg, Søren; Katerinopoulou, A.; Falcone, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    The crystallization of Sn-Beta in fl uoride medium is greatly in fl uenced by the amount and type of tin source present in the synthesis gel. By varying the amount of tin in the form of tin( IV ) chloride pentahydrate, the time required for crystallization was studied. It was found that tin not o...... to the minimum time required for obtaining full crystallinity. At excessive crystallization times, the catalytic activity decreased, presumably due to Ostwald ripening...

  14. Compositional influence on the electrical performance of zinc indium tin oxide transparent thin-film transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marsal, A. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Carreras, P. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Puigdollers, J.; Voz, C.; Galindo, S.; Alcubilla, R. [Dept Enginyeria Electronica and Center of Research in Nanoengineering, Universitat Politècnica Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain); Bertomeu, J. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Antony, A. [Dept Física Aplicada i Òptica, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay (India)

    2014-03-31

    In this work, zinc indium tin oxide layers with different compositions are used as the active layer of thin film transistors. This multicomponent transparent conductive oxide is gaining great interest due to its reduced content of the scarce indium element. Experimental data indicate that the incorporation of zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies, which results in a higher free carrier density. In thin-film transistors this effect leads to a higher off current and threshold voltage values. The field-effect mobility is also strongly degraded, probably due to coulomb scattering by ionized defects. A post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen vacancies and improves the field-effect mobility by orders of magnitude. Finally, the electrical characteristics of the fabricated thin-film transistors have been analyzed to estimate the density of states in the gap of the active layers. These measurements reveal a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band edge that could be attributed to oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • Zinc promotes the creation of oxygen vacancies in zinc indium tin oxide transistors. • Post deposition annealing in air reduces the density of oxygen. • Density of states reveals a clear peak located at 0.3 eV from the conduction band.

  15. Speculations Linking Monazite Compositions to Origin: Llallagua Tin Ore Deposit (Bolivia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth J. Catlos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Monazite [(Ce,ThPO4] from the Llallagua tin ore deposit in Bolivia is characterized by low radiogenic element contents. Previously reported field evidence and mineral associations suggest the mineral formed via direct precipitation from hydrothermal fluids. Monazite compositions thus may provide insight into characteristics of the fluids from which it formed. Chemical compositions of three Llallagua monazite grains were obtained using Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA, n = 64] and laser ablation mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS, n = 56. The mineral has higher amounts of U (123 ± 17 ppm than Th (39 ± 20 ppm (LA-ICP-MS, ±1σ. Grains have the highest amounts of fluorine ever reported for monazite (0.88 ± 0.10 wt %, EPMA, ±1σ, and F-rich fluids are effective mobilizers of rare earth elements (REEs, Y, and Th. The monazite has high Eu contents and positive Eu anomalies, consistent with formation in a highly-reducing back-arc environment. We speculate that F, Ca, Si and REE may have been supplied via dissolution of pre-existing fluorapatite. Llallagua monazite oscillatory zoning is controlled by an interplay of low (P + Ca + Si + Y and high atomic number (REE elements. We suggest monazite compositions provide insight into fluid geochemistry, mineral reactions, and tectonic settings of ore deposits that contain the mineral.

  16. Fabrication of flower-like tin/carbon composite microspheres as long-lasting anode materials for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Tae-Woo [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyung-Seok [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong-Jin [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Sun, Yang-Kook [Department of WCU Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Kyung-Do, E-mail: kdsuh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul, 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we report the fabrication of the flower-like tin/carbon (Sn/C) composite microspheres using sulfonated semi-interpenetrating polystyrene (SPS) microspheres as a carbon precursor. The sulfonation degree of SPS has great effects on the resulting particle size, morphology, amount of introduced Sn, and the carbonization yield of the microspheres after heat treatment. The obtained Sn/C composite microspheres were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), focused-ion beam SEM, and X-ray diffraction. The flower-like Sn/C composite electrodes exhibited higher charge-discharge capacities than those of graphite as an anode material for a lithium ion battery. In addition, they show a long lasting cyclability, even through 400 cycles. - Highlights: • Tin nanocrystals are introduced in flower-like carbon spheres with many ripples. • Long lasting cyclability is exhibited at 1 C rate up to 400 cycles. • Tin content of composite spheres depends on chemical treatment of polymer microspheres.

  17. Extraction and Separation of Tin from Tin-Bearing Secondary Resources: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zijian; Zhang, Yuanbo; Liu, Bingbing; Lu, Manman; Li, Guanghui; Jiang, Tao

    2017-11-01

    The proven global tin reserves were reported to be approximately 4.7 million tons (Mts) in 2016, and among these resources, only approximately 2.2 Mts can be recovered economically. The original tin deposits will be exhausted in several years, therefore, tin-bearing secondary resources, such as tin alloy, tin anode slime, e-wastes, tin slag and tin-bearing tailings, will become the primary source from which tin can be extracted. Many investigations have been conducted on the recovery of tin from these tin-bearing materials. However, the separation and recovery approaches of tin vary significantly, since the content and phase compositions of tin are totally different in these secondary resources. This paper reviews these methods of extracting and separating tin from different kinds of tin-bearing secondary resources.

  18. Aquatic macrophyte composition of some tropical tin-mined ponds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey of aquatic macrophytes was conducted for nine tin-mined lakes located around Jos in September 1998 and February 1999 to coincide with the wet and dry season conditions. A total of 48 species were found in all ponds, 46 species classified into 14 families for the wet season and 24 species classified into 11 ...

  19. Perspectives of the Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite as a biomaterial and manufacturing of complex-shaped implantable devices by electrical discharge machining (EDM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucciotti, Francesco; Mazzocchi, Mauro; Bellosi, Alida

    2010-01-01

    In this work we investigated the suitability of electroconductive silicon nitride/titanium nitride composite for biomedical implantable devices with particular attention on the processing route that allows the net-shaping of complex components by electrical discharge machining (EDM). The composite, constituted mainly of a beta-Si3N4, dispersed TiN grains and a glassy grain boundary phase, exhibited a low density and high hardness, strength and toughness. Bulk, surface characteristics and properties of the Si3N4-TiN composite were analyzed. After the EDM process, the microstructure of the machined surface was examined. The obtained results showed that the Si3N4-TiN ceramic composite together with the EDM manufacturing process might potentially play a key role in implantable load-bearing prosthesis applications.

  20. Insights from investigations of tin dioxide and its composites: electron-beam irradiation, fractal assessment, and mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiwen; Shek, Chan-Hung; Lawrence Wu, C. M.

    2015-09-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) is a unique strategic functional material with widespread technological applications, particularly in fields such as solar batteries, optoelectronic devices, and solid-state gas sensors owing to advances in its optical and electronic properties. In this review, we introduce the recent progress of tin dioxide and its composites, including the synthesis strategies, microstructural evolution, related formation mechanism, and performance evaluation of SnO2 quantum dots (QDs), thin films, and composites prepared by electron-beam irradiation, pulsed laser ablation, and SnO2 planted graphene strategies, highlighting contributions from our laboratory. First, we present the electron-beam irradiation strategies for the growth behavior of SnO2 nanocrystals. This method is a potentially powerful technique to achieve the nucleation and growth of SnO2 QDs. In addition, the fractal assessment strategies and gas sensing behavior of SnO2 thin films with interesting micro/nanostructures induced by pulsed delivery will be discussed experimentally and theoretically. Finally, we emphasize the fabrication process and formation mechanism of SnO2 QD planted graphene nanosheets. This review may provide a new insight that the versatile strategies for microstructural evolution and related performance of SnO2-based functional materials are of fundamental importance in the development of new materials.

  1. The formation of layers of porous crystalline tin dioxide from a composite on the basis of multiwalled carbon-nanotube arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesov, S. N.; Korusenko, P. M.; Bolotov, V. V.; Povoroznyuk, S. N.; Ivlev, K. E.; Smirnov, D. A.

    2017-11-01

    A new method for the synthesis of porous crystalline tin-dioxide (SnO2) layers from composites on the basis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and nonstoichiometric amorphous tin oxide (MWCNT/SnO x ) is proposed. An MWCN/SnO x composite layer produced by magnetron sputtering is annealed in air atmosphere at 500°C for 30 min. A homogeneous porous layer comprised of crystalline SnO2 spherical particles with a size of about 0.1 μm is obtained as a result. In the process of annealing, nearly all the amount of carbon is removed in the form of gaseous oxides (only a small amount remains in the upper part of the porous SnO2 layer). The structural defectiveness of nanotube walls, which increases because of the magnetron deposition of tin, plays a crucial role in the carbon oxidation and destruction of MWCNTs.

  2. Thermal conductivity and tensile properties of tin oxide filled UPR/EPS composites with and without organic nanocrystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, R.; Syed Mustafa, S. A.; Norizan, Mohd N.; Suraya Amerudin, L.

    2017-07-01

    Panel composite for building application made from waste expanded polystyrene (EPS) and unsaturated polyester (UPR) were fabricated and tested in this research for their tensile and thermal characteristics in determining its insulation properties. Research had been carried out to incorporate EPS into UPR with addition of two additives types which are tin oxide (SnO) stand alone, and tin oxide in combination with organic nanocrystals. The weight percentage of SnO had been varied from 0.1 to 2%, and the nanocrystals between 0.1 to 0.5%; both fabricated via casting and compression of the UPR/EPS composite. The testing performed are tensile properties by an Instron Universal Tensile Machine; and thermal conductivity test by using KD2 Pro hand-held thermal probe. It was found that, by using UPE/EPS, the additives affected the composites' thermal conductivity and tensile capabilities. For tensile strength, the control sample showed the highest tensile strength at 22.2 MPa. For thermal conductivity (k value), the lowest value was recorded by the 1% SnO stand alone at an approximate ~ 0.172 W/m.K. Via organic nanocrystal use fixed at 0.1%, the k value increases up to a certain point with increasing SnO. Addition of more SnO and nanocrystal incorporation had mostly increases its thermal conductivity and heat capacity. Heat capacity was also found to be at the lowest in the 1% SnO stand alone sample at 2.008 MJ/m3.K.

  3. Elastic and thermo-physical properties of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys using ab initio calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jiwoong; Kang, Shinhoo

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Elastic properties of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated by ab initio calculations. ► Debye temperature and Gruneisen constant of TiC, TiN and their alloys were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermo-physical properties were calculated as a function of nitrogen content. ► Thermal expansion of the alloys was fitted in different temperature range. - Abstract: The equilibrium lattice parameters, elastic properties, material brittleness, heat capacities, and thermal expansion coefficients of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys (Ti(C 1−x N x ), x = 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75) were calculated using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods. We employed the Debye–Gruneisen model to calculate a finite temperature heat capacity and thermal expansion coefficient. The calculated elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients agreed well with the experimental data and with other DFT calculations. Accurate heat capacities of TiC, TiN, and their intermediate composition alloys were obtained by calculating not only the phonon contributions but also the electron contributions to the heat capacity. Our calculations indicated that the heat capacity differences between each composition originated mainly from the electronic contributions.

  4. Development of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based metal matrix composite by direct metal laser sintering technique and its characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Manowar; Mandal, Vijay; Kumar, Vikas; Das, A. K.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2017-12-01

    The present study describes the fabrication of TiN particulates reinforced SS316 based Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs) in nitrogen and argon atmosphere. The influence of sintering process parameters on microstructure, density, porosity, wear rate and microhardness of the fabricated samples has been analyzed. The input variable process parameters, such as, laser power density (range: 4.13-5.57 W/cm2 (× 104)), scanning speed (range: 3500-4500 mm/min) and the constant parameters, such as, laser beam diameter (0.4 mm), hatching distance (0.2 mm) and layer thickness (0.4 mm) have been considered in the process. It has been observed from Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis that TiN and SS316 powder mixture can be sintered in which chromium acts as a binder. Fine gaps are not found at the interface between TiN and SS316 when the mixture is sintered in nitrogen atmosphere. With an increase in the percentage of TiN, the density and wear rate decreases. However, when the reinforcement is taken beyond 18% by weight, the wear rate starts increasing. The microhardness also increases with an increase in the percentage of TiN. The microstructure, elemental compositions and phase characterization of the developed sintered MMCs have been examined by FESEM, EDX (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) and XRD (X-ray diffractometer) analysis, respectively. The results have demonstrated the suitability of the TiN reinforced SS316 MMCs for industrial applications.

  5. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won-Yong Jeon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes (DSPNCE were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH2/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV, scanning from 0–1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0–10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA or ascorbic acid (AA. Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor.

  6. Disposable Non-Enzymatic Glucose Sensors Using Screen-Printed Nickel/Carbon Composites on Indium Tin Oxide Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Won-Yong; Choi, Young-Bong; Kim, Hyug-Han

    2015-12-10

    Disposable screen-printed nickel/carbon composites on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes (DSPNCE) were developed for the detection of glucose without enzymes. The DSPNCE were prepared by screen-printing the ITO substrate with a 50 wt% nickel/carbon composite, followed by curing at 400 °C for 30 min. The redox couple of Ni(OH)₂/NiOOH was deposited on the surface of the electrodes via cyclic voltammetry (CV), scanning from 0-1.5 V for 30 cycles in 0.1 M NaOH solution. The DSPNCE were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and electrochemical methods. The resulting electrical currents, measured by CV and chronoamperometry at 0.65 V vs. Ag/AgCl, showed a good linear response with glucose concentrations from 1.0-10 mM. Also, the prepared electrodes showed no interference from common physiologic interferents such as uric acid (UA) or ascorbic acid (AA). Therefore, this approach allowed the development of a simple, disposable glucose biosensor.

  7. Formation of tin-tin oxide core–shell nanoparticles in the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes by pulsed ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korusenko, P.M., E-mail: korusenko@obisp.oscsbras.ru [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Nesov, S.N.; Bolotov, V.V.; Povoroznyuk, S.N. [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Pushkarev, A.I. [National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Lenin Ave. 2a, 634028 Tomsk (Russian Federation); Ivlev, K.E. [Omsk Scientific Center, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Karl Marx avenue 15, 644040 Omsk (Russian Federation); Smirnov, D.A. [St. Petersburg State University, Lieutenant Shmidt Emb. 11, 198504 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Institute of Solid State Physics, Dresden University of Technology, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2017-03-01

    Highlights: • Original method the formation of core–shell structures by pulsed ion beam is proposed. • The composite SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs was irradiated by pulsed ion beam. • Morphology and electronic structure of the irradiated composite were characterized. • The formation of Sn−SnO{sub x} core–shell nanoparticles after irradiation was observed. - Abstract: The complex methods of transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to investigate the changes in the morphology, phase composition, and electronic structure of the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotubes (SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs) irradiated with the pulsed ion beam of nanosecond duration. The irradiation of the composite SnO{sub 2−x}/N-MWCNTs leads to the formation of nanoparticles with the core–shell structure on the surface of CNTs with a sharp interfacial boundary. It has been established that the “core” is a metal tin (Sn{sup 0}) with a typical size of 5–35 nm, and the “shell” is a thin amorphous layer (2–6 nm) consisting of nonstoichiometric tin oxide with a low oxygen content. The “core–shell” structure Sn−SnO{sub x} is formed due to the process of heating and evaporation of SnO{sub 2−x} under the effect of the ion beam, followed by vapor deposition on the surface of carbon nanotubes.

  8. Composite of TiN nanoparticles and few-walled carbon nanotubes and its application to the electrocatalytic oxygen reduction reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Isogai, Shunsuke

    2011-11-30

    Nanoparticles meet nanotubes! Direct synthesis of TiN nanoparticles in a three-dimensional network of few-walled carbon nanotubes (FWCNTs) was achieved by using mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (C 3N 4) as both a hard template and a nitrogen source. The TiN/FWCNT composite showed high performance for the oxygen reduction reaction in acidic media. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Improved irradiation tolerance of reactive gas pulse sputtered TiN coatings with a hybrid architecture of multilayered and compositionally graded structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yang, Jijun; Zhang, Feifei; Lu, Chenyang; Wang, Lumin; Liao, Jiali; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the improved irradiation tolerance of reactive gas pulse (RGP) sputtered TiN coatings which has hybrid architecture of multilayered and compositionally graded structures. The multilayered RGP-TiN coating is composed of hexagonal close-packed Ti phase and face-centred cubic TiN phase sublayers, where the former sublayer has a compositionally graded structure and the latter one maintains constant stoichiometric atomic ratio of Ti:N. After 100 keV He ion irradiation, the RGP-TiN coating exhibits improved irradiation resistance compared with its single layered (SL) counterpart. The size and density of He bubbles are smaller in the RGP-TiN coating than in the SL-TiN coating. The irradiation-induced surface blistering of the coatings shows a similar tendency. Meanwhile, the irradiation hardening and adhesion strength of the RGP-TiN coatings were not greatly affected by He irradiation. Moreover, the irradiation damage tolerance of the coatings can be well tuned by changing the undulation period number of N2 gas flow rate. Detailed analysis suggested that this improved irradiation tolerance could be related to the combined contribution of the multilayered and compositionally graded structures.

  10. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  11. Tin oxide quantum dots embedded iron oxide composite as efficient lead sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Dipa; Bahadur, Dhirendra

    2018-04-01

    SnO2 quantum dots (QDs) embedded iron oxide (IO) nanocomposite is fabricated and explored as a capable sensor for lead detection. Square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) and amperometry have been used to explore the proposed sensor's response towards lead detection. The modified electrode shows linear current response for concentration of lead ranging from 99 nM to 6.6 µM with limit of detection 0.42 µM (34 ppb). Amperometry shows a detection limit as low as 0.18 nM (0.015 ppb); which is far below the permissible limit of lead in drinking water by World Health Organization. This proposed sensor shows linear current response (R2 = 0.98) for the lead concentration ranging from 133 × 10-9 to 4.4 × 10-6M. It also exhibits rapid response time of 12 sec with an ultra high sensitivity of 5.5 µA/nM. These detection properties promise the use of SnO2 QDs -IO composite for detection of lead in environmental sample with great ease.

  12. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mansoori, Muntaser; Al-Shaibani, Sahar; Al-Jaeedi, Ahlam; Lee, Jisung; Choi, Daniel; Hasoon, Falah S.

    2017-12-01

    Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2). The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF)-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2) layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  13. Effects of gas flow rate on the structure and elemental composition of tin oxide thin films deposited by RF sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muntaser Al-Mansoori

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Photovoltaic technology is one of the key answers for a better sustainable future. An important layer in the structure of common photovoltaic cells is the transparent conductive oxide. A widely applied transparent conductive oxide is tin oxide (SnO2. The advantage of using tin oxide comes from its high stability and low cost in processing. In our study, we investigate effects of working gas flow rate and oxygen content in radio frequency (RF-sputtering system on the growth of intrinsic SnO2 (i-SnO2 layers. X-ray diffraction results showed that amorphous-like with nano-crystallite structure, and the surface roughness varied from 1.715 to 3.936 nm. X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed different types of point defects, such as tin interstitials and oxygen vacancies, in deposited i-SnO2 films.

  14. Electrocatalytic properties of platinum nanoparticles supported on fluorine tin dioxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites for methanol electrooxidation in acidic medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Dao-Jun; Jing, Zhi-Hong

    2011-07-01

    Fluorine tin oxide (FTO) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composites synthesized by a sol-gel process followed by a hydrothermal treatment process have been explored as a support for Pt nanoparticles (Pt-FTO/MWCNTs). X-ray diffraction analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy show that the Pt and FTO nanoparticles with crystallite size of around 4-8 nm are highly dispersed on the surface of MWCNTs. Pt-FTO/MWCNT catalyst is evaluated in terms of the electrochemical catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation using cyclic voltammetry, steady state polarization experiments, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique in acidic medium. The Pt-FTO/MWCNT catalyst exhibits a higher intrinsic catalytic activity for methanol electrooxidation with high stability during potential cycling than Pt nanoparticles supported on tin dioxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composites. The results suggest that FTO/MWCNT composites could be considered as an alternative support for Pt-based electrocatalysts in direct alcohol fuel cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Solvent transfer of graphene oxide for synthesis of tin mono-sulfide graphene composite and application as anode of lithium-ion battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Alok M.; Mitra, Sagar

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Destabilization of graphene oxide colloid and SnS graphene composite preparation for lithium-ion battery. - Abstract: Tin mono sulfide (SnS) graphene composite has been synthesized for anode of lithium-ion battery. For synthesis of composite, graphene oxide (GO)-water (H 2 O) colloid has been destabilized and ensured the complete transfer of graphene oxide into another organic solvent N, N-dimethyl formamide (DMF). Mechanism for the destabilization of GO-H 2 O colloid is established. Surface to surface attachment of SnS on graphene sheet is achieved by solvothermal solution phase assembly of graphene sheets and SnS nanoparticles in DMF solvent. Graphene plays role in nanoparticle formation in composite. Such confined composite has been cycled reversibly at current rate of 160 mA g −1 , in voltage region of 0.01–2.5 V and exhibit a superior discharge capacity of 630 mAh g −1 after 50th cycle. Ex situ TEM analysis of used electrode reveal that the SnS nanoparticle-graphene composite with CMC binder perform better due to proper shape retention of electroactive materials during electrochemical cycling.

  16. Whisker Formation On Galvanic Tin Surface Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radanyi A.L.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work reports the effect of substrate composition, thickness of the tin electroplate and its morphology on pressure-induced tin whisker formation. Pure tin deposits of different thickness were obtained on a copper and brass substrates using methane sulfonic industrial bath. The deposits were compressed by a steel bearing ball forming imprint on the surface. The microstructure of tin whiskers obtained at the boundary of each imprint, their length and number were studied using both light and scanning electron microscopy. It was shown that the most intensive formation and growth of whiskers was observed in the first two hours. In general, brass substrate was shown to be more prone to whisker formation than copper independently of the tin coating thickness. The results have been compared with industrial bright tin finish on control unit socket leads and proposals have been made as to modification of the production process in order to minimize the risk of whiskering.

  17. On the influence of a TiN interlayer on DLC coatings produced by pulsed vacuum arc discharge: Compositional and morphological study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura-Giraldo, B. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Restrepo-Parra, E., E-mail: erestrepopa@unal.edu.co [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Grupo de Desarrollo de Nuevos Materiales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Arango-Arango, P.J. [Departamento de Fisica y Quimica, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia); Laboratorio de Fisica del Plasma, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Manizales, Campus La Nubia, Km. via al aeropuerto, Manizales (Colombia)

    2009-10-15

    The influence of a TiN interlayer on DLC coatings grown on silicon (1 0 0), 316 stainless steel and KCl by using the PAPVD pulsed arc discharge technique is presented in this paper. The structure of the coatings was determined by means of FTIR through observation of the absorption band modes of CH{sub 2} between 3100 and 2800 cm{sup -1} and representation of the sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} carbon bonds, respectively. The sp{sup 3}/sp{sup 2} bonds ratio was calculated by using the base line method and producing a value greater than 1 which was a good prediction of high hardness. XPS analysis of the films was made; the wide spectrum showed the elemental composition of the films (Ti, N, C). A narrow spectrum of C1s at binding energy of 284.48 eV was obtained, and its deconvolution showed peaks of sp{sup 3}, sp{sup 2} and Ti-C. Ti-C bonds were formed due to diffusion of carbon atoms into a TiN matrix. The concentration for the XPS spectra was calculated by using the area under the curve of sp{sup 3} and sp{sup 2} peaks. The morphology of the bilayer, including roughness, grain size and thickness was studied through SPM techniques.

  18. Transformation of current limiting effect into varistor effect in tin dioxide based ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondarchuk, A N; Glot, A B

    2008-01-01

    The current limiting effect and its transformation into the varistor effect were found in SnO 2 -Co 3 O 4 -Nb 2 O 5 -Cr 2 O 3 ceramics sintered at relatively low temperatures 1100-1200 0 C. Results of electrical measurements in oxidizing and inert atmosphere are explained in terms of the modified barrier model

  19. Microstructures and properties of TiN reinforced Co-based composite coatings modified with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by laser cladding on Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Fei, E-mail: wengfeisdu@126.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yu, Huijun, E-mail: yhj2001@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High-efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture (Ministry of Education), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Chuanzhong, E-mail: czchen@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Jianli, E-mail: jianli21s@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Longjie, E-mail: zhaoljsdu@sina.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-11-25

    In this study, TiN reinforced composite coatings were fabricated on Ti–6Al–4V substrate by laser cladding with Co42 self-fluxing alloy, TiN and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed powders. Microstructures and wear resistance of the cladding coatings with and without Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition were investigated comparatively. Results showed that the coatings were mainly comprised of γ-Co/Ni, TiN, CoTi, CoTi{sub 2}, NiTi, TiC, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, TiB, Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and TiC{sub 0.3}N{sub 0.7} phases. The coatings showed metallurgical bonding free of pores and cracks with the substrate. Compared with the Ti–6Al–4V substrate, the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced by 3–4 times and 9.5–11.9 times, respectively. With 1.0 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition, the microstructure of the coating was refined significantly, and the microhardness and dry sliding wear resistance were enhanced further. The effects of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were attributed to the residual Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and decomposed Y atoms. - Graphical abstract: The diagram illustration for the action mechanism of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: (a) dissolution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiN, (b) re-formation of TiN and in situ formation of TiC, (c) growth of TiN, TiC and the distribution of Y atoms. - Highlights: • Coatings showing metallurgical bonding with the substrate were fabricated. • The effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the refinement of the microstructure is notable. • A kind of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} centered core–shell structure was picked out in the coating. • Microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced significantly.

  20. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  1. Solar cells with PbS quantum dot sensitized TiO2-multiwalled carbon nanotube composites, sulfide-titania gel and tin sulfide coated C-fabric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokal, Ramesh K; Deepa, Melepurath; Kalluri, Ankarao; Singh, Shrishti; Macwan, Isaac; Patra, Prabir K; Gilarde, Jeff

    2017-10-04

    Novel approaches to boost quantum dot solar cell (QDSC) efficiencies are in demand. Herein, three strategies are used: (i) a hydrothermally synthesized TiO 2 -multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) composite instead of conventional TiO 2 , (ii) a counter electrode (CE) that has not been applied to QDSCs until now, namely, tin sulfide (SnS) nanoparticles (NPs) coated over a conductive carbon (C)-fabric, and (iii) a quasi-solid-state gel electrolyte composed of S 2- , an inert polymer and TiO 2 nanoparticles as opposed to a polysulfide solution based hole transport layer. MWCNTs by virtue of their high electrical conductivity and suitably positioned Fermi level (below the conduction bands of TiO 2 and PbS) allow fast photogenerated electron injection into the external circuit, and this is confirmed by a higher efficiency of 6.3% achieved for a TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS based (champion) cell, compared to the corresponding TiO 2 /PbS/ZnS based cell (4.45%). Nanoscale current map analysis of TiO 2 and TiO 2 -MWCNTs reveals the presence of narrowly spaced highly conducting domains in the latter, which equips it with an average current carrying capability greater by a few orders of magnitude. Electron transport and recombination resistances are lower and higher respectively for the TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS cell relative to the TiO 2 /PbS/ZnS cell, thus leading to a high performance cell. The efficacy of SnS/C-fabric as a CE is confirmed from the higher efficiency achieved in cells with this CE compared to the C-fabric based cells. Lower charge transfer and diffusional resistances, slower photovoltage decay, high electrical conductance and lower redox potential impart high catalytic activity to the SnS/C-fabric assembly for sulfide reduction and thus endow the TiO 2 -MWCNT/PbS/ZnS cell with a high open circuit voltage (0.9 V) and a large short circuit current density (∼20 mA cm -2 ). This study attempts to unravel how simple strategies can amplify QDSC performances.

  2. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  3. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  4. Investigation of microstructural and physical characteristics of nano composite tin oxide-doped Al3+ in Zn2+ based composite coating by DAECD technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawe, P. A. L.; Fayomi, O. S. I.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    In other to overcome the devastating deterioration of mild steel in service, Zn-based embedded Al/SnO2 composite coatings have been considered as reinforcing alternative replacements to the more traditional deposition for improved surface properties by using Dual Anode Electrolytic Co-deposition (DAECD) technique from chloride bath. The structural characterization of the starting materials and deposited coating are evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) elemental analysis and atomic force microscope (AFM). The hardness behaviour, wear and intermetallic distribution was examined by diamond based microhardness tester, CETR reciprocating sliding test rig and X-ray diffractometer (XRD) respectively. The corrosion properties of the developed coating were examined in 3.5% NaCl. The microstructure of the deposited sample obtained at 7% SnO2, revealed fine-grains deposit of the Al/SnO2 on the mild steel surface. The results showed that the Al/SnO2 strengthening alloy plays a significant role in impelling the wear and corrosion behaviour of Zn-Al/SnO2 coatings in an aggressive saline environment. Interestingly Zn-30Al-7Sn-chloride showed the highest wear and improved corrosion resistance due to Al/SnO2 oxide passive film that forms during anodic polarization. This work established that co-deposition of mild steel with Al/SnO2 is auspicious in increasing the anti-wear and corrosion progression.

  5. The C-terminal extension unique to the long isoform of the shelterin component TIN2 enhances its interaction with TRF2 in a phosphorylation- and dyskeratosis congenita-cluster-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nya D; Dodson, Lois M; Escudero, Laura; Sukumar, Ann T; Williams, Christopher L; Mihalek, Ivana; Baldan, Alessandro; Baird, Duncan M; Bertuch, Alison A

    2018-03-26

    TIN2 is central to the shelterin complex, linking the telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 with TPP1/POT1. Mutations in TINF2 , which encodes TIN2, that are found in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) result in very short telomeres and cluster in a region shared by the two TIN2 isoforms, TIN2S (short) and TIN2L (long). Here we show that TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is phosphorylated. TRF2 interacts more with TIN2L than TIN2S, and both the DC-cluster and phosphorylation promote this enhanced interaction. The binding of TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is affected by TRF2-F120, which is also required for TRF2's interaction with end processing factors such as Apollo. Conversely, TRF1 interacts more with TIN2S than with TIN2L. A DC-associated mutation further reduces TIN2L-TRF1, but not TIN2S-TRF1, interaction. Cells overexpressing TIN2L or phosphomimetic-TIN2L are permissive to telomere elongation, whereas cells overexpressing TIN2S or phosphodead-TIN2L are not. Telomere lengths are unchanged in cell lines in which TIN2L expression has been eliminated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation. These results indicate that TIN2 isoforms are biochemically and functionally distinguishable, and that shelterin composition could be fundamentally altered in patients with TINF2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Nelson et al.

  6. Thermal co-decomposition of silver acetylacetonate and tin(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate: Formation of carbonaceous Ag/Ag{sub x}Sn(x = 4 and 6.7)/SnO{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Křenek, T.; Duchek, P. [Research Centre of New Technologies, University of West Bohemia, 30614 Plzeň (Czech Republic); Urbanová, M.; Pokorná, D. [Laboratory of Laser Chemistry, Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals, ASCR v.v.i., 16502 Prague (Czech Republic); Bezdička, P.; Jakubec, I. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, ASCR v.v.i., 25068 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Pola, M.; Čerstvý, R.; Kovářík, T. [Research Centre of New Technologies, University of West Bohemia, 30614 Plzeň (Czech Republic); Galiková, A. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, ASCR v.v.i., 25068 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic); Pola, J., E-mail: pola@icpf.cas.cz [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, ASCR v.v.i., 25068 Husinec-Řež (Czech Republic)

    2013-08-20

    Highlights: • Ag acetylacetonate increases thermal stability by mixing with Sn hexafluoroacetylacetonate. • Heated mixture of chelates yields a residue containing Ag, Sn, O and C elements. • Residues obtained at higher temperature contain Ag–Sn intermetallic compounds. - Abstract: Thermal co-decomposition of silver(I) acetylacetonate and tin(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate has been examined by using thermal gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and complementary analyses of gaseous products and solid residues by Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. It is revealed that poorly stable silver(I) acetylacetonate mixed with tin(II) hexafluoroacetylacetonate does not undergo thermal decomposition at around 120 °C, but takes part in a room-temperature solid-state interaction with the Sn counterpart, which is ensued by an exothermal process at 109 °C and subsequent co-decomposition involving a pronounced stage at around 275 °C. All steps lead to carbonaceous Ag/SnO{sub 2} composites containing crystalline Ag at 200 °C, Ag and SnO{sub 2} at 400 °C, and Ag, SnO{sub 2}, Ag{sub 4}Sn and Ag{sub 6.7}Sn at 600 °C. The intermetallic Ag{sub 6.7}Sn compound is judged to arise from nanostructured environment of alloying Ag and Sn.

  7. Study of Silicon Nitrate and Tin Dioxide carbon nanotube composite as lithium-ion battery anode, gas sensor and the self-assembly of carbon nanotubes on copper substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Lugo, Dionne M.

    Carbon nanotubes since their discovery have been used for many applications. They are predicted to reinforce novel composite materials because of their structural perfection, excellent mechanical properties and low density. CNT can be made into nanowires of different materials or as part of a composite making them beneficial for the incorporation into electrochemical devices. Carbon nanotubes in this study were gown directly on a copper substrate employing hot filament chemical vapor deposition (HFCVD). Bamboo-like carbon nanotubes were made into electrodes reducing the use of inactive materials on the development of working electrodes for electrochemical application. This BCNT were tested as lithium-ion battery anodes assembled together with high capacity materials such as Silicon and Tin Oxide (4200mAh/g and 782 mAh/g). On this study BCNT served as a conductive matrix as well as buffer matrix for the volume expansion brought by cycling silicon and tin oxide. The composite structural properties enhance the surface-to-volume ratio of the electrode demonstrating a desirable electrochemical performance for a lithium-ion battery anode. As a gas sensor electrode CNT was assembled with tin-oxide directly on a copper substrate for the detection of ethanol, methanol, ammonia and H2S. CNT gave a higher surface area and a conductive matrix aiding to the sensing capabilities of the SnO2 increasing the effectiveness of the matrix material for gas detection. Copper is known to produce CNT with a disturb structure. To develop an electrode on copper with well-ordered CNT other techniques need to be used. One way to do this is by chemical modification of the copper substrate with a molecule able to react with the carbon nanotube. For the attachment of well-ordered carbon nanotubes such as SWCNT a self-assembly monolayer technique is chosen. On this study 4-aminothiophenol served as the linker between the copper substrate and the carbon nanotubes. This study let to chemically

  8. Evaluation of chlorine dioxide based product as a hatchery sanitizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharjan, P; Cox, S; Gadde, U; Clark, F D; Bramwell, K; Watkins, S E

    2017-03-01

    Formaldehyde is commonly used to overcome contaminants introduced by hatching eggs or water supply in the hatcher cabinets. However, health risks associated with its use make economical alternatives important. This project evaluated a chlorine dioxide based product (CDBP) (0.3% concentrate) as a hatchery sanitizer in decontaminating microbial populations on the shell surface of hatching eggs (>18 d old), as well as its impact on hatchability and chick performance. Hatchers (0.20 m2) designed to hold approximately 50 eggs and equipped with circulation fans, heaters, and thermostats were used for the evaluation. For each of the 2 trials conducted, 450 hatching eggs were obtained and incubated in a common setter. Eggs used in trial 1 were floor eggs whereas in trial 2 nest eggs were used. On d 18 of incubation, eggs were removed from the setter, and viable eggs were randomly allocated to 9 hatchers. Pre-treatment egg rinse samples (10 eggs per hatcher) were collected for initial microbial analysis. Three hatchers were treated with CDBP and 3 hatchers with a formaldehyde based product (FBP). Three untreated hatchers served as control (C). Prior to hatch, 10 eggs/incubator, not previously rinsed, were used for post treatment microbial counts. The hatched chicks were reared until d 21 in floor pens with a common starter diet. For the CDBP treated eggs, hatchability and chick performance (weight gains, mortality, and FCR on d 7 and d 21) were similar to the other treatments. The application rate of CDBP evaluated in this study was not an effective antimicrobial alternative to formaldehyde for sanitizing hatching eggs in hatcher cabinets prior to hatch. © 2016 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  9. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  10. Role of a sur-saturation in tin on the phases transformations and the superconductor behaviour of Nb{sub 3}Sn composites; Role d une Sursaturation en Etain sur les Transformations de Phases et le Comportement Supraconducteur de Composites a base de Nb3Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, Sylvain; Taillard, Roland [Laboratoire de Metallurgie Physique et Genie des Materiaux, UMR CNRS 8517, Universite des Sciences et Technologies de Lille, 59655 Villeneuve d Ascq, (France); Verwaerde, Christophe [Alstom Magnets and Superconductors, 3 avenue des Trois Chenes, 90018 Belfort, (France)

    2006-07-01

    The most used preparation process for the Nb{sub 3}Sn superconductors composites consists in co-deform niobium filaments and a {alpha} mono-phased bronze matrix before make them react by thermal treatment. This work differs by the implementation of a metastable matrix sur-saturated in tin with the aim to increase the superconductive performances from the volume fraction of Nb{sub 3}Sn. The study deals with the influence of this tin excess on the stability of the microstructure of the matrix and of interfaces during the preparation. The differentiation of the thermal or mechanical effects on the formation mechanisms and the evolution of diverse intermetallic compounds are particularly emphasized. The interactions between these phenomena and their importance for their disposition to be worked and the superconductive behaviour are specified. (O.M.)

  11. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association be...... and diseases based on ontology classes, and displays a scatter plot with two proposed new bibliometric statistics: Importance and Novelty. Availability and Implementation: http://www.newdrugtargets.org. Contact: cbologa@salud.unm.edu....

  12. Tin and tin-resistant microrganisms in Chesapeake Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallas, L.E.; Cooney, J.J.

    1981-02-01

    Sediment and water samples from nine stations in Chesapeake Bay were examined for tin content and for microbial populations resistant to inorganic tin (75 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ as SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O) or to the organotin compound dimethyltin chloride (15 mg of Sn liter/sup -1/ ad (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/). Tin concentrations in sediments were higher (3.0 to 7.9 mg kg/sup -1/) at sites impacted by human activity than at open water sites (0.8 to 0.9 mg kg/sup -1/), and they were very high (239.6 mg kg/sup -1/) in Baltimore Harbor, which is impacted by both shipping and heavy industry. Inorganic tin (75 mg Sn liter/sup -1/) in agar medium significantly decreased viable counts, but its toxicity was markedly reduced in liquid medium; it was not toxic in medium solidified with silica gel. Addition of SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O to these media produced a tin precipitate which was not involved in the metal's toxicity. The data suggest that a soluble tin-agar complex which is toxic to cells is formed in agar medium. Thus, the toxicity of tin depends more on the chemical species than on the metal concentration in the medium. All sites in Chesapeake Bay contained organisms resistant to tin. The microbial flora was more sensitive to (CH/sub 3/)/sub 2/SnCl/sub 2/ than to SnCl/sub 4/.5H/sub 2/O. The elevated level of tin-resistant microorganisms in some areas not containing unusually high tin concentrations suggests that factors other than tin may participate in the selection for a tin-tolerant microbial flora.

  13. Three of a Kind: Genetically Similar Tsukamurella Phages TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, Zoe A; Tucci, Joseph; Seviour, Robert J; Petrovski, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Three Tsukamurella phages, TIN2, TIN3, and TIN4, were isolated from activated sludge treatment plants located in Victoria, Australia, using conventional enrichment techniques. Illumina and 454 whole-genome sequencing of these Siphoviridae viruses revealed that they had similar genome sequences, ranging in size between 76,268 bp and 76,964 bp. All three phages shared 74% nucleotide sequence identity to the previously described Gordonia phage GTE7. Genome sequencing suggested that phage TIN3 had suffered a mutation in one of its lysis genes compared to the sequence of phage TIN4, to which it is genetically very similar. Mass spectroscopy data showed the unusual presence of a virion structural gene in the DNA replication module of phage TIN4, disrupting the characteristic modular genome architecture of Siphoviridae phages. All three phages appeared highly virulent on strains of Tsukamurella inchonensis and Tsukamurella paurometabola. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Superconducting tin core fiber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-11-13

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  15. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  16. A novel sensor made of Antimony Doped Tin Oxide-silica composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode modified by single-walled carbon nanotubes for detection of norepinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Lu; Chai, Shigan; Zhang, Jinzhi; Zhang, Xiuhua; Zou, Qichao

    2017-11-01

    In this study, we designed a novel molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), Antimony Doped Tin Oxide (ATO)-silica composite sol, which was made using a sol-gel method. Then a sensitive and selective imprinted electrochemical sensor was constructed with the ATO-silica composite sol on a glassy carbon electrode modified by single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The introduction of SWNTs increased the sensitivity of the MIP sensor. The surface morphology of the MIP and MIP/SWNTs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the optimal conditions for detection were determined. The oxidative peak current increased linearly with the concentration of norepinephrine in the range of 9.99×10 -8 M to 1.50×10 -5 M, as detected by cyclic voltammetry (CV), the detection limit was 3.33×10 -8 M (S/N=3). In addition, the proposed electrochemical sensors were successfully applied to detect the norepinephrine concentration in human blood serum samples. The recoveries of the sensors varied from 99.67% to 104.17%, indicating that the sensor has potential for the determination of norepinephrine in clinical tests. Moreover, the imprinted electrochemical sensor was used to selectively detect norepinephrine. The analytical application was conducted successfully and yielded accurate and precise results. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cornish Tin Mining and Smelting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how Cornwall was once the world's leading producer of tin. Cornwall's industrial past is now a World Heritage Site alongside the Grand Canyon or the Great Wall of China. A hint is in the Cornish flag, a simple white cross against a black background, also known as Saint Piran's flag. At Geevor Tin Mine, one of…

  18. Tin recovery from tin slag using electrolysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumari, Arif; Purwanto, Agus; Nur, Adrian; Budiman, Annata Wahyu; Lerian, Metty; Paramita, Fransisca A.

    2018-02-01

    The process in industry, including in mining industry, would surely give negative effect such as waste polluting to the environment. Some of waste could be potentially reutilized to be a commodity with the higher economic value. Tin slag is one of them. The aim of this research was to recover the tin contained in tin slag. Before coming to the electrolysis, tin slag must be treated by dissolution. The grinded tin slag was dissolved into HCl solution to form a slurry. During dissolution, the slurry was agitated and heated, and finally filtered. The filtrate obtained was then electrolyzed. During the process of electrolysis, solid material precipitated on the used cathode. The precipitated solid was then separated and dried. The solid was then analyzed using XRD, XRF and SEM. The XRD analysis showed that the longest time of dissolution and electrolysis the highest the purity obtained in the product. The SEM analysis showed that the longest time of electrolysis the smallest tin particle obtained. Optimum time achieved in this research was 2 hours for the recovering time and 3 hours for the electrolysis time, with 9% tin recovered.

  19. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Concrete Material Composed of Tin Slag Waste in Aqueous Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Cahyadi, Agung; Taruli Siallagan, Sonia; Wafa’ Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag is a byproduct of tin ore smelting process which is rarely utilized. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the use of tin slag for concrete cement material application compared to the industrial Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Tin slag composition was characterized by XRD and XRF analysis. The characterization results showed the similar chemical composition of tin slag and OPC. It also revealed the semi crystalline structure of tin slag sample. Several electrochemical tests were performed to evaluate corrosion behavior of tin slag, OPC and various mixed composition of both materials and the addition of CaO. The corrosion behavior of OPC and tin slag were evaluated by using Cyclic Polarization, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) methods. Aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with 3.5% w.t concentration which similar to seawater was used as the electrolyte in this work. The steel specimen used as the reinforce bar (rebar) material of the concrete was carbon steel AISI 1045. The rebar was embedded in the concrete cement which composed of OPC and the various composition of tin slag including slag without addition of CaO and slag mixed with addition of 50 % CaO. The electrochemical tests results revealed that tin slag affected its corrosion behavior which becoming more active and increasing the corrosion rate as well as decreasing the electrochemical impedance.

  20. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  1. Tin-containing silicates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osmundsen, Christian M.; Holm, Martin Spangsberg; Dahl, Søren

    2012-01-01

    stannosilicates have been investigated: Sn-BEA, Sn-MFI, Sn-MCM-41 and Sn-SBA-15. When comparing the properties of tin sites in the structures, substantial differences are observed. Sn-beta displays the highest Lewis acid strength, as measured by probe molecule studies using infrared spectroscopy, which gives......The selective conversion of biomass-derived substrates is one of the major challenges facing the chemical industry. Recently, stannosilicates have been employed as highly active and selective Lewis acid catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. In the present work, four different...... it a significantly higher activity at low temperatures than the other structures investigated. Furthermore, the increased acid strength translates into large differences in selectivity between the catalysts, thus demonstrating the influence of the structure on the active site, and pointing the way forward...

  2. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  3. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  4. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  5. Succession on tin-mined land in Bangka Island

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nurtjahya, E.; Setiadi, D.; Guhardja, E.; Muhadiono,; Setiadi, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative study of floristic composition and vegetation structure was conducted at Bangka Island, Indonesia. Six different vegetation types were chosen, riparian forest, abandoned farmland, and natural regeneration of tin-mined lands of different ages: 0 and barren, 7, 11 and 38 years’ old

  6. Synthesis and Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of the g-C3N4 Nanosheets-Decorated Tin Oxide Flower-Like Nanorods Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Flower-like SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method by using SnCl4·5H2O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, electron microscopy (FESEM and TEM, and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR techniques. SnO2 displays the unique 3D flower-like microstructure assembled with many uniform nanorods with the lengths and diameters of about 400–600 nm and 50–100 nm, respectively. For the SnO2/g-C3N4 composites, SnO2 flower-like nanorods were coupled by a lamellar structure 2D g-C3N4. Gas sensing performance test results indicated that the response of the sensor based on 7 wt. % 2D g-C3N4-decorated SnO2 composite to 500 ppm ethanol vapor was 150 at 340 °C, which was 3.5 times higher than that of the pure flower-like SnO2 nanorods-based sensor. The gas sensing mechanism of the g-C3N4nanosheets-decorated SnO2 flower-like nanorods was discussed in relation to the heterojunction structure between g-C3N4 and SnO2.

  7. Synthesis and Enhanced Ethanol Gas Sensing Properties of the g-C3N4 Nanosheets-Decorated Tin Oxide Flower-Like Nanorods Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Cong; Zhang, Bo; Sun, Guang; Zhang, Zhanying

    2017-01-01

    Flower-like SnO2/g-C3N4 nanocomposites were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal method by using SnCl4·5H2O and urea as the precursor. The structure and morphology of the as-synthesized samples were characterized by using the X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), electron microscopy (FESEM and TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR) techniques. SnO2 displays the unique 3D flower-like microstructure assembled with many uniform nanorods with the lengths and diameters of about 400–600 nm and 50–100 nm, respectively. For the SnO2/g-C3N4 composites, SnO2 flower-like nanorods were coupled by a lamellar structure 2D g-C3N4. Gas sensing performance test results indicated that the response of the sensor based on 7 wt. % 2D g-C3N4-decorated SnO2 composite to 500 ppm ethanol vapor was 150 at 340 °C, which was 3.5 times higher than that of the pure flower-like SnO2 nanorods-based sensor. The gas sensing mechanism of the g-C3N4nanosheets-decorated SnO2 flower-like nanorods was discussed in relation to the heterojunction structure between g-C3N4 and SnO2. PMID:28937649

  8. Evaluation of the suitability of tin slag in cementitious materials: Mechanical properties and Leaching behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Wafa’ Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha; Cahyadi, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag, a by-product of tin production has been used in cementitious application. The present investigation focuses on the suitability of tin slag as primary component in cement and as component that substitute some amount of Portland Cement. The tin slags studied were taken from Bangka, Indonesia. The main contents of the tin slag are SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 according to the XRF investigation. The aim of this article was to study the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength), microstructure and leaching behaviour of tin slag blended cement. This study used air-cooled tin slag that had been passed through 400# sieve to replace Portland Cement with ratio 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 by weight. Cement pastes and tin slag blended cement pastes were prepared by using water/cement ratio (W/C) of 0.40 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 3, 7, 14 days The microstructure of the raw tin slag was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The phase composition of each cement paste was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The aim of the leachability test was to investigate the environmental impacts of tin slag blended cement product in the range 4-8 pH by using static pH-dependent leaching test. The result show that the increase of the tin slag content decreasing the mortar compressive strength at early ages. The use of tin slag in cement provide economic benefits for all related industries.

  9. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  10. (Nb,Ta,Ti) 3Sn multifilamentary wires using Osprey bronze with high tin content and NbTa/NbTi composite filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abächerli, V.; Uglietti, D.; Seeber, B.; Flükiger, R.

    2002-08-01

    Several (Nb,Ta,Ti) 3Sn multifilamentary wires with different Ti contents (up to 0.6 wt.%), but identical configuration have been processed using the bronze route and NbTa/NbTi composite filaments. The wires were manufactured by a sequence of three extrusion steps using a Cu 15.4 Sn Osprey bronze as matrix. The wires of 1.06 mm diameter with 14641 filaments of 4.4 μm size were reacted by various heat treatments, ranging from 600 to 730 °C. Critical current density ( Jc) measurements on samples in a coil geometry have been performed up to 17 T at 4.2 K, yielding to 195 A mm -2 at 17 T. Upper critical magnetic fields ( Bc2) up to 28.2 T were estimated by Kramer extrapolation. The variation of the critical temperature ( Tc) as well as of the n factor were determined. The effect of various Ti contents was analyzed with respect to the various superconducting parameters, especially in view of applications at fields >20 T.

  11. Tuning the Composition of Electrodeposited Bimetallic Tin-Lead Catalysts for Enhanced Activity and Durability in Carbon Dioxide Electroreduction to Formate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Colin E; Gyenge, Előd L

    2017-09-11

    Bimetallic Sn-Pb catalysts with five different Sn/Pb atomic ratios were electrodeposited on Teflonated carbon paper and non-Teflonated carbon cloth using both fluoroborate- and oxide-containing deposition media to produce catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO 2 (ERC) to formate (HCOO - ). The interaction between catalyst composition, morphology, substrate, and deposition media was investigated by using cyclic voltammetry and constant potential electrolysis at -2.0 V versus Ag/AgCl for 2 h in 0.5 m KHCO 3 . The catalysts were analyzed before and after electrolysis by using SEM and XRD to determine the mechanisms of Faradaic efficiency loss and degradation. Catalysts that are mainly Sn with 15-35 at % Pb generated Faradaic efficiencies up to 95 % with a stable performance. However, pure Sn catalysts showed high initial stage formate production rates but experienced an extensive (up to 30 %) decrease of the Faradaic efficiency. The XRD results demonstrated the presence of polycrystalline SnO 2 after electrolysis using Sn-Pb catalysts with 35 at % Pb and its absence in the case of pure Sn. It is proposed that the presence of Pb (15-35 at %) in mainly Sn catalysts stabilized SnO 2 , which is responsible for the enhanced Faradaic efficiency and catalytic durability in the ERC. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Atomic layer deposition of tin oxide and zinc tin oxide using tetraethyltin and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warner, Ellis J.; Gladfelter, Wayne L., E-mail: wlg@umn.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Johnson, Forrest; Campbell, Stephen A. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Silicon or glass substrates exposed to sequential pulses of tetraethyltin (TET) and ozone (O{sub 3}) were coated with thin films of SnO{sub 2}. Self-limiting deposition was found using 8 s pulse times, and a uniform thickness per cycle (TPC) of 0.2 nm/cycle was observed in a small, yet reproducible, temperature window from 290 to 320 °C. The as-deposited, stoichiometric SnO{sub 2} films were amorphous and transparent above 400 nm. Interspersing pulses of diethylzinc and O{sub 3} among the TET:O{sub 3} pulses resulted in deposition of zinc tin oxide films, where the fraction of tin, defined as [at. % Sn/(at. % Sn + at. % Zn)], was controlled by the ratio of TET pulses, specifically n{sub TET}:(n{sub TET} + n{sub DEZ}) where n{sub TET} and n{sub DEZ} are the number of precursor/O{sub 3} subcycles within each atomic layer deposition (ALD) supercycle. Based on film thickness and composition measurements, the TET pulse time required to reach saturation in the TPC of SnO{sub 2} on ZnO surfaces was increased to >30 s. Under these conditions, film stoichiometry as a function of the TET pulse ratio was consistent with the model devised by Elliott and Nilsen. The as-deposited zinc tin oxide (ZTO) films were amorphous and remained so even after annealing at 450 °C in air for 1 h. The optical bandgap of the transparent ZTO films increased as the tin concentration increased. Hall measurements established that the n-type ZTO carrier concentration was 3 × 10{sup 17} and 4 × 10{sup 18} cm{sup −3} for fractional tin concentrations of 0.28 and 0.63, respectively. The carrier mobility decreased as the concentration of tin increased. A broken gap pn junction was fabricated using ALD-deposited ZTO and a sputtered layer of cuprous oxide. The junction demonstrated ohmic behavior and low resistance consistent with similar junctions prepared using sputter-deposited ZTO.

  13. Fabrication of High Energy Density Tin/Carbon Anode Using Reduction Expansion Synthesis and Aerosol through Plasma Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    coatings on iron. Using a precursor mix of water, urea, tin (II) chloride, and activated carbon, the reduction process removes the oxygen groups on...sample and displaying them in different colors , the distribution within a sample can be easily seen. Top left (in clockwise direction): SEM image of Sn...7] M. Winter and J. O. Besenhard, “Electrochemical lithiation of tin and tin-based intermetallics and composites,” Electrochimica Acta, vol. 45

  14. Characterisation of baroque tin amalgam mirrors of the historical Green Vault in Dresden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zywitzki, O.; Nedon, W.; Kopte, T.; Modes, T.

    2008-07-01

    The historical Green Vault, one of Europe’s most sumptuous treasure chambers, has reopened in September 2006 in the Dresden Royal Palace. For the baroque presentation of the artworks the special properties of tin amalgam mirrors are of great importance. A comprehensive analytic characterisation was necessary for restoration and reconstruction. The different original casting glasses were analysed in respect of chemical composition, roughness, waviness and optical properties like chromaticity coordinates and transmittance. The microstructure of the tin amalgam layers were investigated on metallographic cross-sections and by X-ray diffraction. The investigations reveal that the tin amalgam layers are composed of γ-HgSn6-10 phase with a grain size between 5 and 50 μm surrounded by a thin mercury phase with about 2 wt. % tin. However the most important property of the baroque tin amalgam mirrors is a relative low reflectivity of about 59% which is drastically lower than for silver mirrors with a reflectivity of about 96%. According to the characterisation results a suitable glass for reconstruction was selected. The mirror layers were produced by historical tin amalgam technology for the rooms not destroyed by bombarding of Dresden in February 1945. For the completely destroyed Jewel Room pure tin layers were deposited by magnetron sputtering. The results show that this new technology enables an adequate substitute for the original tin amalgam layers.

  15. Solidification mechanism of highly undercooled metal alloys. [tin-lead and nickel-tin alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiohara, Y.; Chu, M. G.; Macisaac, D. G.; Flemings, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on metal droplet undercooling, using Sn-25wt%Pb and Ni-34wt%Sn alloys. To achieve the high degree of undercooling, emulsification treatments were employed. Results show the fraction of supersaturated primary phase is a function of the amount of undercooling, as is the fineness of the structures. The solidification behavior of the tin-lead droplets during recalescence was analyzed using three different hypotheses; (1) solid forming throughout recalescence is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; (2) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature, and solid forming thereafter is of the maximum thermodynamically stable composition; and (3) partitionless solidification below the T sub o temperature with solid forming thereafter that is of the maximum thermodynamically metastable composition that is possible. The T sub o temperature is calculated from the equal molar free energies of the liquid solid using the regular solution approximation.

  16. Effect of TiN particulate reinforcement on corrosive behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Polarization studies indicate an increase in the corrosion resistance in composites compared to the matrix alloy. EIS study reveals that the polarization resistance (p) increases with increase in TiN content in composites, thus confirming improved corrosion resistance in composites. The observed decrease in corrosion rate ...

  17. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  18. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  19. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  20. Technology for complex processing of tin-rare earth raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chumarev, V.M.; Okunev, A.I.; Krasikov, S.A.; Fedorov, V.D.; Safonov, A.V.

    1995-01-01

    The tested technology for processing of tin-rare earth raw materials with complicated composition, including the stage of reducing-sulfidizing melting of raw materials with tin and rare earth elements (gallium, thulium) transition in fumes, with rare refractory metals (tantalum, niobium, tungsten) transition in iron-base or matter-base alloy and transition of radionuclides in dump slag is offered. 4 fig., 5 refs

  1. Tin Whisker Testing and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering, University of Maryland CTE Coefficient of Thermal Expansion DAU Defense Acquisition University DI...below 2.0% PCB Printed Circuit Board synonymous with PWB PWB Printed Wiring Board synonymous with PCB PCTC Simulated power cycling thermal cycling ...DoD focused tin whisker risk assessments and whisker growth mechanisms (long term testing, corrosion/oxidation in humidity, and thermal cycling

  2. Nutrient composition of selected wheats and wheat products. VI. Distribution of manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, magnesium, lead, tin, cadmium, chromium, and selenium as determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy and colorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zook, E.G.; Greene, F.E.; Morris, E.R.

    1970-11-01

    Magnesium and eight trace mineral elements, manganese, copper, nickel, zinc, lead, tin, cadmium, and chromium, were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy in 11 known wheats or wheat blends, 20 commercially prepared flours from these wheats, and 25 specially prepared products from the flours. The same minerals were determined in ten consumer products from ten different cities. There was significant variation among the five hard wheats in their content of nickel, zinc, lead, tin, cadmium, and chromium. Manganese, copper, zinc, cadmium, and chromium varied significantly in the four soft wheat samples, most of the variation being contributed by a single low mineral wheat. The concentration of manganese, copper, zinc, and magnesium were about the same or lower and nickel, tin, cadmium, and chromium higher in the cake and crackers than in the respective flour from which they were made. Although there were significant variations in the lead, cadmium, and chromium concentrations in most of the market samples of consumer products there was no discernible effect of geographic location on the general mineral content of these products. Whole-wheat consumer products contained greater concentrations of manganese, copper, zinc, magnesium, and chromium than did products made from white flour. The selenium content of a small group of wheat blends and products was determined by a colorimetric method. 8 references, 7 tables.

  3. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  4. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  5. Mineral resource of the month: tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlin, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Tin was one of the earliest-known metals. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. Bronze, a copper-tin alloy that can be sharpened and is hard enough to retain a cutting edge, was used during the Bronze Age in construction tools as well as weapons for hunting and war. The geographical separation between tin-producing and tin-consuming nations greatly influenced the patterns of early trade routes. Historians think that as early as 1500 B.C., Phoenicians traveled by sea to the Cornwall district of England to obtain tin. The pure metal was not used unalloyed until about 600 B.C.

  6. Characterization of tin phosphate coatings by CEMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Kiyoshi; Ujihira, Yusuke; Takai, Osamu; Kojima, Ryuji

    1992-01-01

    The structure and chemical state of tin in converted tin phosphate coatings, obtained by a treatment of Zn and Mn phosphate in SnCl 2 solution, were characterized by CEMS. Converted Sn(II) phosphate and adsorbed SnO 2 species were main products in the ∝1/3 top layers of Mn and Zn phosphate coatings, and metallic tin was occasionally recognized in deeper layers. Tin phosphate layers, coated directly on a steel substrate by RF sputtering of Ar ions, were composed of two kinds of Sn(IV) species. (orig.)

  7. Jig protects transistors from heat while tinning leads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, A. J.; Willis, G. A.

    1966-01-01

    In tinning transistor leads, an aluminum jig is used to dip the leads into the molten tin. The jigs mass shunts excess heat given off by the molten tin before it reaches and damages the transistor body.

  8. Radioecological impacts of tin mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyu, Abubakar Sadiq; Mousseau, Timothy Alexander; Ramli, Ahmad Termizi; Bununu, Yakubu Aliyu

    2015-12-01

    The tin mining activities in the suburbs of Jos, Plateau State, Nigeria, have resulted in technical enhancement of the natural background radiation as well as higher activity concentrations of primordial radionuclides in the topsoil of mining sites and their environs. Several studies have considered the radiological human health risks of the mining activity; however, to our knowledge no documented study has investigated the radiological impacts on biota. Hence, an attempt is made to assess potential hazards using published data from the literature and the ERICA Tool. This paper considers the effects of mining and milling on terrestrial organisms like shrubs, large mammals, small burrowing mammals, birds (duck), arthropods (earth worm), grasses, and herbs. The dose rates and risk quotients to these organisms are computed using conservative values for activity concentrations of natural radionuclides reported in Bitsichi and Bukuru mining areas. The results suggest that grasses, herbs, lichens, bryophytes and shrubs receive total dose rates that are of potential concern. The effects of dose rates to specific indicator species of interest are highlighted and discussed. We conclude that further investigation and proper regulations should be set in place in order to reduce the risk posed by the tin mining activity on biota. This paper also presents a brief overview of the impact of mineral mining on biota based on documented literature for other countries.

  9. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO 2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO 2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF 2 . The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO 2 is caused by the reformed SnO 2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO 2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li + /Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF 2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li + /Li is due to the fact that SnF 2 is formed below the SnO 2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO 2 /Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  11. Effect of TiN particulate reinforcement on corrosive behaviour of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6061 alloy. It is understood that after the initiation of corrosion, interfacial corrosion products may have decoupled the conducting ceramic TiN from Al 6061 matrix alloy thus eliminating the galvanic effect between them. Keywords. Composites; corrosion; SEM; EDX; EIS. 1. Introduction. Particulate-reinforced aluminium metal ...

  12. Microstructural investigations of interfaces in PVD TiN coated tool steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; in't Veld, AJH; De Hosson, JTM; Lejcek, P; Paidar,

    1999-01-01

    The microstructure of PVD TiN coated tools steels composites has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that the microstructure of the coatings consists of a dense fibrous structure typical of a zone T structure. When the

  13. Tin-Silver Alloys for Flip-Chip Bonding Studied with a Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Pedersen, E.H.; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Electrodeposition of solder for flip-chip bonding is studied in the form of a pyrophosphate/iodide tin-silver alloy bath. The objective is to obtain a uniform alloy composition, with 3.8 At.% silver, over a larger area. This specific alloy will provide an eutectic solder melting at 221°C (or 10°C...

  14. Deposition efficiency in the preparation of ozone-producing nickel and antimony doped tin oxide anodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Sandin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of precursor salts in the synthesis of nickel and antimony doped tin oxide (NATO electrodes using thermal decomposition from dissolved chloride salts was investigated. The salts investigated were SnCl4×5H2O, SnCl2×2H2O, SbCl3 and NiCl2×6H2O. It was shown that the use of SnCl4×5H20 in the preparation process leads to a tin loss of more than 85 %. The loss of Sb can be as high as 90 % while no indications of Ni loss was observed. As a consequence, the concentration of Ni in the NATO coating will be much higher than in the precursor solution. This high and uncontrolled loss of precursors during the preparation process will lead to an unpredictable composition in the NATO coating and will have negative economic and environmental effects. It was found that using SnCl2×2H20 instead of SnCl4×5H2O can reduce the tin loss to less than 50 %. This tin loss occurs at higher temperatures than when using SnCl4×5H2O where the tin loss occurs from 56 – 147 °C causing the composition to change both during the drying (80 – 110 °C and calcination (460 -550 °C steps of the preparation process. Electrodes coated with NATO based on the two different tin salts were investigated for morphology, composition, structure, and ozone electrocatalytic properties.

  15. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  16. Growth behavior and properties of atomic layer deposited tin oxide on silicon from novel tin(II)acetylacetonate precursor and ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kannan Selvaraj, Sathees [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Feinerman, Alan [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States); Takoudis, Christos G., E-mail: takoudis@uic.edu [Departments of Bioengineering and Chemical Engineering, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60607 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    In this work, a novel liquid tin(II) precursor, tin(II)acetylacetonate [Sn(acac){sub 2}], was used to deposit tin oxide films on Si(100) substrate, using a custom-built hot wall atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor. Three different oxidizers, water, oxygen, and ozone, were tried. Resulting growth rates were studied as a function of precursor dosage, oxidizer dosage, reactor temperature, and number of ALD cycles. The film growth rate was found to be 0.1 ± 0.01 nm/cycle within the wide ALD temperature window of 175–300 °C using ozone; no film growth was observed with water or oxygen. Characterization methods were used to study the composition, interface quality, crystallinity, microstructure, refractive index, surface morphology, and resistivity of the resulting films. X-ray photoelectron spectra showed the formation of a clean SnO{sub x}–Si interface. The resistivity of the SnO{sub x} films was calculated to be 0.3 Ω cm. Results of this work demonstrate the possibility of introducing Sn(acac){sub 2} as tin precursor to deposit conducting ALD SnO{sub x} thin films on a silicon surface, with clean interface and no formation of undesired SiO{sub 2} or other interfacial reaction products, for transparent conducting oxide applications.

  17. The Pemali tin deposit, Bangka, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, M. O.; Surjono

    1991-04-01

    The Pemali tin deposit is located in a Triassic granite pluton the magmatic evolution of which is characterized by a decrease of compatible Ca, Mg, Ti, P and Zr in the sequence: medium- to coarse-grained biotite granite, megacrystic medium-grained biotite granite, two-mica granite/muscovite granite. The tin mineralization is confined to the two-mica granite and consists of disseminated cassiterite as well as greisen-bordered veins. The highly evolved muscovite granite is tin-barren and is distinguished from the two-mica granite by its low mica content and low loss-on-ignition values. The fluid inclusions in quartz and fluorite of the two-mica granite and of the greisen homogenize in the 115 410 °C temperature range; the salinities are in the range of 0.4 23 equiv wt% NaCl and the CO2 concentrations are < 2 mole%.

  18. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam irradiation on the gas sensing performance of tin dioxide thin films toward H2 are studied. The tin dioxide thin films were prepared by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis. The results show that the sensitivity increased after electron beam irradiation. The electron beam irradiation effects on tin ...

  19. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  20. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion behaviour of tin-20 wt.% zinc coatings electroplated from a non-cyanide alkaline bath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubent, S.; Mertens, M.L.A.D.; Saurat, M.

    2010-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant deposits because they combine the barrier protection of tin with the cathodic protection afforded by zinc. The coatings containing 20 wt.% zinc, balance tin, offer excellent corrosion protection for steel and do not form gross voluminous white corrosion products like pure zinc or high zinc alloy deposits. In this study, the effects of variables of the process (i.e. cathodic current density, pH and temperature) on deposit composition have been evaluated using a Hull cell to obtain 20 wt.% zinc alloy coatings. The tin-20 wt.% zinc deposits, produced with electroplating optimized conditions, were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) and glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES). On the other hand, the corrosion behaviour of tin-zinc alloy electroplated coatings on steel has been investigated using electrochemical methods in a 3 wt.% NaCl solution and the salt spray test. The performance of the deposits was compared with cadmium and zinc-nickel electrodeposited coatings. The results show that the corrosion resistance of tin-20 wt.% zinc alloy coating is superior to that of cadmium and zinc-12 wt.% nickel coatings. Finally, sliding friction tests were conducted.

  1. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  2. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  3. An Undergraduate Experiment Using Differential Scanning Calorimetry: A Study of the Thermal Properties of a Binary Eutectic Alloy of Tin and Lead

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amelia, Ronald P.; Clark, Daniel; Nirode, William

    2012-01-01

    An alloy is an intimate association of two or more metals, with or without a definite composition, which has metallic properties. Heterogeneous alloys, such as tin-lead (Sn/Pb) solders, consist of a mixture of crystalline phases with different compositions. A homogeneous alloy with a unique composition having the lowest possible melting point is…

  4. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  5. Electrochemical mechanism of tin membrane electrodeposition under ultrasonic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Tianxiang; Yang, Jianguang; Chen, Bing

    2018-04-01

    Tin was electrodeposited from chloride solutions using a membrane cell under ultrasonic waves. Cyclic voltammetry (CV), linear sweep voltammetry (LSV), chronoamperometry (CHR), and chronopotentiometry were applied to investigate the electrochemical mechanism of tin electrodeposition under ultrasonic field. Chronoamperometry curves showed that the initial process of tin electrodeposition followed the diffusion controlled three-dimensional nucleation and grain growth mechanism. The analysis of the cyclic voltammetry and linear sweep voltammetry diagrams showed that the application of ultrasound can change the tin membrane electro-deposition reaction from diffusion to electrochemical control, and the optimum parameters for tin electrodeposition were H + concentration 3.5 mol·L -1 , temperature 35 °C and ultrasonic power 100 W. The coupling ultrasonic field played a role in refining the grain in this process. The growth of tin crystals showed no orientation preferential, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form a regular network structure after ultrasonic coupling. While in the absence of ultrasonic coupling, the growth of tin crystals has a high preferential orientation, and the tin deposition showed a tendency to form tin whiskers. Ultrasonic coupling was more favorable for obtaining a more compact and smoother cathode tin layer. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Electrochemical reduction of trinitrotoluene on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriants, Irena; Markovsky, Boris; Persky, Rachel; Perelshtein, Ilana; Gedanken, Aharon; Aurbach, Doron; Filanovsky, Boris; Bourenko, Tatiana; Felner, Israel

    2008-01-01

    In this work, we studied the electrochemical process of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) reduction on a new type of electrodes based on a core-shell tin-carbon Sn(C) structure. The Sn(C) composite was prepared from the precursor tetramethyl-tin Sn(CH 3 ) 4 , and the product contained a core of submicron-sized tin particles uniformly enveloped with carbon shells. Cyclic voltammograms of Sn(C) electrodes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions containing TNT show three well-pronounced reduction waves in the potential range of -0.50 to -0.80 V (vs. an Ag/AgCl/Cl - reference electrode) that correspond to the multistep process of TNT reduction. Electrodes containing Sn(C) particles annealed at 800 deg. C under argon develop higher voltammetric currents of TNT reduction (comparing to the as-prepared tin-carbon material) due to stabilization of the carbon shell. It is suggested that the reduction of TNT on core-shell tin-carbon electrodes is an electrochemically irreversible process. A partial oxidation of the TNT reduction products occurred at around -0.20 V. The electrochemical response of TNT reduction shows that it is not controlled by the diffusion of the active species to/from the electrodes but rather by interfacial charge transfer and possible adsorption phenomena. The tin-carbon electrodes demonstrate significantly stable behavior for TNT reduction in NaCl solutions and provide sufficient reproducibility with no surface fouling through prolonged voltammetric cycling. It is presumed that tin nanoparticles, which constitute the core, are electrochemically inactive towards TNT reduction, but Sn or SnO 2 formed on the electrodes during TNT reduction may participate in this reaction as catalysts or carbon-modifying agents. The nitro-groups of TNT can be reduced irreversibly (via two possible paths) by three six-electron transfers, to 2,4,6-triaminotoluene, as follows from mass-spectrometric studies. The tin-carbon electrodes described herein may serve as amperometric sensors

  7. Carbon nanofibers with highly dispersed tin and tin antimonide nanoparticles: Preparation via electrospinning and application as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi; Zhang, Jiwei; Shu, Jie; Chen, Jianping; Gong, Chunhong; Guo, Jianhui; Yu, Laigui; Zhang, Jingwei

    2018-03-01

    One-dimensional carbon nanofibers with highly dispersed tin (Sn) and tin antimonide (SnSb) nanoparticles are prepared by electrospinning in the presence of antimony-doped tin oxide (denoted as ATO) wet gel as the precursor. The effect of ATO dosage on the microstructure and electrochemical properties of the as-fabricated Sn-SnSb/C composite nanofibers is investigated. Results indicate that ATO wet gel as the precursor can effectively improve the dispersion of Sn nanoparticles in carbon fiber and prevent them from segregation during the electrospinning and subsequent calcination processes. The as-prepared Sn-SnSb/C nanofibers as the anode materials for lithium-ion batteries exhibit high reversible capacity and stable cycle performance. Particularly, the electrode made from Sn-SnSb/C composite nanofibers obtained with 0.9 g of ATO gel has a high specific capacity of 779 mAh·g-1 and 378 mAh·g-1 at the current density of 50 mA·g-1 and 5 A·g-1, respectively, and it exhibits a capacity retention of 97% after 1200 cycles under the current density of 1 A·g-1. This is because the carbon nanofibers can form a continuous conductive network to buffer the volume change of the electrodes while Sn and Sn-SnSb nanoparticles uniformly distributed in the carbon nanofibers are free of segregation, thereby contributing to electrochemical performances of the electrodes.

  8. Structural and photoluminescence properties of tin oxide and tin oxide: C core–shell and alloy nanoparticles synthesised using gas phase technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehar Bhatnagar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we report a controlled growth of tin oxide and tin oxide: carbon nanoparticles by an integrated method comprising of the gas phase agglomeration, electrical mobility based size selection, and in–flight sintering steps. The effect of in-flight sintering temperature and variation in growth environment (N2, H2 and O2 during nanoparticle formation, morphology and composition has been investigated by carrying out High Resolution Transmission Electron microscopy and X-Ray diffraction studies. The results highlight the novelty of the present technique to grow alloy and core-shell nanoparticles in which the stoichiometery (x of SnOx and the mode of incorporation of carbon into the tin oxide lattice (alloy or core-shell structure, along with well-defined size can be controlled independently. Detailed Photoluminescence (PL studies of well sintered monocrystalline SnO, SnOx and SnO2 nanoparticles along with SnOx:C and SnO2:C alloy and C@SnO core-shell nanoparticle has been carried out. The shift in the position and nature of PL peaks due to band edge, Sn interstitials and oxygen vacancy defect level energy states has been understood as a function of stoichiometery and nanoparticle structure (alloy and core-shell. These results suggest the possibility of tailoring the position of these levels by controlling the size, composition and alloying which is potentially important for gas sensing, photoconductivity and photo-electrochemical applications.

  9. A Palladium-Tin Modified Microband Electrode Array for Nitrate Determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yexiang Fu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A microband electrode array modified with palladium-tin bimetallic composite has been developed for nitrate determination. The microband electrode array was fabricated by Micro Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS technique. Palladium and tin were electrodeposited successively on the electrode, forming a double-layer structure. The effect of the Pd-Sn composite was investigated and its enhancement of catalytic activity and lifetime was revealed. The Pd-Sn modified electrode showed good linearity (R2 = 0.998 from 1 mg/L to 20 mg/L for nitrate determination with a sensitivity of 398 μA/(mg∙L−1∙cm2. The electrode exhibited a satisfying analytical performance after 60 days of storage, indicating a long lifetime. Good repeatability was also displayed by the Pd-Sn modified electrodes. The results provided an option for nitrate determination in water.

  10. Analysis of cell performance and thermal regeneration of a lithium-tin cell having an immobilized fused-salt electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, E. J.; Shimotake, H.

    1969-01-01

    Cell performance and thermal regeneration of a thermally regenerative cell uses lithium and tin and a fused-salt electrolyte. The emf of the Li-Sn cell, as a function of cathode-alloy composition, is shown to resemble that of the Na-Bi cell.

  11. Structure of a titanium-alloyed high-tin bronze obtained by the Osprey method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deryagina, I. L.; Popova, E. N.; Sudareva, S. V.; Romanov, E. P.; Elokhina, L. V.; Dergunova, E. A.; Vorob'eva, A. E.; Abdyukhanov, I. M.

    2010-08-01

    The titanium-alloyed bronzes with enhanced (14.5 and 15.5 wt %) tin content obtained by the Osprey method have been studied by the methods of optical, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy with the use of quantitative microanalysis in the initial state and after hot extrusion. These alloys have been employed as bronze matrices of multifilamentary superconducting Nb/Cu-Sn composites. An increase in the tin content in the bronze matrix makes it possible to enhance the critical current density of the multifilamentary composite owing to the improvement of the structure and composition of a superconducting Nb3Sn compound that is formed upon diffusion annealing. It has been shown that the Osprey technology allows one to obtain bronzes with an enhanced Sn content and simultaneously to reduce the dendritic segregation characteristic of cast bronzes. The distribution of Sn and Ti in these alloys has been investigated. A more homogeneous structure in the initial state is characteristic of the alloy Cu-14.5Sn-0.24Ti (wt %). The increase in the tin content to 15.5 wt % leads to the formation of microregions of dendritic segregation with an (α + δ) eutectoid in the initial state, which slightly decreases plastic characteristics of this bronze.

  12. Third-generation muffin–tin orbitals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    By the example of sp3-bonded semiconductors, we illustrate what 3rd-generation muffin–tin orbi- ... there is one, and only one, such MTO per electron. To .... Computational steps. The radial Schrödinger (Dirac) equation (2) is integrated numerically from r = 0 to sR. This yields the radial func- tions, ϕRl(ε, r), and their phase ...

  13. Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Hanqing; Guo, Yuanzheng

    2014-01-01

    This thesis was a literature study concerning composites. With composites becoming increasingly popular in various areas such as aerospace industry and construction, the research about composites has a significant meaning accordingly. This thesis was aim at introducing some basic information of polymer matrix composites including raw mate-rial, processing, testing, applications and recycling to make a rough understanding of this kind of material for readers. Polymeric matrices, fillers,...

  14. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  15. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  16. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  17. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P. [Centre for Nano Science and Technology, GVP College of Engineering (Autonomous), Visakhapatnam- 530048 (India)

    2014-01-28

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells.

  18. Liquid Tin Anode SOFC JP-8 Start-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    and excessive soot build up on the stand off. ............................. 15 Figure 11: The JP-8 flow rate as a function of air leak rate...high fuel utilization is the solubility limit of oxygen in liquid tin. Work by CellTech Power has shown experimentally and theoretically that 80% fuel...operational temperature, 1000°C. This prevents detrimental formation of tin dioxide ( SnO2 ) as opposed to the formation of tin monoxide (SnO) which is

  19. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-01-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  20. Performance of titanium dioxide-based cathodes in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macklin, W.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom)); Neat, R.J. (Applied Electrochemistry Dept., AEA Industry Technology, Harwell (United Kingdom))

    Performance data on two polymorphs of titanium dioxide (anatase and rutile) operating in a lithium polymer electrolyte cell at 120 C are presented. On the first discharge lithium ions can be electrochemically inserted into both forms to an approximate composition LiTiO[sub 2]. However, only the rutile material cycles with a significant capacity ([proportional to] 0.5 Li/TiO[sub 2]) with an average cell voltage of 1.73 V corresponding to a theoretical energy density of [proportional to] 290 W h kg[sup -1]. Our results are in contrast to earlier work reported on the intercalation of lithium into these phases at room temperature, where only the anatase form was found to intercalate lithium. X-ray diffraction data indicate that the rutile form undergoes a structural change during the first discharge resulting in the formation of a hexagonal form of LiTiO[sub 2].

  1. Reductive spectrophotometry of divalent tin sensitization on soda lime glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Vinith; Wei, Xingfei; Roper, D. Keith

    2016-07-01

    Rapid and facile evaluation of tin (II) sensitization could lead to improved understanding of metal deposition in electroless (EL) plating. This report used a balanced redox reaction between 3,3‧,5,5‧-tetramethylbenzidine dihydrochloride (TMB-HCL) and N-bromosuccinimide (NBS) to evaluate effects of sensitization conditions (i.e., sensitization time, analyte concentration, aqueous immersion, and acid content) on the accumulated mass of surface-associated divalent tin ion. The accumulated mass of tin (II) increased as the sensitization time increased up to 30 s in proportion to aqueous tin (II) chloride concentrations between 2.6 and 26 mM at a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) content of 68 mM. The average mass peaked at 7.3 nanomoles (nmol) per cm2 after a 5 s aqueous immersion post-sensitization, and then decreased with increasing aqueous immersion post-sensitization. The total average tin (II) + tin (IV) accumulated on soda lime glass measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was 17% higher at 30 s sensitization, suggesting a fraction of the tin (II) present may have oxidized to tin (IV). These results indicated that in situ spectrophotometric evaluation of tin (II) could support development of EL plating for electronics, catalysis, and solar cells.

  2. Effect of TiN Addition on 3Y-TZP Ceramics with Emphasis on Making EDM-Able Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravifar, Mahnoosh; Mirkazemi, Seyyed Mohammad; Taheri, Mahdiar; Golestanifard, Farhad

    2018-04-01

    In this study, to produce electrically conductive ceramics, rapid hot press (RHP) sintering of 3 mol.% yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP) and 3Y-TZP/TiN composites with TiN amounts of 25, 35, and 45 vol.% was performed at 1300, 1350, and 1400 °C. Interestingly, the toughness and hardness were improved in the presence of TiN up to 35 vol.% and maximum fracture toughness and hardness of 5.40 ± 0.05 MPa m1/2 and 14.50 ± 0.06 GPa, respectively, were obtained. However, the bending strength was decreased which could be attributed to the rather weak interfaces of nitride and oxide phases. Regarding the zirconia matrix, the effect of grain size on fracture toughness of the samples has been studied using x-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) analysis. It was also found that electrical resistivity decreased to the value of 6.88 × 10-6 Ω m at 45 vol.% of TiN. It seems the TiN grains form a network to impose conductivity on the ZrO2 body; however, below 35 vol.% TiN, due to lack of percolation effect, this conductivity could not be maintained according to FESEM studies. Finally, electrically conductive samples were successfully machined by electrical discharge machining (EDM).

  3. Gas Sensors Based on Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from a Mini-Arc Plasma Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganhua Lu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas sensors or electronic noses to rapidly detect and differentiate trace amount of chemical agents are extremely attractive. In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a functional tin oxide nanoparticle gas sensor. Tin oxide nanoparticles are first synthesized using a convenient and low-cost mini-arc plasma source. The nanoparticle size distribution is measured online using a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS. The product nanoparticles are analyzed ex-situ by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for morphology and defects, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy for elemental composition, electron diffraction for crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for surface composition. Nonagglomerated rutile tin oxide (SnO2 nanoparticles as small as a few nm have been produced. Larger particles bear a core-shell structure with a metallic core and an oxide shell. The nanoparticles are then assembled onto an e-beam lithographically patterned interdigitated electrode using electrostatic force to fabricate the gas sensor. The nanoparticle sensor exhibits a fast response and a good sensitivity when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol vapor in air.

  4. Depósito de TiN sobre herramientas de corte para uso industrial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auger, M. A.

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available TiN coatings on stainless steel blades for glass fibre cutting have been investigated in this work. The aim was to improve their mechanical properties and increase the tool time life, decreasing in this way the production stops. Reactive magnetron sputtering has been the deposition technique. TiN films chemical composition has been determined by AES (Auger Electron Spectroscopy, RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy and XANES (X-Ray Spectroscopy Near the Absorption Edge, and it has been correlated to the gas mixture composition in the vacuum chamber. Crystalline structure has been determined by X-Ray Diffraction, and the films morphology has been observed by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy. The hardness coating has been extracted from nanoindentation measurements, giving a 21.54±1.04 GPa hardness value, typical for TiN in the literature. Factory proofs for coated cutting blades show a 67% lifetime increase.

    En este trabajo se han estudiado láminas de TiN crecidas sobre cuchillas de acero inoxidable empleadas en el corte de fibra de vidrio, para mejorar sus propiedades mecánicas y aumentar el tiempo de vida de la herramienta, reduciendo de este modo las paradas de producción. La técnica de depósito utilizada ha sido la de sputtering magnetrón reactivo. La composición química de las capas de TiN ha sido determinada mediante medidas de Espectroscopía Auger, RBS (Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy y XANES (X-Ray Spectroscopy Near the Absorption Edge y se ha relacionado con la composición de la mezcla gaseosa presente en la cámara de reacción. La estructura cristalina se ha determinado mediante Difracción de Rayos X, y mediante la técnica de SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy se ha observado la morfología de las capas. La dureza del recubrimiento se ha calculado a partir de medidas de nanoindentación, obteniéndose un valor de 21.54±1.04 GPa, típico en la literatura para el TiN. Los resultados de la prueba en f

  5. Peculiarities of the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Red'kin, A.N.; Smirnov, V.A.; Sokolova, E.A.; Makovej, Z.I.; Telegin, G.F.

    1990-01-01

    Peculiarities of fusible metal alloys interaction with ammonium halogenides in vertical reactor are considered using indium-tin and indium-bismuth binary alloys. It is shown that at the end of the process the composition of metal and salt phases is determined by the equilibrium type and constant characteristic of the given salt-metal system. As a result the interaction of indium-tin and indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium-bismuth alloys with ammonium halogenides leads to preferential halogenation of indium which may be used in the processes of separation or purification. A model is suggested to calculate the final concentration of salt and metal phase components

  6. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrNCoated AISI 1070 Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Ahmet; Ozkaner, Vedat; Yildirim, Mustafa M

    2008-11-05

    Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN) and chromium nitride (CrN) are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP) technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear properties of TiN- and CrNcoated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples.

  7. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrNCoated AISI 1070 Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Cakan

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN and chromium nitride (CrN are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD. The wear properties of TiN- and CrNcoated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples.

  8. MAGIC NUCLEI: Tin-100 turns up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the same way as the Periodic Table of chemical elements reflects the successive filling of orbital electron shells, in nuclear physics the socalled 'magic' numbers correspond to closed shells of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126,... neutrons and/or protons. More tightly bound than other nuclei, these are the nuclear analogues of the inert gases. 'Doubly magic' nuclei have closed shells of both neutrons and protons. Examples in nature are helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons), oxygen-16 (8 and 8), calcium-40 (20 and 20) and calcium-48 (20 and 28). Radioactive tin-132 (50+82) has been widely studied

  9. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  10. Mocvd of Tin Oxide for Gas Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglicki, Peter Stanislaw

    1990-01-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. Thin films of a wide variety of materials can be produced using an assortment of physical and chemical techniques. Such techniques are reviewed and compared, with particular reference to the deposition of tin oxide films. In the present study, MOCVD (Metal organic chemical vapour deposition) was used to grow thin films of tin oxide from dibutyltin diacetate precursor on a variety of substrates. A series of reactor prototypes were developed in accordance with specific requirements of reproducibility and process control. The evolution of the designs leading to the final working system is detailed. The theory of MOCVD is given with particular reference to the reactor used in this project. The effects of various deposition parameters on tin oxide film growth rates were investigated, and the results are discussed with reference to the deposition kinetics in the system. Films were characterised by optical interferometry, optical and electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and electrical measurements. The films were generally uniform, conducting and polycrystalline, and were comprised of very small grains, resulting in a high density. A specific application of metal oxide materials is in solid state gas sensors, which are available in various forms and operate according to different mechanisms. These are compared and a detailed account is given on the theory of operation of surface conductivity modulated devices. The application of such devices based on tin oxide in thin film form was investigated in the present work. The prepared sensor samples were comprised of very small grains, resulting in a high density. The observation that preferred (310) orientation occured in thicker films, can be attributed to dendritic growth. The sensors generally showed response to numerous reducing gas ambients, although there was evidence of a degree of selectivity against methane

  11. Samarium (III Selective Membrane Sensor Based on Tin (IV Boratophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. K. Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A number of Sm (III selective membranes of varying compositions using tin (IV boratophosphate as electroactive material were prepared. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and epoxy resin were used as binding materials. Membrane having composition of 40% exchanger and 60% epoxy resin exhibited best performance. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range of 1x10-5M to 1x10-1 M of samarium ions with a Super-Nernstian slope of 40 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of less than 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions and can be used in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Sm (III ions against EDTA. Effect of internal solution was studied and the electrode was successfully used in non-aqueous media, too.

  12. An investigation of a carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as a power generation alternative for Mars exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Mejia, Oscar Roberto

    The possibility of using a bifunctional carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as the core of a propulsion system for a Mars exploration rotorcraft is investigated here. This concept involves the production of electricity by a stack of fuel cells that rely on carbon monoxide as the fuel and oxygen as the oxidizer. These two reactants are harvested from the Martian atmosphere by employing the same stack of cells as an electrolyzing unit. The general objectives of this research are to: prove the feasibility of the concept, produce a comprehensive model that allows the prediction of performance, and offer recommendations for the successful implementation of the concept. In this work, it is pointed out and demonstrated that, at least in theory, the overall electrochemical reaction required by this concept can be achieved by transporting hydrogen protons, hydroxyl radicals, carbonate radicals, or oxygen ions between the electrodes. Complete sets of reactions are prescribed for different types of fuel cells. Anodic and cathodic reactions are presented for acid, alkaline, carbonate, and solid oxide electrolytes. Subsequently, a more detailed consideration of all relevant phenomena is done by coupling elements of chemical kinetics, electrodics, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics with experimental data, to complete the demonstration of the feasibility of the carbon dioxide-based bifunctional fuel cell system. The understanding and inclusion of key processes and mechanisms allows the construction of a model that predicts the performance of the power generation subsystem advocated here. The model adopted in this work couples mechanistics with elements derived from the application of linear regression modeling techniques. Mechanistics are used to determine: thermodynamic equilibrium potential, overvoltages due to activation, ohmic resistance, and mass transport. This approach is empirical in part because the numerical parametric expressions suggested here have to be precised

  13. Enhanced visible-light photocatalysis and gas sensor properties of polythiophene supported tin doped titanium nanocomposite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M. Ravi; Siva Prasada Reddy, P.; Rao, T. Siva; Pammi, S. V. N.; Siva Kumar, K.; Vijay Babu, K.; Kiran Kumar, Ch.; Hemalatha, K. P. J.

    2017-06-01

    The polythiophene supported tin doped titanium nanocomposites (PTh/Sn-TiO2) were synthesized by modified sol-gel process through oxidative polymerization of thiophene. The fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (UV-DRS) analysis confirms the existence of synergetic interaction between metal oxide and polymer along with extension of absorption edge to visible region. The composites are found to be in spherical form with core-shell structure, which is confirmed by scanning electron spectroscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images, the presence of all respective elements of composite are proven by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis. The importance of polythiophene on surface of metal oxide has been were studied as a function of photocatalytic activity for degradation of organic pollutant congo red and gas sensor behavior towards liquid petroleum gas (LPG). All the composites are photocatalytically active and the composite with 1.5 wt% thiophene degrades the pollutant congo red within 120 min when compared to remaining catalysts under visible light irradiation. On the other hand, same composite have shown potential gas sensor properties towards LPG at 300 °C. Considering all the results, it can be noted that polythiophene acts as good sensitizer towards LPG and supporter for the tin doped titania that improve the photocatalytic activity under visible light.

  14. Application of Microwave Melting for the Recovery of Tin Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the application of microwave heating for the melting of powdered tin. The morphology and particle size of powdered tin prepared by the centrifugal atomization method were characterized. The tin particles were uniform and spherical in shape, with 90% of the particles in the size range of 38–75 μm. The microwave absorption characteristic of the tin powder was assessed by an estimation of the dielectric properties. Microwave penetration was found to have good volumetric heating on powdered tin. Conduction losses were the main loss mechanisms for powdered tin by microwave heating at temperatures above 150 °C. A 20 kW commercial-scale microwave tin-melting unit was designed, developed, and utilized for production. This unit achieved a heating rate that was at least 10 times higher than those of conventional methods, as well as a far shorter melting duration. The results suggest that microwave heating accelerates the heating rate and shortens the melting time. Tin recovery rate was 97.79%, with a slag ratio of only 1.65% and other losses accounting for less than 0.56%. The unit energy consumption was only 0.17 (kW·h·kg–1—far lower than the energy required by conventional melting methods. Thus, the microwave melting process improved heating efficiency and reduced energy consumption.

  15. Bimetallic electrocatalysts on titanium dioxide-based supports for methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Roderick Eliel

    Electrocatalysts are essential for the development of active and durable fuel cells and hydrogen production technologies. Generally, electrochemical processes of energy conversion and hydrogen generation in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) utilize precious metals, such as platinum, iridium and ruthenium, as electrocatalysts. For the methanol oxidation and oxygen evolution reaction, a bimetallic structure can be used to enhance kinetics and increase stability. It is desired to support electrocatalysts to disperse nanoparticles on the surface and promote better catalyst utilization. Traditionally, carbon has been used as an electrochemical support because it has a high surface area and high electrical conductivity. The problem with carbon is that it is not a very stable material and can corrode at voltages more than 0.9 V, affecting performance of the electrochemical reaction. Therefore, it would be useful to support electrocatalysts in a stable material with suitable conductivity. Using titanium dioxide as a support can be advantageous due to its corrosion-resistant capability. TiO2 exhibit different crystalline structures, such as anatase and rutile, which can have an effect on catalytic activity. Unfortunately, it is not conductive; hence, it is not used in electrochemical applications. However, it can be doped with niobium to increase electronic conductivity; but, it usually come at the expense of surface area. In this work, TiO 2 and Nb-TiO2 were studied as platinum/ruthenium and iridium/ruthenium nanoparticles supports for the electrochemical oxidation of methanol and oxygen evolution, respectively. Even though the conductivity of our supports was very low, adding a considerable loading of nanoparticles increased conductivity of the composite material (support + catalyst) to acceptable levels. Using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and direct methanol fuel cell tests creating a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), Pt-Ru supported on Nb-TiO2 and TiO 2 showed superior

  16. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  17. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  18. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, Richard A.

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support the liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  19. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  20. Inorganic tin compounds do not induce micronuclei in human lymphocytes in the absence of metabolic activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damati, Artemis; Vlastos, Dimitris; Philippopoulos, Athanassios I; Matthopoulos, Demetrios P

    2014-04-01

    The genotoxic evaluation (in vitro analysis) of a series of eight inorganic tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds [tin(II) acetate, tin(II) chloride, tin(II) ethylhexanoate, tin(II) oxalate, tin(II) oxide, tin(IV) acetate, tin(IV) chloride and tin(IV) oxide], for the detection of micronuclei in human blood lymphocytes, was performed in the absence of metabolic activation by the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Human lymphocytes were treated for over one cell cycle (31 hours), with concentrations ranging from 1 to 75 μM (1, 5, 10, 20, 50 and 75 μM), of tin(II) and tin(IV) salts dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide. The above-listed concentrations cover the values that have been detected in humans with no occupational exposure to tin compounds. The experimental results show the absence of genotoxicity for all inorganic compounds tested in the specific concentrations and experimental conditions. Cytotoxic effects of tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds were evaluated by the determination of cytokinesis block proliferation index and cytotoxicity percentage. Our observations on the cytotoxicity pattern of the tested tin(II) and tin(IV) compounds indicate that they are cytotoxic in several tested concentrations to human lymphocytes treated in vitro. The observed differences in cytotoxicity of each tested compound might reflect differences in their chemical structure.

  1. Method of making Nb3Sn composite wires and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanlan, R.M.; Fietz, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    By providing a nickel or copper overcoat to a tin coating on a niobium-copper multifilamentary composite wire, one can avoid the necessity for choosing between poor superconducting properties due to tin droplet formation and substantially increasing production costs by adding a number of special processing steps. 9 claims, 1 figure

  2. Photoemission from tin and lead cluster anions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gantefoer, G.; Gausa, M.; Meiwes-Broer, K.H.; Lutz, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    Photoelectrons from mass-identified jet-cooled tin and lead cluster anions (Sn n - , Pb n - ) are detached by ultraviolet laser light (hν=3.68 eV). The photoelectron energy spectra give the detachment energies of ground state cluster anions (electron affinities) as well as excitation energies of neutral clusters in the geometry of the anions. The energy spectra for Sn n - are dominated by flat thresholds with an n-dependence similar to that of other group IV clusters. In contrast, for Pb n - we find pronounced narrow lines close to threshold, generally followed by a 0.3-1.4 eV gap which indicates closed-shell behaviour of Pb n - for nearly all n. (orig.)

  3. (n,{gamma}) Experiments on tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baramsai, B.; Mitchell, G. E.; Walker, C. L.; Rusev, G. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695, USA and Triangle Universities Nuclear Laboratory, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Mosby, S.; O' Donnell, J. M.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, D. J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Kroll, J. [Charles University of Prague, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Agvaanluvsan, U.; Dashdorj, D.; Erdenehuluun, B.; Tsend-Ayush, T. [MonAme Scientific Research Center, Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia)

    2013-04-19

    Neutron capture experiments on highly enriched {sup 117,119}Sn isotopes were performed with the DANCE detector array located at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The DANCE detector provides detailed information about the multi-step {gamma}-ray cascade following neutron capture. Analysis of the experimental data provides important information to improve understanding of the neutron capture reaction, including a test of the statistical model, the assignment of spins and parities of neutron resonances, and information concerning the Photon Strength Function (PSF) and Level Density (LD) below the neutron separation energy. Preliminary results for the (n,{gamma}) reaction on {sup 117,119}Sn are presented. Resonance spins of the odd-A tin isotopes were almost completely unknown. Resonance spins and parities have been assigned via analysis of the multi-step {gamma}-ray spectra and directional correlations.

  4. Novel inorganic tin phosphate gel: multifunctional material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenyan; Komarneni, Sridhar; Noh, Young Dong; Ma, Jianfeng; Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng; Xue, Xiaoqiang; Jiang, Bibiao

    2018-03-08

    Here, we report a remarkable 15 Å nanolayered tin phosphate, Sn(HPO 4 ) 2 ·3H 2 O (SnP-H + or SnP), and its clay-like gel, which are multifunctional and are prepared using earth-abundant Sn and P chemicals by a facile, environmentally benign and potentially cost-effective process. This new energy material is discovered here as the best proton conductor among all the known layered phosphates with a very high proton conductivity of over 1 × 10 -2 S cm -1 at 100 °C for potential use in PEM fuel cells. But it is also a very good capacitor material with fast Li-storage kinetics (charging time of 13 s).

  5. Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communication: Journalism Education Today, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Considers how photography is more than just pointing a camera in the right direction. Explains that good pictures use elements of composition such as the Rule of Thirds, leading lines, framing and repetition of shapes. Presents 16 photographs from college and secondary school publications, and describes the techniques that makes them effective.…

  6. Comparison of the antifungal activity of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging in consumed bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mohammadi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Using titanium dioxide nanosilver packaging which is antibacterial and resistance to the diffusion of gases such as oxygen is increasing in food industry. Therefore we compared the effect of titanium dioxide based nanosilver packaging and conventional polyethylene packaging - on fungal flora of consuming bread in order to increase the shelf life storage of  consuming bread. One hundred forty four samples of 6 different types of loaf of bread randomly obtained from 12 bakeries in District 2 of Tehran. The samples were packaged with 3%, 5% and 10% nano coatings and also conventional polyethylene coatings as control group. The bacterial examination and monitoring of samples, according to the national standards of Iran was carried out 3 times, on days 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28, of study period.This study showed that the film type and storage period, were main factors which significantly influenced fungal flora of bread. The lowest rate of various fungi growth (%14 was observed in 10% Nano film, while the highest rate of various fungi growth (47% was observed in conventional polyethylene coating (P<0.001. With increasing storage periods,  the number of various fungi increased, however this correlation was not similar in most of breads and fungi types. There were significant difference between them (P = 0.001. According to the results of the present study, due to increasing population growth and in order to improve food security, using packages with nanosilver particles which are based on titanium dioxide, prevails over the polyethylene packages. Therefore using such packages are highly recommended in bakery industry.

  7. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed...

  8. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...... of tin tetrachloride on industrial soda glass at ~800K to thicknesses of ~3×10-8 and 3×10 -7 m, commercially by the `titanising' process on industrial soda glass at ~800K to a thickness of ~3.10-9 m, and in the laboratory by radio frequency sputtering from tin oxide powder over a range of glass...

  9. Tin-phosphate glass anode for sodium ion batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Honma

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical property of tin-phosphate (designate as GSPO glass anode for the sodium ion battery was studied. During the first charge process, sodium ion diffused into GSPO glass matrix and due to the reduction of Sn2+ to Sn0 state sodiated tin metal nano-size particles are formed in oxide glass matrix. After the second cycle, we confirmed the steady reversible reaction ∼320 mAh/g at 0–1 V cutoff voltage condition by alloying process in NaxSn4. The tin-phosphate glass is a promising candidate of new anode active material that realizes high energy density sodium ion batteries.

  10. Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Cindemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C.

  11. Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)

  12. Aqueous Barbier Allylation of Aldehydes Mediated by Tin

    OpenAIRE

    Ivani Malvestiti; Lothar W. Bieber; Marcelo Navarro; Fernando Hallwass; Lívia N. Cavalcanti; Maria Ester S. B. Barros; Dimas J. P. Lima; Ricardo L. Guimarães

    2007-01-01

    The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols...

  13. EUV resists based on tin-oxo clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardineau, Brian; Del Re, Ryan; Al-Mashat, Hashim; Marnell, Miles; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Ekinci, Yasin; Sarma, Chandra; Neisser, Mark; Freedman, Daniel A.; Brainard, Robert L.

    2014-03-01

    We have studied the photolysis of tin clusters of the type [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2 using extreme ultraviolet (EUV, 13.5 nm) light, and developed these clusters into novel high-resolution photoresists. A thin film of [(BuSn)12O14(OH)6][p-toluenesulfonate]2 (1) was prepared by spin coating a solution of (1) in 2-butanone onto a silicon wafer. Exposure to EUV light caused the compound (1) to be converted into a substance that was markedly less soluble in aqueous isopropanol. To optimize the EUV lithographic performance of resists using tin-oxo clusters, and to gain insight into the mechanism of their photochemical reactions, we prepared several compounds based on [(RSn)12O14(OH)6] X2. The sensitivity of tin-oxide films to EUV light were studied as a function of variations in the structure of the counter-anions (X, primarily carboxylates) and organic ligands bound to tin (R). Correlations were sought between the EUV sensitivity of these complexes vs. the strength of the carbon-carboxylate bonds in the counteranions and vs. the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. No correlation was observed between the strength of the carboncarboxylate bonds in the counter-anions (X) and the EUV photosensitivity. However, the EUV sensitivity of the tinoxide films appears to be well-correlated with the strength of the carbon-tin bonds. We hypothesize this correlation indicates a mechanism of carbon-tin bond homolysis during exposure. Using these tin clusters, 18-nm lines were printed showcasing the high resolution capabilities of these materials as photoresists for EUV lithography.

  14. Observing Tin-Lead Alloys by Scanning Electron Microscopy: A Physical Chemistry Experiment Investigating Macro-Level Behaviors and Micro-Level Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Xu, Xinhua; Wu, Meifen; Hu, Huikang; Wang, Xiaogang

    2015-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was introduced into undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory curriculum to help students observe the phase composition and morphology characteristics of tin-lead alloys and thus further their understanding of binary alloy phase diagrams. The students were captivated by this visual analysis method, which…

  15. Nature of active tin species and promoting effect of nickle in silica supported tin oxide for dehydrogenation of propane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haoren; Wang, Hui; Li, Xiuyi; Li, Chunyi

    2017-06-01

    Different with Wang et. al.'s study, we found that polymeric Si-O-Sn2+ rather than Ni-Sn alloy and metallic Sn are active species in silica-supported tin oxide catalysts for dehydrogenation of propane. The results showed that high surface area of mesoporous silica brought about high dispersion of tin oxide species, as a result, catalytic activity and stability were both improved. DRUV-vis, XPS, TPR and XRD studies of fresh and reduced catalysts indicated that the deactivation was related to the reduction of active species rather than the coke formation since active tin species cannot maintain its oxidation state at reaction conditions (high temperature and reducing atmosphere). The formed Ni3Sn2 alloy after reduction just functioned as promoter which accelerated the desorption of H2 and regeneration of active site. A synergy effect between active tin species and Ni3Sn2 alloy were observed.

  16. The effect of substrate temperature on atomic layer deposited zinc tin oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindahl, Johan; Hägglund, Carl; Wätjen, J. Timo; Edoff, Marika; Törndahl, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films were deposited on glass substrates by atomic layer deposition (ALD), and the film properties were investigated for varying deposition temperatures in the range of 90 to 180 °C. It was found that the [Sn]/([Sn] + [Zn]) composition is only slightly temperature dependent, while properties such as growth rate, film density, material structure and band gap are more strongly affected. The growth rate dependence on deposition temperature varies with the relative number of zinc or tin containing precursor pulses and it correlates with the growth rate behavior of pure ZnO and SnO x ALD. In contrast to the pure ZnO phase, the density of the mixed ZTO films is found to depend on the deposition temperature and it increases linearly with about 1 g/cm 3 in total over the investigated range. Characterization by transmission electron microscopy suggests that zinc rich ZTO films contain small (~ 10 nm) ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites embedded in an amorphous matrix, and that these crystallites increase in size with increasing zinc content and deposition temperature. These crystallites are small enough for quantum confinement effects to reduce the optical band gap of the ZTO films as they grow in size with increasing deposition temperature. - Highlights: • Zinc tin oxide thin films were deposited by atomic layer deposition. • The structure and optical properties were studied at different growth temperatures. • The growth temperature had only a small effect on the composition of the films. • Small ZnO or ZnO(Sn) crystallites were observed by TEM in zinc rich ZTO films. • The growth temperature affects the crystallite size, which influences the band gap

  17. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  18. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  19. EVALUATION OF APPLICATION OF COAGULANTS CONTAINING DIVALENT AND TRIVALENT IRON TO ENHANCE REMOVAL OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS AND COMPLEXED COPPER AND TIN IONS FROM INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the issues concerning physical and chemical parameters of raw sewage from the production of printed circuit boards and the composition of the bath used technology in terms of meeting the requirements for the introduction of treated wastewater into surface waters, ground or the municipal sewage system. Showed test results for the removal of organic compounds and ions complexed copper (II and tin (II and (IV using coagulants containing ions of Fe (II and Fe (III. The studies showed the high efficiency of removal of organic compounds and tin compounds. Explained the possible causes of the difficulties of precipitation complexed copper ions (II.

  20. Toward an Understanding of Thin-Film Transistor Performance in Solution-Processed Amorphous Zinc Tin Oxide (ZTO) Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanctis, Shawn; Koslowski, Nico; Hoffmann, Rudolf; Guhl, Conrad; Erdem, Emre; Weber, Stefan; Schneider, Jörg J

    2017-06-28

    Amorphous zinc tin oxide (ZTO) thin films are accessible by a molecular precursor approach using mononuclear zinc(II) and tin(II) compounds with methoxyiminopropionic acid ligands. Solution processing of two precursor solutions containing a mixture of zinc and tin(II)-methoxyiminopropinato complexes results in the formation of smooth homogeneous thin films, which upon calcination are converted into the desired semiconducting amorphous ZTO thin films. ZTO films integrated within a field-effect transistor (FET) device exhibit an active semiconducting behavior in the temperature range between 250 and 400 °C, giving an increased performance, with mobility values between μ = 0.03 and 5.5 cm 2 /V s, with on/off ratios increasing from 10 5 to 10 8 when going from 250 to 400 °C. Herein, our main emphasis, however, was on an improved understanding of the material transformation pathway from weak to high performance of the semiconductor in a solution-processed FET as a function of the processing temperature. We have correlated this with the chemical composition and defects states within the microstructure of the obtained ZTO thin film via photoelectron spectroscopy (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy), Auger electron spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence investigations. The critical factor observed for the improved performance within this ZTO material could be attributed to a higher tin concentration, wherein the contributions of point defects arising from the tin oxide within the final amorphous ZTO material play the dominant role in governing the transistor performance.

  1. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  2. Metallography and microstructure interpretation of some archaeological tin bronze vessels from Iran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudbashi, Omid, E-mail: o.oudbashi@aui.ac.ir [Department of Conservation of Historic Properties, Faculty of Conservation, Art University of Isfahan, Hakim Nezami Street, Sangtarashha Alley, P.O. Box 1744, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davami, Parviz, E-mail: pdavami@razi-foundation.com [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology/Razi Applied Science Foundation, No. 27, Fernan St., Shahid Ghasem Asghari Blvd., km 21 of Karadj Makhsous Road, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-15

    Archaeological excavations in western Iran have recently revealed a significant Luristan Bronzes collection from Sangtarashan archaeological site. The site and its bronze collection are dated to Iron Age II/III of western Iran (10th–7th century BC) according to archaeological research. Alloy composition, microstructure and manufacturing technique of some sheet metal vessels are determined to reveal metallurgical processes in western Iran in the first millennium BC. Experimental analyses were carried out using Scanning Electron Microscopy–Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and Optical Microscopy/Metallography methods. The results allowed reconstructing the manufacturing process of bronze vessels in Luristan. It proved that the samples have been manufactured with a binary copper–tin alloy with a variable tin content that may relates to the application of an uncontrolled procedure to make bronze alloy (e.g. co-smelting or cementation). The presence of elongated copper sulphide inclusions showed probable use of copper sulphide ores for metal production and smelting. Based on metallographic studies, a cycle of cold working and annealing was used to shape the bronze vessels. - Highlights: • Sangtarashan vessels are made by variable Cu-Sn alloys with some impurities. • Various compositions occurred due to applying uncontrolled smelting methods. • The microstructure represents thermo-mechanical process to shape bronze vessels. • In one case, the annealing didn’t remove the eutectoid remaining from casting. • The characteristics of the bronzes are similar to other Iron Age Luristan Bronzes.

  3. In vitro assessments on bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of TiN coating on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy synthesized by multi-arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Naiming; Huang Xiaobo; Zhang Xiangyu; Fan Ailan; Qin Lin; Tang Bin

    2012-01-01

    TiN coating was synthesized on Ti6Al4V titanium alloy surface by multi-arc ion plating (MIP) technique. Surface morphology, cross sectional microstructure, elemental distributions and phase compositions of the obtained coating were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), optical microscope (OM), glow discharge optical emission spectroscope (GDOES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Bacterial adhesion and corrosion performance of Ti6Al4V and the TiN coating were assessed via in vitro bacterial adhesion tests and corrosion experiments, respectively. The results indicated that continuous and compact coating which was built up by pure TiN with a typical columnar crystal structure has reached a thickness of 1.5 μm. This TiN coating could significantly reduce the bacterial adhesion and enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti6Al4V substrate.

  4. Geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qinyuan; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Kang, Yu

    2016-02-01

    Based on 1625 data collected from the published literature, the geochemistry of tin (Sn) in Chinese coals, including the abundance, distribution, modes of occurrence, genetic types and combustion behavior, was discussed to make a better understanding. Our statistic showed the average Sn of Chinese coal was 3.38 mg/kg, almost two times higher than the world. Among all the samples collected, Guangxi coals occupied an extremely high Sn enrichment (10.46 mg/kg), making sharp contrast to Xinjiang coals (0.49 mg/kg). Two modes of occurrence of Sn in Chinese coals were found, including sulfide-bounded Sn and clay-bounded Sn. In some coalfields, such as Liupanshui, Huayingshan and Haerwusu, a response between REEs distribution and Sn content was found which may caused by the transportation of Sn including clay minerals between coal seams. According to the responses reflecting on REEs patterns of each coalfield, several genetic types of Sn in coalfields were discussed. The enrichment of Sn in Guangxi coals probably caused by Sn-rich source rocks and multiple-stage hydrothermal fluids. The enriched Sn in western Guizhou coals was probably caused by volcanic ashes and sulfide-fixing mechanism. The depletion of Sn in Shengli coalfield, Inner Mongolia, may attribute to hardly terrigenous input and fluids erosion. As a relative easily volatilized element, the Sn-containing combustion by-products tended to be absorbed on the fine particles of fly ash. In 2012, the emission flux of Sn by Chinese coal combustion was estimated to be 0.90 × 10(9) g.

  5. Surface chemical changes of TiC, TiN and TiO2 by light-ion bombardments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Y.; Sasaki, T.A.

    1987-01-01

    Surface chemical chances of TiC, TiN and TiO 2 due to ion bombardment with H 2 + , D 2 + and He + ions in the energy range of 0.5 keV to 10 keV have been studied by electron spectroscopy. In almost all cases, depletion of the light constituents was observed. No evidence for formation of titanium hydride or the metallic state is obtained for bombarded TiC and TiN surfaces. Preferential loss of oxygen from TiO 2 results in formation of Ti 2 O 3 by the H 2 + and D 2 + bombardments, and of a mixture of Ti 2 O 3 and TiO by the He + bombardment. In the cases of TiC and TiN, a similar dependence on the incident ion energy was observed for the changes between the X/Ti (X=C,N) surface compositional ratio at steady state and the Ti + /X + signal ratio of secondary-ion mass spectra. The compositional change is discussed in relation to sputtering properties of the constituents. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in some common Nigerian beverages: A look at antimony, tin and mercury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.I. Roberts

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available There is currently little information on the composition of heavy metals in beverages imported and locally produced in Nigeria. The study quantitatively determined the composition of antimony (Sb, tin (Sn and mercury (Hg in 50 different beverage samples and evaluated the extent of violation of guideline values. Analysis of the beverage samples for the presence of Sb, Sn, and Hg was carried out using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS 929. The mean values detected for mercury, tin and antimony (±SE in fruit juices and soft drinks were 2.39±0.25, 3.66±0.22 and 0.49±0.048 μg/l; 2.93±0.34, 3.60±0.46 and 0.49±0.10 μg/l in dairy drinks and 0.94±0.02, 4.34±0.48 and 0.48±0.05 μg/l in bottled water samples respectively. While antimony detected in all products was below guideline values, mercury and tin were above the acceptable levels established by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency and European Union in most samples tested.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  8. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Margolin, Len G. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-08-06

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release.

  9. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  10. Quantifying Cutting and Wearing Behaviors of TiN- and CrN-Coated AISI 1070 Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakan, Ahmet; Ozkaner, Vedat; Yildirim, Mustafa M.

    2008-01-01

    Hard coatings such as titanium nitride (TiN) and chromium nitride (CrN) are widely used in cutting and forming tools against wear and corrosion. In the present study, hard coating films were deposited onto AISI 1070 steels by a cathodic arc evaporation plating (CAVP) technique. These samples were subjected to wear in a conventional lathe for investigating the tribological behaviour of coating structure, and prenitrided subsurface composition was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), line scan analyses and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The wear properties of TiN- and CrN-coated samples were determined using an on-line monitoring system. The results show that TiN-coated samples demonstrate higher wear resistance than CrN-coated samples. PMID:27873912

  11. Determination of bromine and tin compounds in plastics using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    İzgi, Belgin; Kayar, Murat

    2015-07-01

    The polybrominated flame retardants and organotin compounds were screened in terms of bromine and tin content using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in plastics. The calibration standards were prepared using the fused-disk technique, and all samples were investigated under optimal conditions. Using a central composite experimental design, laser parameters, laser energy, pulse rate, scan rate and spot size were identified. The detection limits of the method were 1000 mgkg(-1) and 1600 mgkg(-1) for bromide and tin, whereas the relative standard deviation (%) values of the analysis were 9% and 6% (n=3) for ERM EC681k with 770 ± 70 mgkg(-1) Br and 86 ± 6 mgkg(-1) Sn respectively, and 106-115% of Br and 102-104% of Sn were observed for the tetrabromobisphenol A and butyltin trichloride spike plastics, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Stability of tritium permeation prevention barrier with TiC and TiN + TiC coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shan Changqi; Chen Qingwang; Dai Shaoxia; Jiang Weisheng

    1999-01-01

    The stability of tritium permeation prevention barrier of 316L stainless steel with coating TiC and TiN + TiC under the conditions of very large thermal gradient, thermal cycling and plasma irradiation is researched. The research includes two aspects: one is the study on the stability resisting H + plasma irradiation; another is on the ability of two coating materials when they are used in long term under the condition of very large thermal gradient and cycling. The results show that TiC and TiN + TiC composite coating materials, after chemical heat treatment and forming tritium permeation prevention barrier, can resist H + ion irradiation, and also can resist very large thermal gradient and thermal cycling. The long time experiments show that tritium permeation prevention barrier of those coating materials is stable when they are used in long term

  13. Fabrication of optical fiber of zinc tin borophosphate glass with zero photoelastic constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Akira; Oba, Yuya; Takebe, Hiromichi

    2015-10-01

    An optical fiber made of zinc tin boro-phosphate glass having a zero photoelastic constant, good water durability, and excluding hazardous elements was drawn from a prepared preform for use in a fiber-type current sensor device. The proposed cladding compositions enable single-mode propagation for a wavelength of 1550 nm, which is estimated from the difference in the refractive index between the core and cladding compositions. The drawing conditions should be controlled since the multiple-component glass is very sensitive to changes in viscosity and crystal precipitation during the heat-treated stretching of the preform. The temperature dependence of viscosity in the core and cladding reveals the feasibility of drawing.

  14. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwib, Lawrence L.; Zapata, Maria C.

    2007-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has a currently unknown probability associated with it. Due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In this experiment, we study the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From this data we can estimate the probability of an electrical short, as a function of voltage, given that a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors. In addition, three tin whiskers grown from the same Space Shuttle Orbiter card guide used in the aforementioned experiment were cross-sectioned and studied using a focused ion beam (FIB).

  15. Ab initio engineering of materials with stacked hexagonal tin frameworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Junping; Beaufils, Clément; Kolmogorov, Aleksey N.

    2016-07-01

    The group-IV tin has been hypothesized to possess intriguing electronic properties in an atom-thick hexagonal form. An attractive pathway of producing sizable 2D crystallites of tin is based on deintercalation of bulk compounds with suitable tin frameworks. Here, we have identified a new synthesizable metal distannide, NaSn2, with a 3D stacking of flat hexagonal layers and examined a known compound, BaSn2, with buckled hexagonal layers. Our ab initio results illustrate that despite being an exception to the 8-electron rule, NaSn2 should form under pressures easily achievable in multi-anvil cells and remain (meta)stable under ambient conditions. Based on calculated Z2 invariants, the predicted NaSn2 may display topologically non-trivial behavior and the known BaSn2 could be a strong topological insulator.

  16. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  17. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  18. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  20. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  1. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2010... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products...

  2. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  3. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  4. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  5. 40 CFR 471.10 - Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. 471.10 Section 471.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Lead-Tin-Bismuth Forming Subcategory § 471.10 Applicability; description of the lead-tin-bismuth forming subcategory. This subpart applies to discharges of pollutants to waters of the...

  6. Determination of tin and germanium with nonylfluorone and polymeric flocculants in plant materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya A. Ivanitsa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New analytical systems «polymeric flocculant (PF−nonylfluorone (NF−metal ion» were proposed for spectrophotometric determination of germanium and tin in plant materials. It is shown the higher efficiency of the modifying action of PF nonionic nature (polyvinylpyrrolidone, PVP compared with the cationic PF polyhexamethyleneguanidine chloride. The presence of PVP increases absorbance complex solutions of both metals on 3.5 times. It is found that the compositions of binary complex Ge(IV and Sn(IV being equal to 1:2 in the presence of PF. The interval of optimum values of acidity is pH 1−4, concentration of modifier (PVP is 0.16 g/L. The difference in absorption of solutions PF–NF–metal and reference solution depends linearly on the concentration of metal in the range of 0.01−0.06 μg Ge(IV/mL (ε=1.35∙105, λ=515 nm and 0.18-0.90 μg Sn(IV/mL (ε=4.2∙104, λ=520 nm. The developed method was tested in the determination of germanium in garlic and aloe and tin in pomegranate. The correctness of the results were confirmed by independent spectrophotometric methods which used phenylfluorone and quercetin as reagents.

  7. Tin(II Selective PVC Membrane Electrode Based on Salicylaldehyde Thiosemicarbazone as an Ionophore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulekh Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A polymeric membrane-based tin selective electrode was developed by using salicylaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (STSC. The best performance was recorded with a membrane composition of PVC : TBP : ionophore : NaTPB as 28 : 59 : 8 : 5 (w/w%. The Nernstian slope calculated from the calibration curve for Sn2+ sensor was 28.8 ± 0.4 mV/decade. The detection limit of the sensor was 2.10 × 10−8 M, in the linear concentration range of 1.0 × 10−2−1.1 × 10−7 M. It was relatively fast response time (<8 s for concentration ≥1.0×10−4 and <12 s for concentration of ≥1.0×10−6 M and can be used for 9 months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor exhibit relatively good selectivity and high sensitivity for tin(II as other mono-, di-, and trivalent cations and can be used in a pH range of 2.0–8.5. The analytical usefulness of the proposed electrode has been evaluated by its application in the determination of stannous in artificially made samples.

  8. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  9. Optimization of nanoparticulate indium tin oxide slurries for the manufacture of ultra-thin indium tin oxide coatings with the slot-die coating process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegener, M.; Riess, K.; Roosen, A. [Erlangen-Nuremberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Materials Science, Glass and Ceramics

    2016-07-01

    This paper deals with the optimization of colloidal processing to achieve suitable nanoparticulate indium tin oxide (ITO) slurries for the production of sub-μm-thin ITO coatings with the slot die coating process. For application in printed electronics these ITO coatings, which are composite films consisting of nanoparticulate ITO and a polymeric binder, should offer high flexibility, transparency and electrical conductivity. To preserve their flexibility, the composite films are not subject to any heat treatment, instead they are used as deposited and dried. To achieve very good transparency and electrical conductivity at the same time, the slurries must exhibit excellent dispersivity to result in a dense particle packing during film formation and drying. To reduce materials costs, films with thicknesses of several 100 nm are of interest. Therefore, the slot-die technique was applied as a fast, pre-dosing technique to produce sub-μm-thin ITO/binder composite films. The resulting ITO/binder films were characterized with regard to their key properties such as total transmission and specific electrical resistance. With the colloidal optimization of ethanol- and water-based nanoparticulate ITO slurries using PVP and PVB as binders, it was possible to achieve films of 250 nm in thickness exhibiting high total transmission of ∝ 93 % and a low specific electrical resistance of ∝ 10 Ω.cm.

  10. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  11. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  12. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Bull. Mater. Sci., Vol. 25, No. 6, November 2002, pp. 505–507. © Indian Academy of Sciences. 505. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline hydrolysis of In(III) and Sn(IV) salts. NIMAI CHAND ... et al 1996; Yanagisawa and Udawatte 2000; Denoy and. Pradeep 1997) with low Sn content (In : Sn ≥ 90 ...

  13. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  14. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  15. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1994-04-01

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  16. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences.

  17. Geochemistry of the Panasqueira tungsten-tin deposit, Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    Major tin-tungsten deposits in Portugal are related to intrusions of the Younger Series (300-280 Ma) of Hercynian granitoids. Mineralized granites are 'specialized' by a specific increase or decrease of major, minor and trace element contents in comparison with non-mineralized occurrences. Component

  18. Hypnosis: emotions for the tin man (the schizoid personality).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, E M

    1989-01-01

    Insight psychotherapy had been ineffective in helping a schizoid patient experience affect. He remained cold, aloof, and without overt expression of affect. When hypnosis was utilized, the patient overtly demonstrated affect. Hence the title for the article--hypnosis was effective in changing the tin man into a person with emotions and feelings. A discussion indicates some possible variables associated with this phenomenon.

  19. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  20. Residual stress in magnetron sputtered TiN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoestbergen, E; de Hosson, J.T.M.; Brebbia, CA; Kenny, JM

    1999-01-01

    In this study magnetron sputtered TiN layers are investigated with X-ray diffraction. The measurements show that there is a texture present and in these layers a non-linear d-sin(2)psi behavior for the (200) planes was found. The latter cannot be explained by the well-known causes that may generate

  1. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  2. Functionalized alkoxy tin clusters as nanobuilding blocks for hybrid materials

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Martinez-Ferrero, E.; Ribot, F.; Rozes, L.; Sanchez, C.; Matějka, Libor

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 33, 2-4 (2005), s. 89-97 ISSN 0079-6786 Grant - others:European Community Human Potential Program HPRN-CT-2002-00306 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : tin clusters * polymer hybrids * nanobuilding blocks Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 15.167, year: 2005

  3. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different pre- paration conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of un-.

  4. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Electron beam; irradiation; gas sensor; tin dioxide. 1. Introduction. The theory, fabrication and application of semiconducting gas sensors, has been well developed in the last thirty years. However, their limited selectivity and sensitivity are still problematic. The usual methods to improve gas sensing properties of SnO2 gas ...

  6. Studies on tin oxide films prepared by electron beam evaporation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transparent conducting tin oxide thin films have been prepared by electron beam evaporation and spray pyrolysis methods. Structural, optical and electrical properties were studied under different preparation conditions like substrate temperature, solution flow rate and rate of deposition. Resistivity of undoped evaporated ...

  7. Development of nano indium tin oxide (ITO) grains by alkaline ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    As the indium tin oxide (ITO) is an advanced ceramic material with many electronic and optical applications due to its high electrical conductivity and transparency .... Caulton K G and Hubert-Pfalzgraf L G 1990 Chem. Rev. 90. 969. Denoy M D and Pradeep B 1997 Bull. Mater. Sci. 20 1029. Gehman B L, Jonson S, Rudolf T, ...

  8. Oxidative Additions of Homoleptic Tin(II) Amidinate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chlupatý, T.; Růžičková, Z.; Horáček, Michal; Alonso, M.; de Proft, F.; Kampová, H.; Brus, Jiří; Růžička, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 3 (2015), s. 606-615 ISSN 0276-7333 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : oxidative additions * homoleptic Tin(II) amidinate * DFT methods Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.186, year: 2015

  9. Effect of nitrogen gas flow rate on the tribological properties of TiN coated HSS using CAE PVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, A.; Hamzah, E.; Toff, M.R.M.

    2005-01-01

    High-Speed Steel (HSS) is a material that used in various Hi-Tech industries for many reasons. The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological properties of TiN (Titanium Nitride)-coated HSS. Using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) Cathodic Arc Evaporation (CAE) technique coated samples. The goal of this work is to determine usefulness of TiN coatings in order to improve tribological properties of HSS, as vastly use in cutting tool industry for various applications. A Pin-on-Disc test showed that the minimum value recorded for friction coefficient was reduced from 0.294 to 0.239 when the nitrogen gas flow rate was increased from 100 sccm to 200 sccm. The decrease in friction coefficient resulted from the reduction in macrodroplets by increasing the nitrogen gas flow rate during deposition. The worn surface morphology of the TiN coated HSS was observed on a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM), and the elemental composition on the wear scar were investigated by means of EDXS. (Author)

  10. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  11. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  12. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  13. Fabrication and Characterization of SnO2/Graphene Composites as High Capacity Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami Dhanabalan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin-oxide and graphene (TG composites were fabricated using the Electrostatic Spray Deposition (ESD technique, and tested as anode materials for Li-ion batteries. The electrochemical performance of the as-deposited TG composites were compared to heat-treated TG composites along with pure tin-oxide films. The heat-treated composites exhibited superior specific capacity and energy density than both the as-deposited TG composites and tin oxide samples. At the 70th cycle, the specific capacities of the as-deposited and post heat-treated samples were 534 and 737 mA·h/g, respectively, and the corresponding energy densities of the as-deposited and heat-treated composites were 1240 and 1760 W·h/kg, respectively. This improvement in the electrochemical performance of the TG composite anodes as compared to the pure tin oxide samples is attributed to the synergy between tin oxide and graphene, which increases the electrical conductivity of tin oxide and helps alleviate volumetric changes in tin-oxide during cycling.

  14. Study On The Electro-Refining Of Tin In Acid Solution From Electronic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Seong Ho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The tin metal could be retractable from wasted tin scrap, sludge, and wasted electroplated solution hydrometallurgical treatment, and purification process. In order to be used as resource of electronic devices, the retracted crude metal should be purified to the extent of higher than 99.9%. In this study, tin electro-refining process was performed to purify the casted tin crude metal at various experimental conditions: at the current density of 3, 5A/dm2, and in various electrolytes such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid and methansulfonic acid. Additional experiment was conducted using Rotating Disk Electrode (RDE in order to investigate the rate determining step of tin electro-refining process. The current efficiency, 65.6%, was achievable at the condition of current density, 5A/dm2, and in the electrolyte of Hydrochloric acid. During tin electro-refining process, impurity dissolved from tin crude metal into the electrolyte was analyzed using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES, and the result showed the concentration of impurity metal gradually increased. Quantitative analysis on casted tin crude metal showed that it consists of tin with 93.9 wt.% and several impurity metals of Ag, Bi, Pb, Cu, and etc. After tin electro-refining process, the purity of tin increased up to 99.985 wt.%.

  15. Structural, electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin film grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition with tetramethyltin-precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Zimin; Tu, Wenbin; Ma, Xuejin; Wang, Gang

    2018-01-01

    Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) using tetramethyltin (TDMASn) as tin precursor. The as-grown ITO films are polycrystalline with (111) and (100) textures. A gradual transition of crystallographic orientation from (111) preferred to (100) preferred is observed as the composition of tin changes. By precisely controlling the Sn doping, the ITO thin films present promising optical and electrical performances at either near-infrared-visible or visible-near-ultraviolet ranges. At low Sn doping level, the as-grown ITO possesses high electron mobility of 48.8 cm2 V‑1 s‑1, which results in high near-infrared transmittance and low resistivity. At higher Sn doping level, high carrier concentration (8.9 × 1020 cm‑3) and low resistivity (3 × 10‑4 Ω cm) are achieved. The transmittance is 97.8, 99.1, and 82.3% at the wavelength of 550, 365, and 320 nm, respectively. The results strongly suggest that MOCVD with TDMASn as tin precursor is an effective method to fabricate high quality ITO thin film for near-infrared, visible light, and near-ultraviolet application.

  16. Processing of an ultrafine-grained titanium by high-pressure torsion: an evaluation of the wear properties with and without a TiN coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan Ting; Gao, Nong; Gee, Mark G; Wood, Robert J K; Langdon, Terence G

    2013-01-01

    A commercial purity (CP) Grade 2 Ti was processed by high-pressure torsion (HPT) using an imposed pressure of 3.0GPa at room temperature. The HPT processing reduced the grain size from ∼8.6 μm in the as-received state to ultra-fine grains (UFG) of ∼130 nm after HPT. Tensile testing showed the HPT-processed Ti exhibited a good combination of high ultimate tensile strength (∼940 MPa) and a reasonable elongation to failure (∼23%). Physical vapour deposition was used to deposit TiN coatings, with a thickness of 2.5 μm, on Ti samples both with and without HPT processing. Scratch tests showed the TiN coating on UFG Ti had a critical failure load of ∼22.5 N whereas the load was only ∼12.7 N for the coarse-grained Ti. The difference is explained using a simple composite hardness model. Wear tests demonstrated an improved wear resistance of TiN coating when using UFG Ti as the substrate. The results suggest that CP Ti processed by HPT and subsequently coated with TiN provides a potentially important material for use in bio-implants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Epitaxial integration of CoFe2O4 thin films on Si (001) surfaces using TiN buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Marco, José F.; Prieto, José E.; Ruiz-Gomez, Sandra; Perez, Lucas; del Real, Rafael P.; Vázquez, Manuel; de la Figuera, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Epitaxial cobalt ferrite thin films with strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy have been grown on Si (001) substrates using a TiN buffer layer. The epitaxial films have been grown by ion beam sputtering using either metallic, CoFe2, or ceramic, CoFe2O4, targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling configuration have been used to determine the epitaxial relationship CoFe2O4 [100]/TiN [100]/Si [100]. Mössbauer spectroscopy, in combination with XRD and RBS, has been used to determine the composition and structure of the cobalt ferrite thin films. The TiN buffer layer induces a compressive strain in the cobalt ferrite thin films giving rise to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The degree of in-plane anisotropy depends on the lattice mismatch between CoFe2O4 and TiN, which is larger for CoFe2O4 thin films grown on the reactive sputtering process with ceramic targets.

  18. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe 3 Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed in

  19. TDPAC characterization of tin oxides using 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.S.; Desimoni, J.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with a general study of the evolution of tin-oxygen thin films, we report here on the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta substitutionally replacing tin in the isolated phases SnO and SnO 2 . For this purpose, pure SnO pressed powder and a thin SnO 2 film were implanted with 181 Hf. In both cases, unique quadrupole frequencies were found after thermal annealing treatments. The results indicate that the following hyperfine parameters: ν Q =740.6(2.1) MHz, η=0.07(2) and ν Q =971.5(1.9) MHz, η=0.72(1) characterize 181 Ta and SnO and SnO 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  20. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  1. Cosmologies of selection: lessons from the faculty biscuit tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Maggie; Bartlett, Flora

    2016-12-01

    We conducted an ethnography of the faculty biscuit tin as we were interested in the lived experience of the biscuits contained within it. We used a constructivist epistemology, a social constructionist interpretive framework and a phenomenological methodology that included analysis from the perspectives of deixis and cosmology. The biscuits perceived that they were important to a selecting force and that the characteristics of one particular group had a specific value to the selector. Some enduring benefits may derive from the selection of this group, although its attractions were less immediately obvious than those of others. What is immediately attractive may not be the most fit for purpose; lessons for the selection of medical students may arise from this exploration of the selection experiences of biscuits in a faculty biscuit tin. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and The Association for the Study of Medical Education.

  2. Polymorphic transition of tin under shock wave compression: Experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinatti F.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the β-bct polymorphic transition in tin is investigated by means of plate impact experiments. The Sn target surface is observed in a partially released state obtained thanks to a transparent lithium fluoride (LiF anvil. We report both measurements of interface velocity and temperature obtained using Photon Doppler Velocimetry and IR optical pyrometer on shock-loaded tin from 8 to 16 GPa. We show that the Mabire Model EOS associated to the SCG plasticity model provides an overall good estimate of the velocity profiles. However, depnding on the shock amplitude, its prediction of the temperature profile may be less satisfactory, hence underlining the need for future improvements in terms of phase transition kinetics description.

  3. Heterogeneous Tin Catalysts Applied to the Esterification and Transesterification Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio José da Silva

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the development of efficient and environmentally benign catalysts for esters synthesis has increased exponentially, mainly due to the demand for biodiesel. In general, fatty esters are used as bioadditive, cosmetic ingredients, polymers, and, more recently, biofuel. Nevertheless, most of the production processes use nonrecyclable and homogenous alkaline catalysts, which results in the reactors corrosion, large generation of effluents, and residues on the steps of separation and catalyst neutralization. Heterogeneous acid catalysts can answer these demands and are an environmentally benign alternative extensively explored. Remarkably, solid acid catalysts based on tin have been shown highly attractive for the biodiesel production, mainly via FFA esterification reactions. This review describes important features related to be the synthesis, stability to, and activity of heterogeneous tin catalysts in biodiesel production reactions.

  4. Radiation damage in indium tin oxide (ITO) layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, D.V. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Salehi, A. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Aliyu, Y.H. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Bunce, R.W. [University Coll. of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). School of Electric, Electronic and System Engineering; Diskett, D. [Applied Physics and Electro-optics Group, Cranfield University RMCS, Shrivenham, Swindon SN6 8LA (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-15

    The effects of proton damage on transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) layers were investigated by electrical and optical techniques. ITO layers were found to be highly resistant to proton damage for fluences up to 10{sup 16} ions cm{sup -2}. For fluences greater than 10{sup 16} cm{sup -2} the resistivity rises rapidly with a corresponding degradation of the transmittance. ((orig.))

  5. Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    Effects of electron beam irradiation on tin dioxide gas sensors. 85 tron irradiation dose. Under low irradiation dose, <300 kGy, the sensitivity of SnO2 thin film shifts slightly, from 300–. 850 kGy, the sensitivity increases greatly, at 850 kGy and it reaches 24⋅8. Then the sensitivity reaches maximum and remains stable while ...

  6. A tin-119 Moessbauer study of Chinese bronze coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, M.; Tominaga, T.

    1977-01-01

    The chemical states of tin in Chinese bronze coins were characterized by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The spectra of the coins indicate the presence of Sn(IV) in addition to Sn(0) in alloy phase. The Sn(IV) oxide is in the corroded surface. Sn(IV) was also found in the interior body of a coin sample with an unusually high percentage of the Sn(IV) peak area. (author)

  7. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  8. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  9. Radiance Measurement on Shock-Ramp Loaded Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jeffrey; Akin, Minta; Asimow, Paul; Holmes, Neil

    2017-06-01

    An accurate material temperature is not only an essential component of an equation of state, but also a good measure of a phase transition, its kinetics, and associated thermal transport properties. In a series of experiments, we measured particle velocity and thermal emission at the tin-LiF interfaces on shock and ramp loading experiments. Using a graded density impactor, we drive the tin sample through melting with the initial shock and then further ramp-compress it back into the solid phase. Various configurations of experimental set-up were used to simultaneously measure particle velocity and thermal emission from which we deduce pressure, density, sound velocity and temperature. A gray body radiation is assumed in these calculations. We present here more recent results and updated analysis of shock-and-ramp-loaded tin experiments. The measured particle velocity shows a traditional signature for phase transition, while thermal radiance exhibits a change consistent with the heat of solidification. We will discuss here the mechanical and thermal aspects of this phase transition, its kinetics, and thermal transport issues in this experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  10. In situ immobilization of tin dioxide nanoparticles by nanoporous polymers scaffold toward monolithic humidity sensing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shu; Han, Dong-Dong; Guo, Li; He, Yinyan; Ding, Hong; Zhang, Yong-Lai; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2014-10-01

    Reported here is in situ immobilization of tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles (NPs) within nanoporous polymer scaffolds for the development of monolithic humidity sensing devices. Through solvothermal polymerization of divinylbenzene (DVB) monomers in the interspaces of SnO2 fine powders, SnO2 NPs could be homogeneously immobilized in polymer matrices, forming a novel composite material. Immobilization of SnO2 NPs in nanoporous polymer matrices not only simplifies the fabrication process of NPs-based sensing devices, but also improves their adsorptive properties. The resultant nanoporous polymer/SnO2 NPs composites with adjustable SnO2 contents possess high BET surface areas, large pore sizes and pore volumes, thus they exhibit high adsorptive capacities for H2O vapor. As a general approach to NPs/nanoporous polymer composites, this work may open up a new way to nanomaterial-based sensing devices that features enhanced adsorptive property. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Comparison of several analytical methods for the determination of tin in geochemical samples as a function of tin speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, J.S.; Evans, J.R.; Jackson, J.C.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate and precise determinations of tin in geological materials are needed for fundamental studies of tin geochemistry, and for tin prospecting purposes. Achieving the required accuracy is difficult because of the different matrices in which Sn can occur (i.e. sulfides, silicates and cassiterite), and because of the variability of literature values for Sn concentrations in geochemical reference materials. We have evaluated three methods for the analysis of samples for Sn concentration: graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HGA-AAS) following iodide extraction, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), and energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry. Two of these methods (HGA-AAS and ICP-OES) required sample decomposition either by acid digestion or fusion, while the third (EDXRF) was performed directly on the powdered sample. Analytical details of all three methods, their potential errors, and the steps necessary to correct these errors were investigated. Results showed that similar accuracy was achieved from all methods for unmineralized samples, which contain no known Sn-bearing phase. For mineralized samples, which contain Sn-bearing minerals, either cassiterite or stannous sulfides, only EDXRF and fusion ICP-OES methods provided acceptable accuracy. This summary of our study provides information which helps to assure correct interpretation of data bases for underlying geochemical processes, regardless of method of data collection and its inherent limitations. ?? 1989.

  12. Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols, H Hier, and M Neupane Approved for public release; distribution...Laboratory Molecular Beam Epitaxy Growth and Characterization of Thin Layers of Semiconductor Tin by P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols... Semiconductor Tin 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) P Folkes, P Taylor, C Rong, B Nichols, H Hier, and M

  13. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  14. Effect of preparation conditions on physic-chemical properties of tin-doped nanocrystalline indium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovskaya, T. D.; Sachkov, V. I.; Zhek, V. V.; Nefedov, R. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigation of phase formation and change of concentration of free electrons (Ne) in indium tin oxide system during heat treatment of coprecipitated hydroxides of indium and tin from nitric and hydrochloric solutions and also, for comparison melts of salts nitrates by an alkaline reactant (NH4OH) are considered.The performed investigation allowed to set the optimal condition of preparation of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide with maximal electron concentration.

  15. Rapid Fabrication of Low-Density Porous Tin Monolith via Hydrogen Bulb Dynamics Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hongbo; Zhu, Jiayi; Bi, Yutie; Xu, Yewei; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ni

    Low-density porous tin monolith with the pteridophyta leaf-like structure was fast fabricated by a facile route via the electrochemical deposition process via hydrogen bulb dynamics templates within less than 1min. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction and so on. The results indicated that the deposited tin porous structure could be easily controlled to form film or monolith by adjusting the tin precursor concentration and surfactant content.

  16. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodighiero, Simona; Torre, Bruno; Sogne, Elisa; Ruffilli, Roberta; Cagnoli, Cinzia; Francolini, Maura; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Falqui, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Correlative scanning electron and confocal microscopy imaging of labeled cells coated by indium-tin-oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Rodighiero, Simona

    2015-03-22

    Confocal microscopy imaging of cells allows to visualize the presence of specific antigens by using fluorescent tags or fluorescent proteins, with resolution of few hundreds of nanometers, providing their localization in a large field-of-view and the understanding of their cellular function. Conversely, in scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the surface morphology of cells is imaged down to nanometer scale using secondary electrons. Combining both imaging techniques have brought to the correlative light and electron microscopy, contributing to investigate the existing relationships between biological surface structures and functions. Furthermore, in SEM, backscattered electrons (BSE) can image local compositional differences, like those due to nanosized gold particles labeling cellular surface antigens. To perform SEM imaging of cells, they could be grown on conducting substrates, but obtaining images of limited quality. Alternatively, they could be rendered electrically conductive, coating them with a thin metal layer. However, when BSE are collected to detect gold-labeled surface antigens, heavy metals cannot be used as coating material, as they would mask the BSE signal produced by the markers. Cell surface could be then coated with a thin layer of chromium, but this results in a loss of conductivity due to the fast chromium oxidation, if the samples come in contact with air. In order to overcome these major limitations, a thin layer of indium-tin-oxide was deposited by ion-sputtering on gold-decorated HeLa cells and neurons. Indium-tin-oxide was able to provide stable electrical conductivity and preservation of the BSE signal coming from the gold-conjugated markers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Platinum/tin oxide/carbon cathode catalyst for high temperature PEM fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrondo, Javier; Mijangos, Federico; Rambabu, B.

    The performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) using platinum supported over tin oxide and Vulcan carbon (Pt/SnOx/C) as cathode catalyst was evaluated at 160-200 °C and compared with Pt/C. This paper reports first time the Pt/SnOx/C preparation, fuel cell performance, and durability test up to 200 h. Pt/SnOx/C of varying SnO compositions were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and EIS. The face-centered cubic structure of nanosized Pt becomes evident from XRD data. TEM and EDX measurements established that the average size of the Pt nanoparticles were ∼6 nm. Low ionic resistances were derived from EIS, which ranged from 0.5 to 5 Ω-cm 2 for cathode and 0.05 to 0.1 Ω-cm 2 for phosphoric acid, doped PBI membrane. The addition of the SnOx to Pt/C significantly promoted the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The 7 wt.% SnO in Pt/SnO 2/C catalyst showed the highest electro-oxidation activity for ORR. High temperature PEMFC measurements performed at 180 °C under dry gases (H 2 and O 2) showed 0.58 V at a current density of 200 mA cm -2, while only 0.40 V was obtained in the case of Pt/C catalyst. When the catalyst contained higher concentrations of tin oxide, the performance decreased as a result of mass transport limitations within the electrode. Durability tests showed that Pt/SnOx/C catalysts prepared in this work were stable under fuel cell working conditions, during 200 h at 180 °C demonstrate as potential cathode catalyst for HT-PEMFCs.

  19. Platinum/tin oxide/carbon cathode catalyst for high temperature PEM fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parrondo, Javier; Rambabu, B. [Solid State Ionics and Surface Science Laboratory, Department of Physics, Southern University and A and M College, Baton Rouge, LA 70813 (United States); Mijangos, Federico [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Vizcaya 48940 (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    The performance of high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) using platinum supported over tin oxide and Vulcan carbon (Pt/SnOx/C) as cathode catalyst was evaluated at 160-200 C and compared with Pt/C. This paper reports first time the Pt/SnOx/C preparation, fuel cell performance, and durability test up to 200 h. Pt/SnOx/C of varying SnO compositions were characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, EDX and EIS. The face-centered cubic structure of nanosized Pt becomes evident from XRD data. TEM and EDX measurements established that the average size of the Pt nanoparticles were {proportional_to}6 nm. Low ionic resistances were derived from EIS, which ranged from 0.5 to 5 {omega}-cm{sup 2} for cathode and 0.05 to 0.1 {omega}-cm{sup 2} for phosphoric acid, doped PBI membrane. The addition of the SnOx to Pt/C significantly promoted the catalytic activity for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The 7 wt.% SnO in Pt/SnO{sub 2}/C catalyst showed the highest electro-oxidation activity for ORR. High temperature PEMFC measurements performed at 180 C under dry gases (H{sub 2} and O{sub 2}) showed 0.58 V at a current density of 200 mA cm{sup -2}, while only 0.40 V was obtained in the case of Pt/C catalyst. When the catalyst contained higher concentrations of tin oxide, the performance decreased as a result of mass transport limitations within the electrode. Durability tests showed that Pt/SnOx/C catalysts prepared in this work were stable under fuel cell working conditions, during 200 h at 180 C demonstrate as potential cathode catalyst for HT-PEMFCs. (author)

  20. Low-temperature growth and electronic structures of ambipolar Yb-doped zinc tin oxide transparent thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seol Hee; Ferblantier, Gerald; Park, Young Sang; Schmerber, Guy; Dinia, Aziz; Slaoui, Abdelilah; Jo, William

    2018-05-01

    The compositional dependence of the crystal structure, optical transmittance, and surface electric properties of the zinc tin oxide (Zn-Sn-O, shortened ZTO) thin films were investigated. ZTO thin films with different compositional ratios were fabricated on glass and p-silicon wafers using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The binding energy of amorphous ZTO thin films was examined by a X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The optical transmittance over 70% in the visible region for all the ZTO films was observed. The optical band gap of the ZTO films was changed as a result of the competition between the Burstein-Moss effect and renormalization. An electron concentration in the films and surface work function distribution were measured by a Hall measurement and Kelvin probe force microscopy, respectively. The mobility of the n- and p-type ZTO thin films have more than 130 cm2/V s and 15 cm2/V s, respectively. We finally constructed the band structure which contains band gap, work function, and band edges such as valence band maximum and conduction band minimum of ZTO thin films. The present study results suggest that the ZTO thin film is competitive compared with the indium tin oxide, which is a representative material of the transparent conducting oxides, regarding optoelectronic devices applications.

  1. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    OpenAIRE

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-01-01

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO2 and TiO2. In order to ach...

  2. MnO2/TiN heterogeneous nanostructure design for electrochemical energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherrill, Stefanie A; Duay, Jonathon; Gui, Zhe; Banerjee, Parag; Rubloff, Gary W; Lee, Sang Bok

    2011-09-07

    MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes are fabricated using facile deposition techniques to maximize the surface area of the electroactive material for use in electrochemical capacitors. Atomic layer deposition is used to deposit conformal nanotubes within an anodic aluminium oxide template. After template removal, the inner and outer surfaces of the TiN nanotubes are exposed for electrochemical deposition of manganese oxide. Electron microscopy shows that the MnO(2) is deposited on both the inside and outside of TiN nanotubes, forming the MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge curves are used to characterize the electrochemical properties of the MnO(2)/TiN nanotubes. Due to the close proximity of MnO(2) with the highly conductive TiN as well as the overall high surface area, the nanotubes show very high specific capacitance (662 F g(-1) reported at 45 A g(-1)) as a supercapacitor electrode material. The highly conductive and mechanically stable TiN greatly enhances the flow of electrons to the MnO(2) material, while the high aspect ratio nanostructure of TiN creates a large surface area for short diffusion paths for cations thus improving high power. Combining the favourable structural, electrical and energy properties of MnO(2) and TiN into one system allows for a promising electrode material for supercapacitors. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2011

  3. Investigation of the kinetics and mechanism of the dehydrogenation of isobutane on platinum-tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lok, L.K.; Gaidai, N.A.; Gudkov, B.S.; Kiperman, S.L.; Kogan, S.B.

    1987-01-01

    An investigation has been made of the kinetics and mechanism for the dehydrogenation of isobutane on platinum-tin catalysts having different tin concentrations. It has been shown that the maximum activity is possessed by a catalyst containing 2% tin. On this catalyst the kinetic isotopic effect has been measured, in which the hydrogen was replaced by deuterium and the isotopic distribution has been measured for the exchange products between isobutane, isobutylene and deuterium. A stagewise system for the mechanism of the process and kinetic equations, proposed previously for the reaction on platinum and platinum-indium catalysts are fully applicable also to reactions on catalysts containing tin

  4. Landscape Function of Post Tin-Mining Land After Reclamation in Bangka, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, H. F.; Sulistijorini; Aryanti, N. S.

    2017-03-01

    Tin mining has a negative impact on the environment of Bangka, Indonesia. Efforts have being conducted to reclaim post tin-mining lands. However, the ecological function of the land have not been evaluated. The objective of this research was to assess the landscape function of post tin mining lands in Bangka. This researchwas conducted at three location that represented the tin mining conditions in Bangka. The landscape function analysis(LFA)was performed in each location for three types of land (A: unreclaimed tin-mining, B: reclaimed tin-mining, C: natural forest, as reference site). The results of LFA showed similar pattern for stability index among locations. The highest stability index (> 60%) occured at land C. On the other hand, the post tin mining area, land A and land B have low stability index (less than 38%). The infiltration index, high (>59%) in land C, low (33-36%) in land A and B).The nutrient cycling index also showed a value comparable to the stability index of land and infiltration index. It could be concluded that the post tin-mining landshas critical landscape function.However, by planting trees for reclaiming the area gradually improved the function of the post tin mining landscape.

  5. Influence of Direct Current Electric Field on Corrosion Behavior of Tin Under a Thin Electrolyte Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. L.; Bu, F. R.; Tian, J.; Liu, D.

    2017-12-01

    The influence of a direct current electric field (DCEF) on corrosion behavior of tin under a thin electrolyte layer was investigated based on an array electrode technology by polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and surface analysis. The experimental results indicate that the corrosion rate of tin near the positive plate of DCEF increases with increased electric field intensity, which could be attributed to the acceleration of the migration of ions, the removal of corrosion products under DCEF and the damage of tin surface oxide film. Furthermore, tin at different positions in a DCEF exhibits different corrosion behavior, which could be ascribed to the difference of the local corrosion environment caused by the DCEF.

  6. Comparison of mechanical behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC, TiN/TiNC films on 9Cr18 steel by PVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xingguo; Zhang, Yanshuai; Hu, Hanjun; Zheng, Yugang; Zhang, Kaifeng; Zhou, Hui

    2017-11-01

    TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films were deposited on 9Cr18 steel using magnetron sputtering technique. The morphology, composition, chemical state and crystalline structure of the films were observed and analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Hardness and adhesion force were tested by nanoindentation and scratch tester, respectively. The friction and wear behavior of TiN, TiNC, CrN/TiNC and TiN/TiNC films sliding against GCr15 balls were investigated and compared synthetically using ball-on-disk tribometer. It was found that Tisbnd N, Tisbnd C, Tisbnd Nsbnd C and Csbnd C bonds were formed. The TiN/TiNC film was composed of TiN, TiC and TiNC phases. Hardness and adhesion force results indicated that although the TiN film possessed the highest hardness, its adhesion force was lowest among all the films. Tribological test results showed that the friction coefficient of TiN/TiNC was much lower than that of TiN and the wear rate decreases remarkably from 2.3 × 10-15 m3/Nm to 7.1 × 10-16 m3/Nm, which indicated the TiN/TiNC film has better wear resistance.

  7. Morphology and phase transformations of tin oxide nanostructures synthesized by the hydrothermal method in the presence of dicarboxylic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zima, Tatyana, E-mail: zima@solid.nsc.ru [Institute of Solid State Chemistry and Mechanochemistry SB RAS, 18 Kutateladze, Novosibirsk 630128 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation); Bataev, Ivan [Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 K. Marx Prospect, Novosibirsk 630092 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures with different morphologies and the phase compositions has been evaluated. The nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal treatment of the mixtures of dicarboxylic acids ― aminoterephthalic or oxalic ― with nanocrystalline SnO{sub 2} powder, which was obtained via the sol-gel technology. The products were characterized by Raman and IR spectroscopy, SEM, HRTEM, and XRD analysis. It was shown that the controlled addition of a dicarboxylic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO{sub 2}–SnO{sub 2}/Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}–Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}–SnO phase transformations. A single-phase Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} in the form of the well-separated hexagonal nanoplates and mixed SnO{sub 2}/Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} phases in the form of hierarchical flower-like structures were obtained in the presence of organic additives. The effects of concentration, redox activity of the acids and heat treatment on the basic characteristics of the synthesized tin oxide nanostructures and phase transformations in the synthesized materials are discussed. - Graphical abstract: The controlled addition of aminoterephthalic or oxalic acid leads not only to a change in the morphology of the nanostructures, but also to SnO{sub 2}–SnO{sub 2}/Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}–Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4}–SnO phase transformations. - Highlights: • A new approach to the synthesis of non-stoichiometric tin oxide structures is studied. • Tin oxide structures are synthesized via hydrothermal method with dicarboxylic acids. • Morphology and phase composition are changed with redox activity and dosage of acid. • The redox activity of acid has an effect on ratio of SnO and SnO{sub 2} in crystal structure. • A pure phase Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoplates and SnO{sub 2}/Sn{sub 3}O{sub 4} hierarchical structures are formed.

  8. The effect of tin content to the morphology of Sn/carbon nanofiber and the electrochemical performance as anode material for lithium batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haiying; Gao Po; Lu Saifeng; Liu Haidong; Yang Gang; Pinto, João; Jiang Xuefan

    2011-01-01

    By using electrospinning and carbonization, tin nanoparticles enwrapped in carbon nano-fibers (Sn/C) present high capacity and well cyclic performance. The precursor compositions of SnCl 2 and polyacrylonitrile (SnCl 2 /PAN) have a significant effect on the crystal structure, morphology of Sn/C composites, and the electrochemical performance. Along with the increased concentration of tin in the precursors of SnCl 2 /PAN, the diameters of the carbonized Sn/C nanofibers are decreased. The samples of SnCl 2 /PAN with starting weight ratio 3:2 (Sn3Pan2), 1:1 (Sn1Pan1) and 2:3 (Sn2Pan3) present the initial discharge capacity 977.8, 1329.8, and 1137.0 mAh g −1 , respectively. In the following cycles, the Sn/C nanofibers present high capacity and well cyclic performance. The sample Sn1Pan1 retains a charge capacity of 741.1 mAh g −1 (92% of the initial charge capacity) after 40 cycles. Because the nanoparticles of tin metal are enwrapped in carbon nanofibers, the volume change and aggregation of metal anode are decreased during charging and discharging processes.

  9. Electron exchange between tin impurity U{sup –} centers in PbS{sub z}Se{sub 1–z} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A. V. [Alexander Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation); Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Seregin, P. P., E-mail: ppseregin@mail.ru; Rasnjuk, A. N.; Kiselev, V. S. [Alexander Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Using emission {sup 119mm}Sn({sup 119m}Sn) and {sup 119}Sb({sup 119m}Sn) Mössbauer spectroscopy, it is shown that impurity tin atoms in PbS{sub z}Se{sub 1–z} alloys substitute lead atoms and are two-electron donors with negative correlation energy (U{sup –} centers). It is found that the energy levels related to impurity tin atoms are in the lower half of the band gap at z ≥ 0.5 against the background of allowed valence-band states at z ≤ 0.4. The electron exchange between neutral and doubly ionized tin U{sup –} centers in partially compensated Pb{sub 0.99}Sn{sub 0.005}Na{sub 0.005}S{sub z}Se{sub 1–z} alloys is studied. The activation energy of this process decreases from 0.111(5) eV for a composition with z = 1 to 0.049(5) eV for compositions with c ≤ 0. For all z, the exchange is implemented via the simultaneous transfer of two electrons using delocalized valence-band states.

  10. Influence of thermal treatment in N{sub 2} atmosphere on chemical, microstructural and optical properties of indium tin oxide and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide rf-sputtered thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroescu, H.; Anastasescu, M.; Preda, S.; Nicolescu, M.; Stoica, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Stefan, N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Atomistilor 409, RO-77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Kampylafka, V.; Aperathitis, E. [FORTH-IESL, Crete (Greece); Modreanu, M. [Tyndall National Institute, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Zaharescu, M. [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania); Gartner, M., E-mail: mgartner@icf.ro [Institute of Physical Chemistry “Ilie Murgulescu” of the Romanian Academy, Spl. Independentei 202, 060021 Bucharest (Romania)

    2013-08-31

    We report the influence of the normal thermal treatment (TT) and of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the microstructural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) and nitrogen doped indium tin oxide (ITO:N) thin films. The TT was carried out for 1 h at 400 °C and the RTA for 1 min up to 400 °C, both in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The ITO and ITO:N films were deposited by reactive sputtering in Argon, and respectively Nitrogen plasma, on Si with (100) and (111) orientation. The present study brings data about the microstructural and optical properties of ITO thin films with thicknesses around 300–400 nm. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis showed the formation of continuous and homogeneous films, fully covered by quasi-spherical shaped particles, with higher roughness values on Si(100) as compared to Si(111). Spectroscopic ellipsometry allowed the determination of film thickness, optical band gap as well as of the dispersion curves of n and k optical constants. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of diffraction peaks corresponding to the same nominal bulk composition of ITO, but with different intensities and preferential orientation depending on the substrate, atmosphere of deposition and type of thermal treatment. - Highlights: ► Stability of the films can be monitored by experimental ellipsometric spectra. ► The refractive index of indium tin oxide film on 0.3–30 μm range is reported. ► Si(100) substrate induces rougher film surfaces than Si(111). ► Rapid thermal annealing and normal thermal treatment lead to stable conductive film. ► The samples have a higher preferential orientation after rapid thermal annealing.

  11. Ion exchange reactions of n-butylamine intercalates of tin(IV) hydrogen phosphate and hydrogen uranyl phosphate with cobalt(III) complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozas-Tormo, R.; Moreno-Real, L.; Martinez-Lara, M.; Rodriguez-Castellon, E.

    1986-01-01

    The ion exchange reactions of n-butylamine intercalates of tin(IV) hydrogen phosphate and hydrogen uranyl phosphate towards carbonatotetraamminecobalt(III), chloropentaamminecobalt(III), and hexamminecobalt(III) have been investigated. Independent of the complex cation charges, the amounts of Co(III) complex exchanged by the n-butylamine intercalate of tin(IV) hydrogen phosphate are practically the same. With the n-butylamine intercalate of hydrogen uranyl phosphate, the ionic exchange was completed and the composition was fixed by the exchanged Co(III) complex. The layer charge densities of these phosphates justify the different ionic exchange behaviour observed towards the large complex cations. All the products were characterized by chemical analysis, X-ray diffractory, infrared spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and thermal analysis

  12. One step aqueous solution preparation of nanosize iron-doped tin oxide from SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melghit, Khaled [Chemistry Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)]. E-mail: melghit@squ.edu.om; Bouziane, Khalid [Physics Department, College of Science, P.O. Box 36, Al-Khodh 123, Sultan Qaboos University (Oman)

    2006-03-15

    Nanosized iron-doped tin oxide solid solution was prepared by mixing tin oxide gel SnO{sub 2}.xH{sub 2}O with a boiling solution of iron nitrate. The XRD data of the as-prepared and annealed sample at 773 K show that the patterns are indexed to the rutile phase without any trace of an extra phase. SEM and TEM results performed on different selected area of the samples reveal a homogeneous composition of 8 at.% of Fe content and a size of about 2 nm of the particles. The particles size was found to increase slightly with temperature; about 7 nm after 24 h at 773 K. Structural and magnetic results seem to indicate that Fe{sup 3+} substitute for Sn{sup 4+} on the as-prepared sample. The system presents some weak ferromagnetic character at room temperature.

  13. Immune stimulation following dermal exposure to unsintered indium tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, Kristie; Anderson, Stacey E; Lukomska, Ewa; Long, Carrie; Anderson, Katie; Marshall, Nikki; Meade, B Jean

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, several types of pulmonary pathology, including alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis, and emphysema, have been reported in workers in the indium industry. To date, there remains no clear understanding of the underlying mechanism(s). Pulmonary toxicity studies in rats and mice have demonstrated the development of mediastinal lymph node hyperplasia and granulomas of mediastinal lymph nodes and bronchus-associated lymphoid tissues following exposure to indium tin oxide. Given the association between exposure to other metals and the development of immune-mediated diseases, these studies were undertaken to begin to investigate the immuno-modulatory potential of unsintered indium tin oxide (uITO) in a mouse model. Using modifications of the local lymph node assay, BALB/c mice (five animals/group) were exposed topically via intact or breached skin or injected intradermally at the base of the ear pinnae with either vehicle or increasing concentrations 2.5-10% uITO (90:10 indium oxide/tin oxide, particle size <50 nm). Dose-responsive increases in lymphocyte proliferation were observed with a calculated EC3 of 4.7% for the intact skin study. Phenotypic analysis of draining lymph node cells following intradermal injection with 5% uITO yielded a profile consistent with a T-cell-mediated response. These studies demonstrate the potential for uITO to induce sensitization and using lymphocyte proliferation as a biomarker of exposure, and demonstrate the potential for uITO to penetrate both intact and breached skin.

  14. Tin compounds interaction with membranes of egg lecithin liposomes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Man, D.; Podolak, M. [Opole Univ. (Poland). Inst. of Physics

    2007-05-15

    This work is a continuation of earlier research concerning the influence of tin compounds on the dynamic properties of liposome membranes produced with lecithin hen egg yolks (EYL). The experiments were carried out at room temperature (about 25 C). Four tin compounds were chosen, including three organic ones, (CH{sub 3}){sub 4}Sn, (C{sub 2}H{sub 5}){sub 4}Sn and (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl, and one inorganic, SnCl{sub 2}. The investigated compounds were admixed to water dispersions of liposomes. The content of the admixture changed within the range 0 mol-% to 11 mol-% in proportion to EYL. Two spin probes were used in the experiment: 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine- 1-oxyl (TEMPO) and 2-ethyl-2-(15-methoxy-15-oxopentadecyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-oxazolidinyloxyl (16-DOXYL-stearic acid), which penetrated through different areas of the membrane. It was found that tin compounds containing chlorine were the most active in interaction with liposome membranes. In the case of (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl, after exceeding 4% admixture content, an additional line appeared in the spectrum of the TEMPO probe which can be a result of formation of domain structures in the membranes of the studied liposomes. Compounds containing chlorine are of ionized form in water solution. The obtained results can thus mean that the activity of admixtures can be seriously influenced by their ionic character. In case of an admixture of non-ionic compounds the compound with a longer hydrocarbon chain displayed a slightly stronger effect on the spectroscopic parameters of the probes. (orig.)

  15. Review of literature for radium, protactinium, tin and carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, J.; Beetham, C.

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a review of literature concerning the occurrence and behaviour of radium and protactinium in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, tin in terrestrial ecosystems, and carbon in soil-plant systems following introduction as methane to sub-soils. Representative values for a range of modelling parameters have been derived from the data. The extent of literature for the four elements varies considerably in quality and quantity; data for protactinium and carbon, as methane, are particularly limited and could usefully be extended by experimental research. (author)

  16. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    OpenAIRE

    Ganesh E. Patil; D. D. Kajale; D. N. Chavan; N. K. Pawar; V. B. Gaikwad; G. H. Jain

    2010-01-01

    Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2) thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT). The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), ethanol vapors (C2H5OH), NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 an...

  17. Effect of tin etiopurpurin and light on the canine prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Steven H.; Keck, Rick W.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1995-03-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the effects of the combination of light and the tissue photosensitizer, tin etiopurpurin, on the canine prostate. Mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 1.0 mg/kg of photosensitizer twenty-four hours prior to light delivery. Laser light, 660 nm, was administered either transurethrally or interstitially and tissue effects were assessed by histopathologic examination. Both techniques of light delivery resulted in hemorrhagic necrosis of the surrounding tissue. Photodynamic therapy may offer a novel approach to the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the prostate.

  18. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  19. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  20. Retardation of grain boundary self-diffusion in nickel doped with antimony and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, R.A.; White, C.L.

    1984-01-01

    Many important metallurgical phenomena are strongly influenced or controlled by grain boundary mass transport. There is also much evidence that the composition of grain boundaries is often significantly different from the overall composition of metals and alloys, owing to strong segregation of residual (and often undetected) impurities. This segregation, which does not always advertise its presence through grain boundary brittleness, may vary markedly from heat to heat, and occasionally from specimen to specimen within a given heat. Unfortunately, there are relatively few experimental observations of how such segregation affects grain boundary mass transport, and even less fundamental understanding of how these effects occur. In this paper we present autoradiographic results on self-diffusion of 63 Ni in nickel and nickel doped with antimony and tin. While these results do not permit a quantitative evaluation of the grain boundary diffusivity, D, they qualitatively illustrate the dramatic effect that these solute elements have on the ability of nickel grain boundaries to act as preferential paths for mass transport

  1. A study of the characteristics of indium tin oxide after chlorine electro-chemical treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Moonsoo; Kim, Jongmin; Cho, Jaehee; Kim, Hyunwoo; Lee, Nayoung; Choi, Byoungdeog, E-mail: bdchoi@skku.edu

    2016-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The presence of Chlorine in the outer surface resulted in a highly electro-negative surface states and an increase in the vacuum energy level. - Highlights: • We investigated the influence of chlorine surface treatment on ITO properties. • Chlorination induced the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface. • Chlorine electro-chemical treatment of ITO is a simple, fast and effective technique. - Abstract: In this work, we investigate the influence of a chlorine-based electro-chemical surface treatment on the characteristics of indium tin oxide (ITO) including the work function, chemical composition, and phase transition. The treated ITOs were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultra-violet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), 4-point probe measurements, and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GI-XRD). We confirmed a change of the chemical composition in the near-surface region of the ITO and the formation of indium-chlorine (In-Cl) bonds and surface dipoles (via XPS). In particular, the change of the electro-static potential in the outer surface was caused by chlorination. Due to the vacuum-level shift after the electro-chemical treatment in a dilute hydrochloric acid, the ITO work function was increased by ∼0.43 eV (via UPS); furthermore, the electro-negativity of the chlorine anions attracted electrons to emit them from the hole transport layer (HTL) to the ITO anodes, resulting in an increase of the hole-injection efficiency.

  2. Study of arsenopyrite weathering products in mine wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murciego, A. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alvarez-Ayuso, E., E-mail: esther.alvarez@irnasa.csic.es [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Pellitero, E. [Department of Geology, Plza. de los Caidos s/n. Salamanca University, 37008 Salamanca (Spain); Rodriguez, M.A. [Faculty of Sciences, Crystallography and Mineralogy Area, Avd. Elvas s/n. Extremadura University, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Garcia-Sanchez, A. [Department of Environmental Geochemistry, IRNASA (CSIC), Apdo. 257, 37071 Salamanca (Spain); Tamayo, A.; Rubio, J.; Rubio, F. [Ceramic and Glass Institute (CSIC), c/Kelsen, 5, 28049 Cantoblanco, Madrid (Spain); Rubin, J. [Material Science Institute of Aragon, CSIC-Zaragoza University, c/Maria de Luna 3, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    Arsenopyrite-rich wastes from abandoned tungsten and tin exploitations were studied to determine the composition and characteristics of the secondary phases formed under natural weathering conditions so as to assess their potential environmental risk. Representative weathered arsenopyrite-bearing rock wastes collected from the mine dumps were analysed using the following techniques: X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis, polarizing microscopy analysis, electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and microRaman and Moessbauer spectroscopies. Scorodite, pharmacosiderite and amorphous ferric arsenates (AFA) with Fe/As molar ratios in the range 1.2-2.5 were identified as secondary arsenic products. The former showed to be the most abundant and present in the different studied mining areas. Its chemical composition showed to vary in function of the original surrounding rock mineralogy in such a way that phosphoscorodite was found as the mineral variety present in apatite-containing geoenvirons. Other ever-present weathering phases were goethite and hydrous ferric oxides (HFO), displaying, respectively, As retained amounts about 1 and 20% (expressed as As{sub 2}O{sub 5}). The low solubility of scorodite, the relatively low content of AFA and the formation of compounds of variable charge, mostly of amorphous nature, with high capacity to adsorb As attenuate importantly the dispersion of this element into the environment from these arsenopyrite-bearing wastes.

  3. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  4. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed throu...

  5. Study of optical characteristics of tin oxide thin film prepared by sol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present details of preparation of tin oxide (SnO2) thin film by sol–gel process. The film was synthesized on a glass (Corning 7059) plate by dip coating method. Here, we used tin (II) chloride as precursor and methanol as solvent. Optical characteristics and physical properties like refractive index, ...

  6. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn and copper (Cu were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin minerals were partially recovered by shaking table concentrators with a low recovery rate. Based on the mineralogical analysis, flotation recovery was used for the first time on the fine particles of copper–tin minerals, including mushistonite, from shaking table tailings. Single factor flotation experiments, open circuit flotation tests, and closed circuit flotation tests were performed to determine the optimized flotation conditions. Results indicated that benzohydroxamic acid (C6H5CONHOH and lead nitrate could effectively recover the mushistonite, cooperating with other depressants. The final concentrate contained 13.28% Sn, with a recovery rate of 61.56%, and 18.51% Cu, with a recovery rate of 86.52%. This method proved effective for the exploitation and use of this type of copper–tin resource in Tajikistan.

  7. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  8. Studies on thermal processing of Tuna-A comparative study in tin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tin-free steel can is an ideal alternative to open top sanitary tin cans (OTS) for thermal processing of little tuna (Ethynnus affinis) in curry used as filling media. Effect of heat penetration on physical, biochemical and sensory characteristics of canned tuna product were studied. The chemical analysis of raw tuna fish showed a ...

  9. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  10. 78 FR 52802 - Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Drug Enforcement Administration Tin T. Win, M.D., Dismissal of Proceeding On... Cause and Immediate Suspension of Registration to Tin T. Win, M.D. (hereinafter, Registrant), of Lake... precludes a finding of mootness, see Robert Charles Ley, 76 FR 20033, 20034 (2011), I directed the...

  11. Aqueous Barbier allylation of aldehydes mediated by tin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Ricardo L; Lima, Dimas J P; Barros, Maria Ester S B; Cavalcanti, Lívia N; Hallwass, Fernando; Navarro, Marcelo; Bieber, Lothar W; Malvestiti, Ivani

    2007-08-29

    The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in high yields. Aliphatic aldehydes give moderate to excellent yields with reaction times ranging from 30 to 60 minutes. Under these conditions, crotylation gives exclusively the gamma-product and the syn isomer is formed preferentially. For 2-methoxybenzaldehyde, an equilibration of the isomers to a syn/anti ratio of 1:1 can be observed after several hours. Control experiments with radical sources or scavengers give no support for radical intermediates. NMR studies suggest a mechanism involving an organotin intermediate. The major organotin species formed depends on the reaction medium and the reaction time. The use of acidic solution reduces the reaction times, due to the acceleration of the formation of the allyltin(IV) species.

  12. Aqueous Barbier Allylation of Aldehydes Mediated by Tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivani Malvestiti

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous tin-mediated Barbier reaction affords good to excellent yields and moderate syn diastereoselectivity under basic and acidic conditions. The high yields and stereoselectivity observed in the case of o-substituted aldehydes suggest a cyclic organotin intermediate or transition state in K2HPO4 solution. A practical and efficient aqueous tin allylation of methoxy- and hydroxybenzaldehydes can be carried out in HCl solution in 15 minutes to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in high yields. Aliphatic aldehydes give moderate to excellent yields with reaction times ranging from 30 to 60 minutes. Under these conditions, crotylation gives exclusively the γ-product and the syn isomer is formed preferentially. For 2-methoxybenzaldehyde, an equilibration of the isomers to a syn/anti ratio of 1:1 can be observed after several hours. Control experiments with radical sources or scavengers give no support for radical intermediates. NMR studies suggest a mechanism involving an organotin intermediate. The major organotin species formed depends on the reaction medium and the reaction time. The use of acidic solution reduces the reaction times, due to the acceleration of the formation of the allyltin(IV species.

  13. Defect structures of ion-implanted α-tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, J.W.; Weyer, G.; Damgaard, S.; Nielsen, H.L.

    1980-01-01

    Single crystalline and polycrystalline α-tin has been implanted at the room temperature 80-keV ions of radioactive sup(119m)Sn, 119 Sb, and sup(119m)Te. The radioactive nuclei decay to the Moessbauer level of 119 Sn. Moessbauer spectra of the emitted 24-keV γ radiation have been measured for different source temperatures by resonance counting techniques. Five individual lines in the spectra are characterized mainly by their isomer shifts and Debye temperatures. From these parameters the radiogenic 119 Sn atoms are concluded to be located in regular substitutional and interstitial lattice sites and in defect complexes. Simple models for the defects are proposed: A Sn-vacancy pair consists of Sn atoms on (nearly) substitutional sites with a dangling bond into an adjacent vacancy. In a complex oxygen-containing defect the Sn atoms have approximately a 5s 2 configuration with p-bonds to two nearest neighbour atoms. Sn atoms, having an atomic 5s 2 5p 2 configuration and large vibrational amplitudes, are concluded to be in non-bonding regular interstitial sites. For special implantation conditions minor fractions of SnO 2 molecules are formed in the bulk, The interstitial 119 Sn and the 119 Sn-vacancy pairs are proposed to represent elementary point defects in α-tin. Conclusions are also drawn concerning the lattice location and the defects created in the implantation process by the implanted parent isotopes. (orig.)

  14. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  15. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC–Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, A.A. [Center for Microscopy-Microanalysis and Information Processing, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Pencea, I., E-mail: ion.pencea@upb.ro [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Branzei, M. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Trancă, D.E. [Center for Microscopy-Microanalysis and Information Processing, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C.E. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Ciovica, E. [Materials Engineering, University Valahia Targoviste, Calea Calarasilor 189, Sector 3, Bucharest (Romania); Gherghilescu, A.I. [Materials Science and Engineering Faculty, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania); Stanciu, G.A. [Center for Microscopy-Microanalysis and Information Processing, University POLITEHNICA of Bucharest, Splaiul Independentei 313, Sector 6, Bucharest (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A new composite WC–Co cutting tool was coated with TiN, TiCN, TiAlN by CAE-PVD. • Corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution of TiN, TiCN, TiAlN coatings were measured. • Structural changes induced by corrosion test upon TiN, TiCN, TiAlN were investigated. • Corrosion resistance of TiN, TiCN, TiAlN was ranked based on E{sub oc}, i{sub corr}, P parameters. • TiN coating is the best solution for new tool designed to work in marine environment. - Abstract: A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC–Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (E{sub oc}), corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) and corrosion current density (i{sub corr}). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (E{sub oc}) and corrosion potential (E{sub corr}) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC–Co while on corrosion current density (i{sub corr}) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC–Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  16. VO2 /TiN Plasmonic Thermochromic Smart Coatings for Room-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Li, Wan; Xu, Huiyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Yin; Wang, Huaiyu; Ma, Libo; Ma, Fei; Jiang, Xuchuan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Chu, Paul K

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide/titanium nitride (VO 2 /TiN) smart coatings are prepared by hybridizing thermochromic VO 2 with plasmonic TiN nanoparticles. The VO 2 /TiN coatings can control infrared (IR) radiation dynamically in accordance with the ambient temperature and illumination intensity. It blocks IR light under strong illumination at 28 °C but is IR transparent under weak irradiation conditions or at a low temperature of 20 °C. The VO 2 /TiN coatings exhibit a good integral visible transmittance of up to 51% and excellent IR switching efficiency of 48% at 2000 nm. These unique advantages make VO 2 /TiN promising as smart energy-saving windows. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Comparison of radioactive tracer tin colloid and phytate for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagata, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Masato; Nagashima, Takashi; Kasagawa, Takahiro; Sakakibara, Masahiro; Oshida, Keiko; Sangai, Takafumi; Nakano, S.; Miyazaki, Masaru [Chiba Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-10-01

    Eighty-four consecutive sentinel node biopsies were performed using dye and radioactive tracer (tin colloid for 42 tumors and phytate for 42 tumors). They had subdermal injection on the morning of surgery or the afternoon before surgery. Maximum RI count of each sentinel node was recorded and classified {<=}5 counts per second (cps), 5-20, or 20<. In injection on the afternoon before surgery, 19 tumors had {<=}5 cps and 2 had 20 cps< in 24 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 cps and 18 had 20 cps< in 22 of phytate. In injection on the morning of surgery, 9 had {<=}5 and 20 had 20< in 18 of tin colloid, whereas 1 had {<=}5 and 18 had 20< in 20 of phytate. The injection of phytate tended to have higher RI count than tin colloid. Phytate is superior to tin colloid for sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. (author)

  18. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin was studied on size 0805 surface mount capacitors. The study was performed under water droplet condition using 0.0156 and 0.156 g L−1 concentrations of NaCl. The amplitude and the offset of rectangular shape pulse were fixed...... formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly...... influences the dendritic growth, although a tendency for more hydroxide precipitation was observed for lower duty cycles. The precipitation of tin hydroxides was identified as influencing factor for the reduction of charge transfer under pulsed voltage with low duty cycles, therefore resulting...

  19. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  20. Molten tin reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel elements. [Patent application; continuous process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, R.A.

    1980-12-19

    A method and apparatus for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel is described. Within a containment vessel, a solid plug of tin and nitride precipitates supports a circulating bath of liquid tin therein. Spent nuclear fuel is immersed in the liquid tin under an atmosphere of nitrogen, resulting in the formation of nitride precipitates. The layer of liquid tin and nitride precipitates which interfaces the plug is solidified and integrated with the plug. Part of the plug is melted, removing nitride precipitates from the containment vessel, while a portion of the plug remains solidified to support te liquid tin and nitride precipitates remaining in the containment vessel. The process is practiced numerous times until substantially all of the precipitated nitrides are removed from the containment vessel.

  1. Fabrication of TiN nanorods by electrospinning and their electrochemical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Dongfei; Lang, Junwei; Yan, Xingbin; Hu, Litian; Xue, Qunji

    2011-01-01

    TiN nanorods were synthesized using electrospinning technique followed by thermolysis in different atmospheres. A dimethyl formamide-ethanol solution of poly-(vinyl pyrrolidone) and Ti (IV)-isopropoxide was used as the electrospinning precursor solution and as-spun nanofibers were calcined at 500 o C in air to generate TiO 2 nanofibers. Subsequently, a conversion from TiO 2 nanofibers to TiN nanorods was employed by the nitridation treatment at 600∼1400 o C in ammonia atmosphere. A typical characteristic of the final products was that the pristine nanofibers were cut into nanorods. The conversion from TiO 2 to TiN was realized when the nitridation temperature was above 800 o C. As-prepared nanorods were composed of TiN nano-crystallites and the average crystallite size gradually increased with the increase of the nitridation temperature. Electrochemical properties of TiN nanorods showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. The maximum value of the specific capacitance was obtained from the TiN nanorods prepared at 800 o C. -- Graphical Abstract: TiN nanorods were prepared using electrospinning followed by thermolysis under different atmospheres. Electrochemical properties of the TiN nanorods showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. Display Omitted Highlights: → TiN nanorods were synthesized by a combination of electrospinning and thermolysis. → Electrochemical properties showed strong dependence on the nitridation temperature. → The TiN nanorods prepared at 800 o C possessed the highest specific capacitance.

  2. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  3. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  4. Defect Engineering and Interface Phenomena in Tin Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2017-04-05

    The advance in transparent electronics requires high-performance transparent conducting oxide materials. The microscopic properties of these materials are sensitive to the presence of defects and interfaces and thus fundamental understanding is required for materials engineering. In this thesis, first principles density functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of tuning the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tin oxide by means of defects and interfaces. Our aim is to reveal unique properties and the parameters to control them as well as to explain the origin of unique phenomena in oxide materials. The stability of native defect in tin monoxide (SnO) under strain is investigated using formation energy calculations. We find that the conductivity (which is controlled by native defects) can be switched from p-type to either n-type or undoped semiconducting by means of applied pressure. We then target inducing magnetism in SnO by 3d transition metal doping. We propose that V doping is efficient to realize spin polarization at high temperature. We discuss different tin oxide interfaces. Metallic states are found to form at the SnO/SnO2 interface with electronic properties that depend on the interface terminations. The origin of these states is explained in terms of charge transfer caused by chemical bonding and band alignment. For the SnO/SnO2 heterostructure, we observe the formation of a two dimensional hole gas at the interface, which is surprising as it cannot be explained by the standard polar catastrophe model. Thus, we propose a charge density discontinuity model to explain our results. The model can be generalized to other polar-polar interfaces. Motivated by technological applications, the electronic and structural properties of the MgO (100)/SnO2 (110) interface are investigated. Depending on the interface termination, we observe the formation of a two dimensional electron gas or spin polarized hole gas. Aiming to identify further

  5. Application of experimental design in a method for screening sediments for global determination of organic tin by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arambarri, I.; Garcia, R.; Millan, E. [Dept. de Quimica Aplicada, Univ. del Pais Vasco, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2001-12-01

    An experimental design was developed to obtain a simple procedure for global determination of organic tin compounds in sediment. Sediment was extracted by a two-phase method and tin was determined in the organic extract by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS), with palladium as chemical modifier. A Plackett-Burman design for screening and a fractional central composite design (CCD) for optimizing were used for evaluation of the effects of several variables. The results showed that sediment mass, volume and concentration of extracting acid, pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, and modifier concentration affect the determination. Reference material PACS-2 was analyzed to evaluate the procedure. It was possible to extract 82% of the organotin content certified in the reference sediment. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}and the relative standard deviation was 4%. The method was applied to the analysis of estuarine superficial sediments from Gipuzkoa (Spain). The organotin content of these samples ranged from 0.7 to 7.7 {mu}g g {sup -1}, as tin, on a dry-weight basis. (orig.)

  6. Influence of the C/Sn Ratio on the Synthesis and Lithium Electrochemical Insertion of Tin-Supported Graphite Materials Used as Anodes for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric Mercier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Novel composites consisting of tin particles associated to graphite were prepared by chemical reduction of tin(+2 chloride by t-BuONa-activated sodium hydride in the presence of graphite. The samples obtained using various C/Sn ratios were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and elemental analyses. The largest tin particles associated to graphite layers were observed for the material with a C/Sn ratio of 16. For the materials with C/Sn ratios of 42 and 24, SEM and TEM experiments demonstrated that Sn aggregates of ca. 250 nm length and composed of Sn particles with an average diameter of ca. 50 nm were homogeneously distributed at the surface of graphite. Electrodes prepared from the C/Sn=42 material exhibit a high reversible capacity of over 470 mAhg−1 up to twenty cycles with stable cyclic performances.

  7. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  8. Room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of nanocrystalline pure tin oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, S; Seal, S

    2004-01-01

    Nanocrystalline (6-8 nm) tin oxide (SnO2) thin film (100-150 nm) sensor is synthesized via sol-gel dip-coating process. The thin film is characterized using focused ion-beam microscopy (FIB) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) techniques to determine the film thickness and the nanocrystallite size. The utilization of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film to sense a typical reducing gas such as hydrogen, at room temperature, is demonstrated in this investigation. The grain growth behavior of nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 is analyzed, which shows very low activation energy (9 kJ/mol) for the grain growth within the nanocrystallite size range of 3-20 nm. This low activation energy value is correlated, via excess oxygen-ion vacancy concentration, with the room temperature hydrogen gas sensitivity of the nanocrystalline pure-SnO2 thin film sensor.

  9. Coordination compounds of titanium, zirconium, tin, thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.G.; Jain, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Reactions of isatin, furoic acid and picolinic acid have been carried out with titanium tetrachloride, tin tetrachloride, thorium tetrachloride, zirconyl chloride and uranyl nitrate. While 2:3(metal:ligand) type compounds of isatin have been obtained with Ti(IV) and Sn(IV), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV), and uranium(VI) do not react with the ligand under similar experimental conditions. Furoic acid (FAH) and picolinic acid(PicH) form various chloro furoates and picolinates when reacted with TiCl 4 , ZrOCl 2 and ThCl 4 , but do not react with SnCl 4 . The various compounds synthesised have been characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared studies, conductivity and thermogravimetric measurements. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  10. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  11. Embedded tin nanocrystals in silicon—an electrical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, L.; Haastrup, M. J.; Roesgaard, S.; Hansen, J. L.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Julsgaard, B.

    2018-02-01

    Tin nanocrystals embedded in a SiSn layer grown by molecular beam epitaxy on n-type Si are investigated by means of deep level transient spectroscopy. Two Sn related deep traps are observed, depending on the annealing temperature of the samples. A deep level at {E}{{C}}-0.62 {eV} (Sn1) is observed for annealing temperatures up to 650{}\\circ C, whereas a level at {E}{{C}}-0.53 {eV} (Sn2) appears for annealing temperatures above 600{}\\circ C. Scanning transmission electron microscopy shows the formation of Sn nanocrystals at 600{}\\circ C, which coincides with the appearance of Sn2. Sn1 is tentatively assigned to a Sn related precursor defect, which transforms upon annealing into either Sn nanocrystals or an interface defect located at the nanocrystal surface.

  12. Oxidation of tin clusters: A first principles study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Suman Kalyan; Nigam, Sandeep; Sarkar, Pranab; Majumder, Chiranjib

    2011-12-01

    Here we report the interaction of an oxygen molecule with small tin clusters (Snn, n = 2-6, and 10) using plane wave based pseudo-potential method followed by the LCAO-MO approach. The interaction of oxygen with small Sn clusters undergoes through dissociative adsorption process. The Sn2 shows the highest binding with oxygen by releasing 7.13 eV energy. The higher stability of the Sn2O2 cluster was further verified by sharp increase in the energy gap between the HOMO and LUMO energy levels and very high ionization potential value. After oxidation of Sn clusters, the O atoms are attached to small number of Sn atoms, which is in line with the previous experiments.

  13. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  14. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  15. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  16. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  17. Organic thin film transistors with indium tin oxide bottom electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chang-Wook; Shin, Hee-Sun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Han, Min-Koo; Pang, Hee-Suk; Kim, Ki-Yong; Chung, In-Jae; Pyo, Sang-Woo; Lee, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Young-Kwan

    2006-01-01

    Organic thin film transistors (OTFTs) which employ indium tin oxide (ITO) as source and drain electrodes instead of gold are fabricated. A double gate dielectric layer was used, which consists of benzocyclobutane (BCB) and silicon nitride (SiN x ). The pentacene TFT has lateral dimensions 192 μmx6 μm. The OTFT with the ITO bottom electrode shows a saturation mobility of 0.05∼0.09 cm 2 V -1 s -1 and an on-off current ratio of the order of 10 5 in a gate voltage span between 0 and -40 V. The TFT fabrication process steps had the beneficial side effect of changing the ITO surface from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. This change allows pentacene films with larger grains, observed up to 0.5 μm, to be grown on TFT compared to as-deposited ITO film onto which high quality films cannot be grown

  18. Chemical Thermodynamics Vol. 12 - Chemical Thermodynamics of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsjaeger, Heinz; GAJDA, Tamas; Sangster, James; Saxena, Surendra K.; Voigt, Wolfgang; Perrone, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This is the 12th volume of a series of expert reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of key chemical elements in nuclear technology and waste management. This volume is devoted to the inorganic species and compounds of tin. The tables contained in Chapters III and IV list the currently selected thermodynamic values within the NEA TDB Project. The database system developed at the NEA Data Bank, see Section II.6, assures consistency among all the selected and auxiliary data sets. The recommended thermodynamic data are the result of a critical assessment of published information. The values in the auxiliary data set, see Tables IV-1 and IV-2, have been adopted from CODATA key values or have been critically reviewed in this or earlier volumes of the series

  19. Influence of Microstructure on the Electrical Properties of Heteroepitaxial TiN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial TiN films were deposited on Si substrates by pulse laser deposition at different substrate temperature. The microstructure and surface morphology of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (θ-2θ scan, ω-scan, and ϕ-scan) and atomic force microscopy. The electrical properties of the prepared TiN films were studied using a physical property measurement system. The experimental results showed that the crystallinity and surface morphology of the TiN films were improved gradually with increasing substrate temperature below 700 °C. Specially, single crystal TiN films were prepared when substrate temperature is above 700 °C; However, the quality of TiN films gradually worsened when the substrate temperature was increased further. The electrical properties of the films were directly correlated to their crystalline quality. At the optimal substrate temperature of 700 °C, the TiN films exhibited the lowest resistivity and highest mobility of 25.7 μΩ cm and 36.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In addition, the mechanism concerning the influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of TiN films is discussed in detail.

  20. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  1. Sensitivity and Response of Polyvinyl Alcohol/Tin Oxide Nanocomposite Multilayer Thin Film Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, G; Dhineshbabu, N R; Nithyavathy, N; Saminathan, K; Kaler, K V I S; Rajendran, V

    2016-01-01

    Nanocrystalline Tin Oxide (SnO₂) is Non-Stoichiometric in Nature with Functional Properties Suitable for gas sensing. In this study, SnO₂nanoparticles were prepared by the sol-gel technique, which were then characterised using X-ray diffraction. The nanoparticles showed tetragonal structure with an average crystallite size of 18 nm. The stretching and vibration modes of SnO₂were confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The size of SnO₂ nanoparticles was determined using particle size analyser, which was found be 60 ± 10 nm on average. The surface morphology of the nanoparticles was investigated using scanning electron microscope, which showed irregular-sized agglomerated SnO₂nanostructures. In addition, primary particle size was evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, which was found to be 50 nm on average. The polyvinyl alcohol/SnO₂ composite thin film was prepared on a glass substrate using spin-coating method. The values of band gap energy and electrical conductance of 13-layer thin film were found to be 2.96 eV and 0.0505 mho, respectively. Sulfur dioxide (SO₂) was suitably tailored to verify the sensor response over a concentration range of 10-70 ppm at room temperature. The performance, response, and recovery time of sensors were increased by increasing the layers of the thin film.

  2. Investigation of the oxidative dehydrogenation of n-butenes over mixed tin-antimony oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga, K.; Halasz, J.; Hernadi, K.; Fejes, P.

    1985-01-01

    The oxidative of n-butenes in the gaseous phase over mixed oxide catalysts SnO/sub 2/-SbO/sub 4/ was investigated in a pulse reactor and in a recirculatory flow reactor at 523-673 K. Over catalysts containing more than 50% tin, practically the total quantity of converted 1-butene was transformed into butadiene. The reaction of 2-butene depended to a considerable extent on the composition of the catalyst. The lowest conversion was found for the mixed oxide with Sn:Sb = 1:1, but in the formation of butadiene this was the most selective catalysts. The selectivity decreased appreciably as the reaction temperature rose. From measurements in the recirculatory flow reactor, apparent rate constants and activation energies of reactions were determined; the latter values for 1-butene and 2-butene, were 105 and 70 kJ mol/sup -1/, respectively. This difference was explained by the dissimilarity of the rate-determining steps in the two reactions. The oxidation of 2-butene precedes isomerization to 1-butene on surface acid sites, with subsequent conversion to butadiene on oxidation centers via a ..pi..-allyl surface intermediate.

  3. Chemical Speciation and Potential Mobility of Heavy Metals in the Soil of Former Tin Mining Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the chemical speciation of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cr, As, and Sn in soil of former tin mining catchment. Total five sites were selected for sampling and subsequent subsamples were collected from each site in order to create a composite sample for analysis. Samples were analysed by the sequential extraction procedure using optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES. Small amounts of Cu, Cr, and As retrieved from the exchangeable phase, the ready available for biogeochemical cycles in the ecosystem. Low quantities of Cu and As could be taken up by plants in these kind of acidic soils. Zn not detected in the bioavailable forms while Pb is only present in negligible amounts in very few samples. The absence of mobile forms of Pb eliminates the toxic risk both in the trophic chain and its migration downwards the soil profile. The results also indicate that most of the metals have high abundance in residual fraction indicating lithogenic origin and low bioavailability of the metals in the studied soil. The average potential mobility for the metals giving the following order: Sn > Cu > Zn > Pb > Cr > As.

  4. Precipitation Behaviors of TiN Inclusion in GCr15 Bearing Steel Billet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qianren; Wang, Guocheng; Zhao, Yang; Li, Jing; Wang, Qi

    2018-03-01

    There are many types of non-metallic TiN-based inclusions observed in GCr15 bearing steel, including single-particle TiN, multi-particle polymerized TiN, and complex inclusions like TiN-MnS, TiN-MgO-MgAl2O4 (TiN-MgO-MA), and TiN-MgAl2O4-MnS (TiN-MA-MnS). Thermodynamic calculations suggest that single-particle TiN precipitates dominate the mushy zone of GCr15 bearing steel. Kinetic calculations regarding TiN growth suggest that the final size of the single-particle TiN ranges between 1 and 6 μm in the initial concentration range of [pct Ti] = 0.0060 to 0.0079 and [pct N] = 0.0049 to 0.0070, at 1620 to 1640 K and a local cooling rate of 0.5 to 10 K/s. The multi-particle polymerized TiN are formed by single TiN particles in three stages: single-particle TiN inclusions approach each other drawn by the cavity bridge force (CBF), local active angles consolidate, and neck region sintering occurs. Based on the thermodynamic calculations of TiN, MnS, and MgO precipitation, the formation behaviors of complex inclusions of TiN-MnS, TiN-MgO-MA, and TiN-MA-MnS were investigated.

  5. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  6. Electrochemical migration of tin in electronics and microstructure of the dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2011-01-01

    The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron...... microscopy including Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The tin dendrites were formed under 5 or 12V potential bias in 10ppm by weight NaCl electrolyte as a micro-droplet on the resistor during electrochemical migration experiments. The dendrites formed were found to have...

  7. Room Temperature Detection of Benzene Vapours by Tin Oxide Nano Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. PANCHAL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide with nano clusters were deposited using Chemical Vapour Transport technique. The annealed films were used as sensor to detect benzene vapours at room temperature. The response was studied for the concentration range 300-1000 ppm. A comparative study of the response of the nano clustered films to benzene vapours in this range with the response of thin films of Indium tin oxide and tin oxide deposited by the physical vapour deposition method was taken up.

  8. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chulwoong; Kim Young-Min; Son Seong Ho; Choi Hanshin; Kim Tae Bum; Kim Yong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail o...

  9. Separation of substandard tin ores by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Konovalov, V.M.; Kamenskij, Yu.V.; Neverov, A.D.; Ogorodnikov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of pure tin ores on X-ray fluorescence separation (XFS) is carried out. The volumes of lump sampling are substantiated; several variants of technical and economical efficiency of XFS application have been calculated. It is shown that at XFS of -400+25 mm classes conditional as to tin content intermediate product with high efficiency factor may be prepared. Separation of -25+10 mm class is unsuitable, as it doesn't allow to increase tin content to conditional, and the process efficiency is low

  10. Radiochemical characterization and environmental radiological impact in tin and lead processing from cassiterite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marcia Aparecida Antico

    2009-01-01

    The tin and lead industry located in Pirapora do Bom Jesus in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil, is responsible for the production of about 7000 ton year-1 of tin and 350 ton year-1 of lead. The raw material used in this facility is cassiterite, which presents in its composition concentrations of natural radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series up to 660 kBq kg -1 and 450 kBq kg -1 , respectively. The smelting and refining processes may lead to concentrations of these radionuclides, mainly in the precipitated dust and in slag. In the operational process, intermediate refining and final slag are obtained and are stored in piles in open air. It is estimated that the amount of waste stored is about 600000 ton. This work aims to study the environmental radiological impact of the operation of this facility and to establish its Environmental Radiological Monitoring Program. In order to accomplish this task the content of radioactivity was determined in the raw material, products, byproducts, residue, deposition pond and exhausting systems. Although in the raw material the radionuclides from the uranium and thorium series are almost in equilibrium, during the processing this equilibrium is disrupted and the radionuclides migrate according to their chemical properties. Concentrations up to 31 kBq kg -1 for 238 U, 69 kBq kg -1 for 226 Ra, 2.5 kBq kg -1 for 210 Pb, 130 kBq kg -1 for 232 Th and 120 kBq kg -1 for 228 Ra were obtained in the slag. The environmental radiological impact was established by measuring the radionuclides in the critical compartments that is the ones that may cause exposure to the public. If the residue pile is considered, the critical pathways are the internal exposition from the dust inhalation and the water ingestion, due to re suspension and dispersion of the pile dust and groundwater contamination, respectively; and external exposure due to immersion in the radioactive cloud and soil contamination. For the emission of gaseous and particulate

  11. Petrogenesis of Malaysian tin granites: geochemistry, fractional crystallization, U-Pb zircon geochronology and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wai-Pan Ng, Samuel; Searle, Mike; Whitehouse, Martin; Chung, Sun-Lin; Ghani, Azman; Robb, Laurence; Sone, Masatoshi; Oliver, Grahame; Gardiner, Nick; Roselee, Mohammad

    2014-05-01

    The Malaysian tin granites forming the backbone of the Thai-Malay Peninsula has been long recognized with two distinct granitic provinces:- 1. Early Permian to Late Triassic Eastern Province with mainly "I-type" (Hbl)-Bt granites with associated Cu-Au deposits, with subordinate Bt granites hosting limited Sn-W deposits, and 2. Late Triassic Main Range Province with mainly "S-type" Bt granites with associated Sn-W deposits, and subordinate (Hbl)-Bt granites. New geochemical data show that Chappell and White's (1974) I-S granite classification adopted in the existing model does not adequately distinguish the granites from one another as previously implied. Trace element geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions show that the Malaysian tin granites in both provinces have transitional I-S characteristics. In addition, they inherited within-plate signature from Cambro-Ordovician Gondwana-related source rocks. Previous ages were obtained by whole rock Rb-Sr and biotite K-Ar geochronology in the 70s and 80s, dating methods that may not accurately represent the crystallization age of granites. We re-sampled the entire Malaysian Peninsula and 40 samples were collected for high-precision U-Pb SIMS dating on extracted zircon grains in order to better constrain the magmatic and tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. The crystallization ages of the Eastern Province granitoids have been constrained ranging from 220 to 290 Ma, while the Main Range (Western) Province granitoids have ages ranging from 200 to 230 Ma. A progressive westward younging trend is apparent across the Eastern Province, but becomes less obvious in the Main Range Province. Our model suggests two east dipping subduction zones. We suggest that subduction roll-back along the Bentong-Raub suture might account for the westward younging trend, in the Eastern province. A second Late Triassic east-dipping subduction zone beneath western Malaysia is proposed in order to explain the "I-type" components to the Main

  12. A Method to Increase Current Density in a Mono Element Internal Tin Processed Superconductor Utilizing Zr Oxide to Refine Grain Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruce A. Zeitlin, Eric Gregory

    2008-04-07

    The effect of Oxygen on (Nb1Zr)3Sn multifilament conductors manufactured by the Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) process was explored to improve the current density by refining the grain size. This followed work first done by General Electric on the Nb3Sn tape process. Techniques to fabricate the more difficult Nb1Zr composites are described and allowed fabrication of long lengths of .254 mm diameter wire from an 88.9 mm diameter billet. Oxygen was incorporated through the use of SnO2 mixed with tin powder and incorporated into the core. These were compared to samples with Ti+Sn and Cu+Sn cores. Heat treatments covered the range of 700 C to 1000 C. Current density vs. H, grain size, and reaction percentages are provided for the materials tested. The Oxygen gave superior results in the temperature range of 815-1000 C. It also stabilized the filament geometry of the array in comparison to the other additions at the higher temperatures. At 815 C a peak in layer Jc yielded values of 2537 A/mm2 at 12 T and 1353 A/mm2 at 15T, 8-22% and 30-73% greater respectively than 700 C values. Results with Oxygen at high temperature show the possibility of high speed continuous reaction of the composite versus the current batch or react in place methods. In general the Ti additions gave superior results at the lower reaction temperature. Future work is suggested to determine if the 815 C reaction temperature can lead to higher current density in high tin (Nb1Zr+Ox)3Sn conductors. A second technique incorporated oxygen directly into the Nb1Zr rods through heat treatment with Nb2O5 at 1100 C for 100 hours in vacuum prior to extrusion. The majority of the filaments reduced properly in the composite but some local variations in hardness led to breakage at smaller diameters.

  13. Analysis of the tin diffusion step in Nb3Sn-Cu superconducting wire produced by the external tin process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verhoeven, J.D.; Heimes, K.; Efron, A.; Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011)

    1986-01-01

    Assuming volume diffusion is dominant, an analysis has been presented which allows one to analytically describe the three stages of the solid-state diffusion process for adding Sn in the external tin method for preparing Nb 3 Sn/Cu superconducting material. It is shown that one obtains a maximum intermetallic compound layer thickness in stage III which then decreases to zero thickness. Important practical questions in utilizing this process are the times required to complete stages I and II of the process, and this analysis predicts that the times required to complete stage I are on the order of days while stage II is completed in a matter of hours. The roles of grain-boundary diffusion and sample geometry are discussed and it is concluded that the analysis may be regarded as an upper bound for determining the times required to complete stages I and II of the solid state Sn diffusion process

  14. The Influence of a TiN Film on the Electronic Contribution to the Thermal Conductivity of a TiC Film in a TiN-TiC Layer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannadham, K.

    2018-01-01

    TiC and TiN films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on Si substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) characterization of the microstructure and interface structure have been carried out and the stoichiometric composition of TiC is determined. Thermal conductivity and interface thermal conductance between different layers in the films are evaluated by the transient thermo reflectance (TTR) and three-omega (3- ω) methods. The results showed that the thermal conductivity of the TiC films increased with temperature. The thermal conductivity of TiC in the absence of TiN is dominated by phonon contribution. The electronic contribution to the thermal conductivity of TiC in the presence of TiN is found to be more significant. The interface thermal conductance of the TiC/TiN interface is much larger than that of interfaces at Au/TiC, TiC/Si, or TiN/Si. The interface thermal conductance between TiC and TiN is reduced by the layer formed as a result of interdiffusion.

  15. Fabrication and characterization of copper oxide (CuO)–gold (Au)–titania (TiO2) and copper oxide (CuO)–gold (Au)–indium tin oxide (ITO) nanowire heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chopra, Nitin; Shi, Wenwu; Lattner, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Nanoscale heterostructures composed of standing copper oxide nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles and shells of titania and indium tin oxide were fabricated. The fabrication process involved surfactant-free and wet-chemical nucleation of gold nanoparticles on copper oxide nanowires followed by a line-of-sight sputtering of titania or indium tin oxide. The heterostructures were characterized using high resolution electron microscopy, diffraction, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The interfaces, morphologies, crystallinity, phases, and chemical compositions were analyzed. The process of direct nucleation of gold nanoparticles on copper oxide nanoparticles resulted in low energy interface with aligned lattice for both the components. Coatings of polycrystalline titania or amorphous indium tin oxide were deposited on standing copper oxide nanowire–gold nanoparticle heterostructures. Self-shadowing effect due to standing nanowire heterostructures was observed for line-of-sight sputter deposition of titania or indium tin oxide coatings. Finally, the heterostructures were studied using Raman spectroscopy and ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, including band gap energy analysis. Tailing in the band gap energy at longer wavelengths (or lower energies) was observed for the nanowire heterostructures. - Highlights: • Heterostructures comprised of CuO nanowires coated with Au nanoparticles. • Au nanoparticles exhibited nearly flat and low energy interface with nanowire. • Heterostructures were further sputter-coated with oxide shell of TiO 2 or ITO. • The process resulted in coating of polycrystalline TiO 2 and amorphous ITO shell

  16. Thermochemical stability of zirconia-titanium nitride as mixed ionic-electronic composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, P. S. M.; Esposito, V.; Marani, D.

    2018-01-01

    Dense zirconia (8% molar yttria-stabilized ZrO2)-titanium nitride (TiN) composites are fabricated to obtain mixed ionic-electronic conducting ceramic systems with high degree of electronic and thermal conductivity. The composites are consolidated by spark plasma sintering (SPS), starting from pure...... the composites, high electrical conductivity is attained. Samples exhibit metallic behavior, showing an unexpected percolation of TiN in the YSZ matrix for volume fraction ≤ 25 wt% (27 vol%). Chemical degradation and electrical properties of the compounds were monitored under oxidative (air) and inert (Ar...

  17. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  18. Preparation of tin -heparin complex to be applied for myocardial infarct diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badi, J. M.; Al-Azzawi, H. A.; Resen, H. M.; Abed, I. G.; Owiad, H.; Manji, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    Tin-heparin complex has been prepared (liquid form) to be labeled with technetium-99 can be applied for diagnosis of myocardial infarcts vascular diseases and deep vein thrombosis. The preparation contents are 0.1mg tin chloride dehydrate and 1250 1.U of heparin. The results of the pH effect on the labeling yield indicated that high percentage of labeling yield (96.1%) was obtained in the optimal pH (5.50). The obtained results showed that the quantity of reducing agent (tin chloride dehydrate) and chelating agent (heparin) has no effect on the labeling yield. Results of radio analytical studies by paper chromatography technique wear confirmed by data obtained by Gel chromatography column scanning techniques. These techniques showed the high labeling yield of the tin-heparin complex. The persistence of high labeling yield for 8 hours is a good indication for its stability and efficiency for radio diagnosis examination in nuclear medicine centers. (Author)

  19. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  20. Synthesis, Internal Structure, and Formation Mechanism of Monodisperse Tin Sulfide Nanoplatelets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Kergommeaux, Antoine; Lopez-Haro, Miguel; Pouget, Stéphanie; Zuo, Jian-Min; Lebrun, Colette; Chandezon, Frédéric; Aldakov, Dmitry; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Tin sulfide nanoparticles have a great potential for use in a broad range of applications related to solar energy conversion (photovoltaics, photocatalysis), electrochemical energy storage, and thermoelectrics. The development of chemical synthesis methods allowing for the precise control of size,

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  2. Effects of Tin on Enzyme Activity in Holothuria grisea (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Tatiana Miura; Mattar, Lívia Pôncio; Pereira, Edgar Rocha; Merçon, Julia; da Silva, Ary Gomes; Cruz, Zilma Maria Almeida

    2017-05-01

    This study evaluated the effect of tin exposure on enzyme activity in the sea cucumber (Holothuria grisea Selenka, 1867). After exposure to 0 (control), 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12 mg L -1 tin, we tested the activities of total cholinesterase in longitudinal muscles, acid phosphatase in gonads and the respiratory tree, as well as alkaline phosphatase in the intestines during a 96-h bioassay. Regression analyses showed that all enzyme activities declined with increasing tin concentrations, except for acid phosphatase in the respiratory tree, which were similarly, inhibited at all tin concentrations. These results indicate that H. grisea is a potential bioindicator for seascape habitat monitoring programs, as its biochemical markers show sensitivity to trace elements that can indicate a rise in pollution levels.

  3. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. The role of tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O⋅2MgO⋅8CaO⋅72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, ΣFe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, ΣSn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-.

  4. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...... of sapwood of Baltic Redwood. The results obtained are compared with those from neutron activation analysis....

  5. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl 2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant

  6. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.

  7. RF measurements of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Pritzkau, D.P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    A measuring system at the table-top scale was developed for RF measurements of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz). Both perturbation and non-perturbation methods are employed to characterize the RF properties of a muffin-tin structure. Conventional bead pull measurements are extended to millimeter wavelengths. Design of the measuring system and preliminary results of RF measurements are presented

  8. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  9. Suppression of tin precipitation in SiSn alloy layers by implanted carbon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaiduk, Peter; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne

    2014-01-01

    By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed the accumul......By combining transmission electron microscopy and Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, we have identified carbon related suppression of dislocations and tin precipitation in supersaturated molecular-beam epitaxial grown SiSn alloy layers. Secondary ion mass spectrometry has exposed...

  10. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O.2MgO.8CaO.72SiO2 glass containing a definite amount of total, Fe = [Fe2+] + [Fe3+], was investigated with different concentrations of total tin, Sn = [Sn2+] + [Sn4+], by absorption spectra of iron ions in the optical range 300–1200 nm recorded on a JASCO-7800 spectrophotometer.

  11. Restoration of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Abandoned Tin- Mining in Bangka Belitung Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Yuarsah; Etik Puji Handayani; Rakhmiati; Yatmin

    2017-01-01

    The practices of tin mining that remove all soil layers on top of the mineral deposit layers have caused serious environmental problems, i.e. degradation of soil physical and chemical properties and disappearance of vegetation, flora and fauna in ecosystems, which further can change the local microclimate. The tailing area of tin mining have unstable soil structure and low organic matter content, so it is vulnerable to land slides and erosion. The characteristics of the soils in the tailing a...

  12. Computing LS factor by runoff paths on TIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Krasa, Josef; Bek, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The article shows results of topographic factor (the LS factor in USLE) derivation enhancement focused on detailed Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based DEMs. It describes a flow paths generation technique using triangulated irregular network (TIN) for terrain morphology description, which is not yet established in soil loss computations. This technique was compared with other procedures of flow direction and flow paths generation based on commonly used raster model (DEM). These overland flow characteristics together with therefrom derived flow accumulation are significant inputs for many scientific models. Particularly they are used in all USLE-based soil erosion models, from which USLE2D, RUSLE3D, Watem/Sedem or USPED can be named as the most acknowledged. Flow routing characteristics are also essential parameters in physically based hydrological and soil erosion models like HEC-HMS, Wepp, Erosion3D, LISEM, SMODERP, etc. Mentioned models are based on regular raster grids, where the identification of runoff direction is problematic. The most common method is Steepest descent (one directional flow), which corresponds well with the concentration of surface runoff into concentrated flow. The Steepest descent algorithm for the flow routing doesn't provide satisfying results, it often creates parallel and narrow flow lines while not respecting real morphological conditions. To overcome this problem, other methods (such as Flux Decomposition, Multiple flow, Deterministic Infinity algorithm etc.) separate the outflow into several components. This approach leads to unrealistic diffusion propagation of the runoff and makes it impossible to be used for simulation of dominant morphological features, such as artificial rills, hedges, sediment traps etc. The modern methods of mapping ground elevations, especially ALS, provide very detailed models even for large river basins, including morphological details. New algorithms for derivation a runoff direction have been developed as

  13. Highly selective fluorescent probe for the detection of tin (IV) Ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Leiming; Yang, Jing; Wang, Qiusheng; Zeng, Lintao

    2014-01-01

    A novel fluorescent compound, 7-diethylamino-3-(2'-(1H-imidazo[4,5-b]phenazine)yl)coumarin (DIPC), was synthesized and employed as a fluorescent probe for detecting tin (IV) ion. Upon addition of tin (IV) ion to the solution of DIPC in DMSO–water (9:1, v/v), DIPC exhibited a considerable red-shift in its absorption spectrum and a decrease in fluorescence intensity. These changes result from tin (IV) ion binding to carbonyl oxygen of coumarin and nitrogen of imidazole, reflecting an enhanced ICT process from N,N-diethylamino unit to imidazole unit. The tin (IV) ion selective response was clearly observed by the naked eye through color change. We also studied the bioimaging application of DIPC for detecting tin (IV) ion in Hela cells. And a significant decrease of the fluorescence from the intracellular area was observed. -- Highlights: • We synthesized a novel coumarin derivative (DIPC). • DIPC was used to detect tin (IV) ion selectively. • The detection process was studied upon UV–vis and fluorescence spectrum. • We studied the bioimaging application of DIPC for detecting Sn 4+ ion in cells

  14. Properties of combined TiN and Pt thin films applied to gas sensing

    CERN Document Server

    Aabom, A E; Eriksson, M; Twesten, R D

    2002-01-01

    TiN was introduced as a part of the sensing layer of gas sensitive metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) devices. Three types of metallic gate layer structures deposited by magnetron sputtering were investigated: TiN, a double layer with Pt on top of TiN, and two-phase Pt-TiN films formed by co-sputtering. The homogeneity of the co-sputtered layer was strongly dependent on the substrate temperature during film growth, with segregation of Pt as a result of high temperature deposition. During the deposition conditions in this work, Pt and TiN appear to be immiscible, resulting in growth of films consisting of the two phases. Furthermore, surface oxidation of TiN and enhanced oxidation of TiN at the grain boundaries to Pt in both the as-deposited films after exposure to atmosphere at room temperature and the films subjected to MIS device processing and to gas response analyses at a temperature of 140 deg. C resulted in a three-phase TiN-TiO sub x -Pt system. A segregation of Pt to the growth surface was observed d...

  15. Aspects of nitrogen surface chemistry relevant to TiN chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulberg, M.T.; Allendorf, M.D.; Outka, D.A.

    1996-08-01

    NH{sub 3} is an important component of many chemical vapor deposition (CVD) processes for TiN films, which are used for diffusion barriers and other applications in microelectronic circuits. In this study, the interaction of NH{sub 3} with TiN surfaces is examined with temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and Auger electron spectroscopy. NH{sub 3} has two adsorption states on TiN: a chemisorbed state and a multilayer state. A new method for analyzing TPD spectra in systems with slow pumping speeds yields activation energies for desorption for the two states of 24 kcal/mol and 7.3 kcal/mol, respectively. The sticking probability into the chemisorption state is {approximately}0.06. These results are discussed in the context of TiN CVD. In addition, the high temperature stability of TiN is investigated. TiN decomposes to its elements only after heating to 1300 K, showing that decomposition is unlikely to occur under CVD conditions.

  16. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Quejido, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound esposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-steps purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs

  17. Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometric analysis for tin in a fly ash material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, Carolina; Fernandez, Marta; Quejido, Alberto J.; Sanchez, Dolores M.; Morante, Ramon; Martin, Raul

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solution has been prepared from 112 Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4.5 M HCl during 25 min ultrasound exposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-step purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10.11 ± 0.55 and 10.50 ± 0.64 μmol g -1 ) are comparable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference materials certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of samples

  18. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Stability of tinned food from pigs radiated with various doses of ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowska, A.; Kossakowski, S.; Widenska, T.; Wojton, B.

    1978-01-01

    The examinations were carried out on 347 tinned food made of meat from pigs exposed to radiation of 300 and 600 R. The animals were irradiated with 60 Co. The pigs irradiated with 300 R were slaughtered after 7 and 14 days, and these with 600 R after 7 and 12 days; the control animals were killed after 14 days. Post-slaughter visual and microbiological examinations were performed by seeding the samples of the blood, muscles, lymphnodes and internal organs for the presence of Salmonella sp. Meat was pickled and heated up to 67-68 0 C (in the center of tinned food). The lowest stability showed the tinned food made of pigs irradiated with 600 R and killed after 12 days. Chemical examinations of the tinned food stored at 6 0 C revealed the prevalence of oxydative processes in fat over hydrolitic ones. The difference in acid number between tinned food under test and controls appeared after 6 months. Peroxides occurred in the control after 6 months and in these under examination after 3 months, and the level was 4.00-5.80 apart from the tins made of meat of pigs irradiated with 300 R and slaughtered after 7 days. (author)

  20. Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying with colloidal tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Paleo, Lester; Nuez Vilar, Maricela; Machado Lois, Marisel; López González, María Karla; Torres Leyva, Oscar; Izquierdo Izquierdo, Yimel; García González, Idelsy; Conesa Gonzalez, Ana Ibis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroparesis is defined as a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, associated with symptoms such as nausea and / or vomiting, feeling of postprandial gastric fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain for more than 3 months. The gold standard in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy is gastric emptying and radiopharmaceutical has been used more 99m Tc-sulfur colloid not available in the country. In order to evaluate the usefulness of colloidal tin in the scintigraphic gastric emptying study, a descriptive study was conducted in 64 patients over 18 years using as radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Sn colloid. 31% of patients had symptoms. The emptying time was normal in 50 cases and the association of gastroparesis symptoms was observed in 20 (15 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic), 9 patients had a delayed emptying, but reported no symptoms. Gastroparesis was more frequent in women than in men (35% versus 21%). 21% of patients had a moderate delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The results obtained with 99m Tc-Sn colloid are comparable to those reported by other authors using 99m Tc-SC in the scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying. (author)

  1. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  2. Highly efficient and durable TiN nanofiber electrocatalyst supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Cho, Min Kyung; Kwon, Jeong An; Jeong, Yeon Hun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Nam, Suk Woo; Lim, Dong-Hee; Cho, EunAe; Lee, Kwan-Young; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-11-28

    To date, carbon-based materials including various carbon nanostructured materials have been extensively used as an electrocatalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications due to their practical nature. However, carbon dissolution or corrosion caused by high electrode potential in the presence of O2 and/or water has been identified as one of the main failure modes for the device operation. Here, we report the first TiN nanofiber (TNF)-based nonwoven structured materials to be constructed via electrospinning and subsequent two-step thermal treatment processes as a support for the PEMFC catalyst. Pt catalyst nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the TNFs (Pt/TNFs) were electrochemically characterized with respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability in an acidic medium. From the electrochemical tests, the TNF-supported Pt catalyst was better and more stable in terms of its catalytic performance compared to a commercially available carbon-supported Pt catalyst. For example, the initial oxygen reduction performance was comparable for both cases, while the Pt/TNF showed much higher durability from an accelerated degradation test (ADT) configuration. It is understood that the improved catalytic roles of TNFs on the supported Pt NPs for ORR are due to the high electrical conductivity arising from the extended connectivity, high inertness to the electrochemical environment and strong catalyst-support interactions.

  3. Thermal stability of germanium-tin (GeSn) fins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Dian; Lee, Kwang Hong; Bao, Shuyu; Wang, Wei; Masudy-Panah, Saeid; Tan, Chuan Seng; Tok, Eng Soon; Gong, Xiao; Yeo, Yee-Chia

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the thermal stability of germanium-tin (Ge1-xSnx) fins under rapid thermal annealing in N2 ambient. The Ge1-xSnx fins were formed on a GeSn-on-insulator substrate and were found to be less thermally stable than blanket Ge1-xSnx films. The morphology change and material quality of the annealed Ge1-xSnx fin are investigated using scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and electron energy loss spectroscopy. Obvious degradation of crystalline quality of the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin was observed, and a thin Ge layer was formed on the SiO2 surface near the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin region after 500 °C anneal. A model was proposed to explain the morphology change of the Ge0.96Sn0.04 fin.

  4. Structures of tin cluster cations Sn3(+) to Sn15(+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drebov, Nedko; Oger, Esther; Rapps, Thomas; Kelting, Rebecca; Schooss, Detlef; Weis, Patrick; Kappes, Manfred M; Ahlrichs, Reinhart

    2010-12-14

    We employ a combination of ion mobility measurements and an unbiased systematic structure search with density functional theory methods to study structure and energetics of gas phase tin cluster cations, Sn(n)(+), in the range of n = 3-15. For Sn(13)(+) we also carry out trapped ion electron diffraction measurements to ascertain the results obtained by the other procedures. The structures for the smaller systems are most easily described by idealized point group symmetries, although they are all Jahn-Teller distorted: D(3h) (trigonal bipyramid), D(4h) (octahedron), D(5h) (pentagonal bipyramid) for n = 5, 6, and 7. For the larger systems we find capped D(5h) for Sn(8)(+) and Sn(9)(+), D(3h) (tricapped trigonal prism) and D(4d) (bicapped squared antiprism) plus adatoms for n = 10, 11, 14, and 15. A centered icosahedron with a peripheral atom removed is the dominant motif in Sn(12)(+). For Sn(13)(+) the calculations predict a family of virtually isoenergetic isomers, an icosahedron and slightly distorted icosahedra, which are about 0.25 eV below two C(1) structures. The experiments indicate the presence of two structures, one from the I(h) family and a prolate C(1) isomer based on fused deltahedral moieties.

  5. Etching of germanium-tin using ammonia peroxide mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuan; Ong, Bin Leong; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, #08-03, Innovis, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-12-28

    The wet etching of germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}) alloys (4.2% < x < 16.0%) in ammonia peroxide mixture (APM) is investigated. Empirical fitting of the data points indicates that the etch depth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} is proportional to the square root of the etch time t and decreases exponentially with increasing x for a given t. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that increasing t increases the intensity of the Sn oxide peak, whereas no obvious change is observed for the Ge oxide peak. This indicates that an accumulation of Sn oxide on the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface decreases the amount of Ge atoms exposed to the etchant, which accounts for the decrease in etch rate with increasing etch time. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface morphologies of the Ge{sub 0.918}Sn{sub 0.082} samples. Both root-mean-square roughness and undulation periods of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface were observed to increase with increasing t. This work provides further understanding of the wet etching of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} using APM and may be used for the fabrication of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}-based electronic and photonic devices.

  6. Geochemical and textural characterization of phosphate accessory phases in the vein assemblage and metasomatically altered Llallagua tin porphyry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betkowski, Wladyslaw B.; Rakovan, John; Harlov, Daniel E.

    2017-09-01

    Petrographic and geochemical characterization of phosphate accessory minerals represents a powerful tool in understanding the mineralization and metasomatic history of one of the world's biggest tin deposits, the Siglo XX mine, Salvadora stock, Llallagua, Bolivia. The Llallagua tin deposit lies in a hydrothermally altered porphyry stock that is part of the subduction-related Bolivian tin belt. Despite numerous studies, there is still a debate over the timing and characteristics of mineralization history of the deposit. Primary igneous fluorapatite and monazite (for the first time) were recognized in the altered porphyry. The igneous monazite is enriched in Th, unlike the hydrothermal monazite that is recognized for its low Th concentration. Fluorapatite, monazite, and xenotime also coexist with cassiterite within the hydrothermal vein assemblage. Fluorapatite and xenotime are essentially pristine. Monazite, however, shows various degrees of alteration in the form of regenerative mineral replacement (RMR). This exemplifies differential reactivity and selective mineral replacement/alteration of three accessory phosphate minerals, that are all important geochemical tracers of magmatic and hydrothermal processes, and which can all be used as geochronometers. Mineral textures and composition in the altered porphyry and vein assemblages have been evaluated. Monazite-xenotime geothermometry indicates monazite crystallization beginning around 550 °C. Monazite continues to grow as temperatures gradually decrease to about 300 °C, when most of cassiterite precipitation occurred in the samples studied. The primary mechanism of phosphate alteration has been identified as a coupled dissolution-reprecipitation process, which led to REE exchange in the igneous fluorapatite and hydrothermal monazite. In Type I local alteration, La and Pr-Nd show continuity across the pre- and post- alteration concentric zones indicating that they were not affected by alteration. This is an

  7. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry; Determinacion de Estano en minerales y productos de concentracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-07-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  8. TiN thin film deposition by cathodic cage discharge: effect of cage configuration and active species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Freitas Daudt, N; Cavalcante Braz, D; Alves Junior, C; Pereira Barbosa, J C; Barbalho Pereira, M

    2012-01-01

    Plasma cathodic cage technique was developed recently in order to eliminate phenomena such as edge effects and overheating, which occur during conventional nitriding processes. In this work, the effect of plasma active species and cage configurations during thin film deposition of TiN were studied. This compound was chosen because its properties are very sensitive to slight variations in chemical composition and film thickness, becoming a good monitoring tool in fabrication process control. In order to verify the effect of cage geometry on the discharge and characteristics of the grown film, a cage made of titanium was used with different numbers and distribution of holes. Furthermore, different amounts of hydrogen were added to the Ar + N2 plasma atmosphere. Flow rates of Ar and N2 gas were fixed at 4 and 3 sccm, respectively and flow rates of H 2 gas was 0, 1 and 2 sccm. Plasma species, electrical discharge and physical characteristics of the grown film were analyzed by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-Ray Diffraction. It was observed by OES that the luminous intensity associated to Hα species is not proportional to flow rate of H 2 gas. Electrical efficiency of the system, crystal structure and topography of the TiN film are strongly influenced by this behavior. For constant flow rate of H 2 gas, it was found that with more holes at the top of the cage, deposition rate, crystallinity and roughness are higher, if compared to cages with a small number of holes at the top of cage. On the other hand, the opposite behavior was observed when more holes were located at the sidewall of cage.

  9. Analysis of synthetic profile of CZTS as photovoltaic material obtained with variations of titanium and TiN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, M.; Vera, E.; Gómez, J.; Pineda, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Semiconductor type Cu2ZnTiS4 (CZTiS) and Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS),were synthetized starting from a hydrothermal route from precursor powders such as copper, zinc, tin, titanium isopropoxide and tiocarbammide metal nitrates dissolved in deionized water in concentrations of 1molL-1. Dosed and placed in a steel autoclave equipped with a Teflon jacket under magnetic stirring (150rpm) and at a temperature of 300°C for 24 hours in order to promote the formation of the respective ceramic phases. Segregates have been repeatedly washed with ethanol at all times until obtaining crystalline-looking solids. Subsequently, in order to promote the production of pure crystalline phases, the materials were subjected to a second reaction stage in a tubular furnace at 400°C in flow (50mLmin-1) for the purpose of Reduce the concentration of secondary phases of sulphides. The characterization of the CZTiS and CZTS materials was performed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopy where the presence of Kesterite type crystalline structures was confirmed in the two materials revealing that the effect of titanium with a higher ionic radius than tin produces a distortion in the cell of the CZTiS material compared to the report for the CZTS system. The results of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), confirm the regular aggregates obtained with composition consistent with the proposal theoretically and validated by Energy-Dispersion X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) techniques and comparison between secondary emission spectra and Retro-dispersed.

  10. Ground and Structure Deformation 3d Modelling with a Tin Based Property Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIAN, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.

    2013-12-01

    With the development of 3D( three-dimensional) modeling and visualization, more and more 3D tectonics are used to assist the daily work in Engineering Survey, in which the prediction of deformation field in strata and structure induced by underground construction is an essential part. In this research we developed a TIN (Triangulated Irregular Network) based property model for the 3D (three dimensional) visualization of ground deformation filed. By record deformation vector for each nodes, the new model can express the deformation with geometric-deformation-style by drawing each node in its new position and deformation-attribute-distribution-style by drawing each node in the color correspond with its deformation attribute at the same time. Comparing with the volume model based property model, this new property model can provide a more precise geometrical shape for structure objects. Furthermore, by recording only the deformation data of the user-interested 3d surface- such as the ground surface or the underground digging surface, the new property model can save a lot of space, which makes it possible to build the deformation filed model of a much more large scale. To construct the models of deformation filed based on TIN model, the refinement of the network is needed to increase the nodes number, which is necessary to express the deformation filed with a certain resolution. The TIN model refinement is a process of sampling the 3D deformation field values on points on the TIN surface, for which we developed a self-adapting TIN refinement method. By set the parameter of the attribute resolution, this self-adapting method refines the input geometric-expressing TIN model by adding more vertexes and triangles where the 3D deformation filed changing faster. Comparing with the even refinement method, the self-adapting method can generate a refined TIN model with nodes counted less by two thirds. Efficiency Comparison between Self-adapting Refinement Method and Even

  11. Effects of Metallic Nanoparticles on Interfacial Intermetallic Compounds in Tin-Based Solders for Microelectronic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, A. S. M. A.; Arafat, M. M.; Tay, S. L.; Leong, Y. M.

    2017-10-01

    Tin (Sn)-based solders have established themselves as the main alternative to the traditional lead (Pb)-based solders in many applications. However, the reliability of the Sn-based solders continues to be a concern. In order to make Sn-based solders microstructurally more stable and hence more reliable, researchers are showing great interest in investigating the effects of the incorporation of different nanoparticles into them. This paper gives an overview of the influence of metallic nanoparticles on the characteristics of interfacial intermetallic compounds (IMCs) in Sn-based solder joints on copper substrates during reflow and thermal aging. Nanocomposite solders were prepared by mechanically blending nanoparticles of nickel (Ni), cobalt (Co), zinc (Zn), molybdenum (Mo), manganese (Mn) and titanium (Ti) with Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu and Sn-3.5Ag solder pastes. The composite solders were then reflowed and their wetting characteristics and interfacial microstructural evolution were investigated. Through the paste mixing route, Ni, Co, Zn and Mo nanoparticles alter the morphology and thickness of the IMCs in beneficial ways for the performance of solder joints. The thickness of Cu3Sn IMC is decreased with the addition of Ni, Co and Zn nanoparticles. The thickness of total IMC layer is decreased with the addition of Zn and Mo nanoparticles in the solder. The metallic nanoparticles can be divided into two groups. Ni, Co, and Zn nanoparticles undergo reactive dissolution during solder reflow, causing in situ alloying and therefore offering an alternative route of alloy additions to solders. Mo nanoparticles remain intact during reflow and impart their influence as discrete particles. Mechanisms of interactions between different types of metallic nanoparticles and solder are discussed.

  12. Processing of Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Nanocrystal Dispersions for Thin Film Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Bryce Arthur

    A scalable and inexpensive renewable energy source is needed to meet the expected increase in electricity demand throughout the developed and developing world in the next 15 years without contributing further to global warming through CO2 emissions. Photovoltaics may meet this need but current technologies are less than ideal requiring complex manufacturing processes and/or use of toxic, rare-earth materials. Copper zinc tin sulfide (Cu 2ZnSnS4, CZTS) solar cells offer a true "green" alternative based upon non-toxic and abundant elements. Solution-based processes utilizing CZTS nanocrystal dispersions followed by high temperature annealing have received significant research attention due to their compatibility with traditional roll-to-roll coating processes. In this work, CZTS nanocrystal (5-35 nm diameters) dispersions were utilized as a production pathway to form solar absorber layers. Aerosol-based coating methods (aerosol jet printing and ultrasonic spray coating) were optimized for formation of dense, crack-free CZTS nanocrystal coatings. The primary variables underlying determination of coating morphology within the aerosol-coating parameter space were investigated. It was found that the liquid content of the aerosol droplets at the time of substrate impingement play a critical role. Evaporation of the liquid from the aerosol droplets during coating was altered through changes to coating parameters as well as to the CZTS nanocrystal dispersions. In addition, factors influencing conversion of CZTS nanocrystal coatings into dense, large-grained polycrystalline films suitable for solar cell development during thermal annealing were studied. The roles nanocrystal size, carbon content, sodium uptake, and sulfur pressure were found to have pivotal roles in film microstructure evolution. The effects of these parameters on film morphology, grain growth rates, and chemical makeup were analyzed from electron microscopy images as well as compositional analysis

  13. Large-Grain Tin-Rich Perovskite Films for Efficient Solar Cells via Metal Alloying Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Mahdi; Zakeeruddin, Shaik Mohammed; Grätzel, Michael; Fan, Zhiyong

    2018-03-01

    Fast research progress on lead halide perovskite solar cells has been achieved in the past a few years. However, the presence of lead (Pb) in perovskite composition as a toxic element still remains a major issue for large-scale deployment. In this work, a novel and facile technique is presented to fabricate tin (Sn)-rich perovskite film using metal precursors and an alloying technique. Herein, the perovskite films are formed as a result of the reaction between Sn/Pb binary alloy metal precursors and methylammonium iodide (MAI) vapor in a chemical vapor deposition process carried out at 185 °C. It is found that in this approach the Pb/Sn precursors are first converted to (Pb/Sn)I 2 and further reaction with MAI vapor leads to the formation of perovskite films. By using Pb-Sn eutectic alloy, perovskite films with large grain sizes up to 5 µm can be grown directly from liquid phase metal. Consequently, using an alloying technique and this unique growth mechanism, a less-toxic and efficient perovskite solar cell with a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 14.04% is demonstrated, while pure Sn and Pb perovskite solar cells prepared in this manner yield PCEs of 4.62% and 14.21%, respectively. It is found that this alloying technique can open up a new direction to further explore different alloy systems (binary or ternary alloys) with even lower melting point. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Solution-Processed Gallium–Tin-Based Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of gallium (Ga and tin (Sn compositions on the structural and chemical properties of Ga–Sn-mixed (Ga:Sn oxide films and the electrical properties of Ga:Sn oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs. The thermogravimetric analysis results indicate that solution-processed oxide films can be produced via thermal annealing at 500 °C. The oxygen deficiency ratio in the Ga:Sn oxide film increased from 0.18 (Ga oxide and 0.30 (Sn oxide to 0.36, while the X-ray diffraction peaks corresponding to Sn oxide significantly reduced. The Ga:Sn oxide film exhibited smaller grains compared to the nanocrystalline Sn oxide film, while the Ga oxide film exhibited an amorphous morphology. We found that the electrical properties of TFTs significantly improve by mixing Ga and Sn. Here, the optimum weight ratio of the constituents in the mixture of Ga and Sn precursor sols was determined to be 1.0:0.9 (Ga precursor sol:Sn precursor sol for application in the solution-processed Ga:Sn oxide TFTs. In addition, when the Ga(1.0:Sn(0.9 oxide film was thermally annealed at 900 °C, the field-effect mobility of the TFT was notably enhanced from 0.02 to 1.03 cm2/Vs. Therefore, the mixing concentration ratio and annealing temperature are crucial for the chemical and morphological properties of solution-processed Ga:Sn oxide films and for the TFT performance.

  15. Growth, intermixing, and surface phase formation for zinc tin oxide nanolaminates produced by atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hägglund, Carl, E-mail: carl.hagglund@angstrom.uu.se [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 and Department of Engineering Sciences, Division of Solid State Electronics, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala (Sweden); Grehl, Thomas; Brongersma, Hidde H. [ION-TOF GmbH, Heisenbergstraße 15, 48149 Münster (Germany); Tanskanen, Jukka T.; Mullings, Marja N.; Mackus, Adriaan J. M.; MacIsaac, Callisto; Bent, Stacey Francine, E-mail: sbent@stanford.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Yee, Ye Sheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Clemens, Bruce M. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A broad and expanding range of materials can be produced by atomic layer deposition at relatively low temperatures, including both oxides and metals. For many applications of interest, however, it is desirable to grow more tailored and complex materials such as semiconductors with a certain doping, mixed oxides, and metallic alloys. How well such mixed materials can be accomplished with atomic layer deposition requires knowledge of the conditions under which the resulting films will be mixed, solid solutions, or laminated. The growth and lamination of zinc oxide and tin oxide is studied here by means of the extremely surface sensitive technique of low energy ion scattering, combined with bulk composition and thickness determination, and x-ray diffraction. At the low temperatures used for deposition (150 °C), there is little evidence for atomic scale mixing even with the smallest possible bilayer period, and instead a morphology with small ZnO inclusions in a SnO{sub x} matrix is deduced. Postannealing of such laminates above 400 °C however produces a stable surface phase with a 30% increased density. From the surface stoichiometry, this is likely the inverted spinel of zinc stannate, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}. Annealing to 800 °C results in films containing crystalline Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, or multilayered films of crystalline ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}, and SnO{sub 2} phases, depending on the bilayer period.

  16. Size effects in electrical and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional tin wires in asbestos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyaev, A. V.; Shamshur, D. V.; Fokin, A. V.; Kalmykov, A. E.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Sorokin, L. M.; Parfen'ev, R. V.; Lashkul, A.

    2016-03-01

    Bulk composites have been prepared based on one-dimensional fibers of natural chrisothil-asbestos with various internal diameters ( d = 6-2.5 nm) filled with tin. The electrical and magnetic properties of quasi-one-dimensional Sn wires have been studied at low temperatures. The electrical properties have been measured at T = 300 K at a pressure P = 10 kbar. It has been found that the superconducting (SC) characteristics of the nanocomposites (critical temperature T c and critical magnetic field H c) increase as the Sn filament diameter decreases. The temperature spreading of the resistive SC transition also increases as the Sn filament diameter decreases, which is explained by the SC order parameter fluctuations. The size effects (the increase in critical temperature T c and transition width Δ T c) in Sn nanofilaments are well described by the independent Aslamazov-Larkin and Langer-Ambegaokara fluctuation theories, which makes it possible to find the dependence of T c of the diffuse SC transition on the nanowire diameter. Using the temperature and magnetic-field dependences of the magnetic moment M( T, H), it has been found that the superconductor-normal metal phase diagram of the Sn-asbestos nanocomposite has a wider region of the SC state in T and H as compared to the data for bulk Sn. The magnetic properties of chrisotil-asbestos fibers unfilled with Sn have been studied. It has been found that the Curie law is fulfilled and that the superparamagnetism is absent in such samples. The obtained results indicate the absence of magnetically ordered impurities (magnetite) in the chrisotil-asbestos matrix, which allowed one to not consider the problem of the interaction of the magnetic subsystem of the asbestos matrix and the superconducting subsystem of Sn nanowires.

  17. The effects of temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cai-Fu [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Liu, Zhi-Quan, E-mail: zqliu@imr.ac.cn [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shang, Jian-Ku [Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tin whiskers and hillocks grow from Sn5Nd alloy due to oxidation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Temperature and humidity can affect the oxidation and the growth diversities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Growth models of whiskers and hillocks were proposed upon microstructural study. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proposed models can explain the characteristics of whiskers and hillocks. - Abstract: The effects of exposure time, temperature and humidity on the growth of tin whisker and hillock from Sn5Nd alloy were investigated via scanning electron microscopy. It was found that tin whiskers grew from NdSn{sub 3} compound, while hillocks grew from the tin matrix around the NdSn{sub 3} compound, which was induced by the oxidation of NdSn{sub 3} compound by oxygen and water vapor in the ambient. More tin whiskers and/or hillocks were extruded from the substrate with longer exposure time, higher temperature and higher humidity. This resulted in the formation of various morphologies of tin extrusions at different storage conditions, including thread-like, spiral, flute-like, claw-like, sprout-like, chrysanthemum-like and rod-like whiskers, as well as hillocks. Tin whisker was extruded from the crack of the surface Nd(OH){sub 3} layer which serves as the mold of tin whisker growth. And the proposed growth models of tin whisker and hillock on Sn-Nd alloy can explain the diversity of the whisker morphology.

  18. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  19. Fabrication and characterization of an indium tin oxide acoustoelectric hydrophone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Pier; Greenlee, Charles L.; Wang, Zhaohui; Olafsson, Ragnar; Norwood, Robert A.; Witte, Russell S.

    2010-03-01

    Clinical ultrasound (US) imaging and therapy require a precise knowledge of the intensity distribution of the acoustic field. Although piezoelectric hydrophones are most common, these devices are limited in terms of, for example, type of materials, cost, and performance at high frequency and pressure. As an alternative to conventional acoustic detectors, we describe acoustoelectric hydrophones, developed using photolithographic fabrication techniques, where the induced voltage (phase and amplitude) is proportional to both the US pressure and bias current injected through the device. In this study a number of different hydrophone designs were created using indium tin oxide (ITO). A constriction of the current path within the hydrophone created a localized "sensitivity zone" of high current density. The width of this zone ranged from 30 to 1000 μm, with a thickness of 100 nm. A raster scan of the US transducer produced a map of the acoustic field. Hydrophones were evaluated by mapping the pressure field of a 2.25 MHz single element transducer, and their performance was compared to a commercial capsule hydrophone. Focal spot sizes at -6 dB were as low as 1.75 mm, comparing well with the commercial hydrophone measurement of 1.80 mm. Maximum sensitivity was 2 nV/Pa and up to the 2nd harmonic was detected. We expect improved performance with future devices as we optimize the design. Acoustoelectric hydrophones are potentially cheaper and more robust than the piezoelectric models currently in clinical use, potentially providing more choice of materials and designs for monitoring therapy or producing arrays for imaging.

  20. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussaoui, H., E-mail: elmoussaoui.hassan@gmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid – BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases. - Highlights: • We have studied the microstructural and the magnetic properties of Sn{sub 1-x}MnxFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have a blocking temperature around 100 K. • The Ms and Hc increase with the augmentation of Mn content.

  1. Tin dioxide nanostructured thin films obtained through polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antônio Dal Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructured thin films with low proportion of defects and low roughness were produced through the systematic control of temperature and viscosity of the precursor solutions used for thin films deposition. These solutions were obtained through the citrate method and the films were deposited through the ‘dip-coating’ technique on glass substrate and after thermal treatment at 470ºC/4h, they were characterized both structurally and morphologically through the X-ray diffractometry, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray excited photoelectrons spectroscopy. The film thickness was obtained through scanning electronic microscopy of the films cross-section and correlated to the proportion of Sn and Si obtained through X-ray fluorescence. X-ray diffractometry of the films revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to the SnO2 crystalline phase, overlapping a wide peak between 20 and 30º (2?, characteristic of the glass substrate. Optic microscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed homogeneous films, with low roughness, suitable to several applications such as sensors and transparent electrodes. It could be observed through the UV-Vis absorption analysis that the films presented high optical transparency and ‘band gap’ energy 4.36 eV. The X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SnO2, as well as traces of the elements present in the glass substrate and residual carbon from the thermal treatment of the films.

  2. PHOTOELECTRIC AND PHOTOMAGNETIC RESPONSE OF INDIUM-TIN OXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Meshkovsky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The goal of the present research is investigation of photoelectric and photomagnetic response of ITO (indium-tin oxide films under UV laser irradiation. Method. The ITO films were prepared by magnetron sputtering with the thickness equal to 300nm. The films were irradiated by UV laser light with 248 nm wavelength in laser pulse energy range from 10 mJ to 150 mJ by KrF excimer laser. Metallic electrodes were deposited on the films. Information about the films surface topography was obtained by atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The film structure was investigated by X-ray diffraction. Main Results. It was shown that voltage appears between metallic contacts under the UV light effect. The electric current was observed through resistive load. The anisotropy of electric field producing photoelectric response was demonstrated for the first time. The appearance of magnetic field under the laser light irradiation was observed for the first time. The dependence of the response voltage on the laser pulse energy was linear over the whole measured energy range. The following physical mechanism was proposed for description of the observed phenomenon: electric voltage is associated with non-uniform distribution of the average crystallite size along the film surface, and, therefore, with mean free path of the charge carriers along the film surface. Photomagnetic response could be associated with collective behavior of the large number of charged particles, created due to high intensity laser irradiation. Practical Relevance. The phenomenon being studied could be applied for creation of new optoelectronic devices, for example, modulators, optical detectors, etc. Particularly, due to linear dependence of photoelectric response on the laser pulse energy, this phenomenon is attractive for manufacturing of simple and cheap excimer laser pulse energy detectors.

  3. Method of fabricating composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Y.; Shiraki, H.; Suzuki, E.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method of making stabilized superconductors of a composition such as Nb 3 Sn is disclosed. The method includes forming a stock product comprising a tin base alloy as a core with a copper jacket and having a niobium tube clad thereon. The stock product is then embedded in a good thermally and electrically conducting matrix which is then coreduced until the desired size is obtained. This cold worked product is then submitted to a heat treatment to form superconductors of Nb 3 Sn

  4. On-line coating of glass with tin oxide by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allendorf, Mark D.; Sopko, J.F. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); Houf, William G.; Chae, Yong Kee; McDaniel, Anthony H.; Li, M. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA); McCamy, J.W. (PPF Industries, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2006-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) of tin oxide is a very important manufacturing technique used in the production of low-emissivity glass. It is also the primary method used to provide wear-resistant coatings on glass containers. The complexity of these systems, which involve chemical reactions in both the gas phase and on the deposition surface, as well as complex fluid dynamics, makes process optimization and design of new coating reactors a very difficult task. In 2001 the U.S. Dept. of Energy Industrial Technologies Program Glass Industry of the Future Team funded a project to address the need for more accurate data concerning the tin oxide APCVD process. This report presents a case study of on-line APCVD using organometallic precursors, which are the primary reactants used in industrial coating processes. Research staff at Sandia National Laboratories in Livermore, CA, and the PPG Industries Glass Technology Center in Pittsburgh, PA collaborated to produce this work. In this report, we describe a detailed investigation of the factors controlling the growth of tin oxide films. The report begins with a discussion of the basic elements of the deposition chemistry, including gas-phase thermochemistry of tin species and mechanisms of chemical reactions involved in the decomposition of tin precursors. These results provide the basis for experimental investigations in which tin oxide growth rates were measured as a function of all major process variables. The experiments focused on growth from monobutyltintrichloride (MBTC) since this is one of the two primary precursors used industrially. There are almost no reliable growth-rate data available for this precursor. Robust models describing the growth rate as a function of these variables are derived from modeling of these data. Finally, the results are used to conduct computational fluid dynamic simulations of both pilot- and full-scale coating reactors. As a result, general conclusions are

  5. Potential of tin (IV) chloride for treatment in Alor Pongsu as stabilized landfill leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainal, Sharifah Farah Fariza Syed; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Leachate production from landfilling contributes crucial pollutants to the environment. This study examined the potential of tin (IV) chloride as coagulant that involved charge neutralization and sweep flocculation mechanisms. The negative charge of leachate is neutralized by adding tin (IV) chloride as cationic coagulant which resulted precipitation and swept most of the colloids and dissolved solids that entrapped in the settling as hydrous oxide floc. Parameters such as suspended solid (SS) content, color, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were analyzed using standard jar test procedures. The best condition was observed at pH 8, with removal efficiencies of 75.99 %, 99.29 % and 98.36 % for COD, SS, and color, respectively. At optimum dosage, tin (IV) chloride successfully removed 98.40 % for color, 99.54 % for SS and 71.53 % for COD. These results indicated the satisfactory performance of tin (IV) chloride. Hence, tin (IV) chloride is a potential coagulant for the treatment of Alor Pongsu Landfill leachate.

  6. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmros, Anna; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30–200 °C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/°C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of − 470 ppm/°C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to − 60 and 100 ppm/°C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  7. Mössbauer spectroscopy of tin in unirradiated and neutron irradiated Zircaloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Jerzy A.

    1999-01-01

    Mössbauer spectroscopy of the 23.9 keV γ-rays in 119Sn nuclei was applied to study Zircaloy-2, Zircaloy-4, and other tin-bearing zirconium-based alloys of interest to nuclear power technology. Zircaloys are extensively used in nuclear reactors as fuel cladding. In CANDU reactors, Zircaloys are also used as major structural components such as calandria tubes, and were used until the late 1970's as pressure tubes (now replaced by Zr-2.5Nb alloy). Unirradiated specimens of these alloys, as well as radioactive specimens, both neutron-irradiated in high-flux test reactors and extracted from nuclear power-reactor components after many years of service, were examined. The obtained spectra consistently showed tin in substitutional solid solution in α-Zr, whereas no evidence was found of metallic Sn or intermetallic Zr 4Sn precipitates. In oxide scrapes removed from Zircaloy-2 pressure tube of one of CANDU reactors, where the alloy was exposed for about 10 years to pressurized heavy water coolant at temperatures of ˜280°C, a considerable fraction of tin was found in the Sn(IV) state, in the form that coincides with the state of tin in stannic oxide, SnO 2. The same form of tin was identified in filterable deposits in the primary heavy water coolant of CANDU reactors. For comparison, in Zircaloy heated in air, SnO 2 was formed only at temperatures above 500°C.

  8. Ambient gas effects on the dynamics of laser-produced tin plume expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harilal, S. S.; O'Shay, Beau; Tao Yezheng; Tillack, Mark S.

    2006-01-01

    Controlling the debris from a laser-generated tin plume is one of the prime issues in the development of an extreme ultraviolet lithographic light source. An ambient gas that is transparent to 13.5 nm radiation can be used for controlling highly energetic particles from the tin plume. We employed a partial ambient argon pressure for decelerating various species in the tin plume. The kinetic energy distributions of tin species were analyzed at short and large distances using time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and a Faraday cup, respectively. A fast-gated intensified charged coupled device was used for understanding the hydrodynamics of the plume's expansion into argon ambient. Our results indicate that the tin ions can be effectively mitigated with a partial argon pressure ∼65 mTorr. Apart from thermalization and deceleration of plume species, the addition of ambient gas leads to other events such as double peak formation in the temporal distributions and ambient plasma formation

  9. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamali-Sheini, Farid, E-mail: faridjamali@iauahvaz.ac.ir [Advanced Surface Engineering and Nano Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ramin [Department of Physics, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University (I.A.U), Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknia, Farhad [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Sherafat, University of Farhangian, 15916, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sookhakian, Mehran [Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and hexagonal phase of SnS{sub 2}. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  10. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  11. Influence of TiN coating on the biocompatibility of medical NiTi alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of TiN coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) was evaluated to compare with that of the uncoated NiTi-SMA. Based on the orthodontic clinical application, the surface properties and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), wettability test, mechanical test and in vitro tests including MTT, cell apoptosis and cell adhesion tests. It was observed that the bonding between the substrate and TiN coating is excellent. The roughness and wettability increased as for the TiN coating compared with the uncoated NiTi-SMA. MTT test showed no significant difference between the coated and uncoated NiTi-SMA, however the percentage of early cell apoptosis was significantly higher as for the uncoated NiTi alloy. SEM results showed that TiN coating could enhance the cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on NiTi-SMA. The results indicated that TiN coating bonded with the substrate well and could lead to a better biocompatibility. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmros, Anna, E-mail: anna.malmros@chalmers.se; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30-200 Degree-Sign C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of - 470 ppm/ Degree-Sign C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to - 60 and 100 ppm/ Degree-Sign C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  13. Tensile strained gray tin: Dirac semimetal for observing negative magnetoresistance with Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Liu, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The extremely stringent requirement on material quality has hindered the investigation and potential applications of exotic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals. Here, we propose that gray tin is a perfect candidate for observing the chiral anomaly effect and Shubnikov-de-Haas (SdH) oscillation at relatively low magnetic field. Based on effective k .p analysis and first-principles calculations, we discover that gray tin becomes a Dirac semimetal under tensile uniaxial strain, in contrast to a topological insulator under compressive uniaxial strain as known before. In this newly found Dirac semimetal state, two Dirac points which are tunable by tensile [001] strains lie in the kz axis and Fermi arcs appear in the (010) surface. Due to the low carrier concentration and high mobility of gray tin, a large chiral anomaly induced negative magnetoresistance and a strong SdH oscillation are anticipated in this half of the strain spectrum. Comparing to other Dirac semimetals, the proposed Dirac semimetal state in the nontoxic elemental gray tin can be more easily manipulated and accurately controlled. We envision that gray tin provides a perfect platform for strain engineering of chiral magnetic effects by sweeping through the strain spectrum from positive to negative and vice versa.

  14. A Study on Contact Fatigue Performance of Nitrided and TiN Coated Gears

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the effects of TiN coating on gear contact fatigue performance through contact fatigue experiment and gear rig test. The results reveal that the deposition on gears with hard coating TiN could provide the subsurface protection and improve the contact fatigue life, and the contact fatigue strength of nitrided+TiN coated 32Cr2MoV is 1557 MPa at survival probability of 99%, 284 MPa higher than that of nitrided 32Cr2MoV. Although TiN coating on the the edge of the meshing zone wore out, there is no obvious pitting at the site and the rest of meshed zone of TiN coated gear keeps well without pittings and wear grooves, which is opposite to nitrided gears with pittings and peeling off. TiN coating is dense and smooth with lower surface roughness, and it wraps up the gear tooth so that the gear surface no longer contacts with lubricant and prevents the cracks initiation, prolonging the contact fatigue life of gears.

  15. Tin(IV Complexes of Schiff Base Derived from Amino Acid: Synthesis and Characteristic Spectral Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robina Aman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of tin(IV complexes of general formula [Sn(L-1(Opri2] (1, [Sn(HL-12(Opri2] (2, [Sn(L-2(Opri2] (3, [Sn(HL-22(Opri2] (4, (L is dianion of Schiff bases derived from the condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with glycine (L-1 and Lβ-alanine (L-2 was synthesized by reaction of tin(IV tetraisopropoxide with the ligands, in appropriate stoichiometric ratios (1 : 1 and 1 : 2. This would result in the replacement of the isopropoxide group from the tin(IV tetraisopropoxide and hydrogen(s from ligand with the azeotropical removal of isopropanol. An attempt has been made to prove the structure of the resulting complexes on the basis of elemental analysis, IR, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. The binding site of the ligand was identified by IR spectroscopic measurement. In these complexes, the tin(IV centre is bonded to oxygen atom of the hydroxyl or carboxylate group. The spectra data suggest that the carboxylate group is coordinated to tin(IV centre in monodentate manner.

  16. Neutron diffraction study of TiN0.40H0.19D0.19 solid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidirov, I.; Mukhtarova, N.N.; Padurets, L.N.; Shilov, A.L.; Zaginaichenko, S.Yu.; Schur, D.V.; Pishuk, V.K.

    2006-01-01

    which was earlier determined for the ordered solid solutions TiN x H y and TiN x D y ; but as distinct from them, in TiN 0.40 H 0.19 D 0.11 (with combined isotopic composition) a peculiar splitting of tetrahedral positions 2 (d) is observed. The work was supported by Science and Technology Center of Ukraine, Project Uzb-131(j) and Russian Foundation for Fundamental Researches, Project 05-08-33589a. (author)

  17. Electron densities and chemical bonding in TiC, TiN and TiO derived from energy band calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, P.

    1983-10-01

    It was the aim of this paper to describe the chemical bonding of TiC, TiN and TiO by means of energy bands and electron densities. Using the respective potentials we have calculated the bandstructure of a finer k-grid with the linearized APW method to obtain accurate densities of states (DOS). These DOS wer partitioned into local partial contributions and the metal d DOS were further decomposed into tsub(2g) and esub(g) symmetry components in order to additionally characterize bonding. The electron densities corresponding to the occupied valence states are obtained from the LAPW calculations. They provide further insight into characteristic trends in the series from TiC to TiO: around the nonmetal site the density shows increasing localisation; around the metal site the deviation from spherical symmetry changes from esub(g) to tsub(2g). Electron density plots of characteristic band states allow to describe different types of bonding occurring in these systems. For TiC and TiN recent measurements of the electron densities exist for samples of TiCsub(0.94) and TiNsub(0.99), where defects cause static displacements of the Ti atoms. If this effect can be compensated by an atomic model one hopefully can extrapolate to stoichiometric composition. This procedure allows a comparison with structure factors derived from theoretical electron densities. The agreement for TiN is very good. For TiC the extrapolated data agree in terms of the deviations from spherical symmetry near the Ti site with the LAPW data, but the densities around both atoms are more localized than in theory. An explanation could be: a) the defects affect the electronic structure in TiCsub(0.94) with respect to TiCsub(1.0): b) the applied atomic model does not properly extrapolate to stoichiometry, because parameters of this model correlate or become unphysical. (Author)

  18. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-08-21

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in oleylamine vs. dodecanethiol).

  19. Synthesis and surface chemistry of high quality wurtzite and kesterite Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals using tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate as a new tin source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabka, Grzegorz; Bujak, Piotr; Gryszel, Maciej; Ostrowski, Andrzej; Malinowska, Karolina; Zukowska, Grazyna Z.; Agnese, Fabio; Pron, Adam; Reiss, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A novel synthesis method for the preparation of Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals is presented using a liquid precursor of tin, namely tin(II) 2-ethylhexanoate, which yields small and nearly monodisperse NCs either in the kesterite or in the wurtzite phase depending on the sulfur source (elemental sulfur in

  20. Selectivity of Catalytically Modified Tin Dioxide to CO and NH3 Gas Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artem Marikutsa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at selectivity investigation of gas sensors, based on chemically modified nanocrystalline tin dioxide in the detection of CO and ammonia mixtures in air. Sol-gel prepared tin dioxide was modified by palladium and ruthenium oxides clusters via an impregnation technique. Sensing behavior to CO, NH3 and their mixtures in air was studied by in situ resistance measurements. Using the appropriate match of operating temperatures, it was shown that the reducing gases mixed in a ppm-level with air could be discriminated by the noble metal oxide-modified SnO2. Introducing palladium oxide provided high CO-sensitivity at 25–50 °C. Tin dioxide modified by ruthenium oxide demonstrated increased sensor signals to ammonia at 150–200 °C, and selectivity to NH3 in presence of higher CO concentrations.

  1. Electrodeposition of tin from EMI⋅BF4⋅Cl room temperature molten salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morimitsu M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemistry of Sn(II was investigated with cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry in the 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate molten salt containing free chloride ions (EMI ⋅BF4 ⋅Cl originated from the mixture of EMIC and NaBF4 (60:40 mol%. The well defined redox waves for the electro deposition and dissolution of tin were observed on a platinum electrode at 303 K. The deposition of tin proceeded through a quasi-reversible step with two electron transfer, and the deposited tin was sufficiently recovered during oxidation. The experimental current-time transient coincided with the theory based on one-dimensional diffusion control.

  2. The Evaluation of Novel Tin Materials for the Removal of Technetium from Groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Kent E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wellman, Dawn M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-30

    Technetium-99 (99Tc) is present at several U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, including the Hanford, Oak Ridge, Paducah, Portsmouth, and Savannah River sites. Due to its mobility, persistence, and toxicity in the environment, developing means to immobilize and/or remove technetium from the environment is currently a top priority for DOE. However, there are currently very few approaches that effectively manage the risks of technetium to human health and the environment. The objective of this study is to evaluate novel synthetic materials that could enable direct removal of technetium from groundwater. The following report •assesses the viability of existing methodologies for synthesis of tin (II) apatite for in situ formation and remediation of 99Tc within the subsurface environment •discusses the development of alternative methodologies for production of tin (II) apatite •evaluates nanoporous tin phosphate materials for removal of technetium from groundwater.

  3. Determination of trace amounts of tin in geological materials by atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsch, E.P.; Chao, T.T.

    1976-01-01

    An atomic absorption method is described for the determination of traces of tin in rocks, soils, and stream sediments. A dried mixture of the sample and ammonium iodide is heated to volatilize tin tetraiodide -which is then dissolved in 5 % hydrochloric acid, extracted into TOPO-MIBK, and aspirated into a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame. The limit of determination is 2 p.p.m. tin and the relative standard deviation ranges from 2 to 14 %. Up to 20 % iron and 1000 p.p.m. Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Hg, Mo, V, or W in the sample do not interfere. As many as 50 samples can be easily analyzed per man-day. ?? 1976.

  4. Promoting effect of tin oxides on alumina-supported gold catalysts used in CO oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somodi, Ferenc; Borbáth, Irina; Hegedűs, Mihály; Lázár, Károly; Sajó, István E.; Geszti, Olga; Rojas, Sergio; Fierro, Jose Luis Garcia; Margitfalvi, József L.

    2009-11-01

    In this study the influence of SnO x nanoparticles on the catalytic performance of alumina-supported gold catalysts was investigated in CO oxidation. The tin modified supports were prepared by grafting of tetraethyltin onto the surface of alumina via its hydroxyl groups. The decomposition of organometallic surface species in oxygen yielded highly dispersed tin oxide on the surface of alumina. Gold was introduced onto the tin modified alumina support by both deposition-precipitation with urea and direct anionic exchange techniques using HAuCl 4 solution. Based on catalytic and different spectroscopic measurements it is suggested that the presence of "Sn n+ -Au ensemble sites" is responsible for the increased activity of these catalysts.

  5. Angular distribution of ions and extreme ultraviolet emission in laser-produced tin droplet plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Xinbing; Duan, Lian; Lan, Hui; Chen, Ziqi; Zuo, Duluo; Lu, Peixiang

    2015-05-01

    Angular-resolved ion time-of-flight spectra as well as extreme ultraviolet radiation in laser-produced tin droplet plasma are investigated experimentally and theoretically. Tin droplets with a diameter of 150 μm are irradiated by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. The ion time-of-flight spectra measured from the plasma formed by laser irradiation of the tin droplets are interpreted in terms of a theoretical elliptical Druyvesteyn distribution to deduce ion density distributions including kinetic temperatures of the plasma. The opacity of the plasma for extreme ultraviolet radiation is calculated based on the deduced ion densities and temperatures, and the angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is expressed as a function of the opacity using the Beer-Lambert law. Our results show that the calculated angular distribution of extreme ultraviolet radiation is in satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Effects of Annealing on TiN Thin Film Growth by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Jafari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We have reviewed the deposition of titanium nitride (TiN thin films on stainless steel substrates by a DC magnetron sputtering method and annealing at different annealing temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C for 120 min in nitrogen/argon atmospheres. Effects of annealing temperatures on the structural and the optical properties of TiN films were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD, atomic force microscope (AFM, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM, and UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Our experimental studies reveal that the annealing temperature appreciably affected the structures, crystallite sizes, and reflection of the films. By increasing the annealing temperature to 700°C crystallinity and reflection of the film increase. These results suggest that annealed TiN films can be good candidate for tokamak first wall due to their structural and optical properties.

  7. IMPROVEMENT OF FATIGUE STRENGTH OF TIN BABBITT BY REINFORCING WITH NANO ILMENITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. S. BABU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Tin Babbitt is an idle journal bearing material, its fatigue strength limits and its usage. To enhance its fatigue strength, in this paper a Tin Babbitt metal matrix is reinforced with nano Ilmenite. The metal matrix nanocomposite was fabricated by using ultrasonic assisted stir casting technique. ASTM standards in statistical planning for fatigue testing were employed in planning the fatigue tests. Fatigue tests were conducted at three stress levels, i.e., 0.9 UTS, 0.7 UTS and 0.5 UTS. Tests were conducted on a rotating-beam type fatigue testing machine. It was observed that the nano Ilmenite reinforcement enhanced the fatigue strength of Tin Babbitt.

  8. Methodology for the effective stabilization of tin-oxide-based oxidation/reduction catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeffrey D. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Davis, Patricia P. (Inventor); Leighty, Bradley D. (Inventor); Watkins, Anthony N. (Inventor); Schryer, Jacqueline L. (Inventor); Oglesby, Donald M. (Inventor); Gulati, Suresh T. (Inventor); Summers, Jerry C. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    The invention described herein involves a novel approach to the production of oxidation/reduction catalytic systems. The present invention serves to stabilize the tin oxide reducible metal-oxide coating by co-incorporating at least another metal-oxide species, such as zirconium. In one embodiment, a third metal-oxide species is incorporated, selected from the group consisting of cerium, lanthanum, hafnium, and ruthenium. The incorporation of the additional metal oxide components serves to stabilize the active tin-oxide layer in the catalytic process during high-temperature operation in a reducing environment (e.g., automobile exhaust). Moreover, the additional metal oxides are active components due to their oxygen-retention capabilities. Together, these features provide a mechanism to extend the range of operation of the tin-oxide-based catalyst system for automotive applications, while maintaining the existing advantages.

  9. Electronic Properties of Tin and Bismuth from Angular Correlation of Annihilation Photons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.E.; Trumpy, Georg

    1969-01-01

    A linear slit setup has been used to obtain results of angular-correlation measurements in (a) tin single crystals in three orientations: [001], [100], and [110], (b) bismuth single crystals in four orientations: [111], [100], [1¯10], and [2¯1¯1], (c) solid and liquid tin and bismuth, and (d......) deformed bismuth. For both metals, the single-crystal angular-correlation curves lie near to the free-electron parabola. The tin curves show more anisotropy than the bismuth curves. An important result is the clear anisotropy found in the high-momentum part of the curves—the tails—for both metals. Little...... of the liquid-metal curves are smaller and of another form than the tails of polycrystalline curves; no Gaussian with only one adjustable constant factor can give a fit to both tails. No useful method for interpreting liquid-metal angular-correlation curves seems to exist. Two deformed bismuth samples gave...

  10. Mineralogy of the Santa Fe Tin deposit, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Alfonso, Pura; Canet, Carles; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Elvys Trujillo, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Santa Fe is a Sn-Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit located in the Oruro district, Central Andean Tin Belt, Bolivia. Mineralization occurs in veins and disseminations. It is hosted in Silurian shales and greywackes. The sedimentary sequence is folded and unconformably covered by a volcanic complex of the Morococala Formation, mainly constituted by tuffs of Miocene age. A wide Nº40 shear zone and two systems of fracture are developed. A Nº40 fracture system, dipping 60ºW, which hosts Sn and Zn minerals, and other in the same direction but dipping 75ºE, which is related to Zn-Pb-Ag veins. The mineralization is associated to intrusive felsic magmatism. Although there are not intrusive rocks in Santa Fe, a dyke and the felsic San Pablo stock occur at a distance of about 10 km. In the present work we describe the geology and mineralogy of the Santa Fe deposit. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses were used to characterize the minerals. Veins are filled with quartz and an ore mineral assemblage of cassiterite, sulfides and sulfosalts. Cassiterite constitutes the earliest formed mineralization. Preliminar microprobe analyses indicate that it is nearly pure, with negligible contents in Nb and Ta. Rutile occurs as a late phase associated with a late generation of cassiterite. It forms thin neddle-like crystals. In addition, Sn is also present in sulfides as stannite, stannoidite and kësterite. Other sulfides are pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, marchasite and argentite. Bismuthinite and berndite are found nin trace amounts. Sulfosalts include tetrahedrite, myarhyrite, boulangerite, jamesonite, franckeite, zinckenite, cilindrite and andorite. Associated with the mineralization, several phosphate minerals are found filling cavities and small fractures. The most abundant are monacite (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4 and plumbogummite (PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O)). Crandallite CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O) and vivianite (Fe3+(PO4)2•8(H2O)) also

  11. Reactivation of a Tin-Oxide-Containing Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert; Sidney, Barry; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin; Miller, George; Upchurch, Bill; Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    The electrons in electric-discharge CO2 lasers cause dissociation of some CO2 into O2 and CO, and attach themselves to electronegative molecules such as O2, forming negative O2 ions, as well as larger negative ion clusters by collisions with CO or other molecules. The decrease in CO2 concentration due to dissociation into CO and O2 will reduce the average repetitively pulsed or continuous wave laser power, even if no disruptive negative ion instabilities occur. Accordingly, it is the primary object of this invention to extend the lifetime of a catalyst used to combine the CO and O2 products formed in a laser discharge. A promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide (Pt/SnO2). First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. The pretreatment is considered complete when no measurable quantity of CO2 is given off by the catalyst. After this standard pretreatment, the catalyst is ready for its low-temperature use in the sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser. However, after about 3,000 minutes of operation, the activity of the catalyst begins to slowly diminish. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during exposure to the circulating gas stream inside or external to the laser, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature between 100 and 400 C. A temperature of 225 C was experimentally found to provide an adequate temperature for reactivation. During this period, the catalyst is still exposed to the circulating gas inside or external to the laser. This constant heating and exposing the catalyst to the laser gas mixture is maintained for an hour. After heating and exposing for an appropriate amount of time, the heated zone around the catalyst is allowed to return to the nominal operating temperature of the CO2 laser. This temperature normally resides in the range of 23 to 100 C. Catalyst activity can be measured as the percentage conversion of CO to CO2. In the specific embodiment

  12. Electronic structures and excitonic transitions in nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide diluted magnetic semiconductor films: an optical spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wenlei; Jiang, Kai; Wu, Jiada; Gan, Jie; Zhu, Min; Hu, Zhigao; Chu, Junhao

    2011-04-07

    Nanocrystalline iron-doped tin dioxide (Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2)) films with x from 0 to 0.2 were prepared on c-sapphire substrates by pulsed laser deposition. X-ray diffraction and Raman scattering analysis show that the films are of the rutile structure at low compositions and an impurity phase related to Fe(2)O(3) appears until the x is up to 0.2, suggesting the general change of lattice structure due to the Fe ion substitution. The dielectric functions are successfully determined from 0.0248 to 6.5 eV using the Lorentz multi-oscillator and Tauc-Lorentz dispersion models in the low and high photon energy regions, respectively. With increasing Fe composition, the highest-frequency transverse optical phonons E(u) shifts towards a lower energy side and can be well described by (608 - 178x) cm(-1). From the transmittance spectra, the fundamental absorption edge is found to be decreased with the Fe composition due to the joint contributions from SnO(2) and Fe(2)O(3). It can be observed that the doped films exhibit evident excitonic excitation features, which are strongly related to the Fe doping. Among them, the 6A(1g)→ 4T(2g) transition contributes to the onset of optical absorption. Moreover, the remarkable intensity reduction and a red-shift trend with the doping composition, except for the pure film, can be testified by the photoluminescence spectra. It can be concluded that the replacement of Sn with the Fe ion could induce the 2p-3d hybridization and result in the electronic band structure modification of the Sn(1-x)Fe(x)O(2) films.

  13. Land suitability evaluation of abandoned tin-mining areas for agricultural development in Bangka Island, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Asmarhansyah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Indonesia is one of the tin mineral-producer in the world. Agricultural crops could be a wise option for the reclamation since abandoned tin-mining lands have a high potency to be used as agricultural lands. This study was aimed to evaluate of the land/soil characteristics of abandoned tin-mining areas and to establish land suitability of the land area for agriculture used to formulate   appropriate   land   development measures and amelioration  strategies for  utilization of mined  areas  for crop  production. The land evaluation was conducted by comparing the land characteristics in every type of abandoned tin-mining areas with its crop requirements. The current suitability showed that in general  food crops, vegetable crops, fruit crops, and industrial crops were consider as not suitable (N. Spice and medicinal crops [pepper (Piper nigrum L. and citronella (Andropogoh nardus L. Rendle] were consider as not suitable (N, while the Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. and Kemiri Sunan (Aleurites moluccana  L. Willd crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3 in abandoned tin-mining areas. The forest crops and forage crops were considered as marginally suitable (S3. The water availability, soil texture, and low soil fertility were considered as the limiting factors of all crops to get optimum production. For agricultural development, the soil physical and chemical properties of abandoned tin-mining land must be improved through integrated farming.

  14. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DATA STRUCTURES FOR STORING MASSIVE TINS IN A DBMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Point cloud data are an important source for 3D geoinformation. Modern day 3D data acquisition and processing techniques such as airborne laser scanning and multi-beam echosounding generate billions of 3D points for simply an area of few square kilometers. With the size of the point clouds exceeding the billion mark for even a small area, there is a need for their efficient storage and management. These point clouds are sometimes associated with attributes and constraints as well. Storing billions of 3D points is currently possible which is confirmed by the initial implementations in Oracle Spatial SDO PC and the PostgreSQL Point Cloud extension. But to be able to analyse and extract useful information from point clouds, we need more than just points i.e. we require the surface defined by these points in space. There are different ways to represent surfaces in GIS including grids, TINs, boundary representations, etc. In this study, we investigate the database solutions for the storage and management of massive TINs. The classical (face and edge based and compact (star based data structures are discussed at length with reference to their structure, advantages and limitations in handling massive triangulations and are compared with the current solution of PostGIS Simple Feature. The main test dataset is the TIN generated from third national elevation model of the Netherlands (AHN3 with a point density of over 10 points/m2. PostgreSQL/PostGIS DBMS is used for storing the generated TIN. The data structures are tested with the generated TIN models to account for their geometry, topology, storage, indexing, and loading time in a database. Our study is useful in identifying what are the limitations of the existing data structures for storing massive TINs and what is required to optimise these structures for managing massive triangulations in a database.

  15. The role of collisional tectonics in the metallogeny of the Central Andean tin belt [rapid communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarczyk, Michael S. J.; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    2005-12-01

    The Inner Arc of the Central Andes, broadly corresponding to the Eastern Cordillera, is the location of a rich Tertiary and Triassic Sn-W-(Ag-base metal) metallogenic province, commonly referred to as the Bolivian tin belt. We propose that the Tertiary metallogeny, which generated most of the tin ores, was a direct consequence of discrete "collisions" between the South American plate and the Nazca slab and sub-slab mantle, during the ongoing Andean orogeny. Evidence supporting this proposal include: (1) the coincidence of the tin province and the Inner Arc in a marked "hump" in the Andean orogen, which may represent tectonic indentation; (2) the symmetry of the tin province with respect to the Bolivian orocline, the axis of which corresponds to the direction of highest compression; (3) the relative symmetry of the magmatism and tin mineralization with respect to this axis; (4) the concurrent timing of mineralization and compressional pulses; (5) the similar host rock geochemistry and ore lead isotope data, testifying to a common crustal reservoir; and (6) the striking similarity of the igneous suites, associated with the ore deposits to those from "typical" collisional orogens. A number of studies have called upon a persistent tin anomaly to explain the metallogeny of the region. We propose, instead, that the latter is better explained by periodic compressional interaction between the Farallon/Nazca oceanic plate and the South American continent. This led to the generation of peraluminous magmas, which during fractional crystallization exsolved the fluids responsible for the voluminous Sn-W mineralization.

  16. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant-gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120°C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120°C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. 31 CFR 351.68 - Are taxpayer identification numbers (TINs) required for registration of book-entry Series EE...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (TINs) required for registration of book-entry Series EE savings bonds? 351.68 Section 351.68 Money and... TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT OFFERING OF UNITED STATES SAVINGS BONDS, SERIES EE Book-Entry Series EE Savings Bonds § 351.68 Are taxpayer identification numbers (TINs) required for registration of book-entry...

  18. Atomic layer deposition of TiN films : growth and electrical behavior down to sub-nanometer scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.

    2013-01-01

    During the last several decades, titanium nitride (TiN) has gained much interest because of its low resistivity, chemical inertness and compatibility with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. Thin films of TiN are commonly used as diffusion barrier and gate material for CMOS

  19. Demonstration of high-performance p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors using argon-plasma surface treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sang-Dae; Kwon, Soo-Hun; Jeong, Hwan-Seok; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2017-07-01

    In this work, we investigated the effects of low-temperature argon (Ar)-plasma surface treatments on the physical and chemical structures of p-type tin oxide thin-films and the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). From the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurement, we found that SnO was the dominant phase in the deposited tin oxide thin-film, and the Ar-plasma treatment partially transformed the tin oxide phase from SnO to SnO2 by oxidation. The resistivity of the tin oxide thin-film increased with the plasma-treatment time because of the reduced hole concentration. In addition, the root-mean-square roughness of the tin oxide thin-film decreased as the plasma-treatment time increased. The p-type oxide TFT with an Ar-plasma-treated tin oxide thin-film exhibited excellent electrical performance with a high current on-off ratio (5.2 × 106) and a low off-current (1.2 × 10-12 A), which demonstrates that the low-temperature Ar-plasma treatment is a simple and effective method for improving the electrical performance of p-type tin oxide TFTs.

  20. Thermal atomic layer deposition and oxidation of TiN monitored by in-situ spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Aarnink, Antonius A.I.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2009-01-01

    Thin TiN films have many important applications in Integrated Circuit (IC) technology. In spite of its chemical inertness, it is reported that TiN can be oxidized when exposed to oxidants (O2, H2O, etc.). To avoid an undesired oxidation of the metal-nitride layers, a study on this process is

  1. A COMPARISON OF A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC (QUERCETIN) METHOD AND AN ATOMIC-ABSORPTION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TIN IN FOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Å

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for the determination of tin in food, which involve a spectrophotometric method (with the quercetin-tin complex) and an atomic-absorption method, are described. The precision of the complete methods and of the individual analytical steps required is evaluated, and the parameters...

  2. Microstructural changes in eutectic tin-lead alloy due to severe bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SHEN,Y.-L.; ABEYTA,M.C.; FANG,HUEI ELIOT

    2000-02-29

    Severe plastic deformation in an eutectic tin-lead alloy is studied by imposing fast bending at room temperature, in an attempt to examine the microstructural response in the absence of thermally activated diffusion processes. A change in microstructure due to this purely mechanically imposed load is observed: the tin-rich matrix phase appears to be extruded out of the narrow region between neighboring layers of the lead-rich phase and alterations in the colony structure occur. A micromechanism is proposed to rationalize the experimental observations.

  3. Geology and geochemistry of Massangana Granitoid Complex, Brazil, and its relation with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanini, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The geochemical and petroLogical characteristics of the Massangana Granitoid Complex, situated in the Rondonia Federal Territory, Brazil, aiming to discriminate the tin mineralized granitic rocks from the no mineralized ones. The collected samples consists of examples in tin mineralized and sterile phases. The elements traces were determined by x-ray fluorescence analysis, emission spectrography, molecular absorption spectrophotometry and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The complex edifying evolved in four sucessive episodes called Massangana Phase, Bom Jardim Phase, Sao domingos Phase and Taboca Phase ordered stratigraphycally in this sequence. (author/M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Study of some immunological indicators in tin-tungsten ore miners also exposed to radon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, J.; Landa, K.; Cizek, P.

    1975-01-01

    The Ig G, IG A, Ig M and Ig D immunoglobulin values and the lysozyme values were ascertained in 75 tin-tungsten ore miners who were also exposed to radon and in a control group of 32 coal miners. The mean values did not differ between the groups, but in the tin-tungsten ore miners the Ig G and Ig M values were 37.3% and 17.33% outside normal values. The lysozyme values were higher in the ore miners whereas in the control group the findings were within standard. (author)

  5. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  6. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  7. The radiochemical purity of technetium-99m-tin-diethylene-triamino-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besnard, M.; Costerousse, O.; Merlin, L.; Coehn, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The effect on radiochemical purity was studied as a function of the storage period of tin-DTPA solution and of the technetium-complex solution. The quantity of the pertechnetate ions present in the solution is determined by ascending paper chromatography, and an attempt was made to clarify the bond type of technetium by a spectrophotometric method. The tin-DTPA solutions for complexing of the reduced technetium are stable over a period of 8 weeks. The yield of the radiopharmaceutical product is better than 95%. (G.Gy.)

  8. Magnetoelectric Effect in Gallium Arsenide-Nickel-Tin-Nickel Multilayer Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippov, D. A.; Tikhonov, A. A.; Laletin, V. M.; Firsova, T. O.; Manicheva, I. N.

    2018-02-01

    Experimental data have been presented for the magnetoelectric effect in nickel-tin-nickel multilayer structures grown on a GaAs substrate by cathodic electrodeposition. The method of fabricating these structures has been described, and the frequency dependence of the effect has been demonstrated. It has been shown that tin used as an intermediate layer reduces mechanical stresses due to the phase mismatch at the Ni-GaAs interface and, thus, makes it possible to grow good structures with a 70-μm-thick Ni layer. The grown structures offer good adhesion between layers and a high Q factor.

  9. Reagent for making technetium-99m labelled tin colloid for body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    A packaged reagent for making Technetium-99m labelled tin colloids comprises 0.75 to 750 μg stannous tin, 50 to 7000 μg sodium. potassium or ammonium ion, 40 to 5000 μg fluoride ion, 50 to 10,000 μg of non-toxic non-ionic surface-active agent based on poly(alkylene oxide)glycol and a container aseptically enclosing said reagent. The presence of the surface-active agent, preferably one of the Pluronic types, results in smaller sized particles being produced on addition of pertechnetate to the reagent. This results in a higher liver/spleen biodistribution ratio

  10. Black chrome on commercially electroplated tin as a solar selecting coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcdonald, G. E.

    1977-01-01

    The reflectance properties of black chrome electroplated on commercially electroplated tin were measured for various black chrome plating times for both the solar and infrared spectrum. The values of absorptance and emittance were calculated from the measured reflectance values. The results indicate that the optimum combination of the highest absorptance in the solar region and the lowest emittance in the infrared of the black chrome plated on commercially electroplated tin is obtained for a black chrome plating time of between one and two minutes.

  11. X-ray radiometric separation of low-grade tin ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Neverov, A.D.; Konovalov, V.M.; Mironov, I.I.; Zakharov, S.N.

    1984-01-01

    The investigations on evaluation of X-ray radiometric separation of off-grade tin ores of one of the deposits are carried out. The experiments have been performed at loboratory and pilot-commerical plants. 241 Am has been used as a radiation source. In the course of facility commercial the ore has been separated by means of a device comprising a separator and gate separatin device. The results of X-ray radiometric separation have shown its high productive efficiency. Concentrates with higher tin content at high extraction from ores are obtained

  12. Smooth Nanowire/Polymer Composite Transparent Electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Gaynor, Whitney

    2011-04-29

    Smooth composite transparent electrodes are fabricated via lamination of silver nanowires into the polymer poly-(4,3-ethylene dioxythiophene): poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS). The surface roughness is dramatically reduced compared to bare nanowires. High-efficiency P3HT:PCBM organic photovoltaic cells can be fabricated using these composites, reproducing the performance of cells on indium tin oxide (ITO) on glass and improving the performance of cells on ITO on plastic. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mechanics of composite material subjected to eigenstress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang Nielsen, L.

    In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given to the t......In this SBI Bulletin a theory is presented dealing with the mechanical behavior of composites subjected to hygro-thermal actions such as shrinkage caused by moisture variations and expansion caused by temperature variations of freezing of water in pore systems. Special attention is given...

  14. Growth and Characterisation of Pulsed-Laser Deposited Tin Thin Films on Cube-Textured Copper at Different Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szwachta G.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available High-quality titanium nitride thin films have been grown on a cube-textured copper surface via pulsed laser deposition. The growth of TiN thin films has been very sensitive to pre-treatment procedure and substrate temperature. It is difficult to grow heteroexpitaxial TiN films directly on copper tape due to large differences in lattice constants, thermal expansion coefficients of the two materials as well as polycrystalline structure of substrate. The X-Ray diffraction measurement revealed presence of high peaks belonged to TiN(200 and TiN(111 thin films, depending on used etcher of copper surface. The electron diffraction patterns of TiN(200/Cu films confirmed the single-crystal nature of the films with cube-on-cube epitaxy. The high-resolution microscopy on our films revealed sharp interfaces between copper and titanium nitride with no presence of interfacial reaction.

  15. Evolution of the microstructure and tribological performance of Ti–6Al–4V cladding with TiN powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yu-Chi; Lin, Yuan-Ching; Chen, Yong-Chwang

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Titanium nitrides (TiNs) powder was successfully clad on Ti–6Al–4V by a gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) cladding process. ► Solidification process of the TiN cladding layer was investigated and discussed. ► Microhardness distribution and wear mechanism of the TiN clad layer were discussed. ► Wear performance of the TiN clad layer is higher than that of the Ti–6Al–4V substrate tenfold. -- Abstract: Titanium nitrides (TiNs) powder was used as a material to resist wear; it was then clad onto a Ti–6Al–4V substrate by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). During the cladding process, the TiN x reinforcing phase was formed in situ within the clad layer. Since the TiN x reinforcing phase exists within the clad layer, the hardness of the clad layer is double that of the substrate. Wear test results reveal that the wear resistance of TiN clad layer is up to ten times more resistant than the Ti–6Al–4V substrate. From the worn surface analysis, the primary wear mechanism of the Ti–6Al–4V specimen exhibited oxidation wear combined with adhesive wear, and the TiN clad layer specimen exhibited abrasive wear. This investigation also discusses the mechanism for forming the clad layer microstructure. During solidification of the clad layer, the motion of the liquid–solid interface caused the oval TiN x phase to cluster, producing a dendritic appearance.

  16. 76 FR 31633 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan; Institution of a Five-Year Review Concerning the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission... the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead...

  17. Facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles on graphene nanosheets via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate as anode for lithium ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jinkai; Xie, Sanmu; Cao, Daxian; Lu, Xuan [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy (CNRE), School of Electrical Engineering (China); Meng, Lingjie, E-mail: menglingjie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Chemistry, School of Science (China); Yang, Guidong [Xi’an Jiaotong University, Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology (China); Wang, Hongkang, E-mail: hongkang.wang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Xi’an Jiaotong University, State Key Lab of Electrical Insulation and Power Equipment, Center of Nanomaterials for Renewable Energy (CNRE), School of Electrical Engineering (China)

    2016-09-15

    We demonstrate a facile synthesis of ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles within graphene nanosheets (GNSs) via thermal decomposition of tin-octoate, in which tin-octoate is firstly blended with GNSs followed by annealing in air at a low temperature (350 °C) and a short time (1 h). As anode for lithium ion batteries, the SnO{sub 2}/GNSs displays superior cycle and rate performance, delivering reversible capacities of 803 and 682 mA h/g at current densities of 200 and 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively, much higher than that of pure SnO{sub 2} and GNSs counterparts (143 and 310 mA h/g at 500 mA/g after 120 cycles, respectively). The enhanced electrochemical performance is attributed to the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticle size and introduction of GNSs. GNSs prevent the aggregation of the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanoparticles, which alleviate the stress and also provide more electrochemically active sites for lithium insertion and extraction. Moreover, GNSs with large specific surface area (~363 m{sup 2}/g) act as a good electrical conductor which greatly improves the electrode conductivity and also an excellent buffer matrix to tolerate the severe volume changes originated from the Li-Sn alloying-dealloying. This work provides a straight-forward synthetic approach for the design of novel composite anode materials with superior electrochemical performance.

  18. Core-shell tin oxide, indium oxide, and indium tin oxide nanoparticles on silicon with tunable dispersion: electrochemical and structural characteristics as a hybrid Li-ion battery anode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiak, Michal J; Armstrong, Eileen; Kennedy, Tadhg; Torres, Clivia M Sotomayor; Ryan, Kevin M; O'Dwyer, Colm

    2013-08-28

    Tin oxide (SnO2) is considered a very promising material as a high capacity Li-ion battery anode. Its adoption depends on a solid understanding of factors that affect electrochemical behavior and performance such as size and composition. We demonstrate here, that defined dispersions and structures can improve our understanding of Li-ion battery anode material architecture on alloying and co-intercalation processes of Lithium with Sn from SnO2 on Si. Two different types of well-defined hierarchical Sn@SnO2 core-shell nanoparticle (NP) dispersions were prepared by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on silicon, composed of either amorphous or polycrystalline SnO2 shells. In2O3 and Sn doped In2O3 (ITO) NP dispersions are also demonstrated from MBE NP growth. Lithium alloying with the reduced form of the NPs and co-insertion into the silicon substrate showed reversible charge storage. Through correlation of electrochemical and structural characteristics of the anodes, we detail the link between the composition, areal and volumetric densities, and the effect of electrochemical alloying of Lithium with Sn@SnO2 and related NPs on their structure and, importantly, their dispersion on the electrode. The dispersion also dictates the degree of co-insertion into the Si current collector, which can act as a buffer. The compositional and structural engineering of SnO2 and related materials using highly defined MBE growth as model system allows a detailed examination of the influence of material dispersion or nanoarchitecture on the electrochemical performance of active electrodes and materials.

  19. 26 CFR 31.3406(j)-1 - Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taxpayer Identification Number (TIN) matching program. 31.3406(j)-1 Section 31.3406(j)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(j)-1 Taxpayer Identification...

  20. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela; Dascula, Dan

    1996-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol–gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  1. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived thin films deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobianu, C.; Savaniu, Cristian; Buiu, Octavian; Dascalu, Dan; Zaharescu, Maria; Parlog, Constanta; van den Berg, Albert; Pecz, Bela

    1997-01-01

    Undoped and Sb-doped SnO2 sol¿gel derived thin films have been prepared for the first time from tin (IV) ethoxide precursor and SbCl3 in order to be utilised for gas sensing applications where porous silicon is used as a substrate. Transparent, crack-free and adherent layers were obtained on

  2. Numerical studies on PACVD processes used for TiN multifunctional films using metal organic precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Seok-Jae; Yi, Kyung-Woo; Joo, Jung-Hoon; Mahrholz, J.; Rie, K.-T.

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we performed a numerical simulation of the low-temperature thin-film growth of TiN layers in a plasma-assisted MOCVD reaction chamber for the purpose of eventual scale-up. Tetrakis(dimethylamino)titanium (TDMAT) or tetrakis(diethylamino)titanium (TDEAT) is commonly employed as a precursor for TiN layers to avoid chlorine contamination on the substrate. A reaction mechanism of TiN layer formation from TDMAT/TDEAT under the plasma-activated condition suggested by the mass spectrum analysis is employed for numerical calculations. This study is expected to make significant contributions to the understanding of the plasma-activated TiN reaction pathways, which are not yet clearly understood. The deposition rate is dependent on the process parameters such as the flow rate, pressure and plasma power, as well as the concentration gradient near the substrate. In this study, the multiple parameters described above are examined through numerical analysis to determine the deposition rate as well as to provide optimal processing conditions.

  3. Tin- and titanium-doped gamma-Fe2O3 (maghemite)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helgason, O.; Greneche, J.M.; Berry, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    2.5% and 8% tin- and 8% titanium-doped gamma -Fe2O3 have been synthesized and examined by x-ray powder diffraction, EXAFS, electron microscopy and by Fe-57- and Sn-119-Mossbauer spectroscopy. The Sn- and Ti-K-edge EXAFS show that both tin and titanium adopt octahedral sites in the spinel related...... gamma -Fe2O3 structure. However, whereas tin substitutes for iron on one of the fully occupied sites, titanium adopts the octahedral site, which is only partially occupied. The Fe-57-Mossbauer spectra recorded in the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of 2-8 T confirm that the tetravalent ions...... adopt the octahedral sites. The canting angles for both sublattices in gamma -Fe2O3 were determined from the in-field Mossbauer spectra. The Sn-119-Mossbauer spectra showed that the maximum hyperfine field sensed by the Sn4+ ions in gamma -Fe2O3 is about 2/3 of that observed in tin-doped Fe3O4...

  4. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN | Cai ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple chemical synthetic route has been developed to prepare nanocrystalline titanium nitride (TiN) in an autoclave, by the reaction of metallic Ti with NaNH2 at low temperature of 500–600 °C. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron ...

  5. Tin Dioxide as an Effective Antioxidant for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Larsen, Mikkel Juul

    2015-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) containing electrodes showed significantly lower radical induced polymer degradation under single cell open circuit voltage (OCV) treatment than SnO2 free electrodes. A backbone related segment was detected under 100%RH, and an oxygen containing side chain segment was detected ...

  6. Interfacial fatigue stress in PVD TiN coated tool steels under rolling contact fatigue conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, N.J.M.; Huis in ’t Veld, A.J.; Hosson, J.Th. De

    1998-01-01

    Titanium–nitrogen (TiN) films were Physical Vapour Deposited (PVD) on tool steel substrates with different hardness and surface roughness, in a Bai 640R unit using a triode ion plating (e-gun) with a high plasma density. The coated substrates were submitted to a rolling contact fatigue test

  7. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podolak, M; Engel, G; Man, D [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)

    2007-08-15

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C{sub 3}H{sub 7}){sub 3}SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4}). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl{sub 4}) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl{sub 4}, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl{sub 4}, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl{sub 4} and palmitic acid with CCl{sub 4}. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  8. Rotating autoclave hydrogenation test with flue dust containing tin from Kayser Smelter A. G. , Berlin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl

    1942-10-01

    A content breakdown of the dust was given with large traces of Pb and Zn and lesser traces of Cu, Sb, As. Comparison tests were run in hope that these metals would be a usable substitute for tin oxalate, which was rapidly becoming scarce. Since Scholven was looking for a nitrogen-free chlorine compound to replace ammonium chloride, tests were run on NH/sub 4/Cl as well as sulfur monochloride. The dust offered a more favorable decomposition of solid carbon. If ammonium chloride were added to the dust, differences between it and tin oxalate in asphalt reduction, splitting and gasification were not measurable. Sulfur monochloride seemed to work better with the dust than with tin oxalate in asphalt reduction, probably because of the sulfides formed from other metals in the dust. Were the dust used in a sulfide state instead of an oxide, it was stated that 0.2% would give the same results as 0.06% tin oxalate. Temperatures were given in milli-volts (MV or mV). As the test instruments and test materials differed, so apparently did the MV readings in relation to /sup 0/C. 1 table.

  9. Control of tin oxide film morphology by addition of hydrocarbons to the chemical vapour deposition process

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yates, H.M.; Evans, P.; Sheel, D.W.; Remeš, Zdeněk; Vaněček, Milan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 519, č. 4 (2010), s. 1334-1340 ISSN 0040-6090 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 214134 - N2P; European Commission(XE) 38885 - SE-POWERFOIL Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : alcohol * chemical vapour deposition * morphology * tin oxide Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.909, year: 2010

  10. A General-division Grid Pattern Delaunay-TIN Parallel Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAN Yuanli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper achieves out a new Delaunay triangulation algorithm. Firstly, the self-adaptation grid space division was proposed to realize the balanced logical grid division for massive point cloud data. Secondly, from far to near order the sequence of points in each grid by distance to the grid center and find out the nearest point and mark it as the central point. Thirdly, the TIN was built with by a new general-division Delaunay triangulation algorithm, which uses traditional insertion method to build TIN and add only one point from each grid at one times to form new TIN. When building TIN we use find-insertion method firstly and hereafter use topology-insertion method to keep high efficiency. This algorithm has good efficiency because it successfully avoided the merge process of sub grid triangulation mesh. Finally, the topological closure detection mechanism was established, and the independent parallel multithreading was started to model the rest points by topology-insertion algorithm limit to every grid space, which made the triangulation modeling of the whole space efficient. The method of this paper improved the support capacity of space modeling for massive point cloud data obviously.

  11. Copper-silver-titanium-tin filler metal for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1988-04-05

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another at about 800.degree. C. is described using a brazing filler metal consisting essentially of 35 to 50 at. % copper, 40 to 50 at. % silver, 1 to 15 at. % titanium, and 2 to 8 at. % tin. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  12. A new family of donor–acceptor systems comprising tin (IV ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 114; Issue 6. A new family of donor-acceptor systems comprising tin(IV) porphyrin and anthracene subunits: Synthesis, spectroscopy and energy transfer studies. A Ashok Kumar L Giribabu Bhaskar G Maiya. Volume 114 Issue 6 December 2002 pp 565-578 ...

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of the formation and stability of small tin clusters and their ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodlaa, A.; Suliman, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the results of previous quantum-chemical study of electronic structure properties for neutral and single positively and negatively charged thin clusters in the size range of N 2-17 atoms, and on the thermodynamic laws, we have studied the thermodynamic properties of tin clusters and their ions. The characteristic amounts (cohesive enthalpy, formation enthalpy, fragmentation enthalpy, entropy and free enthalpy) for the formation and stability of these clusters at different temperatures were calculated. From the results, which are presented and discussed in this work, one can observe the following: The tin clusters Sn N (N=2-17) and their cations Sn + N and anions Sn - N are formed in the gas phase, and this agrees with experimental results. The clusters Sn 3 and Sn 1 0 are the most stable clusters of all. Here we also, find a correspondence with the results of the experimental studies. Our results go beyond that since we have found Sn 1 5 is also specially stable. By this thermodynamic study we could evaluate approximately the formation and stability of small neutral, single positively and negatively charged tin clusters. It has also allowed us to study the effects of the temperature on the formation and stability of these clusters. The importance of such study is not only what mentioned above, but it is also the first thermodynamic study for modeling the formation and stability of small tin clusters. (author)

  14. On the segregation behavior of tin and antimony at grain boundaries of polycrystalline bcc iron

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lejček, Pavel; Šandera, P.; Horníková, J.; Pokluda, J.; Godec, M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 363, Feb (2016), 140-144 ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0144 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : grain boundary segregation * tin * antimony * Fe based alloy * AES quantification Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.387, year: 2016

  15. Generic Top-Functionalization of Patterned Antifouling Zwitterionic Polymers on Indium Tin Oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Giesbers, M.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel surface engineering approach that combines photochemical grafting and surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization (SI-ATRP) to attach zwitterionic polymer brushes onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates. The photochemically grafted hydroxyl-terminated organic

  16. In-Situ Growth and Characterization of Indium Tin Oxide Nanocrystal Rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Shen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO nanocrystal rods were synthesized in-situ by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS method and electron beam evaporation technique. When the electron-beam gun bombarded indium oxide (In2O3 and tin oxide (SnO2 mixed sources, indium and tin droplets appeared and acted as catalysts. The nanocrystal rods were in-situ grown on the basis of the metal catalyst point. The nanorods have a single crystal structure. Its structure was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. During the evaporation, a chemical process was happened and an In2O3 and SnO2 solid solution was formed. The percentage of doped tin oxide was calculated by Vegard’s law to be 3.18%, which was in agreement with the mixture ratio of the experimental data. The single crystal rod had good semiconductor switch property and its threshold voltage of single rod was approximately 2.5 V which can be used as a micro switch device. The transmission rate of crystalline nanorods ITO film was over 90% in visible band and it was up to 95% in the blue green band as a result of the oxygen vacancy recombination luminescence.

  17. Comparative study of ITO and TiN fabricated by low-temperature RF biased sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Daniel K., E-mail: daniel.simon@namlab.com; Schenk, Tony; Dirnstorfer, Ingo; Fengler, Franz P. G.; Jordan, Paul M.; Krause, Andreas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Tröger, David [Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau, Fachgruppe Nanotechnologie, Dr.-Friedrichs-Ring 2a, 08056 Zwickau (Germany); Mikolajick, Thomas [NaMLab gGmbH, Nöthnitzerstr. 64, 01187 Dresden, Germany and TU Dresden, Institut für Halbleiter- und Mikrosystemtechnik (IHM), 01062 Dresden (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Radio frequency (RF) biasing induced by a second plasma source at the substrate is applied to low-temperature sputtering processes for indium tin oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride (TiN) thin films. Investigations on crystal structure and surface morphology show that RF-biased substrate plasma processes result in a changed growth regime with different grain sizes and orientations than those produced by processes without a substrate bias. The influence of the RF bias is shown comparatively for reactive RF-sputtered ITO and reactive direct-current-sputtered TiN. The ITO layers exhibit an improved electrical resistivity of 0.5 mΩ cm and an optical absorption coefficient of 0.5 × 10{sup 4 }cm{sup −1} without substrate heating. Room-temperature sputtered TiN layers are deposited that possess a resistivity (0.1 mΩ cm) of 3 orders of magnitude lower than, and a density (5.4 g/cm{sup 3}) up to 45% greater than, those obtained from layers grown using the standard process without a substrate plasma.

  18. Localized tail state distribution and hopping transport in ultrathin zinc-tin-oxide thin film transistor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Jeng-Ting; Liu, Li-Chih; Chen, Jen-Sue; Jeng, Jiann-Shing; Liao, Po-Yung; Chiang, Hsiao-Cheng; Chang, Ting-Chang; Nugraha, Mohamad Insan; Loi, Maria Antonietta

    2017-01-01

    Carrier transport properties of solution processed ultra thin (4 nm) zinc-tin oxide (ZTO) thin film transistor are investigated based on its transfer characteristics measured at the temperature ranging from 310K to 77K. As temperature decreases, the transfer curves show a parellel shift toward more

  19. Copper metabolism and its interactions with dietary iron, zinc, tin and selenium in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, S.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis describes various studies on copper metabolism and its interactions with selected dietary trace elements in rats. The rats were fed purified diets throughout. High intakes of iron or tin reduced copper concentrations in plasma, liver and kidneys. The dietary treatments also

  20. Role of tin as a reducing agent in iron containing heat absorbing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Department of Ceramic Engineering, Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005, India. MS received 7 ... Abstract. The role of tin as a reducing agent in a 18Na2O⋅2MgO⋅8CaO⋅72SiO2 glass containing a definite ..... Bamford C R 1977 in Glass science and technology (New York: Elsevier) 2 p. 35.

  1. Optical, structural and electrical properties of Mn doped tin oxide thin ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    The dopant concentration was varied by controlling the thickness of the metal layer. The overall thickness of the film was 115 nm with ... Tin oxide; transparent conductors; thin films. 1. Introduction. Transparent conducting oxides have ... sited sequentially on top of the metal films. The weight of metals in each deposition was ...

  2. Interaction of the organic tin chloride with the liquid model membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolak, M.; Engel, G.; Man, D.

    2007-08-01

    The objective of the work was to investigate the effect of organic tin chloride (C3H7)3SnCl on the electric parameters of membranes in the form of filters of the company Synpor (Czech Republic) impregnated with various fatty acids, dissolved with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Three carboxylic acids were used in the study: palmitic, arachidic and oleic, and dissolvent of the acids (CCl4) as well as butylene ester of lauric acid. In all cases, introduction of tin chloride of constant concentration amounting to 0.15 mM to the measurement chamber resulted in induction of membrane voltage. In case of pure lauric acid and CCl4, the voltage reached the maximum value and then decreased to a certain constant value. In the case of all acids dissolved in CCl4, the voltage increased only up to a certain constant value. Voltage drop (below the value) was observed after application of appropriately high concentration of tin chloride, in case of membranes impregnated with the mixture of lauric acid ester with CCl4 and palmitic acid with CCl4. The study also demonstrated that electrical resistance of membranes impregnated with carboxylic acid increased in the presence of tin chloride and decreased in case of membranes impregnated with lauric acid ester. However, electric capacities of membranes did not significant change.

  3. Kinetics of the formation of the titanium nitruro film (TiN)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas Andres; Devia C, Alfonso; Alzate Rafael

    1999-01-01

    They are presented in succinct form the factors that intervene in the growth, adhesion of the film and election of the support material in the process of formation of TiN film. Equally it's carried out the kinetic development of the possible reactions (ionization and excitement) involved in the process

  4. First heats of cerium solution in liquid aluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamshchikov, L.F.; Lebedev, V.A.; Nichkov, I.F.; Raspopin, S.P.; Shein, V.G.

    1983-01-01

    Cerium solution heats in liquid alluminium, gallium, indium, tin, lead and bismuth are determined in high temperature mixing calorimeter with an isothermal shell. The statistical analysis carried out proves that values of cerium solution heat in fusible metals obtained by the methods of electric motive forces and calorimety give a satisfactory agreement

  5. Generation and decomposition of volatile tin hydrides monitored by in situ quartz crystal microbalances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ugur, D.; Storm, A.J.; Verberk, R.; Brouwer, J.C.; Sloof, W.G.

    2012-01-01

    The generation and decomposition rate of volatile tin hydrides (SnH 4) was determined with two quartz crystal microbalances (QCM). One crystal covered with Sn was exposed to a known flux of atomic hydrogen (H) to generate SnH 4. Another Au coated QCM was placed opposite to the Sn coated surface to

  6. Defects in TiN and HfN studied by helium thermal desorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoondert, W.H.B.; Thijsse, B.J.; Beuckel, A. van den

    1994-01-01

    Point defects in sub-stoichiometric TiN 1-x and HfN 1-x were investigated by helium thermal desorption spectrometry (300-1800K) following He + ion implantation at energies up to 3000eV. It was found that the low energy spectra are dominated by helium dissociating from the structural vacancies on the nitrogen sublattice; the activation energy for dissociation is 2.2eV for TiN. Above a few hundred electron volts the ions begin to produce several other types of defects, from which helium dissociates with activation energies in the range 2.6-4.0eV. The identity of these defects is discussed. The results for the two nitrides were similar in many respects. The most significant difference observed is that in TiN low energy He + ions generate damage on the N sublattice of a type that is not observed for HfN. Activation energies for HfN are found to be consistently 0.7eV lower than for TiN. ((orig.))

  7. Photochemical Grafting and Patterning of Organic Monolayers on Indium Tin Oxide Substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zuilhof, H.

    2012-01-01

    Covalently attached organic layers on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces were prepared by the photochemical grafting with 1-alkenes. The surface modification was monitored with static water contact angle, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements.

  8. Corrosion resistance appraisal of TiN, TiCN and TiAlN coatings deposited by CAE-PVD method on WC-Co cutting tools exposed to artificial sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matei, A. A.; Pencea, I.; Branzei, M.; Trancă, D. E.; Ţepeş, G.; Sfăt, C. E.; Ciovica (Coman), E.; Gherghilescu, A. I.; Stanciu, G. A.

    2015-12-01

    A new advanced sintered composite cutting tool has been developed based on tungsten carbide matrix ligated with cobalt (WC-Co) additivated with tantalum carbide (TaC), titanium carbide (TiC) and niobium carbide (NbC) as grain growth inhibitors. Titanium nitride (TiN), titanium carbonitride (TiCN) and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) coatings were deposited on these tools by CAE-PVD technique to find out the best solution to improve the corrosion resistance of this tool in marine environment. The electrochemical behaviours of the specimens in 3.5% NaCl water solution were estimated by potentiodynamic polarization measurements i.e. the open circuit potential (Eoc), corrosion potential (Ecorr) and corrosion current density (icorr). Wide angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD), optical microscopy (OM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigations have been carried on tested and untested specimens to substantiate the corrosion resistance of the tested specimens. Based on the open circuit potential (Eoc) and corrosion potential (Ecorr) results, the tested specimens were ranked as TiN, TiAlN, TiCN and WC-Co while on corrosion current density (icorr) and protective efficiency (P) values they have been ranked as TiN, TiAlN, WC-Co and TiCN. The WAXD, MO and AFM results unambiguously show that the corrosion resistance depends on the nature and morphology of the coating.

  9. Indium tin oxide with zwitterionic interfacial design for biosensing applications in complex matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darwish, Nadia T.; Alias, Yatimah; Khor, Sook Mei, E-mail: naomikhor@um.edu.my

    2015-01-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. • The resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of BSA–FITC and RBITC–Cyt c were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy. • The antifouling interface allows detection of target analytes in highly complicated biological matrices. - Abstract: Biosensing interfaces consisting of linker molecules (COOH or NH{sub 2}) and charged, antifouling moieties ((-SO{sup 3−} and N{sup +}(Me){sub 3}) for biosensing applications were prepared for the first time by the in situ deposition of mixtures of aryl diazonium cations on indium tin oxide (ITO) electrodes. A linker molecule is required for the attachment of biorecognition molecules (e.g., antibodies, enzymes, DNA chains, and aptamers) close to the transducer surface. The attached molecules improve the biosensing sensitivity and also provide a short response time for analyte detection. Thus, the incorporation of a linker and antifouling molecules is an important interfacial design for both affinity and enzymatic biosensors. The reductive adsorption behavior and electrochemical measurement were studied for (1) an individual compound and (2) a mixture of antifouling zwitterionic molecules together with linker molecules [combination 1: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 1,4-phenylenediamine (PPD); combination 2: 4-sulfophenyl (SP), 4-trimethylammoniophenyl (TMAP), and 4-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)] of aryl diazonium cations grafted onto an ITO electrode. The mixture ratios of SP:TMAP:PPD and SP:TMAP:PABA that provided the greatest resistance to non-specific protein adsorptions of bovine serum albumin labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate (BSA–FITC) and cytochrome c labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate (RBITC–Cyt c) were determined by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). For the surface antifouling study

  10. Development of Zinc Tin Nitride for Application as an Earth Abundant Photovoltaic Absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioretti, Angela N.

    In recent years, many new potential absorber materials based on earth-abundant and non-toxic elements have been predicted. These materials, often made in thin film form and known to absorb light 10-1000 times more e ciently than crystalline silicon, could lower module cost and enable broader solar deployment. One such material is zinc tin nitride (ZnSnN 2), a II-IV-nitride analog of the III-nitride materials, which was identified as a suitable solar absorber due to its direct bandgap, large absorption coefficient, and disorder-driven bandgap tunability. Despite these desirable properties, initial attempts at synthesis resulted in degenerate n-type carrier density. Computational work on the point defect formation energies for this material revealed three donor defects were likely the cause; specifically SnZn antisites, VN sites, and ON substitutions. Given this framework, a defect-driven hypothesis was proposed as a starting point for the present work: if each donor defect could be addressed by tuning deposition parameters, n-type degeneracy may be defeated. By using combinatorial co- sputtering to grow compositionally-graded thin film samples, n-type carrier density was reduced by two orders of magnitude compared to state-of-the-art. This reduction in carrier density was observed for zinc-rich samples, which supported the defect-driven hypothesis initially proposed. These results and their implications are the topic of Chapter 2. Further carrier density control in zinc-rich ZTN was achieved via hydrogen incorporation and post-growth annealing. This strategy was hypothesized to operate by passivating acceptor defects to avoid self-compensation, which were then activated by hydrogen drive- out upon annealing. Carrier density was reduced another order of magnitude using this technique, which is presented in Chapter 3. After defeating n-type degeneracy, a deeper understanding of the electronic structure was pursued. Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study electronic

  11. XRF measurements of tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytreberg, Erik; Bighiu, Maria Alexandra; Lundgren, Lennart; Eklund, Britta

    2016-06-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) and other organotin compounds have been restricted for use on leisure boats since 1989 in the EU. Nonetheless, release of TBT is observed from leisure boats during hull maintenance work, such as pressure hosing. In this work, we used a handheld X-ray Fluorescence analyser (XRF) calibrated for antifouling paint matrixes to measure tin, copper and zinc in antifouling paints coated on leisure boats in Sweden. Our results show that over 10% of the leisure boats (n = 686) contain >400 μg/cm(2) of tin in their antifouling coatings. For comparison, one layer (40 μm dry film) of a TBT-paint equals ≈ 800 μg Sn/cm(2). To our knowledge, tin has never been used in other forms than organotin (OT) in antifouling paints. Thus, even though the XRF analysis does not provide any information on the speciation of tin, the high concentrations indicate that these leisure boats still have OT coatings present on their hull. On several leisure boats we performed additional XRF measurements by progressively scraping off the top coatings and analysing each underlying layer. The XRF data show that when tin is detected, it is most likely present in coatings close to the hull with several layers of other coatings on top. Thus, leaching of OT compounds from the hull into the water is presumed to be negligible. The risk for environmental impacts arises during maintenance work such as scraping, blasting and high pressure hosing activities. The data also show that many boat owners apply excessive paint layers when following paint manufacturers recommendations. Moreover, high loads of copper were detected even on boats sailing in freshwater, despite the more than 20 year old ban, which poses an environmental risk that has not been addressed until now. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis and Proposed Changes of TIN ORE Processing System on Cutter Suction Dredges Into Low Grade to Improve Added Value for the Company

    OpenAIRE

    Hutahaean, Benny Pahala; Yudoko, Gatot

    2013-01-01

    Mining technology using Cutter Suction Dredges (KIP) is currently performed by PT Timah (Persero) Tbk. Currently tin ore processing system in KIP produces high grade tin ore (±70% Sn). By applying high grade tin ore processing system in KIP, recovery of tin ore is low and associated minerals of tin contained in concentrates secondary jig will be wasted. To change the processing system to be low grade in KIP be enough to negate the sluice box equipment, because the secondary jig produces conce...

  13. Improving electrochemical performance of tin-based anodes formed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    decomposes into Li–Sn alloys (2) surrounded by Cu matrix ... Mg, Ba, Sr, Ca, La, Ce, Si, Ge, C, P, B, Pb, Bi, Sb, Al, Ga, In,. Tl, Zn, Be ... et al 2011). However, since Co is very expensive and toxic, the need for finding alternative anode materials is still under discussion. In this study, bare Sn and composite Cu–Sn and Cu–Sn–.

  14. Epitaxial growth of BiFeO3 films on TiN under layers by sputtering deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BiFeO3/TiN/MgO (001 films have been prepared by magneton sputtering, where TiN serves as a conductive under layer. X-ray diffraction profiles and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy images reveal that not only (001-epitaxial BiFeO3 films are obtained, but also both tetragonal and rhombohedral phases co-exist in BiFeO3 films. Their crystallographic relationship is shown as following: tetragonal-BiFeO3 (001 [100]//TiN (001 [100]//MgO (001 [100] and rhombohedral-BiFeO3 (001 [100]//TiN (001 [100]//MgO (001 [100]. Besides, an oxidized TiN layer (∼ 20 nm has also been detected between BiFeO3 and TiN layers and its formation may originate from oxygen inter-diffusion from BiFeO3 layer. Despite of the existence of the oxidized TiN layer, it does not affect the epitaxial growth of BiFeO3 films. On the other hand, the coercivity electric field obtained in ferroelectric loop of BiFeO3 is greatly enhanced to 49 MV/cm due to the existence of oxidized TiN layer.

  15. Thickness-Dependent Bioelectrochemical and Energy Applications of Thickness-Controlled Meso-Macroporous Antimony-Doped Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mieritz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Coatings of hierarchically meso-macroporous antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO enable interfacing adsorbed species, such as biomacromolecules, with an electronic circuit. The coating thickness is a limiting factor for the surface coverage of adsorbates, that are electrochemically addressable. To overcome this challenge, a carbon black-based templating method was developed by studying the composition of the template system, and finding the right conditions for self-standing templates, preventing the reaction mixture from flowing out of the mask. The thicknesses of as-fabricated coatings were measured using stylus profilometry to establish a relationship between the mask thickness and the coating thickness. Cyclic voltammetry was performed on coatings with adsorbed cytochrome c to check whether the entire coating thickness was electrochemically addressable. Further, bacterial photosynthetic reaction centers were incorporated into the coatings, and photocurrent with respect to coating thickness was studied. The template mixture required enough of both carbon black and polymer, roughly 7% carbon black and 6% poly(ethylene glycol. Coatings were fabricated with thicknesses approaching 30 µm, and thickness was shown to be controllable up to at least 15 µm. Under the experimental conditions, photocurrent was found to increase linearly with the coating thickness, up to around 12 µm, above which were diminished gains.

  16. Microstructure-mechanical property relationships for Al-Cu-Li-Zr alloys with minor additions of cadmium, indium or tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L. B.; Starke, E. A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Minor amounts of cadmium, indium or tin were added to a baseline alloy with the nominal composition of Al-2.4Cu-2.4Li-0.15Zr. These elements were added in an attempt to increase the age-hardening response of the material such that high strengths could be achieved through heat-treatment alone, without the need for intermediate mechanical working. The alloy variant containing indium achieved a higher peak hardness in comparison to the other alloy variations, including the baseline material, when aged at temperatures ranging from 160 C to 190 C. Tensile tests on specimens peak-aged at 160 indicated the yield strength of the indium-bearing alloy increased by approximately 15 percent compared to that of the peak-aged baseline alloy. In addition, the yield strength obtained in the indium-bearing alloy was comparable to that reported for similar baseline material subjected to a 6 percent stretch prior to peak-aging at 190 C. The higher strength levels obtaied for the indium-bearing alloy are attributed to increased number densities and homogeneity of both the T1 and theta-prime phases, as determined by TEM studies.

  17. Effect of non-electroactive additives on the early stage pyrrole electropolymerization on indium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro-Beltran, A. [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Dominguez, C.; Bahena-Uribe, D. [Centro Investigación en Ingeniería y Ciencias Aplicadas (CIICAp), Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, C.P. 62209 Cuernavaca, Mor. (Mexico); Sepulveda-Guzman, S., E-mail: selene.sepulvedagz@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingeniería Mecánica y Eléctrica, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Ave. Pedro de Alba s/n, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 66451 San Nicolás de los Garza, N.L. (Mexico); Centro de Innovación Investigación y Desarrollo en Ingeniería y Tecnología (CIIDIT), Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, PIIT-Monterrey C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. (Mexico); Cruz-Silva, R. [Research Center for Exotic NanoCarbon, Shinshu University, 4-17-1 Wakasato, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan)

    2014-09-01

    The use of non-electroactive additives during electrodeposition of conducting polymers has long been used to modify the properties of deposited films. These additives can improve the adhesion, and not only change the morphology and deposition rate but also modify the chemical composition of the electrodeposited polymer. Several compounds have been used to modify deposition of polypyrrole; however, there is no systematic study of these compounds. In this work, we comparatively studied several water soluble chemical compounds, a cationic polymer, an anionic polymer, a cationic surfactant, and an anionic surfactant during potentiostatic electrodeposition of polypyrrole. In order to study the effect of these compounds on the interface, where the electrochemical polymerization takes place, we used electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The morphology during the initial stage of growth was studied by atomic force microscopy, whereas the resulting polypyrrole films were observed by scanning electron microscopy. - Highlights: • Early-stage polymerization polypyrrole particles on indium tin oxide (ITO). • Anionic additives promote pyrrole oxidation and polypyrrole film growth on ITO. • Cationic polyelectrolyte promotes adhesion between ITO and polypyrrole film. • Non-electroactive additives strongly influence polypyrrole nucleation on ITO.

  18. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli, E-mail: linly311@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Le, Thi Bang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zhou, Guanghong [Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Zheng, Chuanbo, E-mail: zjust316@163.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O{sub 3}) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O{sub 3} treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100 °C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O{sub 3} treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O{sub 3} treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. - Highlights: • TiN coating surface was oxidized by hydrothermal or ozone treatment while preserving its hardness. • Improved wettability, decontamination and interstitial N promoted osteoblast responses. • Partial oxidation makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant with good osteoconductivity.

  19. Surface properties of W-implanted TiN coatings post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, Bin; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao; Liu, Jiajun

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PVD TiN coatings are implanted with W ions at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 . • Low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) is adopted on W-implanted TiN coatings. • W content and depth in the W-implanted coatings reduce after LTIS. • LTIS cannot well improve friction and wear of W-implanted TiN under dry sliding. - Abstract: TiN coatings were implanted with W ions by metal vapor vacuum arc (MEVVA) source at dose of 9 × 10 17 ions/cm 2 , and then they were post-treated by low temperature ion sulfurization (LTIS) at 160 °C. The W-implanted TiN samples were characterized before and after post-treatment of LTIS, using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Nano Indenter System. Friction and wear properties were evaluated using a ball-on-disc tribometer under dry sliding in air. After post-treatment of LTIS, XRD results showed no diffraction peaks of tungsten sulfides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings; W-implanted TiN coatings were sputtered by the sulfur plasma with about 36% reducing of W depth. Further, the nano-hardness decreased mainly due to the amount decreasing of Ti 2 N and the formation of more metal oxides on surfaces of W-implanted TiN coatings after LTIS. As a result, LTIS treatment could not well improve tribological properties of W-implanted TiN coatings.

  20. Partial oxidation of TiN coating by hydrothermal treatment and ozone treatment to improve its osteoconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Le, Thi Bang; Zhou, Guanghong; Zheng, Chuanbo; Tsuru, Kanji; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    Dental implants made of pure titanium suffer from abrasion and scratch during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results in an irreversible surface damage, facilitates bacteria adhesion and increases risk of peri-implantitis. To overcome these problems, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was introduced to increase surface hardness of pure titanium. However, the osteoconductivity of TiN is considered to be similar or superior to that of titanium and its alloys and therefore surface modification is necessary. In this study, TiN coating prepared through gas nitriding was partially oxidized by hydrothermal (HT) treatment and ozone (O 3 ) treatment in pure water to improve its osteoconductivity. The effects of HT treatment and O 3 treatment on surface properties of TiN were investigated and the osteoconductivity after undergoing treatment was assessed in vitro using osteoblast evaluation. The results showed that the critical temperature for HT treatment was 100 °C since higher temperatures would impair the hardness of TiN coating. By contrast, O 3 treatment was more effective in oxidizing TiN surfaces, improving its wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Osteoblast attachment, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression and mineralization were improved on oxidized specimens, especially on O 3 treated specimens, compared with untreated ones. These effects seemed to be consequences of partial oxidation, as well as improved hydrophilicity and surface decontamination. Finally, it was concluded that, partially oxidized TiN is a promising coating to be used for dental implant. - Highlights: • TiN coating surface was oxidized by hydrothermal or ozone treatment while preserving its hardness. • Improved wettability, decontamination and interstitial N promoted osteoblast responses. • Partial oxidation makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant with good osteoconductivity.

  1. Thermal and mechanical testings of TiC and TiN coating materials with Mo substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomay, Y.; Koizumi, H.; Ishihara, H.

    1981-01-01

    Thermal and Mechanical characteristics of TiC and TiN coating materials with Mo substrates are reported. The coating method applied is chemical vapor deposition. In the case of TiC coating, thin TiN layers were coated before TiC coating to avoid formation of molybdenum carbide during TiC coating. thermal testing by electron beam showed that both the TiC-TiN and TiN coating layers survived without observable erosion till the substrates were melted

  2. Synthesis, characterization and tin/copper-nitrogen substitutional effect on photocatalytic activity of honeycomb ordered P2-Na2Ni2TeO6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadari, Ramaswamy; Velchuri, Radha; Sreenu, K.; Ravi, Gundeboina; Munirathnam, Nagegownivari R.; Vithal, Muga

    2016-11-01

    We have successfully prepared visible light active tin/copper-nitrogen co-doped honeycomb ordered P2-Na2Ni2TeO6 photocatalysts by solid state/ion exchange methods. Powder XRD, TG analysis, SEM, surface area, O-N-H analysis, ICP-OES, FT-IR and UV-DRS measurements are employed to characterize all the samples. All the doped compositions adopted hexagonal lattice with space group P63/mcm. The photocatalytic activity of all the samples was studied against the degradation of methyl violet (MV) and methylene blue (MB) under visible light irradiation. The variation of the photocatalytic activity due to the substitution of cation, anion and co-doping in Na2Ni2TeO6 is investigated. Co-doped samples have exhibited higher activity compared to rest of the materials. The role of reactive intermediate species in the photocatalytic degradation of dyes is also studied using appropriate scavengers.

  3. GEMAS - Tin and Tungsten: possible sources of enriched concentrations in soils in European countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    João Batista, Maria; Filipe, Augusto; Reimann, Clemens

    2014-05-01

    Tin and tungsten occur related with magmatic differentiation and can be installed in fissures and veins of magmatic rocks or in the neighbor metasediments. Generally, both elements have low chemical mobility in the superficial environment although effectively mobile in detrital media such as stream sediments and deposited in alluvial soils. The most important tin-tungsten deposits in Europe are in Variscides. From the northern Europe, 985 samples and from southern Europe 1123 samples were collected both in agricultural and grazing lands. Analysis were made of Sn , W, pH, TOC, SiO2 from the upper 20 and 10 cm of agricultural and grazing soils, respectively. The present study is part of the GEMAS project a joint project of European geochemical mapping between the EuroGeoSurvey Geochemical Expert Group and EuroMetaux. The results show that in general, at the European (continental) scale natural processes are dominant. It is clear the distinction between NE Europe and SW European tin and tungsten concentrations in soils. Tin geometric mean concentrations in the northern Europe is 0.57 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.62 mg kg-1 in grazing land; southern Europe 0.91 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.95 mg kg-1 in grazing land. Tungsten geometric mean concentrations in northern Europe is 0.067 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.073 mg kg-1 in grazing land and in southern Europe is 0.085 mg kg-1 in agricultural soils and 0.090 mg kg-1 in grazing land. Limit between north and south is the maximum extent of the last glaciation. Grazing land, undisturbed soils for a period of several years, have higher concentrations of Sn and W than agricultural soils which raises the question that if only natural processes are observed. Parent material seems to be the main source of Sn and W to soil. Sn-W rich Variscan granitic intrusions of Central Iberian Zone, Massif Central, Brittany, Cornwall and Bohemia are reflected in soil concentrations. TOC is higher in northern than in

  4. Les peintures marines antisalissures à base de polymères organostanniques Antifouling Marine Paints Containing Organo-Tin Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    derivatives are very effective biocides and when they are polymer-bound, in particular as graft copolymer compositions, this improves their resistance to leaching in the aqueous phase and hence prolongs the lifetime of antifouling coatings. The synthesis of plymer-bound organo-tin biocide can be performed either by the polymerization or copolymerization of unsaturated organostannic monomers or by the chemical reaction of organostannic compunds with a polymer substrate containing the appropriate functional groups. The advantages and disadvantages of different paint formulations based on organo-tin derivatives are discussed in this article.

  5. High rate capability and cyclic stability of hierarchically porous Tin oxide (IV)-carbon nanofibers as anode in lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashish; Dhakate, Sanjay R.; Gurunathan, P.; Ramesha, K.

    2017-10-01

    Tin oxide-carbon composite porous nanofibres exhibiting superior electrochemical performance as lithium ion battery (LIB) anode have been prepared using electrospinning technique. Surface morphology and structural characterizations of the composite material is carried out by techniques such as XRD, FESEM, HR-TEM, XPS, TGA and Raman spectroscopy. FESEM and TEM studies reveal that nanofibers have a uniform diameter of 150-180 nm and contain highly porous outer wall. The carbon content is limited to 10% in the nanofibers as shown by the TGA and EDAX which does not fade the high capacity of SnO2. These nanofibers delivered a higher discharge capacity of 722 mAh/g even after 100 cycles at high rate of 1C. The excellent electrochemical performance can be ascribed to the synergy effect of small amount of carbon in the composite and the hierarchically porous structure which accommodate large volume changes associated with Li-ion insertion-desertion. The porous nano-architecture would also provide a short diffusion path for Li+ ions in addition to facilitating high flux of electrolyte percolation through micropores. The electrochemical performance of composite material has also been tested at 60 °C at a higher rate of 2C and 5C. Post cycling FESEM analysis shows no volumetric and morphology changes in porous nanofibers after completing rate capability at high rate of 10C.

  6. The role of tin in the irradiation embrittlement of PWR pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.B.; Buswell, J.T.

    1987-12-01

    An analysis has been performed of the influence of up to 0.020 w/o tin on the change in mechanical properties of PWR pressure vessel steels following MTR irradiation at 288 0 C to 2.5-5.0 x 10 19 n · cm -2 (E > 1.0 MeV). The properties examined were the impact transition temperature shifts (ΔT) and hardness changes (ΔHsub(v)). The increment in irradiation embrittlement due to tin (ΔT/ΔSn) increased from 800 0 C/1 w/o Sn to 2100 0 C/1 w/o Sn as the residual impurity levels in the steel rose from 0.02 w/o Cu, 0.008 w/o P to 0.09 w/o Cu, 0.018 w/o P respectively. Further increases in the residual copper content from 0.10 to 0.30 w/o, or increases to 0.028 w/o phosphorus, caused ΔT/ΔSn to fall eventually to zero. Hardness changes due to tin additions (ΔHsub(v)/ΔSn) were a maximum in the purest steels but fell progressively to low values as the residual copper and phosphorus levels were raised. Similar hardening and embrittlement effects due to additions of tin have been found in a 3.5%NiCr steel, irradiated to ∼ 10 19 n · cm -2 at 130 0 C; this steel failed with an intergranular-ductile fracture transition. Interpretations of the role of tin wholly in terms of a hardening process or a combined hardening and grain boundary embrittlement process were unsuccessful and some additional experiments have been suggested for clarification. The practical implications involve the current CEGB PWR vessel steel specification; the permitted level of tin (0.010 w/o) is estimated to produce an increment in ΔT = 10 0 C at the end-of-life dose for the vessel belt-line forging. This represents ∼ 20% of the maximum ΔT value anticipated. (author)

  7. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul; Yusof, Nor Azah; Abdullah, Jaafar; Hashim, Uda; Hajian, Reza

    2014-01-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization

  8. The utilization of SiNWs/AuNPs-modified indium tin oxide (ITO) in fabrication of electrochemical DNA sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Jahwarhar Izuan Abdul [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry and Biology, Centre for Defense Foundation Studies, National Defense University of Malaysia, Sungai Besi Camp, 57000 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yusof, Nor Azah, E-mail: azahy@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Abdullah, Jaafar [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Hashim, Uda [Institute of Nanoelectronic Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 01000 Kangar, Perlis (Malaysia); Hajian, Reza, E-mail: rezahajian@upm.edu.my [Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-12-01

    This work describes the incorporation of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as a sensing material for DNA detection on indium tin-oxide (ITO) coated glass slide. The morphology of SiNWs/AuNPs composite as the modifier layer on ITO was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). The morphological studies clearly showed that SiNWs were successfully decorated with 20 nm-AuNPs using self-assembly monolayer (SAM) technique. The effective surface area for SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO enhanced about 10 times compared with bare ITO electrode. SiNWs/AuNPs nanocomposite was further explored as a matrix for DNA probe immobilization in detection of dengue virus as a bio-sensing model to evaluate its performance in electrochemical sensors. The hybridization of complementary DNA was monitored by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) using methylene blue (MB) as the redox indicator. The fabricated biosensor was able to discriminate significantly complementary, non-complementary and single-base mismatch oligonucleotides. The electrochemical biosensor was sensitive to target DNA related to dengue virus in the range of 9.0–178.0 ng/ml with detection limit of 3.5 ng/ml. In addition, SiNWs/AuNPs-modified ITO, regenerated up to 8 times and its stability was up to 10 weeks at 4 °C in silica gel. - Highlights: • A sensitive biosensor is presented for detection of dengue virus. • SiNWs and AuNPs used as nanocomposite layers on ITO for construction of biosensor • The detection mechanism is based on the interaction of MB with DNA bonded on AuNPs. • The reduction signal of MB decreases upon complementary hybridization.

  9. Physical/chemical properties of tin oxide thin film transistors prepared using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Byung Kook [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Material Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Eunae; Kim, Seok Hwan; Moon, Dae Chul; Lee, Sun Sook; Park, Bo Keun [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jin Ha [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Hongik University, Seoul 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Taek-Mo; Kim, Chang Gyoun [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); An, Ki-Seok, E-mail: ksan@krict.re.kr [Thin Film Materials Research Team, Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Yuseong, P. O. Box 107, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) with tin oxide films as the channel layer were fabricated by means of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PE-ALD). The as-deposited tin oxide films show n-type conductivity and a nano-crystalline structure of SnO{sub 2}. Notwithstanding the relatively low deposition temperatures of 70, 100, and 130 °C, the bottom gate tin oxide TFTs show an on/off drain current ratio of 10{sup 6} while the device mobility values were increased from 2.31 cm{sup 2}/V s to 6.24 cm{sup 2}/V s upon increasing the deposition temperature of the tin oxide films.

  10. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena V [Troitsk, RU; Zhuikov, Boris L [Troitsk, RU; Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Ermolaev, Stanislav V [Obninsk, RU; Togaeva, Natalia R [Obninsk, RU

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  11. Formaldehyde assisted reduction achieved p-type orthorhombic tin oxide film prepared by an inexpensive chemical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Chen, Zequn; Nie, Sha; Yu, Zhigen; Yan, Shenghui; Gong, Hao; Tang, Chunhua; Bai, Xue; Xu, Jianmei; Zhao, Ling; Zhou, Wei; Wang, Qing

    2017-11-01

    The fabrication of tin oxide thin film of orthorhombic phase has been succeeded under the high pressures from 1.5 GPa to 50 GPa. In this paper, we demonstrate the viability of p-type tin oxide thin film at atmosphere pressure of 0.1 MPa, by a chemical method employing formaldehyde (HCHO) during the annealing process. By using formaldehyde to form formaldehyde-argon mixed reducing ambiance in the chemical sol-gel process, limited oxidation is reached and p-type tin oxide films of orthorhombic phase under ambient pressure are eventually achieved under optimized experimental conditions. Specifically, we have developed a p-type tin oxide thin film with an optimal Hall mobility of 8.6 cm2 V‑1 s‑1. Besides, our results reveal that a Sn rich environment can lead to a higher hole mobility experimentally.

  12. Synergistic Effect of Nitrogen and Refractory Material on TiN Formation and Equiaxed Grain Structure of Ferritic Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mun Hyung; Park, Joo Hyun

    2018-03-01

    The effect of nitrogen content on the formation of an equiaxed solidification structure of Fe-16Cr steel was investigated. Moreover, two different kinds of refractory materials, i.e., alumina and magnesia, were employed to control the type of oxide inclusion. The characteristics of TiN(-oxide) inclusions were quantitatively analyzed in both molten steel and solidified samples. When the melting was carried out in the alumina refractory, the grain size continuously decreased with increasing nitrogen content. However, a minimum grain size was observed at a specific nitrogen content (approx. 150 ppm) when the steel was melted in the magnesia refractory. Most of the single TiN particles had a cuboidal shape and fine irregularly shaped particles were located along the grain boundary due to the microsegregation of Ti at the grain boundary during solidification. The type of TiN-oxide hybrid inclusion was strongly affected by the refractory material where Al2O3-TiN and MgAl2O4-TiN hybrid-type inclusions were obtained in the alumina and magnesia refractory experiments, respectively. The formation of oxide inclusions was well predicted by thermochemical computations and it was commonly found that oxide particles were initially formed, followed by the nucleation and growth of TiN. When the nitrogen content increased, the number density of TiN linearly increased in the alumina refractory experiments. However, the number of TiN exhibits a maximum at about [N] = 150 ppm, at which a minimum grain size was obtained in the magnesia refractory experiments. Therefore, the larger the number density of TiN, the smaller the primary grain size after solidification. The number density of TiN in the steel melted in the magnesia refractory was greater than that in the steel melted in the alumina refractory at given Ti and N contents, which was due to the lower planar lattice disregistry of MgAl2O4-TiN interface rather than that of Al2O3-TiN interface. When ΔT TiN (= difference between the

  13. Dosimetric properties of new formulation of PRESAGE® with tin organometal catalyst: Development of sensitivity and stability to megavoltage energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davood Khezerloo

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Tin organometallic catalyst in very low concentration can be used in fabrication of radiochromic polymer gel to achieve high sensitivity and stability as well as good radiological properties in the megavoltage photon beam.

  14. Development of Polymethylmethacrylate Based Composite for Gas Sensing Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Devikala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gas detection instruments are increasingly needed for industrial health and safety, environmental monitoring and process control. Conductive polymer composites have various industrial applications. The composite prepared by mixing carbon black with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA has very good gas sensing applications. The gas sensors based on carbon nanotube/polymer, ceramic and metal oxide composites such as epoxy, polyimide, PMMA / Barium titanate and tin oxide have also been developed. In the present work, a new composite has been prepared by using PMMA and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP. The PMMA/Ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (PMADP composites PMADP 1 and PMADP 2 were characterized by using Powder XRD. The thick films of the composite on glass plates were prepared by using a spin coating unit at 9000 rpm. The application of the thick film as gas sensor has been studied between 0 and 2000 seconds. The results reveal that the thick film of PMADP composite can function as a very good gas sensor.

  15. TiN films by Atomic Layer Deposition: Growth and electrical characterization down to sub-nm thickness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hao, B.; Wolters, Robertus A.M.; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.

    2012-01-01

    This study reports on the growth and characterization of TiN thib films obtained by atomic layer deposition at 350-425 ◦C. We observe a growth of the continuous layers from the very beginning of the process, i.e. for a thickness of 0.65 nm, which is equivalent to 3 monolayers of TiN. The film growth

  16. Measurement of partial coefficients of sputtering of titanium atoms from TiC and TiN coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vychegzhanin, G.A.; Gribanov, Yu.A.; Dikij, N.P.; Zhmurin, P.N.; Letuchij, A.N.; Matyash, P.P.; Sidokur, P.I.; Shono, D.A.

    1989-01-01

    Method of laser fluorescent spectroscopy was used to measure partial coefficients of sputtering of titanium atoms from TiC and TiN coatings under irradiation by 1 keV hydrogen ions. Irradiation was conducted in a plant with reflective discharge. Investigation of damaged layer in irradiated samples was conducted. The presence of near-the-surface layer enrichment with titanium atoms was revealed both in TiC and TiN samples. 12 refs.; 4 figs

  17. Structural, optical and electrical properties of indium tin oxide thin films prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benamar, E.; Rami, M.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. [Deptartmento de Physique, Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux, Faculte des Sciences, BP 1014, Ave Inb Battouta, Rabat (Morocco)

    1998-11-27

    Spray pyrolysis process has been used to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin-doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, structural and optical properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrate. The morphology of the surface as a function of the substrate temperature has been studied using atomic force microscopy. XRD has shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have a preferred orientation (4 0 0). Indium tin oxide layers with low resistivity values around 4x10{sup -5} {Omega} cm and transmission coefficients in the visible and near-infrared range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained

  18. Nanocrystalline SnO2 formation by oxygen ion implantation in tin thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondkar, Vidya; Rukade, Deepti; Kanjilal, Dinakar; Bhattacharyya, Varsha

    2018-03-01

    Metallic tin thin films of thickness 100 nm are deposited on fused silica substrates by thermal evaporation technique. These films are implanted with 45 keV oxygen ions at fluences ranging from 5 × 1015 to 5 × 1016 ions cm-2. The energy of the oxygen ions is calculated using SRIM in order to form embedded phases at the film-substrate interface. Post-implantation, films are annealed using a tube furnace for nanocrystalline tin oxide formation. These films are characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. XRD and Raman spectroscopy studies reveal the formation of single rutile phase of SnO2. The size of the nanocrystallites formed decreases with an increase in the ion fluence. The nanocrystalline SnO2 formation is also confirmed by UV-vis and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  19. The effects of Ti implantation on corrosion and adhesion of TiN coated stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, K.; Nagata, S.; Hatada, R.; Daikoku, T.; Hasaka, M.

    1993-06-01

    Thin titanium nitride (TiN) films of 40 and 70 nm in thickness were deposited on austenitic-type 304 stainless steel substrates by a rf ion plating process, and these specimens were irradiated with 70 kV titanium ions at a fluence of 1 × 10 17/cm 2 by use of MEVVA IV metallic ion source at room temperature. After that TiN films of 2 μm were deposited by the same method. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Auger electron spectroscopy revealed that implanted titanium penetrated into the substrate and interfacial mixing was verified. The adhesion strength was estimated by a scratch test. It was found that ion implantation can enhance the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate. The corrosion resistance of the specimens was evaluated in aqueous solutions of sulfuric acid by an electrochemical method. Titanium implantation was extremely effective in suppressing the anodic dissolution of stainless steel.

  20. The Impact of Parbaking on the Crumb Firming Mechanism of Fully Baked Tin Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Mieke A; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-11-22

    The impact of parbaking on the quality and shelf life of large tin bread baked from 270 g of wheat flour was investigated using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance method combined with techniques that measure at different length scales. With increasing partial baking time, the resilience of fresh partially baked crumb increased because of its more extended amylose and gluten networks. During subsequent storage, the crumb became more firm due to an increased extent of amylopectin retrogradation and moisture redistribution. Although only amylopectin retrogradation was reversed during final baking, a fresh fully baked (FB) bread with reversed crumb softness was obtained. Furthermore, the rate of crumb firming during final storage of FB bread was not higher than that of conventionally baked bread. This was attributed to the high crumb to crust ratio of large tin bread which caused the crumb moisture content to remain sufficiently high despite nonreversible moisture redistribution during intermediate storage.

  1. FORMATION MECHANISM OF NANOSIZED TIN OXIDE (SnO2 POWDER DURING HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ozan ÖZER

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Preparation of nanosized SnO₂ electroceramic powders via hydrothermal synthesis was investigated as a function of initial concentration and treatment time in order to understand the formation and growth mechanisms. SnO₂ powder was successfully synthesized from the hydrous tin oxide by hydro- thermal synthesis at 200°C. Crystalline SnO₂ particles with a specific surface area as high as 170 m₂/g were produced in a single step without requiring any calcination process. As initial concentration of metal cation increases from 0.0125 to 0.05 M, an Ostwald ripening type growth process was observed in the crystallite size from 3.1 to 4.6 nm. Evolution of tin oxide particles was also investigated by al- tering the treatment time from 1 to 24 h and a diffusion controlled growth behavior was observed as a function of synthesis time.

  2. Electrical Characterization of Postmetal Annealed Ultrathin TiN Gate Electrodes in Si MOS Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on sub-10 nm Silicon CMOS device fabrication technology, we have incorporated ultrathin TiN metal gate electrode in Hafnium Silicate (HfSiO based metal-oxide capacitors (MOSCAP with carefully chosen Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD process parameters. Gate element of the device has undergone a detailed postmetal annealed sequence ranging from 100°C to 1000°C. The applicability of ultrathin TiN on gate electrodes is established through current density versus voltage (J-V, resistance versus temperature (R-T, and permittivity versus temperature analysis. A higher process window starting from 600°C was intentionally chosen to understand the energy efficient behavior expected from ultrathin gate metallization and its unique physical state with shrinking thickness. The device characteristics in form of effective electronic mobility as a function of inverse charge density were also found better than those conventional gate stacks used for EOT scaling.

  3. Novel antimony doped tin oxide/carbon aerogel as efficient electrocatalytic filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimeng Liu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A facile method was developed to prepare antimony doped tin oxide (Sb-SnO2/carbon aerogel (CA for use as an electrocatalytic filtration membrane. The preparation process included synthesis of a precursor sol, impregnation, and thermal decomposition. The Sb-SnO2, which was tetragonal in phase with an average crystallite size of 10.8 nm, was uniformly distributed on the CA surface and firmly attached via carbon-oxygen-tin chemical bonds. Preliminary filtration tests indicated that the Sb-SnO2/CA membrane had a high rate of total organic carbon removal for aqueous tetracycline owing to its high current efficiency and electrode stability.

  4. Determination of possible radiation hazards associated with tin mining industry in West Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, S.J.

    1979-04-01

    A study was made in Malaysia under an IAEA research contract on the possible radiation hazards associated with tin mining industry in Malaysia. The study comprised of the measurement of external radiation levels in various mines, gamma-ray spectrometric analysis of various samples from mines, and measurements of radon and radon daughters concentrations. For radon daughters modified Tsivoglou and Kusnetz methods were used. The study showed that there is, in general, no radiation hazard associated with the tin mining industry in West Malaysia. However, the only likely source that might pose some external radiation hazard is the amang upgrading plant which invariably concentrates either or both 232 Th and 238 U in the final products of the upgrading process. A quantitative and thorough investigation of radiation levels in the amang upgrading industry is necessary to determine the degree of hazard. No significant radon or radon daughters concentrations were noted in the underground mines

  5. Characterization of Tin/Ethylene Glycol Solar Nanofluids Synthesized by Femtosecond Laser Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Mendieta, Rafael; Mondragón, Rosa; Puerto-Belda, Verónica; Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Lancis, Jesús; Juliá, J Enrique; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys

    2017-05-05

    Solar energy is available over wide geographical areas and its harnessing is becoming an essential tool to satisfy the ever-increasing demand for energy with minimal environmental impact. Solar nanofluids are a novel solar receiver concept for efficient harvesting of solar radiation based on volumetric absorption of directly irradiated nanoparticles in a heat transfer fluid. Herein, the fabrication of a solar nanofluid by pulsed laser ablation in liquids was explored. This study was conducted with the ablation of bulk tin immersed in ethylene glycol with a femtosecond laser. Laser irradiation promotes the formation of tin nanoparticles that are collected in the ethylene glycol as colloids, creating the solar nanofluid. The ability to trap incoming electromagnetic radiation, thermal conductivity, and the stability of the solar nanofluid in comparison with conventional synthesis methods is enhanced. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Influence of Rare Earth Doping on the Structural and Catalytic Properties of Nanostructured Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciel Adeilton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractNanoparticles of tin oxide, doped with Ce and Y, were prepared using the polymeric precursor method. The structural variations of the tin oxide nanoparticles were characterized by means of nitrogen physisorption, carbon dioxide chemisorption, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The synthesized samples, undoped and doped with the rare earths, were used to promote the ethanol steam reforming reaction. The SnO2-based nanoparticles were shown to be active catalysts for the ethanol steam reforming. The surface properties, such as surface area, basicity/base strength distribution, and catalytic activity/selectivity, were influenced by the rare earth doping of SnO2and also by the annealing temperatures. Doping led to chemical and micro-structural variations at the surface of the SnO2particles. Changes in the catalytic properties of the samples, such as selectivity toward ethylene, may be ascribed to different dopings and annealing temperatures.

  7. A stable and optimally convergent LaTIn-CutFEM algorithm for multiple unilateral contact problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claus, Susanne; Kerfriden, Pierre

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel unfitted finite element method for the simulation of multiple body contact. The computational mesh is generated independently of the geometry of the interacting solids, which can be arbitrarily complex. The key novelty of the approach is the combination of elements of the CutFEM technology, namely the enrichment of the solution field via the definition of overlapping fictitious domains with a dedicated penalty-type regularisation of discrete operators, and the LaTIn hybrid-mixed formulation of complex interface conditions. Furthermore, the novel P1-P1 discretisation scheme that we propose for the unfitted LaTIn solver is shown to be stable, robust and optimally convergent with mesh refinement. Finally, the paper introduces a high-performance 3D level-set/CutFEM framework for the versatile and robust solution of contact problems involving multiple bodies of complex geometries, with more than two bodies interacting at a single point.

  8. High energy Compton scattering study of TiC and TiN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, Ritu; Bhamu, K.C.; Dashora, Alpa [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India); Ahuja, B.L., E-mail: blahuja@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, University College of Science, M.L. Sukhadia University, Udaipur 313001, Rajasthan (India)

    2011-05-15

    We present the experimental Compton profiles of TiC and TiN using 661.65 keV {gamma}-ray from 20 Ci {sup 137}Cs source. To explain our experimental data on momentum densities, we have computed the theoretical profiles, energy bands and density of states using linear combination of atomic orbitals scheme within the framework of density functional theory. In addition the energy bands, density of states and Fermi surfaces using full potential linearised augmented plane wave method have also been computed. Energy bands and density of states obtained from both the theoretical models show metallic character of TiC and TiN. The anisotropies in Compton line shapes and the Fermi surface topology are discussed in term of energy bands.

  9. Electroplated tin-nickel coatings as a replacement for nickel to eliminate nickel dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Per; Boyce, Jan M.; Nielsen, Lars Pleth

    2013-01-01

    Nickel dermatitis (skin allergy) is a growing problem in numerous countries. The alarming frequency of sensitization to nickel especially in the US caused nickel to be selected as the "Allergen of the Year" in 2008 by the American Contact Dermatitis Society. Nickel as coating in contact with skin...... has already been regulated by the nickel EU directive [94/27/EC] since 1994. In the present contribution tin/nickel alloy coatings (66.9 wt. % Sn), electrodeposited from a chloride/fluoride containing alloy electrolyte, will be presented as an alternative for both nickel and bright chromium coatings....... The main focus will be on the corrosion properties where the following corrosion investigations will be covered; corrosion potential measurements for the different coatings, estimation of corrosion rates for materials in galvanic coupling with tin/nickel coatings, salt spray test, medical tests...

  10. Formation and annealing of radiation defects in tin-doped p-type germanium crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinov, V. V., E-mail: aif-minsk@ibb.by; Petukh, A. N.; Pokotilo, Ju. M. [Belarussian State University (Belarus); Markevich, V. P.; Lastovskii, S. B. [National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Scientific and Practical Materials Research Center (Belarus)

    2012-05-15

    The effect of tin on the formation and annealing of radiation defects in p-type germanium crystals irradiated with 6-MeV electrons at a temperature of 80 K is studied. It is shown that acceptor complexes SnV with a hole ionization enthalpy of 0.16 eV are dominant in irradiated Ge:(Sn, Ga) crystals after their heating to a temperature of 300 K. These complexes disappeared as a result of the annealing of irradiated crystals in the temperature range 30-75 Degree-Sign C. Annealing of irradiated crystals at temperatures in the range 110-150 Degree-Sign C brings about the formation of deep-level centers with a donor level at E{sub v} + 0.29 eV; this center is presumably related to a complex consisting of a tin atom and an interstitial gallium atom.

  11. Hybrid nanocomposite based on cellulose and tin oxide: growth, structure, tensile and electrical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadeva, Suresha K; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    A highly flexible nanocomposite was developed by coating a regenerated cellulose film with a thin layer of tin oxide (SnO 2 ) by liquid-phase deposition. Tin oxide was crystallized in solution and formed nanocrystal coatings on regenerated cellulose. The nanocrystalline layers did not exfoliate from cellulose. Transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy suggest that SnO 2 was not only deposited over the cellulose surface, but also nucleated and grew inside the cellulose film. Current-voltage characteristics of the nanocomposite revealed that its electrical resistivity decreases with deposition time, with the lowest value obtained for 24 h of deposition. The cellulose-SnO 2 hybrid nanocomposite can be used for biodegradable and disposable chemical, humidity and biosensors.

  12. Effect of TiN and TiC Coating on The Characteristics of a Biomaterial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, B. M.; Lee, J. K. [Department of Materials Engineering, Soonchunhyung University, Asan (Korea); Kim, E. H. [Department of Pathology Soonchunhyung University, Asan (Korea)

    2000-10-01

    To test the characteristics of TiC and TiN coating for artificial joint as a biomaterial, in-vitro and in-vivo tests were executed. As an in-vitro test, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and cytotoxicity were evaluated by Tafel extrapolation, ball and disc sliding sear test and ELISA. Noticible improvements of corrosion and wear resistance were revealed in coated Ti alloy. Any cytotoxic effects were not found in all the tested specimen. As an in-vivo test, the coated Ti were inserted into rabbit's femur for three months and the result were discussed. It could be concluded that Ti alloy coated with TiN or TiC has a potential to be a promising biomaterial for artificial joint due to its excellent mechanical, chemical and biological properties. 14 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Effect of Temperature on Nucleation of Nanocrystalline Indium Tin Oxide Synthesized by Electron-Beam Evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yan; Zhao, Yujun; Shen, Jianxing; Xu, Xiangang

    2017-07-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has been widely applied as a transparent conductive layer and optical window in light-emitting diodes, solar cells, and touch screens. In this paper, crystalline nano-sized ITO dendrites are obtained using an electron-beam evaporation technique. The surface morphology of the obtained ITO was studied for substrate temperatures of 25°C, 130°C, 180°C, and 300°C. Nano-sized crystalline dendrites were synthesized only at a substrate temperature of 300°C. The dendrites had a cubic structure, confirmed by the results of x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The growth mechanism of the nano-crystalline dendrites could be explained by a vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth model. The catalysts of the VLS process were indium and tin droplets, confirmed by varying the substrate temperature, which further influenced the nucleation of the ITO dendrites.

  14. A Density Functional Theory Study of Doped Tin Monoxide as a Transparent p-type Semiconductor

    KAUST Repository

    Bianchi Granato, Danilo

    2012-05-01

    In the pursuit of enhancing the electronic properties of transparent p-type semiconductors, this work uses density functional theory to study the effects of doping tin monoxide with nitrogen, antimony, yttrium and lanthanum. An overview of the theoretical concepts and a detailed description of the methods employed are given, including a discussion about the correction scheme for charged defects proposed by Freysoldt and others [Freysoldt 2009]. Analysis of the formation energies of the defects points out that nitrogen substitutes an oxygen atom and does not provide charge carriers. On the other hand, antimony, yttrium, and lanthanum substitute a tin atom and donate n-type carriers. Study of the band structure and density of states indicates that yttrium and lanthanum improves the hole mobility. Present results are in good agreement with available experimental works and help to improve the understanding on how to engineer transparent p-type materials with higher hole mobilities.

  15. Synthesis and characterization of tin(IV) antimonate and study of its ion-exchange equilibria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Halim, S.H.; El-Shahat, M.F.

    1995-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate with different Sb/Sn molar ratios has been prepared. The characterization of the product materials was carried out using X-ray diffraction pattern, thermal analysis and infrared spectra. The saturation capacities of sodium and cesium were found to increase with Sb/Sn molar ratios. The K d values on thermal treatment of tin(IV) antimonate, as a cation exchanger, have been measured for some heavy metal ions in the temperature range of 50-400 deg C. The maximum adsorption of 10 -4 M of the metal ions studied was obtained at 400 deg C. The selectivity sequence was Eu 3+ > Co 2+ > Sr 2+ > Cs + for the sample heated up to 400 deg C. No adsorption was observed on the sample heated at 700 deg C because of the formation of SnO 2 and Sb 6 O 13 . (author) 9 refs.; 7 figs.; 5 tabs

  16. Adhesion enhancement of indium tin oxide (ITO) coated quartz optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yihua; Liu, Jing; Wu, Xu; Yang, Bin

    2014-01-01

    Transparent conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) film was prepared on optical fiber through a multi-step sol–gel process. The influence of annealing temperature on the adhesion of ITO coated optical fibers was studied. Different surface treatments were applied to improve the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), UV–vis spectrophotometer and Avometer were used to characterize the morphology, crystal structure and photo-electric properties. A thermal shock test was used to evaluate the adhesion. The result shows that the adhesion between ITO film and quartz optical fiber can be strongly influenced by the annealing process, and optimal adhesion can be acquired when annealing temperature is 500 °C. Surface treatments of ultrasonic cleaning and the application of surface-active agent have effectively enhanced the adhesion and photo-electric properties of indium tin oxide film coated quartz optical fiber.

  17. Deposition of TiN coatings using ACPVD technique on AM60 alloy; Recubrimientos de TiN depositados mediante ACPVD sobre aleaciones de magnesio AM60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pichel, M.; Candela, N.; Barea, R.; Conejero, G.; Carsi, M.

    2013-06-01

    Magnesium alloys are reaching special interest due to their good specific properties, low cost and good manufacturing properties. However, their low hardness, wear and corrosion resistance limit their applications in certain sectors of industry. These drawbacks can be solved by applying hard ceramic coatings, such as nitrides or metal carbides. TiN is one of the most used coatings due to its high adhesion, hardness, low coefficient of friction and chemical stability. Physical vapor deposition by cathodic arc CAPVD, is a versatile technique, which uses low temperatures and high ionization energies, generating homogeneous coatings. To achieve coatings with high quality, a careful control of the manufacturing parameters is required, such as bias voltage, gas flow or intensity. This paper focuses on magnesium alloys, AM60, coated with TiN using physical vapor deposition cathodic arc technique (CAPVD) at different intensity values (40A and 100A) and surface preparation (grinding up to 4000 grit and polished to 3{mu}m). It was included a final condition with an intermediate Al film. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, roughness, optical microscopy and scanning electron. (Author) 28 refs.

  18. Tin Dioxide as an Effective Antioxidant for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Shuang Ma; Nørgaard, Casper Frydendal; Larsen, Mikkel Juul; Skou, Eivind

    2015-01-01

    Tin dioxide (SnO2) containing electrodes showed significantly lower radical induced polymer degradation under single cell open circuit voltage (OCV) treatment than SnO2 free electrodes. A backbone related segment was detected under 100% RH, and an oxygen containing side chain segment was detected under 6% RH by 19F NMR. Fluoride ion release was observed in both cases. Low humidity induces greater damage to the polymer under OCV.

  19. Electrical resistivity of CeTIn{sub 5} (T=Rh, Ir) under high pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Takaki; Kobayashi, Tatsuo C.; Shimizu, Katsuya; Amaya, Kiichi; Aoki, Dai; Haga, Yoshinori; Onuki, Yoshichika

    2003-05-15

    We have studied the superconducting properties of CeTIn{sub 5} (T=Rh, Ir) under high pressures by means of electrical resistivity measurements and determined the pressure-temperature phase diagrams for the superconducting transition. For both systems, the superconductivity exists in a wide pressure range, 1.5{<=}P{<=}6.5 GPa for CeRhIn{sub 5} and 0{<=}P{<=}5.2 GPa for CeIrIn{sub 5}.

  20. Trace metal levels in soils and vegetation from some tin mining ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of soil and vegetation from some tin mining areas of Nigeria were analysed for lead, zinc, copper and cadmium content. The levels of Pb and Zn were found to be high in some samples. The mean levels of metal in the vegetation were: 86.6+ 36.0, 49.6+ 28.3, 12.6+4.8 and 1.4+0.8 µgg-1 dry weight for Pb, Zn, Cu ...