WorldWideScience

Sample records for tin 119 target

  1. The Moessbauer effect in binary tin chalcogenides of tin 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortalli, I.; Fano, V.

    1975-01-01

    The values of the isomer shift, quadrupole splitting, Moessbauer coefficient, Debye temperature for the tin chalcogenides SnS. SnSe, SnTe are tabulated for the temperatures 80 and 300 K. Temperature dependences of the Moessbauer coefficient and of the effective Debye temperature for SnS, SnSe and SnTe in a temperature range of 78 to 300 K are presented. (Z.S.)

  2. Study of tin amalgam mirrors by {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerf, A. [Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Walther Meißner Institute (Germany); Wagner, F. E., E-mail: fwagner@tum.de [Technical University of Munich, Physics Department E15 (Germany); Herrera, L. K. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia. Dpto. de Ingeniería Mecánica y Mecatrónica (Colombia); Justo, A.; Mu noz-Páez, A.; Pérez-Rodríguez, J. L. [University of Sevilla-CSIC, ICMSE (Spain)

    2016-12-15

    From the beginning of the 16 {sup th} until the end of the 19 {sup th} century the most widely used mirrors consisted of a pane of glass backed with a reflecting layer of tin-mercury amalgam. They were made by sliding the glass pane over a tin foil covered with liquid mercury. After removal of the superfluous mercury, tin amalgam formed slowly at ambient temperature and yielded a reflecting layer adhering to the surface of the glass. Such mirrors often deteriorate in the course of time by oxidation of the tin in the amalgam to stannous or stannic oxide. {sup 119}Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-XRF and X-ray diffraction have been used to study this deterioration process. The studied specimens were a modern mirror made for the reconstruction of the Green Vault in Dresden in the early 2000s, two rather well preserved German mirrors from the 17 {sup th} and 19 {sup th} centuries and several strongly deteriorated specimens of Baroque mirrors from the south of Spain. The modern mirror consists mainly of a Sn{sub 0.9}Hg{sub 0.1} amalgam with only 2 % of SnO{sub 2}. The older German mirrors showed more pronounced oxidation, containing 12 and 15 % of SnO{sub 2}, which did not noticeably impair their reflectivity. In the samples from the Spanish mirrors at best a few percent of metallic phase was left. The majority of the tin had oxidised to SnO{sub 2}, but between 8 and 20 % of the tin was present as SnO. X-ray diffraction yielded similar results and micro-XRF mapping using synchrotron radiation for excitation gave information on the distribution of Sn and Hg in the reflecting layer of the mirrors.

  3. Study of tin amalgam mirrors by "1"1"9Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and other analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerf, A.; Wagner, F. E.; Herrera, L. K.; Justo, A.; Mu noz-Páez, A.; Pérez-Rodríguez, J. L.

    2016-01-01

    From the beginning of the 16 "t"h until the end of the 19 "t"h century the most widely used mirrors consisted of a pane of glass backed with a reflecting layer of tin-mercury amalgam. They were made by sliding the glass pane over a tin foil covered with liquid mercury. After removal of the superfluous mercury, tin amalgam formed slowly at ambient temperature and yielded a reflecting layer adhering to the surface of the glass. Such mirrors often deteriorate in the course of time by oxidation of the tin in the amalgam to stannous or stannic oxide. "1"1"9Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, micro-XRF and X-ray diffraction have been used to study this deterioration process. The studied specimens were a modern mirror made for the reconstruction of the Green Vault in Dresden in the early 2000s, two rather well preserved German mirrors from the 17 "t"h and 19 "t"h centuries and several strongly deteriorated specimens of Baroque mirrors from the south of Spain. The modern mirror consists mainly of a Sn_0_._9Hg_0_._1 amalgam with only 2 % of SnO_2. The older German mirrors showed more pronounced oxidation, containing 12 and 15 % of SnO_2, which did not noticeably impair their reflectivity. In the samples from the Spanish mirrors at best a few percent of metallic phase was left. The majority of the tin had oxidised to SnO_2, but between 8 and 20 % of the tin was present as SnO. X-ray diffraction yielded similar results and micro-XRF mapping using synchrotron radiation for excitation gave information on the distribution of Sn and Hg in the reflecting layer of the mirrors.

  4. Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamilli, Robert J.; Kimball, Bryn E.; Carlin, James F.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Tin (Sn) is one of the first metals to be used by humans. Almost without exception, tin is used as an alloy. Because of its hardening effect on copper, tin was used in bronze implements as early as 3500 B.C. The major uses of tin today are for cans and containers, construction materials, transportation materials, and solder. The predominant ore mineral of tin, by far, is cassiterite (SnO2).In 2015, the world’s total estimated mine production of tin was 289,000 metric tons of contained tin. Total world reserves at the end of 2016 were estimated to be 4,700,000 metric tons. China held about 24 percent of the world’s tin reserves and accounted for 38 percent of the world’s 2015 production of tin.The proportion of scrap used in tin production is between 10 and 25 percent. Unlike many metals, tin recycling is relatively efficient, and the fraction of tin in discarded products that get recycled is greater than 50 percent.Only about 20 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as primary hydrothermal hard-rock veins, or lodes. These lodes contain predominantly high-temperature minerals and almost invariably occur in close association with silicic, peraluminous granites. About 80 percent of the world’s identified tin resources occur as unconsolidated secondary or placer deposits in riverbeds and valleys or on the sea floor. The largest concentration of both onshore and offshore placers is in the extensive tin belt of Southeast Asia, which stretches from China in the north, through Thailand, Burma (also referred to as Myanmar), and Malaysia, to the islands of Indonesia in the south. Furthermore, tin placers are almost always found closely allied to the granites from which they originate. Other countries with significant tin resources are Australia, Bolivia, and Brazil.Most hydrothermal tin deposits belong to what can be thought of as a superclass of porphyry-greisen deposits. The hydrothermal tin deposits are all characterized by a close spatial

  5. Centrifugal extraction of highly enriched tin isotopes and increase of specific activity of the radionuclide 119mSn on the gas centrifuge cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suvorov, I.A.; Tcheltsov, A.N.; Sosnin, L.Yu.; Sazikin, A.A.; Rudnev, A.I.

    2002-01-01

    This work contains the results of research on centrifugal enrichment of 118 Sn isotope followed by irradiation and, finally, a second centrifugal enrichment to produce high specific activity 119m Sn. Non-steady-state separation methods were used for the effective extraction of the radionuclide 119m Sn from the irradiated target. As a result of this work, radiation sources based on 119m Sn were obtained with a specific activity of 500 mCi/g. This is 100 times greater than the specific activity obtained after irradiation in the reactor alone. In addition, the sources had an previously unattainable radio-purity ratio of 113 Sn/ 119m Sn of approximately 10 -6

  6. Effects of target bias voltage on indium tin oxide films deposited by high target utilisation sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, Sonya; Upadhyaya, Hari M.; Dann, Sandra E.; Thwaites, Mike J.; Tiwari, Ayodhya N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited by reactive High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS) onto glass and polyimide substrates. The ion plasma was generated by an RF power source while the target bias voltage was varied from 300 V to 500 V using a separate DC power supply. The deposition rate, at constant target power, increased with DC target voltage due to increased ion energy reaching 34 nm/min at 500 V. All the films were polycrystalline and showed strong (400) and (222) reflections with the relative strength of latter increasing with target bias voltage. The resistivity was lowest at 500 V with values of 1.8 x 10 -4 Ω cm and 2.4 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass and polyimide, respectively but was still less than 5 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 400 V. All films were highly transparent to visible light, (> 80%) but the NIR transmittance decreased with increasing target voltage due to higher free carrier absorption. Therefore, ITO films can be deposited onto semiconductor layers such as in solar cells, with minimal ion damage while maintaining low resistivity

  7. Indium--tin oxide films radio frequency sputtered from specially formulated high density indium--tin oxide targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.; Bayard, M.

    1991-01-01

    High density ITO (indium--tin oxide) targets doped with Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 manufactured in the Tektronix Ceramics Division have been used to rf sputter ITO films of various thicknesses on borosilicate glass substrates. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in forming gas, resulted in ITO films exhibiting 90% transmission at 550 nm and a sheet resistance of 15 Ω/sq for a thickness of 1100 A. Sputtering in an oxygen--argon gas mixture and annealing in air increased sheet resistance without a large effect on the transmission. Films sputtered in argon gas alone were transparent in the visible and the sheet resistance was found to be 100--180 Ω/sq for the same thickness, without annealing

  8. Laser-produced plasma EUV source using a colloidal microjet target containing tin dioxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-10-01

    We realized a low-debris laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a colloidal microjet target, which contained low-concentration (6 wt%) tin-dioxide nanoparticles. An Nd:YAG laser was used to produce a plasma at the intensity on the order of 10^11 W/cm^2. The use of low concentration nanoparticles in a microjet target with a diameter of 50 μm regulated the neutral debris emission from a target, which was monitored by a silicon witness plate placed 30 cm apart from the source in a vacuum chamber. No XPS signals of tin and/or oxygen atoms were observed on the plate after ten thousand laser exposures. The low concentration nature of the target was compensated and the conversion efficiency (CE) was improved by introducing double pulses of two Nd:YAG lasers operated at 532 and 1064 nm as a result of controlling the micro-plasma characteristics. The EUV CE reached its maximum of 1.2% at the delay time of approximately 100 ns with the main laser intensiy of 2 x10^11 W/cm^2. The CE value was comparable to that of a tin bulk target, which, however, produced a significant amount of neutral debris.

  9. Effect of Target Density on Microstructural, Electrical, and Optical Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guisheng; Zhi, Li; Yang, Huijuan; Xu, Huarui; Yu, Aibing

    2012-09-01

    In this paper, indium tin oxide (ITO) targets with different densities were used to deposit ITO thin films. The thin films were deposited from these targets at room temperature and annealed at 750°C. Microstructural, electrical, and optical properties of the as-prepared films were studied. It was found that the target density had no effect on the properties or deposition rate of radiofrequency (RF)-sputtered ITO thin films, different from the findings for direct current (DC)-sputtered films. Therefore, when using RF sputtering, the target does not require a high density and may be reused.

  10. 119Sn MAS NMR Study of Probe Molecules Interaction with Sn-BEA: The Origin of Penta- and Hexacoordinated Tin Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakimov, Alexander V.; G. Kolyagin, Yury; Tolborg, Søren

    2016-01-01

    and weak Lewis acidity, respectively. The adsorption of acetonitrile and methanol resulted in observation of pentacoordinated tin species, due to the formation of 1:1 adsorption complexes over both Sn-sites. Water adsorption led first to formation of pentacoordinated tin species, which were further...... by the formation of pentacoordinated Sn species in the case of weak sites and hexacoordinated Sn over sites with strong Lewis acidity, pointing to the possibility of dissociative adsorption of secondary alcohols over strong Sn-sites....

  11. Quantifying the importance of MSP1-19 as a target of growth-inhibitory and protective antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny W Wilson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antibodies targeting blood stage antigens are important in protection against malaria, but the key targets and mechanisms of immunity are not well understood. Merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1 is an abundant and essential protein. The C-terminal 19 kDa region (MSP1-19 is regarded as a promising vaccine candidate and may also be an important target of immunity. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Growth inhibitory antibodies against asexual-stage parasites and IgG to recombinant MSP1-19 were measured in plasma samples from a longitudinal cohort of 206 children in Papua New Guinea. Differential inhibition by samples of mutant P. falciparum lines that expressed either the P. falciparum or P. chabaudi form of MSP1-19 were used to quantify MSP1-19 specific growth-inhibitory antibodies. The great majority of children had detectable IgG to MSP1-19, and high levels of IgG were significantly associated with a reduced risk of symptomatic P. falciparum malaria during the 6-month follow-up period. However, there was little evidence of PfMSP1-19 specific growth inhibition by plasma samples from children. Similar results were found when testing non-dialysed or dialysed plasma, or purified antibodies, or when measuring growth inhibition in flow cytometry or microscopy-based assays. Rabbit antisera generated by immunization with recombinant MSP1-19 demonstrated strong MSP1-19 specific growth-inhibitory activity, which appeared to be due to much higher antibody levels than human samples; antibody avidity was similar between rabbit antisera and human plasma. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that MSP1-19 is not a major target of growth inhibitory antibodies and that the protective effects of antibodies to MSP1-19 are not due to growth inhibitory activity, but may instead be mediated by other mechanisms. Alternatively, antibodies to MSP1-19 may act as a marker of protective immunity.

  12. Properties of indium tin oxide films deposited using High Target Utilisation Sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calnan, S.; Upadhyaya, H.M.; Thwaites, M.J.; Tiwari, A.N.

    2007-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on soda lime glass and polyimide substrates using an innovative process known as High Target Utilisation Sputtering (HiTUS). The influence of the oxygen flow rate, substrate temperature and sputtering pressure, on the electrical, optical and thermal stability properties of the films was investigated. High substrate temperature, medium oxygen flow rate and moderate pressure gave the best compromise of low resistivity and high transmittance. The lowest resistivity was 1.6 x 10 -4 Ω cm on glass while that on the polyimide was 1.9 x 10 -4 Ω cm. Substrate temperatures above 100 deg. C were required to obtain visible light transmittance exceeding 85% for ITO films on glass. The thermal stability of the films was mainly influenced by the oxygen flow rate and thus the initial degree of oxidation. The film resistivity was either unaffected or reduced after heating in vacuum but generally increased for oxygen deficient films when heated in air. The greatest increase in transmittance of oxygen deficient films occurred for heat treatment in air while that of the highly oxidised films was largely unaffected by heating in both media. This study has demonstrated the potential of HiTUS as a favourable deposition method for high quality ITO suitable for use in thin film solar cells

  13. Reactive sputtering of TiN films at large substrate to target distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musil, J.; Kadlec, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper is a critical review of the present status of the magnetron ion sputter plating of thin CiN films. Thus different possibilities of extracting high ion currents 1 s from the magnetron discharge to substrates located not only at standard target to substrate distances d S-T of about 50 mm but also at larger distances d S-T are discussed in detail. Special attention is devoted to magnetron sputtering systems with enhanced ionization, to plasma confinement in the magnetron sputtering systems and to the discharge characteristics of an unbalanced magnetron (UM). It is shown that a UM can be operated in the regime of a double-site-sustained discharge (DSSD) and in this case large 1 s can be extracted to substrates located in large D S-T of about 200 mm and even at high pressures p = 5 Pa. A physical comparison of the conventional magnetron (CM), UM and DSSD is also given. Considerable attention is also devoted to the effect of ion bombardment on properties of TiN films created in the sputtering system using DSSD. (author)

  14. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao, Yu; Gao, Fangyuan; Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong; Ye, Di; Diao, Xungang

    2014-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10 −4 Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n −0.127 , which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested

  15. Amorphous indium tin oxide films deposited on flexible substrates by facing target sputtering at room temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Yu [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Gao, Fangyuan, E-mail: gaofangyuan@buaa.edu.cn [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Dong, Guobo; Guo, Tingting; Liu, Qirong [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Ye, Di [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100191 (China); Diao, Xungang [Solar Film Laboratory, School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-04-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited on polyethylene terephthalate substrates using a DC facing target sputtering (DC-FTS) system at room temperature. The sputtering conditions including oxygen partial pressure and discharge current were varied from 0% to 4% and 0.5 A to 1.3 A, respectively. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy were used to study the structure and surface morphology of as-prepared films. All the films exhibited amorphous structures and smooth surfaces. The dependence of electrical and optical properties on various deposition parameters was investigated by a linear array four-point probe, Hall-effect measurements, and ultraviolet/visible spectrophotometry. A lowest sheet resistance of 17.4 Ω/square, a lowest resistivity of 3.61 × 10{sup −4} Ω cm, and an average relative transmittance over 88% in the visible range were obtained under the optimal deposition conditions. The relationship between the Hall mobility (μ) and carrier concentration (n) was interpreted by a functional relation of μ ∼ n{sup −0.127}, which indicated that ionized donor scattering was the dominant electron scattering mechanism. It is also confirmed that the carrier concentration in ITO films prepared by the DC-FTS system is mainly controlled by the number of activated Sn donors rather than oxygen vacancies. - Highlights: • ITO thin films were grown on PET substrates by DC facing target sputtering system. • All the films were prepared at room temperature and exhibited amorphous structure. • Highly conductive and transparent ITO thin films were obtained. • The dominant ionized donor scattering mechanism was suggested.

  16. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 microm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2 x 10(11) Wcm(2) with a spot diameter of 175 microm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  17. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-03-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2×1011 W/cm2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal.

  18. Development of a liquid tin microjet target for an efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Hamada, Masaya; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    A regenerative tin liquid microjet target was developed for a high average power extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source. The diameter of the target was smaller than 160 μm and good vacuum lower than 0.5 Pa was maintained during the operation. A maximum EUV conversion efficiency of 1.8% at the Nd:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser intensity of around 2x10 11 W/cm 2 with a spot diameter of 175 μm (full width at half maximum) was observed. The angular distribution of the EUV emission remained almost isotropic, whereas suprathermal ions mainly emerged toward the target normal

  19. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-05-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris.

  20. Low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Dojyo, Naoto; Hamada, Masaya; Sasaki, Wataru; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrated a low-debris, efficient laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source by use of a regenerative liquid microjet target containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles. By using a low SnO 2 concentration (6%) solution and dual laser pulses for the plasma control, we observed the EUV conversion efficiency of 1.2% with undetectable debris

  1. On the use of lead/tin alloys as target material for the production of spallation neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atchison, F.; Baumann, P.; Brys, T.; Daum, M.; Egorov, A.; Fierlinger, P.; Fuchs, P.; Henneck, R.; Joray, St.; Keil, R.; Kirch, K.; Krutova, R.; Kuehne, G.; Lebedev, V.T.; Obermeier, H.; Orlova, D.N.; Perret, Ch.; Pichlmaier, A.; Richard, Ph.; Serebrov, A.; Thies, S.

    2005-01-01

    We have examined the suitability of lead (Pb)/tin (Sn) alloys with atomic ratios between 4:1 and 12:1 for use as a spallation target material for the PSI spallation ultracold neutron source. The measured corrosion rate with distilled water, R c -5 cm/year, is more than a factor of 80, less than for normal Pb; this corrosion rate is satisfactory. Microscopic investigations of the surface after the exposure to water revealed no visual changes. Small angle neutron scattering showed that the alloy is mechanically stable under thermal cycling. An experimental simulation of a water-cooled spallation neutron target made of Pb/Sn pebbles with a filling factor of 60% was investigated; the pulsed proton beam was simulated using hot and cold water in the target 'cooling' circuit. With realistic operational parameters for the cooling circuit, serious deformation of the PbSn pebbles occurred which finally blocked the cooling circuit. The Pb/Sn alloys solve the corrosion problem but its mechanical properties are inadequate leading to too short a lifetime to be practical in the PSI spallation source

  2. TIN-X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cannon, Daniel C; Yang, Jeremy J; Mathias, Stephen L

    2017-01-01

    between proteins and diseases, based on text mining data processed from scientific literature. In the current implementation, TIN-X supports exploration of data for G-protein coupled receptors, kinases, ion channels, and nuclear receptors. TIN-X supports browsing and navigating across proteins......Motivation: The increasing amount of peer-reviewed manuscripts requires the development of specific mining tools to facilitate the visual exploration of evidence linking diseases and proteins. Results: We developed TIN-X, the Target Importance and Novelty eXplorer, to visualize the association...

  3. Synthesis of [119mSn]-mesoporphyrin IX dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denissen, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Tin mesoporphyrin IX dichloride (Sn-MPCl 2 ) is a heme oxygenase inhibitor of current clinical interest for the treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. The synthesis of [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 for drug metabolism and disposition studies is reported. [ 119m Sn]-MPCl 2 was prepared in 60% radiochemical yield by metalation of the porphyrin nucleus of mesoporphyrin IX dihydrochloride with tin(II)-119m acetate. The product had a specific activity of 43.4 mCi/mmol and a radiochemical purity of 99%, as determined by radio-HPLC analysis. (author)

  4. Methods for chemical recovery of non-carrier-added radioactive tin from irradiated intermetallic Ti-Sb targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapshina, Elena V [Troitsk, RU; Zhuikov, Boris L [Troitsk, RU; Srivastava, Suresh C [Setauket, NY; Ermolaev, Stanislav V [Obninsk, RU; Togaeva, Natalia R [Obninsk, RU

    2012-01-17

    The invention provides a method of chemical recovery of no-carrier-added radioactive tin (NCA radiotin) from intermetallide TiSb irradiated with accelerated charged particles. An irradiated sample of TiSb can be dissolved in acidic solutions. Antimony can be removed from the solution by extraction with dibutyl ether. Titanium in the form of peroxide can be separated from tin using chromatography on strong anion-exchange resin. In another embodiment NCA radiotin can be separated from iodide solution containing titanium by extraction with benzene, toluene or chloroform. NCA radiotin can be finally purified from the remaining antimony and other impurities using chromatography on silica gel. NCA tin-117m can be obtained from this process. NCA tin-117m can be used for labeling organic compounds and biological objects to be applied in medicine for imaging and therapy of various diseases.

  5. Electrical properties of indium-tin oxide films deposited on nonheated substrates using a planar-magnetron sputtering system and a facing-targets sputtering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwase, Hideo; Hoshi, Youichi; Kameyama, Makoto

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of the electrical properties of indium-tin oxide (ITO) film prepared by both a planar-magnetron sputtering system (PMSS) and a facing-targets sputtering system (FTSS) at room temperature were investigated. It was found that the outstanding non-uniformities of the electrical properties in noncrystalline ITO films are mainly due to the variation of the oxygen stoichiometry dependent on film positions on substrate surfaces. Furthermore, ITO film with uniform distribution of electrical properties was obtainable using FTSS

  6. Target immobilization as a strategy for NMR-based fragment screening: comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for fragment hit identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Masakazu; Retra, Kim; Figaroa, Francis; Hollander, Johan G; Ab, Eiso; Heetebrij, Robert J; Irth, Hubertus; Siegal, Gregg

    2010-09-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the first stage of the process be optimized. Here the authors compare the 3 most commonly used methods for hit discovery in FBDD: high concentration screening (HCS), solution ligand-observed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and surface plasmon resonance (SPR). They selected the commonly used saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy and the proprietary target immobilized NMR screening (TINS) as representative of the array of possible NMR methods. Using a target typical of FBDD campaigns, the authors find that HCS and TINS are the most sensitive to weak interactions. They also find a good correlation between TINS and STD for tighter binding ligands, but the ability of STD to detect ligands with affinity weaker than 1 mM K(D) is limited. Similarly, they find that SPR detection is most suited to ligands that bind with K(D) better than 1 mM. However, the good correlation between SPR and potency in a bioassay makes this a good method for hit validation and characterization studies.

  7. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O− ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-01-01

    O − ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O − energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O − ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O − ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O − ion, O − particle flux in order of 10 18 m −2 s −1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O − ion on the ITO target by one Ar + ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10 −3 as the minimum value. (paper)

  8. Quantitative evaluation of high-energy O- ion particle flux in a DC magnetron sputter plasma with an indium-tin-oxide target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Taku; Bae, Hansin; Setaka, Kenta; Ogawa, Hayato; Fukuoka, Yushi; Suzuki, Haruka; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2017-11-01

    O- ion flux from the indium tin oxide (ITO) sputter target under Ar ion bombardment is quantitatively evaluated using a calorimetry method. Using a mass spectrometer with an energy analyzer, O- energy distribution is measured with spatial dependence. Directional high-energy O- ion ejected from the target surface is observed. Using a calorimetry method, localized heat flux originated from high-energy O- ion is measured. From absolute evaluation of the heat flux from O- ion, O- particle flux in order of 1018 m-2 s-1 is evaluated at a distance of 10 cm from the target. Production yield of O- ion on the ITO target by one Ar+ ion impingement at a kinetic energy of 244 eV is estimated to be 3.3  ×  10-3 as the minimum value.

  9. XRD and 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy characterization of SnSe obtained from a simple chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes-Silva, Ana Claudia; Mesquita, A.F.; Moura de Neto, E.; Porto, A.O.; Ardisson, J.D.; Lima, G.M. de; Lameiras, F.S.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline tin selenide semiconductor was synthesized by a chemical route. Selenium powder reacted with potassium boronhydride, giving a soluble selenium species potassium seleniumhydride. The reaction of potassium seleniumhydride with tin chloride produced crystalline tin selenide, which was characterized by X-ray diffraction, 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy and scanning electronic microscopy. The material was thermally treated, in nitrogen flow, at 300 and 600 deg. C for 2 h and the particle size evolution was studied by X-ray diffraction. The X-ray diffraction and 119 Sn Moessbauer results showed that a mixture of tin oxides and orthorhombic tin selenide was obtained

  10. NMR studies of metallic tin confined within porous matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charnaya, E. V.; Tien, Cheng; Lee, M. K.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.

    2007-01-01

    119 Sn NMR studies were carried out for metallic tin confined within synthetic opal and porous glass. Tin was embedded into nanoporous matrices in the melted state under pressure. The Knight shift for liquid confined tin was found to decrease with decreasing pore size. Correlations between NMR line shapes, Knight shift, and pore filling were observed. The melting and freezing phase transitions of tin under confinement were studied through temperature dependences of NMR signals upon warming and cooling. Melting of tin within the opal matrix agreed well with the liquid skin model suggested for small isolated particles. The influence of the pore filling on the melting process was shown

  11. Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc: A simple route to highly conducting high density targets for TCO thin-film fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadeddin, I.; Hilal, H. S.; Decourt, R.; Campet, G.; Pecquenard, B.

    2012-07-01

    Indium oxide co-doped with tin and zinc (ITZO) ceramics have been successfully prepared by direct sintering of the powders mixture at 1300 °C. This allowed us to easily fabricate large highly dense target suitable for sputtering transparent conducting oxide (TCO) films, without using any cold or hot pressing techniques. Hence, the optimized ITZO ceramic reaches a high relative bulk density (˜ 92% of In2O3 theoretical density) and higher than the well-known indium oxide doped with tin (ITO) prepared under similar conditions. All X-ray diagrams obtained for ITZO ceramics confirms a bixbyte structure typical for In2O3 only. This indicates a higher solubility limit of Sn and Zn when they are co-doped into In2O3 forming a solid-solution. A very low value of electrical resistivity is obtained for [In2O3:Sn0.10]:Zn0.10 (1.7 × 10-3 Ω cm, lower than ITO counterpart) which could be fabricated to high dense ceramic target suing pressure-less sintering.

  12. Indium–tin-oxide coatings for applications in photovoltaics and displays deposited using rotary ceramic targets: Recent insights regarding process stability and doping level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippens, Paul; Büchel, Michal; Chiu, David; Szepesi, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Several aspects related to high power sputtering with industrial scale sintered ceramic rotary indium–tin-oxide (ITO) targets are presented in the first part of this paper. In particular, the process stability and target integrity upon sputtering with ≥ 20 kW/m power load and the influence of the gap size between cylindrical segments are discussed. Results show that, in order to avoid nodule formation and deposition rate fluctuations, direct current (DC) power load needs to be limited well below 20 kW/m over long sputter runs. Additional work demonstrates that at a gap size at or below 0.15 mm, strongly adhering deposits form readily between cylindrical segments which are not observed with standard 0.35 mm gaps. The influence of Sn doping level on electro-optical properties of thin films targeting an application such as hetero-junction c-Si solar cells is also investigated. Again, rotary targets operated at high power (10 kW/m) are used, including standard grade ITO containing 10 wt.% SnO 2 and another composition with only 3 wt.% SnO 2 . The influence of H 2 and different concentrations of O 2 in the sputter gas is analysed for both target materials. Results indicate that although coatings derived from the lower-doped ITO exhibit considerably less absorption in the NIR due to lower carrier concentrations, their resistivity is nearly 30% higher than that from the standard ITO coating

  13. Atomic dynamics of tin nanoparticles embedded into porous glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parshin, P. P.; Zemlyanov, M. G., E-mail: zeml@isssph.kiae.ru; Panova, G. Kh.; Shikov, A. A. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physicotechnical Institute (Russian Federation); Sergueev, I.; Crichton, W. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France); Chumakov, A. I. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Rueffer, R. [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (France)

    2012-03-15

    The method of resonant nuclear inelastic absorption of synchrotron radiation has been used to study the phonon spectrum for tin nanoparticles (with a natural isotope mixture) embedded into a porous glassy (silica) matrix with an average pore diameter of 7 nm in comparison to the analogous spectrum of bulk tin enriched with {sup 119}Sn isotope. Differences between the spectra have been observed, which are related to both the dimensional effects and specific structural features of the porous glass-tin nanocomposite. Peculiarities in the dynamics of tin atoms embedded into nanopores of glass are interpreted in terms of a qualitative model of the nanocomposite structure.

  14. Atomic dynamics of tin nanoparticles embedded into porous glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshin, P. P.; Zemlyanov, M. G.; Panova, G. Kh.; Shikov, A. A.; Kumzerov, Yu. A.; Naberezhnov, A. A.; Sergueev, I.; Crichton, W.; Chumakov, A. I.; Rüffer, R.

    2012-01-01

    The method of resonant nuclear inelastic absorption of synchrotron radiation has been used to study the phonon spectrum for tin nanoparticles (with a natural isotope mixture) embedded into a porous glassy (silica) matrix with an average pore diameter of 7 nm in comparison to the analogous spectrum of bulk tin enriched with 119 Sn isotope. Differences between the spectra have been observed, which are related to both the dimensional effects and specific structural features of the porous glass-tin nanocomposite. Peculiarities in the dynamics of tin atoms embedded into nanopores of glass are interpreted in terms of a qualitative model of the nanocomposite structure.

  15. Large-angle production of charged pions by 3 GeV/c - 12 GeV/c protons on carbon, copper and tin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Catanesi, M.G.; Ellis, Malcolm; Robbins, S.; Soler, F.J.P.; Gossling, C.; Bunyatov, S.; Krasnoperov, A.; Popov, B.; Serdiouk, V.; Tereschenko, V.; Di Capua, E.; Vidal-Sitjes, G.; Artamonov, A.; Arce, P.; Giani, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Gorbunov, P.; Grant, A.; Grossheim, A.; Gruber, P.; Ivanchenko, V.; Kayis-Topaksu, A.; Panman, J.; Papadopoulos, I.; Pasternak, J.; Tcherniaev, E.; Tsukerman, I.; Veenhof, R.; Wiebusch, C.; Zucchelli, P.; Blondel, A.; Borghi, S.; Campanelli, M.; Morone, M.C.; Prior, G.; Schroeter, R.; Engel, R.; Meurer, C.; Kato, I.; Gastaldi, U.; Mills, G.B.; Graulich, J.S.; Gregoire, G.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Paganoni, M.; Paleari, F.; Kirsanov, M.; Bagulya, A.; Grichine, V.; Polukhina, M.; Palladino, V.; Coney, L.; Schmitz, D.; Barr, G.; De Santo, A.; Pattison, C.; Zuber, K.; Bobisut, F.; Gibin, D.; Guglielmi, A.; Mezzetto, M.; Dumarchez, J.; Vannucci, F.; Dore, U.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Booth, C.; Buttar, C.; Hodgson, P.; howlett, L.; Bogomilov, M.; Chizhov, M.; Kolev, D.; Tsenov, R.; Piperov, Stefan; Temnikov, P.; Apollonio, M.; Chimenti, P.; Giannini, G.; Santin, G.; Burguet-Castell, J.; Cervera-Villanueva, A.; Gomez-Cadenas, J.J.; Martin-Albo, J.; Novella, P.; Sorel, M.; Tornero, A.

    2008-01-01

    A measurement of the double-differential $\\pi^{\\pm}$ production cross-section in proton--carbon, proton--copper and proton--tin collisions in the range of pion momentum $100 \\MeVc \\leq p < 800 \\MeVc$ and angle $0.35 \\rad \\le \\theta <2.15 \\rad$ is presented. The data were taken with the HARP detector in the T9 beam line of the CERN PS. The pions were produced by proton beams in a momentum range from 3 \\GeVc to 12 \\GeVc hitting a target with a thickness of 5% of a nuclear interaction length. The tracking and identification of the produced particles was done using a small-radius cylindrical time projection chamber (TPC) placed in a solenoidal magnet. An elaborate system of detectors in the beam line ensured the identification of the incident particles. Results are shown for the double-differential cross-sections at four incident proton beam momenta (3 \\GeVc, 5 \\GeVc, 8 \\GeVc and 12 \\GeVc).

  16. A Review on Permian to Triassic Active or Convergent Margin in Southeasternmost Gondwanaland: Possibility of Exploration Target for Tin and Hydrocarbon Deposits in the Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiruddin Amiruddin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.17014/ijog.vol4no1.20094An active convergence of continental margin is probably generated in Gondwanaland during Permian to Triassic period which is characterized by the presence of magmatic and volcanic belts and back-arc ba- sins occupied respectively by Permian to Triassic rocks. The magmatic belt is occupied by peraluminous granitic plutons showing characteristics of S- type granite and is considered as tin-bearing granites. The back-arc basins are occupied by the Southern Papua and Galille-Bowen-Gunnedah-Sydney Basins. Those large basins are respectivelly filled by fluvial, fluvio- deltaic to marine Permian-Triassic sediments, which are unconformably overlain by the Jurrassic-Cretaceous marine succession. The paleomagnetic data, confirmed by flora content found in Australia and Papua, indicate that those areas initially belong to the Gondwanaland before part of them were drifted and rotated into the present day position. Tectonically, the presence of those Permian-Triassic magmatic-volcanic belts and back-arc basins in behind, indicates that at the time there were huge compressive activities: convergence of paleo-oceanic Pasific Plate moving westward, collided and subducted into the Southeastern Gondwana Continental Plate, moved relatively eastwards. This phenomenon resembles to the formation of Sumatera Tertiary tectonic zones producing back-arc basins, i.e. South Sumatera, Central, and North Sumatera Basins including the Tertiary Magmatic Arc. Concerning the similarity of Permian-Triassic geological condition of the magmatic arc and back-arc basins in Eastern Indonesia and Eastern Australia including paleoposition, paleotectonic setting, strati- graphic succession, and lithologic composition, it is suggested to carry out an increase in a more intens- ive tin exploration in the Eastern Indonesia, e.g. Bird Head area and Banggai Sula Island, and also for hydrocarbon target (coal, coalbed methane, oil and gas, and oil

  17. Temperature measurement of tin under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hereil, Pierre-Louis; Mabire, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    The results of pyrometric measurements performed at the interface of a tin target with a LiF window material are presented for stresses ranging from 38 to 55 GPa. The purpose of the study is to analyze the part of the interface in the temperature measurement by a multi-channel pyrometric device. The results show that the glue used at target/window interface remains transparent under shock. The values of temperature measured at the tin/LiF interface are consistent with the behavior of tin under shock

  18. NMR as a tool for kinetic studies: application to the assessment of organo tin reactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, E.; Roulet, T. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 - Talence (France); Pianet, I. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., 33 -Talence (France) CNRS, Centre d`Etudes Structurales et d`Analyse des Molecules Organiques; Willem, R. [Brussels University (VUB), Brussels (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    There is a growing interest for the research of an answer to the environmental problems related to the industrial use of tetra organo tins. An interesting alternative would be to develop the chemistry of mono organo tins because of their lower toxicity and of the easy removal of ``inorganic`` tin side products. In this work, halogen exchange rates are measured for various mono organo tins with NMR techniques (EXSY spectra and 1 D {sup 119} Sn NMR), and an exchange mechanism is proposed. A correlation between kinetic data and the reactivity of the mono organo tins is then exemplified with radical allylic transfer and palladium catalyzed coupling reactions. (authors) 14 refs.

  19. The decay of $]^{119}$Cd and $\\^{119}$In isomers

    CERN Document Server

    Scheidemann, O; Patzelt, P

    1976-01-01

    The decay of /sup 119g, m/Cd and /sup 119g, m/In has been investigated using isotopically separated samples produced by the ISOLDE facility at CERN. The half-lives are 2.69+or-0.02 min, 2.20+or-0.02 min, 2.4+or-0.1 min and 18.0+or-0.3 min, respectively. A total of 33 excited levels have been found in /sup 119/In and 4 excited levels have been found in /sup 119/Sn. The percentage isomeric transition in /sup 119/In has been measured to be 2.5/sub -0.3//sup +0.5/%. The possibility of rotational and vibrational levels in /sup 119/In is discussed. (32 refs).

  20. GPR119 agonists: a promising approach for T2DM treatment? A SWOT analysis of GPR119.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sang-Uk

    2013-12-01

    Ever since its advent as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), G-protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has received much interest from the pharmaceutical industry. This interest peaked in June 2010, when Sanofi-Aventis agreed to pay Metabolex (Cymabay Therapeutics) US$375 million for MBX-2982, which was a representative orally active GPR119 agonist. However, Sanofi-Aventis opted to terminate the deal in May 2011 and another leading GPR119 agonist, GSK1292263, had a loss of efficacy during its clinical trial. In this review, I discuss the pros and cons of GPR119 through a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT) analysis and propose development strategies for the eventual success of a GPR119 agonist development program. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Uncoordinated (UNC)119: coordinating the trafficking of myristoylated proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantine, Ryan; Zhang, Houbin; Gerstner, Cecilia D; Frederick, Jeanne M; Baehr, Wolfgang

    2012-12-15

    The mechanism by which myristoylated proteins are targeted to specific subcellular membrane compartments is poorly understood. Two novel acyl-binding proteins, UNC119A and UNC119B, have been shown recently to function as chaperones/co-factors in the transport of myristoylated G protein α-subunits and src-type tyrosine kinases. UNC119 polypeptides feature an immunoglobulin-like β-sandwich fold that forms a hydrophobic pocket capable of binding lauroyl (C12) and myristoyl (C14) side chains. UNC119A in rod photoreceptors facilitates the transfer of transducin α subunits (Tα) from inner segment to outer segment membranes by forming an intermediate diffusible UNC119-Tα complex. Similar complexes are formed in other sensory neurons, as the G proteins ODR-3 and GPA-13 in Caenorhabditis elegans unc-119 mutants traffic inappropriately. UNC119B knockdown in IMCD3 cells prevents trafficking ofmyristoylated nephrocystin-3 (NPHP3), a protein associated with nephronophthisis, to cilia. Further, UNC119A was shown to transport myristoylated src-type tyrosine kinases to cell membranes and to affect T-cell receptor (TCR) and interleukin-5 receptor (IL-5R) activities. These interactions establish UNC119 polypeptides as novel lipid-binding chaperones with specificity for a diverse subset of myristoylated proteins. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Moessbauer and NMR study of novel Tin(IV)-lactames

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzmann, Erno; Szalay, Roland; Homonnay, Zoltan, E-mail: homonnay@ludens.elte.hu; Nagy, Sandor [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    N-tributylstannylated 2-pyrrolidinone was reacted with tributyltin triflate in different molar ratios and the complex formation monitored using {sup 1}H-NMR, {sup 13}C-NMR and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. Comparing the carbon NMR and tin Moessbauer results, a reaction scheme is suggested for the complexation which assumes the formation of a simultaneously O- and N-tributylstannylated pyrrolidinone cation. The formation of the only O-stannylated pyrrolidinone is also assumed to account for the non-constant Moessbauer parameters of the two tin environments in the distannylated pyrrolidinone cation when the ratio of tributyltin triflate is increased in the reaction.

  3. Toxicology of inorganic tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burba, J.V.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) or stannous ion as a reducing agent is important in nuclear medicine because it is an essential component and common denominator for many in vivo radiodiagnostic agents, commonly called kits for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. This report is intended to alert nuclear medicine community regarding the wide range of biological effects that the stannous ion is capable of producing, and is a review of a large number of selected publications on the toxicological potential of tin(II)

  4. Preliminary study of tin slag concrete mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Mohd Jamil; Mansor, Ishak; Pauzi Ismail, Mohamad; Sani, Suhairy; Azmi, Azhar; Sayuti, Shaharudin; Zaidi Ibrahim, Mohd; Adli Anuar, Abul; Rahim, Abdul Adha Abdul

    2018-01-01

    The study focuses on practices to facilitate tin smelting industry to reduce radioactive waste product (Tin Slag) by diluting its radioactivity to a safe level and turning it to a safer infrastructural building product. In the process the concrete mix which include Portland cement, sand, tin slag, water and plasticizer are used to produce interlocking brick pavements, piles and other infrastructural products. The mixing method follows DOE (UK) standard method of mixing targeted at in selected compressive strength suitable for its function and durability. A batching machine is used in the mixing and six test cubes are produced for the test. The testing equipment used are a compressional machine, ultrasonic measurement and a Geiger Muller counter to evaluate of the concrete mix to find the lowest emission of radiation surface dose without compromising the strength of concrete mix. The result obtained indicated the radioactivity of tin slag in the mixing process has reduced to background level that is 0.5μSv/h while the strength and workability of the concrete has not been severely affected. In conclusion, the concrete mix with tin slag has shown the potential it can be turned into a safe beneficial infrastructural product with good strength.

  5. IMRT Commissioning: application of the AAPM's TG-119; Comissionamento de IMRT: aplicacao do TG-119 da AAPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppellini, Caroline; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Inst. de Radiologia

    2013-08-15

    In order to verify the commissioning of the planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy system (IMRT), the TG-119 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was applied. Using pre defined targets and normal structures, plans were realized, absolute and relative dose were measured with an ionizing chamber and films, and the results were compared with planned values. The maximum deviation of the measurements with the ionization chamber was 3,6%, but, in the total eleven measurements, only two were bigger than the tolerance limit of 3%, recommended by TG-119. The number of points which passed criteria gamma 3% to 3 mm ranged between 96.36% and 99.92%, all measurements were within the recommended 95%. The confidence limits found for both film and for chamber were lower than those achieved in the TG-119. Our results showed a good concordance with TG-119, what means that the system is adequate for clinical applications. (author)

  6. Conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopic studies on the chemical states of surface layers of corroded tin plates and tin-coated iron plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Akinori; Endo, Kazutoyo; Sano, Hirotoshi

    1980-01-01

    By means of the conversion electron Moessbauer spectroscopy (CEMS), we studied surface layers of ''tin'' plates and tin-coated iron plates corroded by various acids. Transmission Moessbauer spectra and X-ray diffraction patterns were also measured. Metastannic acid was formed, when the ''tin'' plate was corroded by nitric acid solution. In corrosion by phosphoric acid solution, the X-ray diffractometry revealed the formation of tin(IV) pyrophosphate. In corrosion by various organic acid solutions, the formation of oxides was identified by the 119 Sn CEMS, but not by the X-ray diffractometry because of the too thin corrosion layer. In corrosion of tin-coated iron plates, maleic acid, malonic acid, formic acid, and oxalic acid were used. It was determined by CEMS that the corrosion products caused by these acids were tin(IV) oxides, although they could not be identified by the X-ray diffractometry. CEMS also confirmed that the surface of uncorroded tin-coated iron plate was already oxidized by air. Colorimetric determinations of Sn and Fe dissolved from tin-coated iron plates to various acid solutions confirmed that maleic acid had the strongest corrosion effect among the organic acids studied. (author)

  7. 46 CFR 119.420 - Engine cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine cooling. 119.420 Section 119.420 Shipping COAST... Machinery Requirements § 119.420 Engine cooling. (a) Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b) of this section, all engines must be water cooled and meet the requirements of this paragraph. (1) The engine head...

  8. 45 CFR 400.119 - Interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate movement. 400.119 Section 400.119... Services § 400.119 Interstate movement. After the initial placement of an unaccompanied minor, the same procedures that govern the movement of nonrefugee foster cases to other States apply to the movement of...

  9. 28 CFR 0.119 - Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Organization. 0.119 Section 0.119 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORGANIZATION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-Office of Community Oriented Policing Services § 0.119 Organization. The Office of Community Oriented Policing...

  10. 46 CFR 119.520 - Bilge pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bilge pumps. 119.520 Section 119.520 Shipping COAST... Ballast Systems § 119.520 Bilge pumps. (a) Each vessel must be provided with bilge pumps in accordance... have a portable hand bilge pump that must be: (1) Capable of pumping water, but not necessarily...

  11. 46 CFR 119.320 - Water heaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Water heaters. 119.320 Section 119.320 Shipping COAST... Machinery § 119.320 Water heaters. (a) A water heater must meet the requirements of Parts 53 and 63 in... electric water heater is also acceptable if it: (1) Has a capacity of not more than 454 liters (120 gallons...

  12. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: roles for distinctTIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-Ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Campisi, Judith

    2006-11-07

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins, TRF1, TRF2 and POT1, and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. These and two other proteins form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere-maintenance complex. It is not clear whether subcomplexes exist or function in vivo. Here, we provide evidence for two TIN2 subcomplexes with distinct functions in human cells. TIN2 ablation by RNA interference caused telomere uncapping and p53-independent cell death in all cells tested. However, we isolated two TIN2 complexes from cell lysates, each selectively sensitive to a TIN2 mutant (TIN2-13, TIN2-15C). In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN215C more than TIN2-13 caused genomic instability and cell death. Thus, TIN2 subcomplexes likely have distinct functions in telomere maintenance, and may provide selective targets for eliminating cells with mutant p53.

  13. Target Immobilization as a Strategy for NMR-Based Fragment Screening: Comparison of TINS, STD, and SPR for Fragment Hit Identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobayashi, M.; Retra, K.; Figaroa, F.; Hollander, J.G.; Ab, E.; Heetebrij, R.J.; Irth, H.; Siegal, G.

    2010-01-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD) has become a widely accepted tool that is complementary to high-throughput screening (HTS) in developing small-molecule inhibitors of pharmaceutical targets. Because a fragment campaign can only be as successful as the hit matter found, it is critical that the

  14. Superconducting tin core fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)

  15. GPR119 as a fat sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S; Rosenkilde, Mette M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2012-01-01

    acting through, for example, GPR40, but is also probably mediated in large part through the luminal formation of 2-monoacylglycerol acting on the 'fat sensor' GPR119. In the pancreas GPR119 may also be stimulated by 2-monoacylglycerol generated from local turnover of pancreatic triacylglycerol. Knowledge...

  16. 7 CFR 57.119 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Political activity. Federal inspectors may participate in certain political activities, including management and participation in political campaigns as allowed by Federal regulation and AMS directives... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 57.119 Section 57.119 Agriculture...

  17. 13 CFR 119.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... entrepreneurs, such as, but not limited to, assistance intended to enhance business planning, marketing, management, financial management skills, business operations, or assistance for the purpose of increasing... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions. 119.2 Section 119.2...

  18. 9 CFR 590.119 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 590.119 Section 590.119 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EGG... party or candidate, except as authorized by law or regulation of the Department, is prohibited. This...

  19. Investigation of Surface Phenomena in Shocked Tin in Converging Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousculp, Christopher L. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turchi, Peter John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert Emil [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bradley, Joseph Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cheng, Baolian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Freeman, Matthew Stouten [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Patten, Austin Randall [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-03-21

    There is great interest in the behavior of the free surface of tin under shock loading. While it is known that meso-scale surface imperfections can seed the Richtmyer- Meshkov Instability (RMI) for a surface that is melted on release, much less is known about a tin surface that is solid, but plastically deforming. Here material properties such as shear and yield strength come into play especially in converging geometry. Previous experiments have been driven by direct contact HE. Usually a thin, flat target coupon is fielded with various single-mode, sinusoidal, machined, profiles on the free surface. The free surface is adjacent to either vacuum or an inert receiver gas. Most of these previous driver/target configurations have been nominal planer geometry. With modern HE it has been straightforward to shock tin into melt on release. However it has been challenging to achieve a low enough pressure for solid state on release. Here we propose to extend the existing base of knowledge to include the behavior of the free surface of tin in cylindrical converging geometry. By shock loading a cylindrical tin shell with a magnetically driven cylindrical liner impactor, the free surface evolution can be diagnosed with proton radiography. With the PHELIX capacitor bank, the drive can easily be varied to span the pressure range to achieve solid, mixed, and liquid states on release. A conceptual cylindrical liner and target is shown in Figure 1.

  20. Layered tin dioxide microrods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Junhong; Huang Hongbo; Gong Jiangfeng; Zhao Xiaoning; Cheng Guangxu; Yang Shaoguang

    2007-01-01

    Single-crystalline layered SnO 2 microrods were synthesized by a simple tin-water reaction at 900 deg. C. The structural and optical properties of the sample were characterized by x-ray powder diffraction, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. High resolution transmission electron microscopy studies and selected area electron diffraction patterns revealed that the layered SnO 2 microrods are single crystalline and their growth direction is along [1 1 0]. The growth mechanism of the microrods was proposed based on SEM, TEM characterization and thermodynamic analysis. It is deduced that the layered microrods grow by the stacking of SnO 2 sheets with a (1 1 0) surface in a vapour-liquid-solid process. Three emission peaks at 523, 569 and 626 nm were detected in room-temperature PL measurements

  1. In situ 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy used to study lithium insertion in c-Mg2Sn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldon, L.; Ionica, C. M.; Lippens, P. E.; Larcher, D.; Tarascon, J.-M.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.

    2006-01-01

    The electrochemical reactions of Li with c-Mg 2 Sn have been investigated by in situ Moessbauer spectroscopy of 119 Sn and X-ray diffraction. The lithiation transforms initially c-Mg 2 Sn part into Li x Mg 2 Sn alloy (x 2 MgSn ternary alloy. In situ Moessbauer spectroscopy provides valuable information on local environment of tin and swelling behavior and cracking of the particles during discharge and charge processes.

  2. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash; Shi, Lei; Rothenberger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide

  3. Regioselectivity of tributyltin ether mediated alkylations. A 119Sn and 13C NMR study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruzado, C.; Bernabe, M.; Martin-Lomas, M.

    1989-01-01

    The 119 Sn and 13 C NMR spectra of the stannylated species resulting from the treatment of conformationally rigid polyhydroxylated compounds with bis(tributyltin) oxide have been determined and the effect of N-methylimidazole, added as catalyst in tributyltin ether mediated regioselective alkylations, has been investigated. The observed signal intensity changes, upfield shifts, signal broadenings, and the results of variable temperature experiments have been interpreted as indicative of the selective formation of pentacoordinated tin species, involving conveniently disposed adjacent hydroxyl groups, on addition of the catalyst. On these bases, a mechanistic hypothesis for the observed regioselectivity of N-methylimidazole-catalyzed tributyltin ether mediated benzylations is proposed. 13 references, 5 tables

  4. Mössbauer and NMR study of novel Tin(IV)-lactames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmann, Erno; Szalay, Roland; Homonnay, Zoltan; Nagy, Sandor

    2012-01-01

    N-tributylstannylated 2-pyrrolidinone was reacted with tributyltin triflate in different molar ratios and the complex formation monitored using 1 H-NMR, 13 C-NMR and 119 Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy. Comparing the carbon NMR and tin Mössbauer results, a reaction scheme is suggested for the complexation which assumes the formation of a simultaneously O- and N-tributylstannylated pyrrolidinone cation. The formation of the only O-stannylated pyrrolidinone is also assumed to account for the non-constant Mössbauer parameters of the two tin environments in the distannylated pyrrolidinone cation when the ratio of tributyltin triflate is increased in the reaction.

  5. Recovery of antimony-125 from tin-124 irradiated by neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baluev, A.V.; Mityakhina, V.S.; Krasnikov, L.V.; Galkin, B.Ya.; Besnosyuk, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of 125 Sb from tin using highly basic, medium-basic, and weakly basic ion-exchangers was studied. The best results were obtained for AN-31 weakly basic anion exchanger. The yield of 125 Sb was 95 -98 % of the initial activity, the yield of tin, 98 ± 0.5% of the initial amount. The separation coefficient is 10 6 -10 7 for one cycle. A procedure based on ion exchange was developed. Extraction procedures of separation of 125 Sb from tin were studied. Isoamyl alcohol, ethyl acetate, and di-n-butyl ether were used as extracting agents. The most efficient extracting agent is di-n-butyl ether. Carrier-free radiochemically pure sample of 125 Sb was produced. More than 20 mCi of the target product was recovered. The extraction recovery procedure of 125 Sb has been developed. (author)

  6. 7 CFR 1221.119 - Refunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... INFORMATION ORDER Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Order Sorghum Promotion, Research, and Information Board § 1221.119 Refunds. Any producer or importer from whom an assessment is collected and...

  7. Income inequality and happiness in 119 nations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Berg (Maarten); R. Veenhoven (Ruut)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractINCOME INEQUALITY AND HAPPINESS IN 119 NATIONS All modern nations reduce income differences to some extent, and as a result there is an ongoing discussion about what degree of income inequality is acceptable. In this discussion libertarians oppose egalitarians and a principled consensus

  8. Measuring the sustainability of tin in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Congren; Tan, Quanyin; Zeng, Xianlai; Zhang, Yuping; Wang, Zhishi; Li, Jinhui

    2018-09-01

    Tin is a component of many items used in daily activities, including solder in consumer electronics, tin can containing food and beverages, polyvinyl chloride stabilizers in construction products, catalysts in industrial processes, etc. China is the largest producer and consumer of refined tin, and more than 60% of this refined tin is applied in the electronics sector as solder. China is the leader in global economic growth; simultaneously, China is also a major producer and consumer of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Thus, future tin supply and demand in China are forecasted, based on the gross domestic product per capita and the average consumption of refined tin in past five years. Current tin reserves and identified resources in China can meet the future two decades of mine production, but import of tin will also be critical for China's future tin consumption. However, there will be a lot of uncertainty for import of tin from other countries. At the same time, virgin mining of geological ores is a process of high energy consumption and destruction of the natural environment. Hence recycling tin from Sn-bearing secondary resources like tailings and waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) can not only address the shortage of tin mineral resources, but also save energy and protect the ecological environment. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. International strategic minerals inventory summary report; tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutphin, D.M.; Sabin, A.E.; Reed, B.L.

    1990-01-01

    The International Strategic Minerals Inventory tin inventory contains records for 56 major tin deposits and districts in 21 countries. These countries accounted for 98 percent of the 10 million metric tons of tin produced in the period 1934-87. Tin is a good alloying metal and is generally nontoxic, and its chief uses are as tinplate for tin cans and as solder in electronics. The 56 locations consist of 39 lode deposits and 17 placers and contain almost 7.5 million metric tons of tin in identified economic resources (R1E) and another 1.5 million metric tons of tin in other resource categories. Most of these resources are in major deposits that have been known for over a hundred years. Lode deposits account for 44 percent of the R1E and 87 percent of the resources in other categories. Placer deposits make up the remainder. Low-income and middle-income countries, including Bolivia and Brazil and countries along the Southeast Asian Tin Belt such as Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia account for 91 percent of the R1E resources of tin and for 61 percent of resources in other categories. The United States has less than 0.05 percent of the world's tin R1E in major deposits. Available data suggest that the Soviet Union may have about 4 percent of resources in this category. The industrial market economy countries of the United States, Japan, Federal Republic of Germany, and the United Kingdom are major consumers of tin, whereas the major tin-producing countries generally consume little tin. The Soviet Union and China are both major producers and consumers of tin. At the end of World War II, the four largest tin-producing countries (Bolivia, the Belgian Congo (Zaire), Nigeria, and Malaysia) produced over 80 percent of the world's tin. In 1986, the portion of production from the four largest producers (Malaysia, Brazil, Soviet Union, Indonesia) declined to about 55 percent, while the price of tin rose from about $1,500 to $18,000 per metric ton. In response to tin shortages

  10. Chemistry of tin compounds and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Mazhar, M.; Mahmood, S.; Bhatti, M.H.; Chaudhary, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    Of the large volume of tin compounds reported in the literature, possible only 100 are commercially important. Tin compounds are a wide variety of purposes such as catalysts, stabilizers for many materials including polymer, biocidal agents, bactericides, insecticides, fungicides, wood preservatives, acaricides and anti fouling agents in paints, anticancer and antitumour agents, ceramic opacifiers, as textile additives, in metal finishing operations, as food additives and in electro conductive coating. All these applications make the environment much exposed to tin contamination. The application of organotin compounds as biocides account for about 30% of total tin consumption suggesting that the main environmental effects are likely to originate from this sector. Diorgano tins and mono-organo tins are used mainly in plastic industry which is the next big source for environmental pollution. In this presentation all environmental aspects of the use of tin compounds and the recommended preventive measures are discussed. (author)

  11. Studies on Cementation of Tin on Copper and Tin Stripping from Copper Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudnik E.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cementation of tin on copper in acid chloride-thiourea solutions leads to the formation of porous layers with a thickness dependent on the immersion time. The process occurs via Sn(II-Cu(I mechanism. Chemical stripping of tin was carried out in alkaline and acid solutions in the presence of oxidizing agents. It resulted in the dissolution of metallic tin, but refractory Cu3Sn phase remained on the copper surface. Electrochemical tin stripping allows complete tin removal from the copper substrate, but porosity and complex phase composition of the tin coating do not allow monitoring the process in unambiguous way.

  12. Tinned fish with radioprotective ingredients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaneva, M.; Minkova, M.; Zajko, G.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of food ingredients with pronounced radioprotective properties is made. The protective effect of fish proteins and some vegetable oils is mentioned. As suitable additives to tinned fish during the manufacturing process the β carotene, anthocyans and apple pectin are pointed out. β-carotene possesses the ability to absorb radiations. It can be added either as a pure crystalline substance or dissolved in the vegetable oil. Anthocyans have an antimutagen effect due to their ability to inhibit free radical reactions. Some vegetable polyphenols can be added with wine. The Bulgarian anthocyan concentrate Enobagrin (made by extraction of marc and wine) is also proposed. A combination of Enobagrin, β-tocopherol and pyracetam decreases the postradiation hypoplasia. Special attention is paid to the importance of the pectin in intoxication with heavy radioactive metals. It is thought that the pectin forms unsoluble complex compounds with Fe, Zn, Cd, Co, Pb, Hg, Mn, Cr. The binding energy depends on the available carboxylic groups. Some experiments showing the interaction of the pectin with 90 Sr are mentioned. In the tinned fish the pectin can be introduced with tomato paste. Vegetables rich in pectin and carotene - carrots and tomato concentrate - can be added as well. Proposed enriched tinned fish can be used as a preventive radioprotective food under conditions of increased radiation risk. 19 refs

  13. 49 CFR 41.119 - DOT regulated buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false DOT regulated buildings. 41.119 Section 41.119 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation SEISMIC SAFETY § 41.119 DOT regulated buildings. (a) Each DOT Operating Administration with responsibility for regulating the structural safety of buildings...

  14. Lifetime measurements and the nonaxial deformation in 119I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Starosta, K.; Juutinen, S.; Piiparinen, M.

    2000-01-01

    Lifetimes of negative parity levels in four bands in 119 I were determined by RDM and DSAM. The 119 I nuclei were produced in the 109 Ag( 13 C,3n) reaction. Calculations in the frame of the CQPC model show that the model of γ-soft nucleus better describes 119 I than the γ-rigid one. (author)

  15. 17 CFR 248.103-248.119 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false [Reserved] 248.103-248.119 Section 248.103-248.119 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS S-P AND S-AM Regulation S-AM: Limitations on Affiliate Marketing §§ 248.103-248.119 [Reserved] ...

  16. 46 CFR 119.435 - Integral fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Integral fuel tanks. 119.435 Section 119.435 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.435 Integral fuel tanks. (a) Diesel fuel tanks may not be built integral with... for certification of a vessel, integral fuel tanks must withstand a hydrostatic pressure test of 35 k...

  17. 46 CFR 119.450 - Vent pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Vent pipes for fuel tanks. 119.450 Section 119.450... Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.450 Vent pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Each unpressurized fuel tank must... area of the vent pipe for diesel fuel tanks must be as follows: (1) Not less than the cross sectional...

  18. 46 CFR 119.430 - Engine exhaust pipe installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engine exhaust pipe installation. 119.430 Section 119... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.430 Engine exhaust pipe installation. (a) The design of all... an exhaust pipe. (b) Exhaust gas must not leak from the piping or any connections. The piping must be...

  19. 32 CFR 701.119 - Privacy and the web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Privacy and the web. 701.119 Section 701.119... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.119 Privacy and the web. DON activities shall consult SECNAVINST 5720.47B for guidance on what may be posted on a Navy Web site. ...

  20. 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy in the magnetically diluted Heusler-type systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruebenbauer, K.

    1981-01-01

    119 Sn Moessbauer investigations of the ferromagnetically diluted Nisub(2)Mnsub(x)Bsub(1-x)Sn(B=Ti, V) and Pdsub(2)Mnsub(x)Vsub(1-x)Sn Heusler-type systems have been performed and the results are reviewed and discussed. It has been found that distributions of the transferred hyperfine magnetic field as seen by a tin nucleus are very sensitive for a type of the local magnetic interaction in these simple ferromagnets, especially when studied versus the sample temperature. This sensitivity allows to reach some conclusions about the coupling mechanism between localised manganese magnetic moments. Namely, it is concluded that the interaction beyond the second neighbour shell is practically irrelevant for the magnetic ordering process. This very fact means that the free electron approach to the calculation of exchange integrals can not be applied for these particular systems. (Author)

  1. Tin Whisker Formation — A Stress Relieve Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittes, M.; Oberndorff, P.; Crema, P.; Su, P.

    2006-02-01

    With the move towards lead-free electronics also the solderable finish of electronic components' terminations are converted. While the typical finish was containing 5 % to 20 % lead (Pb) and thus was almost whisker free, lead (Pb)-free finishes such as pure tin or high tin alloys are rather prone to grow whisker. These whiskers are spontaneous protrusions that grow to a significant length of up to millimeters with a typical diameter in the range of few microns and are suspect to cause shorts in electronic assemblies. The latest details of the mechanisms are not yet understood. However it appears to be well established that the driving force for tin whisker growth is a compressive stress in the tin layer and that this stress is released by whisker formation. Besides the mechanism for whisker growth therefore the mechanism of the stress induction is of interest. The origin of that stress may have multiple sources. Among others the most important one is the volume increase within the tin layer due the formation of intermetallics at the interface to the base material. This applies to all copper based material. For base materials with a coefficient of thermal expansion (cte) significantly different from the tin finish another mechanism plays the dominant role. This is the induction of stress during thermal cycling due to the different expansion of the materials with every temperature change. Another mechanism for stress induction may be the oxidation of the finish, which also leads to a local volume increase. Based on the knowledge of stress induction various mitigation strategies can be deducted. Most common is the introduction of a diffusion barrier (e.g. Ni) in order to prevent the growth of the Cu-Sn intermetallics, the controlled growth of Cu-Sn intermetallics in order to prevent their irregularity or the introduction of a mechanical buffer material targeting at the minimisation of the cte mismatch between base and finish material. With respect to the stress

  2. Configuration interaction in charge exchange spectra of tin and xenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arcy, R.; Morris, O.; Ohashi, H.; Suda, S.; Tanuma, H.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Nishihara, K.; Suzuki, C.; Kato, T.; Koike, F.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2011-06-01

    Charge-state-specific extreme ultraviolet spectra from both tin ions and xenon ions have been recorded at Tokyo Metropolitan University. The electron cyclotron resonance source spectra were produced from charge exchange collisions between the ions and rare gas target atoms. To identify unknown spectral lines of tin and xenon, atomic structure calculations were performed for Sn14+-Sn17+ and Xe16+-Xe20+ using the Hartree-Fock configuration interaction code of Cowan (1981 The Theory of Atomic Structure and Spectra (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press)). The energies of the capture states involved in the single-electron process that occurs in these slow collisions were estimated using the classical over-barrier model.

  3. Rf reactive sputtering of indium-tin-oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tvarozek, V.; Novotny, I.; Harman, R.; Kovac, J.

    1986-01-01

    Films of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) have been deposited by rf reactive diode sputtering of metallic InSn alloy targets, or ceramic ITO targets, in an Ar and Ar+0 2 atmosphere. Electrical as well as optical properties of ITO films were controlled by varying sputtering parameters and by post-deposition heat-treatment in Ar, H 2 , N 2 , H 2 +N 2 ambients. The ITO films exhibited low resistivity approx. 2 x 10 -4 Ω cm, high transmittance approx. 90% in the visible spectral region and high reflectance approx. 80% in the near infra-red region. (author)

  4. Application of 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy to investigations of RET2-X2-type phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerlich, E.

    1991-01-01

    Moessbauer spectroscopy of 119 Sn is an effective tool to study nuclear hyperfine interactions which in turn are important as a source of information complementary to that supplied by ''classical'' methods. However, particularly when the effects are subtle, experimental conditions as well as data analysis should be handled with care. The attention is devoted primarily to the finite absorber thickness effects. As examples serve our recent results obtained from investigations of ternary tetragonal phases of RET 2 X 2 -type. In EuPd 2 Si 2 mixed valent system 119 Sn was used as probe which detects the influence of Eu-valency change at a distant site of Si. Electrical resistivity measurements in CeNi 2 Sn 2 may indicate a Kondo-type behaviour while Moessbauer effect leads to the conclusion in favour of a magnetically ordered state. The analysis of resonance absorption spectra of CeAg 2 Sn 2 using a full transmission integral indicates the presence of a metallic β-tin in the sample, while data fitting within the thin absorber approximation has lead to the opposite conclusion. Neither in CeNi 2 Sn 2 nor in ErNi 2 Sn 2 the temperature dependence of the recoil free factors alone cannot explain the observed broadening of spectra at low temperatures. (author). 14 refs, 13 figs

  5. Structure and biological activity of endogenous and synthetic agonists of GPR119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyurenkov, I. N.; Ozerov, A. A.; Kurkin, D. V.; Logvinova, E. O.; Bakulin, D. A.; Volotova, E. V.; Borodin, D. D.

    2018-02-01

    A G-protein-coupled receptor, GPR119, is a promising pharmacological target for a new class of hypoglycaemic drugs with an original mechanism of action, namely, increase in the glucose-dependent incretin and insulin secretion. In 2005, the first ligands were found and in the subsequent years, a large number of GPR119 agonists were synthesized in laboratories in various countries; the safest and most promising agonists have entered phase I and II clinical trials as agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity. The review describes the major endogenous GPR119 agonists and the main trends in the design and modification of synthetic structures for increasing the hypoglycaemic activity. The data on synthetic agonists are arranged according to the type of the central core of the molecules. The bibliography includes 104 references.

  6. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Noel; Viveros, Tomás

    1999-11-01

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO2 on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied.

  7. Structural studies of supported tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Noel; Viveros, Tomas

    1999-01-01

    Tin oxide was supported on aluminium oxide, titanium oxide, magnesium oxide and silicon oxide, and the resulting interactions between the components in the prepared samples and after reduction were characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy. It was observed that in the oxide state, tin is present as SnO 2 on alumina, magnesia and silica, but on titania tin occupies Ti sites in the structure. After hydrogen treatment at high temperatures, tin is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(2) on alumina and titania; it is reduced from Sn(4) to Sn(0) on silica, and is practically not reduced on magnesia. These results reveal the degree of interaction between tin and the different supports studied

  8. 14 CFR 119.9 - Use of business names.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of business names. 119.9 Section 119.9... COMMERCIAL OPERATORS General § 119.9 Use of business names. (a) A certificate holder under this part may not operate an aircraft under part 121 or part 135 of this chapter using a business name other than a business...

  9. On the electrochemistry of tin oxide coated tin electrodes in lithium-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böhme, Solveig; Edström, Kristina; Nyholm, Leif

    2015-01-01

    As tin based electrodes are of significant interest in the development of improved lithium-ion batteries it is important to understand the associated electrochemical reactions. In this work it is shown that the electrochemical behavior of SnO_2 coated tin electrodes can be described based on the SnO_2 and SnO conversion reactions, the lithium tin alloy formation and the oxidation of tin generating SnF_2. The CV, XPS and SEM data, obtained for electrodeposited tin crystals on gold substrates, demonstrates that the capacity loss often observed for SnO_2 is caused by the reformed SnO_2 layer serving as a passivating layer protecting the remaining tin. Capacities corresponding up to about 80 % of the initial SnO_2 capacity could, however, be obtained by cycling to 3.5 V vs. Li"+/Li. It is also shown that the oxidation of the lithium tin alloy is hindered by the rate of the diffusion of lithium through a layer of tin with increasing thickness and that the irreversible oxidation of tin to SnF_2 at potentials larger than 2.8 V vs. Li"+/Li is due to the fact that SnF_2 is formed below the SnO_2 layer. This improved electrochemical understanding of the SnO_2/Sn system should be valuable in the development of tin based electrodes for lithium-ion batteries.

  10. Electron exchange between tin impurity U{sup –} centers in PbS{sub z}Se{sub 1–z} alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchenko, A. V. [Alexander Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation); Terukov, E. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical–Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Seregin, P. P., E-mail: ppseregin@mail.ru; Rasnjuk, A. N.; Kiselev, V. S. [Alexander Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (Russian Federation)

    2016-07-15

    Using emission {sup 119mm}Sn({sup 119m}Sn) and {sup 119}Sb({sup 119m}Sn) Mössbauer spectroscopy, it is shown that impurity tin atoms in PbS{sub z}Se{sub 1–z} alloys substitute lead atoms and are two-electron donors with negative correlation energy (U{sup –} centers). It is found that the energy levels related to impurity tin atoms are in the lower half of the band gap at z ≥ 0.5 against the background of allowed valence-band states at z ≤ 0.4. The electron exchange between neutral and doubly ionized tin U{sup –} centers in partially compensated Pb{sub 0.99}Sn{sub 0.005}Na{sub 0.005}S{sub z}Se{sub 1–z} alloys is studied. The activation energy of this process decreases from 0.111(5) eV for a composition with z = 1 to 0.049(5) eV for compositions with c ≤ 0. For all z, the exchange is implemented via the simultaneous transfer of two electrons using delocalized valence-band states.

  11. Tin-antimony oxide oxidation catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Frank J. [Open University, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-15

    Tin-antimony oxide catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrocarbons have been made by precipitation techniques. The dehydration of the amorphous dried precipitate by calcination at increasingly higher temperatures induces the crystallisation of a rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase and the segregation of antimony oxides which volatilise at elevated temperatures. The rutile-related tin dioxide-type phase contains antimony(V) in the bulk and antimony(III) in the surface. Specific catalytic activity for the oxidative dehydrogenation of butene to butadiene is associated with materials with large concentrations of antimony(III) in the surface.

  12. Electrochemical dissolution of tin in methanesulphonic acid solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef, R.A.T.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2001-01-01

    High-rate electroplating of tin on a moving steel strip is generally carried out in cells with dimensionally stable anodes. To obtain a matt tin deposit a concentrated acidic tin methanesulphonate solution containing a small concentration of sulphuric acid is used. The concentrated tin

  13. 19 CFR 11.9 - Special marking on certain articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special marking on certain articles. 11.9 Section... OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Marking § 11.9 Special marking on certain articles. (a... of additional U.S. Note 4, Chapter 91. If any article so required to be marked is found not to be...

  14. Moderation of the 119mSn isomer radioactive decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godovikov, S.K.

    1999-01-01

    The evaluation of the constant of the braked 119m Sn nuclei decay in the Moessbauer source, being for a long time in contact with a resonance shield, is carried out. The high stability of these nuclei relative to decay is established. The 119m Sn subjected to prolonged impact of the standing electromagnetic wave field become resistant to radioactive decay [ru

  15. 7 CFR 3550.119 - WWD eligibility requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE... 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.119 WWD eligibility requirements. In addition to the... residing in the household that is below the most recent poverty income guidelines established by the...

  16. 21 CFR 801.119 - In vitro diagnostic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro diagnostic products. 801.119 Section 801...) MEDICAL DEVICES LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 801.119 In vitro diagnostic products. A product intended for use in the diagnosis of disease and which is an in vitro diagnostic...

  17. 21 CFR 201.119 - In vitro diagnostic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false In vitro diagnostic products. 201.119 Section 201...) DRUGS: GENERAL LABELING Exemptions From Adequate Directions for Use § 201.119 In vitro diagnostic products. (a) “In vitro diagnostic products” are those reagents, instruments and systems intended for use...

  18. 18 CFR 401.119 - Disclosure to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to Congress. 401.119 Section 401.119 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION... Disclosure to Congress. All records of the Commission shall be disclosed to Congress upon an authorized...

  19. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  20. 32 CFR 536.119 - Scope for maritime claims.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Scope for maritime claims. 536.119 Section 536... CLAIMS AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Maritime Claims § 536.119 Scope for maritime claims. The AMCSA applies...) Damage that is maritime in nature and caused by tortious conduct of U.S. military personnel or federal...

  1. 14 CFR 91.119 - Minimum safe altitudes: General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... than 500 feet to any person, vessel, vehicle, or structure. (d) Helicopters. Helicopters may be... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum safe altitudes: General. 91.119 Section 91.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  2. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE...

  3. Mitigating tin whisker risks theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Handwerker, Carol A; Bath, Jasbir

    2016-01-01

    Discusses the growth mechanisms of tin whiskers and the effective mitigation strategies necessary to reduce whisker growth risks. This book covers key tin whisker topics, ranging from fundamental science to practical mitigation strategies. The text begins with a review of the characteristic properties of local microstructures around whisker and hillock grains to identify why these particular grains and locations become predisposed to forming whiskers and hillocks. The book discusses the basic properties of tin-based alloy finishes and the effects of various alloying elements on whisker formation, with a focus on potential mechanisms for whisker suppression or enhancement for each element. Tin whisker risk mitigation strategies for each tier of the supply chain for high reliability electronic systems are also described.

  4. Radiochemical studies of the separation of some chloro-complexes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamoorthy, N.; Mani, R.S.

    1976-01-01

    Radioisotopes of tin, antimony, cadmium and indium such as tin-113, antimony-124, antimony-125, cadmium-109, cadmium-115, indium-113m and indium-111 find extensive applications as tracers in various fields. These isotopes are produced by irradiation of targets in a reactor or a cyclotron. It is usually observed that in addition to the nuclear reactions giving rise to the desired isotopes, side reactions also take place giving rise to radionuclidic contaminants. Thus, antimony-125, indium-114m and indium-114 will be present in the cyclotron produced indium-111. The authors have studied column chromatography over hydrous zirconia for the separation of antimony from tin and indium, and cadmium from indium. These studies have thrown light on the role and behaviour of antimony-125 present as an impurity in tin-113 during the preparation of tin-113-indium-113m generators and have indicated methods for the preparation of 115 Cd-sup(115m)In generators and for separation of 111 In from proton irradiated cadmium targets. (Authors)

  5. Metallic nature of Sn{sub 1-} {sub x} Sb {sub x} O{sub 2{+-}} {sub {delta}} (x=0.0, 0.10 and 0.20) mixed oxides: Probed by {sup 119}Sn MAS NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, O.D. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)]. E-mail: ddjaya@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sudarsan, V. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Kulshreshtha, S.K. [Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2007-04-15

    Antimony doped SnO{sub 2} samples were prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), {sup 119}Sn magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS NMR) and variable temperature electrical conductivity measurements. Based on {sup 119}Sn MAS NMR measurements on these samples, it was established that only above 400 deg. C, the structural units of antimony and tin interacts, resulting in the metallic nature. Metallic behavior of the high-temperature heated samples was further confirmed by the variable temperature electrical conductivity measurements.

  6. Pion-induced fission of 209Bi and 119Sn: measurements, calculations, analyses and comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, M.A.; Sher, G.; Manzoor, S.; Shehzad, M.I.

    2011-01-01

    Cross-sections for the π - -induced fission of 209 Bi and 119 Sn have been measured using the most sensitive CR-39 solid-state nuclear track detector. In experiments, target–detector stacks were exposed to negative pions of energy 500, 672, 1068, and 1665 MeV at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA. An important aspect of the present paper is the comparison of pion-induced fission fragment spectra of above mentioned nuclei with the spontaneous fission fragment spectra of 252 Cf. This comparison is made in terms of fission fragment track lengths in the CR-39 detectors. Measurement results are compared with calculations of Monte Carlo and statistical weight functions methods using the computer code CEM95. Agreement between measurements and calculations is fairly good for 209 Bi target nuclei whereas it is indigent for the case of 119 Sn. The possibilities of the trustworthy calculations, using the computer code CEM95, comparable with measurements of pion-induced fission in intermediate and heavy nuclei are explored by employing various systematics available in the code. Energy dependence of pion-induced fission in 119 Sn and 209 Bi is analyzed employing a newly defined parameter geometric-size-normalized fission cross-section (χ f g ). It is found that the collective nuclear excitations, which may lead to fission, become more probable for both 209 Bi and 119 Sn nuclei with increasing energy of negative pions from 500 to 1665 MeV. (author)

  7. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-01-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II

  8. Synthesis and characterization of tin(II) complexes of fluorinated Schiff bases derived from amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Har Lal

    2010-07-01

    New tin(II) complexes of general formula Sn(L)(2) (L=monoanion of 3-methyl-4-fluoro-acetophenone phenylalanine L(1)H, 3-methyl-4-fluoro-acetophenone alanine L(2)H, 3-methyl-4-fluoro acetophenone tryptophan L(3)H, 3-methyl-4-fluoro-acetophenone valine L(4)H, 3-methyl-4-fluoro-acetophenone isoleucine L(5)H and 3-methyl-4-fluoro-acetophenone glycine L(6)H) have been prepared. It is characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductance measurements and molecular weight determinations. Bonding of these complexes is discussed in terms of their UV-visible, infrared, and nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H, (13)C, (19)F and (119)Sn NMR) spectral studies. The ligands act as bidentate towards metal ions, via the azomethine nitrogen and deprotonated oxygen of the respective amino acid. Elemental analyses and NMR spectral data of the ligands with their tin(II) complexes agree with their proposed square pyramidal structures. A few representative ligands and their tin complexes have been screened for their antibacterial activities and found to be quite active in this respect. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. IMPEDANCE SPECTROSCOPY OF POLYCRYSTALLINE TIN DIOXIDE FILMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Adamchuck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the analysis of the influence of annealing in an inert atmosphere on the electrical properties and structure of non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films by means of impedance spectroscopy method. Non-stoichiometric tin dioxide films were fabricated by two-step oxidation of metallic tin deposited on the polycrystalline Al2O3 substrates by DC magnetron sputtering. In order to modify the structure and stoichiometric composition, the films were subjected to the high temperature annealing in argon atmosphere in temperature range 300–800 °С. AC-conductivity measurements of the films in the frequency range 20 Hz – 2 MHz were carried out. Variation in the frequency dependencies of the real and imaginary parts of the impedance of tin dioxide films was found to occur as a result of high-temperature annealing. Equivalent circuits for describing the properties of films with various structure and stoichiometric composition were proposed. Possibility of conductivity variation of the polycrystalline tin dioxide films as a result of аnnealing in an inert atmosphere was demonstrated by utilizing impedance spectroscopy. Annealing induces the recrystallization of the films, changing in their stoichiometry as well as increase of the sizes of SnO2 crystallites. Variation of electrical conductivity and structure of tin dioxide films as a result of annealing in inert atmosphere was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Analysis of the impedance diagrams of tin dioxide films was found to be a powerful tool to study their electrical properties. 

  10. 7 CFR 1710.119 - Loan processing priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Basic Policies § 1710.119 Loan processing priorities. (a) Generally loans are processed in... in effect at the time the facilities were originally constructed; (3) To finance the capital needs of...

  11. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  12. Understanding the gas sensing properties of polypyrrole coated tin oxide nanofiber mats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Sudeshna; Ghanshyam, C.

    2017-03-01

    Tin oxide-polypyrrole composites have been widely studied for their enhanced sensing performance towards ammonia vapours, but further investigations are required for an understanding of the interaction mechanisms with different target analytes. In this work, polypyrrole coated tin oxide fibers have been synthesized using a two-step approach of electrospinning and vapour phase polymerization for the sensing of ammonia, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol and acetone vapours. The resistance variation in the presence of these vapours of different nature and concentration is investigated for the determination of sensor response. A decrease in resistance occurred on interaction of tin oxide-polypyrrole with ammonia, as opposed to previous reported works. Partial reduction of polypyrrole due to interfacial interaction with tin oxide has been proposed to explain this behavior. High sensitivity of 7.45 is achieved for 1 ppm ammonia concentration. Furthermore, the sensor exhibited high sensitivity and a faster response towards ethanol vapours although methanol has the highest electron donating capability. The catalytic mechanism has been discussed to explain this interesting behavior. The results reveal that interaction between tin oxide and polypyrrole is crucial to control the predominant sensing mechanism.

  13. Comparative assessment of gastrointestinal irritant potency in man of tin(II) chloride and tin migrated from packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Peter J; Boisset, Michel; Blunden, Steve; Davies, Scot; Ong, Teng Jin; Taverne, Jean-Pierre

    2003-12-01

    Tin is present in low concentrations in most canned foods and beverages, the highest levels being found in products packaged in unlacquered or partially lacquered tinplate cans. A limited number of case-reports of acute gastrointestinal disorders after consumption of food containing 100-500 mg/kg tin have been reported, but these reports suffer many insufficiencies. Controlled clinical studies on acute effects of tin migrated from packaging suggest a threshold concentration for adverse effects (AEs) of >730 mg/kg. Two separate randomised, single-centre, double-blind, crossover studies, enabling comparison of the tolerability of tin added as tin(II) chloride at concentrations of soup in 24 volunteers (Study 2) were carried out. Distribution studies were conducted to get insight in the acute AEs of low molecular weight (clear dose-response relationship was only observed when tin was added as tin(II) chloride in tomato juice. No clinically significant AEs were reported in Study 2 and comparison of the incidence of tin-related AEs showed no difference between the dose levels (including control). Tin species of low molecular weight in supernatant represented 31-32% of total tin in canned tomato soup versus 56-61% in juice freshly spiked with tin(II) chloride. Differences in the incidence of AEs following administration of tomato juice with 161 and 264 mg of tin per kg and tomato soup with 201 and 267 mg of tin per kg likely results from differences in the concentration of low molecular weight tin species and in the nature of tin complexes formed. The results of this work demonstrate that tin levels up to 267 mg/kg in canned food cause no AEs in healthy adults and support the currently proposed tin levels of 200 mg/kg and 250 mg/kg for canned beverages and canned foods, respectively, as safe levels for adults in the general population.

  14. Proton transport properties of tin phosphate, chromotropic acid ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The functionalized materials of tin (IV) phosphate (SnP) like chromotropic acid anchored tin ... elemental analysis (ICP–AES), thermal analysis, X-ray analysis and FTIR spectroscopy. .... nal level below 1 V, interfaced to a minicomputer for data.

  15. New way of doppler lifetime measurements used in a case of 119I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasternak, A.A.; Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. An experience gained during data analysis of lifetime measurements (1) in 119 I is presented. The experiment was done using NORDBALL array with plunger inside. The 119 I were produced in the reaction 109 Ag( 13 C,3n) 119 I. Two type of Ag targets were used: thin one (about 0.8 mg/cm 2 ) for RDM measurements and thick one (about 6 mg/cm 2 ) for DSA measurements. Both types of lifetime data were analysed by the same code SHAPE (2) originaly devoted to DSA method. Such sofisticated analysis alowed to determined lifetimes for about 60 levels. The following topics are important for precise lifetime determination: I. Application of DSA software to RDM data. Recoil Distance Doppler Shift Attenuation Method RDDSAM takes into consideration exact γ-lineshape measured using plunger. The information obtained from RDDSAM is more rich than when standard RDM analysis is used. II. Reaction, energy of projectile and statistical side-feeding time. The reaction and the energy of projectile should be chosen to get similar angular momentum distribution of entry states as the one of investigated states. In such case, E2 stretched cascade from entry states to the measured levels is strongly reduced. Then, one can use a simple formula for calculation of the statistical side feeding time: τ sidefeeding = k sf x (E exc - E lev ), where: E exc is the energy of entry state with spin value being the same as spin of investigated level, and E lev is the energy of investigated level. The value of k sf = 0.020(5) ps/MeV was deduced from the analysis of a few fastest transitions in 119 I. III. Self-calibration of stopping power. To perform self calibration of stopping power we propose (1) to use 'semi-thick' target with thickness comparable to recoil range. In our case 0.8 mg/cm 2 target fulfils such condition. For the semi-thick target the observed γ-lineshape is governed by the velocity distribution of recoils leaving target if τ level is much larger than

  16. Microwave plasma CVD of NANO structured tin/carbon composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinek, Marek [Warszawa, PL; Kostecki, Robert [Lafayette, CA

    2012-07-17

    A method for forming a graphitic tin-carbon composite at low temperatures is described. The method involves using microwave radiation to produce a neutral gas plasma in a reactor cell. At least one organo tin precursor material in the reactor cell forms a tin-carbon film on a supporting substrate disposed in the cell under influence of the plasma. The three dimensional carbon matrix material with embedded tin nanoparticles can be used as an electrode in lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Lifetime measurements and the nonaxial deformation in 119I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Starosta, K.; Juutinen, S.; Piiparinen, M.; Toermaenen, S.; Virtanen, A.

    2000-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Lifetimes in four negative parity bands of 119 I were measured using DSAM and RDM. 119 I nuclei were produced in the 109 Ag( 13 C,3n) reaction, γγ coincidences were collected using the NORDBALL array. The detailed description of experiment is given in (1,2,3). Information about electromagnetic properties of four negative parity bands, originating from the h 11/2 quasiproton coupled to an axially asymmetric core, was obtained. The lifetimes of 31 negative parity levels were determined. That is one of the largest sets of electromagnetic transition probabilities for an odd - A nucleus from the 50 119 I nucleus. We see that the 53-rd proton added to the 118 Te nucleus, through the polarisation effect, changes the properties of the even-even core. The β-deformation becomes at least as large as that of 120 Xe (β ∼ 0.28), whereas the γ-deformation is around 30 deg. Comparison of experimental data with calculation within Core Quasiparticle Coupling Model indicates the advantage of the γ- soft model over the γ-rigid one in the description of h 11/2 band structure in 119 I. One can see, that the most valuable information concerning the shape of 119 I is based on the properties of the unfavoured states, especially those belonging to band 9, with their regular energy spacing and fast intraband transitions. (author)

  18. S Tank Farm SL-119 saltwell piping failure analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlos, W.C.

    1994-01-01

    On January 24, 1992, while pressure testing saltwell line SL-119 in the 241-S Tank Farm, water was observed spraying out of heat trace enclosure. The SL-115, SL-116, SN-215, and SN-216 saltwell lines also recently failed pressure testing because of leaks. This study documents the pertinent facts about the SL-119 line and discusses the cause of the failures. The inspection of the SL-119 failure revealed two through-the-wall holes in the top center of the pipeline. The inspection also strongly suggests that the heat tracing system is directly responsible for causing the SL-119 failure. Poor design of the heat tracing system allowed water to enter, condense, and collect in the electric metallic tubing (EMT) carbon steel conduits. Water flowed to the bottom of the elbow of the conduit and corroded out the elbow. The design also allowed drifting desert sand to enter into the conduit and fall to the bottom (elbow) of the conduit. The sand became wet and aided in the corrosion of the elbow of the conduit. After the EMT conduits corroded though, the water dripped from the corroded ends of the EMT conduits onto the top of the saltwell pipe, corroding the two holes into the top of the line. If the heat tracing hot splice box had not allowed moisture to enter the EMT conduits, the saltwell piping would not have corroded and caused SL-119 to fail

  19. Synthesising highly reactive tin oxide using Tin(II2- ethylhexanoate polynucleation as precursor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Montenegro Hernández

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tin oxide is a widely used compound in technological applications, particularity as a catalyst, gas sensor and in making varistors, transparent conductors, electrocatalytic electrodes and photovoltaic cells. An ethylhexanoate tin salt, a carboxylic acid and poly-esterification were used for synthesising highly reactive tin oxide in the present study. Synthesis was controlled by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and recording changes in viscosity. The tin oxide characteristics so obtained were determined using FTIR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The SnO2 dust synthesised and heat-treated at 550°C yielded high density aggregates, having greater than 50 μm particle size. This result demonstrates the high reactivity of the ceramic powders synthesised here.

  20. Tin(2) difluoride and antimony(3) trifluoride as fluorine donors in reactions with tantalum halides in various solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokunov, Yu.V.; Ershova, M.M.; Razgonyaeva, G.A.; Buslaev, Yu.A.

    2001-01-01

    The reactions of SnF 2 , SbF 3 with TaF 5 and TaCl 5 in acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide were studied by means of 19 F and 119 Sn NMR. SnF 2 and SbF 3 were established to be donors of fluorine ions for the tantalum(5). It was found that the anion and cation tantalum fluorochloride complexes were formed in acetonitrile, and [TaF 6 ] - was dominated in dimethylsulfoxide. In the solution the tin(2) is present as fluorine-containing polymer cations. Dimethylsulfoxide, as distinct from acetonitrile, leads to disproportionation of tantalum fluorochlorides [ru

  1. Mean cross sections of fast neutrons radiative capture, transmission and mean resonance parameters for the tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timokhov, V.M.; Bokhovko, M.V.; Kazakov, L.E.; Kononov, V.N.; Manturov, G.N.; Poletaev, E.D.

    1988-01-01

    Results of measurements of neutron radiative capture cross sections in the energy range of 20-450 keV and of neutron transmission in the energy range of 20-1400 keV for 112,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,122 ,124S n isotopes and natural mixture of tin are presented. Analysis of the experimental data in the framework of nuclear reactions statistical theory is carried out, as a result of which data on neutron and radiation strength functions, potential scattering radii for S- and P-neutrons, as well as nuclear levels density parameters, are obtained

  2. Hydrolysis of bis(dimethylamido)tin to tin (II) oxyhydroxide and its selective transformation into tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-03-01

    Sn6O4(OH)4, a hydrolysis product of Sn(NMe2)2, is transformed to tin (II) or tin (IV) oxide by solid and solution phase processing. Tin (II) oxide is formed by heating Sn6O4(OH)4 at ≤200 °C in air or under inert atmosphere. Tin (IV) oxide nanoparticles are formed in the presence of a carboxylic acid and base in air at room temperature. IR spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, thermogravimetry (coupled with infrared spectroscopy), powder X-ray diffraction, high temperature X-ray diffraction, scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy are used for the characterization of Sn6O4(OH)4 and the investigation of its selective decomposition into SnO or SnO2. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction results indicate that SnO is formed by the removal of water from crystalline Sn6O4(OH)4. SEM shows octahedral morphology of the Sn6O4(OH)4, SnO and SnO2 with particle size from 400 nm-2 μm during solid state conversion. Solution phase transformation of Sn6O4(OH)4 to SnO2 occurs in the presence of potassium glutarate and oxygen. SnO2 particles are 15-20 nm in size.

  3. Broadly reactive antibodies specific for Plasmodium falciparum MSP-119 are associated with the protection of naturally exposed children against infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dent Arlene E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 19 kDa C-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum Merozoite Surface Protein-1 is a known target of naturally acquired humoral immunity and a malaria vaccine candidate. MSP-119 has four predominant haplotypes resulting in amino acid changes labelled EKNG, QKNG, QTSR and ETSR. IgG antibodies directed against all four variants have been detected, but it is not known if these variant specific antibodies are associated with haplotype-specific protection from infection. Methods Blood samples from 201 healthy Kenyan adults and children who participated in a 12-week treatment time-to-infection study were evaluated. Venous blood drawn at baseline (week 0 was examined for functional and serologic antibodies to MSP-119 and MSP-142 variants. MSP-119 haplotypes were detected by a multiplex PCR assay at baseline and weekly throughout the study. Generalized linear models controlling for age, baseline MSP-119 haplotype and parasite density were used to determine the relationship between infecting P. falciparum MSP-119 haplotype and variant-specific antibodies. Results A total of 964 infections resulting in 1,533 MSP-119 haplotypes detected were examined. The most common haplotypes were EKNG and QKNG, followed by ETSR and QTSR. Children had higher parasite densities, greater complexity of infection (>1 haplotype, and more frequent changes in haplotypes over time compared to adults. Infecting MSP-119 haplotype at baseline (week 0 had no influence on haplotypes detected over the subsequent 11 weeks among children or adults. Children but not adults with MSP-119 and some MSP-142 variant antibodies detected by serology at baseline had delayed time-to-infection. There was no significant association of variant-specific serology or functional antibodies at baseline with infecting haplotype at baseline or during 11 weeks of follow up among children or adults. Conclusions Variant transcending IgG antibodies to MSP-119 are associated with protection

  4. Synthesis and Mössbauer spectroscopy of formal tin(II) dichloride and dihydride species supported by Lewis acids and bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Rafia, S M Ibrahim; Shynkaruk, Olena; McDonald, Sean M; Liew, Sean K; Ferguson, Michael J; McDonald, Robert; Herber, Rolfe H; Rivard, Eric

    2013-05-06

    (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy was performed on a series of formal Sn(II) dichloride and dihydride adducts bound by either carbon- or phosphorus-based electron pair donors. Upon binding electron-withdrawing metal pentacarbonyl units to the tin centers in LB·SnCl2·M(CO)5 (LB = Lewis base; M = Cr or W), a significant decrease in isomer shift (IS) was noted relative to the unbound Sn(II) complexes, LB·SnCl2, consistent with removal of nonbonding s-electron density from tin upon forming Sn-M linkages (M = Cr and W). Interestingly, when the nature of the Lewis base in the series LB·SnCl2·W(CO)5 was altered, very little change in the IS values was noted, implying that the LB-Sn bonds were constructed with tin-based orbitals of large p-character (as supported by prior theoretical studies). In addition, variable temperature Mössbauer measurements were used to determine the mean displacement of the tin atoms in the solid state, a parameter that can be correlated with the degree of covalent bonding involving tin in these species.

  5. A High Current Density Low Cost Niobium 3 Tin Titanium Doped Conductor Utilizing A Novel Internal Tin Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruce A Zeitlin

    2005-01-01

    An internal tin conductor has been developed using a Mono Element Internal Tin (MEIT) with an integral Nb barrier surrounding the Nb filaments. High current densities of 3000 A/mm2+ at 12 T and 1800 A/mm2 at 15 T have been achieved in conductors as small as 0.152 mm with the use of Nb7.5Ta filaments and Ti in the Sn core. In contrast, conductors with pure Nb and Ti in the Sn achieved 2700 A/mm2 at 12 T. Two internal fins, developed and patented on the project, were introduced into the filament array and reduced the effective filament diameter (Deff) by 38%. Additional fins will further reduce Deff The conductor was produced from 152.4 mm diameter billets to produce wire as small as 0.152 mm. The process promises be scaleable to 304 mm diameter billets yielding wire of 0.304 mm diameter. The MEIT process wire was easy to draw with relatively few breaks. The cost of this conductor in large production quantities based on the cost model presented could meet the 1.5 $/kilo amp meter(KAM) target of the HEP community

  6. Sputtered tin oxide and titanium oxide thin films as alternative transparent conductive oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boltz, Janika

    2011-12-12

    Alternative transparent conductive oxides to tin doped indium oxide have been investigated. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide have been studied with the aim to prepare transparent and conductive films. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide belong to different groups of oxides; tin oxide is a soft oxide, while titanium oxide is a hard oxide. Both oxides are isolating materials, in case the stoichiometry is SnO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2}. In order to achieve transparent and conductive films free carriers have to be generated by oxygen vacancies, by metal ions at interstitial positions in the crystal lattice or by cation doping with Sb or Nb, respectively. Antimony doped tin oxide and niobium doped titanium oxide films have been prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (dc MS) from metallic targets. The process parameters and the doping concentration in the films have been varied. The films have been electrically, optically and structurally analysed in order to analyse the influence of the process parameters and the doping concentration on the film properties. Post-deposition treatments of the films have been performed in order to improve the film properties. For the deposition of transparent and conductive tin oxide, the dominant parameter during the deposition is the oxygen content in the sputtering gas. The Sb incorporation as doping atoms has a minor influence on the electrical, optical and structural properties. Within a narrow oxygen content in the sputtering gas highly transparent and conductive tin oxide films have been prepared. In this study, the lowest resistivity in the as deposited state is 2.9 m{omega} cm for undoped tin oxide without any postdeposition treatment. The minimum resistivity is related to a transition to crystalline films with the stoichiometry of SnO{sub 2}. At higher oxygen content the films turn out to have a higher resistivity due to an oxygen excess. After post

  7. 34 CFR 300.119 - Technical assistance and training activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Technical assistance and training activities. 300.119... Technical assistance and training activities. Each SEA must carry out activities to ensure that teachers and....114; and (b) Are provided with technical assistance and training necessary to assist them in this...

  8. 29 CFR 570.119 - Fourteen-year minimum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS CHILD LABOR REGULATIONS, ORDERS AND STATEMENTS OF INTERPRETATION General Statements of Interpretation of the Child Labor Provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as Amended Oppressive Child Labor § 570.119 Fourteen-year...

  9. 25 CFR 700.119 - Establishment of fair market value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of fair market value. 700.119 Section 700... value. (a) General. The Commission shall establish the amount of fair market value to be offered to the... recommendations as to the fair market value of the habitations and/or improvements; or (2) The fair market value...

  10. The electric dipole response of neutron rich tin isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvat, Andrea; Aumann, Thomas; Rossi, Dominic; Schindler, Fabia [Institut fuer Kernphysik, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Boretzky, Konstanze [GSI Helmholzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (Germany); Johansen, Jacob [Aarhus University (Denmark); Schrock, Philipp [The University of Tokyo (Japan); Collaboration: R3B-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    Studies of the dipole response in medium heavy and heavy neutron rich nuclei reveal valuable information about the isospin dependence of the nuclear equation of state. Therefore an experimental campaign investigating both the electric dipole response via Coulomb excitation and neutron removal along the tin isotope chain ({sup 124-134}Sn) has been carried out at the R3B (Reactions with Relativistic Radioactive Beams) setup at GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) for which the analysis is ongoing. The E1 response was induced via relativistic Coulomb scattering by a lead target in inverse kinematics, and calls for a kinematically complete determination of all reaction products in order to reconstruct the excitation energy by means of the invariant mass method. The goal is to obtain the Coulomb excitation cross section up to the adiabatic cut-off energy, covering the giant dipole resonance (GDR) range.

  11. Study on decay of 118Xe and 119Xe by means of mass-separator on-line with a synchrocyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlovich, Eh.E.; Batist, L.Kh.; Blinnikov, Yu.S.

    1976-01-01

    The decay of sup(118, 119)Xe isotopes has been investigated. An experimental device involving a mass-separator operating in line with a synchrocyclotron is briefly outlined. The elements to be investigated were isolated from a proton-irradiated target by the 'on-beam-chemistry' methods and transferred into the mass-separator ion source. The Xe separated ions are transported to detectors in an experimental ha ll. The energies and relative γ ray intensities of 118 Xe → 118 J and of 119 Xe → 119 J decays ar presented. The error of the γ ray energy determination does not exceed 0.6 keV. Obtained are the periods of half-life: for 118 Xe - (3.8+-0.9) min, for 119 Xe - (5.8+-0.3) min. The decay scheme for 119 Xe is made up. The scheme of 119 Xe levels is well inscribed into the general systematics of the J odd isotope levels. On the basis of obtained and known data the spin values are described to the 119 J levels

  12. Electrical and Optical Properties of Fluorine Doped Tin Oxide Thin Films Prepared by Magnetron Sputtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziad Y. Banyamin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO coatings have been prepared using the mid-frequency pulsed DC closed field unbalanced magnetron sputtering technique in an Ar/O2 atmosphere using blends of tin oxide and tin fluoride powder formed into targets. FTO coatings were deposited with a thickness of 400 nm on glass substrates. No post-deposition annealing treatments were carried out. The effects of the chemical composition on the structural (phase, grain size, optical (transmission, optical band-gap and electrical (resistivity, charge carrier, mobility properties of the thin films were investigated. Depositing FTO by magnetron sputtering is an environmentally friendly technique and the use of loosely packed blended powder targets gives an efficient means of screening candidate compositions, which also provides a low cost operation. The best film characteristics were achieved using a mass ratio of 12% SnF2 to 88% SnO2 in the target. The thin film produced was polycrystalline with a tetragonal crystal structure. The optimized conditions resulted in a thin film with average visible transmittance of 83% and optical band-gap of 3.80 eV, resistivity of 6.71 × 10−3 Ω·cm, a carrier concentration (Nd of 1.46 × 1020 cm−3 and a mobility of 15 cm2/Vs.

  13. Characterization of tin selenides synthesized by high-energy milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Achimovičová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tin selenides SnSeX (x=1,2 were synthesized from tin and selenium powder precursors by high-energy milling in the planetary ballmill Pulverisette 6 (Fritsch, Germany. The orthorhombic tin selenide SnSe and the hexagonal tin diselenide SnSe2 phases were formed after4 min and 5 min of milling, respectively. Specific surface area of both selenides increased with increasing time of mechanochemicalsynthesis. The particle size distribution analysis demonstrated that the synthesized products contain agglomerated selenide particlesconsisting of numerous idiomorphic tin selenide crystals, measuring from 2 to more than 100 nm in diameter, which were also documentedby TEM. UV-Vis spectrophotometry confirmed that tin selenide particles do not behave as quantum dots.

  14. Defect Engineering and Interface Phenomena in Tin Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Albar, Arwa

    2017-04-05

    The advance in transparent electronics requires high-performance transparent conducting oxide materials. The microscopic properties of these materials are sensitive to the presence of defects and interfaces and thus fundamental understanding is required for materials engineering. In this thesis, first principles density functional theory is used to investigate the possibility of tuning the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of tin oxide by means of defects and interfaces. Our aim is to reveal unique properties and the parameters to control them as well as to explain the origin of unique phenomena in oxide materials. The stability of native defect in tin monoxide (SnO) under strain is investigated using formation energy calculations. We find that the conductivity (which is controlled by native defects) can be switched from p-type to either n-type or undoped semiconducting by means of applied pressure. We then target inducing magnetism in SnO by 3d transition metal doping. We propose that V doping is efficient to realize spin polarization at high temperature. We discuss different tin oxide interfaces. Metallic states are found to form at the SnO/SnO2 interface with electronic properties that depend on the interface terminations. The origin of these states is explained in terms of charge transfer caused by chemical bonding and band alignment. For the SnO/SnO2 heterostructure, we observe the formation of a two dimensional hole gas at the interface, which is surprising as it cannot be explained by the standard polar catastrophe model. Thus, we propose a charge density discontinuity model to explain our results. The model can be generalized to other polar-polar interfaces. Motivated by technological applications, the electronic and structural properties of the MgO (100)/SnO2 (110) interface are investigated. Depending on the interface termination, we observe the formation of a two dimensional electron gas or spin polarized hole gas. Aiming to identify further

  15. Search of the chemical change of the sup(119m)Sn (Tsub(1/2) = 293 days) radioactive decay rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makariunas, K.; Makariuniene, E.; Dragunas, A.

    1983-01-01

    The differences in decay rates of the nuclear isomer sup(119m)Sn (Tsub(1/2) = 293 days; the strongly converted M4 transition) have been measured for different chemical compounds. The experimental results show that the sup(119m)Sn nuclei in the telluride SnTe decay faster than in the metal β-Sn and in the dioxide SnO 2 [the relative change Δlambda/lambda the decay probability lambda is +(3.6+-1.4)x10 -4 ]. No measurable difference between the decay rates of sup(119m)Sn in β-Sn and SnO 2 has been observed [Δlambda/lambda = -(0.1+-1.2)x10 -4 ], irrespective of the great difference in electronic structure of the tin atoms. The results cannot be explained by considering the internal conversion of the valence electrons only. It is necessary to assume that the chemical changes of the decay rate are strongly influenced by the chemical changes of the probabilities of the internal conversion of electrons of the inner shells of the atom. This conclusion is confirmed by theoretical calculations. (Auth.)

  16. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B.

    1972-01-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  17. Lifetime Measurement in the Yrast Band of 119I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Yu. N.; Pasternak, A. A.; Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Hagemann, G. B.; Juutinen, S.; Morek, T.; Piiparinen, M.; Podsvirova, E. O.; Toermaenen, S.; Starosta, K.; Virtanen, A.; Wasilewski, A. A.

    1999-05-01

    The lifetime of levels in the yrast band of 119I were measured by DSAM and RDM using the 109Ag (13C,3n) reaction at E=54 MeV. The detailed description of data analysis including the stopping power determination and estimation of side feeding time is given. A modified method of RDM data analysis --- Recoil Distance Doppler Shape Attenuation (RDDSA) is used.

  18. Lifetime measurement in the yrast band of {sup 119}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobach, Yu.N. [Institute for Nuclear Research UAS, Kiev (Ukraine); Pasternak, A.A. [A.F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute RAS, St. Petersbourg (Russian Federation); Srebrny, J. [Nuclear Physics Division, IEP, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland)] [and others

    1999-05-01

    The lifetime of levels in the yrast band of {sup 119}I were measured by DSAM and RDM using the {sup 109}Ag({sup 13}C,3n) reaction at E = 54 MeV. The detailed description of data analysis including the stopping power determination and estimation of side feeding time is given. A modified method of RDM data analysis - Recoil Distance Doppler Shape Attenuation (RDDSA) is used. (author) 17 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  19. Lifetime measurement in the yrast band of 119I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobach, Yu.N.; Pasternak, A.A.; Srebrny, J.

    1999-01-01

    The lifetime of levels in the yrast band of 119 I were measured by DSAM and RDM using the 109 Ag( 13 C,3n) reaction at E = 54 MeV. The detailed description of data analysis including the stopping power determination and estimation of side feeding time is given. A modified method of RDM data analysis - Recoil Distance Doppler Shape Attenuation (RDDSA) is used. (author)

  20. Preparation of textural lamellar tin deposits via electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaoyu; Pan, Xiaona; Wu, Libin; Li, Ruinan; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Jinqiu; Yang, Peixia

    2017-06-01

    Lamellar tin deposits were prepared by galvanostatical electroplating from the aqueous acidic-sulfate bath, with gelatin and benzalacetone dissolved in ethanol (ABA+EtOH) as additive, and their morphologies were investigated by scanning electron microscopy. Cathodic polarization curves revealed that the absorbability of ABA+EtOH on the cathode surface was higher than that of gelatin. X-ray diffraction analysis indicated preferred orientations of tin growth led to the formation of lamellar structure and distortion of tin lattice. The growth mechanism of lamellar tin was also discussed.

  1. Deposit of thin films of TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C by laser ablation; Deposito de peliculas delgadas de TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C por ablacion laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mejia, I.S.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Romero, S. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de mexico (Mexico); Muhl, S. [IIM, UNAM, A.P. 364, 01000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-07-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon (a-C), as well as bilayers of Ti/TiN/a-C were deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. It was investigated the effect that it has the laser fluence used to ablation the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the TiN deposited films. The TiN obtained films have a preferential orientation in the direction (200). The results show that the hardness of this material is influenced by the laser fluence. It is observed that the hardness is increased in an approximately lineal way with the increment of the fluence up to 19 J/cm{sup 2}. The films of amorphous carbon present hardness of the order of 11.2 GPa. Likewise it was found that the multilayers of Ti/TiN/aC presented a bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  2. Deposit of thin films of TiN, a-C, Ti/TiN/a-C by laser ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejia, I.S.; Escobar A, L.; Camps, E.; Romero, S.; Muhl, S.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN), amorphous carbon (a-C), as well as bilayers of Ti/TiN/a-C were deposited by means of the laser ablation technique. It was investigated the effect that it has the laser fluence used to ablation the targets in the structure and mechanical properties of the TiN deposited films. The TiN obtained films have a preferential orientation in the direction (200). The results show that the hardness of this material is influenced by the laser fluence. It is observed that the hardness is increased in an approximately lineal way with the increment of the fluence up to 19 J/cm 2 . The films of amorphous carbon present hardness of the order of 11.2 GPa. Likewise it was found that the multilayers of Ti/TiN/aC presented a bigger hardness that of its individual components. (Author)

  3. MAGIC NUCLEI: Tin-100 turns up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    In the same way as the Periodic Table of chemical elements reflects the successive filling of orbital electron shells, in nuclear physics the socalled 'magic' numbers correspond to closed shells of 2, 8, 20, 28, 50, 82, 126,... neutrons and/or protons. More tightly bound than other nuclei, these are the nuclear analogues of the inert gases. 'Doubly magic' nuclei have closed shells of both neutrons and protons. Examples in nature are helium-4 (2 protons and 2 neutrons), oxygen-16 (8 and 8), calcium-40 (20 and 20) and calcium-48 (20 and 28). Radioactive tin-132 (50+82) has been widely studied

  4. Moessbauer effect in superconducting organosol of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dekhtyar, I.Ya.; Zhelibo, E.P.; Kushnir, B.G.; Nishchenko, M.M.; Pan, V.M.; Popov, A.G.; Khvorov, M.M.; AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Kolloidnoj Khimii i Khimii Vody)

    1977-01-01

    Structure of disperse particles (approximately 1 μm) of tin organosols have been investigated by means of the Moessbauer effect. A considerable amount of oxides (up to 20%) in amorphous (SnO 2 ) or in metastable crystalline (SnO) states has been discovered. The observed properties of the Moessbauer spectrum of organosols are compared with measurements of their critical temperature. The effect of impurities and of other structural defects on the dynamic and superconducting properties of organosols is observed. Temperature broadening of lines and temperature variation of the Moessbauer effect value for the particle of different dimensions are in a qualitative agreement with the theory of the granular Moessbauer absorbers

  5. Synthesis and decay process of superheavy nuclei with Z=119-122 via hot-fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ansari, A. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, College of Science, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this research article attempts have been made to calculate the superheavy-nuclei synthesis characteristics including, the potential energy parameters, fusion probability, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections as well as, decay properties of compound nucleus and the residue nuclei formation probability for elements with Z=119-122 by using the hot-fusion reactions. It is concluded that, although a selection of double magic projectiles such as {sup 48}Ca with high binding energy, simplifies the calculations significantly due to spherical symmetric shape of the projectile, resulting in high evaporation residue cross section, unfortunately, nuclei with Z > 98 do not exist in quantities sufficient for constructing targets for the hot-fusion reactions. Therefore, practically our selection is fusion reactions with titanium projectile because the mass production of target nuclei for experimental purposes is more feasible. Based upon our findings, it is necessary, for new superheavy-nuclei production with Z > 119, to use neutron-rich projectiles and target nuclei. Finally, the maximal evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy elements with Z=119-122 have been calculated and compared with the previously founded ones in the literature. (orig.)

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy during fabrication of indium-tin-oxynitride films by RF-sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koufaki, M.; Sifakis, M.; Iliopoulos, E.; Pelekanos, N.; Modreanu, M.; Cimalla, V.; Ecke, G.; Aperathitis, E.

    2006-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) and indium-tin-oxynitride (ITON) films have been deposited on glass by rf-sputtering from an ITO target, using Ar plasma and N 2 plasma, respectively, and different rf-power. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) was employed to identify the species present in the plasma and to correlate them with the properties of the ITO and ITON thin films. Emission lines of ionic In could only be detected in N 2 plasma, whereas in the Ar plasma additional lines corresponding to atomic In and InO, were detected. The deposition rate of thin films was correlated with the In species, rather than the nitrogen species, emission intensity in the plasma. The higher resistivity and lower carrier concentration of the ITON films, as compared to the respective properties of the ITO films, were attributed to the incorporation of nitrogen, instead of oxygen, in the ITON structure

  7. Chemical Vapor Identification by Plasma Treated Thick Film Tin Oxide Gas Sensor Array and Pattern Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Srivastava

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Present study deals the class recognition potential of a four element plasma treated thick film tin oxide gas sensor array exposed with volatile organic compounds (VOCs. Methanol, Ethanol and Acetone are selected as target VOCs and exposed on sensor array at different concentration in range from 100-1000 ppm. Sensor array consist of four tin oxide sensors doped with 1-4 % PbO concentrations were fabricated by thick film technology and then treated with oxygen plasma for 5-10 minute durations. Sensor signal is analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA for visual classification of VOCs. Further output of PCA is used as input for classification of VOCs by four pattern classification techniques as: linear discriminant analysis (LDA, k-nearest neighbor (KNN, back propagation neural network (BPNN and support vector machine (SVM. All the four classifier results 100 % correct classification rate of VOCs by response analysis of sensor array treated with plasma for 5 minute.

  8. Estimates of production and structure of nuclei with Z = 119

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.; Lenske, H.

    2018-02-01

    The comparative analysis of the hot fusion reactions 50Ti +247-249Bk and 51V +246-248Cm for synthesis of element 119 is made with the dinuclear system model and the prediction of nuclear properties of the microscopic-macroscopic approach, where the closed proton shell at Z ≥ 120 is expected. The quasiparticle structures of nuclei in the α-decay chain of 295119 and a possible spread of alpha energies are studied. The calculated values of Qα are compared with available experimental data. The termination of the α-decay chain of 295119 is revealed.

  9. 40 CFR 81.119 - Western Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.119 Section 81.119 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.119 Western Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Western Tennessee Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by...

  10. 47 CFR 69.119 - Basic service element expedited approval process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic service element expedited approval process. 69.119 Section 69.119 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) ACCESS CHARGES Computation of Charges § 69.119 Basic service element...

  11. 7 CFR 28.119 - Fee when request for classification is withdrawn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ....119 Section 28.119 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND... Cotton Standards Act Fees and Costs § 28.119 Fee when request for classification is withdrawn. When the...

  12. 29 CFR 794.119 - Dependence of exemption on sales volume of the enterprise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dependence of exemption on sales volume of the enterprise. 794.119 Section 794.119 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... Act Annual Gross Volume of Sales § 794.119 Dependence of exemption on sales volume of the enterprise...

  13. 48 CFR 18.119 - Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... under the North American Free Trade Agreement. 18.119 Section 18.119 Federal Acquisition Regulations... Available Acquisition Flexibilities 18.119 Use of patented technology under the North American Free Trade Agreement. Requirement to obtain authorization prior to use of patented technology may be waived in...

  14. 38 CFR 4.119 - Schedule of ratings-endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... minute), eye involvement, muscular weakness, loss of weight, and sympathetic nervous system...-endocrine system. 4.119 Section 4.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Endocrine System § 4.119 Schedule of ratings...

  15. Multicolor photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster A119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jintao; Zhou Xu; Jiang Zhaoji; Ma Jun; Wu Zhenyu; Fan Zhou; Zhang Tianmeng; Zou Hu; Yuan Qirong; Wu Jianghua

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents multicolor optical photometry of the nearby galaxy cluster Abell 119 (z = 0.0442) with the Beijing-Arizona-Taiwan-Connecticut system of 15 intermediate bands. Within the BATC field of view of 58' × 58', there are 368 galaxies with known spectroscopic redshifts, including 238 member galaxies (called sample I). Based on the spectral energy distributions of 1376 galaxies brighter than i BATC = 19.5, the photometric redshift technique and the color-magnitude relation of early-type galaxies are applied to select faint member galaxies. As a result, 117 faint galaxies were selected as new member galaxies. Combined with sample I, an enlarged sample (called sample II) of 355 member galaxies is obtained. Spatial distribution and localized velocity structure for two samples demonstrate that A119 is a dynamically complex cluster with at least three prominent substructures in the central region within 1 Mpc. A large velocity dispersion for the central clump indicates a merging along the line of sight. No significant evidence for morphology or luminosity segregations is found in either sample. With the PEGASE evolutionary synthesis model, the environmental effect on the properties of star formation is confirmed. Faint galaxies in the low-density region tend to have longer time scales of star formation, smaller mean stellar ages, and lower metallicities in their interstellar medium, which is in agreement with the context of the hierarchical cosmological scenario. (research papers)

  16. Anomalous growth of whisker-like bismuth-tin extrusions from tin-enriched tin-Bi deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, C.-C.; Tsai, Y.-D.; Lin, C.-C.; Lee, G.-L.; Chen, S.-W.; Lee, T.-C.; Wen, T.-C.

    2009-01-01

    This article shows the first finding that the anomalous growth of Bi-Sn extrusions from tin-enriched alloys (Sn-xBi with x between 20 and 10 wt.%) can be induced by post-plating annealing in N 2 between 145 and 260 deg. C for 10 min although metal whiskers were commonly formed on the surface of pure metals or alloys of the enriched component. From SEM observations, very similar to Sn whiskers, Bi-Sn extrusions vary in size, shape, length, and diameter with changing the annealing temperature, which are highly important in regarding the potential for failure of electronic products. Annealing resulting in thermal expansion of Sn grains is believed to squeeze the Bi-Sn alloys with relatively low melting points to form whisker-like extrusions although the exact mechanism is unclear

  17. Nature of the 153 and 270 keV transitions in /sup 119/Sb from sup(119m)Te

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahota, H S [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-08-01

    The 153 and 270 keV transitions in /sup 119/Sb have been investigated for the presence of any anomalous conversion through conversion electron intensity and conversion-electron gamma and gamma-gamma directional correlation measurements. The resulting subshell ratios and particle rarameters have been analysed for the accurate determination of mixing ratios for the transitions. The results are delta/sub 153/ = +-0.0025 and delta/sub 270/ = 0.10 sub(-0.20)sup(+0.03). The conversion process has been found to be normal in both cases.

  18. Tin and tin-titanium as catalyst components for reversible hydrogen storage of sodium aluminium hydride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi Jia Fu; Shik Chi Tsang [University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom). Surface and Catalysis Research Centre, School of Chemistry

    2006-10-15

    This paper is concerned with the effects of adding tin and/or titanium dopant to sodium aluminium hydride for both dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation reactions during their reversible storage of molecular hydrogen. Temperature programmed decomposition (TPD) measurements show that the dehydrogenation kinetics of NaAlH{sub 4} are significantly enhanced upon doping the material with 2 mol% of tributyltin hydride, Sn(Bu)3H but the tin catalyst dopant is shown to be inferior than titanium. On the other hand, in this preliminary work, a significant synergetic catalytic effect is clearly revealed in material co-doped with both titanium and tin catalysts which shows the highest reversible rates of dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation (after their hydrogen depletion). The re-hydrogenation rates of depleted Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} evaluated at both 9.5 and 140 bars hydrogen are also found to be favourable compared to the Ti/NaAlH{sub 4}, which clearly suggest the importance of the catalyst choice. Basing on these results some mechanistic insights for the catalytic reversible dehydrogenation and re-hydrogenation processes of Sn/Ti/NaAlH{sub 4} are therefore made. 31 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Directly smelted lead-tin alloys: A historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. K.

    2010-08-01

    This paper discusses evidence related to the genesis and occurrence of mixed lead-tin ore deposit consisting of cassiterite and the secondary minerals formed from galena. These evidences belong to a very long time period ranging from pre-historic to as late as the nineteenth century a.d. This type of mixed ore deposits was smelted to prepare lead-tin alloys. The composition of the alloy depended on the composition of the starting ore mixture. A nineteenth century evidence for the production of directly smelted lead-tin alloys in southern Thailand is discussed. A unique and rather uncommon metallurgical terminology in Sanskrit language— Nāgaja—was introduced in India for the tin recovered from impure lead. This suggests that Indians developed a process for recovering tin from lead-tin alloys, which in all probability was based on the general principle of fire refining. It has been shown that in the context of India the possibility of connection between the word Nāgaja and the directly smelted lead-tin alloys cannot be ruled out.

  20. De novo design of chiral organotin cancer drug candidates: validation of enantiopreferential binding to molecular target DNA and 5'-GMP by UV-visible, fluorescence, (1)H and (31)P NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, Farukh; Sharma, Girish Chandra; Sayeed, Fatima; Muddassir, Mohd; Tabassum, Sartaj

    2011-12-02

    N,N-bis[(R-/S-)-1-benzyl-2-ethoxyethane] tin (IV) complexes were synthesized by applying de novo design strategy by the condensation reaction of (R-/S-)2-amino-2-phenylethanol and dibromoethane in presence of dimethyltin dichloride and thoroughly characterized by elemental analysis, conductivity measurements, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and XRD study. Enantioselective and specific binding profile of R-enantiomer 1 in comparison to S-enantiomer 2 with ultimate molecular target CT-DNA was validated by UV-visible, fluorescence, circular dichroism, (1)H and (31)P NMR techniques. This was further corroborated well by interaction of 1 and 2 with 5'-GMP. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrodeposition of rhenium-tin nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naor-Pomerantz, Adi; Eliaz, Noam; Gileadi, Eliezer

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Rhenium-tin nanowires were formed electrochemically, without using a template. → The nanowires consisted of a crystalline-Sn-core/amorphous-Re-shell structure. → The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated. → A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the core/shell structure. → The nanowires may be attractive for a variety of applications. - Abstract: Rhenium (Re) is a refractory metal which exhibits an extraordinary combination of properties. Thus, nanowires and other nanostructures of Re-alloys may possess unique properties resulting from both Re chemistry and the nanometer scale, and become attractive for a variety of applications, such as in catalysis, photovoltaic cells, and microelectronics. Rhenium-tin coatings, consisting of nanowires with a core/shell structure, were electrodeposited on copper substrates under galvanostatic or potentiostatic conditions. The effects of bath composition and operating conditions were investigated, and the chemistry and structure of the coatings were studied by a variety of analytical tools. A Re-content as high as 77 at.% or a Faradaic efficiency as high as 46% were attained. Ranges of Sn-to-Re in the plating bath, applied current density and applied potential, within which the nanowires could be formed, were determined. A mechanism was suggested, according to which Sn nanowires were first grown on top of Sn micro-particles, and then the Sn nanowires reduced the perrhenate chemically, thus forming a core made of crystalline Sn-rich phase, and a shell made of amorphous Re-rich phase. The absence of mutual solubility of Re and Sn may be the driving force for this phase separation.

  2. Retrospective Analysis of 119 Osteosarcomas in a Single Centre Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Gunaldi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Osteosarcomas must be managed by a team which includes pathologists, radiologists, surgeons, radiation therapists, and medical oncologists. Treatment modalities and demographic charasteristics of osteosarcomas were analysed in this study. Material and Method: Primary osteosarcomas treated between 1999-2010 in Cukurova University Medical Faculty Department of Medical Oncology were analysed retrospectively. Results: Of the total 119 patients, 74% were male and 26% female. The median age was 19. The median follow up time was 37 months. The most frequently seen sarcomas were osteoblastic at 82.4%. Localization of the disease was found to be 55% in the lower extremity, 14.1% in the upper extremity, 13% in the head-neck, 6.6% in the thoracic area, and 4.1 % in the pelvic region. Some 6.41% were local stage, 25.64% locally advanced, 15.8% metastatic, and 14.10% were diagnosed with nuks disease. Chemotherapy was administered in 77 of 119 patients. Patients received different treatments: 23.1% were treated with preoperative chemotherapy, 16.67% postoperative, 9.52% palliative, 33.33% preoperative postoperative, 2.38% postoperative palliative, 9.52% preoperative postoperative palliative chemotherapy, and 4.76% of the patients did not receive chemotherapy. Both radical and conservative surgery was performed. The most common metastatic site was the lungs. The overall length of survival was 65 months (95%CI 30-59. The survival rates did not vary between the groups of preoperative, postoperative, preoperative postoperative chemotherapy and other groups (respectively 23 versus 36 versus 28 versus 44 months (p=0.8. No differences were evident for radiotherapy (p=0.06. Discussion: Osteosarcomas can be treated successfully with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. There was no cumulative survival difference in results based on the types of chemotherapy used in this study. These results show the importance of a multimodality treatment approach including

  3. Colorimetric visualization of tin corrosion: A method for early stage corrosion detection on printed circuit boards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2017-01-01

    A majority of printed circuit board surfaces are covered with tin, therefore tin corrosion under humid conditions and movement of tin ions under the influence of an electric field plays an important role in the corrosion failure development. Tracking tin corrosion products spread on the printed c...

  4. Polycrystalline Mn-alloyed indium tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarlat, Camelia; Schmidt, Heidemarie; Xu, Qingyu; Vinnichenko, Mykola; Kolitsch, Andreas; Helm, Manfred; Iacomi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    Magnetic ITO films are interesting for integrating ITO into magneto-optoelectronic devices. We investigated n-conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) films with different Mn doping concentration which have been grown by chemical vapour deposition using targets with the atomic ratio In:Sn:Mn=122:12:0,114:12:7, and 109:12:13. The average film roughness ranges between 30 and 50 nm and XRD patterns revealed a polycrystalline structure. Magnetotransport measurements revealed negative magnetoresistance for all the samples, but high field positive MR can be clearly observed at 5 K with increasing Mn doping concentration. Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been used to prove the existence of midgap states in the Mn-alloyed ITO films revealing a transmittance less than 80%. A reasonable model for the ca. 250 nm thick Mn-alloyed ITO films has been developed to extract optical constants from SE data below 3 eV. Depending on the Mn content, a Lorentz oscillator placed between 1 and 2 eV was used to model optical absorption below the band gap

  5. SU-E-T-127: Application of TG-119 for Evaluation of Proton Spot Scanning Based Planning and Treatment Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saini, J; Cao, N; Wong, T [SCCA Proton Therapy, A Procure Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Bowen, S; Bloch, C [University of Washington, School of Medicine, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The clinical test cases presented in AAPM TG-119 are used to evaluate the accuracy of treatment planning and delivery through spot scanning proton beams. Methods: An IBA spot scanning delivery system has been commissioned to be used with the RayStation treatment planning system. Various test cases provided in TG-119 were used for planning and delivery verification. The CT dataset and structures as provided by TG-119 were imported into a mock patient. The plans were optimized using the multi field optimization (MFO) to achieve the desired goals. The planner was given the flexibility to achieve the given dose-volume goals by creating appropriate objectives and constraints. Beams were delivered to a phantom and measurements were performed at multiple depths using the MatrixxPT detector array. The analyses were performed on beam by beam basis and quantified using the gamma index. A tolerance of 3%/3 mm in 2D was used for gamma index analysis along with dose threshold of 10%. Results: The clinical goals for targets and critical structures were met or improved for all cases except the C-Shape target with difficult constraints. The minimum gamma index using the 3%/3mm as a criterion is 93.3% for one of the planes measured for C-Shape target. Using 2%/2mm as a criterion, the minimum gamma index drops to 70%. Only Prostate target has all the planes above >90% pass using the 2%/2mm criterion. Conclusion: The overall accuracy of the treatment planning and delivery is deemed clinically acceptable. The test cases with highly modulated beams can have steep gradients in the dose profiles that can reduce the gamma index pass rate. Gamma analysis based on 3D data may be needed for routine use of 2%/2mm criterion. In addition, improvements in modelling of spot profiles in dose engine may be required for further improving the gamma index pass rate.

  6. Electrodeposition, characterization and corrosion investigations of galvanic tin-zinc layers from pyrophosphate baths

    OpenAIRE

    STOPIC MILENA D.; FRIEDRICH BERND G.

    2016-01-01

    Tin-zinc alloy deposits are recognized as a potential alternative to toxic cadmium as corrosion resistant coatings. Tin-zinc alloy layers offer outstanding corrosion protection for steel by combining the barrier protection of tin with the galvanic protection of zinc. Tin-zinc coatings have been used on the chassis of electrical and electronic apparatus and on critical automotive parts such as fuel and brake line components. In this study, tin-zinc alloy deposits were successfully prepared fro...

  7. Tin electrodeposition from sulfate solution containing a benzimidazolone derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said BAKKALI

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin electrodeposition in an acidic medium in the presence of N,N’-1,3-bis-[N-3-(6-deoxy-3-O-methyl-D-glucopyranose-6-yl-2-oxobenzimidazol-1-yl]-2-tetradecyloxypropane as an additive was investigated in this work. The adequate current density and the appropriate additive concentration were determined by gravimetric measurements. Chronopotentiometric curves showed that the presence of the additive caused an increase in the overpotential of tin reduction. The investigations by cyclic voltammetry technique revealed that, in the presence and in absence of the additive, there were two peaks, one in the cathodic side attributed to the reduction of Sn2+ and the other one in the anodic side assigned to the oxidation of tin previously formed during the cathodic scan. The surface morphology of the tin deposits was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and XRD.

  8. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows

  9. Diffuse scattering in metallic tin polymorphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehinger, Björn; Bosak, Alexeï; Piccolboni, Giuseppe; Krisch, Michael; Refson, Keith; Chernyshov, Dmitry; Ivanov, Alexandre; Rumiantsev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The lattice dynamics of the metallic tin β and γ polymorphs has been studied by a combination of diffuse scattering, inelastic x-ray scattering and density functional perturbation theory. The non-symmorphic space group of the β -tin structure results in unusual asymmetry of thermal diffuse scattering. Strong resemblance of the diffuse scattering intensity distribution in β and γ-tin were observed, reflecting the structural relationship between the two phases and revealing the qualitative similarity of the underlying electronic potential. The strong influence of the electron subsystem on inter-ionic interactions creates anomalies in the phonon dispersion relations. All observed features are described in great detail by the density functional perturbation theory for both β - and γ-tin at arbitrary momentum transfers. The combined approach delivers thus a complete picture of the lattice dynamics in harmonic description. (paper)

  10. Characterization of tin oxide nanoparticles synthesized via oxidation from metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abruzzi, R.C.; Dedavid, B.A.; Pires, M.J.R.; Streicher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The tin oxide (SnO_2) is a promising material with great potential for applications such as gas sensors and catalysts. This oxide nanostructures show higher activation efficiency due to its larger effective surface. This paper presents the synthesis and characterization of the tin oxide in different conditions, via oxidation of pure tin with nitric acid. Results obtained from the characterization of SnO_2 powder by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDX), Particle size by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the conditions were suitable for the synthesis to obtain manometric tin oxide granules with crystalline structure of rutile. (author)

  11. A Low Temperature Synthetic Route to Nanocrystalline TiN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This method may be extended to the synthesis of other metal nitrides. ... direct current magnetron sputtering17, and mechanical mill- ... recent years, autoclaved synthesis of TiN nanomaterials from ... 3.2 XPS Characterization of the Samples.

  12. Jarid2 binds mono-ubiquitylated H2A lysine 119 to mediate crosstalk between Polycomb complexes PRC1 and PRC2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooper, Sarah; Grijzenhout, Anne; Underwood, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    crosstalk between these modifications is critical for the formation of stable Polycomb domains at target gene loci. While the molecular mechanism for recognition of H3K27me3 by PRC1 is well defined, the interaction of PRC2 with H2AK119u1 is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate a critical role for the PRC2...... cofactor Jarid2 in mediating the interaction of PRC2 with H2AK119u1. We identify a ubiquitin interaction motif at the amino-terminus of Jarid2, and demonstrate that this domain facilitates PRC2 localization to H2AK119u1 both in vivo and in vitro. Our findings ascribe a critical function to Jarid2...... and define a key mechanism that links PRC1 and PRC2 in the establishment of Polycomb domains....

  13. Magnetoresistance and Microstructure of Magnetite Nanocrystals Dispersed in Indium−Tin Oxide Thin Films

    OpenAIRE

    Okada, Koichi; Kohiki, Shigemi; Mitome, Masanori; Tanaka, Hidekazu; Arai, Masao; Mito, Masaki; Deguchi, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Epitaxial indium−tin oxide (ITO) thin films were fabricated on a yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate by pulsed-laser deposition using magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticle dispersed ITO powders as a target. Magnetoresistance of the film at a field of 1 T was 39% at 45 K, and it stayed at 3% above 225 K. The film demonstrated cooling hysteresis in the temperature dependence of direct-current magnetization. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that phase-separated Fe3O4 nanocrystals with w...

  14. Deposition of indium tin oxide films on acrylic substrates by radiofrequency magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiou, B.S.; Hsieh, S.T.; Wu, W.F.

    1994-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited onto acrylic substrates by rf magnetron sputtering. Low substrate temperature (< 80 C) and low rf power (< 28 W) were maintained during sputtering to prevent acrylic substrate deformation. The influence of sputtering parameters, such as rf power, target-to-substrate distance, and chamber pressure, on the film deposition rate, the electrical properties, as well as the optical properties of the deposited films was investigated. Both the refractive index and the extinction coefficient were derived. The high reflection at wavelengths greater than 3 μm made these sputtered ITO films applicable to infrared mirrors

  15. Studies in group IV organometallic chemistry XXX. Synthesis of compounds containing tin---titanium and tin---zirconium bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creemers, H.M.J.C.; Verbeek, F.; Noltes, J.G.

    1968-01-01

    Starting from the tetrakis(diethylamino) derivatives of titanium and zirconium and pheyltin hydrides six intermetalic compounds contianing up to nine tin and titanium(or zirconium) atoms have been obtained by hydrostannolysis type reactions.

  16. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Gonzalez, Francisco A., E-mail: fco.aurelio@inbox.com [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Camurri, Carlos G., E-mail: ccamurri@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Carrasco, Claudia A., E-mail: ccarrascoc@udec.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria de Materiales, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Colas, Rafael, E-mail: rafael.colas@uanl.edu.mx [Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico); Centro de Innovacion, Investigacion y Desarrollo en Ingenieria y Tecnologia, Universidad Autonoma de Nuevo Leon (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 Degree-Sign C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn{sub 3} particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  17. Precipitation in a lead calcium tin anode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez-González, Francisco A.; Camurri, Carlos G.; Carrasco, Claudia A.; Colás, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Samples from a hot rolled sheet of a tin and calcium bearing lead alloy were solution heat treated at 300 °C and cooled down to room temperature at different rates; these samples were left at room temperature to study natural precipitation of CaSn 3 particles. The samples were aged for 45 days before analysing their microstructure, which was carried out in a scanning electron microscope using secondary and backscattered electron detectors. Selected X-ray spectra analyses were conducted to verify the nature of the precipitates. Images were taken at different magnifications in both modes of observation to locate the precipitates and record their position within the images and calculate the distance between them. Differential scanning calorimeter analyses were conducted on selected samples. It was found that the mechanical properties of the material correlate with the minimum average distance between precipitates, which is related to the average cooling rate from solution heat treatment. - Highlights: ► The distance between precipitates in a lead alloy is recorded. ► The relationship between the distance and the cooling rate is established. ► It is found that the strengthening of the alloy depends on the distance between precipitates.

  18. Liquid tin limiter for FTU tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vertkov, A., E-mail: avertkov@yandex.ru [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lyublinski, I. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU MEPhI, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zharkov, M. [JSC “Red Star”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, G.; Apicella, M.L.; Iafrati, M. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C. R. Frascati, Frascati, Rome, Italy, (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • First steady state operating liquid tin limiter TLL is under study on FTU tokamak. • The cooling system with water spray coolant for TLL has been developed and tested. • High corrosion resistance of W and Mo in molten Sn confirmed up to 1000 °C. • Wetting process with Sn has been developed for Mo and W. - Abstract: The liquid Sn in a matrix of Capillary Porous System (CPS) has a high potential as plasma facing material in steady state operating fusion reactor owing to its physicochemical properties. However, up to now it has no experimental confirmation in tokamak conditions. First steady state operating limiter based on the CPS with liquid Sn installed on FTU tokamak and its experimental study is in progress. Several aspects of the design, structural materials and operation parameters of limiter based on tungsten CPS with liquid Sn are considered. Results of investigation of corrosion resistance of Mo and W in Sn and their wetting process are presented. The heat removal for limiter steady state operation is provided by evaporation of flowing gaswater spray. The effectiveness of such heat removal system is confirmed in modelling tests with power flux up to 5 MW/m2.

  19. A 20MeV (p,d) study of nuclear structure in the even and odd tin isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, D.G.; Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay

    1978-01-01

    The even and odd tin isotopes have been studied by 20 MeV (p,d) reactions. States strongly populated in the odd isotopes are due to the valence neutron shells and extend up to only 2 MeV of excitation energy; 'deep hole' states were not identified. The occupation probabilities extracted from finite-range distorted-wave-Born-approximation calculations generally agree well with the predictions of the BCS theory of superconducting nuclei, particularly with the calculations of Clement and Baranger. In the even tin isotopes, strongly populated states are characterized predominantly by L=2 transfers extending up to 4 MeV excitation energy. The experimental spectroscopic factors are compared with the BCS calculated values of Clement and Baranger, Alzetta and Sawicki, and Van Gunsteren; relatively good agreement is obtained for L=2 transitions, but not for L=0 transitions. A considerable fraction of the sum rule L=2 strength in 118 Sn is missing in the 119 Sn(p,d) 118 Sn experimental spectrum; in like manner, no 4 + strength could be identified in either 114 Sn or 118 Sn

  20. Feline high-rise syndrome: 119 cases (1998-2001).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vnuk, D; Pirkić, B; Maticić, D; Radisić, B; Stejskal, M; Babić, T; Kreszinger, M; Lemo, N

    2004-10-01

    High-rise syndrome was diagnosed in 119 cats over a 4-year period. 59.6% of cats were younger than one year, and the average height of the fall was four stories. High-rise syndrome was more frequent during the warmer period of the year. 96.5% of the presented cats, survived after the fall. 46.2% of cats had fractured limbs; 38.5% of fractures were of the forelimb, 61.5% of the hindlimb. The tibia was fractured most often (36.4%), followed by the femur (23.6%). 78.6% of femoral fractures were distal. The mean age of patients with femoral fractures was 9.1 months, and with tibial fractures 29.2 months. Thoracic trauma was diagnosed in 33.6% of cats. Pneumothorax was diagnosed in 20% of cats, and pulmonary contusions in 13.4%. Falls from the seventh or higher stories, are associated with more severe injuries and with a higher incidence of thoracic trauma.

  1. Visual impairment evaluation in 119 children with congenital Zika syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Liana O; Ventura, Camila V; Dias, Natália de C; Vilar, Isabelle G; Gois, Adriana L; Arantes, Tiago E; Fernandes, Luciene C; Chiang, Michael F; Miller, Marilyn T; Lawrence, Linda

    2018-06-01

    To assess visual impairment in a large sample of infants with congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) and to compare with a control group using the same assessment protocol. The study group was composed of infants with confirmed diagnosis of CZS. Controls were healthy infants matched for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. All infants underwent comprehensive ophthalmologic evaluation including visual acuity, visual function assessment, and visual developmental milestones. The CZS group included 119 infants; the control group, 85 infants. At examination, the mean age of the CZS group was 8.5 ± 1.2 months (range, 6-13 months); of the controls, 8.4 ± 1.8 months (range, 5-12 months; P = 0.598). Binocular Teller Acuity Card (TAC) testing was abnormal in 107 CZS infants and in 4 controls (89.9% versus 5% [P visual development milestones were less achieved by infants with CZS compared to controls (P visual impairment. A protocol for assessment of the ocular findings, visual acuity, and visual developmental milestones tested against age-matched controls is suggested. Copyright © 2018 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. TIME-DEPENDENT MOSSBAUER-SPECTROSCOPY AND 119MTE-IMPLANTED GAAS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MO, D; ZHANG, GL; NIESEN, L; Waard , de Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    A new type of time-dependent Mossbauer spectroscopy is proposed and realized on the basis of using the two-step decay (119m)Te --> 113Sb --> Sn-119. For the GaAs samples, implanted with a dose of 110-keV (119m)Te + 10(15) stable Te/cm2 and annealed at 600-degrees-C, the relative intensities of

  3. Calibration of Sn-119 isomer shift using ab initio wave function methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurian, Reshmi; Filatov, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The isomer shift for the 23.87 keV M1 resonant transition in the Sn-119 nucleus is calibrated with the help of ab initio calculations. The calibration constant alpha(Sn-119) obtained from Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations (alpha(HF)(Sn-119)=(0.081 +/- 0.002)a(0)(-3) mm/s) and from second-order

  4. Tin( ii ) ketoacidoximates: synthesis, X-ray structures and processing to tin( ii ) oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Khanderi, Jayaprakash

    2015-10-21

    Tin(ii) ketoacidoximates of the type [HONCRCOO]Sn (R = Me 1, CHPh 2) and (MeONCMeCOO)Sn] NH·2HO 3 were synthesized by reacting pyruvate- and hydroxyl- or methoxylamine RONH (R = H, Me) with tin(ii) chloride dihydrate SnCl·2HO. The single crystal X-ray structure reveals that the geometry at the Sn atom is trigonal bipyramidal in 1, 2 and trigonal pyramidal in 3. Inter- or intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in 1-3. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis shows that the decomposition of 1-3 to SnO occurs at ca. 160 °C. The evolved gas analysis during TG indicates complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step for 1 whereas a small organic residue is additionally removed at temperatures >400 °C for 2. Above 140 °C, [HONC(Me)COO]Sn (1) decomposes in air to spherical SnO particles of size 10-500 nm. Spin coating of 1 on Si or a glass substrate followed by heating at 200 °C results in a uniform film of SnO. The band gap of the produced SnO film and nanomaterial was determined by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy to be in the range of 3.0-3.3 eV. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicates surface oxidation of the SnO film to SnO in ambient atmosphere.

  5. Gain saturation of nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers by use of a tabletop pumping laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawachi, Tetsuya; Kado, Masataka; Tanaka, Momoko; Sasaki, Akira; Hasegawa, Noboru; Namba, Sinichi; Nagashima, Keisuke; Lu Peixiang; Takahashi, Kenjiro; Tai Renzhong; Kishimoto, Maki; Koike, Masato; Daido, Hiroyuki; Kato, Yoshiaki; Kilpio, Alexander V.; Tang Huajing

    2002-01-01

    Silver and tin slab targets were irradiated by line-focused chirped pulse amplification glass laser light. In this experiment, the laser pulses consisted of two pulses with 4 ps duration, separated by 1.2 ns. Strong amplification in the nickel-like silver and tin x-ray lasers at the wavelengths of 13.9 and 12.0 nm was demonstrated with pumping energy of 12 and 14 J, respectively, and gain-saturation behavior could be seen. A hydrodynamics simulation coupled with a collisional-radiative model was performed under the present experimental conditions, and the calculated result was compared with the experimental results

  6. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Lei Sun; Yuehua Hu; Wei Sun; Zhiyong Gao; Mengjie Tian

    2017-01-01

    Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn) and copper (Cu) were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin...

  7. Microstructures and properties of TiN reinforced Co-based composite coatings modified with Y_2O_3 by laser cladding on Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Fei; Yu, Huijun; Chen, Chuanzhong; Liu, Jianli; Zhao, Longjie

    2015-01-01

    In this study, TiN reinforced composite coatings were fabricated on Ti–6Al–4V substrate by laser cladding with Co42 self-fluxing alloy, TiN and Y_2O_3 mixed powders. Microstructures and wear resistance of the cladding coatings with and without Y_2O_3 addition were investigated comparatively. Results showed that the coatings were mainly comprised of γ-Co/Ni, TiN, CoTi, CoTi_2, NiTi, TiC, Cr_7C_3, TiB, Ti_5Si_3 and TiC_0_._3N_0_._7 phases. The coatings showed metallurgical bonding free of pores and cracks with the substrate. Compared with the Ti–6Al–4V substrate, the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced by 3–4 times and 9.5–11.9 times, respectively. With 1.0 wt.% Y_2O_3 addition, the microstructure of the coating was refined significantly, and the microhardness and dry sliding wear resistance were enhanced further. The effects of Y_2O_3 were attributed to the residual Y_2O_3 and decomposed Y atoms. - Graphical abstract: The diagram illustration for the action mechanism of Y_2O_3: (a) dissolution of Y_2O_3 and TiN, (b) re-formation of TiN and in situ formation of TiC, (c) growth of TiN, TiC and the distribution of Y atoms. - Highlights: • Coatings showing metallurgical bonding with the substrate were fabricated. • The effect of Y_2O_3 on the refinement of the microstructure is notable. • A kind of Y_2O_3 centered core–shell structure was picked out in the coating. • Microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced significantly.

  8. Synthesis, characterization and photoluminescence of tin oxide nanoribbons and nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duraia, El-Shazly M.A., E-mail: duraia_physics@yahoo.co [Suez Canal University, Faculty of Science, Physics Department, Ismailia (Egypt); Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Mansorov, Z.A. [Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Tokmolden, S. [Institute of Physics and Technology, 11 Ibragimov Street, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-11-15

    In this work we report the successful formation of tin oxide nanowires and tin oxide nanoribbons with high yield and by using simple cheap method. We also report the formation of curved nanoribbon, wedge-like tin oxide nanowires and star-like nanowires. The growth mechanism of these structures has been studied. Scanning electron microscope was used in the analysis and the EDX analysis showed that our samples is purely Sn and O with ratio 1:2. X-ray analysis was also used in the characterization of the tin oxide nanowire and showed the high crystallinity of our nanowires. The mechanism of the growth of our1D nanostructures is closely related to the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) process. The photoluminescence PL measurements for the tin oxide nanowires indicated that there are three stable emission peaks centered at wavelengths 630, 565 and 395 nm. The nature of the transition may be attributed to nanocrystals inside the nanobelts or to Sn or O vacancies occurring during the growth which can induce trapped states in the band gap.

  9. 46 CFR 119.470 - Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation of spaces containing diesel fuel tanks. 119... fuel tanks. (a) Unless provided with ventilation that complies with § 119.465 of this part, a space containing a diesel fuel tank and no machinery must meet one of the following requirements: (1) A space of 14...

  10. 46 CFR 119.445 - Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. 119.445 Section... INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 119.445 Fill and sounding pipes for fuel tanks. (a) Fill pipes for fuel tanks must be not less than 40 millimeters (1.5 inches) nominal pipe size. (b) There must be...

  11. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Williams

    Full Text Available Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users.The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components.Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy.All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol.Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality.

  12. Strategies to Reduce Tin and Other Metals in Electronic Cigarette Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monique; To, An; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Talbot, Prue

    2015-01-01

    Background Metals are present in electronic cigarette (EC) fluid and aerosol and may present health risks to users. Objective The objective of this study was to measure the amounts of tin, copper, zinc, silver, nickel and chromium in the aerosol from four brands of EC and to identify the sources of these metals by examining the elemental composition of the atomizer components. Methods Four brands of popular EC were dissected and the cartomizers were examined microscopically. Elemental composition of cartomizer components was determined using integrated energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis, and the concentrations of the tin, copper, zinc silver, nickel, and chromium in the aerosol were determined for each brand using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. Results All filaments were made of nickel and chromium. Thick wires were copper coated with either tin or silver. Wires were joined to each other by tin solder, brazing, or by brass clamps. High concentrations of tin were detected in the aerosol when tin solder joints were friable. Tin coating on copper wires also contributed to tin in the aerosol. Conclusions Tin concentrations in EC aerosols varied both within and between brands. Tin in aerosol was reduced by coating the thick wire with silver rather than tin, placing stable tin solder joints outside the atomizing chamber, joining wires with brass clamps or by brazing rather than soldering wires. These data demonstrate the feasibility of removing tin and other unwanted metals from EC aerosol by altering designs and using materials of suitable quality. PMID:26406602

  13. Mass Producing Targets for Nuclear Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T. G.; Elleman, D. D.; Kendall, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Metal-encapsulating technique advances prospects of controlling nuclear fusion. Prefilled fusion targets form at nozzle as molten metal such as tin flows through outer channel and pressurized deuterium/tritium gas flows through inner channel. Molten metal completely encloses gas charge as it drops off nozzle.

  14. Cyclic voltammetric study of tin hexacyanoferrate for aqueous battery applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Gromadskyi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A hybrid composite containing 65 mass % of tin hexacyanoferrate mixed with 35 mass % of carbon nanotubes has been synthesized and its electrochemical behavior as a negative electrode in alkali metal-ion batteries has been studied in 1 mol L-1 aqueous solution of sodium sulfate. The specific capacity of pure tin hexacyanoferrate is 58 mAh g-1, whereas the specific capacity normalized per total electrode mass of the composite studied reaches 34 mAh g-1. The estimated maximal specific power of an aqueous alkali-metal ion battery with a tin hexacyanoferrate electrode is ca. 3.6 kW kg-1 being comparable to characteristics of industrial electric double-layer capacitors. The maximal specific energy accumulated by this battery may reach 25.6 Wh kg-1 at least three times exceeding the specific energy for supercapacitors.

  15. Vanadocene reactions with mixed acylates of silicon, germanium and tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latyaeva, V.N.; Lineva, A.N.; Zimina, S.V.; Gordetsov, A.S.; Dergunov, Yu.I.

    1981-01-01

    Vanadocene interaction with di-and tri-alkyl (aryl)-derivatives of silicon, tin and germanium is studied. Dibutyltin dibenzoate under mild conditions (20 deg C, toluene) oxidates vanadocene to [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 , at that, the splitting off of one Cp group in the form of cyclopentadiene and formation of the products of tin-organic fragment disproportionation (tributyltin benzoate, dibutyltin, metallic tin) take place. Tributyltin benzoate oxidates vanadocene at the mole ratio 2:1 and during prolong heating (120 deg C) in the absence of the solvent, [CpV(OCOC 6 H 5 ) 2 ] 2 and hexabutyldistannate are the products of the reaction. Acetates R 3 SnOCOCH 3 react in the similar way. The reactivity of mono- and diacylates of germanium and silicon decreases in the series of derivatives Sn>Ge>Si [ru

  16. Tin - an unlikely ally for silicon field effect transistors?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2014-01-13

    We explore the effectiveness of tin (Sn), by alloying it with silicon, to use SiSn as a channel material to extend the performance of silicon based complementary metal oxide semiconductors. Our density functional theory based simulation shows that incorporation of tin reduces the band gap of Si(Sn). We fabricated our device with SiSn channel material using a low cost and scalable thermal diffusion process of tin into silicon. Our high-κ/metal gate based multi-gate-field-effect-transistors using SiSn as channel material show performance enhancement, which is in accordance with the theoretical analysis. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Properties of Polydisperse Tin-doped Dysprosium and Indium Oxides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinovskaya Tatyana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of investigations of the complex permittivity, diffuse-reflectance, and characteristics of crystal lattices of tin-doped indium and dysprosium oxides are presented. Using the methods of spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis, it is shown that doping of indium oxide with tin results in a significant increase of the components of the indium oxide complex permittivity and an appearance of the plasma resonance in its diffuse-reflectance spectra. This indicates the appearance of charge carriers with the concentration of more than 1021 cm−3 in the materials. On the other hand, doping of the dysprosium oxide with the same amount of tin has no effect on its optical and electromagnetic properties.

  18. Trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Bo; Hu Rui; Xie Shuxian; Weng Kuiping

    2010-01-01

    In order to finish the design of tritium extraction system (TES) of fusion fission hybrid reactor (FFHR) tritium blanket, involving the dynamic mathematical model of liquid metal in contact with a gaseous atmosphere, approximate mathematical equation of tritium in lithium tin alloy was deduced. Moreover, carrying process used for trace hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy was investigated with hydrogen being used to simulate tritium in the study. The study results indicate that carrying process is effective way for hydrogen extraction from liquid lithium tin alloy, and the best flow velocity of carrier gas is about 4 L/min under 1 kg alloy temperatures and carrying numbers are the main influencing factors of hydrogen number. Hydrogen extraction efficiency can reach 85% while the alloy sample is treated 6 times at 823 K. (authors)

  19. Enhancement of the electrical characteristics of thin-film transistors with indium-zinc-tin oxide/Ag/indium-zinc-tin oxide multilayer electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Dohyun; Yun, Dong Yeol; Cho, Woon-Jo; Kim, Tae Whan

    2014-08-01

    Transparent indium-zinc-tin oxide (IZTO)-based thin-film transistors (TFTs) with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were fabricated on glass substrates using a tilted dual-target radio-frequency magnetron sputtering system. The IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes exhibited a high optical transmittance in a visible region. The threshold voltage, the mobility, and the on/off-current ratio of the TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes were enhanced in comparison with those of the TFTs with ITO electrodes. The source/drain contact resistance of the IZTO TFTs with IZTO/Ag/IZTO multilayer electrodes was smaller than that of the IZTO TFTs with ITO electrodes, resulting in enhancement of their electrical characteristics.

  20. Low-temperature Synthesis of Tin(II) Oxide From Tin(II) ketoacidoximate Precursor

    KAUST Repository

    Alshankiti, Buthainah

    2015-04-01

    Sn (II) oxide finds numerous applications in different fields such as thin film transistors1, solar cells2 and sensors.3 In this study we present the fabrication of tin monoxide SnO by using Sn (II) ketoacid oximate complexes as precursors. Tin (II) ketoacidoximates of the type [HON=CRCOO]2Sn where R= Me 1, R= CH2Ph 2, and [(MeON=CMeCOO)3Sn]- NH4 +.2H2O 3 were synthesized by in situ formation of the ketoacid oximate ligand. The crystal structures were determined via single crystal X- ray diffraction of the complexes 1-3 revealed square planar and square pyramidal coordination environments for the Sn atom. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is observed in all the complexes. Furthermore, the complexes were characterized by Infrared (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and elemental analysis. From thermogravimetric analysis of 1-3, it was found that the complexes decomposed in the range of 160 – 165 oC. Analysis of the gases evolved during decomposition indicated complete loss of the oximato ligand in one step and the formation of SnO. Spin coating of 1 on silicon or glass substrate show uniform coating of SnO. Band gaps of SnO films were measured and found to be in the range of 3.0 – 3.3 eV by UV-Vis spectroscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy indicated surface oxidation of the SnO film. Heating 1 above 140 oC in air gives SnO of size ranging from 10 – 500 nm and is spherical in shape. The SnO nanomaterial is characterized by powder X-ray diffraction(XRD), Raman spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM).

  1. Electrical Properties of Electrospun Sb-Doped Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon-Brito, Neliza; Melendez, Anamaris; Ramos, Idalia; Pinto, Nicholas J; Santiago-Aviles, Jorge J

    2007-01-01

    Transparent and conducting tin oxide fibers are of considerable interest for solar energy conversion, sensors and in various electrode applications. Appropriate doping can further enhance the conductivity of the fibers without loosing optical transparency. Undoped and antimony-doped tin oxide fibers have been synthesized by our group in previous work using electrospinning and metallorganic decomposition techniques. The undoped tin oxide fibers were obtained using a mixture of pure tin oxide sol made from tin (IV) chloride : water : propanol : isopropanol at a molar ratio of 1:9:9:6, and a viscous solution made from poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) and chloroform at a ratio of 200 mg PEO/10 mL chloroform. In this work, antimony doped fibers were obtained by adding a dopant solution of antimony trichloride and isopropanol at a ratio of 2.2812 g antimony trichloride/10 ml isopropanol to the original tin oxide precursor solution. The Sb concentration in the precursor solution is 1.5%. After deposition, the fibers were sintered 600deg. C in air for two hours. The electrical conductivity of single fibers measured at room temperature increases by up to three orders of magnitude when compared to undoped fibers prepared using the same method. The resistivity change as a function of the annealing temperature can be attributed to the thermally activated formation of a nearly stoichoimetric solid. The resistivity of the fibers changes monotonically with temperature from 714Ω-cm at 2 K to 0.1Ω-cm at 300 K. In the temperature range from 2 to 8 K the fibers have a positive magnetoresistance (MR) with the highest value of 155 % at 2 K and ±9 T. At temperatures of 10 and 12 K the sign of MR changes to negative values for low magnetic fields and positive for high magnetic fields. For higher temperatures (15 K and above) the MR becomes negative and its magnitude decreases with temperature

  2. All projects related to | Page 119 | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Innovating for Maternal and Child Health in Africa program aims to assist targeted developing countries in sub-Saharan Africa improve maternal, newborn, and child health. Topic: HEALTH POLICY, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, HEALTH SYSTEM, POLICY MAKING, AFRICA SOUTH OF SAHARA, CANADA.

  3. Obtainment of SnO2 for utilization of sensors by coprecipitation of tin salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masetto, S.R.; Longo, E.

    1990-01-01

    Niobia doped tin dioxide was prepared by precipitation of tin dioxide II and IV using ammonium hydroxide. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction, particle size distribution and infra-red spectroscopy. (author) [pt

  4. Moessbauer-spectroscopic characterization of the local surrounding of tin dopant cations in the bulk and on the surface of YCrO{sub 3} crystallites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanasov, Mikhail I.; Fabritchnyi, Pavel B. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Wattiaux, Alain; Labrugere, Christine; Delmas, Claude [CNRS, Bordeaux Univ., Pessac (France). Inst. de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee

    2011-03-15

    {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectra of tin-doped YCrO{sub 3}, obtained by annealing in air of an YCr({sup 119}Sn{sup 4+}){sub 0.003}(OH){sub 6} . xH{sub 2}O precursor, provide evidence for the location of Sn{sup 4+} on the Cr{sup 3+} site in the bulk of crystallites. Below the Neel point of YCrO{sub 3} (T{sub N} = 141 K), Sn{sup 4+} ions are spin-polarized, the majority exhibiting a hyperfine field H of 80 kOe at 4.2 K. Analysis of the {sup 119}Sn spectra of another sample, obtained by impregnation of polycrystalline YCrO{sub 3} with a solution of {sup 119}SnCl{sub 4}, shows that annealing in H{sub 2} results in the location of the dopant, in the divalent state, on the surface of the crystallites. The parameters of an in situ {sup 119}Sn spectrum at 295 K (isomer shift {delta} = 2.76 mm s{sup -1} and quadrupole splitting E{sub Q} = 1.95 mm s{sup -1}) reveal the presence of Sn{sup 2+} ions on sites with a coordination number CN < 6. At 100 K these Sn{sup 2+} ions exhibit no spin polarization. Upon contact with air they are rapidly oxidized to the tetravalent state, as demonstrated by their modified isomer shift value {delta} = 0.06 mm s{sup -1}. For the large majority of both the residual 'parent' Sn{sup 2+} ions and the 'daughter' Sn{sup 4+} ones no spin polarization is observed down to 4.2 K. This means that surface-located tin dopant cations, regardless of their oxidation state, occupy the Y{sup 3+} sites with an equal number of Cr{sup 3+} neighbors having mutually opposite spin orientations. (orig.)

  5. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-03-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash was used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapor explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapor explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapor explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343/sup 0/C.

  6. Thermal interaction for molten tin dropped into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakeri, V.H.; Catton, I.; Kastenberg, W.E.; Plesset, M.S.

    1978-01-01

    Multiflash photography with extremely short duration exposure times per flash has been used to observe the interaction of molten tin dropped into a water bath. Detailed photographic evidence is presented which demonstrates that transition, or nucleate boiling, is a possible triggering mechanism for vapour explosions. It was also found that the thermal constraints required to produce vapour explosions could be relaxed by introducing a stable thermal stratification within the coolant. In the present work, the threshold value of the initial tin temperature required for vapour explosion was reduced from about 500 to 343 0 C. (author)

  7. Discovery of the calcium, indium, tin, and platinum isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amos, S.; Gross, J.L.; Thoennessen, M.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, twenty-four calcium, thirty-eight indium, thirty-eight tin, and thirty-nine platinum isotopes have been observed and the discovery of these isotopes is discussed here. For each isotope a brief synopsis of the first refereed publication, including the production and identification method, is presented. - Highlights: Documentation of the discovery of all calcium, indium, tin and platinum isotopes. → Summary of author, journal, year, place and country of discovery for each isotope. → Brief description of discovery history of each isotope.

  8. Hydrothermal synthesis of tungsten doped tin dioxide nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cailong; Li, Yufeng; Chen, Yiwen; Lin, Jing

    2018-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin dioxide (WTO) nanocrystals were synthesized through a one-step hydrothermal method. The structure, composition and morphology of WTO nanocrystals were characterized by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, zeta potential analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Results show that the as-prepared WTO nanocrystals were rutile-type structure with the size near 13 nm. Compared with the undoped tin dioxide nanocrystals, the WTO nanocrystals possessed better dispersity in ethanol phase and formed transparent sol.

  9. Heat treatable indium tin oxide films deposited with high power pulse magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horstmann, F.; Sittinger, V.; Szyszka, B.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared by high power pulse magnetron sputtering [D. J. Christie, F. Tomasel, W. D. Sproul, D. C. Carter, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A, 22 (2004) 1415. ] without substrate heating. The ITO films were deposited from a ceramic target at a deposition rate of approx. 5.5 nm*m/min kW. Afterwards, the ITO films were covered with a siliconoxynitride film sputtered from a silicon alloy target in order to prevent oxidation of the ITO film during annealing at 650 deg. C for 10 min in air. The optical and electrical properties as well as the texture and morphology of these films were investigated before and after annealing. Mechanical durability of the annealed films was evaluated at different test conditions. The results were compared with state-of-the art ITO films which were obtained at optimized direct current magnetron sputtering conditions

  10. IMRT commissioning: Multiple institution planning and dosimetry comparisons, a report from AAPM Task Group 119

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezzell, Gary A.; Burmeister, Jay W.; Dogan, Nesrin [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, 5777 East Mayo Boulevard, MCSB Concourse, Phoenix, Arizona 89054 (United States); and others

    2009-11-15

    AAPM Task Group 119 has produced quantitative confidence limits as baseline expectation values for IMRT commissioning. A set of test cases was developed to assess the overall accuracy of planning and delivery of IMRT treatments. Each test uses contours of targets and avoidance structures drawn within rectangular phantoms. These tests were planned, delivered, measured, and analyzed by nine facilities using a variety of IMRT planning and delivery systems. Each facility had passed the Radiological Physics Center credentialing tests for IMRT. The agreement between the planned and measured doses was determined using ion chamber dosimetry in high and low dose regions, film dosimetry on coronal planes in the phantom with all fields delivered, and planar dosimetry for each field measured perpendicular to the central axis. The planar dose distributions were assessed using gamma criteria of 3%/3 mm. The mean values and standard deviations were used to develop confidence limits for the test results using the concept confidence limit=|mean|+1.96{sigma}. Other facilities can use the test protocol and results as a basis for comparison to this group. Locally derived confidence limits that substantially exceed these baseline values may indicate the need for improved IMRT commissioning.

  11. An Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim; Wright, Clara; Asfour, Shihab; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon; Ludwig, Larry

    2009-01-01

    In this experiment, an empirical model to quantify the probability of occurrence of an electrical short circuit from tin whiskers as a function of voltage was developed. This empirical model can be used to improve existing risk simulation models. FIB and TEM images of a tin whisker confirm the rare polycrystalline structure on one of the three whiskers studied. FIB cross-section of the card guides verified that the tin finish was bright tin.

  12. Telomere dysfunction and cell survival: Roles for distinct TIN2-containing complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sahn-ho; Davalos, Albert R.; Heo, Seok-Jin; Rodier, Francis; Zou, Ying; Beausejour, Christian; Kaminker, Patrick; Yannone, Steven M.; Campisi, Judith

    2007-10-02

    Telomeres are maintained by three DNA binding proteins (TRF1, TRF2 and POT1), and several associated factors. One factor, TIN2, binds TRF1 and TRF2 directly and POT1 indirectly. Along with two other proteins, TPP1 and hRap1, these form a soluble complex that may be the core telomere maintenance complex. It is not clear whether sub-complexes also exist in vivo. We provide evidence for two TIN2 sub-complexes with distinct functions in human cells. We isolated these two TIN2 sub-complexes from nuclear lysates of unperturbed cells and cells expressing TIN2 mutants TIN2-13, TIN2-15C, which cannot bind TRF2 or TRF1, respectively. In cells with wild-type p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere uncapping and eventual growth arrest. In cells lacking p53 function, TIN2-15C was more potent than TIN2-13 in causing telomere dysfunction and cell death. Our findings suggest that distinct TIN2 complexes exist, and that TIN2-15C-sensitive subcomplexes are particularly important for cell survival in the absence of functional p53.

  13. The tin mining and heavy mineral processing industry in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Swee Ching

    1994-01-01

    Overview of the tin mining and heavy mineral processing in the Kinta Valley, Perak, Malaysia was presented. Amang, a mixture composed of tin ore, sand, ilmenite, monazite, zircon, xenotime, struvite, etc , as a product from tin mining activities was discussed too in this paper

  14. 77 FR 5767 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2010... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products...

  15. 76 FR 14902 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order covering certain tin mill products from Japan. The period of review is August 1, 2009... parties to request an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill products...

  16. 77 FR 34938 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan would likely lead to continuation or recurrence of...: Background On August 28, 2000, the Department published the antidumping duty order on certain tin mill...

  17. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Tin Whisker (and Other Metal Whisker) Homepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusse, Jay; Sampson, Mike; Leidecker, Henning; Kadesch, Jong

    2004-01-01

    This website provides information about tin whiskers and related research. The independent research performed during the past 50+ years is so vast that it is impractical to cover all aspects of tin whiskers in this one resource. Therefore, the absence of information in this website about a particular aspect of tin whiskers should NOT be construed as evidence of absence.

  18. Epitaxial integration of CoFe2O4 thin films on Si (001) surfaces using TiN buffer layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Pilar; Marco, José F.; Prieto, José E.; Ruiz-Gomez, Sandra; Perez, Lucas; del Real, Rafael P.; Vázquez, Manuel; de la Figuera, Juan

    2018-04-01

    Epitaxial cobalt ferrite thin films with strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy have been grown on Si (001) substrates using a TiN buffer layer. The epitaxial films have been grown by ion beam sputtering using either metallic, CoFe2, or ceramic, CoFe2O4, targets. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Rutherford spectrometry (RBS) in random and channeling configuration have been used to determine the epitaxial relationship CoFe2O4 [100]/TiN [100]/Si [100]. Mössbauer spectroscopy, in combination with XRD and RBS, has been used to determine the composition and structure of the cobalt ferrite thin films. The TiN buffer layer induces a compressive strain in the cobalt ferrite thin films giving rise to an in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The degree of in-plane anisotropy depends on the lattice mismatch between CoFe2O4 and TiN, which is larger for CoFe2O4 thin films grown on the reactive sputtering process with ceramic targets.

  19. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, V.; Aleksandrova, M.; Stefanov, P.; Grechnikov, A.; Gadjanova, V.; Dilova, T.; Angelov, Ts

    2014-12-01

    A study of NO2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO2 concentration >= 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO2 concentration. When the NO2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO2 in the air at room temperature.

  20. Study of quartz crystal microbalance NO2 sensor coated with sputtered indium tin oxide film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, V; Gadjanova, V; Angelov, Ts; Aleksandrova, M; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Stefanov, P; Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" data-affiliation=" (Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. Georgi Bonchev str.bl. 11, 1113, Sofia (Bulgaria))" >Dilova, T; Grechnikov, A

    2014-01-01

    A study of NO 2 gas sorption ability of thin indium tin oxide (ITO) deposited on 16 MHz quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) is presented. ITO films are grown by RF sputtering of indium/tin target with weight proportion 95:5 in oxygen environment. The ITO films have been characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. The ITO surface composition in atomic % is defined to be: In-40.6%, Sn-4.3% and O-55%. The thickness and refractive index of the films are determined by ellipsometric method. The frequency shift of QCM-ITO is measured at different NO 2 concentrations. The QCM-ITO system becomes sensitive at NO 2 concentration ≥ 500 ppm. The sorbed mass for each concentration is calculated according the Sauerbrey equation. The results indicated that the 1.09 ng of the gas is sorbed into 150 nm thick ITO film at 500 ppm NO 2 concentration. When the NO 2 concentration increases 10 times the calculated loaded mass is 5.46 ng. The sorption process of the gas molecules is defined as reversible. The velocity of sorbtion /desorption processes are studied, too. The QCM coated with thin ITO films can be successfully used as gas sensors for detecting NO 2 in the air at room temperature

  1. A Sub-channel Analysis of a VHTR Fuel Block with Tin Gap-Filler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Chung Ho; Kim, Yong Hee; Yi, Yong Sun; Kim, Hong Pyo

    2005-01-01

    In the Nuclear Hydrogen Development and Demonstration (NHDD) project, two types of VHTRs (Very High Temperature Reactors), prismatic or pebble bed, are under investigation as the nuclear heat source for hydrogen production. In general, the targeted coolant outlet temperature of VHTR is 950∼1000 .deg. C and the maximum allowable fuel temperature is 1250 .deg. C during the normal operation. In the case of the prismatic reactor (PMR), conventional fuel designs result in a small margin in the maximum fuel temperature. This is one of the biggest demerits of the prismatic type In this paper, a technique of lowering the maximum fuel temperature is suggested. The PMR fuel assembly is comprised of many coolant holes and fuel channels. Cylindrical fuel compacts are stacked inside the fuel channel. Consequently, there should be a physical gap between the fuel compact and graphite block, which is filled with the He gas in the conventional design. The heat transfer coefficient of the He gap is very poor, and this increases the fuel temperature substantially. In the proposed design measure, the gap is filled with a liquid metal, tin (Sn) that has a very high thermal conductivity. The effects of tin in the gap with gap distance variation in the viewpoint of thermal hydraulics are quantitatively discussed. Also, the effects of the variations of the axial power distribution are discussed

  2. Initial growth and texture formation during reactive magnetron sputtering of TiN on Si(111)

    CERN Document Server

    Li, T Q; Tsuji, Y; Ohsawa, T; Komiyama, H

    2002-01-01

    The initial growth and texture formation mechanism of titanium nitride (TiN) films were investigated by depositing TiN films on (111) silicon substrates by using reactive magnetron sputtering of a Ti metallic target under a N sub 2 /Ar atmosphere, and then analyzing the films in detail by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Two power sources for the sputtering, dc and rf, were compared. At the initial growth stage, a continuous amorphous film containing randomly oriented nuclei was observed when the film thickness was about 3 nm. The nuclei grew and formed a polycrystalline layer when the film thickness was about 6 nm. As the film grew further, its orientation changed depending on the deposition conditions. For dc sputtering, the appearance of (111) or (200)-preferred orientations depended on the N sub 2 partial pressure, and the intensity of the preferred orientation increased with increasing film thickness. For rf sputtering, however, when the film thickness was small (...

  3. Deposition and surface treatment of Ag-embedded indium tin oxide by plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jun Young; Kim, Jae-Kwan; Kim, Ja-Yeon; Kwon, Min-Ki; Yoon, Jae-Sik; Lee, Ji-Myon

    2013-01-01

    Ag-embedded indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on Corning 1737 glass by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering under an Ar or Ar/O 2 mixed gas ambient with a combination of ITO and Ag targets that were sputtered alternately by switching on and off the shutter of the sputter gun. The effects of a subsequent surface treatment using H 2 and H 2 + O 2 mixed gas plasma were also examined. The specific resistance of the as-deposited Ag-embedded ITO sample was lower than that of normal ITO. The transmittance was quenched when Ag was incorporated in ITO. To enhance the specific resistance of Ag-embedded ITO, a surface treatment was conducted using H 2 or H 2 + O 2 mixed gas plasma. Although all samples showed improved specific resistance after the H 2 plasma treatment, the transmittance was quenched due to the formation of agglomerated metals on the surface. The specific resistance of the film was improved without any deterioration of the transmittance after a H 2 + O 2 mixed gas plasma treatment. - Highlights: • Ag-embedded indium tin oxide was deposited. • The contact resistivity was decreased by H 2 + O 2 plasma treatment. • The process was carried out at room temperature without thermal treatment. • The mechanism of enhancing the contact resistance was clarified

  4. Sputter-Deposited Indium–Tin Oxide Thin Films for Acetaldehyde Gas Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Cindemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Reactive dual-target DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare In–Sn oxide thin films with a wide range of compositions. The films were subjected to annealing post-treatment at 400 °C or 500 °C for different periods of time. Compositional and structural characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering and scanning electron microscopy. Films were investigated for gas sensing at 200 °C by measuring their resistance response upon exposure to acetaldehyde mixed with synthetic air. We found that the relative indium-to-tin content was very important and that measurable sensor responses could be recorded at acetaldehyde concentrations down to 200 ppb, with small resistance drift between repeated exposures, for both crystalline SnO2-like films and for amorphous films consisting of about equal amounts of In and Sn. We also demonstrated that it is not possible to prepare crystalline sensors with intermediate indium-to-tin compositions by sputter deposition and post-annealing up to 500 °C.

  5. Interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin octoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galia, Alessandro; Centineo, Alessio; Saracco, Guido; Schiavo, Benedetto; Scialdone, Onofrio

    2014-01-01

    The interesterification of rapeseed oil was performed for the first time by using tin octoate as Lewis acid homogeneous catalysts and methyl or ethyl acetate as acyl acceptors in a batch reactor, within the temperature range 393–483 K. The yields in fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) and triacetin (TA) after 20 h of reaction time increased from 8% and 2%–to 61% and 22%, respectively, when the reaction temperature increased from 423 to 483 K. An optimum value of 40 for the acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio was found to be necessary to match good fatty acid alkyl ester yields with high enough reaction rate. The rate of generation of esters was significantly higher when methyl acetate was used as acyl acceptor instead of its ethyl homologue. The collected results suggest that tin octoate can be used as effective catalyst for the interesterification of rapeseed oil with methyl or ethyl acetate being highly soluble in the reaction system, less expensive than enzymes and allowing the operator to work under milder conditions than supercritical interesterification processes. - Highlights: • We study the interesterification of rapeseed oil catalyzed by tin(II) octoate. • Tin(II) octoate is an effective homogeneous catalyst at 483 K. • The acyl acceptor to oil molar ratio must be optimized. • Higher rate of reaction is obtained with methyl acetate as acyl acceptor

  6. Chaos in a coulombic muffin-tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1994-04-01

    We study the two-dimensional classical scattering dynamics by a Muffin-Tin potential with 3 Coulomb singularities. A complete symbolic dynamics for the periodic orbits is derivd. The classical trajectories are shown to be hyperbolic everywhere in phase space and to carry no conjugate points. (orig.)

  7. Generalized KKR-theory for non-muffin-tin potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molenaar, J.

    1989-01-01

    The author shows that the secular equation in KKR (Korringa, Kohn and Rostoker) theory retains its separable structure also in the case of non-muffin-tin potentials. This generalisation has been extensively discussed recently. During this discussion, in which the possible necessity of so-called near

  8. Variationally-optimized muffin-tin potentials for band calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, M.M.

    1979-09-01

    A method is suggested to determine the best local periodic crystal potential V(r) by minimizing the Hartree-Fock expectation value of the energy. The explicit form of the integral equation for the local exchange potential is obtained for the special case of the Muffin-tin aproximation. (author)

  9. Highly conducting and transparent sprayed indium tin oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, M.; Benamar, E.; Messaoudi, C.; Sayah, D.; Ennaoui, A. (Faculte des Sciences, Rabat (Morocco). Lab. de Physique des Materiaux)

    1998-03-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) has a wide range of applications in solar cells (e.g. by controlling the resistivity, we can use low conductivity ITO as buffer layer and highly conducting ITO as front contact in thin films CuInS[sub 2] and CuInSe[sub 2] based solar cells) due to its wide band gap (sufficient to be transparent) in both visible and near infrared range, and high carrier concentrations with metallic conduction. A variety of deposition techniques such as reactive electron beam evaporation, DC magnetron sputtering, evaporation, reactive thermal deposition, and spray pyrolysis have been used for the preparation of undoped and tin doped indium oxide. This latter process which makes possible the preparation of large area coatings has attracted considerable attention due to its simplicity and large scale with low cost fabrication. It has been used here to deposit highly transparent and conducting films of tin doped indium oxide onto glass substrates. The electrical, optical and structural properties have been investigated as a function of various deposition parameters namely dopant concentrations, temperature and nature of substrates. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that deposited films are polycrystalline without second phases and have preferred orientation [400]. INdium tin oxide layers with small resistivity value around 7.10[sup -5] [omega].cm and transmission coefficient in the visible and near IR range of about 85-90% have been easily obtained. (authors) 13 refs.

  10. On the electrochemical migration mechanism of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2011-01-01

    Electrochemical migration (ECM) of tin can result in the growth of a metal deposit with a dendritic structure from cathode to anode. In electronics, such growth can lead to short circuit of biased electrodes, potentially leading to intermittent or complete failure of an electronic device...

  11. Tasmanian tin and tungsten granites - their radiometric characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeates, A.N.

    1982-01-01

    A radiometric survey of Tasmanian granites has shown, with one exception, that tin and tungsten-bearing granites have high radioactivity, largely owing to increased uranium. Many have a high uranium/thorium ratio as well. Radiometric measurements can also delineate different granite types within composite bodies

  12. Classical and quantum chaotic scattering in a muffin tin potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandis, S.

    1995-05-01

    In this paper, we study the classical mechanics, the quantum mechanics and the semi-classical approximation of the 2-dimensional scattering from a muffin tin potential. The classical dynamical system for Coulombic muffin tins is proven to be chaotic by explicit construction of the exponentially increasing number of periodic orbits. These are all shown to be completely unstable (hyperbolic). By methods of the thermodynamic formalism we can determine the Hausdorff dimension, escape rate and Kolmogorov-Sinai-entropy of the system. An extended KKR-method is developed to determine the quantum mechanical S-matrix. We compare a few integrable scattering examples with the results of the muffin tin scattering. Characteristic features of the spectrum of eigenphases turn out to be the level repulsion and long range rigidity as compared to a completely random spectrum. In the semiclassical analysis we can rederive the regularized Gutzwiller trace formula directly from the exact KKR-determinant to prove that no further terms contribute in the case of the muffin tin potential. The periodic orbit sum allows to draw some qualitative conclusions about the effects of classical chaos on the quantum mechanics. In the context of scaling systems the theory of almost periodic functions is discussed as a possible mathematical foundation for the semiclassical periodic orbit sums. Some results that can be obtained from this analysis are developed in the context of autocorrelation functions and distribution functions for chaotic scattering systems. (orig.)

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of tin oxide: fundamentals and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.M.B. van; Chae, Y.; McDaniel, A.H.; Allendorf, M.D.

    2006-01-01

    Tin oxide thin layers have very beneficial properties such as a high transparency for visible light and electrical conductivity making these coatings suitable for a wide variety of applications, such as solar cells, and low-emissivity coatings for architectural glass windows. Each application

  14. Quadtree of TIN: a new algorithm of dynamic LOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junfeng; Fei, Lifan; Chen, Zhen

    2009-10-01

    Currently, Real-time visualization of large-scale digital elevation model mainly employs the regular structure of GRID based on quadtree and triangle simplification methods based on irregular triangulated network (TIN). TIN is a refined means to express the terrain surface in the computer science, compared with GRID. However, the data structure of TIN model is complex, and is difficult to realize view-dependence representation of level of detail (LOD) quickly. GRID is a simple method to realize the LOD of terrain, but contains more triangle count. A new algorithm, which takes full advantage of the two methods' merit, is presented in this paper. This algorithm combines TIN with quadtree structure to realize the view-dependence LOD controlling over the irregular sampling point sets, and holds the details through the distance of viewpoint and the geometric error of terrain. Experiments indicate that this approach can generate an efficient quadtree triangulation hierarchy over any irregular sampling point sets and achieve dynamic and visual multi-resolution performance of large-scale terrain at real-time.

  15. Determination of tungsten and tin ions after preconcentration by flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietze, U.; Kunze, S.

    1990-01-01

    A highly sensitive and selective combined method of flotation followed by spectrophotometry/d.c. polarography for the determination of tungsten and tin ions in acid and alkaline waste waters and hydrometallurgical solutions is presented here. Both kinds of ions are coprecipitated in the analyte solution with zirconium hydroxide after addition of ZrOCl 2 solution and ammonia. Afterwards, the collector precipitate is separated from the aqueous phase and preconcentrated by flotation for which sodium oleate and a frother are added. The precipitate is dissolved in a small amount of acid, with the organic reagents being destroyed by oxidation. The enrichment factor of the proposed technique is 100, with variations possible. Recovery is 94 % for tungsten and 99 % for tin. Spectrophotometry of the thiocyanate complex and d.c. polarography are applied as determination techniques for tungsten and tin, respectively. Detection limits attainable by this technique are 6 ng.ml -1 for tungsten and 5 ng.ml -1 for tin for the initial sample. (Authors)

  16. Recent results on neutron rich tin isotopes by laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Roussière, B; Crawford, J E; Essabaa, S; Fedosseev, V; Geithner, W; Genevey, J; Girod, M; Huber, G; Horn, R; Kappertz, S; Lassen, J; Le Blanc, F; Lee, J K P; Le Scornet, G; Lettry, Jacques; Mishin, V I; Neugart, R; Obert, J; Oms, J; Ouchrif, A; Peru, S; Pinard, J; Ravn, H L; Sauvage, J; Verney, D

    2001-01-01

    Laser spectroscopy measurements have been performed on neutron rich tin isotopes using the COMPLIS experimental setup. The nuclear charge radii of the even-even isotopes from A=108 to 132 are compared to the results of macroscopic and microscopic calculations. The improvements and optimizations needed to perform the isotope shift measurement on $^{134}$Sn are presented.

  17. Mechanical Properties of Glass Surfaces Coated with Tin Oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swindlehurst, W. E.; Cantor, B.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of tin oxide coatings on the coefficient of friction and fracture strength of glass surfaces is studied. Experiments were performed partly on commercially treated glass bottles and partly on laboratory prepared microscope slides. Coatings were applied in the laboratory by decomposition...

  18. Sales Target and Ethical Behaviour of Marketing Executives in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... No 3 (2011) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... This study examined sales target for marketing executives in Nigerian banks its influence ... administered on one hundred and nineteen (119) marketing executives from

  19. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koester, U. [Institut Laue Langevin, 6 Rue Jules Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland)], E-mail: koester@ill.fr; Arndt, O. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Franberg, H. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for Radio- and Environmental Chemistry, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Joinet, A. [ISOLDE, CERN, CH-1211 Geneve 23 (Switzerland); Centre d' Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements, 9 Av. du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France); Jost, C. [HGF VISTARS and Institut fuer Kernchemie, Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Kerkines, I.S.K. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Department of Chemistry, Zografou 157 71, GR (Greece); Cherry L. Emerson Center for Scientific Computation and Department of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322 (United States); Kirchner, R. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  20. Progress in ISOL target-ion source systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koester, U.; Arndt, O.; Bouquerel, E.; Fedoseyev, V.N.; Franberg, H.; Joinet, A.; Jost, C.; Kerkines, I.S.K.; Kirchner, R.

    2008-01-01

    The heart of every ISOL (isotope separation on-line) facility is its target and ion source system. Its efficiency, selectivity and rapidity is decisive for the production of intense and pure ion beams of short-lived isotopes. Recent progress in ISOL target and ion source technology is discussed at the examples of radioactive ion beams of exotic zinc and tin isotopes that were purified by isothermal chromatography and molecular sideband separation respectively. An outlook is given to which other elements these purification methods are applicable.

  1. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S. [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1996-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murao, S [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Sie, S H; Suter, G F [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1997-12-31

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  3. Characterization of tin films synthesized from ethaline deep eutectic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Swatilekha; Roy, Sudipta

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Tin deposition was achieved by galvanostatic method on the basic substrates from ethaline deep eutectic solvent without use of any additives. • The current potential behaviour of tin system changes with increase in concentration of hydrated tin chloride in ethaline. • The deposition rate in ethaline display three times lower value compared to aqueous electrolytes. • Fine grained crystals of 62 ± 10 nm were obtained for tin deposits. • The deposition process is economical and can be adapted for industrial applications. - Abstract: Tin (Sn) films were electrodeposited by galvanostatic method from ethaline deep eutectic solvent (DES), without any additives. The effect of various deposition parameters on the microstructure was studied. With increase in metal salt concentration from 0.01 to 0.1 M, changes in current–potential behaviour were observed in the polarization scans. This might be due to the existence of [SnCl 3 ] − , [Sn 2 Cl 5 ] − complexes in ethaline DES. Smooth and homogeneous deposits were obtained on a steel substrate surface by applying current density of 1.57 × 10 −3 A/cm 2 at 25 °C. Under these conditions the deposition rate was found to be 0.1 ± 10% μm/min and current efficiency was obtained as 84 ± 3%. XRD analysis of the deposit confirmed the polycrystalline tetragonal structure with mostly (2 0 0) orientation having a crystallite size about 62 ± 16% nm along with an internal strain of 0.0031 ± 22%. The present deposition method is simple, economical and can be adapted for industrial applications

  4. Proton microprobe study of tin-polymetallic deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, S.; Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F.

    1996-01-01

    Tin-polymetallic vein type deposits are a complex mixture of cassiterite and sulfides and they are the main source of technologically important rare metals such as indium and bismuth. Constituent minerals are usually fine grained having wide range of chemical composition and often the elements of interest occur as trace elements not amenable to electron microprobe analysis. PIXE with a proton microprobe can be an effective tool to study such deposits by delineating the distribution of trace elements among carrier minerals. Two representative indium-bearing deposits of tin- polymetallic type, Tosham of India (Cu-ln-Bi-Sn-W-Ag), and Mount Pleasant of Canada (Zn-Cu-In-Bi-Sn-W), were studied to delineate the distribution of medical/high-tech rare metals and to examine the effectiveness of the proton probe analysis of such ore. One of the results of the study indicated that indium and bismuth are present in chalcopyrite in the deposits. In addition to these important rare metals, zinc, copper, arsenic, antimony, selenium, and tin are common in chalcopyrite and pyrite. Arsenopyrite contains nickel, copper, zinc, silver, tin, antimony and bismuth. In chalcopyrite and pyrite, zinc, arsenic, indium, bismuth and lead are richer in Mount Pleasant ore, but silver is higher at Tosham. Also thallium and gold were found only in Tosham pyrite. The Tosham deposit is related to S-type granite, while Mount Pleasant to A-type. It appears that petrographic character of the source magma is one of the factors to determine the trace element distribution in tin-polymetallic deposit. 6 refs., 2 figs

  5. Process for Making a Noble Metal on Tin Oxide Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Miller, Irvin; Upchurch, Billy

    2010-01-01

    To produce a noble metal-on-metal oxide catalyst on an inert, high-surface-area support material (that functions as a catalyst at approximately room temperature using chloride-free reagents), for use in a carbon dioxide laser, requires two steps: First, a commercially available, inert, high-surface-area support material (silica spheres) is coated with a thin layer of metal oxide, a monolayer equivalent. Very beneficial results have been obtained using nitric acid as an oxidizing agent because it leaves no residue. It is also helpful if the spheres are first deaerated by boiling in water to allow the entire surface to be coated. A metal, such as tin, is then dissolved in the oxidizing agent/support material mixture to yield, in the case of tin, metastannic acid. Although tin has proven especially beneficial for use in a closed-cycle CO2 laser, in general any metal with two valence states, such as most transition metals and antimony, may be used. The metastannic acid will be adsorbed onto the high-surface-area spheres, coating them. Any excess oxidizing agent is then evaporated, and the resulting metastannic acid-coated spheres are dried and calcined, whereby the metastannic acid becomes tin(IV) oxide. The second step is accomplished by preparing an aqueous mixture of the tin(IV) oxide-coated spheres, and a soluble, chloride-free salt of at least one catalyst metal. The catalyst metal may be selected from the group consisting of platinum, palladium, ruthenium, gold, and rhodium, or other platinum group metals. Extremely beneficial results have been obtained using chloride-free salts of platinum, palladium, or a combination thereof, such as tetraammineplatinum (II) hydroxide ([Pt(NH3)4] (OH)2), or tetraammine palladium nitrate ([Pd(NH3)4](NO3)2).

  6. Transition probabilities in negative parity bands of the 119I nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srebrny, J.; Droste, Ch.; Morek, T.; Starosta, K.; Wasilewski, A.A.; Pasternak, A.A.; Podsvirova, E.O.; Lobach, Yu.N.; Hagemann, G.H.; Juutinen, S.; Piiparinen, M.; Toermaenen, S.; Virtanen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Lifetimes in four negative-parity bands of 119 I were measured using DSAM and RDM. 119 I nuclei were produced in the 109 Ag( 13 C,3n) reaction, γγ coincidences were collected using the NORDBALL array. RDDSA - a new method of RDM analysis - is described. This method allowed for the self-calibration of stopping power. From 31 measured lifetimes, 39 values of B(E2) were established. Calculations in the frame of the Core Quasi Particle Coupling (CQPC) model were focused on the problem of susceptibility of the nucleus to γ-deformation. It was established that nonaxial quadrupole deformation of 119 I plays on important role. The Wilets-Jean model of a γ-soft nucleus describes the 119 I nucleus in a more consistent way then the Davydov-Filippov model of a γ-rigid nucleus

  7. 49 CFR 571.119 - Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor vehicles with a GVWR of more than 4,536 kilograms...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... without interruption. (e) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation...) Immediately after running the tire the required time, measure the tire inflation pressure. Remove the tire... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standard No. 119; New pneumatic tires for motor...

  8. The recovery of tin, and the production of niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride, from a tin slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, G.; Tyler, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the results of testwork on the recovery of tin, niobium, and tantalum from a tin slag. The slag, which consisted mainly of amorphous silica, with varying amounts of calcuim, magnesium, manganese, iron, and aluminium, contained an average of 8,8 per cent niobium pentoxide and 6,2 per cent tantalum pentoxide. The metallic tin-ion phase was removed from the crushed slag by magnetic separation. The slag was then leached with hydrochloric acid to remove magnesium, calcium, aluminium, iron, manganese, and the remainder of the tin. Leaching with sodium hydroxide for the removal of silica and phosphorous was followed by a final leach with hydrochloric acid for the removal of sodium. The upgraded concentrate thus obtained was purified by leaching with hydrofluoric acid, solvent extraction of niobium and tantalum into tri-n-butyl phosphate and methyl isobutyl ketone, and selective stripping of niobium with sulphuric acid and tantalum with ammonium floride. Niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride were then precipitated by the addition of ammonium hydroxide and potassium fluoride to the respective strip liquors. The overall recoveries in the upgraded concentrate were 98 per cent for tantalum and 92 per cent for niobium. Dissolutions and recoveries of over 99 per cent were obtained for both tantalum and niobium in the purification steps. The niobium pentoxide and potassium tantalum fluoride precipitates obtained were of high purity

  9. Characterization of phenols from coal liquefaction products by 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafii, E.; Faure, R.; Lena, L.; Vincent, E.J.; Metzger, J.

    1985-01-01

    The 119 Sn NMR chemical shifts for tri-n-butyltin derivatives of 33 phenols commonly found in coal-derived liquids are reported. Analysis of coal-derived phenol fractions by this methods is comparatively straightforward and quantitative. Chemical shift ranges of phenol derivatives by various NMR methods and the present one using 119 Sn NMR are compared. 32 references, 4 figures, 4 tables

  10. Mer tyrosine kinase promotes the survival of t(1;19)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in the central nervous system (CNS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sarah; Pfeiffer, Christian; Strube, Susanne; Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Loges, Sonja; Waizenegger, Jonas; Ben-Batalla, Isabel; Cario, Gunnar; Möricke, Anja; Stanulla, Martin; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M

    2015-01-29

    Patients with t(1;19)-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are prone to central nervous system (CNS) relapses, and expression of the TAM (Tyro3, Axl, and Mer) receptor Mer is upregulated in these leukemias. We examined the functional role of Mer in the CNS in preclinical models and performed correlative studies in 64 t(1;19)-positive and 93 control pediatric ALL patients. ALL cells were analyzed in coculture with human glioma cells and normal rat astrocytes: CNS coculture caused quiescence and protection from methotrexate toxicity in Mer(high) ALL cell lines, which was antagonized by short hairpin RNA-mediated knockdown of Mer. Mer expression was upregulated, prosurvival Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling were activated, and secretion of the Mer ligand Galectin-3 was stimulated. Mer(high) t(1;19) primary cells caused CNS involvement to a larger extent in murine xenografts than in their Mer(low) counterparts. Leukemic cells from Mer(high) xenografts showed enhanced survival in coculture. Treatment of Mer(high) patient cells with the Mer-specific inhibitor UNC-569 in vivo delayed leukemia onset, reduced CNS infiltration, and prolonged survival of mice. Finally, a correlation between high Mer expression and CNS positivity upon initial diagnosis was observed in t(1;19) patients. Our data provide evidence that Mer is associated with survival in the CNS in t(1;19)-positive ALL, suggesting a role as a diagnostic marker and therapeutic target. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  11. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shon, In-Jin; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  12. Effect of Graphene Addition on Mechanical Properties of TiN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shon, In-Jin [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Despite of many attractive properties of TiN, the current concern about the TiN focuses on its low fracture toughness below the ductile-brittle transition temperature. To improve its mechanical properties, the approach generally utilized has been the addition of a second phase to form composites and to make nanostructured materials. In this respect, highly dense nanostructured TiN and TiN-graphene composites were obtained within two min at 1250 ℃. The grain size of TiN was reduced remarkably by the addition of graphene. The addition of graphene to TiN simultaneously improved the fracture toughness and hardness of TiN-graphene composite due to refinement of TiN and deterring crack propagation by graphene. This study demonstrates that the graphene can be an effective reinforcing agent for improved hardness and fracture toughness of TiN composites.

  13. Bidirectional GPR119 agonism requires peptide YY and glucose for activity in mouse and human colon mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tough, Iain R; Forbes, Sarah; Herzog, Herbert

    2018-01-01

    motility in wild-type (WT), GPR119-/- and PYY-/- mice.The water-soluble GPR119 agonist, AR440006 (that cannot traverse epithelial tight-junctions) elicited responses when added apically or basolaterally in mouse and human colonic mucosas. In both species, GPR119 responses were PYY, Y1 receptor...

  14. 14 CFR 119.47 - Maintaining a principal base of operations, main operations base, and main maintenance base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintaining a principal base of operations, main operations base, and main maintenance base; change of address. 119.47 Section 119.47 Aeronautics... Under Part 121 or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.47 Maintaining a principal base of operations, main...

  15. 14 CFR 119.67 - Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 121 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.67 Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 121 of this chapter. 119.67 Section 119.67 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  16. 14 CFR 119.71 - Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 135 of this chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or Part 135 of This Chapter § 119.71 Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Management personnel: Qualifications for operations conducted under part 135 of this chapter. 119.71 Section 119.71 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL...

  17. 27 CFR 20.119 - Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. 20.119 Section 20.119 Alcohol, Tobacco....119 Toilet preparations containing not less than 10% essential oils general-use formula. This general-use formula shall consist of an article containing not less than 10% essential oils by volume made...

  18. Fission of Weakly Prolate 119Sn and Weakly Oblate 209Bi Nuclei Induced by 500 and 672 MeV Negative Pions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Mukhtar Ahmed; Sher, Gul; Manzoor, Shahid; Shahzad, M. I.

    2011-01-01

    Fission cross-sections of 119 Sn and 209 Bi induced by negative pions of two energies 500 and 672 MeV were measured using a CR-39 nuclear track detector. Target-detector stacks were exposed to pion beams at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). Measurement results are compared with the corresponding calculations using the computer code CEM95. Agreement between measurements and calculations is fairly good for the 209 Bi target nuclei whereas it is poor for 119 Sn at both investigated energies of 500 and 672 MeV. Fission cross-section results of 119 Sn and 209 Bi are explained using the equilibrium properties of these nuclides including nuclear electric quadrupole moments which determine the shapes of nuclei. A logarithmic dependence of fission cross-section on Z 2 /A is observed for the above-mentioned reactions and a critical limit of Z 2 /A is identified with the value of 30 which divides the curve of σ f versus Z 2 /A into two regimes, one with weak dependence and the other with strong dependence. (nuclear physics)

  19. Fission of Weakly Prolate 119Sn and Weakly Oblate 209Bi Nuclei Induced by 500 and 672 MeV Negative Pions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhtar, Ahmed Rana; Gul, Sher; Shahid, Manzoor; I. Shahzad, M.

    2011-09-01

    Fission cross-sections of 119Sn and 209Bi induced by negative pions of two energies 500 and 672 MeV were measured using a CR-39 nuclear track detector. Target-detector stacks were exposed to pion beams at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (USA). Measurement results are compared with the corresponding calculations using the computer code CEM95. Agreement between measurements and calculations is fairly good for the 209Bi target nuclei whereas it is poor for 119Sn at both investigated energies of 500 and 672 MeV. Fission cross-section results of 119Sn and 209Bi are explained using the equilibrium properties of these nuclides including nuclear electric quadrupole moments which determine the shapes of nuclei. A logarithmic dependence of fission cross-section on Z2/A is observed for the above-mentioned reactions and a critical limit of Z2/A is identified with the value of 30 which divides the curve of σf versus Z2/A into two regimes, one with weak dependence and the other with strong dependence.

  20. Characteristics of indium-tin-oxide (ITO) nanoparticle ink-coated layers recycled from ITO scraps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Seung-Jae; Hong, Sung-Jei; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of an indium-tin-oxide (ITO) ink layer that includes nanoparticles synthesized from ITO target scraps. The particle size of the ITO nanoparticle was less than 15 nm, and the crystal structure was cubic with a (222) preferred orientation. Also, the composition ratio of In to Sn was 92.7 to 7.3 in weight. The ITO nanoparticles were well dispersed in the ink solvent to formulate a 20-wt% ITO nanoparticle ink. Furthermore, the ITO nanoparticle ink was coated onto a glass substrate, followed by heat-treatment at 600 °C. The layer showed good sheet resistances below 400 Ω/□ and optical transmittances higher than 88% at 550 nm. Thus, we can conclude that the characteristics of the layer make it highly applicable to a transparent conductive electrode.

  1. Growth and characterization of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on PET substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jaehyeong; Jung, Hakkee; Lee, Jongin; Lim, Donggun; Yang, Keajoon; Yi, Junsin; Song, Woo-Chang

    2008-01-01

    Transparent and conductive indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films were deposited onto polyethylene terephthalate (PET) by d.c. magnetron sputtering as the front and back electrical contact for applications in flexible displays and optoelectronic devices. In addition, ITO powder was used for sputter target in order to reduce the cost and time of the film formation processes. As the sputtering power and pressure increased, the electrical conductivity of ITO films decreased. The films were increasingly dark gray colored as the sputtering power increased, resulting in the loss of transmittance of the films. When the pressure during deposition was higher, however, the optical transmittance improved at visible region of light. ITO films deposited onto PET have shown similar optical transmittance and electrical resistivity, in comparison with films onto glass substrate. High quality films with resistivity as low as 2.5 x 10 -3 Ω cm and transmittance over 80% have been obtained on to PET substrate by suitably controlling the deposition parameters

  2. Deposition of indium tin oxide thin films by cathodic arc ion plating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, M.-H.; Wen, J.-C.; Chen, K.-L.; Chen, S.-Y.; Leu, M.-S.

    2005-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films have been deposited by cathodic arc ion plating (CAIP) using sintered oxide target as the source material. In an oxygen atmosphere of 200 deg. C, ITO films with a lowest resistivity of 2.2x10 -4 Ω-cm were obtained at a deposition rate higher than 450 nm/min. The carrier mobility of ITO shows a maximum at some medium pressures. Although morphologically ITO films with a very fine nanometer-sized structure were observed to possess the lowest resistivity, more detailed analyses based on X-ray diffraction are attempted to gain more insight into the factors that govern electron mobility in this investigation

  3. High Mobility Thin Film Transistors Based on Amorphous Indium Zinc Tin Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Noviyana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Top-contact bottom-gate thin film transistors (TFTs with zinc-rich indium zinc tin oxide (IZTO active layer were prepared at room temperature by radio frequency magnetron sputtering. Sintered ceramic target was prepared and used for deposition from oxide powder mixture having the molar ratio of In2O3:ZnO:SnO2 = 2:5:1. Annealing treatment was carried out for as-deposited films at various temperatures to investigate its effect on TFT performances. It was found that annealing treatment at 350 °C for 30 min in air atmosphere yielded the best result, with the high field effect mobility value of 34 cm2/Vs and the minimum subthreshold swing value of 0.12 V/dec. All IZTO thin films were amorphous, even after annealing treatment of up to 350 °C.

  4. Moessbauer spectra as a 'fingerprint' in tin-lithium compounds: Applications to Li-ion batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robert, F.; Lippens, P.E.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.; Jumas, J.-C.; Gillot, F.; Morcrette, M.; Tarascon, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Several Li-Sn crystalline phases, i.e. Li 2 Sn 5 , LiSn, Li 7 Sn 3 , Li 5 Sn 2 , Li 13 Sn 5 , Li 7 Sn 2 and Li 22 Sn 5 were prepared by ball-milling and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and 119 Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The analysis of the Moessbauer hyperfine parameters, i.e. isomer shift (δ) and quadrupole splitting (Δ), made it possible to define two types of Li-Sn compounds: the Sn-richest compounds (Li 2 Sn 5 , LiSn) and the Li-richest compounds (Li 7 Sn 3 , Li 5 Sn 2 , Li 13 Sn 5 , Li 7 Sn 2 , Li 22 Sn 5 ). The isomer shift values ranged from 2.56 to 2.38 mm s -1 for Li 2 Sn 5 , LiSn and from 2.07 to 1.83 mm s -1 for Li 7 Sn 3 , Li 5 Sn 2 , Li 13 Sn 5 , Li 7 Sn 2 and Li 22 Sn 5 , respectively. A Δ-δ correlation diagram is introduced in order to identify the different phases observed during the electrochemical process of new Sn-based materials. This approach is illustrated by the identification of the phases obtained at the end of the first discharge of η-Cu 6 Sn 5 and SnB 0.6 P 0.4 O 2.9 . - Graphical abstract: Δ-δ correlation diagram for the different tin sites of the Li-Sn compounds. The symbols denote the different Li-Sn phases and the products obtained at the end of the discharge of η-Cu 6 Sn 5 and SnB 0.6 P 0.4 O 2.9 . The grey and the light-grey areas show Sn-centred polyhedra without and with one Sn first-nearest neighbours, respectively

  5. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Masatoshi, E-mail: kondo.masatoshi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Ishii, Masaomi [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Muroga, Takeo [Department of Helical Plasma Research, National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 502-5292 (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe{sub 3}Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed

  6. Corrosion of steels in molten gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Ishii, Masaomi; Muroga, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Corrosion of RAFM steel, JLF-1, in liquid Sn–20Li was caused by the formation of Fe-Sn alloyed layer. - Highlights: • The corrosion tests were performed for the reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 and the austenitic steel SUS316 in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li at 873 K up to 750 h. • The weight loss of the specimens exposed to liquid Ga, Sn and Sn-20Li was evaluated. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Ga was caused by the alloying reaction between Ga and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn was caused by the alloying reaction between Sn and Fe on the steel surface. • The corrosion of the steels in liquid Sn-20Li was caused by the formation of the Fe-Sn alloyed layer and the diffusion of Sn and Li into the steel matrix. - Abstract: The compatibility of steels in liquid gallium (Ga), tin (Sn) and tin lithium alloy (Sn–20Li) was investigated by means of static corrosion tests. The corrosion tests were performed for reduced activation ferritic martensitic steel JLF-1 (JOYO-HEAT, Fe–9Cr–2W–0.1C) and austenitic steel SUS316 (Fe–18Cr–12Ni–2Mo). The test temperature was 873 K, and the exposure time was 250 and 750 h. The corrosion of these steels in liquid Ga, Sn and Sn–20Li alloy was commonly caused by the formation of a reaction layer and the dissolution of the steel elements into the melts. The reaction layer formed in liquid Ga was identified as Fe 3 Ga from the results of metallurgical analysis and the phase diagram. The growth rate of the reaction layer on the JLF-1 steel showed a parabolic rate law, and this trend indicated that the corrosion could be controlled by the diffusion process through the layer. The reaction layer formed in liquid Sn and Sn–20Li was identified as FeSn. The growth rate had a linear function with exposure time. The corrosion in Sn and Sn–20Li could be controlled by the interface reaction on the layer. The growth rate of the layer formed in

  7. Moessbauer study of supertransferred hyperfine field of /sup 119/Sn (Sn/sup 4 +/) in Casub(1-x)Srsub(x)MnO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takano, M [Konan Univ., Kobe (Japan). Faculty of Science; Takeda, Y; Shimada, M; Matsuzawa, T; Shinjo, T

    1975-09-01

    Casub(1-x)Srsub(x)Mnsub(0.99)Snsub(0.01)O/sub 3/(0<=x<=1) with (nearly) cubic perovskite structures were prepared and the magnetic hyperfine fields of /sup 119/Sn (Sn/sup 4 +/) were measured by the Moessbauer effect. The hyperfine fields arise from unpaired s electron spin densities transferred from Mn/sup 4 +/ ions (supertransferred hyperfine interaction). The hyperfine field for a tin ion was found to depend linearly upon the numbers of Ca/sup 2 +/ and Sr/sup 2 +/ ions in the neighboring divalent cation sites, with proportional coefficients having opposite signs. To explain experimental results two kinds of spin transfer processes contributing to the hyperfine field oppositely to each other have been considered, and spin transfer via a divalent cation is emphasized particularly. The hyperfine field at 0 K for Sn/sup 4 +/ in CaMnO/sub 3/ is -75 kOe, while +20 kOe for Sn/sup 4 +/ in SrMnO/sub 3/.

  8. Structural investigation of 18-crown-6 complexes of Tri organotin carboxylate by 1H, 13C, 19F and 119Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foladi, S.; Yousefi, M.; Mohammadpour Ammini, M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Single crystal structure determination of several 18-crown 6 complexes of orga nation derivatives reveals formation of aqua complex through hydrogen bonding to 18-crown-6, which is an important feature in their structure. In the majority of those studies, mono- and dichloro organotin have been used for complexation of them with crown ethers. In the present work, several 18-crown 6 complexes of tri organotin acetate[(C 6 H 5 ) 3 SnOCOCX 3 ] 2 , 18 C6 ], X=F, Cl, and H, have been prepared. The Lewis acidity of tin moiety in tri organotin carboxylate have been tailored by replacing hydrogen atoms of acetate group with chlorine and fluorine and influence of them in the formation of aqua complex with 18 C6 have been studied by infrared. 1 H, 13 C, 19 F and 119 Sn nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopes. The effects of coordinating and non-coordinating solvent in status of structure in solution have been explored

  9. Dynamic fragmentation of laser shock-melted tin: experiment and modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Resseguier, T. [CNRS ENSMA, Lab Combust and Deton, F-86961 Futuroscope (France); Signor, L.; Dragon, A. [CNRS ENSMA, Mecan and Phys Mat Lab, F-86961 Futuroscope (France); Signor, L.; Roy, G. [CEA Valduc, 21 - Is-sur-Tille (France)

    2010-07-01

    Dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals is an issue of considerable importance for both basic science and a variety of technological applications, such as pyrotechnics or inertial confinement fusion, the latter involving high energy laser irradiation of thin metallic shells. Whereas spall fracture in solid materials has been extensively studied for many years, little data can be found yet about the evolution of this phenomenon after partial or full melting on compression or on release. Here, we present an investigation of dynamic fragmentation in laser shock-melted tin, from the 'micro-spall' process (ejection of a cloud of fine droplets) occurring upon reflection of the compressive pulse from the target free surface, to the late rupture observed in the un-spalled melted layer (leading to the formation of larger spherical fragments). Experimental results consist of time-resolved velocity measurements and post-shock observations of recovered targets and fragments. They provide original information regarding the loss of tensile strength associated with melting, the cavitation mechanism likely to occur in the melted metal, the sizes of the subsequent fragments and their ejection velocities. A theoretical description based on an energetic approach adapted to the case of a liquid metal is implemented as a failure criterion in a one-dimensional hydro-code including a multi-phase equation of state for tin. The resulting predictions of the micro-spall process are compared with experimental data. In particular, the use of a new experimental technique to quantify the fragment size distributions leads to a much better agreement with theory than previously reported. Finally, a complementary approach focused on cavitation is proposed to evaluate the role of this phenomenon in the fragmentation of the melted metal. (authors)

  10. An analysis of confidence limit calculations used in AAPM Task Group No. 119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knill, Cory; Snyder, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The report issued by AAPM Task Group No. 119 outlined a procedure for evaluating the effectiveness of IMRT commissioning. The procedure involves measuring gamma pass-rate indices for IMRT plans of standard phantoms and determining if the results fall within a confidence limit set by assuming normally distributed data. As stated in the TG report, the assumption of normally distributed gamma pass rates is a convenient approximation for commissioning purposes, but may not accurately describe the data. Here the authors attempt to better describe gamma pass-rate data by fitting it to different distributions. The authors then calculate updated confidence limits using those distributions and compare them to those derived using TG No. 119 method. Methods: Gamma pass-rate data from 111 head and neck patients are fitted using the TG No. 119 normal distribution, a truncated normal distribution, and a Weibull distribution. Confidence limits to 95% are calculated for each and compared. A more general analysis of the expected differences between the TG No. 119 method of determining confidence limits and a more time-consuming curve fitting method is performed. Results: The TG No. 119 standard normal distribution does not fit the measured data. However, due to the small range of measured data points, the inaccuracy of the fit has only a small effect on the final value of the confidence limits. The confidence limits for the 111 patient plans are within 0.1% of each other for all distributions. The maximum expected difference in confidence limits, calculated using TG No. 119's approximation and a truncated distribution, is 1.2%. Conclusions: A three-parameter Weibull probability distribution more accurately fits the clinical gamma index pass-rate data than the normal distribution adopted by TG No. 119. However, the sensitivity of the confidence limit on distribution fit is low outside of exceptional circumstances.

  11. Combinatorial study of zinc tin oxide thin-film transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. G.; Sanderson, R. J.; Hill, I. G.

    2008-01-01

    Groups of thin-film transistors using a zinc tin oxide semiconductor layer have been fabricated via a combinatorial rf sputtering technique. The ZnO :SnO2 ratio of the film varies as a function of position on the sample, from pure ZnO to SnO2, allowing for a study of zinc tin oxide transistor performance as a function of channel stoichiometry. The devices were found to have mobilities ranging from 2to12cm2/Vs, with two peaks in mobility in devices at ZnO fractions of 0.80±0.03 and 0.25±0.05, and on/off ratios as high as 107. Transistors composed predominantly of SnO2 were found to exhibit light sensitivity which affected both the on/off ratios and threshold voltages of these devices.

  12. Electronegativity-dependent tin etching from thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pachecka, M., E-mail: m.pachecka@utwente.nl; Sturm, J. M.; Kruijs, R. W. E. van de; Lee, C. J.; Bijkerk, F. [Industrial Focus Group XUV Optics, MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Drienerlolaan 5, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2016-07-15

    The influence of a thin film substrate material on the etching of a thin layer of deposited tin (Sn) by hydrogen radicals was studied. The amount of remaining Sn was quantified for materials that cover a range of electronegativities. We show that, for metals, etching depends on the relative electronegativity of the surface material and Sn. Tin is chemically etched from surfaces with an electronegativity smaller than Sn, while incomplete Sn etching is observed for materials with an electronegativity larger than Sn. Furthermore, the amount of remaining Sn increases as the electronegativity of the surface material increases. We speculate, that, due to Fermi level differences in the material’s electronic structure, the energy of the two conduction bands shift such that the availability of electrons for binding with hydrogen is significantly reduced.

  13. Gap enhancement in phonon-irradiated superconducting tin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, N.D.; Rutledge, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    We have measured the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of tin-tin tunnel junctions driven out of equilibrium by a flux of near-thermal phonons from a heater. The reduced ambient temperature was T/T/sub c/ = 0.41. The nonequilibrium I-V curves are compared to equilibrium thermal I-V curves at an elevated temperature chosen to match the total number of quasiparticles. The nonequilibrium curves show a smaller current near zero bias and a larger gap than the thermal curves. This is the first experimental evidence of phonon-induced gap enhancement far below T/sub c/. The results are discussed in terms of the coupled kinetic equations of Chang and Scalapino

  14. TDPAC characterization of tin oxides using 181Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, M.S.; Desimoni, J.; Requejo, F.G.; Renteria, M.; Bibiloni, A.G.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with a general study of the evolution of tin-oxygen thin films, we report here on the hyperfine interactions of 181 Ta substitutionally replacing tin in the isolated phases SnO and SnO 2 . For this purpose, pure SnO pressed powder and a thin SnO 2 film were implanted with 181 Hf. In both cases, unique quadrupole frequencies were found after thermal annealing treatments. The results indicate that the following hyperfine parameters: ν Q =740.6(2.1) MHz, η=0.07(2) and ν Q =971.5(1.9) MHz, η=0.72(1) characterize 181 Ta and SnO and SnO 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  15. Direct Reaction Experimental Studies with Beams of Radioactive Tin Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, K. L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Ahn, S.H. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Allmond, James M [ORNL; Ayres, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bardayan, Daniel W [ORNL; Baugher, T. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bazin, D. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Beene, James R [ORNL; Berryman, J. S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Bey, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Bingham, C. R. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Cartegni, L. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Chae, K. Y. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)/Sungkyunkwan University, Korea; Cizewski, J. A. [Rutgers University; Gade, A. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL); Galindo-Uribarri, Alfredo {nmn} [ORNL; Garcia-Ruiz, R.F. [Instituut voor Kernen Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001, Leuven, Belgium; Grzywacz, Robert Kazimierz [ORNL; Howard, Meredith E [ORNL; Kozub, R. L. [Tennessee Technological University (TTU); Liang, J Felix [ORNL; Manning, Brett M [ORNL; Matos, M. [Louisiana State University; McDaniel, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Miller, D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Nesaraja, Caroline D [ORNL; O' Malley, Patrick [Rutgers University; Padgett, S [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Padilla-Rodal, Elizabeth [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM); Pain, Steven D [ORNL; Pittman, S. T. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Ratkiewicz, Andrew J [ORNL; Schmitt, Kyle [ORNL; Smith, Michael Scott [ORNL; Stracener, Daniel W [ORNL; Stroberg, S. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Tostevin, Jeffrey A [ORNL; Varner Jr, Robert L [ORNL; Weisshaar, D. [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Wimmer, K. [Michigan State University, National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL)/Central Michigan University; Winkler, R. [Michigan State University, East Lansing

    2015-01-01

    The tin chain of isotopes provides a unique region in which to investigate the evolution of single-particle structure, spreading from N = 50 at Sn-100, through 10 stable isotopes and the N = 82 shell closure at Sn-132 out into the r-process path. Direct reactions performed on radioactive ion beams are sensitive spectroscopic tools for studying exotic nuclei. Here we present one experiment knocking out neutrons from tin isotopes that are already neutron deficient and two reactions that add a neutron to neutron-rich Sn-130. Both techniques rely on selective particle identification and the measurement of gamma rays in coincidence with charged ions. We present the goals of the two experiments and the particle identification for the channels of interest. The final results will be presented in future publications.

  16. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.; Chroneos, Alexander; Grimes, R. W.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2011-01-01

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  17. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.; Fahad, Hossain M.; Singh, Nirpendra; Sevilla, Galo T.; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  18. Tin (Sn) for enhancing performance in silicon CMOS

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2013-10-01

    We study a group IV element: tin (Sn) by integrating it into silicon lattice, to enhance the performance of silicon CMOS. We have evaluated the electrical properties of the SiSn lattice by performing simulations using First-principle studies, followed by experimental device fabrication and characterization. We fabricated high-κ/metal gate based Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs) using SiSn as channel material to study the impact of Sn integration into silicon. © 2013 IEEE.

  19. Dynamics of implanted muons at low temperatures in white tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solt, G.; Zimmermann, U.; Herlach, D.

    2008-01-01

    The low temperature lattice site of the implanted μ + particle and its subsequent delocalization at higher temperatures was investigated in single crystal white tin for 2 + was found to reside at the interstitial sites of type d. With increasing temperature thermally activated hopping sets in at T=48±2K, resulting in complete delocalization near 60 K. The activation energy for hopping, E a =113±15meV, is substantially higher than that found previously for the equally tetragonal indium

  20. Diffusion of tin in germanium: A GGA+U approach

    KAUST Repository

    Tahini, H. A.

    2011-10-18

    Density functional theory calculations are used to investigate the formation and diffusion of tin-vacancy pairs (SnV) in germanium(Ge). Depending upon the Fermi energy, SnV pairs can form in neutral, singly negative, or doubly negative charged states. The activation energies of diffusion, also as function of the Fermi energy, are calculated to lie between 2.48-3.65 eV, in agreement with and providing an interpretation of available experimental work.

  1. Radiodiagnostic complexes employing fluorine-containing tin reducing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, B.K.; Kubik, V.M.

    1977-01-01

    Radiodiagnostic agents for use in mammalian bodies comprising a radiocomplex which is the reaction product of Tc99m-pertechnetate ion, a diagnostic ligand and a tin (II) reducing agent selected from the group consisting of SnF 2 , MSnF 3 , MSn 2 F 5 and mixtures thereof, wherein M is NH 4 , Na, K, Li, Rb or Cs. Radiocomplex precursor compositions and methods of making the radiocomplex and radiodiagnostic agents are described

  2. Evaluation on the characteristics of tin-silver-bismuth solder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z.; Shi, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2002-02-01

    Tin-silver-bismuth solder is characterized by its lower melting point, good wetting behavior, and good mechanical property for which it is expected to be a new lead-free solder to replace tin-lead solder. In this article, Sn-3.33Ag-4.83Bi solder was investigated concerning its physical, spreading, and mechanical properties under specific conditions. Cooling curves and DSC results showed that it was close to eutectic composition (m.p. 210° 212 °C). Coefficiency of thermal expansion (CTE) of this solder, between that of PCBs and copper substrates, was beneficial to alleviate the thermal mismatch of the substrates. It was also a good electrical and thermal conductor. Using a rosin-based, mildly activated (RMA) flux, a spreading test indicated that SnAgBi solder paste had good solderability. Meanwhile, the solder had high tensile strength and fracture energy. Its fracture mechanism was a mixture of ductile and brittle fracture morphology. The metallographic and EDAX analyses indicated that it was composed of a tin-based solid solution and some intermetallic compound (IMC) that could strengthen the substrate. However, these large needle-like IMCs would cut the substrate and this resulted in the decreasing of the toughness of the solder.

  3. Acid-catalyzed kinetics of indium tin oxide etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae-Hyeok; Kim, Seong-Oh; Hilton, Diana L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); Cho, Nam-Joon, E-mail: njcho@ntu.edu.sg [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Centre for Biomimetic Sensor Science, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Drive, 637553 (Singapore); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 62 Nanyang Drive, 637459 (Singapore)

    2014-08-28

    We report the kinetic characterization of indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching by chemical treatment in acidic and basic electrolytes. It was observed that film etching increased under more acidic conditions, whereas basic conditions led to minimal etching on the time scale of the experiments. Quartz crystal microbalance was employed in order to track the reaction kinetics as a function of the concentration of hydrochloric acid and accordingly solution pH. Contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy experiments determined that acid treatment increases surface hydrophilicity and porosity. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy experiments identified that film etching is primarily caused by dissolution of indium species. A kinetic model was developed to explain the acid-catalyzed dissolution of ITO surfaces, and showed a logarithmic relationship between the rate of dissolution and the concentration of undisassociated hydrochloric acid molecules. Taken together, the findings presented in this work verify the acid-catalyzed kinetics of ITO film dissolution by chemical treatment, and support that the corresponding chemical reactions should be accounted for in ITO film processing applications. - Highlights: • Acidic conditions promoted indium tin oxide (ITO) film etching via dissolution. • Logarithm of the dissolution rate depended linearly on the solution pH. • Acid treatment increased ITO surface hydrophilicity and porosity. • ITO film etching led to preferential dissolution of indium species over tin species.

  4. Tin Whisker Electrical Short Circuit Characteristics. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Lawrence L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that has an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  5. InGaN/AlGaInN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with indium gallium tin oxide electrodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sukwon; Kim, Tae Geun

    2015-01-01

    In this study, In- and Sn-doped GaO (IGTO) is proposed as an alternative transparent conductive electrode for indium tin oxide (ITO) to improve the performance of InGaN/AlGaInN-based near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV LEDs). IGTO films were prepared by co-sputtering the ITO and Ga_2O_3 targets under various target power ratios. Among those, IGTO films post-annealed at 700 °C under a hydrogen environment gave rise to a transmittance of 94% at 385 nm and a contact resistance of 9.4 × 10"−"3 Ω-cm"2 with a sheet resistance of 124 Ω/ϒ. Compared to ITO-based NUV LEDs, the IGTO-based NUV LED showed a 9% improvement in the light output power, probably due to IGTO's higher transmittance, although the forward voltage was still higher by 0.23 V. - Highlights: • Indium gallium tin oxide (IGTO) for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode is proposed. • IGTO is fabricated by co-sputtering the ITO and Ga_2O_3 targets and hydrogen annealing. • IGTO shows a 94% transmittance at 385 nm and a 9.4 × 10"−"3 Ω-cm"2 contact resistance. • Near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with IGTO shows improved optical performance.

  6. InGaN/AlGaInN-based ultraviolet light-emitting diodes with indium gallium tin oxide electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sukwon; Kim, Tae Geun, E-mail: tgkim1@korea.ac.kr

    2015-09-30

    In this study, In- and Sn-doped GaO (IGTO) is proposed as an alternative transparent conductive electrode for indium tin oxide (ITO) to improve the performance of InGaN/AlGaInN-based near ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV LEDs). IGTO films were prepared by co-sputtering the ITO and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets under various target power ratios. Among those, IGTO films post-annealed at 700 °C under a hydrogen environment gave rise to a transmittance of 94% at 385 nm and a contact resistance of 9.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω-cm{sup 2} with a sheet resistance of 124 Ω/ϒ. Compared to ITO-based NUV LEDs, the IGTO-based NUV LED showed a 9% improvement in the light output power, probably due to IGTO's higher transmittance, although the forward voltage was still higher by 0.23 V. - Highlights: • Indium gallium tin oxide (IGTO) for near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode is proposed. • IGTO is fabricated by co-sputtering the ITO and Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} targets and hydrogen annealing. • IGTO shows a 94% transmittance at 385 nm and a 9.4 × 10{sup −3} Ω-cm{sup 2} contact resistance. • Near-ultraviolet light-emitting diode with IGTO shows improved optical performance.

  7. The Folding of de Novo Designed Protein DS119 via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moye Wang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available As they are not subjected to natural selection process, de novo designed proteins usually fold in a manner different from natural proteins. Recently, a de novo designed mini-protein DS119, with a βαβ motif and 36 amino acids, has folded unusually slowly in experiments, and transient dimers have been detected in the folding process. Here, by means of all-atom replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD simulations, several comparably stable intermediate states were observed on the folding free-energy landscape of DS119. Conventional molecular dynamics (CMD simulations showed that when two unfolded DS119 proteins bound together, most binding sites of dimeric aggregates were located at the N-terminal segment, especially residues 5–10, which were supposed to form β-sheet with its own C-terminal segment. Furthermore, a large percentage of individual proteins in the dimeric aggregates adopted conformations similar to those in the intermediate states observed in REMD simulations. These results indicate that, during the folding process, DS119 can easily become trapped in intermediate states. Then, with diffusion, a transient dimer would be formed and stabilized with the binding interface located at N-terminals. This means that it could not quickly fold to the native structure. The complicated folding manner of DS119 implies the important influence of natural selection on protein-folding kinetics, and more improvement should be achieved in rational protein design.

  8. Whole genome sequence of Enterobacter ludwigii type strain EN-119T, isolated from clinical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gengmi; Hu, Zonghai; Zeng, Ping; Zhu, Bing; Wu, Lijuan

    2015-04-01

    Enterobacter ludwigii strain EN-119(T) is the type strain of E. ludwigii, which belongs to the E. cloacae complex (Ecc). This strain was first reported and nominated in 2005 and later been found in many hospitals. In this paper, the whole genome sequencing of this strain was carried out. The total genome size of EN-119(T) is 4952,770 bp with 4578 coding sequences, 88 tRNAs and 10 rRNAs. The genome sequence of EN-119(T) is the first whole genome sequence of E. ludwigii, which will further our understanding of Ecc. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the suitability of tin slag in cementitious materials: Mechanical properties and Leaching behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Wafa' Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha; Cahyadi, Agung

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag, a by-product of tin production has been used in cementitious application. The present investigation focuses on the suitability of tin slag as primary component in cement and as component that substitute some amount of Portland Cement. The tin slags studied were taken from Bangka, Indonesia. The main contents of the tin slag are SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 according to the XRF investigation. The aim of this article was to study the mechanical behaviour (compressive strength), microstructure and leaching behaviour of tin slag blended cement. This study used air-cooled tin slag that had been passed through 400# sieve to replace Portland Cement with ratio 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 by weight. Cement pastes and tin slag blended cement pastes were prepared by using water/cement ratio (W/C) of 0.40 by weight and hydrated for various curing ages of 3, 7, 14 days The microstructure of the raw tin slag was investigated using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The phase composition of each cement paste was investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The aim of the leachability test was to investigate the environmental impacts of tin slag blended cement product in the range 4-8 pH by using static pH-dependent leaching test. The result show that the increase of the tin slag content decreasing the mortar compressive strength at early ages. The use of tin slag in cement provide economic benefits for all related industries.

  11. Tin-Silver Alloys for Flip-Chip Bonding Studied with a Rotating Cylinder Electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Peter Torben; Pedersen, E.H.; Bech-Nielsen, G.

    1999-01-01

    Electrodeposition of solder for flip-chip bonding is studied in the form of a pyrophosphate/iodide tin-silver alloy bath. The objective is to obtain a uniform alloy composition, with 3.8 At.% silver, over a larger area. This specific alloy will provide an eutectic solder melting at 221°C (or 10°C...... photoresist, have shown a stable and promising alternative to pure tin and tin-lead alloys for flip-chip bonding applications....

  12. Shanghai Futures Exchange Published Draft of Tin and Nickel Futures Contract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Shanghai Futures Exchange published draft for soliciting opinions for tin and nickel futures contract on its official website on January 19,which implies the marketing time of the long awaited tin and nickel futures is drawing near.According to the draft for soliciting opinions,the transaction unit of tin futures contract is 1tonne/lot,minimum variation unit is 10 yuan/tonne,daily maximum price fluctuation shall

  13. Reformulation of Business Strategies for Increasing Sales of TIN Product Stabilizer at PT Timah Industri

    OpenAIRE

    Sundoyo, Hadi; Hamsal, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    PT. Timah Industri (PT TI) is a subsidiary of PT. Timah (Persero) Tbk which exploit comparative advantage of its parent company as the second largest tin producer in the world. With these advantages PT TI entered the downstream PVC stabilizer tin base. Starting from the difficulty of selling their products and then raised the question in inventory management. PT TI should immediately take strategic steps to save the tin chemical business continues to lose money from time to time. From the res...

  14. Project CHECO Southeast Asia Report. OV-1/AC-119 Hunter-Killer Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-10-10

    between Phan Rang, Phu Cat , and Danang in order to provide best coverage of the Vietnamese conflict. -- On 16 February 1970, three AC -ll9Ks and 70...SOUTHEAST ASIA D D DDiv AY/XDOSQA I OV-1/ AC -119 " i IWB I HUNTER-KILLER TEAM 19’.1’ CONTINUING REPORT CLASSIFIED Ey 7AFIDOOC DOWNGRADE TjU SECRET...xamination of C urrent, 0 per’tions I~ I fF!lr T I TII TIIII I OV=1/ AC -119 HUNTER-KILLER TEAMI 1 10 OCTOBER 1972 HQ PACAF Directorate of Operations

  15. Product-Improvement Test (Phase II), Jetcal Tester, Model H119A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-03-05

    Ao—A0 51 113 ARMY AVIATION ‘Cs’ BOARD FORT tUCKER ALA — P*OOUCTeII ROVEMCNT TEST ( FHAS ~ I I ) . JETCAL TESTER, MODEL M119A~~’ETC(U) MAR S9...Phase i i ) , Jetcal Tester , Model H 119A , USATECOM Project No. 4-6-5011-03 b . No fur ther consideration be given to the TEMPCAL heater probe as a...essen t i a l component of the Jetcal Tester. e. The service manual instruct ions for con t inu i ty te s t ing of EG1 thermocouples be revised to

  16. Opto-electronic properties of chromium doped indium-tin-oxide films deposited at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Weiche; Lee Shihchin; Yang Chihhao; Lin Tienchai

    2008-01-01

    Indium-tin-oxide (ITO) doped chromium films were deposited on Corning 7059 glass prepared by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering under various levels of sputtering power for the chromium target. Experimental results show that the surface roughness slightly decreases by co-sputtering Cr. The pure ITO films deposited at room temperature were amorphous-like. At 15 W of chromium target power, the structure of ITO: Cr film mainly consists of (2 2 2) crystallization plane, with minority of (2 1 1), (4 4 0), (6 6 2) crystallization planes. The carrier concentration of the ITO films increases with increasing the doping of chromium, however the mobility of the carrier decreases. When the sputtering power of the chromium target is at 7.5 W, there has a maximum carrier mobility of 27.3 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , minimum carrier concentration of 2.47 x 10 20 cm -3 , and lowest resistivity of 7.32 x 10 -4 Ω cm. The transmittance of all the chromium doped ITO films at the 300-800 nm wavelength region in this experiment can reach up to 70-85%. In addition, the blue shift of UV-Vis spectrum is not observed with the increase of carrier concentration

  17. Studies on Nanocrystalline TiN Coatings Prepared by Reactive Plasma Spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Yanchun

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Titanium nitride (TiN coatings with nanostructure were prepared on the surface of 45 steel (Fe-0.45%C via reactive plasma spraying (denoted as RPS Ti powders using spraying gun with self-made reactive chamber. The microstructural characterization, phases constitute, grain size, microhardness, and wear resistance of TiN coatings were systematically investigated. The grain size was obtained through calculation using the Scherrer formula and observed by TEM. The results of X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction indicated that the TiN is main phase of the TiN coating. The forming mechanism of the nano-TiN was characterized by analyzing the SEM morphologies of surface of TiN coating and TiN drops sprayed on the surface of glass, and observing the temperature and velocity of plasma jet using Spray Watch. The tribological properties of the coating under nonlubricated condition were tested and compared with those of the AISI M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating. The results have shown that the RPS TiN coating presents better wear resistance than the M2 high-speed steel and Al2O3 coating under nonlubricated condition. The microhardness of the cross-section and longitudinal section of the TiN coating was tested. The highest hardness of the cross-section of TiN coating is 1735.43HV100 g.

  18. Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2010-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish .

  19. 119 | Page

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    known forms of ADR in Nigeria are Arbitration, Mediation, Conciliation and Negotiation. .... 9 Makumi Mwagiru, “Conflict in Africa; Theory, Processes and Institutions of .... the important role the state has to play to maintain order and peace in the ...

  20. Preparation of RF reactively sputtered indium-tin oxide thin films with optical properties suitable for heat mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyadzhiev, S; Dobrikov, G; Rassovska, M

    2008-01-01

    Technologies are discussed for preparing and characterizing indium-tin oxide (ITO) thin films with properties appropriate for usage as heat mirrors in solar thermal collectors. The samples were prepared by means of radio frequency (RF) reactive sputtering of indium-tin targets in oxygen. The technological parameters were optimized to obtain films with optimal properties for heat mirrors. The optical properties of the films were studied by visible and infra-red (IR) spectrophotometry and laser ellipsometry. The reflectance of the films in the thermal IR range was investigated by a Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectrophotometer. Heating of the substrates during the sputtering and their post deposition annealing in different environments were also studied. The ultimate purpose of the present research being the development of a technological process leading to low-cost ITO thin films with high transparency in the visible and near IR (0.3-2.4 μm) and high reflection in the thermal IR range (2.5-25 μm), we investigated the correlation of the ITO thin films structural and optical properties with the technological process parameters - target composition and heat treatment

  1. 29 CFR 825.119 - Leave for treatment of substance abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for treatment of substance abuse. 825.119 Section 825... Leave for treatment of substance abuse. (a) Substance abuse may be a serious health condition if the conditions of §§ 825.113 through 825.115 are met. However, FMLA leave may only be taken for treatment for...

  2. 26 CFR 1.119-1 - Meals and lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meals and lodging furnished for the convenience... Income § 1.119-1 Meals and lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer. (a) Meals—(1) In..., and (ii) the meals are furnished for the convenience of the employer. The question of whether meals...

  3. 9 CFR 381.119 - Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Declaration of artificial flavoring or..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION... Containers § 381.119 Declaration of artificial flavoring or coloring. (a) When an artificial smoke flavoring...

  4. 29 CFR 4.119 - Contracts for services of communications companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Application of the McNamara-O'Hara Service Contract Act Specific Exclusions § 4.119 Contracts for services of communications companies. The Act, in paragraph (4) of section 7, exempts from its provisions “any contract for... Communications Act of 1934.” This exemption is applicable to contracts with such companies for communication...

  5. 30 CFR 250.119 - Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? 250....119 Will MMS approve subsurface gas storage? The Regional Supervisor may authorize subsurface storage of gas on the OCS, on and off-lease, for later commercial benefit. To receive MMS approval you must...

  6. 13 CFR 119.14 - Are there limitations regarding the use of program income?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION PROGRAM FOR INVESTMENT IN MICROENTREPRENEURS (âPRIMEâ OR âTHE ACTâ) § 119.14 Are there limitations... further PRIME program objectives. As such, fees collected from clients, and other program income as... reported on financial reports submitted to SBA and added to funds committed to the project by SBA and the...

  7. Effects of tin concentrations on structural characteristics and electrooptical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi, Choong-Hoon; Yasui, Itaru; Shigesato, Yuzo

    1995-01-01

    Structural characteristics and electrooptical properties of Sn-doped In 2 O 3 (ITO) films were investigated in terms of Sn concentrations from 5.34 to 8.99 (Sn/In at.%) with changing oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature during deposition, in spite of using an ITO target with the same Sn concentration (7.50 SnO 2 wt%, 7.17 Sn/In at.%). The resistivity of the films deposited at 200 and 300degC had a clear tendency to decrease with decrease of the total Sn content. Sn atoms incorporated in the ITO films were classified into two types, i.e., electrically active substitutional Sn atoms contributing to carrier density and electrically nonactive impurities forming nonreducible tin-oxide complexes, which were revealed by precise lattice constant measurement. The change in the Sn concentration was found to be associated with the preferred orientation of the crystal grains, which was dominated by the deposition conditions and should reflect the crystal growth processes. (author)

  8. Effects of tin concentrations on structural characteristics and electrooptical properties of tin-doped indium oxide films prepared by RF magnetron sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Choong-Hoon; Yasui, Itaru; Shigesato, Yuzo [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. of Industrial Science

    1995-02-01

    Structural characteristics and electrooptical properties of Sn-doped In{sub 2}O{sub 3} (ITO) films were investigated in terms of Sn concentrations from 5.34 to 8.99 (Sn/In at.%) with changing oxygen partial pressure and substrate temperature during deposition, in spite of using an ITO target with the same Sn concentration (7.50 SnO{sub 2} wt%, 7.17 Sn/In at.%). The resistivity of the films deposited at 200 and 300degC had a clear tendency to decrease with decrease of the total Sn content. Sn atoms incorporated in the ITO films were classified into two types, i.e., electrically active substitutional Sn atoms contributing to carrier density and electrically nonactive impurities forming nonreducible tin-oxide complexes, which were revealed by precise lattice constant measurement. The change in the Sn concentration was found to be associated with the preferred orientation of the crystal grains, which was dominated by the deposition conditions and should reflect the crystal growth processes. (author).

  9. Local confidence limits for IMRT and VMAT techniques: a study based on TG119 test suite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, M.; Chandroth, M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a local confidence limit (CL) for intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques used at Waikato Regional Cancer Centre. This work was carried out based on the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) Task Group (TG) 119 report. The AAPM TG 119 report recommends CLs as a bench mark for IMRT commissioning and delivery based on its multiple institutions planning and dosimetry comparisons. In this study the locally obtained CLs were compared to TG119 benchmarks. Furthermore, the same bench mark was used to test the capabilities and quality of the VMAT technique in our clinic. The TG 119 test suite consists of two primary and four clinical tests for evaluating the accuracy of IMRT planning and dose delivery systems. Pre defined structure sets contoured on computed tomography images were downloaded from AAPM website and were transferred to a locally designed phantom. For each test case two plans were generated using IMRT and VMAT optimisation. Dose prescriptions and planning objectives recommended by TG119 report were followed to generate the test plans in Eclipse Treatment Planning System. For each plan the point dose measurements were done using an ion chamber at high dose and low dose regions. The planar dose distribution was analysed for percentage of points passing the gamma criteria of 3 %/3 mm, for both the composite plan and individual fields of each plan. The CLs were generated based on the results from the gamma analysis and point dose measurements. For IMRT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.49 % at high dose region and 2.95 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 2.12 % for individual fields and 5.9 % for the composite plan. For VMAT plans, the CLs obtained were (1) from point dose measurements: 2.56 % at high dose region and 2.6 % for the low dose region (2) from gamma analysis: 1.46 % for individual fields and 0

  10. Copper zinc tin sulfide-based thin film solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and tox

  11. Coating power RF components with TiN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.; Hahn, E.

    1995-03-01

    A facility for coating RF power components with thin films of Ti and/or TiN has been in operation for some time at Fermilab supporting the Accelerator Division RF development work and the TESLA program. It has been experimentally verified that such coatings improve the performance of these components as far as withstanding higher electric fields. This is attributed to a reduction in the secondary electron emission coefficient of the surfaces when coated with a thin film containing titanium. The purpose of this Technical Memorandum is to describe the facility and the procedure used

  12. Charge radii and moments of tin nuclei by laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anselment, M.; Bekk, K.; Hanser, A.; Hoeffgen, H.; Meisel, G.; Goering, S.; Rebel, H.; Schatz, G.

    1986-04-01

    The isotope shift and hyperfine structure of the optical Sn I resonance transition 5p 2 3 P 0 ->5p6s 3 P 1 at lambda=286.3 nm have been studied for 18 Sn nuclei including 2 isomers. Laser induced resonance fluorescence from a collimated atomic beam of tin was observed using a tunable cw dye laser with frequency doubler. The electromagnetic nuclear moments and changes of the mean square charge radii of the nuclear charge distributions were determined. The results are discussed with respect to the information they provide on the nuclear structure of the nuclei investigated; they are compared with various theoretical models. (orig.) [de

  13. Pretreatment of Platinum/Tin Oxide-Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Robert V.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Miller, Irvin M.; Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Wood, George M.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Addition of CO to He pretreatment doubles catalytic activity. In sealed, high-energy, pulsed CO2 laser, CO and O2 form as decomposition products of CO2 in laser discharge zone. Products must be recombined, because oxygen concentration of more than few tenths of percent causes rapid deterioration of power, ending in unstable operation. Promising low-temperature catalyst for combining CO and O2 is platinum on tin oxide. New development increases activity of catalyst so less needed for recombination process.

  14. Reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upchurch, Billy T. (Inventor); Miller, Irvin M. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); Hess, Robert V. (Inventor); Schryer, David R. (Inventor); Sidney, Barry D. (Inventor); Wood, George M. (Inventor); Paulin, Patricia A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A method for the reactivation of a tin oxide-containing catalyst of a CO.sub.2 laser is provided. First, the catalyst is pretreated by a standard procedure. When the catalyst experiences diminished activity during usage, the heated zone surrounding the catalyst is raised to a temperature which is the operating temperature of the laser and 400.degree. C. for approximately one hour. The catalyst is exposed to the same laser gas mixture during this period. The temperature of the heated zone is then lowered to the operating temperature of the CO.sub.2 laser.

  15. High dislocation density of tin induced by electric current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Yi-Han; Liang, Chien-Lung; Lin, Kwang-Lung; Wu, Albert T.

    2015-01-01

    A dislocation density of as high as 10 17 /m 2 in a tin strip, as revealed by high resolution transmission electron microscope, was induced by current stressing at 6.5 x 10 3 A/ cm 2 . The dislocations exist in terms of dislocation line, dislocation loop, and dislocation aggregates. Electron Backscattered Diffraction images reflect that the high dislocation density induced the formation of low deflection angle subgrains, high deflection angle Widmanstätten grains, and recrystallization. The recrystallization gave rise to grain refining

  16. A pocketful of tin isomers from heavy-ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, P.J.; Broda, R.; Fornal, B.; Mayer, R.H.; Nisius, D.; Bearden, I.; Benet, P.; Grabowski, Z.W.; Lauritsen, T.; Carpenter, M.; Janssens, R.V.F.; Khoo, T.L.; Liang, Y.; Lunardi, S.; Blomqvist, J.

    1992-01-01

    Reaction products of 122,124 Sn + 76 Ge( 8O Se) collisions 10--15% above the barrier have been studied by γ-ray spectroscopy, and new yrast isomers in 119--124 Sn isotopes have been identified and characterized. B(E2) values determined for (νh 11/2 ) n 10 + → 8 + transitions in even-A Sn nuclei pinpoint half-filling of the νh 11/2 subshell close to N = 73. In odd-A Sn isotopes, 19/2 + isomers with 1--10 μs half-lives occur systematically, and higher-lying (νh ll/2 ) n v=3 27/2 - isomers in 119 Sn and 121 Sn have also been identified. These deep inelastic excitation processes were found to populate a large number of neutron-rich nuclei strongly enough for yrast spectroscopy studies

  17. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu 3 SnS 4 nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn 4+ ions leads to the formation of Cu 3 SnS 4 . These Cu 3 SnS 4 nanocrystals form Au-Cu 3 SnS 4 hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  18. Tin dioxide sol-gel derived films doped with platinum and antimony deposited on porous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savaniu, C.; Arnautu, A.; Cobianu, C.; Craciun, G.; Flueraru, C.; Zaharescu, M.; Parlog, C.; Paszti, F.; van den Berg, Albert

    1999-01-01

    SnO2 sol-gel derived thin films doped simultaneously with Pt and Sb are obtained and reported for the first time. The Sn sources were tin(IV) ethoxide or tin(II) ethylhexanoate, while hexachloroplatinic acid (H2PtCl6) and antimony chloride (SbCl3) were used as platinum and antimony sources,

  19. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  20. 77 FR 32998 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ...-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject five... order on tin- and chromium-coated steel sheet from Japan would be likely to lead to continuation or... USITC Publication 4325 (May 2012), entitled Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet from Japan...

  1. Self-consistent approximation for muffin-tin models of random substitutional alloys with environmental disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, T.; Gray, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    The self-consistent approximation of Kaplan, Leath, Gray, and Diehl is applied to models for substitutional random alloys with muffin-tin potentials. The particular advantage of this approximation is that, in addition to including cluster scattering, the muffin-tin potentials in the alloy can depend on the occupation of the surrounding sites (i.e., environmental disorder is included)

  2. Selective Recovery of Mushistonite from Gravity Tailings of Copper–Tin Minerals in Tajikistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Sun

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Tajikistan has abundant copper–tin resources. In this study, mineralogical analysis of copper–tin ores from the Mushiston deposit of Tajikistan indicates that tin mainly occurred in mushistonite, cassiterite, and stannite, while copper mainly occurred in mushistonite, malachite, azurite, and stannite. The total grades of tin (Sn and copper (Cu were 0.65% and 0.66%, respectively, and the dissemination size of copper–tin minerals ranged from 4 μm to over 200 μm. Coarse particles of copper–tin minerals were partially recovered by shaking table concentrators with a low recovery rate. Based on the mineralogical analysis, flotation recovery was used for the first time on the fine particles of copper–tin minerals, including mushistonite, from shaking table tailings. Single factor flotation experiments, open circuit flotation tests, and closed circuit flotation tests were performed to determine the optimized flotation conditions. Results indicated that benzohydroxamic acid (C6H5CONHOH and lead nitrate could effectively recover the mushistonite, cooperating with other depressants. The final concentrate contained 13.28% Sn, with a recovery rate of 61.56%, and 18.51% Cu, with a recovery rate of 86.52%. This method proved effective for the exploitation and use of this type of copper–tin resource in Tajikistan.

  3. Moessbauer study of the lattice dynamics of tin atoms in antimony

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.

    1975-01-01

    The Moessbauer effect probability f was investigated for tin impurity atoms in the SnSb solution (the impurity varied from 3 at% to 15 at%). The absolute value of the Moessbauer effect probability was determined from Moessbauer absorption spectra by the area method using a calibration absorber of a β-tin foil with known f. (Z.S.)

  4. Fast, versatile x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in impregnated wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drabæk, I.; Christensen, Leif Højslet

    1985-01-01

    The present paper describes an energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence method for measuring tin in bis(tri-n-butyl)tin-oxide impregnated wood. The proposed method is of the backscatter/fundamental parameter type. Its versatility, precision, and accuracy is demonstrated by analyses of eleven samples...

  5. The electrochemical deposition of tin-nickel alloys and the corrosion properties of the coating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2005-01-01

    The electrodeposition of tin/nickel (65/35 wt%) is a unique coating process because of the deposition of an intermetallic phase of nickel and tin, which cannot be formed by any pyrometallurgical process. From thermodynamic calculations it can be shown that intermetallic phases can be formed throu...

  6. Reversible storage of lithium in a rambutan-like tin-carbon electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Da; Lee, Jim Yang

    2009-01-01

    Fruity electrodes: A simple bottom-up self-assembly method was used to fabricate rambutan-like tin-carbon (Sn@C) nanoarchitecture (see scheme, green Sn) to improve the reversible storage of lithium in tin. The mechanism of the growth of the pear-like hairs is explored.

  7. Tin- and Lead-Based Perovskite Solar Cells under Scrutiny: An Environmental Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serrano-Luján, Lucía; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod

    2015-01-01

    The effect of substituting lead with tin in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) has shows that lead is preferred over tin by a lower cumulative energy demand. The results, which also include end-of-life management, show that a recycling scenario that carefully handles emission of lead enables use...

  8. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES PROHIBITED FROM USE IN HUMAN FOOD... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one...

  9. Microstructures and properties of TiN reinforced Co-based composite coatings modified with Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} by laser cladding on Ti–6Al–4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Fei, E-mail: wengfeisdu@126.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Yu, Huijun, E-mail: yhj2001@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of High-efficiency and Clean Mechanical Manufacture (Ministry of Education), School of Mechanical Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Chen, Chuanzhong, E-mail: czchen@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Liu, Jianli, E-mail: jianli21s@163.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhao, Longjie, E-mail: zhaoljsdu@sina.com [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structural Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Ji' nan 250061 (China); Shandong University, Suzhou Institute, Suzhou 215123 (China)

    2015-11-25

    In this study, TiN reinforced composite coatings were fabricated on Ti–6Al–4V substrate by laser cladding with Co42 self-fluxing alloy, TiN and Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} mixed powders. Microstructures and wear resistance of the cladding coatings with and without Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition were investigated comparatively. Results showed that the coatings were mainly comprised of γ-Co/Ni, TiN, CoTi, CoTi{sub 2}, NiTi, TiC, Cr{sub 7}C{sub 3}, TiB, Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} and TiC{sub 0.3}N{sub 0.7} phases. The coatings showed metallurgical bonding free of pores and cracks with the substrate. Compared with the Ti–6Al–4V substrate, the microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced by 3–4 times and 9.5–11.9 times, respectively. With 1.0 wt.% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition, the microstructure of the coating was refined significantly, and the microhardness and dry sliding wear resistance were enhanced further. The effects of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} were attributed to the residual Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and decomposed Y atoms. - Graphical abstract: The diagram illustration for the action mechanism of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}: (a) dissolution of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} and TiN, (b) re-formation of TiN and in situ formation of TiC, (c) growth of TiN, TiC and the distribution of Y atoms. - Highlights: • Coatings showing metallurgical bonding with the substrate were fabricated. • The effect of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the refinement of the microstructure is notable. • A kind of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} centered core–shell structure was picked out in the coating. • Microhardness and wear resistance of the coatings was enhanced significantly.

  10. Colorimetric properties of TiN coating implanted by aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: zhouqg99@mails.tsinghua.edu.cn; Bai, X.D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xue, X.Y. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Ling, Y.H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, X.W. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xu, J. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China); Wang, D.R. [Beijing Great Wall Ti-Gold Corporation, Beijing 100095 (China)

    2005-04-05

    TiN coating was prepared by cathodic arc deposition and implanted aluminum using a metal vacuum vapor arc ion source with doses ranging from 5 x 10{sup 16} to 2 x 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2}. The purpose of this work was to determine the dependence of the colorimetric properties of TiN films on the implanting conditions, especially by the aluminum ion implantation. The colorimetry of coatings was evaluated quantitatively in terms of CIE L * a * b *. The color coordinate values L *, a *, and b * provide a numerical representation of the color of the surface. With the dose increasing, the surface color has no obvious change but the surface turns brighter, and a * as well as b * values all decline. The X-ray diffraction patterns showed that the aluminum implantation induced a slight shift of diffraction peaks. X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was employed to analyze the surface valence states. The oxygen in surface top layer does not decrease a * and b * values, it partially combined with nitrogen.

  11. Accommodation of tin in tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, B. D. C.; Grimes, R. W.; Wenman, M. R., E-mail: m.wenman@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Murphy, S. T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Burr, P. A. [Department of Materials and Centre for Nuclear Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia)

    2015-02-28

    Atomic scale computer simulations using density functional theory were used to investigate the behaviour of tin in the tetragonal phase oxide layer on Zr-based alloys. The Sn{sub Zr}{sup ×} defect was shown to be dominant across most oxygen partial pressures, with Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} charge compensated by V{sub O}{sup ••} occurring at partial pressures below 10{sup −31 }atm. Insertion of additional positive charge into the system was shown to significantly increase the critical partial pressure at which Sn{sub Zr}{sup ″} is stable. Recently developed low-Sn nuclear fuel cladding alloys have demonstrated an improved corrosion resistance and a delayed transition compared to Sn-containing alloys, such as Zircaloy-4. The interaction between the positive charge and the tin defect is discussed in the context of alloying additions, such as niobium and their influence on corrosion of cladding alloys.

  12. Indium tin oxide films prepared via wet chemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legnani, C.; Lima, S.A.M.; Oliveira, H.H.S.; Quirino, W.G.; Machado, R.; Santos, R.M.B.; Davolos, M.R.; Achete, C.A.; Cremona, M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, indium tin oxide (ITO) films were prepared using a wet chemical route, the Pechini method. This consists of a polyesterification reaction between an α-hydroxicarboxylate complex (indium citrate and tin citrate) with a polyalcohol (ethylene glycol) followed by a post annealing at 500 deg. C. A 10 at.% of doping of Sn 4+ ions into an In 2 O 3 matrix was successfully achieved through this method. In order to characterize the structure, the morphology as well as the optical and electrical properties of the produced ITO films, they were analyzed using different experimental techniques. The obtained films are highly transparent, exhibiting transmittance of about 85% at 550 nm. They are crystalline with a preferred orientation of [222]. Microscopy discloses that the films are composed of grains of 30 nm average size and 0.63 nm RMS roughness. The films' measured resistivity, mobility and charge carrier concentration were 5.8 x 10 -3 Ω cm, 2.9 cm 2 /V s and - 3.5 x 10 20 /cm 3 , respectively. While the low mobility value can be related to the small grain size, the charge carrier concentration value can be explained in terms of the high oxygen concentration level resulting from the thermal treatment process performed in air. The experimental conditions are being refined to improve the electrical characteristics of the films while good optical, chemical, structural and morphological qualities already achieved are maintained

  13. The\tutility\tof\tneuroimaging\tin\tthe\tmanagement\tof\tdementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uduak\tE\tWilliams

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Dementia is a syndrome of progressive dysfunction of two or more cognitive\tdomains\tassociated\twith\timpairment\tof\tactivities\tof\tdaily\tliving. An understanding of the pathophysiology of dementia and its early diagnosis\tis\timportant\tin\tthe\tpursuit\tof\tpossible\tdisease\tmodifying\ttherapy for\tdementia.\tNeuroimaging\thas\tgreatly\ttransformed\tthis\tfield\tof\tresearch as its function has changed from a mere tool for diagnosing treatable causes of dementia to an instrument for pre-symptomatic diagnosis of dementia. This\treview\tfocuses\ton\tthe\tdiagnostic\tutility\tof\tneuroimaging\tin the\tmanagement\tof\tprogressive\tdementias.\tStructural\timaging\ttechniques like computerized tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging highlights the anatomical, structural and volumetric details of the brain; while functional imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography, arterial spin labeling, single photon emission computerized tomography\tand\tblood\toxygen\tlevel-dependent\tfunctional\tmagnetic\tresonance\timaging\tfocuses\ton\tchemistry, circulatory\tstatus\tand\tphysiology\tof\tthe\tdifferent\tbrain\tstructures\tand\tregions.

  14. A variable resolution right TIN approach for gridded oceanographic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, David; Elmore, Paul; Blain, Cheryl Ann; Bourgeois, Brian; Petry, Frederick; Ferrini, Vicki

    2017-12-01

    Many oceanographic applications require multi resolution representation of gridded data such as for bathymetric data. Although triangular irregular networks (TINs) allow for variable resolution, they do not provide a gridded structure. Right TINs (RTINs) are compatible with a gridded structure. We explored the use of two approaches for RTINs termed top-down and bottom-up implementations. We illustrate why the latter is most appropriate for gridded data and describe for this technique how the data can be thinned. While both the top-down and bottom-up approaches accurately preserve the surface morphology of any given region, the top-down method of vertex placement can fail to match the actual vertex locations of the underlying grid in many instances, resulting in obscured topology/bathymetry. Finally we describe the use of the bottom-up approach and data thinning in two applications. The first is to provide thinned, variable resolution bathymetry data for tests of storm surge and inundation modeling, in particular hurricane Katrina. Secondly we consider the use of the approach for an application to an oceanographic data grid of 3-D ocean temperature.

  15. Amdel on-line analyser at Rooiberg Tin Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.V.

    1987-01-01

    An Amdel on line analysis system was installed on the 'A' mine tin flotation plant at Rooiberg in April 1984. The motivation for the installation was made on account of the large variations in the feed grade to the plant and the resulting need for rapid operational adjustments to control concentrate grades thereby maximising the financial returns. An 'on-line' analyser system presented itself as a suitable alternative to the existing control method of smaller laboratory x-ray fluorescence analysers. On the system as installed at Rooiberg, two probes were fitted in each analysis zone, viz a density probe using high energy gamma radiation from a Cesium 127 source and a specific element absorption probe using low energy gamma radiation from a Americium 241 source. The signals as received from the probes are fed to a line receiver unit in the control room where a micro computer is doing the processing and prints out the information as required. Several advantages of this type of installation were gained at Rooiberg Tin Limited

  16. Suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target containing SnO2 nanoparticles by using double laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-01-01

    We have demonstrated suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target plasma containing tin-dioxide (SnO 2 ) nanoparticles irradiated by double laser pulses. We observed a significant decrease of the tin and oxygen ion signals in the charged-state-separated energy spectra when double laser pulses were irradiated. The peak energy of the singly ionized tin ions decreased from 9 to 3 keV when a preplasma was produced. The decrease in the ion energy, considered as debris suppression, is attributed to the interaction between an expanding low-density preplasma and a main laser pulse

  17. Suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target containing SnO2 nanoparticles by using double laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi; Kaku, Masanori; Katto, Masahito; Kubodera, Shoichi

    2007-10-01

    We have demonstrated suppression of suprathermal ions from a colloidal microjet target plasma containing tin-dioxide (SnO2) nanoparticles irradiated by double laser pulses. We observed a significant decrease of the tin and oxygen ion signals in the charged-state-separated energy spectra when double laser pulses were irradiated. The peak energy of the singly ionized tin ions decreased from 9to3keV when a preplasma was produced. The decrease in the ion energy, considered as debris suppression, is attributed to the interaction between an expanding low-density preplasma and a main laser pulse.

  18. Electrochemical migration of tin in electronics and microstructure of the dendrites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl

    2011-01-01

    The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electr...... by the dehydration of the hydrated oxide originally formed in solution ex-situ in ambient air.......The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb (∼2wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron...... microscopy including Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The tin dendrites were formed under 5 or 12V potential bias in 10ppm by weight NaCl electrolyte as a micro-droplet on the resistor during electrochemical migration experiments. The dendrites formed were found to have...

  19. Synthesis of antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles by the nitrate-citrate combustion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianrong; Gao Lian

    2004-01-01

    Antimony-doped tin oxide (ATO) nanoparticles having rutile structure have been synthesized by the combustion method using citric acid (CA) as fuel and nitrate as an oxidant, the metal sources were granulated tin and Sb 2 O 3 . The influence of citric acid (fuel) to metal ratio on the average crystallite size, specific surface area and morphology of the nanoparticles has been investigated. X-ray diffraction showed the tin ions were reduced to elemental tin during combustion reaction. The average ATO crystallite size increased with the increase of citric acid (fuel). Powder morphology and the comparison of crystallite size and grain size shows that the degree of agglomeration of the powder decreased with an increase of the ratio. The highest specific surface area was 37.5 m 2 /g when the citric acid to tin ratio was about 6

  20. VO2 /TiN Plasmonic Thermochromic Smart Coatings for Room-Temperature Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qi; Li, Wan; Xu, Huiyan; Wang, Jiawei; Yin, Yin; Wang, Huaiyu; Ma, Libo; Ma, Fei; Jiang, Xuchuan; Schmidt, Oliver G; Chu, Paul K

    2018-03-01

    Vanadium dioxide/titanium nitride (VO 2 /TiN) smart coatings are prepared by hybridizing thermochromic VO 2 with plasmonic TiN nanoparticles. The VO 2 /TiN coatings can control infrared (IR) radiation dynamically in accordance with the ambient temperature and illumination intensity. It blocks IR light under strong illumination at 28 °C but is IR transparent under weak irradiation conditions or at a low temperature of 20 °C. The VO 2 /TiN coatings exhibit a good integral visible transmittance of up to 51% and excellent IR switching efficiency of 48% at 2000 nm. These unique advantages make VO 2 /TiN promising as smart energy-saving windows. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Wave Propagation and Phase Transition of Tin under Shock-Wave Loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hai-Feng, Song; Hai-Feng, Liu; Guang-Cai, Zhang; Yan-Hong, Zhao

    2009-01-01

    We undertake a numerical simulation of shock experiments on tin reported in the literature, by using a multiphase equation of state (MEOS) and a multiphase Steinberg Guinan (MSG) constitutive model for tin in the β, γ and liquid phases. In the MSG model, the Bauschinger effect is considered to better describe the unloading behavior. The phase diagram and Hugoniot of tin are calculated by MEOS, and they agree well with the experimental data. Combined with the MEOS and MSG models, hydrodynamic computer simulations are successful in reproducing the measured velocity profile of the shock wave experiment. Moreover, by analyzing the mass fraction contour as well as stress and temperature profiles of each phase for tin, we further discuss the complex behavior of tin under shock-wave loading. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)

  2. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Research into tin and arsenical copper artefacts using nuclear analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grant, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    This study includes the chemical analysis, sourcing and historical metallurgy of tin and arsenical copper artefacts discovered at Rooiberg and elsewhere in the Northern Transvaal and at Great Zimbabwe. A complete chemical analysis method for tin and cassiterite is presented, based on INAA (instrumental neutron activation analysis) and supplemented by PIXE or AAS for elements such as lead, bismuth and niobium. This is apparently the first study in which tin artefacts were analysed by INAA without chemical processing of the samples. INAA and PIXE returned the same results when a homogenized tin alloy block was analysed, but the structure and distribution of hardhead phases appear to produce an iron quantification problem in ancient tin. Ores and slags were analysed for light matrix elements by XRF or PIXE and INAA for the heavy trace metals. 108 refs., 24 figs., 130 tabs

  4. NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage http://nepp.nasa.gov/whisker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Harry

    2000-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Tin Whisker Homepage provides general information and GSFC Code 562 experimentation results regarding the well known phenomenon of tin whisker formation from pure tin plated substrates. The objective of this www site is to provide a central repository for information pertaining to this phenomenon and to provide status of the GSFC experiments to understand the behavior of tin whiskers in space environments. The Tin Whisker www site is produced by Code 562. This www site does not provide information pertaining to patented or proprietary information. All of the information contained in this www site is at the level of that produced by industry and university researchers and is published at international conferences.

  5. Effects on stress rupture life and tensile strength of tin additions to Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreshfield, R. L.; Johnson, W.

    1982-01-01

    Because Inconel 718 represents a major use of columbium and a large potential source of columbium for aerospace alloys could be that of columbium derived from tin slags, the effects of tin additions to Inconel 718 at levels which might be typical of or exceed those anticipated if tin slag derived columbium were used as a melting stock were investigated. Tin was added to 15 pound Inconel 718 heats at levels varying from none added to approximately 10,000 ppm (1 wt%). Limited 1200 F stress rupture testing was performed at stresses from 68,000 to 115,000 psi and a few tensile tests were performed at room temperature, 800 and 1200 F. Additions of tin in excess of 800 ppm were detrimental to ductility and stress rupture life.

  6. 76 FR 58536 - Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan; Notice of Commission Determination To Conduct a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-860 (Second Review)] Tin- and Chromium... Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Tin- and Chromium-Coated Steel Sheet From Japan AGENCY: United.... 1675(c)(5)) to determine whether revocation of the antidumping duty order on tin- and chromium-coated...

  7. Stress analysis and microstructure of PVD monolayer TiN and multilayer TiN/(Ti,Al)N coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carvalho, NJM; Zoestbergen, E; Kooi, BJ; De Hosson, JTM

    2003-01-01

    Two PVD titanium nitride based coatings; monolayer TiN and multilayer resulting from the stacking of TiN and (Ti,Al)N layers were evaluated with respect to their stress state and microstructure. The TiN was deposited by triode evaporation ion plating, whereas the TiN/(Ti,AI)N was deposited using a

  8. 76 FR 60001 - Certain Tin Mill Products From Japan; Final Results of the Second Expedited Sunset Review of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-854] Certain Tin Mill Products... duty order on certain tin mill products from Japan, pursuant to section 751(c) of the Tariff [[Page... on certain tin mill products from Japan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five...

  9. 13 CFR 119.11 - What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... (2) A research proposal indicating the thesis, method(s), scope, duration, and implementation plans... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What information will be requested in an application under the PRIME program? 119.11 Section 119.11 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL...

  10. Karistusseadustiku § 119¹ ehk tõenduslike probleemide ületamine materiaalõiguse abil / Anneli Soo, Birgit Sisask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Soo, Anneli, 1984-

    2015-01-01

    1. jaanuaril 2015 jõustus karistusseadustikus rida muudatusi, sh lisandus § 119¹, mis käsitleb kakluses osalemist. Karistusõiguslikest ja põhiseaduslikest põhimõtetest, millega § 119¹ läheb vastuollu

  11. 10 CFR 76.119 - Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Security facility approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. 76.119 Section 76.119 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION... approval and safeguarding of National Security Information and Restricted Data. The requirements for...

  12. 23 CFR 636.119 - How does this part apply to a project developed under a public-private partnership?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... public-private partnership? 636.119 Section 636.119 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... does this part apply to a project developed under a public-private partnership? (a) In order for a... Federal-aid procurement procedures will depend on the nature of the public-private agreement. (1) If the...

  13. 16 CFR 1.19 - Modification of a rule by the Commission at the time of judicial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modification of a rule by the Commission at the time of judicial review. 1.19 Section 1.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... event that a reviewing court determines under section 18(e)(2) of the Federal Trade Commission Act, to...

  14. 75 FR 8918 - Approval for Subzone Expansion and Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 119B...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... and Expanded Manufacturing Authority; Foreign-Trade Subzone 119B, Uponor, Inc. (Polyethylene Tubing); Apple Valley, MN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... Zone 119 (Minneapolis, Minnesota), has submitted a request on behalf of Uponor, Inc. (Uponor), operator...

  15. Sources and historical record of tin and butyl-tin species in a Mediterranean bay (Toulon Bay, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Frédérique; Schäfer, Jörg; Dutruch, Lionel; Garnier, Cédric; Tessier, Erwan; Dang, Duc Huy; Lanceleur, Laurent; Mullot, Jean-Ulrich; Lenoble, Véronique; Blanc, Gérard

    2014-05-01

    Concentrations of inorganic tin (Sn(inorg)), tributyltin (TBT) and its degradation products dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) were measured in surface sediments and in two cores from the Toulon Bay, hosting the major French military harbour. Anticipating planned dredging, the aim of the present work is to map and evaluate for the first time the recent and historic contamination of these sediments by inorganic and organic Sn species derived from antifouling paints used for various naval domains including military, trade, tourism and leisure. Tin and butyl-Sn concentrations in the bay varied strongly (4 orders of magnitude), depending on the site, showing maximum values near the shipyards. The concentrations of total Sn (1.3-112 μg g(-1)), TBT (product Sn(inorgBT) is by far the dominant species after 10-12 half-life periods and (c) using recent data to reliably assess former TBT contamination requires the use of a modified butyl-Sn degradation index BDI(mod). Resuspension of extremely contaminated subsurface sediments by the scheduled dredging will probably result in mobilization of important amounts of butyl-Sn species.

  16. Preparation of transparent conductive indium tin oxide thin films from nanocrystalline indium tin hydroxide by dip-coating method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroesi, Laszlo; Papp, Szilvia; Dekany, Imre

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with well-controlled layer thickness were produced by dip-coating method. The ITO was synthesized by a sol-gel technique involving the use of aqueous InCl 3 , SnCl 4 and NH 3 solutions. To obtain stable sols for thin film preparation, as-prepared Sn-doped indium hydroxide was dialyzed, aged, and dispersed in ethanol. Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was applied to enhance the stability of the resulting ethanolic sols. The transparent, conductive ITO films on glass substrates were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The ITO layer thickness increased linearly during the dipping cycles, which permits excellent controllability of the film thickness in the range ∼ 40-1160 nm. After calcination at 550 o C, the initial indium tin hydroxide films were transformed completely to nanocrystalline ITO with cubic and rhombohedral structure. The effects of PVP on the optical, morphological and electrical properties of ITO are discussed.

  17. Interesting Features of Ionization Potentials for Elements (Z ≤ 119) along the Periodic Table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Chun; Zeng De-Ling; Li Jia-Ming; Jin Rui; Yue Xian-Fang; Gao Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The ionization potential (IP) is a basic property of an atom, which has many applications such as in element analysis. With the Dirac–Slater methods (i.e., mean field theory), IPs of all occupied orbitals for elements with atomic number (Z ≤ 119) are calculated conveniently and systematically. Compared with available experimental measurements, the theoretical accuracies of IPs for various occupied orbitals are ascertained. The map of the inner orbital IPs with good accuracies should be useful to select x-ray energies for element analysis. Based on systematic variations of the first IPs for the outermost orbitals in good agreement with experimental values as well as other IPs, mechanisms of electronic configurations of all atomic elements (Z ≤ 119) along the periodic table are elucidated. It is interesting to note that there exist some deficiencies of the intermediate orbital IPs, which are due to electron correlations and should be treated beyond the mean field theory. (paper)

  18. Interpreting ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 in the light of Psalm 119

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippus J. Botha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article argued that Psalm 37 and Proverbs 1–4 served as sources for the composition of Psalm 1. The emphasis in both donor texts on the righteous people’s inheriting the Promised Land seems to have imprinted also on Psalm 1, a factor that could change our understanding of it. All three contexts in turn played a role in the composition of Psalm 119, but whilst the author of this long psalm also understood the ‘Torah’ of Yahweh as the incarnation of true wisdom, it seems that ‘Torah’ also subsumed the Promised Land for him. The investigation showed that ‘Torah’ in Psalm 1 should be understood as an arch-lexeme for all the religious texts its author used to compose, similar to what was the understanding of the author of Psalm 119 a little later.

  19. Moessbauer spectroscopy of isotope separator implanted sup(119m)Sn in FCC metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, A.N.; Weyer, G.

    1979-01-01

    Radioactive sup(119m)Sn has been implanted in FCC metals by means of an isotope separator. Moessbauer spectra have been measured for the 24 keV transition of 119 Sn. Large substitutional fractions are found in all cases. A correlation for substitutional lattice sites between the measured isomer shifts of the impurity atoms and the force constants of the host lattices is discussed. Debye-Waller factors determined for substitutional Sn in the host lattices are found to be smaller than values calculated by a simple mass-defect model. For some host metals indications of an influence of radiation damage on the spectra are observed. Defect sites are assigned to Sn in aluminium and lead. Qualitative conclusions on the structures of these defects are drawn from the determined Moessbauer parameters. (author)

  20. Development of 119Sn nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation and first applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barla, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of this thesis the NRS technique has been developed and applied, for the first time at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, at the resonance of 119 Sn. Elastic nuclear forward scattering (NFS) is ideal for studies of hyperfine interactions, where information about the electronic and magnetic properties of solids is obtained. On the other hand nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) allows one to study the phonon density of states (DOS) of Moessbauer isotopes in various kinds of systems. In the first stage, technical developments have been made, particularly with regards the used optical elements. A key point has been the construction of a high resolution monochromator (HRM) for the resonance of 119 Sn, with an energy resolution of about 0.65 meV, perfectly suited to perform NIS experiments. A second HRM optimised in throughput has been constructed and used, in combination with focussing elements (bent crystals and compound refractive lenses), to perform NFS experiments at very high pressure. For the first applications of 119 Sn NIS, the phonon DOS of β-Sn has been directly determined from the NIS spectra measured at T = 100 K and T = 300 K. An excellent agreement has been found with the phonon DOS obtained theoretically by previous calculations. Moreover, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of β-Sn extracted from the determined DOS, such as the Lamb-Moessbauer factor and the specific heat, are found to be in good agreement with previously published results. As a first application of 119 Sn NFS experiments at high pressure, the system U(In 1-x Sn x ) 3 has been chosen. (orig.)

  1. Development of {sup 119}Sn nuclear resonance scattering of synchrotron radiation and first applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barla, A.

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of this thesis the NRS technique has been developed and applied, for the first time at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, at the resonance of {sup 119}Sn. Elastic nuclear forward scattering (NFS) is ideal for studies of hyperfine interactions, where information about the electronic and magnetic properties of solids is obtained. On the other hand nuclear inelastic scattering (NIS) allows one to study the phonon density of states (DOS) of Moessbauer isotopes in various kinds of systems. In the first stage, technical developments have been made, particularly with regards the used optical elements. A key point has been the construction of a high resolution monochromator (HRM) for the resonance of {sup 119}Sn, with an energy resolution of about 0.65 meV, perfectly suited to perform NIS experiments. A second HRM optimised in throughput has been constructed and used, in combination with focussing elements (bent crystals and compound refractive lenses), to perform NFS experiments at very high pressure. For the first applications of {sup 119}Sn NIS, the phonon DOS of {beta}-Sn has been directly determined from the NIS spectra measured at T = 100 K and T = 300 K. An excellent agreement has been found with the phonon DOS obtained theoretically by previous calculations. Moreover, dynamical and thermodynamical properties of {beta}-Sn extracted from the determined DOS, such as the Lamb-Moessbauer factor and the specific heat, are found to be in good agreement with previously published results. As a first application of {sup 119}Sn NFS experiments at high pressure, the system U(In{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}){sub 3} has been chosen. (orig.)

  2. Study of Sn100-xMnx amorphous system by 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, V.

    1986-01-01

    Thin films of Sn 100-x Mn x amorphous alloys with large range of concentrations were procedure by vapor condensation technique on substrates at temperatures near to liquid helium. The magnetic and paramagnetic hyperfine spectra, and the ordering temperatures were measured by 119 Sn Moessbauer effect. The electrical resistivity was used for characterizing the amorphous state. All the measurements were done 'in situ'. A magnetic phase diagram is proposed. (M.C.K.) [pt

  3. 195Pt and 119Sn Knight shifts of U3Pt3Sn4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, K.; Takabatake, T.; Harada, A.; Hihara, T.

    1995-01-01

    The 195 Pt and 119 Sn Knight shifts in U 3 Pt 3 Sn 4 have been measured in the temperature range 4.2-298K. They exhibit Curie-Weiss like behaviors above about 50K and remain constant below about 10K. This suggests that the deviation of χ(T) from the modified Curie-Weiss law is an intrinsic property of U 3 Pt 3 Sn 4 . ((orig.))

  4. Simplified calculation of nonlocal thermodynamic equilibrium excited state populations contributing to 13.5 nm emission in a tin plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, J.; Cummings, A.; Dunne, P.; Hayden, P.; O'Sullivan, G.

    2007-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography schemes for the semiconductor industry are currently based on coupling radiation from a plasma source into a 2% bandwidth at 13.5 nm (91.8 eV). In this paper, we consider the case for a laser-produced plasma (LPP) and address the calculation of ionic level populations in the 4p 6 4d N , 4p 6 4d N-1 4f 1 , 4p 5 4d N+1 , and 4p 6 4d N-1 5p 1 configurations in a range of tin ions (Sn 6+ to Sn 13+ ) producing radiation in this bandwidth. The LPP is modeled using a one-dimensional hydrodynamics code, which uses a hydrogenic, average atom model, where the level populations are treated as l degenerate. Hartree-Fock calculations are used to remove the l degeneracy and an energy functional method to calculate the nl level populations involved in n=4-4 transitions as a function of distance from the target surface and time. Detailed data are presented for the tin ions that contribute to in-band emission

  5. Microstructure and growth mechanism of tin whiskers on RESn3 compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Caifu; Liu Zhiquan

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Large amount of intact tin whiskers were firstly prepared without post handling, and their microstructures were investigated systematically with TEM. A growth model was proposed to explain the observed growth characteristics from Sn–RE alloys. - Abstract: An exclusive method was developed to prepare intact tin whiskers as transmission electron microscope specimens, and with this technique in situ observation of tin whisker growth from RESn 3 (RE = Nd, La, Ce) film specimen was first achieved. Electron irradiation was discovered to have an effect on the growth of a tin whisker through its root. Large quantities of tin whiskers with diameters from 20 nm to 10 μm and lengths ranging from 50 nm to 500 μm were formed at a growth rate of 0.1–1.8 nm s −1 on the surface of RESn 3 compounds. Most (>85%) of these tin whiskers have preferred growth directions of 〈1 0 0〉, 〈0 0 1〉, 〈1 0 1〉 and 〈1 0 3〉, as determined by statistics. This kind of tin whisker is single-crystal β-Sn even if it has growth striations, steps and kinks, and no dislocations or twin or grain boundaries were observed within the whisker body. RESn 3 compounds undergo selective oxidation during whisker growth, and the oxidation provides continuous tin atoms for tin whisker growth until they are exhausted. The driving force for whisker growth is the compressive stress resulting from the restriction of the massive volume expansion (38–43%) during the oxidation by the surface RE(OH) 3 layer. Tin atoms diffuse and flow to feed the continuous growth of tin whiskers under a compressive stress gradient formed from the extrusion of tin atoms/clusters at weak points on the surface RE(OH) 3 layers. A growth model was proposed to discuss the characteristics and growth mechanism of tin whiskers from RESn 3 compounds.

  6. Indium tin oxide surface smoothing by gas cluster ion beam

    CERN Document Server

    Song, J H; Choi, W K

    2002-01-01

    CO sub 2 cluster ions are irradiated at the acceleration voltage of 25 kV to remove hillocks on indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces and thus to attain highly smooth surfaces. CO sub 2 monomer ions are also bombarded on the ITO surfaces at the same acceleration voltage to compare sputtering phenomena. From the atomic force microscope results, the irradiation of monomer ions makes the hillocks sharper and the surfaces rougher from 1.31 to 1.6 nm in roughness. On the other hand, the irradiation of CO sub 2 cluster ions reduces the height of hillocks and planarize the ITO surfaces as smooth as 0.92 nm in roughness. This discrepancy could be explained by large lateral sputtering yield of the cluster ions and re-deposition of sputtered particles by the impact of the cluster ions on surfaces.

  7. Characterization of tin dioxide film for chemical vapors sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafaiedh, I.; Helali, S.; Cherif, K.; Abdelghani, A.; Tournier, G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, oxide semiconductor material used as transducer has been the central topic of many studies for gas sensor. In this paper we investigated the characteristic of a thick film of tin dioxide (SnO 2 ) film for chemical vapor sensor. It has been prepared by screen-printing technology and deposited on alumina substrate provided with two gold electrodes. The morphology, the molecular composition and the electrical properties of this material have been characterized respectively by Atomic Force Spectroscopy (AFM), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Impedance Spectroscopy (IS). The electrical properties showed a resistive behaviour of this material less than 300 deg. C which is the operating temperature of the sensor. The developed sensor can identify the nature of the detected gas, oxidizing or reducing

  8. Molybdenum-tin as a solar cell metallization system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, D. W.; Radics, C.

    1981-01-01

    The operations of solar cell manufacture are briefly examined. The formation of reliable, ohmic, low-loss, and low-cost metal contacts on solar cells is a critical process step in cell manufacturing. In a commonly used process, low-cost metallization is achieved by screen printing a metal powder-glass frit ink on the surface of the Si surface and the conductive metal powder. A technique utilizing a molybdenum-tin alloy for the metal contacts appears to lower the cost of materials and to reduce process complexity. The ink used in this system is formulated from MoO3 with Sn powder and a trace amount of titanium resonate. Resistive losses of the resulting contacts are low because the ink contains no frit. The MoO3 is finally melted and reduced in forming gas (N2+H2) to Mo metal. The resulting Mo is highly reactive which facilitates the Mo-Si bonding.

  9. Genotoxicity of indium tin oxide by comet test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Hakkı Ciğerci

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Indium tin oxide (ITO is used for liquid crystal display (LCDs, electrochromic displays, flat panel displays, field emission displays, touch or laptop computer screens, cell phones, energy conserving architectural windows, defogging aircraft and automobile windows, heat-reflecting coatings to increase light bulb efficiency, gas sensors, antistatic window coatings, wear resistant layers on glass, nanowires and nanorods because of its unique properties of high electrical conductivity, transparency and mechanical resistance.Genotoxic effects of ITO were investigated on the root cells of Allium cepa by Comet assay. A. cepa roots were treated with the aqueous dispersions of ITO at 5 different concentrations (12.5, 25, 50, 75, and 100 ppm for 4 h. A significant increase in DNA damage was a observed at all concentrations of ITO by Comet assay. These result indicate that ITO exhibit genotoxic activity in A. cepa root meristematic cells.

  10. Chemical Thermodynamics Vol. 12 - Chemical Thermodynamics of tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamsjaeger, Heinz; GAJDA, Tamas; Sangster, James; Saxena, Surendra K.; Voigt, Wolfgang; Perrone, Jane

    2012-01-01

    This is the 12th volume of a series of expert reviews of the chemical thermodynamics of key chemical elements in nuclear technology and waste management. This volume is devoted to the inorganic species and compounds of tin. The tables contained in Chapters III and IV list the currently selected thermodynamic values within the NEA TDB Project. The database system developed at the NEA Data Bank, see Section II.6, assures consistency among all the selected and auxiliary data sets. The recommended thermodynamic data are the result of a critical assessment of published information. The values in the auxiliary data set, see Tables IV-1 and IV-2, have been adopted from CODATA key values or have been critically reviewed in this or earlier volumes of the series

  11. Determination of stannous tin in radiopharmaceutical cold kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrant, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Two methods for determining stannous tin in 'cold kits', used for the preparation of Tc-99m labelled radiopharmaceuticals, have been developed. Both are based on the direct titration of the Sn2 in solution. In the first method titration is with N-bromosuccinimide. Of the materials commonly used as cold kits only albumin has been found to interfere with the determination. The second method is a standard iodometric titration in which starch is used as indicator. None of the materials tested interfere with this procedure. The N-bromosuccinimide method is the method of choice as the re-agent, a solid, can be used without prior standardization. Iodine solution must be standardized daily. The paper describes in detail the methods used and gives examples of kits in which the Sn2 levels have been determined using the described procedures

  12. Gas Sensing Properties of Indium Tin Oxide Nanofibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyou Xu

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Indium Tin Oxide (ITO nanofibers were fabricated by the electrospinning process. The morphology and crystal structure of ITO nanofibers were studied by SEM, XRD, and TEM respectively. The results showed that polycrystalline ITO nanofibers with an average diameter of 80 nm were obtained. Sensors based on these nanofibers were fabricated by collecting these nanofibers on the integrated sensor platforms. The ITO nanofiber-based sensors showed very fast and high sensor responses at both room and elevated temperatures for NO2. The ratios of resistance in NO2 over that in air were 5 at room temperature and 34 at the optimal working temperature, respectively. The ITO nanofiber-based sensor can be repeatedly used. The details for the fast, enhanced sensor responses and the optimal temperature were discussed.

  13. Etiology of lung cancer at the Gejiu tin mine, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, S.Q.

    1987-01-01

    There were 1,724 lung cancer cases registered at the Yunnan Tin Corporation in the period 1954-1986, of which 90% had a history of working underground. Previous exposure to radon, and radon daughters and arsenic is considered to be responsible for the high incidence of lung cancer in these miners. Arsenic may come from inhalation of arsenic-containing ore dust or other environmental arsenic pollution. It appears that radon exposure accounts to a greater extent than arsenic for the increase of lung cancer in these miners. Pathological study was made of 100 surgically resected lung cancer specimens. In this way the distribution and composition of dust retention was determined in relation to peripheral lung cancer

  14. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L J; Sood, D K; Manory, R R [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Modeling dynamic beta-gamma polymorphic transition in Tin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvin, Camille; Montheillet, Frank; Petit, Jacques; CEA Gramat Collaboration; EMSE Collaboration

    2015-06-01

    Solid-solid phase transitions in metals have been studied by shock waves techniques for many decades. Recent experiments have investigated the transition during isentropic compression experiments and shock-wave compression and have highlighted the strong influence of the loading rate on the transition. Complementary data obtained with velocity and temperature measurements around the polymorphic transition beta-gamma of Tin on gas gun experiments have displayed the importance of the kinetics of the transition. But, even though this phenomenon is known, modeling the kinetic remains complex and based on empirical formulations. A multiphase EOS is available in our 1D Lagrangian code Unidim. We propose to present the influence of various kinetic laws (either empirical or involving nucleation and growth mechanisms) and their parameters (Gibbs free energy, temperature, pressure) on the transformation rate. We compare experimental and calculated velocities and temperature profiles and we underline the effects of the empirical parameters of these models.

  16. Coordination compounds of titanium, zirconium, tin, thorium and uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, S.G.; Jain, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Reactions of isatin, furoic acid and picolinic acid have been carried out with titanium tetrachloride, tin tetrachloride, thorium tetrachloride, zirconyl chloride and uranyl nitrate. While 2:3(metal:ligand) type compounds of isatin have been obtained with Ti(IV) and Sn(IV), zirconium(IV), thorium(IV), and uranium(VI) do not react with the ligand under similar experimental conditions. Furoic acid (FAH) and picolinic acid(PicH) form various chloro furoates and picolinates when reacted with TiCl 4 , ZrOCl 2 and ThCl 4 , but do not react with SnCl 4 . The various compounds synthesised have been characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, infrared studies, conductivity and thermogravimetric measurements. (author). 1 tab., 10 refs

  17. Light emission from silicon with tin-containing nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Roesgaard

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Tin-containing nanocrystals, embedded in silicon, have been fabricated by growing an epitaxial layer of Si1−x−ySnxCy, where x = 1.6 % and y = 0.04 % on a silicon substrate, followed by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 650 ∘C to 900 ∘C. The nanocrystal density and average diameters are determined by scanning transmission-electron microscopy to ≈1017 cm−3 and ≈5 nm, respectively. Photoluminescence spectroscopy demonstrates that the light emission is very pronounced for samples annealed at 725 ∘C, and Rutherford back-scattering spectrometry shows that the nanocrystals are predominantly in the diamond-structured phase at this particular annealing temperature. The origin of the light emission is discussed.

  18. Determination of tin(II) in reagents for radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morosanova, E.I.; Loginova, K. A.; Epstein, N.B.

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this work is to elaborate a procedure for rapid and simple determination of tin(II) in reagents for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals based on a system albumin-Tc-99m. Original test tools for the determination of various analytes have been suggested in our lab based on the use of small glass tubes (1-2 mm i.d. - 50-70 mm) filled with indicator powders containing suitable immobilized chromogenic reagents. An analytical signal (a length of colored zone which is proportional to the concentration of an analyte) is detected after a sample passing through the indicator tube. Heteropoly compounds are well-known analytical reagents for a photometric determination of various reductants. For elaboration of indicator tubes abilities of Mo,P-heteropoly compounds to give deeply colored blue compounds after reduction were used. (authors)

  19. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R. [Royal Melbourne Inst. of Tech., VIC (Australia)

    1993-12-31

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 {mu}m thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10{sup 17} - 8x10{sup 17} ions cm{sup -2}. Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Surface modification of commercial tin coatings by carbon ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.J.; Sood, D.K.; Manory, R.R.

    1993-01-01

    Commercial TiN coatings of about 2 μm thickness on high speed steel substrates were implanted at room temperature with 95 keV carbon ions at nominal doses between 1 x 10 17 - 8x10 17 ions cm -2 . Carbon ion implantation induced a significant improvement in ultramicrohardness, friction coefficient and wear properties. The surface microhardness increases monotonically by up to 115% until a critical dose is reached. Beyond this dose the hardness decreases, but remains higher than that of unimplanted sample. A lower friction coefficient and a longer transition period towards a steady state condition were obtained by carbon ion implantation. The changes in tribomechanical properties are discussed in terms of radiation damage and possible formation of a second phase rich in carbon. 6 refs., 3 figs

  1. Construction of an open tin cell at Inmetro

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, R.; Teixeira, R. N.

    2013-09-01

    For the last decade, the Thermometry Laboratory of the National Institute of Metrology, Quality and Technology (INMETRO) has been developing its own primary standards. In late 2010, a brand new fixed point cell containing high purity tin (99.9999 %) was constructed as the continuation of a project for constructing metal fixed-point cells in the positive range, in accordance with the temperature fixed-points described by the International Temperature Scale of 1990 (ITS-90) [1]. This is the fourth temperature fixed-point constructed by the laboratory team, which enables the performance of some calibrations without having to rely solely on commercially available cells. The materials and their preparation, the design, the procedures for the construction of the cell, the equipment, the investigation on its performance and its results will be detailed in the present paper. In addition, it is worth mentioning that this cell has recently taken part in a bilateral comparison with the National Physical Laboratory - NPL.

  2. Systematics of the electric dipole response in stable tin isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassauer, Sergej; von Neumann-Cosel, Peter; Tamii, Atsushi

    2018-05-01

    The electric dipole is an important property of heavy nuclei. Precise information on the electric dipole response provides information on the electric dipole polarisability which in turn allows to extract important constraints on neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei and parameters of the symmetry energy. The tin isotope chain is particularly suited for a systematic study of the dependence of the electric dipole response on neutron excess as it provides a wide mass range of accessible isotopes with little change of the underlying structure. Recently an inelastic proton scattering experiment under forward angles including 0º on 112,116,124Sn was performed at the Research Centre for Nuclear Physics (RCNP), Japan with a focus on the low-energy dipole strength and the polarisability. First results are presented here. Using data from an earlier proton scattering experiment on 120Sn the gamma strength function and level density are determined for this nucleus.

  3. Systematics of the electric dipole response in stable tin isotopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassauer Sergej

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The electric dipole is an important property of heavy nuclei. Precise information on the electric dipole response provides information on the electric dipole polarisability which in turn allows to extract important constraints on neutron-skin thickness in heavy nuclei and parameters of the symmetry energy. The tin isotope chain is particularly suited for a systematic study of the dependence of the electric dipole response on neutron excess as it provides a wide mass range of accessible isotopes with little change of the underlying structure. Recently an inelastic proton scattering experiment under forward angles including 0º on 112,116,124Sn was performed at the Research Centre for Nuclear Physics (RCNP, Japan with a focus on the low-energy dipole strength and the polarisability. First results are presented here. Using data from an earlier proton scattering experiment on 120Sn the gamma strength function and level density are determined for this nucleus.

  4. Influence of Microstructure on the Electrical Properties of Heteroepitaxial TiN Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenfeng; Liu, Yuan; Zhang, Jiaqi

    2018-03-01

    Heteroepitaxial TiN films were deposited on Si substrates by pulse laser deposition at different substrate temperature. The microstructure and surface morphology of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (θ-2θ scan, ω-scan, and ϕ-scan) and atomic force microscopy. The electrical properties of the prepared TiN films were studied using a physical property measurement system. The experimental results showed that the crystallinity and surface morphology of the TiN films were improved gradually with increasing substrate temperature below 700 °C. Specially, single crystal TiN films were prepared when substrate temperature is above 700 °C; However, the quality of TiN films gradually worsened when the substrate temperature was increased further. The electrical properties of the films were directly correlated to their crystalline quality. At the optimal substrate temperature of 700 °C, the TiN films exhibited the lowest resistivity and highest mobility of 25.7 μΩ cm and 36.1 cm2/V s, respectively. In addition, the mechanism concerning the influence of substrate temperature on the microstructure of TiN films is discussed in detail.

  5. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  6. Technical problems associated with the production of technetium Tc 99m tin(II) pyrophosphate kits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalsky, R.J.; Dalton, D.R.

    1981-01-01

    The amount of tin(II) required for adequate reduction, complexation, and stability of technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate in radiopharmaceutical kits, and methods of preventing the loss of tin(II) during formulation of these lyophilized kits are investigated. Tin(II) loss from stannous chloride solutions was studied under several conditions, including room air versus nitrogen atmospheres, during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood with samples frozen on dry ice versus samples at room temperature, during lyophilization, and during storage under refrigerated, ambient, and elevated temperatures. Various amounts of stannous chloride, ranging from 5 to 1000 microgram/ml, were used in formulating sodium pertechnetate Tc 99m kits containing 100 mCi technetium Tc 99m and 0.4 microgram total technetium. Samples were removed at various times; hydrolyzed technetium, pertechnetate, and technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate were isolated on instant thin-layer chromatography-silica gel and quantified with a scintillation counter. The time necessary to deoxygenate distilled water by nitrogen purging was measured. Several sources of stannous chloride were assayed for tin(II) content. Tin(II) loss occurs rapidly in solution (15% in one hour) unless continuously protected with nitrogen, and during vial filling in a laminar-flow hood unless frozen with dry ice. No substantial loss of tin(II) was detected during lyophilization or during storage of lyophilized product at any of the three temperatures. A minimum of 400 microgram tin(II) was required to provide 90% technetium Tc 99m pyrophosphate at six hours after preparation. Adequate deoxygenation of small quantities (450 ml) of water was accomplished in less than one hour. Some stannous chloride salts were highly oxidized in the dry state, and only high-purity elemental tin wire gave acceptable yields of tin

  7. Radiation levels and countermeasure research on radiological protection in tin mine in china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Fengfang; Yuan Yongling

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of radiation level in our nation's tin mine, therefore comes up with proposals on radiological protection and provide scientific evidence on how to protect lives and health of worker underground in tin mine. Methods: To get the radiation level of the underground workplaces in tin mine by analysis of research papers and the measuring results from on-scene investigations. Results: Majority of the absorbed dose rates of γ radiation in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine falls within the range of radiation levels of normal background. Earlier, the typical values of radon concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine are 3.12 kBq/m 3 and 5.61 μJ/m 3 respectively. Now, radon concentration and potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters in the air of underground workplaces in majority of tin mine are lower than 1000 Bq/m 3 and 3.57 μJ/m 3 . Conclusion: For these tin mine workers with an average of annual effective dose greater than 1 mSv or these of their specific activity for natural uranium in materials are greater than 1 Bq/g need to have regulation of radiological protection. The control limits for the radon concentration and the potential alpha energy concentration of radon daughters and the absorbed dose rates of γ radiation in the air of underground workplaces in tin mine are 1000 Bq/m3, 3.57 μJ/m 3 and 1 μGy/h respectively. The administrative individual dose for workers working under the ground of tin mine is 10 mSv/a. If a worker's total annual effective dose is greater than 10 mSv, he/she should be considered as radioactive worker. (authors)

  8. Optical properties of tin oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in water: Influence of laser ablation time duration and laser fluence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desarkar, Himadri Sankar; Kumbhakar, P.; Mitra, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal tin oxide nanoparticles are prepared by laser (having a wavelength of 1064 nm) ablation of tin metallic target immersed in pure deionized water. The influences of laser ablation time and laser fluence on the size and optical properties of the synthesized nanoparticles are studied. Prepared tin oxide nanoparticles are characterized by transmission electron microscope, selected area electron diffraction and UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy. The morphology of prepared tin oxide nanoparticles is found to be mostly spherical and with sizes in the nanometric range (mean radius of 3.2 to 7.3 nm). The measured UV–Visible absorption spectra show the presence of absorption peaks in the ultraviolet region. The band gap energy of samples prepared with different laser ablation time duration is calculated and is found to be increased with decrease in size (radius) of the prepared nanoparticles. Photoluminescence emission measurements at room temperature show that all the samples exhibit photoluminescence in the visible region. The peak photoluminescence emission intensity in the sample prepared with 50 min of laser ablation time is 3.5 times larger than that obtained in the sample prepared with 10 min of laser ablation time. - Highlights: ► SnO 2 nanoparticles (6.4–14.6 nm) are prepared by laser ablation in liquid technique. ► The influences of laser ablation time and laser fluence are studied. ► Samples are characterized by TEM and UV–Visible absorption spectroscopy. ► UV–Visible absorption spectra exhibit quantum confinement effect. ► Samples exhibit enhanced photoluminescence emissions in the visible region.

  9. A facile way to control phase of tin selenide flakes by chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Pang, Fei

    2018-06-01

    Although two-dimensional (2D) tin selenides are attracting intense attentions, studies on its phase transition are still relatively few. Here we report a facile way to control the phase growth of tin selenide flakes on mica and SiO2/Si by only adjusting nominal Sn:Se ratio, which refers to the amount of loaded SnO2 and Se precursors. High normal Sn:Se ratio induced SnSe flakes, conversely SnSe2 flakes formed. It could be used as a practical guide to selectively synthesize pure phase of single crystalline 2D layered chalcogenide materials similar to tin selenides.

  10. Effect of pulsed voltage on electrochemical migration of tin in electronics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdingovas, Vadimas; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Ambat, Rajan

    2015-01-01

    formation and increases the charge transferred between the electrodes over time. With increase of duty cycle, increases the anodic dissolution of tin, which was visualized using a tin ion indicator applied on the components prior to applying the voltage. The anodic dissolution of tin significantly...... respectively at 10 and 5 V, while the duty cycle and the pulse width were varied in the range of ms. The results showed that varying of pulse width at fixed duty cycle has a minor effect under investigated conditions, whereas increasing duty cycle significantly reduces the time to short due to dendrite...

  11. Recovery Of Valuable Metals In Tin-Based Anodic Slimes By Carbothermic Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Han Chulwoong; Kim Young-Min; Son Seong Ho; Choi Hanshin; Kim Tae Bum; Kim Yong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the recovery of anodic slimes by carbothermic reaction in the temperature range of 973~1,273K and amount of carbon as a function of time. Tin anodic slime samples were collected from the bottom of the electrolytic cells during the electro-refining of tin. The anodic slimes are consisted of high concentrated tin, silver, copper and lead oxides. The kinetics of reduction were determined by means of the weight-loss measurement technique. In order to understand in detail o...

  12. Separation of substandard tin ores by x-ray fluorescence method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotler, N.I.; Konovalov, V.M.; Kamenskij, Yu.V.; Neverov, A.D.; Ogorodnikov, Yu.V.

    1987-01-01

    Analysis of pure tin ores on X-ray fluorescence separation (XFS) is carried out. The volumes of lump sampling are substantiated; several variants of technical and economical efficiency of XFS application have been calculated. It is shown that at XFS of -400+25 mm classes conditional as to tin content intermediate product with high efficiency factor may be prepared. Separation of -25+10 mm class is unsuitable, as it doesn't allow to increase tin content to conditional, and the process efficiency is low

  13. Modification of structure and properties of tin – fullerite films irradiated by boron ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, L.V.

    2013-01-01

    By methods of raster electronic, atomic force and electronic force microscopy and X-ray diffraction the research of change of structure, phase composition and local electronic properties of the tin - fullerite films, subjected to implantation by B + ions (E = 80 keV, F = 5×10 17 ions/cm 2 ) are submitted. It is established, that as a result of boron ion implantation of two-layered tin - fullerite films, tin and fullerite interfusion on sues, that is the solid-phase interaction and as a result of which forms the heterophase with heterogeneous local electric properties. (authors)

  14. Synthesis and electrochemical properties of tin oxide-based composite by rheological technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Zeqiang; Li Xinhai; Xiong Lizhi; Wu Xianming; Xiao Zhuobing; Ma Mingyou

    2005-01-01

    Novel rheological technique was developed to synthesize tin oxide-based composites. The microstructure, morphology, and electrochemical performance of the materials were investigated by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods. The particles of tin oxide-based materials form an inactive matrix. The average size of the particles is about 150 nm. The material delivers a charge capacity of more than 570 mAh g -1 . The capacity loss per cycle is about 0.15% after being cycled 30 times. The good electrochemical performance indicates that this kind of tin oxide-based material is promising anode for lithium-ion battery

  15. Synthesis and shape control of copper tin sulphide nanocrystals and formation of gold-copper tin sulphide hybrid nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruszynska, Marta; Parisi, Juergen; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna [Oldenburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Physics, Energy and Semiconductor Research Lab.

    2014-08-15

    Hexagonal prismatic Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanoparticles and nanorods were synthesized by a hot-injection procedure. Changing the reaction conditions leads to the formation of different shapes. When oleylamine is used as a solvent, hexagonal prismatic particles are obtained, while a reaction in octadecene results in the formation of nanorods. The growth process of copper tin sulphide starts with the formation of djurleite copper sulphide seeds. Their reaction with Sn{sup 4+} ions leads to the formation of Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4}. These Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} nanocrystals form Au-Cu{sub 3}SnS{sub 4} hybrid nanostructures by reaction with gold seeds.

  16. Room temperature deposition of crystalline indium tin oxide films by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Deuk Yeon; Baik, Hong-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) films were deposited on a Si (1 0 0) substrate at room temperature by cesium-assisted magnetron sputtering. Including plasma characteristics, the structural, electrical, and optical properties of deposited films were investigated as a function of cesium partial vapor pressure controlled by cesium reservoir temperature. We calculated the cesium coverage on the target surface showing maximum formation efficiency of negative ions by means of the theoretical model. Cesium addition promotes the formation efficiency of negative ions, which plays important role in enhancing the crystallinity of ITO films. In particular, the plasma density was linearly increased with cesium concentrations. The resultant decrease in specific resistivity and increase in transmittance (82% in the visible region) at optimum cesium concentration (4.24 x 10 -4 Ω cm at 80 deg. C of reservoir temperature) may be due to enhanced crystallinity of ITO films. Excess cesium incorporation into ITO films resulted in amorphization of its microstructure leading to degradation of ITO crystallinity. We discuss the cesium effects based on the growth mechanism of ITO films and the plasma density

  17. Thermal transport properties of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashida, Toru; Miyamura, Amica; Oka, Nobuto; Sato, Yasushi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Yagi, Takashi; Taketoshi, Naoyuki; Baba, Tetsuya

    2009-01-01

    Thermal diffusivity of polycrystalline tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) films with a thickness of 200 nm has been characterized quantitatively by subnanosecond laser pulse irradiation and thermoreflectance measurement. ITO films sandwiched by molybdenum (Mo) films were prepared on a fused silica substrate by dc magnetron sputtering using an oxide ceramic ITO target (90 wt %In 2 O 3 and 10 wt %SnO 2 ). The resistivity and carrier density of the ITO films ranged from 2.9x10 -4 to 3.2x10 -3 Ω cm and from 1.9x10 20 to 1.2x10 21 cm -3 , respectively. The thermal diffusivity of the ITO films was (1.5-2.2)x10 -6 m 2 /s, depending on the electrical conductivity. The thermal conductivity carried by free electrons was estimated using the Wiedemann-Franz law. The phonon contribution to the heat transfer in ITO films with various resistivities was found to be almost constant (λ ph =3.95 W/m K), which was about twice that for amorphous indium zinc oxide films

  18. Self-assembly of tin wires via phase transformation of heteroepitaxial germanium-tin on germanium substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wei; Li, Lingzi; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Tok, Eng Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-06-14

    This work demonstrates and describes for the first time an unusual strain-relaxation mechanism by the formation and self-assembly of well-ordered tin wires during the thermal annealing of epitaxial Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}-on-Ge(001) substrate. Fully strained germanium-tin alloys (Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17}) were epitaxially grown on Ge(001) substrate by molecular beam epitaxy. The morphological and compositional evolution of Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} during thermal annealing is studied by atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy. Under certain annealing conditions, the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} layer decomposes into two stable phases, and well-defined Sn wires that are preferentially oriented along two orthogonal 〈100〉 azimuths are formed. The formation of the Sn wires is related to the annealing temperature and the Ge{sub 0.83}Sn{sub 0.17} thickness, and can be explained by the nucleation of a grain with Sn islands on the outer front, followed by grain boundary migration. The Sn wire formation process is found to be thermally activated, and an activation enthalpy (E{sub c}) of 0.41 eV is extracted. This thermally activated phase transformation, i.e., 2D epitaxial layer to 3D wires, occurs via a mechanism akin to “cellular precipitation.” This synthesis route of Sn wires opens new possibilities for creation of nanoscale patterns at high-throughput without the need for lithography.

  19. Effect of barrier layers on the properties of indium tin oxide thin films on soda lime glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung-Min; Choi, Byung-Hyun; Ji, Mi-Jung; An, Yong-Tae; Park, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the electrical, structural and optical properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) films deposited on soda lime glass (SLG) haven been investigated, along with high strain point glass (HSPG) substrate, through radio frequency magnetron sputtering using a ceramic target (In 2 O 3 :SnO 2 , 90:10 wt.%). The ITO films deposited on the SLG show a high electrical resistivity and structural defects compared with those deposited on HSPG due to the Na ions from the SLG diffusing to the ITO film by annealing. However, these properties can be improved by intercalating a barrier layer of SiO 2 or Al 2 O 3 between the ITO film and the SLG substrate. SIMS analysis has confirmed that the barrier layer inhibits the Na ion's diffusion from the SLG. In particular, the ITO films deposited on the Al 2 O 3 barrier layer, show better properties than those deposited on the SiO 2 barrier layer.

  20. Electrical and optical properties of indium tin oxide thin films deposited on unheated substrates by d.c. reactive sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karasawa, T.; Miyata, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Transparent conducting thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) have been deposited by d.c. reactive planar magnetron sputtering by using metal In-Sn alloy target in an Ar-O 2 gas mixture. The study demonstrates that the deposition on unheated substrates achieved sheet resistance of as low as about 50-60 Ω/□ (or a resistivity of about 7 x 10 -4 Ω cm), and visible transmission of about 90% for a wavelength of 420 nm. The effects of heat treatment at 450 C in air depends on the deposition conditions of the as-deposited ITO films. Although annealing improves the properties of as-deposited ITO films which were deposited with non-optimum conditions, the optimized condition for the formation of the film in the as-deposited state is essential to obtain a high quality transparent conducting coating. (orig.)

  1. Sputter deposition of indium tin oxide onto zinc pthalocyanine: Chemical and electronic properties of the interface studied by photoelectron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassmann, Jürgen; Brötz, Joachim; Klein, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    The interface chemistry and the energy band alignment at the interface formed during sputter deposition of transparent conducting indium tin oxide (ITO) onto the organic semiconductor zinc phtalocyanine (ZnPc), which is important for inverted, transparent, and stacked organic light emitting diodes, is studied by in situ photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS). ITO was sputtered at room temperature and a low power density with a face to face arrangement of the target and substrate. With these deposition conditions, no chemical reaction and a low barrier height for charge injection at this interface are observed. The barrier height is comparable to those observed for the reverse deposition sequence, which also confirms the absence of sputter damage.

  2. Controlling plasmonic properties of epitaxial thin films of indium tin oxide in the near-infrared region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamakura, R.; Fujita, K.; Murai, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2015-06-01

    Epitaxial thin films of indium tin oxide (ITO) were grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia single-crystal substrates by using a pulsed laser deposition to examine their plasmonic properties. The dielectric function of ITO was characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Through the concentration of SnO2 in the target, the carrier concentration in the films was modified, which directly leads to the tuning of the dielectric function in the near-infrared region. Variable-angle reflectance spectroscopy in the Kretschmann geometry shows the dip in the reflection spectrum of p-polarized light corresponding to the excitation of surface plasmon polaritions (SPPs) in the near-infrared region. The excitation wavelength of the SPPs was shifted with changing the dielectric functions of ITO, which is reproduced by the calculation using transfer matrix method.

  3. Effect of thickness on optoelectrical properties of Nb-doped indium tin oxide thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shi-na; Ma, Rui-xin; Ma, Chun-hong; Li, Dong-ran; Xiao, Yu-qin; He, Liang-wei; Zhu, Hong-min

    2013-05-01

    Niobium-doped indium tin oxide (ITO:Nb) thin films are prepared on glass substrates with various film thicknesses by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering from one piece of ceramic target material. The effects of thickness (60-360 nm) on the structural, electrical and optical properties of ITO: Nb films are investigated by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet (UV)-visible spectroscopy, and electrical measurements. XRD patterns show the highly oriented (400) direction. The lowest resistivity of the films without any heat treatment is 3.1×10-4Ω·cm-1, and the resistivity decreases with the increase of substrate temperature. The highest Hall mobility and carrier concentration are 17.6 N·S and 1.36×1021 cm-3, respectively. Band gap energy of the films depends on substrate temperature, which varies from 3.48 eV to 3.62 eV.

  4. Half-life of the 3/2/sup +/ level of /sup 119/Sn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, M C; Gil, F B [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Lisbon (Portugal). Grupo de Espectroscopia Nuclear, Laboratorio de Fisica

    1976-01-01

    The half-life of the 3/2/sup +/, 23.87 keV level of /sup 119/Sn is measured by the delayed coincidence technique. Magnetic spectrometry associated with scintillation techniques and scintillation spectrometry only have been used. The results obtained with these techniques were respectively Tsub(1/2) = 17.87 +- 0.11 ns and Tsub(1/2) = 18.48 +- 0.30 ns. The measured reduced M1 transition probability is compared with the single-particle and Kisslinger and Sorensen model predictions.

  5. Biased signaling of lipids and allosteric actions of synthetic molecules for GPR119

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassing, Helle A; Fares, Suzan; Larsen, Olav

    2016-01-01

    for 2h with the 2-MAG-lipase inhibitor JZL84 doubled the constitutive activity, indicating that endogenous lipids contribute to the apparent constitutive activity. Finally, besides being an agonist, AR231453 acted as a positive allosteric modulator of OEA and increased its potency by 54-fold at 100nM AR......231453. Our studies uncovering broad and biased signaling, masked constitutive activity by endogenous MAGs, and ago-allosteric properties of synthetic ligands may explain why many GPR119 drug-discovery programs have failed so far....

  6. Investigation of transferred hyperfine interactions from 129I and 119Sn by Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.-P.

    1976-01-01

    The hyperfine parameters at 129 I have been measured in the series of compounds CrI 3 , CsCrI 3 , MI 2 (M=V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cd) and NR 4 FeI 4 (R=ethyl, butyl). They have been interpreted in terms of the charge and spin densities in the ligand valence orbitals. Information about the spin polarization mechanisms as well as about the local magnetic and crystallographic structural arrangements have been furthermore deduced. The 119 Sn hyperfine data in the series of RESn 3 intermetallics have provided information about the magnetic structure and the spin polarization mechanisms [fr

  7. Study on the Co-1% sup(119)Sn alloy by the Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.B.

    1982-01-01

    Temperature dependence of the hyperfine field and the isomer shift at sup(119)Sn nuclei in fcc and hexagonal Co has been measured from 83degK to 754degK. The hyperfine field of fcc and hexagonal Co are 18.5 and 50.8 kOe respectively at 83degK, 3.0 and 9.5 kOe at 673degK. The dependence of the field on temperature is quite anomalous and shows a similar fashion in both structures. This dependence might be caused by the formation of localized moment at the Sn atom. (Author)

  8. Surface characterization of sol–gel derived indium tin oxide films on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    , India ... 1. Introduction. Indium tin oxide (ITO) coating on glass is an important item in the field ..... In addition, contamination of carbon from environment cannot be ruled ..... processing of ceramics, glasses and composites (eds) L L. Hench and ...

  9. THE INFLUENCE OF NANOSECOND ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES TO OBTAIN TIN AND THE PROPERTIES OF ITS ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Komkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimentally found that the effect of nanosecond electromagnetic pulses to melt the charge, while the carbon thermal recovery of the tin ore, accelerates the formation of the metallic phase.

  10. Formation of Ti-N graded bioceramic layer by DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Chuan-lin

    2004-01-01

    Ti-N graded ceramic layer was formed on titanium by using DC hollow-cathode plasma nitriding technique. The structure of Ti-N layer was analyzed using X-ray diffractometry(XRD) with Cu Kα radiation, and the microhardness( HV0.1) was measured from the surface to inner along the cross section of Ti-N layer. The results indicate that the Ti-N graded layer is composed of ε-Ti2 N, δ-TiN and α-Ti(N) phases. Mechanism discussion shows that hollow-cathode discharge can intensify gas ionization, increase current density and enhance the nitriding potential, which directly increases the thickness of the diffusion coatings compared with traditional nitriding methods.

  11. Tribological characterization of TiN coatings prepared by magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Nishant S.; Chauhan, Kamlesh V.; Sonera, Akshay L.; Chauhan, Dharmesh B.; Dave, Divyeshkumar P.; Rawal, Sushant K.

    2018-05-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) coating deposited on aluminium and brass pin substrates using RF reactive magnetron sputtering. The structural properties and surface morphology were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscope (AFM) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). There was formation of (101) Ti2N, (110) TiN2 and (102) TiN0.30 peaks at 3.5Pa, 2Pa and 1.25Pa sputtering pressure respectively. The tribological properties of coating were inspected using pin on disc tribometer equipment. It was observed that TiN coated aluminium and brass pins demonstrated improved wear resistance than uncoated aluminium and brass pins.

  12. Tin (Sn) - An Unlikely Ally to Extend Moore's Law for Silicon CMOS?

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Aftab M.

    2012-01-01

    growth in device performance. To overcome this problem, novel channel materials are being developed to enhance carrier mobility and hence increase device performance. This work explores a novel semiconducting alloy - Silicon-tin (SiSn) as a channel

  13. Filtrates & Residues: Experimental Work with Tin (II) Chloride in a High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Manuela Martin

    1988-01-01

    Presents a high school chemistry lab experiment using tin (II) chloride to explore the concepts of hydrolysis, Le Chatelier's principle, and electrolysis. Presents methodology and the chemistry involved. Offers questions for the students. (MVL)

  14. Separation of methyltin species from inorganic tin, and their interactions with humates in natural waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, M.; Bowen, H.J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Tin(II) and tin(IV) are absorbed from aqueous solutions by Sephadex G-25 gel, from which they can be eluted by humates or fulvates, with which they interact more strongly. Methyltin species are not absorbed by Sephadex G-25, and so can be separated from inorganic tin. Both inorganic tin and methyltin species in natural waters at pH 7.4 can be quantitatively retained by passing through small columns of Chelex-100 resin: the methyltin species can then be washed off the resin with 4M nitric acid. Trimethyltin chloride 113 Sn in water scarcely interacts with fulvates, humates, kaolinite or montmorillonite but is absorbed by Sphagnum peat. Dimethyltin dichloride- 113 Sn reacts significantly with all the above materials after 2 hours equilibration. Methyltin trichloride- 113 Sn interacts weakly in alkaline solutions. (author)

  15. PCBs with immersion tin finish - some experiences with lead-free reflow process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukat, K.; Koziol, G.; Sitek, J.; Borecki, J.; Hackiewicz, H. [Tele and Radio Research Inst., Warsaw (Poland); Merkle, H.; Schroeder, S. [Ormecon Chemie GmbH and Co. KG, Ammersbek (Germany); Girulska, A.; Gardela, K. [Eldos Sp. z o.o., Wroclaw (Poland)

    2004-07-01

    Substitution of lead-free solders in electronic assemblies requires changes in the conventional SnPb finishes of PCBs. The Craft project ''PRINT'' objectives respond to this challenge. Its main goal is to develop and implement the new technology of high solderability immersion tin for printed circuit boards at small and medium enterprises. The subject of the research was organic based immersion tin coating which would fulfil demands of SMT. In the paper the results of reflow soldering process on PCBs covered by Ormecon registered immersion tin finish with using lead-free solder pastes will be described. Solderability of tin coating as well as wettability of lead-free solder paste will be presented. (orig.)

  16. Preparation of tin -heparin complex to be applied for myocardial infarct diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badi, J. M.; Al-Azzawi, H. A.; Resen, H. M.; Abed, I. G.; Owiad, H.; Manji, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    Tin-heparin complex has been prepared (liquid form) to be labeled with technetium-99 can be applied for diagnosis of myocardial infarcts vascular diseases and deep vein thrombosis. The preparation contents are 0.1mg tin chloride dehydrate and 1250 1.U of heparin. The results of the pH effect on the labeling yield indicated that high percentage of labeling yield (96.1%) was obtained in the optimal pH (5.50). The obtained results showed that the quantity of reducing agent (tin chloride dehydrate) and chelating agent (heparin) has no effect on the labeling yield. Results of radio analytical studies by paper chromatography technique wear confirmed by data obtained by Gel chromatography column scanning techniques. These techniques showed the high labeling yield of the tin-heparin complex. The persistence of high labeling yield for 8 hours is a good indication for its stability and efficiency for radio diagnosis examination in nuclear medicine centers. (Author)

  17. Amphibolites in the Rare Metal- and Tin-bearing Bastar – Malkangiri ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    33

    21-10-284/1, Begumpet, Brahmanwadi Lane no. ... Odisha states of India, is well known for primary and secondary commercial deposits of tin .... carried out using the rapid wet chemical methods, essentially after Shapiro and Brannock. (1955).

  18. GPR119 - a major Enteroendocrine Sensor of Dietary Triglyceride Metabolites Co-acting in Synergy with FFA1 (GPR40)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekberg, Jeppe H; Pedersen, Maria Hauge; Kristensen, Line V

    2016-01-01

    the FFA1 agonist was administered on top of appropriately low doses of the GPR119 agonist a clear synergistic, i.e. more than additive effect was observed. It is concluded that the 2-MAG receptor GPR119 is at least as important as the LCFA receptor FFA1 in mediating the triglyceride-induced secretion......Triglycerides are among the most efficacious stimulators of incretin secretion; however the relative importance of FFA1 (GPR40), FFA4 (GPR120) and GPR119 which all recognize triglyceride metabolites, i.e. LCFA and 2-MAG respectively, is still unclear. Here, we find all three receptors to be highly...... the synthetic FFA1 agonists, TAK-875 stimulated GLP-1 secretion to a similar extent as the prototype GLP-1 secretagogue neuromedin C, this however only corresponded to approx. half the maximal efficiency of the GPR119 agonist AR231453 whereas the GPR120 agonist Metabolix-209 had no effect. Importantly, when...

  19. Structural basis for constitutive activity and agonist-induced activation of the enteroendocrine fat sensor GPR119

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja Storm; Norn, C; Pedersen, Maria Hauge

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: GPR119 is a Gαs-coupled 7TM receptor activated by endogenous lipids such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and by the dietary triglyceride metabolite 2-monoacylglycerol. GPR119 stimulates enteroendocrine hormone and insulin secretion. But despite massive drug discovery efforts...... activation (AR231453 and OEA). Novel Rosetta-based receptor modelling was applied, using a composite template approach with segments from different X-ray structures and fully flexible ligand docking. KEY RESULTS: The increased signalling induced by increasing the cell surface expression of GPR119...... in the absence of agonist and the inhibitory effect of two synthetic inverse agonists demonstrated that GRP119 signals with a high degree of constitutive activity through the Gαs pathway. The mutational maps for AR231453 and OEA were very similar and, surprisingly, also similar to the mutational map for residues...

  20. Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and the upgrading of AS119 and N192: Experiences and the way forward

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombe, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    This presentation briefly describes the Zambian Seisimic Network (ZSN), Zambia's participation in past CTBTO activities and upgrading of AS119 and N192. It goes on to describe various experiences encountered and makes some suggestions for future considerations

  1. The C-terminal extension unique to the long isoform of the shelterin component TIN2 enhances its interaction with TRF2 in a phosphorylation- and dyskeratosis congenita-cluster-dependent fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Nya D; Dodson, Lois M; Escudero, Laura; Sukumar, Ann T; Williams, Christopher L; Mihalek, Ivana; Baldan, Alessandro; Baird, Duncan M; Bertuch, Alison A

    2018-03-26

    TIN2 is central to the shelterin complex, linking the telomeric proteins TRF1 and TRF2 with TPP1/POT1. Mutations in TINF2 , which encodes TIN2, that are found in dyskeratosis congenita (DC) result in very short telomeres and cluster in a region shared by the two TIN2 isoforms, TIN2S (short) and TIN2L (long). Here we show that TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is phosphorylated. TRF2 interacts more with TIN2L than TIN2S, and both the DC-cluster and phosphorylation promote this enhanced interaction. The binding of TIN2L, but not TIN2S, is affected by TRF2-F120, which is also required for TRF2's interaction with end processing factors such as Apollo. Conversely, TRF1 interacts more with TIN2S than with TIN2L. A DC-associated mutation further reduces TIN2L-TRF1, but not TIN2S-TRF1, interaction. Cells overexpressing TIN2L or phosphomimetic-TIN2L are permissive to telomere elongation, whereas cells overexpressing TIN2S or phosphodead-TIN2L are not. Telomere lengths are unchanged in cell lines in which TIN2L expression has been eliminated by CRISPR/Cas9-mediated mutation. These results indicate that TIN2 isoforms are biochemically and functionally distinguishable, and that shelterin composition could be fundamentally altered in patients with TINF2 mutations. Copyright © 2018 Nelson et al.

  2. Fabrication of heterojunction solar cells by improved tin oxide deposition on insulating layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tom; Ghosh, Amal K.

    1980-01-01

    Highly efficient tin oxide-silicon heterojunction solar cells are prepared by heating a silicon substrate, having an insulating layer thereon, to provide a substrate temperature in the range of about 300.degree. C. to about 400.degree. C. and thereafter spraying the so-heated substrate with a solution of tin tetrachloride in a organic ester boiling below about 250.degree. C. Preferably the insulating layer is naturally grown silicon oxide layer.

  3. Determination of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead in canned fruits from the Czech market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Diviš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The global production of metal cans is more than 300 billion cans. Benefits of metal packaging consist mainly from the great strenght, excellent barrier properties and good thermal conductivity. The main problem of used metal packaging are the corrosion processes. The corrosion of metal container causes dissolution of tin which is used as a protective layer of the steel shell of the can and other metallic elements used in the manufacture of cans. In this work 31 samples of canned fruit was analysed and the concentration of tin, chromium, cadmium and lead was determined in fruit and in syrup using ICP-OES and ICP-MS techniques. The results showed no difference between the concentration of analysed elements in fruit and in syrup. In none of the analyzed samples the permitted maximum concentration of tin 200 mg.kg-1 was exceeded. Maximum concentration of tin was measured in canned grepfruit (59.8 ±1.9 mg.kg-1. The age of cans had no significant effect on the concentration of tin in canned fruit. The concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans with protective layer of lacquer was significantly lower than the concentration of tin in fruit packaged in cans without protective layer of lacquer. Concentration of chromium, cadmium and lead in the analysed samples was very low at the natural levels of occurrence of these metals in fruit and it was impossible to determine unequivocally that the measured concentrations of these metals in canned fruit originate from the corrosion of can. The corrosion of the tinplate was studied using scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive spectrometer. By analyzing the SEM pictures and EDS spectra, critical areas of tin plate corrosion were observed. Based on the measured results it can be concluded that the consumption of fresh canned fruit is not a major problem for the inhabitants of the Czech Republic in terms of intake of potentially hazardous metals.

  4. Preparation of 99mTc- Tin colloid: a freeze-dried kit for liver imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, E.S.; Muramoto, E.; Barbosa, M.R.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.

    1988-07-01

    99m Tc-tin-colloid was formulated as a useful agent for liver imaging. The radiochemical purity and stability of the labeled colloid were determined by paper chromatography and 85% methanol solvent, the labelling efficiency was > 95%. The comparative studies of the biological distribution of 99m Tc-tin-colloid and 99 Tc-Sulphur-colloid were made with Wistar rats. The results of organ distribution were similar in both products; > 90% liver uptake. (author) [pt

  5. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xingling; Xu, Lingli; Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio

    2015-01-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl 2 solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant

  6. RF measurements of a traveling-wave muffin-tin accelerating structure at 90 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, P.J.; Bowden, G.B.; Copeland, M.R.; Menegat, A.; Pritzkau, D.P.; Siemann, R.H.

    1997-05-01

    A measuring system at the table-top scale was developed for RF measurements of a muffin-tin accelerating structure operating at 32 times the SLAC frequency (2.856 GHz). Both perturbation and non-perturbation methods are employed to characterize the RF properties of a muffin-tin structure. Conventional bead pull measurements are extended to millimeter wavelengths. Design of the measuring system and preliminary results of RF measurements are presented

  7. Hydrothermal treatment for TiN as abrasion resistant dental implant coating and its fibroblast response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Xingling, E-mail: shixingling1985@hotmail.com [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Jiangsu Provincial Key Laboratory for Interventional Medical Devices, Huaiyin Institute of Technology, Huaian 223003 (China); Xu, Lingli [School of Material Science and Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003 (China); Munar, Melvin L.; Ishikawa, Kunio [Department of Biomaterials, Faculty of Dental Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan)

    2015-04-01

    Dental implant made of pure titanium (Ti) is prone to scratch and abrasion during routine oral hygiene procedures. This results an increase in surface roughness and therefore, facilitates the adhesion of bacteria. In severe cases, this could lead to peri-implantitis. To overcome this problem, surface modification of Ti is necessary to improve its abrasion resistance. Besides, a strong implant–gingiva interface should also be guaranteed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. In this study, titanium nitride (TiN) coating was first prepared with gas nitriding to increase surface hardness of pure the substrate. Then, the TiN was hydrothermally treated in CaCl{sub 2} solution in order to improve its soft tissue biocompatibility. The effect of hydrothermal treatment temperature on surface properties of TiN was investigated and its biocompatibility was assessed in vitro using NIH3T3 fibroblast cell. It was determined that 120 °C was the critical temperature for the hydrothermal treatment condition. Treatment below 120 °C could incorporate Ca into TiN surface, oxidize TiN surface partially and then improve the wettability while preserving its morphology and hardness. Fibroblast cell attachment and proliferation were improved and cell spreading was enhanced on hydrothermally treated specimens compared with untreated ones. Improved wettability, Ca incorporation and negative surface due to interstitial N were believed to be the main reasons. Hydrothermal treatment is expected to make TiN a promising dental implant coating with excellent abrasion resistance and good soft tissue affinity. - Highlights: • Ca was incorporated into TiN surface while not sacrificing its hardness. • Interstitial N due to oxidation promoted Ca adsorption and cell adhesion. • Hydrothermal treatment makes TiN a promising coating for dental implant.

  8. Elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, G.I.; Chernyak, A.S.; Kostromina, O.N.; Kachur, N.Ya.; Shpeyzer, B.G.

    1986-01-01

    Present work is devoted to elaboration and test of the method of separation of alkaline metals ions with tin phosphate. Thus, the isotherms of sorption of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium ions with amorphous tin phosphate depending on their concentration, ph of solution, sorbent quantity are obtained. The parameters of extraction of potassium microquantities from sodium salts are defined. Ultra pure sodium chloride, sodium iodide, sodium sulphate, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium phosphate are synthesized.

  9. Restoration of Soil Physical and Chemical Properties of Abandoned Tin- Mining in Bangka Belitung Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Yuarsah; Etik Puji Handayani; Rakhmiati; Yatmin

    2017-01-01

    The practices of tin mining that remove all soil layers on top of the mineral deposit layers have caused serious environmental problems, i.e. degradation of soil physical and chemical properties and disappearance of vegetation, flora and fauna in ecosystems, which further can change the local microclimate. The tailing area of tin mining have unstable soil structure and low organic matter content, so it is vulnerable to land slides and erosion. The characteristics of the soils in the tailing a...

  10. Metalorganic atomic layer deposition of TiN thin films using TDMAT and NH3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyo Kyeom; Kim, Ju Youn; Park, Jin Yong; Kim, Yang Do; Kim, Young Do; Jeon, Hyeong Tag; Kim, Won Mok

    2002-01-01

    TiN films were deposited by using the metalorganic atomic layer deposition (MOALD) method using tetrakis-dimethyl-amino-titanium (TDMAT) as the titanium precursor and ammonia (NH 3 ) as the reactant gas. Two saturated TiN film growth regions were observed in the temperature ranges from 175 and 190 .deg. C and from 200 and 210 .deg. C. TiN films deposited by the MOALD technique showed relatively lower carbon content than films deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) method. TiN films deposited at around 200 .deg. C under standard conditions showed the resistivity values as low as 500 μΩ-cm, which is about one order lower than the values for TiN films deposited by MOCVD using TDMAT or TDMAT with NH 3 . Also, the carbon incorporation and the resistivity were further decreased with increasing Ar purge time and flow rate. TiN films deposited at temperature below 300 .deg. C showed amorphous characteristics. TiN film deposited on contact holes, about 0.4-μm wide and 0.8-μm deep, by using the MOALD method showed excellent conformal deposition with almost 100% step coverage. This study demonstrates that the processing parameters need to be carefully controlled to optimize the film properties that the processing parameters need to be carefully controlled to optimize the film properties when using the ALD technique and that TiN films deposited by using the MOALD method exhibited excellent film properties compared to those of films deposited by using other CVD methods

  11. Computing LS factor by runoff paths on TIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavka, Petr; Krasa, Josef; Bek, Stanislav

    2013-04-01

    The article shows results of topographic factor (the LS factor in USLE) derivation enhancement focused on detailed Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) based DEMs. It describes a flow paths generation technique using triangulated irregular network (TIN) for terrain morphology description, which is not yet established in soil loss computations. This technique was compared with other procedures of flow direction and flow paths generation based on commonly used raster model (DEM). These overland flow characteristics together with therefrom derived flow accumulation are significant inputs for many scientific models. Particularly they are used in all USLE-based soil erosion models, from which USLE2D, RUSLE3D, Watem/Sedem or USPED can be named as the most acknowledged. Flow routing characteristics are also essential parameters in physically based hydrological and soil erosion models like HEC-HMS, Wepp, Erosion3D, LISEM, SMODERP, etc. Mentioned models are based on regular raster grids, where the identification of runoff direction is problematic. The most common method is Steepest descent (one directional flow), which corresponds well with the concentration of surface runoff into concentrated flow. The Steepest descent algorithm for the flow routing doesn't provide satisfying results, it often creates parallel and narrow flow lines while not respecting real morphological conditions. To overcome this problem, other methods (such as Flux Decomposition, Multiple flow, Deterministic Infinity algorithm etc.) separate the outflow into several components. This approach leads to unrealistic diffusion propagation of the runoff and makes it impossible to be used for simulation of dominant morphological features, such as artificial rills, hedges, sediment traps etc. The modern methods of mapping ground elevations, especially ALS, provide very detailed models even for large river basins, including morphological details. New algorithms for derivation a runoff direction have been developed as

  12. Antimony Doped Tin Oxides and Their Composites with Tin pyrophosphates as Catalyst Supports for Oxygen Evolution Reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Junyuan; Li, Qingfeng; Christensen, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane water electrolysers operating at typically 80 °C or at further elevated temperatures suffer from insufficient catalyst activity and durability. In this work, antimony doped tin oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and further doped with an inorganic proton conducting phase...... based on tin pyrophosphates as the catalyst support. The materials showed an overall conductivity of 0.57 S cm−1 at 130 °C under the water vapor atmosphere with a contribution of the proton conduction. Using this composite support, iridium oxide nanoparticle catalysts were prepared and characterized...

  13. Corrosion Behavior of Carbon Steel in Concrete Material Composed of Tin Slag Waste in Aqueous Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustandi, Andi; Cahyadi, Agung; Taruli Siallagan, Sonia; Wafa' Nawawi, Fuad; Pratesa, Yudha

    2018-01-01

    Tin slag is a byproduct of tin ore smelting process which is rarely utilized. The main purpose of this work is to investigate the use of tin slag for concrete cement material application compared to the industrial Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). Tin slag composition was characterized by XRD and XRF analysis. The characterization results showed the similar chemical composition of tin slag and OPC. It also revealed the semi crystalline structure of tin slag sample. Several electrochemical tests were performed to evaluate corrosion behavior of tin slag, OPC and various mixed composition of both materials and the addition of CaO. The corrosion behavior of OPC and tin slag were evaluated by using Cyclic Polarization, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Electrochemical Frequency Modulation (EFM) methods. Aqueous sodium chloride (NaCl) solution with 3.5% w.t concentration which similar to seawater was used as the electrolyte in this work. The steel specimen used as the reinforce bar (rebar) material of the concrete was carbon steel AISI 1045. The rebar was embedded in the concrete cement which composed of OPC and the various composition of tin slag including slag without addition of CaO and slag mixed with addition of 50 % CaO. The electrochemical tests results revealed that tin slag affected its corrosion behavior which becoming more active and increasing the corrosion rate as well as decreasing the electrochemical impedance.

  14. Organic derivatives of tin (II/IV): Investigation of their structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szirtes, L., E-mail: szirtes@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary); Megyeri, J., E-mail: megyeri@iki.kfki.h [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary); Kuzmann, E. [Laboratory of Nuclear Chemistry, CRC of the Hungarian Academy of Science at Eoetvoes University, H-1518 Budapest, P.O. Box 32 (Hungary); Beck, A. [Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest H-1525, P.O. Box 77 (Hungary)

    2011-07-15

    The structures of tin(II)-oxalate, tin(IV)Na-EDTA and tin(IV)Na{sub 8}-inositol hexaphosphate were investigated using XRD analysis. Samples were identified using the Moessbauer study, thermal analysis and FTIR spectrometry. The Moessbauer study determined two different oxidation states of tin atoms, and consequently two different tin surroundings in the end products. The tin oxalate was found to be orthorhombic with space group Pnma, a=9.2066(3) A, b=9.7590(1) A, c=13.1848(5) A, V=1184.62 A{sup 3} and Z=8. SnNa-EDTA was found to be monoclinic with space group P2{sub 1}/c{sub 1}, a=10.7544(3) A, b=10.1455(3) A, c=16.5130(6) A, {beta}=98.59(2){sup o}, V=1781.50(4) A{sup 3} and Z=4. Sn(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}Na{sub 8}O{sub 24}P{sub 6}) was found to be amorphous.

  15. Stability of tinned food from pigs radiated with various doses of ionizing rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kossakowska, A.; Kossakowski, S.; Widenska, T.; Wojton, B.

    1978-01-01

    The examinations were carried out on 347 tinned food made of meat from pigs exposed to radiation of 300 and 600 R. The animals were irradiated with 60 Co. The pigs irradiated with 300 R were slaughtered after 7 and 14 days, and these with 600 R after 7 and 12 days; the control animals were killed after 14 days. Post-slaughter visual and microbiological examinations were performed by seeding the samples of the blood, muscles, lymphnodes and internal organs for the presence of Salmonella sp. Meat was pickled and heated up to 67-68 0 C (in the center of tinned food). The lowest stability showed the tinned food made of pigs irradiated with 600 R and killed after 12 days. Chemical examinations of the tinned food stored at 6 0 C revealed the prevalence of oxydative processes in fat over hydrolitic ones. The difference in acid number between tinned food under test and controls appeared after 6 months. Peroxides occurred in the control after 6 months and in these under examination after 3 months, and the level was 4.00-5.80 apart from the tins made of meat of pigs irradiated with 300 R and slaughtered after 7 days. (author)

  16. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Quejido, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound esposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-steps purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs

  17. Hierarchical TiN nanoparticles-assembled nanopillars for flexible supercapacitors with high volumetric capacitance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ping; Li, Xingxing; Gao, Biao; Fu, Jijiang; Xia, Lu; Zhang, Xuming; Huo, Kaifu; Shen, Wenli; Chu, Paul K

    2018-05-10

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is an attractive electrode material in fast charging/discharging supercapacitors because of its excellent conductivity. However, the low capacitance and mechanical brittleness of TiN restricts its further application in flexible supercapacitors with high energy density. Thus, it is still a challenge to rationally design TiN electrodes with both high electrochemical and mechanical properties. Herein, the hierarchical TiN nanoparticles-assembled nanopillars (H-TiN NPs) array as binder free electrodes were obtained by nitriding of hierarchical titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanopillars, which was produced by a simple hydrothermal treatment of anodic TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) array in water. The porous TiN nanoparticles connected to each other to form ordered nanopillar arrays, effectively providing larger specific surface area and more active sites for charge storage. The H-TiN NPs delivered a high volumetric capacitance of 120 F cm-3 at 0.83 A cm-3, which is better than that of TiN NTs arrays (69 F cm-3 at 0.83 A cm-3). After assembling into all-solid-state devices, the H-TiN NPs based supercapacitors exhibited outstanding volumetric capacitance of 5.9 F cm-3 at 0.02 A cm-3 and a high energy density of 0.53 mW h cm-3. Our results reveal a new strategy to optimize the supercapacitive performance of metal nitrides.

  18. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of tin in canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, H; Suekane, S; Nakatani, A; Tatsuka, K

    1993-01-01

    Various canned foods were digested sequentially with HNO3 and HCl, diluted to 100 mL, and filtered, and then tin was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Samples of canned Satsuma mandarin, peach, apricot, pineapple, apple juice, mushroom, asparagus, evaporated milk, short-necked clam, spinach, whole tomato, meat, and salmon were evaluated. Sample preparations did not require time-consuming dilutions, because ICP/AES has wide dynamic range. The standard addition method was used to determine tin concentration. Accuracy of the method was tested by analyzing analytical standards containing tin at 2 levels (50 and 250 micrograms/g). The amounts of tin found for the 50 and 250 micrograms/g levels were 50.5 and 256 micrograms/g, respectively, and the repeatability coefficients of variation were 4.0 and 3.8%, respectively. Recovery of tin from 13 canned foods spiked at 2 levels (50 and 250 micrograms/g) ranged from 93.9 to 109.4%, with a mean of 99.2%. The quantitation limit for tin standard solution was about 0.5 microgram/g.

  19. Wear of tin coating and Al-Si alloy substrate against carburized steel under mixed lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q.; Cheng, H. S.; Fine, M. E.

    1994-04-01

    Tin coatings on Al-Si alloys are widely used in the automotive industries. The soft tin coating and the harder substrate alloy form a tribological system with the advantages of low friction and reasonably high load-bearing capacity. Wear tests of tin coated Al-Si Z332 alloy in conformal contact against carburized 1016 steel have been carried out under mixed lubrications with SAE 10W30 oil to study the wear mechanisms. Two major wear mechanisms, uniform wear of the tin coating due to micro-plowing and spall pitting related to the substrate are found to contribute to the bearing material loss when the fluid lubrication film is relatively thick (Lambda about 1.6). Under conditions of thinner films (Lambda approximately = 0.8), some local coating debonding occurs. The pitting and local coating debounding are closely related to fracture in the substrate. The bonding between silicon and tin seems to be weaker than between aluminum and tin. During wear, oxidation occurs.

  20. Study on the removal of iron impurities in methanesulfonic acid tin plating bath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou-li, LIU; Jian-Jun, CHEN; Hong-Liang, PAN

    2018-03-01

    This thesis investigated the the influence of sodium sulfite as reducing agent on the recovery rate of tin ion. The approach is that HZ016 type cation exchange resin was used to adsorb Sn2+ and Fe2+ in electroplated tin solution first. After adsorption, the resin was removed by sulfuric acid, which was added with NaOH to adjust pH value to form precipitation and separate tin. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy spectrum (EDS) method were used to analyze the composition of the precipitates adjusted by pH. The results show that when the mass ratio of resin to bath is 1:2, the adsorption efficiency of resin reaches 98.3% and 97.1% respectively, and the elution efficiency of tin and iron reaches 95.1% and 94% respectively when the mass ratio of resin to eluent sulfuric acid is 1:4. Sodium sulfite was added to increase the efficiency of tin recovery by 8.1%. EDS and XRD atlas showed that after pH regulation, the main composition of the filtration precipitation was the hydroxides of tin.

  1. Studies on tin based inorganic ion exchangers for fission products separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dash, A.; Balasubramanian, K.R.; Murthy, T.S.

    1993-01-01

    Tin(IV) antimonate and hydrous tin(IV) oxide have been prepared and their characteristics are evaluated. A new method has been finalized for the separation of 95 Zr- 95 Nb from irradiated uranium using hydrous tin(IV) oxide. In this process, the irradiated sample is dissolved in concentrated HNO 3 , evaporated to near dryness and taken up in 0.5 M HNO 3 . The solution is passed over tin(IV) oxide column and the isotope eluted with 10 M HNO 3 . The product is obtained in pure nitrate form which is generally preferred for different applications. A method has been finalized for the separation of 106 Ru from fission product solution using tin(IV) antimonate. In this method fission product solution is adjusted to 2 M with respect to nitric acid, 137 Cs is separated on a column of ammonium phosphomolybdate, the effluent after adjustment of acidity to 0.2 M is then passed over a column of tin(IV) antimonate where the effluent contains pure 106 Ru. (author). 14 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Multi - pulse tea CO2 laser beam interaction with the TiN thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gakovic, B.; Trtica, M.; Nenadovic, T.; Pavlicevic, B.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of various types of energetic beams including a laser beam with the high-hardness coatings is of great fundamental and technological interest. The Nd:YAG, excimer and CO 2 are frequently used laser beams for this purpose. The interaction of a laser beam with low thickness coatings, deposited on austenitic stainless steel, is insufficiently known in the literature. Titanium nitride (TiN) possess the excellent physico-chemical characteristics. For this reason TiN films/coatings are widely used. The purpose of this article is a consideration of the effect of TEA C0 2 laser radiation on the TiN film deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrate (AISI 316). Investigation of TiN morphological changes, after multipulse laser irradiation, shown dependence on laser fluence, number of laser pulses and the laser pulse shape. Subsequently fast heating and cooling during multi-pulse laser bombardment cause the grain growth of TiN layer. Both laser pulses (pulses with tail and tail-free pulses) produced periodical wave like structure on polished substrate material. Periodicity is observed also on AISI 316 protected with TiN layer, but only with laser pulse with tail. (author)

  3. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towner, Rheal A; Ihnat, Michael; Saunders, Debra; Bastian, Anja; Smith, Nataliya; Pavana, Roheeth Kumar; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-07-17

    High grade gliomas (HGGs; grades III and IV) are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, and their malignant nature ranks them fourth in incidence of cancer death. Standard treatment for glioblastomas (GBM), involving surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab, have not substantially improved overall survival. New therapeutic agents are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Here we study the potential therapeutic agent AG119 in a pre-clinical model for gliomas. AG119 possesses both anti-angiogenic (RTK inhibition) and antimicrotubule cytotoxic activity in a single molecule. GL261 glioma-bearing mice were either treated with AG119, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody, anti c-Met antibody or TMZ, and compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Animal survival was assessed, and tumor volumes and vascular alterations were monitored with morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. Percent survival of GL261 HGG-bearing mice treated with AG119 was significantly higher (p mouse GL261 glioma model, and that AG119 is also not subject to methyl guanine transferase (MGMT) mediated resistance, as is the case with TMZ, indicating that AG119 may be potentially useful in treating resistant gliomas.

  4. Updated Drainable Interstitial Liquid Volume Estimates for 119 Single Shell Tanks (SST) Declared Stabilized

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FIELD, J.G.

    2000-01-01

    This document assesses the volume of drainable interstitial liquid (DIL) and pumpable liquid remaining in 119 single-shell tanks (SSTs) that were previously stabilized. Based on the methodology and assumptions presented, the DIL exceeded the stabilization criterion of less than 50,000 gal in two of the 119 SSTs. Tank 241-C-102 had an estimated DIL of 62,000 gal, and the estimated DIL for tank 241-BY-103 was 58,000 gal. In addition, tanks 241-BX-103, 241-T-102, and 241-T-112 appear to exceed the stabilization criterion of 5,000 gal supernatant. An assessment of the source of the supernatant in these tanks is beyond the scope of this document. The actual DIL and pumpable liquid remaining volumes for each tank may vary significantly from estimated volumes as a result of specific tank waste characteristics that are not currently measured or defined. Further refinement to the pumpable liquid and DIL volume estimates may be needed as additional tank waste information is obtained

  5. Chorea: clinical correlates of 119 cases Coréia: análise clínica de 119 casos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Mendes

    1996-09-01

    Full Text Available Chorea is a clinical syndrome characterized by abnormal involuntary arrhythmic movements, randomly distributed in time, affecting mainly the distal parts of the limbs. There are many diseases associated with chorea but the distribution of the etiologies vary too much in different parts of the world. We intended to study the etiologies of chorea in a Movement Disorders Unit of a university hospital-based outpatient clinic in Brazil. We studied the records of 119 patients with chorea based in the diagnostic criteria of the World Federation of Neurology. Sydenham's chorea (SC was the most frequent cause of chorea (51.3% of our sample. Other common causes were Huntington's chorea (18.5% and chorea post-stroke (9.2%. SC is not commonly seen in developed countries nowadays but is not rare in Brazil. SC patients generally have the clinical manifestation of it in the first 20 years of age and girls are more affected than boys and this feature was observed in our sample. Based on our own experience and in the review of the literature we propose an etiological classification of chorea.Coréia é uma síndrome caracterizada por movimentos involuntários arrítmicos, rápidos, abruptos, não repetitivos no tempo e com distribuição variável, preferentemente distal. O número de entidades clínicas reconhecidamente associadas a movimentos coréicos tem se tornado cada vez maior com o passar do tempo. Propusemo-nos estudar a frequência e algumas características epidemiológicas das coréias atendidas em um ambulatório especializado em distúrbios do movimento. Foram estudados os prontuários de 119 pacientes com o diagnóstico sindrômico de coréia. O predomínio absoluto foi de coréia de Sydenham (CS com 51,3% do total da amostra. Outras causas frequentes foram doença de Huntington (DH presente em 18,5% e a coréia secundária a doença cerebrovascular em 9,2% dos pacientes. O sexo feminino predominou em todas as faixas etárias, mas principalmente

  6. Surface energy for electroluminescent polymers and indium-tin-oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhiyou; Yin Sheng; Liu Chen; Zhong Youxin; Zhang Wuxing; Shi Dufang; Wang Chang'an

    2003-01-01

    The contact angles on the thin films of poly[2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene] (MEH-PPV) and indium-tin-oxide (ITO) were measured by the sessile-drop technique. The surface energies of the films were calculated using the Owens-Wendt (OW) and van Oss-Chaudhury-Good (vOCG) approaches. The overall total surface energies of MEH-PPV and the as-received ITO were 30.75 and 30.07 mJ/m 2 , respectively. Both approaches yielded almost the same surface energies. The surface energies were mainly contributed from the dispersion interactions or Lifshitz-van der Waals (LW) interactions for both MEH-PPV and ITO. The changes in the contact angles and surface energies of the ITO films, due to different solvent cleaning processes and oxygen plasma treatments, were analyzed. Experimental results revealed that the total surface energy of the ITO films increased after various cleaning processes. In comparison with different solvents used in this study, we found that methanol is an effective solvent for ITO cleaning, as a higher surface energy was observed. ITO films treated with oxygen plasma showed the highest surface energy. This work demonstrated that contact angle measurement is a useful method to diagnose the cleaning effect on ITO films

  7. Extreme ultraviolet patterning of tin-oxo cages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitjema, Jarich; Zhang, Yu; Vockenhuber, Michaela; Kazazis, Dimitrios; Ekinci, Yasin; Brouwer, Albert M.

    2017-07-01

    We report on the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) patterning performance of tin-oxo cages. These cage molecules were already known to function as a negative tone photoresist for EUV radiation, but in this work, we significantly optimized their performance. Our results show that sensitivity and resolution are only meaningful photoresist parameters if the process conditions are optimized. We focus on contrast curves of the materials using large area EUV exposures and patterning of the cages using EUV interference lithography. It is shown that baking steps, such as postexposure baking, can significantly affect both the sensitivity and contrast in the open-frame experiments as well as the patterning experiments. A layer thickness increase reduced the necessary dose to induce a solubility change but decreased the patterning quality. The patterning experiments were affected by minor changes in processing conditions such as an increased rinsing time. In addition, we show that the anions of the cage can influence the sensitivity and quality of the patterning, probably through their effect on physical properties of the materials.

  8. Manufacturing of glass from tin mining tailings in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arancibia, J. r. H.; Alfonso, P.; Garcia-Valles, M.; Martinez, S.; Parcerisa, D.; Canet, C.; Romero, F. M.

    2013-01-01

    Tailings from mining activities in Bolivia represent an environmental problem. In the vicinity of the tin mines of Llallagua, Potosi department, there are large dumps and tailings. We present a study of the use of these wastes as raw materials for the manufacture of glass. This procedure aims to contribute to environmental remediation of mining areas through the vitrification, a process which offers an alternative for stabilization of hazardous waste. In addition, the marketing of the obtained product would provide an additional income to the mining areas. For this study three samples of mining waste, with grain size between sand and silt, were used. The chemical composition of these raw materials, determined by X-ray fluorescence, is granitic, with high contents of heavy metals. On the basis of its composition, glass were made from silica glass by adding CaCO 3 and Na 2 CO 3 . The thermal cycle has been determined from TDA. Tg values of glass range from 626 degree centigrade to 709 degree centigrade. Leaching tests of the obtained glasses confirm their capacity to retain heavy metals. (Author)

  9. Indoor guided evacuation: TIN for graph generation and crowd evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengchao Xu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents two complementary methods: an approach to compute a network data-set for indoor space of a building by using its two-dimensional (2D floor plans and limited semantic information, combined with an optimal crowd evacuation method. The approach includes three steps: (1 generate critical points in the space, (2 connect neighbour points to build up the network, and then (3 run the optimal algorithm for optimal crowd evacuation from a room to the exit gates of the building. Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN is used in the first two steps. The optimal evacuation crowd is not based on the nearest evacuation gate for a person but relies on optimal sorting of the waiting lists at each gate of the room to be evacuated. As an example case, a rectangular room with 52 persons with two gates is evacuated in 102 elementary interval times (one interval corresponds to the time for one step for normal velocity walking, whereas it would have been evacuated in not less than 167 elementary steps. The procedure for generating the customized network involves the use of 2D floor plans of a building and some common Geographic Information System (GIS functions. This method combined with the optimal sorting lists will be helpful for guiding crowd evacuation during any emergency.

  10. Scintigraphic study of gastric emptying with colloidal tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodríguez Paleo, Lester; Nuez Vilar, Maricela; Machado Lois, Marisel; López González, María Karla; Torres Leyva, Oscar; Izquierdo Izquierdo, Yimel; García González, Idelsy; Conesa Gonzalez, Ana Ibis

    2016-01-01

    Gastroparesis is defined as a delay in gastric emptying in the absence of mechanical obstruction, associated with symptoms such as nausea and / or vomiting, feeling of postprandial gastric fullness, early satiety or epigastric pain for more than 3 months. The gold standard in the diagnosis of delayed gastric emptying scintigraphy is gastric emptying and radiopharmaceutical has been used more 99m Tc-sulfur colloid not available in the country. In order to evaluate the usefulness of colloidal tin in the scintigraphic gastric emptying study, a descriptive study was conducted in 64 patients over 18 years using as radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc-Sn colloid. 31% of patients had symptoms. The emptying time was normal in 50 cases and the association of gastroparesis symptoms was observed in 20 (15 diabetic and 5 non-diabetic), 9 patients had a delayed emptying, but reported no symptoms. Gastroparesis was more frequent in women than in men (35% versus 21%). 21% of patients had a moderate delayed gastric emptying. Conclusions: The results obtained with 99m Tc-Sn colloid are comparable to those reported by other authors using 99m Tc-SC in the scintigraphic assessment of gastric emptying. (author)

  11. Spray Pyrolyzed Polycrystalline Tin Oxide Thin Film as Hydrogen Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh E. Patil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline tin oxide (SnO2 thin film was prepared by using simple and inexpensive spray pyrolysis technique (SPT. The film was characterized for their phase and morphology by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM, respectively. The crystallite size calculated from the XRD pattern is 84 nm. Conductance responses of the polycrystalline SnO2 were measured towards gases like hydrogen (H2, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG, ethanol vapors (C2H5OH, NH3, CO, CO2, Cl2 and O2. The gas sensing characteristics were obtained by measuring the sensor response as a function of various controlling factors like operating temperature, operating voltages (1 V, 5 V, 10 V 15 V, 20 V and 25 V and concentration of gases. The sensor response measurement showed that the SnO2 has maximum response to hydrogen. Furthermore; the SnO2 based sensor exhibited fast response and good recovery towards hydrogen at temperature 150 oC. The result of response towards H2 reveals that SnO2 thin film prepared by SPT would be a suitable material for the fabrication of the hydrogen sensor.

  12. Samarium (III Selective Membrane Sensor Based on Tin (IV Boratophosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok S. K. Kumar

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: A number of Sm (III selective membranes of varying compositions using tin (IV boratophosphate as electroactive material were prepared. Polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and epoxy resin were used as binding materials. Membrane having composition of 40% exchanger and 60% epoxy resin exhibited best performance. This membrane worked well over a wide concentration range of 1x10-5M to 1x10-1 M of samarium ions with a Super-Nernstian slope of 40 mV/decade. It has a fast response time of less than 10 seconds and can be used for at least six months without any considerable divergence in potentials. The proposed sensor revealed good selectivities with respect to alkali, alkaline earth, some transition and rare earth metal ions and can be used in the pH range of 4.0-10.0. It was used as an indicator electrode in the potentiometric titration of Sm (III ions against EDTA. Effect of internal solution was studied and the electrode was successfully used in non-aqueous media, too.

  13. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Moussaoui, H.; Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S.; El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M.; Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O.; Masrour, R.; Hlil, E. K.; Benyoussef, A.

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn1-xMnxFe2O4 with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn0.5Mn0.5Fe2O4 with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn1-xMnxFe2O4; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases.

  14. Highly efficient and durable TiN nanofiber electrocatalyst supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Cho, Min Kyung; Kwon, Jeong An; Jeong, Yeon Hun; Lee, Kyung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Kim, Min Jung; Yoo, Sung Jong; Jang, Jong Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Juhn; Nam, Suk Woo; Lim, Dong-Hee; Cho, EunAe; Lee, Kwan-Young; Kim, Jin Young

    2015-11-28

    To date, carbon-based materials including various carbon nanostructured materials have been extensively used as an electrocatalyst support for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) applications due to their practical nature. However, carbon dissolution or corrosion caused by high electrode potential in the presence of O2 and/or water has been identified as one of the main failure modes for the device operation. Here, we report the first TiN nanofiber (TNF)-based nonwoven structured materials to be constructed via electrospinning and subsequent two-step thermal treatment processes as a support for the PEMFC catalyst. Pt catalyst nanoparticles (NPs) deposited on the TNFs (Pt/TNFs) were electrochemically characterized with respect to oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity and durability in an acidic medium. From the electrochemical tests, the TNF-supported Pt catalyst was better and more stable in terms of its catalytic performance compared to a commercially available carbon-supported Pt catalyst. For example, the initial oxygen reduction performance was comparable for both cases, while the Pt/TNF showed much higher durability from an accelerated degradation test (ADT) configuration. It is understood that the improved catalytic roles of TNFs on the supported Pt NPs for ORR are due to the high electrical conductivity arising from the extended connectivity, high inertness to the electrochemical environment and strong catalyst-support interactions.

  15. Contribution to the aluminum-tin-zinc ternary system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drápala, J.; Kostiuková, G.; Losertová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The Sn-Zn-Al alloys are one of significant candidates in the proposal of alternative lead-free solders for higher temperature soldering. This paper deals with the study of the aluminum-tin-zinc system. Twenty Sn-Zn-Al alloys together with six binary Sn-Zn alloys were prepared and studied experimentally. Alloys were prepared from pure Sn, Zn and Al (melting and cooling in a vacuum resistance furnace). The specimens were studied metallographically including the micro-hardness measurements, complete chemical analysis (ICP-AES, OES), X-ray micro-analysis of alloys by SEM and EDX in order to determine the composition and identification of individual phases. Significant temperatures and enthalpies of phase transformations were determined by DTA. After long-term annealing of selected alloys in vacuum followed by quenching the structural and chemical microanalyses of the present phases and their limit concentrations were carried out. The achieved results were compared with the thermodynamic modelling of the ternary Sn-Zn-Al system (computer programs THERMOCALC, MTDATA, PANDAT and databases CALPHAD, COST). Electrical resistivity, density, magnetic susceptibility and wettability of Sn-Zn-Al solders were measured as well.

  16. TiN coating on steel by pulsed capillary discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avaria, G; Favre, M; Bhuyan, H; Wyndham, E; Kelly, H; Grondona, D; Marquez, A

    2006-01-01

    The characteristic geometry of a pulsed capillary discharge (PCD)[1] establishes natural conditions for the formation of plasma jets, which expand in the chamber's neutral gas. A locally stored capacitor, coaxial with the capillary, is pulse charged to a maximum of -10kV, giving a current pulse of ∼10ns, ∼2kA. The discharge is operated in nitrogen, in a continuous pulsing mode, at a frequency of 50 Hz and pressures of 0.3 to 1 Torr. The coating produced by these plasma jets on substrates of AISI 304 stainless steel have been studied. The chamber's anode is made of titanium, which interacts with the nitrogen plasma producing TiN coatings on the substrates. The results are presented for the plasma characterization at different discharge pressures and times, as well as SEM, EDS and AFM analysis of deposits made. This characterization was carried out using Langmuir double probes, which provide data on the electronic temperature and density in the plasma jet. At the same time spectrographic studies of the plasma were carried out, and the presence of ionized atoms of titanium and nitrogen were observed. An inverse relation between the pressure of nitrogen present in the chamber and the thickness of the coating over steel was found, as well as a direct relationship between the temperature and plasma densities with the thickness of the deposit (CW)

  17. Novel phases and superconductivity of tin sulfide compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Joseph M.; Nguyen-Cong, Kien; Steele, Brad A.; Oleynik, Ivan I.

    2018-05-01

    Tin sulfides, SnxSy, are an important class of materials that are actively investigated as novel photovoltaic and water splitting materials. A first-principles evolutionary crystal structure search is performed with the goal of constructing the complete phase diagram of SnxSy and discovering new phases as well as new compounds of varying stoichiometry at ambient conditions and pressures up to 100 GPa. The ambient phase of SnS2 with P 3 ¯ m 1 symmetry remains stable up to 28 GPa. Another ambient phase, SnS, experiences a series of phase transformations including α-SnS to β-SnS at 9 GPa, followed by β-SnS to γ-SnS at 40 GPa. γ-SnS is a new high-pressure metallic phase with P m 3 ¯ m space group symmetry stable up to 100 GPa, which becomes a superconductor with a maximum Tc = 9.74 K at 40 GPa. Another new metallic compound, Sn3S4 with I 4 ¯ 3 d space group symmetry, is predicted to be stable at pressures above 15 GPa, which also becomes a superconductor with relatively high Tc = 21.9 K at 30 GPa.

  18. Etching of germanium-tin using ammonia peroxide mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Yuan; Ong, Bin Leong; Wang, Wei; Gong, Xiao; Liang, Gengchiau; Yeo, Yee-Chia, E-mail: yeo@ieee.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Zhang, Zheng; Pan, Jisheng [Institute of Material Research and Engineering, A*STAR (Agency for Science, Technology and Research), 2 Fusionopolis Way, #08-03, Innovis, Singapore 138634 (Singapore); Tok, Eng-Soon [Department of Physics, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117551 (Singapore)

    2015-12-28

    The wet etching of germanium-tin (Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}) alloys (4.2% < x < 16.0%) in ammonia peroxide mixture (APM) is investigated. Empirical fitting of the data points indicates that the etch depth of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} is proportional to the square root of the etch time t and decreases exponentially with increasing x for a given t. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results show that increasing t increases the intensity of the Sn oxide peak, whereas no obvious change is observed for the Ge oxide peak. This indicates that an accumulation of Sn oxide on the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface decreases the amount of Ge atoms exposed to the etchant, which accounts for the decrease in etch rate with increasing etch time. Atomic force microscopy was used to examine the surface morphologies of the Ge{sub 0.918}Sn{sub 0.082} samples. Both root-mean-square roughness and undulation periods of the Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} surface were observed to increase with increasing t. This work provides further understanding of the wet etching of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x} using APM and may be used for the fabrication of Ge{sub 1-x}Sn{sub x}-based electronic and photonic devices.

  19. Tin Whisker Growth and Mitigation with a Nanocrysytalline Nickel Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiuk, Szymon

    Tin whiskers are a problem in the electronics industry since the EU banned the use of lead in Pb-Sn solders as part of the Restriction of Hazardous Substances (RoHS). The biggest concern with Sn whiskers is their ability to short-circuit electronics. High reliability applications such as the aerospace, defense, healthcare, and automotive industries are at most risk. This project explores Sn whisker mitigation and prevention with the use of nanocrystalline nickel coating over Sn surfaces. Sn was plated onto a pure Cu substrate using electroplating. A high temperature and high humidity condition, at 85°C and 85% RH, was effective at growing whiskers. A nNi coating was plated over Sn/Cu coupons. After subjecting the nNi/ Sn/Cu samples through 85°C/85% RH testing conditions, no whiskers were observed penetrating the surface. These results make nNi a viable material to use as a coating to prevent the growth of Sn whiskers in electronic assemblies.

  20. Search for technetium in natural tin metallurgical residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, C.W.

    1996-07-01

    Possible instability of baryons inside the nuclei might result in accumulation of rare isotopes in natural ores. In this respect, isotopes of technetium have certain advantages that can be useful in the search for technetium in nonradioactive ores by chemical methods. In this paper, we review the history of technetium research and discuss a new approach to the search for natural technetium associated with tin ores which appears to offer a rare possibility of discovering a smelting operation by-product such as flue dust, in which the volatile technetium heptoxide (Tc{sub 2}O{sub 7}), like rhenium heptoxide (Re{sub 2}O{sub 7}), would be expected to concentrate. Our concept of a search for technetium in these materials would be based on the assumption that traces of rhenium could occur in the ore and could be traced most easily by neutron activation of small samples. Such a procedure would confirm that an enrichment from the ore to the flue dust actually occurs with the rhenium and therefore should occur with technetium. Furthermore, this occurrence should identify the best location to search for technetium.

  1. The acidic properties of mixed tin and antimony oxide catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irving, E.A.; Taylor, D.

    1978-01-01

    The acidic properties of mixed tin + antimony oxide catalysts were studied in the isomerization of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, cyclopropane, 1-butene, and cis-2-butene and the dehydration of isopropanol over the mixed oxides outgassed at room temperature and 698/sup 0/K. Only the zero-order portions of the reaction were used for calculations. With catalysts outgassed at room temperature, weakly acidic sites were present, and all the reactions probably occurred by a carbonium ion mechanism with Broensted acid sites as a source of protons. The rates increased with increasing antimony content to a maximum at approx. 50 at. % and then decreased with further increase in the antimony content. Outgassing of the catalysts at 698/sup 0/K increased the isomerization rate of 3,3-dimethyl-1-butene, but decreased those for cyclopropane and isopropanol due to poisoning by the propylene produced. For 1-butene and cis-2-butene and catalysts outgassed at 698/sup 0/K, only catalysts with less than 50Vertical Bar3< antimony were active. The catalysts were poisoned by treatment with bases or with sodium acetate. A proposed correlation between rates and acidity led to the conclusion that the catalyst composition corresponding to maximum acidity differs from that for maximum selective oxidation activity. Graphs and 10 references.

  2. 188Re radiopharmaceuticals for radiosynovectomy: evaluation and comparison of tin colloid, hydroxyapatite and tin-ferric hydroxide macroaggregates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savio, Eduardo; Ures, María Cristina; Zeledón, Patricia; Trindade, Victoria; Paolino, Andrea; Mockford, Virginia; Malanga, Antonio; Fernández, Marcelo; Gaudiano, Javier

    2004-01-01

    Radiosynovectomy is a therapy used to relieve pain and inflammation from rheumatoid arthritis and related diseases. In this study three 188 Re particulate compounds were characterized according to their physico-chemical properties and their biological behavior in rabbits. The results were compared in order to establish which was the radiopharmaceutical that better fits the requirements of this kind of radiotherapy. Three radiopharmaceutical formulations, tin colloid, hydroxyapatite particles (HA) and ferric hydroxide macroaggregates coated with tin colloid (FHMA), were physically characterized (number, volume and surface of the particles). For this purpose laser diffraction methodology was used. To evaluate cavity leakage of activity the following studies in New Zealand rabbits were performed: scintigraphic images for 48 hr after intraarticular injection of each radiopharmaceutical, biodistribution at 48 hr and urine samples collection during the first 24 hr post-radiopharmaceutical administration. Labeling procedures for 188 Re-HA and 188 Re-Sn-FHMA were labour intensive while 188 Re-Sn was easily prepared. Furthermore, 188 Re-Sn colloid offered the greatest surface area in the 2–10 microm range and was obtained with a radiochemical purity over 95%, while percentage of bound activity for 188 Re-HA and 188 Re-Sn-FHMA were 55% and 92% respectively. Stability was verified for the three radiopharmaceuticals for 24 hr. Scintigraphic studies and biodistribution in rabbits after intraarticular administration of the radiopharmaceuticals showed relevant activity only in the knee, this being over 90% of the residual activity in the whole body at 48 hr in every case. Renal elimination of 188 Re-Sn colloid and 188 Re-Sn-FHMA was detected by activity measurements in urine samples, during the first 12 hr post-radiopharmaceutical injection. The percentage of activity retained in the knee was 69.1% for 188 Re-Sn colloid, 55.1% for 188 Re-Sn-FHMA and 33.6% for 188 Re-HA. The 188

  3. A new anti-glioma therapy, AG119: pre-clinical assessment in a mouse GL261 glioma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, Rheal A.; Ihnat, Michael; Saunders, Debra; Bastian, Anja; Smith, Nataliya; Pavana, Roheeth Kumar; Gangjee, Aleem

    2015-01-01

    High grade gliomas (HGGs; grades III and IV) are the most common primary brain tumors in adults, and their malignant nature ranks them fourth in incidence of cancer death. Standard treatment for glioblastomas (GBM), involving surgical resection followed by radiation and chemotherapy with temozolomide (TMZ) and the anti-angiogenic therapy bevacizumab, have not substantially improved overall survival. New therapeutic agents are desperately needed for this devastating disease. Here we study the potential therapeutic agent AG119 in a pre-clinical model for gliomas. AG119 possesses both anti-angiogenic (RTK inhibition) and antimicrotubule cytotoxic activity in a single molecule. GL261 glioma-bearing mice were either treated with AG119, anti-VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) antibody, anti c-Met antibody or TMZ, and compared to untreated tumor-bearing mice. Animal survival was assessed, and tumor volumes and vascular alterations were monitored with morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and perfusion-weighted imaging, respectively. Percent survival of GL261 HGG-bearing mice treated with AG119 was significantly higher (p < 0.001) compared to untreated tumors. Tumor volumes (21–31 days following intracerebral implantation of GL261 cells) were found to be significantly lower for AG119 (p < 0.001), anti-VEGF (p < 0.05) and anti-c-Met (p < 0.001) antibody treatments, and TMZ-treated (p < 0.05) mice, compared to untreated controls. Perfusion data indicated that both AG119 and TMZ were able to reduce the effect of decreasing perfusion rates significantly (p < 0.05 for both), when compared to untreated tumors. It was also found that IC 50 values for AG119 were much lower than those for TMZ in T98G and U251 cells. These data support further exploration of the anticancer activity AG119 in HGG, as this compound was able to increase animal survival and decrease tumor volumes in a mouse GL261 glioma model, and that AG119 is also not subject to methyl guanine

  4. XPS investigations of tribolayers formed on TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oktay, Serkan; Kahraman, Zafer; Urgen, Mustafa; Kazmanli, Kursat, E-mail: kursat@itu.edu.tr

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The (Ti,Re)N coating (8 ± 1.9 at.% Re) consisted of TiN and ReNx (x > 1.33) phases. • TiO{sub 2} provided low friction coefficient to TiN coating at 150 °C. • Re addition to TiN drastically dropped the friction coefficients to 0.17–0.22. • Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} provided very low friction coefficient to (Ti,Re)N coating. • Re addition to TiN improved the wear behavior. - Abstract: TiN and (Ti,Re)N coatings were deposited on high-speed-steel substrates by a hybrid coating system composed of cathodic arc PVD and magnetron sputtering techniques. In order to keep rhenium content low (8 ± 1.9 at.%) in the coating, magnetron sputtering technique was utilized to evaporate rhenium. The (Ti,Re)N coating consisted of TiN and ReN{sub x} (x > 1.33) phases. The hardness of TiN and (Ti,Re)N were 31 GPa and 29 GPa ( ± 2 GPa), respectively. Tribological behaviors of the samples were tested against Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} balls at 21 °C (RT) and 150 °C (HT) by reciprocating wear technique. The tribolayers were analyzed by XPS technique. Friction coefficients of TiN were 0.56, 0.35 for 21 °C and 150 °C tests, respectively. Rhenium addition to TiN drastically dropped the friction coefficients to 0.22 and 0.17 for RT and HT samples. Rhenium addition also improved the wear resistance of the coating at both test temperatures. For TiN, main oxide component of the tribolayers was Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3} for RT tests and TiO{sub 2} for HT tests. The oxide layer formed on (Ti,Re)N were the mixture of TiO{sub 2}, Ti−O−N, ReO{sub 2} and Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} for both test temperatures. Re{sub 2}O{sub 7} provided very low friction coefficient to (Ti,Re)N. The findings are consistent with the crystal chemistry approach.

  5. Tin in canned food: a review and understanding of occurrence and effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blunden, Steve; Wallace, Tony

    2003-12-01

    Tinplate is light gauge, steel sheet or strip, coated on both sides with commercially pure tin and has been used for well over a hundred years as a robust form of food packaging. Altogether, about 25,000 million food cans are produced and filled in Europe per annum, about 20% of these having plain internal (unlacquered) tin-coated steel bodies. Worldwide, the total for food packaging is approximately 80,000 million cans. Tinplate is also extensively used for the production of beverage cans. Europe produces and fills over 15,000 million tinplate beverage cans per annum all of which are internally lacquered. The use of tinplate for food and beverage packaging, will result in some tin dissolving into the food content, particularly when plain uncoated internal surfaces are used. The Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake for tin is 14 mg/kg body weight and recommended maximum permissible levels of tin in food are typically 250 mg/kg (200 mg/kg UK) for solid foods and 150 mg/kg for beverages. However, the question arises as to whether evidence exists that such elevated levels of tin in food in any way constitute a risk to human health. This review considers the factors affecting the dissolution of tin, the reported measurements/surveys of actual levels of tin in canned foods and the studies and reports of acute (short term) toxicity relating to the ingestion of elevated levels of tin in food products. Chronic studies are mentioned, but are not covered in detail, since the review is mainly concerned with possible effects from the ingestion of single high doses. From published data, there appears to be a small amount of evidence suggesting that consumption of food or beverages containing tin at concentrations at or below 200 ppm has caused adverse gastrointestinal effects in an unknown but possibly small proportion of those exposed. However, the evidence supporting this assertion is derived from reports of adverse effects which offer data that are limited, incomplete or of

  6. Bismuth-, Tin-, and Lead-Containing Metal-Organic Materials: Synthesis, Structure, Photoluminescence, Second Harmonic Generation, and Ferroelectric Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibowo, Arief Cahyo

    Metal-Organic Materials (MOMs) contain metal moieties and organic ligands that combine to form discrete (e.g. metal-organic polyhedra, spheres or nanoballs, metal-organic polygons) or polymeric structures with one-, two-, or three-dimensional periodicities that can exhibit a variety of properties resulting from the presence of the metal moieties and/or ligand connectors in the structure. To date, MOMs with a range of functional attributes have been prepared, including record-breaking porosity, catalytic properties, molecular magnetism, chemical separations and sensing ability, luminescence and NLO properties, multiferroic, ferroelectric, and switchable molecular dielectric properties. We are interested in synthesizing non-centrosymmetric MOM single crystals possessing one of the ten polar space groups required for non-linear optical properties (such as second harmonic generation) and ferroelectric applications. This thesis is divided into two main parts: materials with optical properties, such as photoluminescence and materials for targeted applications such as second harmonic generation and ferroelectric properties. This thesis starts with an introduction describing material having centrosymmetric, non-polar space groups, single crystals structures and their photoluminescence properties. These crystals exhibit very interesting and rare structures as well as interesting photoluminescence properties. Chapters 2-5 of this thesis focus on photoluminescent properties of new MOMs, and detail the exploratory research involving the comparatively rare bismuth, lead, and tin coordination polymers. Specifically, the formation of single white-light emitting phosphors based on the combination of bismuth or lead with pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate is discussed (Chapter 2). The observation of a new Bi2O2 layer and a new Bi4O 3 chain in bismuth terephthalate-based coordination polymers is presented in Chapter 3, while the formation of diverse structures of tin-based coordination

  7. Cellular responses to modified Plasmodium falciparum MSP119 antigens in individuals previously exposed to natural malaria infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Awobode Henrietta O

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MSP1 processing-inhibitory antibodies bind to epitopes on the 19 kDa C-terminal region of the Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP119, inhibiting erythrocyte invasion. Blocking antibodies also bind to this antigen but prevent inhibitory antibodies binding, allowing invasion to proceed. Recombinant MSP119 had been modified previously to allow inhibitory but not blocking antibodies to continue to bind. Immunization with these modified proteins, therefore, has the potential to induce more effective protective antibodies. However, it was unclear whether the modification of MSP119 would affect critical T-cell responses to epitopes in this antigen. Methods The cellular responses to wild-type MSP119 and a panel of modified MSP119 antigens were measured using an in-vitro assay for two groups of individuals: the first were malaria-naïve and the second had been naturally exposed to Plasmodium falciparum infection. The cellular responses to the modified proteins were examined using cells from malaria-exposed infants and adults. Results Interestingly, stimulation indices (SI for responses induced by some of the modified proteins were at least two-fold higher than those elicited by the wild-type MSP119. A protein with four amino acid substitutions (Glu27→Tyr, Leu31→Arg, Tyr34→Ser and Glu43→Leu had the highest stimulation index (SI up to 360 and induced large responses in 64% of the samples that had significant cellular responses to the modified proteins. Conclusion This study suggests that specific MSP119 variants that have been engineered to improve their antigenicity for inhibitory antibodies, retain T-cell epitopes and the ability to induce cellular responses. These proteins are candidates for the development of MSP1-based malaria vaccines.

  8. Deposition Rate and Energy Enhancements of TiN Thin-Film in a Magnetized Sheet Plasma Source

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdi Muhyuddin D. Barra; Henry J. Ramos

    2011-01-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been synthesized using the sheet plasma negative ion source (SPNIS). The parameters used for its effective synthesis has been determined from previous experiments and studies. In this study, further enhancement of the deposition rate of TiN synthesis and advancement of the SPNIS operation is presented. This is primarily achieved by the addition of Sm-Co permanent magnets and a modification of the configuration in the TiN deposition process. The ...

  9. Photocatalytic activity of tin-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chua, Chin Sheng, E-mail: cschua@simtech.a-star.edu.sg [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore); Tan, Ooi Kiang; Tse, Man Siu [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, 639798 (Singapore); Ding, Xingzhao [Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, 71 Nanyang Drive, 638075 (Singapore)

    2013-10-01

    Tin-doped TiO{sub 2} films are deposited via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition using a precursor mixture composing of titanium tetraisopropoxide and tetrabutyl tin. The amount of tin doping in the deposited films is controlled by the volume % concentration ratio of tetrabutyl tin over titanium tetraisopropoxide in the mixed precursor solution. X-ray diffraction analysis results reveal that the as-deposited films are composed of pure anatase TiO{sub 2} phase. Red-shift in the absorbance spectra is observed attributed to the introduction of Sn{sup 4+} band states below the conduction band of TiO{sub 2}. The effect of tin doping on the photocatalytic property of TiO{sub 2} films is studied through the degradation of stearic acid under UV light illumination. It is found that there is a 10% enhancement on the degradation rate of stearic acid for the film with 3.8% tin doping in comparison with pure TiO{sub 2} film. This improvement of photocatalytic performance with tin incorporation could be ascribed to the reduction of electron-hole recombination rate through charge separation and an increased amount of OH radicals which are crucial for the degradation of stearic acid. Further increase in tin doping results in the formation of recombination site and large anatase grains, which leads to a decrease in the degradation rate. - Highlights: ► Deposition of tin-doped TiO{sub 2} film via aerosol assisted chemical vapor deposition ► Deposited anatase films show red-shifted in UV–vis spectrum with tin-dopants. ► Photoactivity improves at low tin concentration but reduces at higher concentration. ► Improvement in photoactivity due to bandgap narrowing from Sn{sup 4+} band states ► Maximum photoactivity achieved occurs for films with 3.8% tin doping.

  10. Determination of tin in cassiterite ores by colorimetry of iodometry; Determinacion de Estano en minerales y productos de concentracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Hernandez, B

    1972-07-01

    The analytical methods are described far the determination of tin in cassiterite ores. The gallein-colorimetric method is described for determining small amounts of tin, covering the 0,01-0,5 per cent range. The sample is decomposed by heating with ammonium iodide, and tin is analyzed colorimetrically by means of it s complex with gallein. The final measure may be brought about either visually or spectrophotometrically at 525 nm. (Author)

  11. Moessbauer study of the composition and corrosion behaviour of electrodeposited and cast brass containing 1-4 m% tin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertes, A.; Suba, M.; Varsanyi-Lakatos, M.; Czako-Nagy, I.; Pchelnikov, A.P.; Losev, V.V.

    1982-01-01

    Moessbauer measurements on electrodeposited and cast brass containing 1-4 m% tin were carried out using conversion electron detector. It was found that the tin formed phases with copper but not with zinc. The identified phases were β, γ, epsilon and eta and their ratio depended on the tin concentration and on the preparation process of the brass. The corrosion behaviour of the samples was also studied. (author)

  12. Tailoring the structural and optical properties of TiN thin films by Ag ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popović, M., E-mail: majap@vinca.rs; Novaković, M.; Rakočević, Z.; Bibić, N.

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Changes in structural and optical properties of TiN films induced by Ag ions. • The formation of Ag metallic clusters inside of TiN layers was observed. • The SPR of Ag particles was confirmed by a broad band in the spectra. • As the Ag ions fluence increases the n also increase and k values decrease. • With increasing ion fluence the TiN film becomes more metallic. - Abstract: Titanium nitride (TiN) thin films thickness of ∼260 nm prepared by dc reactive sputtering were irradiated with 200 keV silver (Ag) ions to the fluences ranging from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. After implantation TiN layers were annealed 2 h at 700 °C in a vacuum. Ion irradiation-induced microstructural changes were examined by using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy, while the surface topography was observed using atomic force microscopy. Spectroscopic ellipsometry was employed to get insights on the optical and electronic properties of TiN films with respect to their microstructure. The results showed that the irradiations lead to deformation of the lattice, increasing disorder and formation of new Ag phase. The optical results demonstrate the contribution of surface plasmon resonace (SPR) of Ag particles. SPR position shifted in the range of 354.3–476.9 nm when Ag ion fluence varied from 5 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2} to 20 × 10{sup 15} ions/cm{sup 2}. Shift in peak wavelength shows dependence on Ag particles concentration, suggesting that interaction between Ag particles dominate the surface plasmon resonance effect. Presence of Ag as second metal in the layer leads to overall decrease of optical resistivity of TiN.

  13. Electrochemical migration of tin in electronics and microstructure of the dendrites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minzari, Daniel, E-mail: dmin@mek.dtu.d [Section for Materials and Surface Technology, Department for Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark); Grumsen, Flemming Bjerg; Jellesen, Morten S.; Moller, Per; Ambat, Rajan [Section for Materials and Surface Technology, Department for Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark (Denmark)

    2011-05-15

    Graphical abstract: The electrochemical migration of tin in electronics forms dendritic structures, consisting of a metallic tin core, which is surrounded by oxide layers having various thickness. Display Omitted Research highlights: Electrochemical migration occurs if two conductors are connected by condensed moisture. Metallic ions are dissolved and grow in a dendritic structure that short circuit the electrodes. The dendrite consists of a metallic tin core with oxide layers of various thickness surrounding. Detailed microstructure of dendrites is investigated using electron microscopy. The dendrite microstructure is heterogeneous along the growth direction. - Abstract: The macro-, micro-, and nano-scale morphology and structure of tin dendrites, formed by electrochemical migration on a surface mount ceramic chip resistor having electrodes consisting of tin with small amounts of Pb ({approx}2 wt.%) was investigated by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy including Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and electron diffraction. The tin dendrites were formed under 5 or 12 V potential bias in 10 ppm by weight NaCl electrolyte as a micro-droplet on the resistor during electrochemical migration experiments. The dendrites formed were found to have heterogeneous microstructure along the growth direction, which is attributed to unstable growth conditions inside the micro-volume of electrolyte. Selected area electron diffraction showed that the dendrites are metallic tin having sections of single crystal orientation and lead containing intermetallic particles embedded in the structure. At certain areas, the dendrite structure was found to be surrounded by an oxide crust, which is believed to be due to unstable growth conditions during the dendrite formation. The oxide layer was found to be of nanocrystalline structure, which is expected to be formed by the dehydration of the hydrated oxide originally formed in solution ex-situ in ambient air.

  14. Influence of Ge addition on the morphology and properties of TiN thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandu, C.S.; Sanjines, R.; Benkahoul, M.; Parlinska-Wojtan, M.; Karimi, A.; Levy, F.

    2006-01-01

    Thin films of TM-X-N (TM stands for early transition metal and X = Si, Al, etc.) are used as protective coatings. The most investigated among the ternary composite systems is Ti-Si-N. The system Ti-Ge-N has been chosen to extend the knowledge about the formation of nanocomposite films. Ti-Ge-N thin films were deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering on Si and WC-Co substrates at T s = 240 deg. C, from confocal Ti and Ge targets in mixed Ar/N 2 atmosphere. The nitrogen partial pressure and the power on the Ti target were kept constant, while the power on the Ge target was varied in order to obtain various Ge concentrations in the films. No presence of Ge-N bonds was detected, while X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements revealed the presence of Ti-Ge bonds. Transmission Electron Microscopy investigations have shown important changes induced by Ge addition in the morphology and structure of Ti-Ge-N films. Electron Energy-Loss Spectrometry study revealed a significant increase of Ge content at the grain boundaries. The segregation of Ge atoms to the TiN crystallite surface appears to be responsible for limitation of crystal growth and formation of a TiGe y amorphous phase

  15. Developing an Empirical Model for Estimating the Probability of Electrical Short Circuits from Tin Whiskers. Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Karim J.; Asfour, Shihab S.; Onar, Arzu; Bayliss, Jon A.; Ludwig, Larry L.; Wright, Maria C.

    2009-01-01

    To comply with lead-free legislation, many manufacturers have converted from tin-lead to pure tin finishes of electronic components. However, pure tin finishes have a greater propensity to grow tin whiskers than tin-lead finishes. Since tin whiskers present an electrical short circuit hazard in electronic components, simulations have been developed to quantify the risk of said short circuits occurring. Existing risk simulations make the assumption that when a free tin whisker has bridged two adjacent exposed electrical conductors, the result is an electrical short circuit. This conservative assumption is made because shorting is a random event that had an unknown probability associated with it. Note however that due to contact resistance electrical shorts may not occur at lower voltage levels. In our first article we developed an empirical probability model for tin whisker shorting. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive empirical model using a refined experiment with a larger sample size, in which we studied the effect of varying voltage on the breakdown of the contact resistance which leads to a short circuit. From the resulting data we estimated the probability distribution of an electrical short, as a function of voltage. In addition, the unexpected polycrystalline structure seen in the focused ion beam (FIB) cross section in the first experiment was confirmed in this experiment using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FIB was also used to cross section two card guides to facilitate the measurement of the grain size of each card guide's tin plating to determine its finish.

  16. Issues Associated with the Conveyance and Transfer of DOE Lands under Public Law 105-119

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladino, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    Public Law 105-119 (Law) was enacted in November 1997 as part of the Defense Authorization Act of 1998 (Act). The Law specifically requires the US Department of Energy (DOE) to identify lands that are suitable for conveyance or transfer at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) within 90 days after enactment of the Act. In general, suitable lands include those parcels that are not required to meet the national security missions assigned to DOE at LANL within a ten year period beginning on the date of enactment of the Act. Additional suitability criteria are addressed below and include the need to establish clear title to the land and to restore areas contaminated with hazardous wastes. This proposed change in future land ownership is intended to serve as the final settlement of DOE community assistance obligations with respect to LANL and Los Alamos County and to stimulate economic development

  17. Electronic and magnetic properties of rare earth-Sn3 compounds for 119Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.P.; Friedt, J.M.; Shenoy, G.K.; Percheron, A.; Achard, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The electronic and magnetic properties of RESn 3 compounds (RE=La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Yb) have been investigated using the 23.8keV Moessbauer resonance of 119 Sn. The isomer shifts and quadrupole interactions are nearly the same in all compounds. The transferred magnetic fields and their orientation with respect to the principal electric field gradient axis at various Sn sites in the magnetically ordered state of RESn 3 (RE=Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd) have been utilized to get information about the magnetic structure. An evaluation of the transferred fields in PrSn 3 and NdSn 3 shows that the spin density at the Sn nucleus is nearly the same in both compounds [fr

  18. Laterally resolved ion-distribution functions at the substrate position during magnetron sputtering of indium-tin oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plagemann, A.; Ellmer, K.; Wiesemann, K.

    2007-01-01

    During the magnetron sputtering from an indium-tin oxide (ITO) target (76 mm diameter) we measured the ion-distribution functions (IDFs) of energetic ions (argon, indium, and oxygen ions) at the substrate surface using a combination of a quadrupole mass spectrometer and an electrostatic energy analyzer. We obtained the IDFs for argon sputtering pressures in the range from 0.08 to 2 Pa and for dc as well as rf (13.56 MHz) plasma excitation with powers from 10 to 100 W. The IDF measurements were performed both over the target center at a target-to-substrate distance of 65 mm and at different positions along the target radius in order to scan the erosion track of the target. The mean kinetic energies of argon ions calculated from the IDFs in the dc plasma decreased from about 30 to 15 eV, when the argon pressure increased from 0.08 to 2 Pa, which is caused by a decrease of the electron temperature also by a factor of 2. Indium atoms exhibit higher mean energies due to their additional energy from the sputtering process. The total metal ion flux turns out to be proportional to the discharge power and the pressure, the latter dependence being due to Penning ionization of the metal atoms (In and Sn). From the scans across the target surface the lateral distributions of metal, oxygen, and argon ions were derived. In the dc discharge the position of the erosion track is reproduced by increased ion intensities, while it is not the case for the rf excited plasma. The lateral variations of the observed species do not influence the lateral resistivity distributions of the deposited ITO films

  19. Lattice dynamics of intercalation and layer compounds by 119Sn Moessbauer effect spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herber, R.H.; Davis, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Gamma ray resonance spectroscopy using the 28-keV radiation from 119 Sn was employed to study the lattice dynamics of layer compounds and their metal atom intercalates. It was found that in solids in which the ( 119 Sn) Moessbauer atom is held either as an ion or as an isolated atom in the structure, both the characteristic lattice temperature (THETA/sub M/) value calculated from the temperature dependence of the recoil-free fraction (evaluated in the high temperature limit where T is greater than THETA/2 and in the absence of significant anharmonic effects) and characteristic temperature (THETA/sub CT/) value calculated by the Craig-Taylor procedure give internally consistent values for the lattice temperature of the solid as probed by the Moessbauer atom. In cases where this probe atom is part of a covalently bonded structure, as for example in the extended polymeric SnS 2 , SnSe 2 and related solids, the difference between THETA/sub M/ and THETA/sub CT/ will be significant, and this difference should be useful in the elucidation of the intermolecular and bonding forces in such solids and their relationship to the solid state properties of these materials. It is noted that the experimental determination of a unique lattice temperature by Moessbauer spectroscopic methods provides the solid state physicist with an additional parameter which should be useful in the characterization of solids, and, more importantly, may serve as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of the effects of systematic changes (such as, for example, compositional variations, radiation damage effects, implantation, and intercalation consequences) brought about in such materials

  20. SIGNUM: A Matlab, TIN-based landscape evolution model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refice, A.; Giachetta, E.; Capolongo, D.

    2012-08-01

    Several numerical landscape evolution models (LEMs) have been developed to date, and many are available as open source codes. Most are written in efficient programming languages such as Fortran or C, but often require additional code efforts to plug in to more user-friendly data analysis and/or visualization tools to ease interpretation and scientific insight. In this paper, we present an effort to port a common core of accepted physical principles governing landscape evolution directly into a high-level language and data analysis environment such as Matlab. SIGNUM (acronym for Simple Integrated Geomorphological Numerical Model) is an independent and self-contained Matlab, TIN-based landscape evolution model, built to simulate topography development at various space and time scales. SIGNUM is presently capable of simulating hillslope processes such as linear and nonlinear diffusion, fluvial incision into bedrock, spatially varying surface uplift which can be used to simulate changes in base level, thrust and faulting, as well as effects of climate changes. Although based on accepted and well-known processes and algorithms in its present version, it is built with a modular structure, which allows to easily modify and upgrade the simulated physical processes to suite virtually any user needs. The code is conceived as an open-source project, and is thus an ideal tool for both research and didactic purposes, thanks to the high-level nature of the Matlab environment and its popularity among the scientific community. In this paper the simulation code is presented together with some simple examples of surface evolution, and guidelines for development of new modules and algorithms are proposed.

  1. Inorganic tin and organotin interactions with candida maltosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, J.S.; Tobin, J.M. [School of Biotechnology, Dublin City Univ., Dublin (Ireland)

    2004-07-01

    As a consequence of the widespread industrial and agricultural applications of organotins, contamination of various ecosystems has occurred in recent decades. Understanding how these compounds interact with microorganisms is important in assessing the risks of organotin pollution. The organotins, tributyltin (TBT), trimethyltin (TMT) and inorganic tin, Sn(IV), were investigated for their physical interactions with non-metabolising cells and protoplasts of the yeast candida maltosa, an organism that is often associated with contaminated environments. Uptake, toxicity and membrane-acting effects of these compounds, at concentrations approximating those found in polluted environments, were assessed. Sn(IV) and TBT uptake occurred by different mechanisms. Uptake of Sn(IV) was 2-fold greater in intact cells than protoplasts, underlining the importance of cell wall binding, whereas TBT uptake levels by both cell types were similar. TBT uptake resulted in cell death and extensive K{sup +} leakage, while Sn(IV) uptake had no effect. TMT did not interact with cells. Of the three compounds, TBT alone altered membrane fluidity, as measured by the fluorescence anisotropy of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene incorporated into cells. Anisotropy of 1-(4-trimethylaminophenyl-6-phenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene) was not affected, implying that TBT is not confined to the surface of the cytoplasmic membrane, but acts within membrane lipids. These results indicate that the cell wall is the dominant site of Sn(IV) interactions with yeast, while lipophilic interactions play an important role in uptake and toxicity of TBT. (orig.)

  2. Synthesis and magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Moussaoui, H., E-mail: elmoussaoui.hassan@gmail.com [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Mahfoud, T.; Habouti, S. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); El Maalam, K.; Ben Ali, M. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hamedoun, M.; Mounkachi, O. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Masrour, R. [Laboratory of Materials, Processes, Environment and Quality, Cady Ayyed University, National School of Applied Sciences, Route Sidi Bouzid – BP 63, 46000 Safi (Morocco); Hlil, E.K. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, B.P. 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex (France); Benyoussef, A. [Institute of Nanomaterials and Nanotechnologies, MAScIR, Rabat (Morocco); Laboratoire of Magnetism and the Physics of the high Energies, URAC 12, Departement of physique, B.P. 1014, Faculty of science, Mohammed V University, Rabat (Morocco); Hassan II Academy of Science and Technology, Rabat (Morocco)

    2016-05-01

    In this work we report the synthesis, the microstructural characterization and the magnetic properties of tin spinel ferrites doped manganese (Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x=0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1) nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. The effect of annealing temperature on the structure, morphology and magnetic properties of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} has been investigated. The synthesized nanoparticle sizes have been controlled between 4 and 9 nm, with uniform spherical morphology as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). All the samples prepared possess single domain magnetic. The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with 4 nm in diameter have a blocking temperature close to 100 K. In addition, the cation distribution obtained from the X-ray diffraction of this sample was confirmed by magnetic measurement. For the Sn{sub 1−x}Mn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}; (0≤x≤1) samples, the magnetization and coercive fields increase when the augmentation of Mn content increases. For x=0.5, such parameters decrease when the calcination temperature increases. - Highlights: • We have studied the microstructural and the magnetic properties of Sn{sub 1-x}MnxFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}. • The nanoparticles of Sn{sub 0.5}Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} have a blocking temperature around 100 K. • The Ms and Hc increase with the augmentation of Mn content.

  3. Tin dioxide nanostructured thin films obtained through polymeric precursor method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Antônio Dal Santos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Tin dioxide (SnO2 nanostructured thin films with low proportion of defects and low roughness were produced through the systematic control of temperature and viscosity of the precursor solutions used for thin films deposition. These solutions were obtained through the citrate method and the films were deposited through the ‘dip-coating’ technique on glass substrate and after thermal treatment at 470ºC/4h, they were characterized both structurally and morphologically through the X-ray diffractometry, optic microscopy, scanning electronic microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray fluorescence, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and X-ray excited photoelectrons spectroscopy. The film thickness was obtained through scanning electronic microscopy of the films cross-section and correlated to the proportion of Sn and Si obtained through X-ray fluorescence. X-ray diffractometry of the films revealed the presence of peaks corresponding to the SnO2 crystalline phase, overlapping a wide peak between 20 and 30º (2?, characteristic of the glass substrate. Optic microscopy, Scanning electronic microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed homogeneous films, with low roughness, suitable to several applications such as sensors and transparent electrodes. It could be observed through the UV-Vis absorption analysis that the films presented high optical transparency and ‘band gap’ energy 4.36 eV. The X-ray excited photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of SnO2, as well as traces of the elements present in the glass substrate and residual carbon from the thermal treatment of the films.

  4. Indium Tin Oxide Resistor-Based Nitric Oxide Microsensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jennifer C.; Hunter, Gary W.; Gonzalez, Jose M., III; Liu, Chung-Chiun

    2012-01-01

    A sensitive resistor-based NO microsensor, with a wide detection range and a low detection limit, has been developed. Semiconductor microfabrication techniques were used to create a sensor that has a simple, robust structure with a sensing area of 1.10 0.99 mm. A Pt interdigitated structure was used for the electrodes to maximize the sensor signal output. N-type semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) thin film was sputter-deposited as a sensing material on the electrode surface, and between the electrode fingers. Alumina substrate (250 m in thickness) was sequentially used for sensor fabrication. The resulting sensor was tested by applying a voltage across the two electrodes and measuring the resulting current. The sensor was tested at different concentrations of NO-containing gas at a range of temperatures. Preliminary results showed that the sensor had a relatively high sensitivity to NO at 450 C and 1 V. NO concentrations from ppm to ppb ranges were detected with the low limit of near 159 ppb. Lower NO concentrations are being tested. Two sensing mechanisms were involved in the NO gas detection at ppm level: adsorption and oxidation reactions, whereas at ppb level of NO, only one sensing mechanism of adsorption was involved. The NO microsensor has the advantages of high sensitivity, small size, simple batch fabrication, high sensor yield, low cost, and low power consumption due to its microsize. The resistor-based thin-film sensor is meant for detection of low concentrations of NO gas, mainly in the ppb or lower range, and is being developed concurrently with other sensor technology for multispecies detection. This development demonstrates that ITO is a sensitive sensing material for NO detection. It also provides crucial information for future selection of nanostructured and nanosized NO sensing materials, which are expected to be more sensitive and to consume less power.

  5. Establishment of H2Mab-119, an Anti-Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 Monoclonal Antibody, Against Pancreatic Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Shinji; Itai, Shunsuke; Nakamura, Takuro; Chang, Yao-Wen; Harada, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Hiroyoshi; Kaneko, Mika K; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-12-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in breast cancer and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. In addition, HER2 expression has been reported in other cancers, such as gastric, colorectal, lung, and pancreatic cancers. An anti-HER2 humanized antibody, trastuzumab, leads to significant survival benefits in patients with HER2-overexpressing breast cancers and gastric cancers. Herein, we established a novel anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody (mAb), H 2 Mab-119 (IgG 1 , kappa), and characterized its efficacy against pancreatic cancers using flow cytometry, Western blot, and immunohistochemical analyses. H 2 Mab-119 reacted with pancreatic cancer cell lines, such as KLM-1, Capan-2, and MIA PaCa-2, but did not react with PANC-1 in flow cytometry analysis. Western blot analysis also revealed a moderate signal for KLM-1 and a weak signal for MIA PaCa-2, although H 2 Mab-119 reacted strongly with LN229/HER2 cells. Finally, immunohistochemical analyses with H 2 Mab-119 revealed sensitive and specific reactions against breast and colon cancers but did not react with pancreatic cancers, indicating that H 2 Mab-119 is useful for detecting HER2 overexpression in pancreatic cancers using flow cytometry and Western blot analyses.

  6. Remote plasma sputtering of indium tin oxide thin films for large area flexible electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeadon, A.D.; Wakeham, S.J.; Brown, H.L.; Thwaites, M.J.; Whiting, M.J.; Baker, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    Indium tin oxide (ITO) thin films with a specific resistivity of 3.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and average visible light transmission (VLT) of 90% have been reactively sputtered onto A4 Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), glass and silicon substrates using a remote plasma sputtering system. This system offers independent control of the plasma density and the target power enabling the effect of the plasma on ITO properties to be studied. Characterization of ITO on glass and silicon has shown that increasing the plasma density gives rise to a decrease in the specific resistivity and an increase in the optical band gap of the ITO films. Samples deposited at plasma powers of 1.5 kW, 2.0 kW and 2.5 kW and optimized oxygen flow rates exhibited specific resistivity values of 3.8 × 10 −4 Ω cm, 3.7 × 10 −4 Ω cm and 3.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and optical gaps of 3.48 eV, 3.51 eV and 3.78 eV respectively. The increase in plasma density also influenced the crystalline texture and the VLT increased from 70 to 95%, indicating that more oxygen is being incorporated into the growing film. It has been shown that the remote plasma sputter technique can be used in an in-line process to produce uniform ITO coatings on PET with specific resistivities of between 3.5 × 10 −4 and 4.5 × 10 −4 Ω cm and optical transmission of greater than 85% over substrate widths of up to 30 cm.

  7. Ultraviolet out-of-band radiation studies in laser tin plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchamy, Homaira; Szilagyi, John; Masnavi, Majid; Richardson, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Out-of-band long wavelength emission measurements from high power, high-repetition-rate extreme-ultra-violet lithography (EUVL) laser plasma sources are imperative to estimating heat deposition in EUV mirrors, and the impact of short wavelength light transported through the imaging system to the wafer surface. This paper reports a series of experiments conducted to measure the absolute spectral irradiances of laser-plasmas produced from planar tin targets over the wavelength region of 124 to 164 nm by 1.06 μm wavelength, 10 ns full-width-at-half-maximum Gaussian laser pulses. The use of spherical targets is relevant to the EUVL source scenario. Although plasmas produced from planar surfaces evolve differently, there is a close similarity to the evolution of current from 10.6 μm CO2 laser EUVL sources, which use a pre-pulse from a lower energy solid-state laser to melt and reform an initial spherical droplet into a thin planar disc target. The maximum of radiation conversion efficiency in the 124-164 nm wavelength band (1%/2πsr) occurs at the laser intensity of 1010 W cm-2. A developed collisional-radiative model reveals the strong experimental spectra that originate mainly from the 4d105p2-4d105s5p, 4d105p-4d105s resonance lines, and 4d95p-4d95s unresolved transition arrays from Sn III, Sn IV, and Sn V ions, respectively. The calculated conversion efficiencies using a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics model are in agreement with the measurements. The model predicts the out-of-band (100-400 nm) radiation conversion efficiencies generated by both 1.06 and 10.6 μm pulses. The 10.6 μm laser pulse produces a higher conversion efficiency (12%/2πsr) at the lower laser intensity of 109 W cm-2.

  8. CERN: Fixed target targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1993-03-15

    Full text: While the immediate priority of CERN's research programme is to exploit to the full the world's largest accelerator, the LEP electron-positron collider and its concomitant LEP200 energy upgrade (January, page 1), CERN is also mindful of its long tradition of diversified research. Away from LEP and preparations for the LHC proton-proton collider to be built above LEP in the same 27-kilometre tunnel, CERN is also preparing for a new generation of heavy ion experiments using a new source, providing heavier ions (April 1992, page 8), with first physics expected next year. CERN's smallest accelerator, the LEAR Low Energy Antiproton Ring continues to cover a wide range of research topics, and saw a record number of hours of operation in 1992. The new ISOLDE on-line isotope separator was inaugurated last year (July, page 5) and physics is already underway. The remaining effort concentrates around fixed target experiments at the SPS synchrotron, which formed the main thrust of CERN's research during the late 1970s. With the SPS and LEAR now approaching middle age, their research future was extensively studied last year. Broadly, a vigorous SPS programme looks assured until at least the end of 1995. Decisions for the longer term future of the West Experimental Area of the SPS will have to take into account the heavy demand for test beams from work towards experiments at big colliders, both at CERN and elsewhere. The North Experimental Area is the scene of larger experiments with longer lead times. Several more years of LEAR exploitation are already in the pipeline, but for the longer term, the ambitious Superlear project for a superconducting ring (January 1992, page 7) did not catch on. Neutrino physics has a long tradition at CERN, and this continues with the preparations for two major projects, the Chorus and Nomad experiments (November 1991, page 7), to start next year in the West Area. Delicate neutrino oscillation effects could become visible for the first

  9. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Yousefi, Ramin; Niknia, Farhad; Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza; Sookhakian, Mehran

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn_2S_3, and hexagonal phase of SnS_2. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  10. Heavy metal content of tinned soup as a function of storage time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelte, W.

    1983-01-01

    Samples were taken from soups prior to their preservation in tins. None of the samples showed an increased content of the investigated heavy metals lead and mercury exceeding the amounts normally found in food. Thus it may be considered as certain that the heavy metal content of soups is not adversely affected by technical processes during their preparation. Increase in heavy metal content by metallic residues from tin manufacture is slight and mainly due to tin, whose content is on average increased in the soup by 0.4 mg/kg. For lead the influence is smaller and for mercury it is not significantly demonstrable. The metallic residues from tin manufacture are an irrelevant quantity in terms of nutrition physiology. Within the investigated 4-year storage-period the lead content shows a tendency to increase towards saturation. Cadmium remains essentially constant, the content of mercury has a downward tendency and reaches zero after 2 to 4 years. Consumers' exposure is in a range known for the consumption of other foodstuffs as well. The use of varnished tins to package industrial soups involves no exposure of consumers to heavy metals justifying any apprehension even after prolonged storage.

  11. Broad spectral response photodetector based on individual tin-doped CdS nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weichang Zhou

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available High purity and tin-doped 1D CdS micro/nano-structures were synthesized by a convenient thermal evaporation method. SEM, EDS, XRD and TEM were used to examine the morphology, composition, phase structure and crystallinity of as-prepared samples. Raman spectrum was used to confirm tin doped into CdS effectively. The effect of impurity on the photoresponse properties of photodetectors made from these as-prepared pure and tin-doped CdS micro/nano-structures under excitation of light with different wavelength was investigated. Various photoconductive parameters such as responsivity, external quantum efficiency, response time and stability were analyzed to evaluate the advantage of doped nanowires and the feasibility for photodetector application. Comparison with pure CdS nanobelt, the tin-doped CdS nanowires response to broader spectral range while keep the excellect photoconductive parameters. Both trapped state induced by tin impurity and optical whispering gallery mode microcavity effect in the doped CdS nanowires contribute to the broader spectral response. The micro-photoluminescence was used to confirm the whispering gallery mode effect and deep trapped state in the doped CdS nanowires.

  12. Release path temperatures of shock-compressed tin from dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Lone, B. M., E-mail: lalonebm@nv.doe.gov; Stevens, G. D.; Turley, W. D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Special Technologies Laboratory, Santa Barbara, California 93111 (United States); Holtkamp, D. B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Iverson, A. J. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Hixson, R. S.; Veeser, L. R. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); National Security Technologies, LLC, Los Alamos Operations, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States)

    2013-08-14

    Dynamic reflectance and radiance measurements were conducted for tin samples shock compressed to 35 GPa and released to 15 GPa using high explosives. We determined the reflectance of the tin samples glued to lithium fluoride windows using an integrating sphere with an internal xenon flashlamp as an illumination source. The dynamic reflectance (R) was determined at near normal incidence in four spectral bands with coverage in visible and near-infrared spectra. Uncertainties in R/R{sub 0} are <2%, and uncertainties in absolute reflectance are <5%. In complementary experiments, thermal radiance from the tin/glue/lithium fluoride interface was recorded with similar shock stress and spectral coverage as the reflectance measurements. The two sets of experiments were combined to obtain the temperature history of the tin surface with an uncertainty of <2%. The stress at the interface was determined from photonic Doppler velocimetry and combined with the temperatures to obtain temperature-stress release paths for tin. We discuss the relationship between the experimental release paths and release isentropes that begin on the principal shock Hugoniot.

  13. The effect of tin sulfide quantum dots size on photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghizade, Mohsen [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Jamali-Sheini, Farid, E-mail: faridjamali@iauahvaz.ac.ir [Advanced Surface Engineering and Nano Materials Research Center, Department of Physics, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Yousefi, Ramin [Department of Physics, Masjed-Soleiman Branch, Islamic Azad University (I.A.U), Masjed-Soleiman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niknia, Farhad [Young Researchers and Elite Club, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoudian, Mohammad Reza [Department of Chemistry, Shahid Sherafat, University of Farhangian, 15916, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sookhakian, Mehran [Centre for Ionic Liquids, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2017-07-01

    In the current study, tin sulfide Quantum Dots (QDs) was successfully synthesized through sonochemical synthesis method by applying sonication times of 10, 15, and 20 min. Structural studies showed an orthorhombic phase of SnS and Sn{sub 2}S{sub 3}, and hexagonal phase of SnS{sub 2}. The particle size of tin sulfide QDs prepared through sonication time of 20 min was smaller than other QDs. According to TEM images, an increase in sonication time resulted in smaller spherical shaped particles. According to the results of Raman studies, five Raman bands and a shift towards the lower frequencies were observed by enhancing the sonication time. Based on the outcomes of photocatalytic activity, higher this property was observed for tin sulfide QDs, which are prepared through longer sonication time. Solar cell devices manufactured using tin sulfide QDs have a greater performance for the samples with more sonication time. Considering the obtained outcomes, the sonication time seems probable to be a factor affecting synthesis process of SnS QDs as well as its optical and electrical, photocatalytic, and photovoltaic conversion features. - Highlights: • Tin sulfide quantum dots (QDs) synthesized using a sonication method. • The sonication time was selected as a synthesis parameter. • The photocatalytic and photovoltaic performance were depended on synthesis parameter.

  14. Combined TiN- and TaN temperature compensated thin film resistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malmros, Anna; Andersson, Kristoffer; Rorsman, Niklas

    2012-01-01

    The opposite signs of the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) of two thin film materials, titanium nitride (TiN) and tantalum nitride (TaN), were used to form temperature compensated thin film resistors (TFRs). The principle of designing temperature compensated TFRs by connecting TFRs of each compound in series or in parallel was demonstrated. TiN, TaN, and combined TiN and TaN TFRs for monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) were fabricated by reactive sputtering. DC characterization was performed over the temperature range of 30–200 °C. The TiN TFRs exhibited an increase in resistivity with temperature with TCRs of 540 and 750 ppm/°C. The TaN TFR on the other hand exhibited a negative TCR of − 470 ppm/°C. The shunted TFRs were fabricated by serial deposition of TiN and TaN to form a bilayer component. The TCRs of the series- and shunt configurations were experimentally reduced to − 60 and 100 ppm/°C, respectively. The concept of temperature compensation was used to build a Wheatstone bridge with an application in on-chip temperature sensing.

  15. Thermally evaporated mechanically hard tin oxide thin films for opto-electronic apllications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathy, Sumanta K.; Rajeswari, V. P.

    2014-01-01

    Tungsten doped tin oxide (WTO) and Molybdenum doped tin oxide (MoTO) thin film were deposited on corn glass by thermal evaporation method. The films were annealed at 350°C for one hour. Structural analysis using Xray diffraction data shows both the films are polycrystalline in nature with monoclinic structure of tin oxide, Sn 3 O 4 , corresponding to JCPDS card number 01-078-6064. SEM photograph showed that both the films have spherical grains with size in the range of 20–30 nm. Compositional analysis was carried out using EDS which reveals the presence of Sn, O and the dopant Mo/W only thereby indicating the absence of any secondary phase in the films. The films are found to contain nearly 6 wt% of Mo, 8 wt% of W as dopants respectively. The transmission pattern for both the films in the spectral range 200 – 2000 nm shows that W doping gives a transparency of nearly 80% from 380 nm onwards while Mo doping has less transparency of 39% at 380nm. Film hardness measurement using Triboscope shows a film hardness of about 9–10 GPa for both the films. It indicates that W or M doping in tin oxide provides the films the added advantage of withstanding the mechanical wear and tear due to environmental fluctuations By optimizing the optical and electrical properties, W/Mo doped tin oxide films may be explored as window layers in opto-electronic applications such as solar cells

  16. First-principles analysis of structural and opto-electronic properties of indium tin oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Madhvendra Nath; Shida, Kazuhito; Sahara, Ryoji; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) and DFT + U (DFT with on-site Coulomb repulsion corrections) calculations have been carried out to study the structural and opto-electronic properties of indium tin oxide (ITO) for both the oxidized and reduced environment conditions. Some of the results obtained by DFT calculations differ from the experimental observations, such as uncertain indication for the site preference of tin atom to replace indium atom at b-site or d-site, underestimation of local inward relaxation in the first oxygen polyhedra around tin atom, and also the improper estimation of electronic density of states and hence resulting in an inappropriate optical spectra of ITO. These discrepancies of theoretical outcomes with experimental observations in ITO arise mainly due to the underestimation of the cationic 4d levels within standard DFT calculations. Henceforth, the inclusion of on-site corrections within DFT + U framework significantly modifies the theoretical results in better agreement to the experimental observations. Within this framework, our calculations show that the indium b-site is preferential site over d-site for tin atom substitution in indium oxide under both the oxidized and reduced conditions. Moreover, the calculated average inward relaxation value of 0.16 Å around tin atom is in good agreement with the experimental value of 0.18 Å. Furthermore, DFT + U significantly modify the electronic structure and consequently induce modifications in the calculated optical spectra of ITO.

  17. Tensile strained gray tin: Dirac semimetal for observing negative magnetoresistance with Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Liu, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The extremely stringent requirement on material quality has hindered the investigation and potential applications of exotic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals. Here, we propose that gray tin is a perfect candidate for observing the chiral anomaly effect and Shubnikov-de-Haas (SdH) oscillation at relatively low magnetic field. Based on effective k .p analysis and first-principles calculations, we discover that gray tin becomes a Dirac semimetal under tensile uniaxial strain, in contrast to a topological insulator under compressive uniaxial strain as known before. In this newly found Dirac semimetal state, two Dirac points which are tunable by tensile [001] strains lie in the kz axis and Fermi arcs appear in the (010) surface. Due to the low carrier concentration and high mobility of gray tin, a large chiral anomaly induced negative magnetoresistance and a strong SdH oscillation are anticipated in this half of the strain spectrum. Comparing to other Dirac semimetals, the proposed Dirac semimetal state in the nontoxic elemental gray tin can be more easily manipulated and accurately controlled. We envision that gray tin provides a perfect platform for strain engineering of chiral magnetic effects by sweeping through the strain spectrum from positive to negative and vice versa.

  18. Magnetism of DyMn2 and HoMn2 - 57Fe and 119Sn Moessbauer studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krop, K.; Haeufler, T.; Hilscher, G.; Steiner, W.

    1995-01-01

    Moessbauer spectra were measured for two Laves phase compounds DyMn 2 and HoMn 2 in which manganese was substituted to 0.5% with 57 Fe and to 0.2% with 119 Sn. At 4.2 K the 57 Fe and 119 Sn spectra of the Dy compound were unambiguously fitted each with two Zeeman patterns (with relative contributions to the spectra 3:1) corresponding to two different Mn sites - magnetic and nonmagnetic. Transferred hyperfine fields at 119 Sn were found to be proportional to the magnetic moment of Dy and its ferromagnetic component, corroborating the magnetic structure found in neutron diffraction (ND) experiment. The same procedure was carried on with the spectra measured for the Ho compound, but the above mentioned proportionality was not found. ((orig.))

  19. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine–serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. PMID:25865270

  20. Contemporary evolution of resistance at the major insecticide target site gene Ace-1 by mutation and copy number variation in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weetman, David; Mitchell, Sara N; Wilding, Craig S; Birks, Daniel P; Yawson, Alexander E; Essandoh, John; Mawejje, Henry D; Djogbenou, Luc S; Steen, Keith; Rippon, Emily J; Clarkson, Christopher S; Field, Stuart G; Rigden, Daniel J; Donnelly, Martin J

    2015-06-01

    Functionally constrained genes are ideal insecticide targets because disruption is often fatal, and resistance mutations are typically costly. Synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is an essential neurotransmission enzyme targeted by insecticides used increasingly in malaria control. In Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes, a glycine-serine substitution at codon 119 of the Ace-1 gene confers both resistance and fitness costs, especially for 119S/S homozygotes. G119S in Anopheles gambiae from Accra (Ghana) is strongly associated with resistance, and, despite expectations of cost, resistant 119S alleles are increasing significantly in frequency. Sequencing of Accra females detected only a single Ace-1 119S haplotype, whereas 119G diversity was high overall but very low at non-synonymous sites, evidence of strong purifying selection driven by functional constraint. Flanking microsatellites showed reduced diversity, elevated linkage disequilibrium and high differentiation of 119S, relative to 119G homozygotes across up to two megabases of the genome. Yet these signals of selection were inconsistent and sometimes weak tens of kilobases from Ace-1. This unexpected finding is attributable to apparently ubiquitous amplification of 119S alleles as part of a large copy number variant (CNV) far exceeding the size of the Ace-1 gene, whereas 119G alleles were unduplicated. Ace-1 CNV was detectable in archived samples collected when the 119S allele was rare in Ghana. Multicopy amplification of resistant alleles has not been observed previously and is likely to underpin the recent increase in 119S frequency. The large CNV compromised localization of the strong selective sweep around Ace-1, emphasizing the need to integrate CNV analysis into genome scans for selection. © 2015 The Authors. Molecular Ecology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.