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Sample records for timing explorer rxte

  1. Timing Studies and QPO Detection for Transient Xray Pulsar 4u 0115+634 by RXTE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram Dugair, Moti; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.

    We present results of timing analysis of data of the transient X-ray pulsar 4U 0115+634 (Neu-tron star with fast spin entry) taken by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) space satellite. We first time observed the occurrence of 3 QPOs of 3 m Hz, 8 m Hz and 60 m Hz of the X-ray outburst of 2008. In particular the frequencies of the QPO's may be attributed to those of oscillations of disturbance occuring in the inner region of the accreted disk of the neutron star during the truncation of viscous circum stellar disc around the Be-star. The role of the interaction between the neutron star and the circumstellar is very important. Appearance of three QPOs in X-ray Binary system is a new phenomenon and difficult to understand.

  2. RXTE observations of the Vela Pulsar: The pulsar rosetta stone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strickman, M.S.; Harding, A.K.; Gwinn, C.; McCulloch, P.; Moffett, D.

    2001-01-01

    We report on our analysis of a 274 ks observation of the Vela Pulsar with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The double-peaked, pulsed emission at 2-30 keV, which we had previously detected during a 93 ks observation, is confirmed with much improved statistics. There is now clear evidence, both in the spectrum and the light curve, that the emission in the RXTE band is a blend of two separate components. The spectrum of the harder component connects smoothly with the OSSE, COMPTEL and EGRET spectra and the peaks in the light curve are in phase coincidence with those of the high-energy light curve. The spectrum of the softer component is consistent with an extrapolation to the pulsed optical flux and the soft component of the second RXTE peak is in phase coincidence with the second optical peak. In addition, we see a peak in the 2-8 keV RXTE light curve at the radio peak phase

  3. TIME SERIES MODELS OF THREE SETS OF RXTE OBSERVATIONS OF 4U 1543–47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koen, C.

    2013-01-01

    The X-ray nova 4U 1543–47 was in a different physical state (low/hard, high/soft, and very high) during the acquisition of each of the three time series analyzed in this paper. Standard time series models of the autoregressive moving average (ARMA) family are fitted to these series. The low/hard data can be adequately modeled by a simple low-order model with fixed coefficients, once the slowly varying mean count rate has been accounted for. The high/soft series requires a higher order model, or an ARMA model with variable coefficients. The very high state is characterized by a succession of 'dips', with roughly equal depths. These seem to appear independently of one another. The underlying stochastic series can again be modeled by an ARMA form, or roughly as the sum of an ARMA series and white noise. The structuring of each model in terms of short-lived aperiodic and 'quasi-periodic' components is discussed.

  4. RXTE detects X-ray bursts from Circinus X-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linares, M.; Soleri, P.; Watts, A.; Altamirano, D.; Armas-Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; van der Klis, M.; Patruno, A.; Wijnands, R.; Yang, Y.; Casella, P.; Rea, N.

    After the recent report of X-ray re-brightening (ATel #2608), RXTE has observed the peculiar neutron star X-ray binary Cir X-1 eleven times during the last two weeks (May 11-25, 2010). We report the detection of nine X-ray bursts in RXTE-PCA data, 25 years after the first -and the only previous-

  5. Chandra and RXTE studies of the X-ray/gamma-ray millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Stappers, B.W.

    2004-01-01

    We report on high-resolution spatial and timing observations of the millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232 performed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). With these observations we were able to study: (a) the possible spatial extent at X-ray energies of the

  6. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Observation of PSR B0656+14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, H.; Ho, C.

    1999-01-01

    PSR B0656+14 was observed by the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) with the proportional counter array (PCA) and the high-energy X-ray timing experiment (HEXTE) for 160 ks during 1997 August 22 - September 3. No pulsation was firmly found in the timing analysis, during which the contemporaneous radio ephemeris and various statistical tests were applied in searching for evidence of pulsation. A marginal detection of pulsation at a confidence level of 95.5% based on the H test was found with data in the whole HEXTE energy band. In the energy band of 2-10 keV the RXTE PCA upper limits are about 1 order of magnitude lower than that from ASCA GIS data. If the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory EGRET detection of this pulsar is real, considering the common trait that most EGRET-detected pulsars have a cooling spectrum in hard X-ray and gamma-ray energy bands, the estimated RXTE upper limits indicate a deviation (low-energy turnover) from a cooling spectrum starting from 20 keV or higher. This in turn suggests an outer magnetospheric synchrotron radiation origin for high-energy emissions from PSR B0656+14. The RXTE PCA upper limits also suggest that a reported power-law component based on ASCA SIS data in 1-10 keV fitted jointly with ROSAT data, if real, should be mainly unpulsed. copyright copyright 1999. The American Astronomical Society

  7. AN EMPIRICAL METHOD FOR IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF RXTE HEXTE SPECTRA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, Javier A.; Steiner, James F.; McClintock, Jeffrey E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Grinberg, Victoria [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, 70 Vassar Street, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pottschmidt, Katja [Department of Physics and Center for Space Science and Technology, UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21250 (United States); Rothschild, Richard E., E-mail: javier@head.cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jem@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: jsteiner@mit.edu, E-mail: grinberg@space.mit.edu, E-mail: katja@milkyway.gsfc.nasa.gov, E-mail: rrothschild@ucsd.edu [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a correction tool to improve the quality of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment (HEXTE) spectra by employing the same method we used earlier to improve the quality of RXTE Proportional Counter Array (PCA) spectra. We fit all of the hundreds of HEXTE spectra of the Crab individually to a simple power-law model, some 37 million counts in total for Cluster A and 39 million counts for Cluster B, and we create for each cluster a combined spectrum of residuals. We find that the residual spectrum of Cluster A is free of instrumental artifacts while that of Cluster B contains significant features with amplitudes ∼1%; the most prominent is in the energy range 30–50 keV, which coincides with the iodine K edge. Starting with the residual spectrum for Cluster B, via an iterative procedure we created the calibration tool hexBcorr for correcting any Cluster B spectrum of interest. We demonstrate the efficacy of the tool by applying it to Cluster B spectra of two bright black holes, which contain several million counts apiece. For these spectra, application of the tool significantly improves the goodness of fit, while affecting only slightly the broadband fit parameters. The tool may be important for the study of spectral features, such as cyclotron lines, a topic that is beyond the scope of this paper.

  8. The Discovery of an Outburst and Pulsed X-ray Flux from SMC X-2 from RXTE Observations

    CERN Document Server

    Corbet, R H D; Coe, M J; Laycock, S; Handler, G

    2001-01-01

    Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All Sky Monitor observations of SMC X-2 show that the source experienced an outburst in January to April 2000 reaching a peak luminosity of greater than ~10^38 ergs s^-1. RXTE Proportional Counter Array observations during this outburst reveal the presence of pulsations with a 2.37s period. However, optical photometry of the optical counterpart showed the source to be still significantly fainter than it was more than half a year after the outburst in the 1970s when SMC X-2 was discovered.

  9. Improvements to the RXTE/PCA Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, K.

    2009-01-01

    The author presents the current status of the RXTE/PCA Calibration, with emphasis on recent updates to the energy scale and the background subtraction. A new treatment of the Xenon K-escape line removes the largest remaining residual in the previously distributed matrices. Observations of Sco X-1 made simultaneously with Swift XRT, expressly for the purpose of cross calibrating the response to bright sources, are presented.

  10. Comprehensive spectral analysis of Cyg X-1 using RXTE data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, Rizwan; Jaaffrey, S. N. A.; Misra, Ranjeev

    2012-01-01

    We analyze a large number (> 500) of pointed Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of Cyg X-1 and model the spectrum of each one. A subset of the observations for which there is a simultaneous reliable measure of the hardness ratio by the All Sky Monitor shows that the sample covers nearly all the spectral shapes of Cyg X-1. Each observation is fitted with a generic empirical model consisting of a disk black body spectrum, a Comptonized component whose input photon shape is the same as the disk emission, a Gaussian to represent the iron line and a reflection feature. The relative strength, width of the iron line and the reflection parameter are in general correlated with the high energy photon spectral index Γ. This is broadly consistent with a geometry where for the hard state (low Γ ∼ 1.7) there is a hot inner Comptonizing region surrounded by a truncated cold disk. The inner edge of the disk moves inwards as the source becomes softer till finally in the soft state (high Γ > 2.2) the disk fills the inner region and active regions above the disk produce the Comptonized component. However, the reflection parameter shows non-monotonic behavior near the transition region (Γ ∼ 2), which suggests a more complex geometry or physical state of the reflector. In addition, the inner disk temperature, during the hard state, is on average higher than in the soft one, albeit with large scatter. These inconsistencies could be due to limitations in the data and the empirical model used to fit them. The flux of each spectral component is well correlated with Γ, which shows that unlike some other black hole systems, Cyg X-1 does not show any hysteresis behavior. In the soft state, the flux of the Comptonized component is always similar to the disk one, which confirms that the ultra-soft state (seen in other brighter black hole systems) is not exhibited by Cyg X-1. The rapid variation of the Compton amplification factor with Γ naturally explains the absence of

  11. Discovery and Monitoring of a New Black Hole Candidate XTE J1752-223 with RXTE: RMS Spectrum Evolution, BH Mass and the Source Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaposhinikov, Nikolai; Markwardt, Craig; Swank, Jean; Krimm, Hans

    2010-01-01

    We report on the discovery and monitoring observations of a new galactic black hole candidate XTE J1752-223 by Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). The new source appeared on the X-ray sky on October 21 2009 and was active for almost 8 months. Phenomenologically, the source exhibited the low-hard/highsoft spectral state bi-modality and the variability evolution during the state transition that matches standard behavior expected from a stellar mass black hole binary. We model the energy spectrum throughout the outburst using a generic Comptonization model assuming that part of the input soft radiation in the form of a black body spectrum gets reprocessed in the Comptonizing medium. We follow the evolution of fractional root-mean-square (RMS) variability in the RXTE/PCA energy band with the source spectral state and conclude that broad band variability is strongly correlated with the source hardness (or Comptonized fraction). We follow changes in the energy distribution of rms variability during the low-hard state and the state transition and find further evidence that variable emission is strongly concentrated in the power-law spectral component. We discuss the implication of our results to the Comptonization regimes during different spectral states. Correlations of spectral and variability properties provide measurements of the BH mass and distance to the source. The spectral-timing correlation scaling technique applied to the RXTE observations during the hardto- soft state transition indicates a mass of the BH in XTE J1752-223 between 8 and 11 solar masses and a distance to the source about 3.5 kiloparsec.

  12. Scientific Challenges for a New X-ray Timing Mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, Frederick K.

    2004-01-01

    The Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) is an immensely successful mission of exploration and discovery. It has discovered a wealth of rapid X-ray variability phenomena that can be used to address fundamental questions concerning the properties of dense matter and strong gravitational fields as well as important astrophysical questions. It has answered many questions and is likely to answer many more, but to follow up fully on the major discoveries RXTE has made will require a new X-ray timing mission with greater capabilities. This introduction to the present volume describes briefly the advantages of X-ray timing measurements for determining the properties of dense matter and strong gravitational fields, indicates some of the key scientific questions that can be addressed using X-ray timing, and summarizes selected achievements of the RXTE mission. It concludes by citing some of the scientific capabilities a proposed follow-on mission will need in order to be successful

  13. Spectral states evolution of 4U 1728-34 observed by INTEGRAL and RXTE: non-thermal component detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Mendez, M.; Ubertini, P.

    We report results of a one-year monitoring of the low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) source (atoll type) 4U 1728-34 with INTEGRAL and RXTE. Three time intervals were covered by INTEGRAL, during which the source showed strong spectral evolution. We studied the broad-band X-ray spectra in detail by fitting

  14. Swift/BAT and RXTE Observations of the Peculiar X-ray Binary 4U 2206+54 - Disappearance of the 9.6 Day Modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Markwardt, C.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of the high-mass X-ray binary 4U 2206+54 with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) do not show modulation at the previously reported period of 9.6 days found from observations made with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Instead, the strongest peak in the power spectrum of the BAT light curve occurs at a period of 19.25+/-0.08 days, twice the period found with the RXTE ASM. The maximum of the folded BAT light curve is also delayed compared to the maximum of the folded ASM light curve. The most recent ASM data folded on twice the 9.6 day period show 'similar morphology to the folded BAT light curve. This suggests that the apparent period doubling is a recent secular change rather than an energy-dependent effect. The 9.6 day period is thus not a permanent strong feature of the light curve. We suggest that the orbital period of 4U 2206+54 may be twice the previously proposed value.

  15. Batse/Sax and Batse/RXTE-ASM Joint Spectral Studies of GRBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paciesas, William S.

    2002-01-01

    We proposed to make joint spectral analysis of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) in the BATSE data base that are located within the fields of view of either the BeppoSAX wide field cameras (WFCs) or the RXTE all-sky monitor (ASM). The very broad-band coverage obtained in this way would facilitate various studies of GRB spectra that are difficult to perform with BATSE data alone. Unfortunately, the termination of the CGRO mission in June 2000 was not anticipated at the time of the proposal, and the sample of common events turned out to be smaller than we would have liked.

  16. Monitoring PSR B1509–58 with RXTE: Spectral analysis 1996–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Litzinger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an analysis of the X-ray spectra of the young, Crab-like pulsar PSR B1509–58 (pulse period P ~ 151ms observed by RXTE over 14 years since the beginning of the mission in 1996. The uniform dataset is especially well suited for studying the stability of the spectral parameters over time as well as for determining pulse phase resolved spectral parameters with high significance. The phase averaged spectra as well as the resolved spectra can be well described by an absorbed power law.

  17. Structure of the Circumnuclear Region of Seyfert 2 Galaxies Revealed by RXTE Hard X-Ray Observations of NGC 4945

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madejski, G.; Zycki, P.; Done, C.; Valinia, A.; Blanco, P.; Rothschild, R.; Turek, B.

    2000-01-01

    NGC 4945 is one of the brightest Se.yfert galaxies on the sky at 100 keV, but is completely absorbed below 10 keV, implying an optical depth of the absorber to electron scattering of a few; its absorption column is probably the largest which still allows a direct view of the nucleus at hard X-ray energies. Our observations of it with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) satellite confirm the large absorption, which for a simple phenomenological fit using an absorber with Solar abundances implies a column of 4.5(sup 0.4, sub -0.4) x 10(exp 24) /sq cm. Using a a more realistic scenario (requiring Monte Carlo modeling of the scattering), we infer the optical depth to Thomson scattering of approximately 2.4. If such a scattering medium were to subtend a large solid angle from the nucleus, it should smear out any intrinsic hard X-ray variability on time scales shorter than the light travel time through it. The rapid (with a time scale of approximately a day) hard X-ray variability of NGC 4945 we observed with the RXTE implies that the bulk of the extreme absorption in this object does not originate in a parsec-size, geometrically thick molecular torus. Limits on the amount of scattered flux require that the optically thick material on parsec scales must be rather geometrically thin, subtending a half-angle < 10 deg. This is only marginally consistent with the recent determinations of the obscuring column in hard X-rays, where only a quarter of Seyfert 2s have columns which are optically thick, and presents a problem in accounting for the Cosmic X-ray Background primarily with AGN possessing the geometry as that inferred by us. The small solid angle of the obscuring material, together with the black hole mass (of approximately 1.4 x 10(exp 6) solar mass) from megamaser measurements. allows a robust determination of the source luminosity, which in turn implies that the source radiates at approximately 10% of the Eddington limit.

  18. Exploitation and exploration dynamics in recessionary times

    OpenAIRE

    Walrave, B.

    2012-01-01

    Firm performance largely depends on the ability to adapt to, and exploit, changes in the business environment. That is, firms should maintain ecological fitness by reconfiguring their resource base to cope with emerging threats and explore new opportunities, while at the same time exploiting existing resources. As such, firms possessing the ability to simultaneously perform exploitative and explorative initiatives are more resilient. In this respect, the performance implications of balancing ...

  19. Estimating Attitude, Trajectory, and Gyro Biases in an Extended Kalman Filter using Earth Magnetic Field Data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack

    1997-01-01

    Traditionally satellite attitude and trajectory have been estimated with completely separate systems, using different measurement data. The estimation of both trajectory and attitude for low earth orbit satellites has been successfully demonstrated in ground software using magnetometer and gyroscope data. Since the earth's magnetic field is a function of time and position, and since time is known quite precisely, the differences between the computed and measured magnetic field components, as measured by the magnetometers throughout the entire spacecraft orbit, are a function of both the spacecraft trajectory and attitude errors. Therefore, these errors can be used to estimate both trajectory and attitude. This work further tests the single augmented Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) which simultaneously and autonomously estimates spacecraft trajectory and attitude with data from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) magnetometer and gyro-measured body rates. In addition, gyro biases are added to the state and the filter's ability to estimate them is presented.

  20. Exploitation and exploration dynamics in recessionary times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walrave, B.

    2012-01-01

    Firm performance largely depends on the ability to adapt to, and exploit, changes in the business environment. That is, firms should maintain ecological fitness by reconfiguring their resource base to cope with emerging threats and explore new opportunities, while at the same time exploiting

  1. RXTE Observation of 4U 1630-47 During its 1998 Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieters, Stefan W.

    1999-01-01

    During the 1998 outburst of 4U 1630-47 it was extensively observed with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). In order to cover the outburst more thoroughly our data (Obs. ID: 30178-0[1-2]- ) were combined with those of Cui et al. (Obs. ID: 30188-02-). These observations were later compared with the complementary observations. Power density and energy spectra have been made for each observation. The data was used to place radio and hard X-ray observations within context. Analysis of SAX (Satellite per Astronomia a raggi X) and BATSE (Burst and Transient Source Experiment) data was also included within the study. The count rate and position in hardness-intensity, color-color diagrams and simple spectral fits are used to track the concurrent spectral changes. The source showed seven distinct types of timing behavior, most of which show differences with the canonical black hole spectral/timing states. In marked contrast to previous outbursts, we find quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) signals during nearly all stages of the outburst with frequencies between 0.06 Hz and 14 Hz and a remarkable variety of other characteristics. In particular we find large (up to 23% rms) amplitude QPO on the early rise. Later, slow 0.1 Hz semi- regular short (- 5 sec), 9 to 16% deep dips dominate the light curve. At this time there are two QPOS, one stable near 13.5 Hz and the other whose frequency drops from 6-8 Hz to - 4.5 Hz during the dips. BeppoSAX observations during the very late declining phase show 4U 1630-47 in a low state. These results will shortly be published. We are completing a detailed analysis of the energy spectra (in preparation). The QPO/noise properties are being correlated with the concurrent spectral changes. Detailed studies of the QPO are being undertaken using sophisticated timing analysis methods. Finally a comparison with the other outbursts of 1630-47 is being made.

  2. Exploring Earthquakes in Real-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, T. K.; Kafka, A. L.; Coleman, B.; Taber, J. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes capture the attention of students and inspire them to explore the Earth. Adding the ability to view and explore recordings of significant and newsworthy earthquakes in real-time makes the subject even more compelling. To address this opportunity, the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS), in collaboration with Moravian College, developed ';jAmaSeis', a cross-platform application that enables students to access real-time earthquake waveform data. Students can watch as the seismic waves are recorded on their computer, and can be among the first to analyze the data from an earthquake. jAmaSeis facilitates student centered investigations of seismological concepts using either a low-cost educational seismograph or streamed data from other educational seismographs or from any seismic station that sends data to the IRIS Data Management System. After an earthquake, students can analyze the seismograms to determine characteristics of earthquakes such as time of occurrence, distance from the epicenter to the station, magnitude, and location. The software has been designed to provide graphical clues to guide students in the analysis and assist in their interpretations. Since jAmaSeis can simultaneously record up to three stations from anywhere on the planet, there are numerous opportunities for student driven investigations. For example, students can explore differences in the seismograms from different distances from an earthquake and compare waveforms from different azimuthal directions. Students can simultaneously monitor seismicity at a tectonic plate boundary and in the middle of the plate regardless of their school location. This can help students discover for themselves the ideas underlying seismic wave propagation, regional earthquake hazards, magnitude-frequency relationships, and the details of plate tectonics. The real-time nature of the data keeps the investigations dynamic, and offers students countless opportunities to explore.

  3. Long periodicity of Blazar with RXTE ASM, TA and HEGRA

    OpenAIRE

    Osone, S.; Teshima, M.

    2002-01-01

    Long periodicity for Mkn501 during a large flare in 1997 have been reported by TA, HEGRA group. Here, we establish this periodicity with archival data of RXTE All Sky Monitor(ASM), Telescope Array(TA) and HEGRA with a chance probability less than $10^{-5}$. We also find that an origin of 23 day periodicity is related with a change of either a gamma factor of electrons $\\gamma$ or the magnetic field or a beaming factor. And, in order to search for a category which have a long periodicity, we m...

  4. An RXTE observation of the intermediate polar XY Arietis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellier, Coel

    1999-01-01

    RXTE's observation of XY Ari covered more eclipses of this close binary at a higher count rate than ever before. The eclipses located the accretion regions on the white dwarf and showed that they covered < 0.002 of the white dwarf surface. Additionally we recorded the first outburst of XY Ari seen, allowing us to watch as an unstable accretion disk overwhelmed the magnetic field of the white dwarf and pushed inwards, cutting off our line-of-sight to the lower accretion pole. We also find limits on the mass of the white dwarf

  5. A Comparison of the Variability of the Symbiotic X-ray Binaries GX 1+4, 4U 1954+31, and 4U 1700+24 from Swift/BAT and RXTE/ASM Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbet, R. H. D.; Sokoloski, J. L.; Mukai, K.; Markwardt, C. B.; Tueller, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present an analysis of the X-ray variability of three symbiotic X-ray binaries, GX 1+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31, using observations made with the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) All-Sky Monitor (ASM). Observations of 4U 1954+31 with the Swift BAT show modulation at a period near 5 hours. Models to explain this modulation are discussed including the presence of an exceptionally slow X-ray pulsar in the system and accretion instabilities. We conclude that the most likely interpretation is that 4U 1954+31 contains one of the slowest known X-ray pulsars. Unlike 4U 1954+31, neither GX 1+4 nor 4U 1700+24 show any evidence for modulation on a timescale of hours. An analysis of the RXTE ASM light curves of GX l+4, 4U 1700+24, and 4U 1954+31 does not show the presence of periodic modulation in any source, although there is considerable variability on long timescales for all three sources. There is no modulation in GX 1+4 on either the optical 1161 day orbital period or a previously reported 304 day X-ray period. For 4U 1700+24 we do not confirm the 404 day period previously proposed for this source from a shorter duration ASM light curve.

  6. GRS 1758–258: RXTE Monitoring of a Rare Persistent Hard State Black Hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Obst

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available GRS 1758–258 is the least studied of the three persistent black hole X-ray binaries in our Galaxy. It is also one of only two known black hole candidates, including all black hole transients, which shows a decrease of its 3-10 keV flux when entering the thermally dominated soft state, rather than an increase.We present the spectral evolution of GRS 1758–258 from RXTE-PCA observations spanning a time of about 11 years from 1996 to 2007. During this time, seven dim soft states are detected. We also consider INTEGRAL monitoring observations of the source and compare the long-term behavior to that of the bright persistent black hole X-ray binary Cygnus X-1. We discuss the observed state transitions in the light of physical scenarios for black hole transitions.

  7. Analysis of RXTE data on Clusters of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrosian, Vahe

    2004-01-01

    This grant provided support for the reduction, analysis and interpretation of of hard X-ray (HXR, for short) observations of the cluster of galaxies RXJO658--5557 scheduled for the week of August 23, 2002 under the RXTE Cycle 7 program (PI Vahe Petrosian, Obs. ID 70165). The goal of the observation was to search for and characterize the shape of the HXR component beyond the well established thermal soft X-ray (SXR) component. Such hard components have been detected in several nearby clusters. distant cluster would provide information on the characteristics of this radiation at a different epoch in the evolution of the imiverse and shed light on its origin. We (Petrosian, 2001) have argued that thermal bremsstrahlung, as proposed earlier, cannot be the mechanism for the production of the HXRs and that the most likely mechanism is Compton upscattering of the cosmic microwave radiation by relativistic electrons which are known to be present in the clusters and be responsible for the observed radio emission. Based on this picture we estimated that this cluster, in spite of its relatively large distance, will have HXR signal comparable to the other nearby ones. The planned observation of a relatively The proposed RXTE observations were carried out and the data have been analyzed. We detect a hard X-ray tail in the spectrum of this cluster with a flux very nearly equal to our predicted value. This has strengthen the case for the Compton scattering model. We intend the data obtained via this observation to be a part of a larger data set. We have identified other clusters of galaxies (in archival RXTE and other instrument data sets) with sufficiently high quality data where we can search for and measure (or at least put meaningful limits) on the strength of the hard component. With these studies we expect to clarify the mechanism for acceleration of particles in the intercluster medium and provide guidance for future observations of this intriguing phenomenon by instrument

  8. Exploring trust relationships during times of change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmut Von der Ohe

    2010-10-01

    Research purpose: The objective of this study was to explore the impact of different variables such as demographics on trust relationships in South African organisations. Motivation for the study: Anecdotal evidence and preliminary data collected for a national trust indicator seemed to suggest a shift in trust levels in organisations. Research design: A trust questionnaire was administered to a convenience sample of 307 respondents in all economic sectors. Parametric and nonparametric analyses were used to determine significant differences among economic sectors, job levels and sample periods. Main findings: No significant differences were found for job levels or the different sample periods. However, significant differences were found for the economic sectors and, specifically, between government participants and other sectors for the dimensions of change, team management, organisational trust, information sharing and credibility. Practical implications: In times of change, leadership in organisations need to be aware of the impact on trust levels. It is therefore important that leaders in government focus more on trust-enhancing behaviours needed to repair mistrust in organisations. Contribution: Although the effect of time on trust levels is inconclusive, the clearly differing levels of trust in various economic sectors point to the importance of appropriate and fitting approaches to building trust and not a ‘one-size-fits-all’ attitude.

  9. Correlating non-linear properties with spectral states of RXTE data: possible observational evidences for four different accretion modes around compact objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, Oluwashina; Dhang, Prasun; Mukhopadhyay, Banibrata; Ramadevi, M. C.; Bhattacharya, Debbijoy

    2018-05-01

    By analysing the time series of RXTE/PCA data, the non-linear variabilities of compact sources have been repeatedly established. Depending on the variation in temporal classes, compact sources exhibit different non-linear features. Sometimes they show low correlation/fractal dimension, but in other classes or intervals of time they exhibit stochastic nature. This could be because the accretion flow around a compact object is a non-linear general relativistic system involving magnetohydrodynamics. However, the more conventional way of addressing a compact source is the analysis of its spectral state. Therefore, the question arises: What is the connection of non-linearity to the underlying spectral properties of the flow when the non-linear properties are related to the associated transport mechanisms describing the geometry of the flow? This work is aimed at addressing this question. Based on the connection between observed spectral and non-linear (time series) properties of two X-ray binaries: GRS 1915+105 and Sco X-1, we attempt to diagnose the underlying accretion modes of the sources in terms of known accretion classes, namely, Keplerian disc, slim disc, advection dominated accretion flow and general advective accretion flow. We explore the possible transition of the sources from one accretion mode to others with time. We further argue that the accretion rate must play an important role in transition between these modes.

  10. Monitoring the Black Hole Binary GRS 1758-258 with INTEGRAL and RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottschmidt, Katja; Chernyakova, Masha; Lubinski, Piotr; Migliari, Simone; Smith, David M.; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.; Tomsick, John A.; Bezayiff, N.; Kreykenbohm, Ingo; Kretschmar, Peter; hide

    2008-01-01

    The microquasar GRS 1758-258 is one of only three persistent black hole binaries that spend most of their time in the hard spectral state, the other two being Cyg X-l and 1E 1741.7-2942. It therefore provides the rare opportunity for an extensive long term study of this important black hole state which is associated with strong variability and radio jet emission. INTEGRAL has been monitoring the source since the first Galactic Center Deep Exposure season in spring 2003 during two 2-3 months long Galactic Center viewing epochs each year, amounting to 11 epochs including spring of 2008. With the exception of the last epoch quasi-simultaneous RXTE monitoring observations are available as well. Here we present an analysis of the epoch averaged broad band spectra which display considerable long term variability, most notably the occurrence of two soft/off states, extreme examples for the hysteretic behavior of black hole binaries. The hard source spectrum and long exposures allow us to extend the analysis for several epochs to approximately 800 keV using PICsIT data and address the question of the presence of a non-thermal Comptonization component.

  11. RXTE PCA and Swift BAT detects the millisecond pulsar Swift J1756.9-2508 in outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patruno, A.; Markwardt, C.B.; Strohmayer, T.E.; Swank, J.H.; Smith, S.E.; Pereira, D.

    2009-01-01

    We report a detection of increased activity of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar Swift J1756.9-2508 observed with the RXTE-PCA monitoring on July 8, 9hr UTC. Increased flux is detected simultaneously on the Swift-BAT camera. RXTE-PCA follow up observations starting on July 13, 23hr UTC,

  12. Estudo espectral em raios-X duros de fontes do tipo Z com o HEXTE/RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, F.; Heindl, W. A.; Rothschild, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Apresentam-se os resultados de um estudo espectral em raios-X de fontes do tipo Z. As fontes do tipo Z são binárias de raios-X de baixa massa (BXBM) com campo magnético intermediário (B~109G). Esta classe de fontes é composta por apenas 6 fontes Galácticas (a saber: ScoX-1, 9, 7, CygX-2, 5 e 0). A nossa análise se concentra na faixa de raios-X duros (E ~ 20keV), até cerca de 200keV, faixa ótima de operação do telescópio "High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment" (HEXTE), um dos três telescópios de raios-X à bordo do Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). Nossa motivação para tal estudo, uma busca de caudas em raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z, foi o pouco conhecimento sobre a emissão nesta faixa de energia das referidas fontes quando comparadas, por exemplo, as fontes do tipo atoll (também BXBM). Apresentam-se a análise/redução de dados e explicita-se a maneira como o HEXTE mede o ru1do de fundo. Especial atenção é direcionada a este item devido a localização das fontes do tipo Z e também ao problema de contaminação por fontes próximas. Com exceção de ScoX-1, nenhuma cauda em raios-X duros foi encontrada para as outras fontes, a despeito de resultados de detecção dessas caudas em algumas fontes pelo satélite BeppoSAX. As interpretações deste resultado serão apresentadas. Do ponto de vista deste estudo, nós deduzimos que a produção de caudas de raios-X duros em fontes do tipo Z é um processo disparado quando, pelo menos, uma condição é satisfeita: o brilho da componente térmica do espectro precisa estar acima de um certo valor limiar de ~4´1036ergs-1.

  13. RXTE Monitoring of the Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937: Long-Term Variability and the 2007 March Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.

    2009-01-01

    After three years of no unusual activity, Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1048.1-5937 reactivated in 2007 March. We report on the detection of a large glitch (deltav/v = 1.63(2) x 10(exp -5)) on 2007 March 26 (MJD 54185.9), contemporaneous with the onset of a pulsed-flux flare, the third flare observed from this source in 10 years of monitoring with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. Additionally, we report on a detailed study of the evolution of the timing properties, the pulsed flux, and the pulse profile of this source as measured by RXTE from 1996 July to 2008 January. In our timing study, we attempted phase coherent timing of all available observations. We show that in 2001, a timing anomaly of uncertain nature occurred near the rise of the first pulsed flux flare; we show that a likely glitch (deltav/v = 2.91(9) x 10(exp -6)) occurred in 2002, near the rise of the second flare, and we present a detailed description of the variations in the spin-down. In our pulsed flux study, we compare the decays of the three flares and discuss changes in the hardness ratio. In our pulse profile study, we show that the profile exhibited large variations near the peak of the first two flares, and several small short-term profile variations during the most recent flare. Finally, we report on the discovery of a small burst 27 days after the peak of the last flare, the fourth burst discovered from this source. We discuss the relationships between the observed properties in the framework of the magnetar model.

  14. CORONA, JET, AND RELATIVISTIC LINE MODELS FOR SUZAKU/RXTE/CHANDRA-HETG OBSERVATIONS OF THE CYGNUS X-1 HARD STATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Trowbridge, Sarah N.; Davis, John E.; Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Joern; Markoff, Sera B.; Maitra, Dipankar; Tramper, Frank; Pottschmidt, Katja; Coppi, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Using Suzaku and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), we have conducted a series of four simultaneous observations of the galactic black hole candidate Cyg X-1 in what were historically faint and spectrally hard 'low states'. Additionally, all of these observations occurred near superior conjunction with our line of sight to the X-ray source passing through the dense phases of the 'focused wind' from the mass donating secondary. One of our observations was also simultaneous with observations by the Chandra-High Energy Transmission Grating (HETG). These latter spectra are crucial for revealing the ionized absorption due to the secondary's focused wind. Such absorption is present and must be accounted for in all four spectra. These simultaneous data give an unprecedented view of the 0.8-300 keV spectrum of Cyg X-1, and hence bear upon both corona and X-ray emitting jet models of black hole hard states. Three models fit the spectra well: coronae with thermal or mixed thermal/non-thermal electron populations and jets. All three models require a soft component that we fit with a low temperature disk spectrum with an inner radius of only a few tens of GM/c 2 . All three models also agree that the known spectral break at 10 keV is not solely due to the presence of reflection, but each gives a different underlying explanation for the augmentation of this break. Thus, whereas all three models require that there is a relativistically broadened Fe line, the strength and inner radius of such a line is dependent upon the specific model, thus making premature line-based estimates of the black hole spin in the Cyg X-1 system. We look at the relativistic line in detail, accounting for the narrow Fe emission and ionized absorption detected by HETG. Although the specific relativistic parameters of the line are continuum dependent, none of the broad line fits allow for an inner disk radius that is >40 GM/c 2 .

  15. 16 yr of RXTE monitoring of five anomalous X-ray pulsars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M., E-mail: rim@physics.mcgill.ca, E-mail: vkaspi@physics.mcgill.ca [Department of Physics, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada)

    2014-03-20

    We present a summary of the long-term evolution of various properties of the five non-transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) 1E 1841–045, RXS J170849.0–400910, 1E 2259+586, 4U 0142+61, and 1E 1048.1–5937, regularly monitored with RXTE from 1996 to 2012. We focus on three properties of these sources: the evolution of the timing, pulsed flux, and pulse profile. We report several new timing anomalies and radiative events, including a putative anti-glitch seen in 1E 2259+586 in 2009, and a second epoch of very large spin-down rate fluctuations in 1E 1048.1–5937 following a large flux outburst. We compile the properties of the 11 glitches and 4 glitch candidates observed from these 5 AXPs between 1996 and 2012. Overall, these monitoring observations reveal several apparent patterns in the behavior of this sample of AXPs: large radiative changes in AXPs (including long-lived flux enhancements, short bursts, and pulse profile changes) are rare, occurring typically only every few years per source; large radiative changes are almost always accompanied by some form of timing anomaly, usually a spin-up glitch; only 20%-30% of timing anomalies are accompanied by any form of radiative change. We find that AXP radiative behavior at the times of radiatively loud glitches is sufficiently similar to suggest common physical origins. The similarity in glitch properties when comparing radiatively loud and radiatively silent glitches in AXPs suggests a common physical origin in the stellar interior. Finally, the overall similarity of AXP and radio pulsar glitches suggests a common physical origin for both phenomena.

  16. RXTE Observations of Anomalous X-ray Pulsar 1E 1547.0-5408 During and After its 2008 and 2009 Outbursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dib, Rim; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Scholz, Paul; Gavriil, Fotis P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and Swift monitoring observations of the magnetar 1E 1547.0-5408 following the pulsar's radiative outbursts in 2008 October and 2009 January. We report on a study of the evolution of the timing properties and the pulsed flux from 2008 October 4 through 2009 December 26. In our timing study, a phase-coherent analysis shows that for the first 29 days following the 2008 outburst, there was a very fast increase in the magnitude of the rotational frequency derivative upsilon-dot, such that upsilon-dot-dot was a factor of 60 larger than that reported in data from 2007. This upsilon-dot magnitude increase occurred in concert with the decay of the pulsed flux following the start of the 2008 event. Following the 2009 outburst, for the first 23 days, upsilon-dot-dot was consistent with zero, and upsilon-dot had returned to close to its 2007 value. In contrast to the 2008 event, the 2009 outburst showed a major increase in persistent flux, relatively little change in the pulsed flux, and sudden significant spectral hardening approx 15 days after the outburst. We show that, excluding the month following each of the outbursts, and because of the noise and the sparsity in the data, multiple plausible timing solutions fit the pulsar's frequency behavior. We note similarities in the behavior of 1E 1547.0-5408 following the 2008 outburst to that seen in the AXP 1E 1048.1-5937 following its 2001-2002 outburst and discuss this in terms of the magnetar model.

  17. Discovery of kilohertz QPOs in RXTE observations of SAX J1748.9-2021

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altamirano, D.; Patruno, A.; Watts, A.; Armas Padilla, M.; Cavecchi, Y.; Degenaar, N.; Kalamkar, M.; Kaur, R.; Soleri, P.; Yang, Y.J.; van der Klis, M.; Wijnands, R.; Casella, P.; Linares, M.; Rea, N.

    We report on RXTE observations of the ongoing outburst of the accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar SAX J1748.9-2021 (Altamirano et al. 2008, 674, 45A, see ATEL #2360 and #2407). Since the first detection of intermittent pulsations on January 27th, 2010, observations have been carried out on a daily

  18. Simultaneous observations of the quasar 3C 273 with INTEGRAL, XMM-Newton and RXTE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courvoisier, T.J.L.; Beckmann, V.; Bourban, G.

    2003-01-01

    INTEGRAL has observed the bright quasar 3C 273 on 3 epochs in January 2003 as one of the first observations of the open programme. The observation on January 5 was simultaneous with RXTE and XMM-Newton observations. We present here a first analysis of the continuum emission as observed by these 3...

  19. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Reanalysis of the RXTE observations of the black-hole candidate XTE J1650-500 in the 2001/2002 outburst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Lihong; Wang Jiancheng

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of the spectral fits made to 59 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the Galactic X-Ray Black-Hole Candidate XTE J1650-500 covering the first 30d of its 2001/2002 outburst when the source was in a transition from the hard state to the soft state. The photon spectra can be well fitted with a phenomenological model of a power-law/cutoff power-law and a physical model of bulk-motion Comptonization. The spectral properties smoothly evolve away from the hard state and then stay in the soft state. The fitting results of the physical model reveal the peak of the burst had a flux of 2.90 × 10 −8 erg cm −2 s −1 in the 2–100 keV energy range and was observed on 2001 Sep. 9; it transitioned to the hard state. The total flux decays by a factor of ∼3 as it evolves into the soft state. The photon index Γ increases from ∼1.5 in the hard state and stays at ∼2.5 in the soft state. We found that the effective area of the high-energy X-ray emission region (the Compton cloud) decreases, i.e. the area of the Compton cloud decreases by a factor of ∼23 during the transition from the hard state to the soft state. Combining the new radio and quasi-periodic oscillation studies, the model of total flux in the 2–100 keV energy range, the jet emission and the timing analysis during the state transition, we suggest a possible geometry and evolution for the (jet+corona+disk) system, like that proposed by Kalemci et al. based on enhanced lags and peak frequency shift during the transition.

  1. Surface Explorations : 3D Moving Images as Cartographies of Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, N.

    2016-01-01

    Moving images of travel and exploration have a long history. In this essay I will examine how the trope of navigation in 3D moving images can work towards an intimate and haptic encounter with other times and other places – elsewhen and elsewhere. The particular navigational construction of space in

  2. Heliborne time-domain electromagnetic (TEM) surveys for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Airborne geophysical surveys have been used extensively in petroleum, mineral exploration, and environmental mapping. Of all the geophysical methods, Electromagnetic (EM) methods, both ground and airborne are used to map the conductive ore bodies buried in the resistive bed rock. Mapping resistivity variations can help unravel complex geological problems and identify areas of hidden potential. Besides the traditional applications to ground water investigations and other natural resource exploration and geological mapping, a number of new applications have been reported. These include hazardous-waste characterization studies, precision agriculture applications, archaeological surveys etc. Airborne Electromagnetic (AEM) methods have undergone rapid improvements over the past few decades. Several new airborne Time Do-main EM (TDEM) systems appeared; existing systems were updated and/or enhanced. The use of natural field (passive) EM surveys continued to increase, with new or improved systems becoming available for both airborne and ground surveys. The number of large airborne survey systems with combined EM, magnetic, gravimetric and gamma-ray spectrometric capabilities also increased. Exploration of a mineral deposit is a multi-stage and multi-disciplinary approach that commences from regional investigations and concludes with establishing of a deposit. As economics play a major role in exploration, a proper integrated study is always beneficial in narrowing down the potential mineral target zones. Heliborne geophysical surveys are being conducted world-wide for exploration of base metals, gold, phosphorite, oil, uranium etc. that are very effective tool in identifying zones of interest accurately, economically and with less span of time. These surveys give a very good insight of surface and sub-surface geophysical signatures that can be attributed to geology with proper modeling. Heliborne Time - domain Electromagnetic (TEM) methods are well known for search of

  3. Adaptive Sampling of Time Series During Remote Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    This work deals with the challenge of online adaptive data collection in a time series. A remote sensor or explorer agent adapts its rate of data collection in order to track anomalous events while obeying constraints on time and power. This problem is challenging because the agent has limited visibility (all its datapoints lie in the past) and limited control (it can only decide when to collect its next datapoint). This problem is treated from an information-theoretic perspective, fitting a probabilistic model to collected data and optimizing the future sampling strategy to maximize information gain. The performance characteristics of stationary and nonstationary Gaussian process models are compared. Self-throttling sensors could benefit environmental sensor networks and monitoring as well as robotic exploration. Explorer agents can improve performance by adjusting their data collection rate, preserving scarce power or bandwidth resources during uninteresting times while fully covering anomalous events of interest. For example, a remote earthquake sensor could conserve power by limiting its measurements during normal conditions and increasing its cadence during rare earthquake events. A similar capability could improve sensor platforms traversing a fixed trajectory, such as an exploration rover transect or a deep space flyby. These agents can adapt observation times to improve sample coverage during moments of rapid change. An adaptive sampling approach couples sensor autonomy, instrument interpretation, and sampling. The challenge is addressed as an active learning problem, which already has extensive theoretical treatment in the statistics and machine learning literature. A statistical Gaussian process (GP) model is employed to guide sample decisions that maximize information gain. Nonsta tion - ary (e.g., time-varying) covariance relationships permit the system to represent and track local anomalies, in contrast with current GP approaches. Most common GP models

  4. JESTR: Jupiter Exploration Science in the Time Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Keith S.; Simon-Miller, A. A.; Wong, M. H.; Choi, D. S.

    2012-01-01

    Solar system objects are inherently time-varying with changes that occur on timescales ranging from seconds to years. For all planets other than the Earth, temporal coverage of atmospheric phenomena is limited and sparse. Many important atmospheric phenomena, especially those related to atmospheric dynamics, can be studied in only very limited ways with current data. JESTR is a mission concept that would remedy this gap in our exploration of the solar system by ncar-continuous imaging and spectral monitoring of Jupiter over a multi-year mission lifetime.

  5. RXTE All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Donald A.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-01-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR), SGR1627-41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15 (Kouveliotou et al. 1998). Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6 deg segment of a narrow (19") annulus (Hurley et al. 1999; Woods et al. 1998). We present two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5'...

  6. USA and RXTE Observations of a Variable Low-Frequency QPO in XTEJ1118+480

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Elliott

    2000-06-29

    The USA experiment on ARGOS and RXTE have extensively observed the X-ray transient XTEJ1118+480 during its recent outburst in 2000 April--June. The authors present detailed monitoring of the evolution of a low frequency QPO which drifts from 0.07 Hz to 0.15 Hz during the outburst. They examine possible correlations of the QPO frequency with the flux and spectral characteristics of the source, and compare this QPO to low frequency QPOs observed in other black hole candidates.

  7. RXTE All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. A.; Bradt, H. V.; Levine, A. M.

    1999-09-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified Soft Gamma Repeater (SGR), SGR 1627--41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15 (Kouveliotou et al. 1998). Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6(deg) segment of a narrow (19('') ) annulus (Hurley et al. 1999; Woods et al. 1998). We report on two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on RXTE. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5(') long segment of the BATSE/IPN error box. The ASM/IPN error box lies within 0.3(') of the supernova remnant (SNR) G337.0--0.1. The probability that a SNR would fall so close to the error box purely by chance is ~ 5%.

  8. The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) - Time to Launch!

    Science.gov (United States)

    McComas, David

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission is scheduled to launch in mid-July 2008, right around the time of this COSPAR meeting. IBEX will make the first global observations of the heliosphere's interaction with the interstellar medium. IBEX achieves these breakthrough observations by traveling outside of the Earth's magnetosphere in a highly elliptical orbit and taking global Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) images with two very large aperture single pixel ENA cameras. IBEX-Lo makes measurements in 8 contiguous energy pass bands covering from ˜10 eV to 2 keV; IBEX-Hi similarly covers from ˜300 eV to 6 keV in 6 contiguous pass bands. IBEX's high-apogee (˜50RE ) orbit enables heliospheric ENA measurements by providing viewing from far outside the earth's relatively bright magnetospheric ENA emissions. The IBEX cameras view perpendicular to the spacecraft's sun-pointed spin axis. Each six months, the spacecraft spin and progression of the sun-pointing spin axis as the Earth moves around the Sun lead naturally to global, all-sky images. IBEX is the first mission to achieve a high altitude from a standard Pegasus launch vehicle. We accomplish this by adding the propulsion from an IBEX-supplied solid rocket motor and the spacecraft's hydrazine propulsion system. Additional information on IBEX is available at www.ibex.swri.edu. This talk, on behalf of the IBEX science and engineering teams, will summarize the IBEX science and mission and will provide an up-to-the-minute update on the status of the mission, including any new information on the launch and commissioning status.

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Students' Understanding of Conventional Time and Deep (Geologic) Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, Kim A.

    2013-07-01

    Many geologic processes occur in the context of geologic or deep time. Students of all ages demonstrate difficulty grasping this fundamental concept which impacts their ability to acquire other geoscience concepts. A concept of deep time requires the ability to sequence events on an immense temporal scale (succession) and to judge the durations of geologic processes based on the rates at which they occur. The twin concepts of succession and duration are the same ideas that underlie a concept of conventional time. If deep time is an extension of conventional time and not qualitatively different from it, students should display similar reasoning patterns when dealing with analogous tasks over disparate temporal periods. Thirty-five US students aged 13-24 years participated in individual task-based interviews to ascertain how they thought about succession and duration in conventional and deep time. This is the first attempt to explore this relationship in the same study in over 30 years. Most students successfully completed temporal succession tasks, but there was greater variability in responses on duration tasks. Conventional time concepts appear to impact how students reason about deep time. The application of spatial reasoning to temporal tasks sometimes leads to correct responses but in other instances does not. Implications for future research and teaching strategies are discussed.

  10. Strategic Map for Achieving Enceladus Ocean Exploration in Our Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, B.

    2015-12-01

    At AGU 2014, the author presented a decomposition and sequencing of science questions and technical capabilities that define viable programmatic pathways to enable sample return and advanced in situ exploration of the Enceladan ocean, consistent with NASA mission-opportunity constraints. Elaborated and refined in 2015 via JpGU, AbSciCon, IAC, and COSPAR Water, this plan is now specific: discrete and integrated analyses and coordination actions that, if acted on by the community over the next 45 months, could result in Enceladus ocean exploration appearing in the next Planetary Decadal Survey's mission priorities, issued in 2021. At AGU 2015, a product-based, outcome-measurable, stepwise milestone plan is presented to catalyze the next level of community discussion. Topics covered by the action plan include: hypothesis-driven science questions; mission cost as a function of mission capability; mission selectability as a function of programmatic constraints and evaluation process; exploration technologies as a function of funding and schedule; international consensus on forward and backward planetary protection requirements and solutions for exploring worlds with astrobiologically significant liquid water; and strategic balance among major NASA planetary science initiatives. Key Decadal-runup milestones are analyzed with respect to stakeholders, success criteria, and - critically - calendar and precedence. These results then inform a multi-year action plan to generate, vet, and socialize throughout the community a set of technically and fiscally viable mission concepts, respectively enabled by an achievable technology development roadmap also detailed in the presentation. This can begin to align advocate actions toward a broad community goal of exploring the Enceladan ocean. Without such coordination, which must reach fruition by Sep 2019, the probability that the next Decadal could explicitly prioritize mission objectives for Enceladus ocean exploration - as one of

  11. Time-capsule: Explorations of Concepts of Time and Law in Colonial New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Barrett

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Postcolonial legal culture in New Zealand (Aotearoa has sought to revise the past by reinterpreting Victorian legal contexts in the light of contemporary understandings of inter-cultural differences. This article develops an argument that demonstrates the relationship between cultural and legal notions of time during nineteenth century New Zealand. It examines the way in which Victorian attitudes were expressed in the expansion of colonial empire and the discursive ideologies which may have informed them. It explores the notion of time as expressed in lawmaking in colonial New Zealand through an examination of legal and philosophical commentary derived from contemporary jurisprudence and para-legal literature. The article is concerned with presenting an argument for the way in which colonial law and lawmakers manipulated the symbolic notion of time to the possible occlusion of indigenous interests in colonial New Zealand.

  12. Digging Deep: Exploring College Students' Knowledge of Macroevolutionary Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catley, Kefyn M.; Novick, Laura R.

    2009-01-01

    Some ability to comprehend deep time is a prerequisite for understanding macroevolution. This study examines students' knowledge of deep time in the context of seven major historical and evolutionary events (e.g., the age of the Earth, the emergence of life, the appearance of a pre-modern human, "Homo habilis"). The subjects were 126…

  13. Cell Phones and Sun Shadows: Exploring the Equation of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Sean P.

    2010-01-01

    For thousands of years before the invention of reliable clocks, humans measured their days by the motion of the sun. Astronomically, one day was the length of time it took for the sun to return to the same position in the sky. With the advent of precise mechanical chronometers such as Harrison's timekeepers (Sobel and Andrewes 1998), which ran at…

  14. Exploring the role of Environmental Quality and time Perspective in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    environmental quality as well as time perspective on academic performance within ... cognitive factors such as concentration, perception, memory and reason (Louw, Van Ede & ... (Reader's Digest, 1987) or the social or psychological conditions (Evans, .... The person who sees the consequences of his/her actions as being.

  15. Earthquake recovery of historic buildings: exploring cost and time needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Nammari, Fatima M; Lindell, Michael K

    2009-07-01

    Disaster recovery of historic buildings has rarely been investigated even though the available literature indicates that they face special challenges. This study examines buildings' recovery time and cost to determine whether their functions (that is, their use) and their status (historic or non-historic) affect these outcomes. The study uses data from the city of San Francisco after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake to examine the recovery of historic buildings owned by public agencies and non-governmental organisations. The results show that recovery cost is affected by damage level, construction type and historic status, whereas recovery time is affected by the same variables and also by building function. The study points to the importance of pre-incident recovery planning, especially for building functions that have shown delayed recovery. Also, the study calls attention to the importance of further investigations into the challenges facing historic building recovery.

  16. Exploring the Effects of Changes in Future Time Perspective and Perceived Instrumentality on Graded Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, Altay

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study aimed to explore the possible changes in the Future Time Perspective (FTP) and Perceived Instrumentality (PI) over time as long as one academic semester, as well as to explore whether those changes in FTP and PI explained students' Graded Performance (GP) with regard to a specific course; educational psychology. Method: A…

  17. Human Exploration using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO): A space exploration strategy for the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, George R.; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Oleson, Steven R.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around Mars and other exploration targets of interest, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely-controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay or "latency" with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments. This in effect gives them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expands the scientific return at these destinations. HERRO mitigates several of the major issues that have hindered the progress of human spaceflight beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) by: (1) broadening the range of destinations for near-term human missions; (2) reducing cost and risk through less complexity and fewer man-rated elements; (3) offering benefits of human-equivalent in-situ cognition, decision-making and field-work on planetary bodies; (4) providing a simpler approach to returning samples from Mars and planetary surfaces; and (5) facilitating opportunities for international collaboration through contribution of diverse robotic systems. HERRO provides a firm justification for human spaceflight—one that expands the near-term capabilities of scientific exploration while providing the space transportation infrastructure needed for eventual human landings in the future.

  18. Large Observatory for x-ray Timing (LOFT-P): a Probe-class mission concept study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Feroci, Marco; Alvarez, Laura; Baysinger, Michael; Becker, Chris; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Carson, Billy; Chapman, Jack; Dominguez, Alexandra; Fabisinski, Leo; Gangl, Bert; Garcia, Jay; Griffith, Christopher; Hernanz, Margarita; Hickman, Robert; Hopkins, Randall; Hui, Michelle; Ingram, Luster; Jenke, Peter; Korpela, Seppo; Maccarone, Tom; Michalska, Malgorzata; Pohl, Martin; Santangelo, Andrea; Schanne, Stephane; Schnell, Andrew; Stella, Luigi; van der Klis, Michiel; Watts, Anna; Winter, Berend; Zane, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    LOFT-P is a mission concept for a NASA Astrophysics Probe-Class (matter? What are the effects of strong gravity on matter spiraling into black holes? It would be optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources including X-ray bursters, black hole binaries, and magnetars to study phenomena at the natural timescales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons and to measure mass and spin of black holes. These measurements are synergistic to imaging and high-resolution spectroscopy instruments, addressing much smaller distance scales than are possible without very long baseline X-ray interferometry, and using complementary techniques to address the geometry and dynamics of emission regions. LOFT-P would have an effective area of >6 m2, > 10x that of the highly successful Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE). A sky monitor (2-50 keV) acts as a trigger for pointed observations, providing high duty cycle, high time resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE All-Sky Monitor, enabling multi-wavelength and multimessenger studies. A probe-class mission concept would employ lightweight collimator technology and large-area solid-state detectors, segmented into pixels or strips, technologies which have been recently greatly advanced during the ESA M3 Phase A study of LOFT. Given the large community interested in LOFT (>800 supporters*, the scientific productivity of this mission is expected to be very high, similar to or greater than RXTE ( 2000 refereed publications). We describe the results of a study, recently completed by the MSFC Advanced Concepts Office, that demonstrates that such a mission is feasible within a NASA probe-class mission budget.

  19. Temporal Variations of Strength and Location of the South Atlantic Anomaly as Measured by RXTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, Jorn; Felix, Furst; Rothschild, Richard E.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Smith, David M.; Lingenfelter, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of the particle background at an altitude of approx.540km during the time interval between 1996 and 2007 is studied using the particle monitor of the High Energy X-ray Timing Experiment on board NASA's Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. A special emphasis of this study is the location and strength of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The size and strength of the SAA are anti-correlated with the the 10.7 cm radio flux of the Sun, which leads the SAA strength by approx.1 year reflecting variations in solar heating of the upper atmosphere. The location of the SAA is also found to drift westwards with an average drift rate of about 0.3deg/yr following the drift of the geomagnetic field configuration. Superimposed to this drift rate are irregularities, where the SAA suddenly moves eastwards and where furthermore the speed of the drift changes. The most prominent of these irregularities is found in the second quarter of 2003 and another event took place in 1999. We suggest that these events are previously unrecognized manifestations of the geomagnetic jerks of the Earth's magnetic field. Key words: space radiation environment, South Atlantic Anomaly, radiation monitors, Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer

  20. Exploring the Value of MBA Degrees: Students' Experiences in Full-Time, Part-Time, and Executive MBA Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Grady D.

    2010-01-01

    Critics of the overall value of the MBA have not systematically considered the attitudes of MBA students about the value of their degree. The author used data from a large sample of graduates (N = 16,268) to do so, and to explore predictors of overall degree value. The author developed separate regression models for full-time, part-time, and…

  1. Exploring the time-saving bias: How drivers misestimate time saved when increasing speed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyal Peer

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the time-saving bias, drivers underestimate the time saved when increasing from a low speed and overestimate the time saved when increasing from a relatively high speed. Previous research used a specific type of task --- drivers were asked to estimate time saved when increasing speed and to give a numeric response --- to show this. The present research conducted two studies with multiple questions to show that the time-saving bias occurs in other tasks. Study 1 found that drivers committed the time-saving bias when asked to estimate (a the time saved when increasing speed or (b the distance that can be completed at a given time when increasing speed or (c the speed required to complete a given distance in decreasing times. Study 2 showed no major differences in estimations of time saved compared to estimations of the remaining journey time and also between responses given on a numeric scale versus a visual analog scale. Study 3 tested two possible explanations for the time-saving bias: a Proportion heuristic and a Differences heuristic. Some evidence was found for use of the latter.

  2. Exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1992-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration is a unique kind of business. Businesses providing a vast and ever-changing panoply of products to markets are a focus of several disciplines' energetic study and analysis. The product inventory problem is robust, pertinent, and meaningful, and it merits the voluminous and protracted attention received from keen business practitioners. Prototypical business practitioners, be they trained by years of business hurly-burly, or sophisticated MBAs with arrays of mathematical algorithms and computers, are not normally prepared, however, to recognize the unique nature of exploration's inventories. Put together such a business practitioner with an explorationist and misunderstandings, hidden and open, are inevitable and predictably rife. The first purpose of this paper is to articulate the inherited inventory handling paradigms of business practitioners in relation to exploration's inventories. To do so, standard pedagogy in business administration is used and a case study of an exploration venture is presented. A second purpose is to show the burdens that the misunderstandings create. The result is not just business plans that go awry, but public policies that have effects opposite from those intended

  3. Spectral evolution of the Atoll source 4U 1728-34 with RXTE and INTEGRAL: evidence for hard X-ray tail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tarana, A.; Belloni, T.; Bazzano, A.; Homan, J.; Méndez, M.; Ubertini, P.; Comastri, A.; Angelini, L.; Cappi, M.

    We report the temporal and spectral results on the INTEGRAL and RXTE 2006-2007 observation campaign of the Atoll source 4U 1728-34 (GX 354-0). The source shows, more than once, spectral evolution as revealed by the hardness intensity diagram. The soft state is well described by a Comptonization with

  4. Design of a coil sensor for time domain electromagnetic system for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshwani, R.T.; Bhattacharya, S.

    2011-01-01

    Time domain electromagnetic system is used for exploration of deep seated deposits under the Earth surface. The basic principle is to set up eddy currents in conductors using pulsed excited transmitter coil during on time of a pulse. The decay time of eddy currents during off time of a pulse is a function conductivity, permeability and depth of conductor located under the Earth surface. The technology is being developed to carry out exploration of mineral deposits (basically uranium) under the Earth surface. The decay of eddy currents is eddy using J coil sensor located coplanar with the transmitter coil. The depth upto which successful exploration can be carried is strong function of design of receiver coil. The design parameters include number of turns, bandwidth, stray capacitance and resistance of a coil. This paper describes various designs tried out and their characterization results. Field results for a ground based system developed are also described. (author)

  5. Time-capsule: Explorations of Concepts of Time and Law in Colonial New Zealand

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Jonathan; Strongman, Luke

    2009-01-01

    Postcolonial legal culture in New Zealand (Aotearoa) has sought to revise the past by reinterpreting Victorian legal contexts in the light of contemporary understandings of inter-cultural differences. This article develops an argument that demonstrates the relationship between cultural and legal notions of time during nineteenth century New Zealand. It examines the way in which Victorian attitudes were expressed in the expansion of colonial empire and the discursive ideologies which may have ...

  6. Integral reinforcement learning for continuous-time input-affine nonlinear systems with simultaneous invariant explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho

    2015-05-01

    This paper focuses on a class of reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms, named integral RL (I-RL), that solve continuous-time (CT) nonlinear optimal control problems with input-affine system dynamics. First, we extend the concepts of exploration, integral temporal difference, and invariant admissibility to the target CT nonlinear system that is governed by a control policy plus a probing signal called an exploration. Then, we show input-to-state stability (ISS) and invariant admissibility of the closed-loop systems with the policies generated by integral policy iteration (I-PI) or invariantly admissible PI (IA-PI) method. Based on these, three online I-RL algorithms named explorized I-PI and integral Q -learning I, II are proposed, all of which generate the same convergent sequences as I-PI and IA-PI under the required excitation condition on the exploration. All the proposed methods are partially or completely model free, and can simultaneously explore the state space in a stable manner during the online learning processes. ISS, invariant admissibility, and convergence properties of the proposed methods are also investigated, and related with these, we show the design principles of the exploration for safe learning. Neural-network-based implementation methods for the proposed schemes are also presented in this paper. Finally, several numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. RankExplorer: Visualization of Ranking Changes in Large Time Series Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Conglei; Cui, Weiwei; Liu, Shixia; Xu, Panpan; Chen, Wei; Qu, Huamin

    2012-12-01

    For many applications involving time series data, people are often interested in the changes of item values over time as well as their ranking changes. For example, people search many words via search engines like Google and Bing every day. Analysts are interested in both the absolute searching number for each word as well as their relative rankings. Both sets of statistics may change over time. For very large time series data with thousands of items, how to visually present ranking changes is an interesting challenge. In this paper, we propose RankExplorer, a novel visualization method based on ThemeRiver to reveal the ranking changes. Our method consists of four major components: 1) a segmentation method which partitions a large set of time series curves into a manageable number of ranking categories; 2) an extended ThemeRiver view with embedded color bars and changing glyphs to show the evolution of aggregation values related to each ranking category over time as well as the content changes in each ranking category; 3) a trend curve to show the degree of ranking changes over time; 4) rich user interactions to support interactive exploration of ranking changes. We have applied our method to some real time series data and the case studies demonstrate that our method can reveal the underlying patterns related to ranking changes which might otherwise be obscured in traditional visualizations.

  8. Ontology-driven data integration and visualization for exploring regional geologic time and paleontological information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengbin; Ma, Xiaogang; Chen, Jianguo

    2018-06-01

    Initiatives of open data promote the online publication and sharing of large amounts of geologic data. How to retrieve information and discover knowledge from the big data is an ongoing challenge. In this paper, we developed an ontology-driven data integration and visualization pilot system for exploring information of regional geologic time, paleontology, and fundamental geology. The pilot system (http://www2.cs.uidaho.edu/%7Emax/gts/)

  9. Labour onset and early labour. An exploration of first-time mothers’ and midwives’ experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Eri, Tine Schauer

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is about how women experience waiting for the onset of labour, and how first-time mothers and midwives communicate during the early phases of labour. Most women in Norway give birth in public hospitals, which is the context used for this study, with the experiences explored within a scientific tradition of lifeworld research. Seventeen women and 18 midwives participated in the study. The empirical material stems from diaries, observations of admissions and in-...

  10. Visual exploration of movement and event data with interactive time masks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Andrienko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of time mask, which is a type of temporal filter suitable for selection of multiple disjoint time intervals in which some query conditions fulfil. Such a filter can be applied to time-referenced objects, such as events and trajectories, for selecting those objects or segments of trajectories that fit in one of the selected time intervals. The selected subsets of objects or segments are dynamically summarized in various ways, and the summaries are represented visually on maps and/or other displays to enable exploration. The time mask filtering can be especially helpful in analysis of disparate data (e.g., event records, positions of moving objects, and time series of measurements, which may come from different sources. To detect relationships between such data, the analyst may set query conditions on the basis of one dataset and investigate the subsets of objects and values in the other datasets that co-occurred in time with these conditions. We describe the desired features of an interactive tool for time mask filtering and present a possible implementation of such a tool. By example of analysing two real world data collections related to aviation and maritime traffic, we show the way of using time masks in combination with other types of filters and demonstrate the utility of the time mask filtering. Keywords: Data visualization, Interactive visualization, Interaction technique

  11. Exploring the Effects of Working Memory on Time Perception in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hom-Yi; Yang, En-Lin

    2018-01-01

    Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often reported to have deficits of time perception. However, there is a strong relation between performance on tasks of working memory and time perception. Thus, it is possible that the poor performance of children with ADHD on time perception results from their deficit of working memory. In this study, the working memory of participants was separately assessed; therefore, we could explore the relationship between working memory and time perception of children with ADHD. Fifty-six children with ADHD and those of healthy controls completed tasks measuring working memory and time perception. The results showed that the time discrimination ability of children with ADHD was poorer than that of controls. However, there was a strong association between time perception and working memory. After controlling working memory and intelligence, the time discrimination ability of children with ADHD was not significantly poorer than that of controls. We suggest that there is an interdependent relationship between time perception and working memory for children with ADHD.

  12. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, H. C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M⊙ black hole.

  13. Interactive exploration of large-scale time-varying data using dynamic tracking graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Widanagamaachchi, W.

    2012-10-01

    Exploring and analyzing the temporal evolution of features in large-scale time-varying datasets is a common problem in many areas of science and engineering. One natural representation of such data is tracking graphs, i.e., constrained graph layouts that use one spatial dimension to indicate time and show the "tracks" of each feature as it evolves, merges or disappears. However, for practical data sets creating the corresponding optimal graph layouts that minimize the number of intersections can take hours to compute with existing techniques. Furthermore, the resulting graphs are often unmanageably large and complex even with an ideal layout. Finally, due to the cost of the layout, changing the feature definition, e.g. by changing an iso-value, or analyzing properly adjusted sub-graphs is infeasible. To address these challenges, this paper presents a new framework that couples hierarchical feature definitions with progressive graph layout algorithms to provide an interactive exploration of dynamically constructed tracking graphs. Our system enables users to change feature definitions on-the-fly and filter features using arbitrary attributes while providing an interactive view of the resulting tracking graphs. Furthermore, the graph display is integrated into a linked view system that provides a traditional 3D view of the current set of features and allows a cross-linked selection to enable a fully flexible spatio-temporal exploration of data. We demonstrate the utility of our approach with several large-scale scientific simulations from combustion science. © 2012 IEEE.

  14. Solar discrepancies: Mars exploration and the curious problem of inter-planetary time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirmalek, Zara Lenora

    The inter-planetary work system for the NASA's Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) mission entailed coordinating work between two corporally diverse workgroups, human beings and solar-powered robots, and between two planets with asynchronous axial rotations. The rotation of Mars takes approximately 24 hours and 40 minutes while for Earth the duration is 24 hours, a differential that was synchronized on Earth by setting a clock forward forty minutes every day. The hours of the day during which the solar-powered rovers were operational constituted the central consideration in the relationship between time and work around which the schedule of MER science operations were organized. And, the operational hours for the rovers were precarious for at least two reasons: on the one hand, the possibility of a sudden and inexplicable malfunction was always present; on the other, the rovers were powered by solar-charged batteries that could simply (and would eventually) fail. Thus, the timetable for the inter-planetary work system was scheduled according to the daily cycle of the sun on Mars and a version of clock time called Mars time was used to keep track of the movement of the sun on Mars. While the MER mission was a success, it does not necessarily follow that all aspects of mission operations were successful. One of the central problems that plagued the organization of mission operations was precisely this construct called "Mars time" even while it appeared that the use of Mars time was unproblematic and central to the success of the mission. In this dissertation, Zara Mirmalek looks at the construction of Mars time as a tool and as a social process. Of particular interest are the consequences of certain (ostensibly foundational) assumptions about the relationship between clock time and the conduct of work that contributed to making the relationship between Mars time and work on Earth appear operational. Drawing on specific examples of breakdowns of Mars time as a support

  15. Human Exploration Using Real-Time Robotic Operations (HERRO)- Crew Telerobotic Control Vehicle (CTCV) Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Burke, Laura; Chato, David; Fincannon, James; Landis, Geoff; Sandifer, Carl; Warner, Joe; Williams, Glenn; Colozza, Tony; hide

    2010-01-01

    The HERRO concept allows real time investigation of planets and small bodies by sending astronauts to orbit these targets and telerobotically explore them using robotic systems. Several targets have been put forward by past studies including Mars, Venus, and near Earth asteroids. A conceptual design study was funded by the NASA Innovation Fund to explore what the HERRO concept and it's vehicles would look like and what technological challenges need to be met. This design study chose Mars as the target destination. In this way the HERRO studies can define the endpoint design concepts for an all-up telerobotic exploration of the number one target of interest Mars. This endpoint design will serve to help planners define combined precursor telerobotics science missions and technology development flights. A suggested set of these technologies and demonstrator missions is shown in Appendix B. The HERRO concept includes a crewed telerobotics orbit vehicle as well three Truck rovers, each supporting two teleoperated geologist robots Rockhounds (each truck/Rockhounds set is landed using a commercially launched aeroshell landing system.) Options include a sample ascent system teamed with an orbital telerobotic sample rendezvous and return spacecraft (S/C) (yet to be designed). Each truck rover would be landed in a science location with the ability to traverse a 100 km diameter area, carrying the Rockhounds to 100 m diameter science areas for several week science activities. The truck is not only responsible for transporting the Rockhounds to science areas, but also for relaying telecontrol and high-res communications to/from the Rockhound and powering/heating the Rockhound during the non-science times (including night-time). The Rockhounds take the place of human geologists by providing an agile robotic platform with real-time telerobotics control to the Rockhound from the crew telerobotics orbiter. The designs of the Truck rovers and Rockhounds will be described in other

  16. Numerical results for near surface time domain electromagnetic exploration: a full waveform approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Li, K.; Li, X., Sr.; Liu, Y., Sr.; Wen, J., Sr.

    2015-12-01

    Time domain or Transient electromagnetic (TEM) survey including types with airborne, semi-airborne and ground play important roles in applicants such as geological surveys, ground water/aquifer assess [Meju et al., 2000; Cox et al., 2010], metal ore exploration [Yang and Oldenburg, 2012], prediction of water bearing structures in tunnels [Xue et al., 2007; Sun et al., 2012], UXO exploration [Pasion et al., 2007; Gasperikova et al., 2009] etc. The common practice is introducing a current into a transmitting (Tx) loop and acquire the induced electromagnetic field after the current is cut off [Zhdanov and Keller, 1994]. The current waveforms are different depending on instruments. Rectangle is the most widely used excitation current source especially in ground TEM. Triangle and half sine are commonly used in airborne and semi-airborne TEM investigation. In most instruments, only the off time responses are acquired and used in later analysis and data inversion. Very few airborne instruments acquire the on time and off time responses together. Although these systems acquire the on time data, they usually do not use them in the interpretation.This abstract shows a novel full waveform time domain electromagnetic method and our recent modeling results. The benefits comes from our new algorithm in modeling full waveform time domain electromagnetic problems. We introduced the current density into the Maxwell's equation as the transmitting source. This approach allows arbitrary waveforms, such as triangle, half-sine, trapezoidal waves or scatter record from equipment, being used in modeling. Here, we simulate the establishing and induced diffusion process of the electromagnetic field in the earth. The traditional time domain electromagnetic with pure secondary fields can also be extracted from our modeling results. The real time responses excited by a loop source can be calculated using the algorithm. We analyze the full time gates responses of homogeneous half space and two

  17. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-01-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino, and Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems

  18. EXPLORING THE POTENTIAL OF SHORT-TIME FOURIER TRANSFORMS FOR ANALYZING SKIN CONDUCTANCE AND PUPILLOMETRY IN REAL-TIME APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roger Lew; Brian P. Dyre; Steffen Werner; Jeffrey C. Joe; Brian Wotring; Tuan Tran

    2008-09-01

    The development of real-time predictors of mental workload is critical for the practical application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems. This paper explores a novel method based on a short-time Fourier transform (STFT) for analyzing galvanic skin conductance (SC) and pupillometry time-series data to extract estimates of mental workload with temporal bandwidth high-enough to be useful for augmented cognition applications. We tested the method in the context of a process control task based on the DURESS simulation developed by Vincente and Pawlak (1994; ported to Java by Cosentino,& Ross, 1999). SC, pupil dilation, blink rate, and visual scanning patterns were measured for four participants actively engaged in controlling the simulation. Fault events were introduced that required participants to diagnose errors and make control adjustments to keep the simulator operating within a target range. We were interested in whether the STFT of these measures would produce visible effects of the increase in mental workload and stress associated with these events. Graphical exploratory data analysis of the STFT showed visible increases in the power spectrum across a range of frequencies directly following fault events. We believe this approach shows potential as a relatively unobtrusive, low-cost, high bandwidth measure of mental workload that could be particularly useful for the application of augmented cognition to human-machine systems.

  19. SEXTANT - Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jason W.; Hasouneh, Munther Abdel Hamid; Winternitz, Luke M. B.; Valdez, Jennifer E.; Price, Samuel R.; Semper, Sean R.; Yu, Wayne H.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Ray, Paul S.; Wood, Kent S.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Station Explorer for X-ray Timing and Navigation Technology (SEXTANT) is a technology demonstration enhancement to the Neutron-star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) mission, which is scheduled to launch in late 2016 and will be hosted as an externally attached payload on the International Space Station (ISS) via the ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC). During NICER's 18-month baseline science mission to understand ultra-dense matter though observations of neutron stars in the soft X-ray band, SEXTANT will, for the first-time, demonstrate real-time, on-board X-ray pulsar navigation, which is a significant milestone in the quest to establish a GPS-like navigation capability that will be available throughout our Solar System and beyond. Along with NICER, SEXTANT has proceeded through Phase B, Mission Definition, and received numerous refinements in concept of operation, algorithms, flight software, ground system, and ground test capability. NICER/SEXTANT's Phase B work culminated in NASA's confirmation of NICER to Phase C, Design and Development, in March 2014. Recently, NICER/SEXTANT successfully passed its Critical Design Review and SEXTANT received continuation approval in September 2014. In this paper, we describe the X-ray pulsar navigation concept and provide a brief history of previous work, and then summarize the SEXTANT technology demonstration objective, hardware and software components, and development to date.

  20. Mars Exploration 2003 to 2013 - An Integrated Perspective: Time Sequencing the Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, G.; McKay, C.

    2000-01-01

    The science goals for the Mars exploration program, together with the HEDS precursor environmental and technology needs, serve as a solid starting point for re-planning the program in an orderly way. Most recently, the community has recognized the significance of subsurface sampling as a key component in "following the water". Accessing samples from hundreds and even thousands of meters beneath the surface is a challenge that will call for technology development and for one or more demonstration missions. Recent mission failures and concerns about the complexity of the previously planned MSR missions indicate that, before we are ready to undertake sample return and deep sampling, the Mars exploration program needs to include: 1) technology development missions; and 2) basic landing site assessment missions. These precursor missions should demonstrate the capability for reliable & accurate soft landing and in situ propellant production. The precursor missions will need to carry out close-up site observations, ground-penetrating radar mapping from orbit and conduct seismic surveys. Clearly the programs should be planned as a single, continuous exploration effort. A prudent minimum list of missions, including surface rovers with ranges of more than 10 km, can be derived from the numerous goals and requirements; they can be sequenced in an orderly way to ensure that time is available to feed forward the results of the precursor missions. One such sequence of missions is proposed for the decade beginning in 2003.

  1. The rise of global warming skepticism: exploring affective image associations in the United States over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nicholas; Leiserowitz, Anthony

    2012-06-01

    This article explores how affective image associations to global warming have changed over time. Four nationally representative surveys of the American public were conducted between 2002 and 2010 to assess public global warming risk perceptions, policy preferences, and behavior. Affective images (positive or negative feelings and cognitive representations) were collected and content analyzed. The results demonstrate a large increase in "naysayer" associations, indicating extreme skepticism about the issue of climate change. Multiple regression analyses found that holistic affect and "naysayer" associations were more significant predictors of global warming risk perceptions than cultural worldviews or sociodemographic variables, including political party and ideology. The results demonstrate the important role affective imagery plays in judgment and decision-making processes, how these variables change over time, and how global warming is currently perceived by the American public. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  2. In real time: exploring nursing students' learning during an international experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie Asenso, Barbara; Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Astle, Barbara

    2013-10-11

    Abstract Nursing education has increasingly turned to international learning experiences to educate students who are globally minded and aware of social injustices in local and global communities. To date, research with international learning experiences has focused on the benefits for the students participating, after they have completed the international experience. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how nursing students learn during the international experience. The sample consisted of eight nursing students who enrolled in an international learning experience, and data were collected in "real time" in Zambia. The students were observed during learning activities and were interviewed three times. Three major themes emerged from the thematic analysis: expectations shaped students' learning, engagement facilitated learning, and critical reflection enhanced learning. Implications are discussed, related to disrupting media representations of Africa that shape students' expectations, and educational strategies for transformative learning and global citizenship.

  3. The Rates of Type I X-ray Bursts from Transients Observed with RXTE: Evidence for Black Hole Event Horizons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remillard, R. A.; Lin, D.; Cooper, R. L.; Narayan, R.

    2005-12-01

    We measure the rates of type I X-ray bursts from a likely complete sample of 37 non-pulsing Galactic X-ray transients observed with the RXTE ASM during 1996-2004. Our strategy is to test the prevailing paradigms for these sources, which are well-categorized in the literature as either neutron-star systems or black hole candidates. Burst rates are measured as a function of the bolometric luminosity, and the results are compared with burst models for neutron stars and for heavy compact objects with a solid surface. We use augmented versions of the models developed by Narayan & Heyl (2002; 2003). For a given mass, we consider a range of conditions in both the radius and the temperature at the boundary below the accretion layer. We find 135 type I bursts in 3.7 Ms of PCA light curves for the neutron-star group, and the burst rate function is generally consistent with the model predictions for bursts from accreting neutron stars. On the other hand, none of the (20) bursts candidates passed spectral criteria for type I bursts in 6.5 Ms of PCA light curves for black-hole binaries and candidates. The burst function upper limits are inconsistent with the predictions of the burst model for heavy compact objects with a solid surface. The consistency probability is found to be below 10-7 for dynamical black-hole binaries, falling to below 10-13 for the additional exposures of black-hole candidates. These results provide indirect evidence that black holes do have event horizons. This research was supported, in part, by NASA science programs.

  4. Inspiring the Next Generation through Real Time Access to Ocean Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, K. L.; Ballard, R. D.; Witten, A. B.; O'Neal, A.; Argenta, J.

    2011-12-01

    Using live-access exposure to actual shipboard research activities where exciting discoveries are made can be a key contributor to engaging students and their families in learning about earth science and STEM subjects. The number of bachelor's degrees awarded annually in the Earth sciences peaked at nearly 8000 in 1984, and has since declined more than 50%; for the last several years, the number of bachelor's degrees issued in U.S. schools in the geosciences has hovered around 2500 (AGI, 2009). In 2008, the last year for which the data are published, only 533 Ph.D.s were awarded in Earth, Atmospheric and Ocean sciences (NSF, 2009). By 2030, the supply of geoscientists for the petroleum industry is expected to fall short of the demand by 30,000 scientists (AGI, 2009). The National Science Foundation (NSF) reports that minority students earn approximately 15% of all bachelor's degrees in science and engineering, but only 4.6% of degrees in the geosciences. Both of these percentages are very low in comparison to national and state populations, where Hispanics and African-Americans make up 29% of the U.S. overall. The Ocean Exploration Trust (OET) is a non-profit organization whose mission is to explore the world's ocean, and to capture the excitement of that exploration for audiences of all ages, but primarily to inspire and motivate the next generation of explorers. The flagship of OET's exploratory programs is the Exploration Vessel Nautilus, on which annual expeditions are carried out to support our mission. The ship is equipped with state of the art satellite telecommunications "telepresence" technology that enables 24/7 world-wide real time access to the data being collected by the ships remotely operated vehicles. It is this "live" access that affords OET and its partners the opportunity to engage and inspire audiences across the United States and abroad. OET has formed partnerships with a wide-range of educational organizations that collectively offer life-time

  5. BURST TAILS FROM SGR J1550–5418 OBSERVED WITH THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muş, Sinem Şaşmaz; Gögüş, Ersin; Kaneko, Yuki; Chakraborty, Manoneeta; Aydın, Berk, E-mail: sinemsmus@sabanciuniv.edu [Sabancı University, Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Orhanlı Tuzla 34956 Istanbul (Turkey)

    2015-07-01

    We present the results of our extensive search using the Bayesian block method for long tails following short bursts from a magnetar, SGR J1550–5418, over all RXTE observations of the source. We identified four bursts with extended tails, most of which occurred during its 2009 burst active episode. The durations of tails range between ∼13 s and over 3 ks, which are much longer than the typical duration of bursts. We performed detailed spectral and temporal analyses of the burst tails. We find that the spectra of three tails show a thermal nature with a trend of cooling throughout the tail. We compare the results of our investigations with the properties of four other extended tails detected from SGR 1900+14 and SGR 1806–20 and suggest a scenario for the origin of the tail in the framework of the magnetar model.

  6. Exploring Black-White Differences in the Relationship Between Inflammation and Timing of Menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Alexandra C H; Graves, Katelyn Y

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the biosocial context of menopausal timing offers insight into social and health inequalities. Prior research on inflammatory chronic conditions suggests that inflammation may predict how early women experience menopause. We explore the ability of black race to moderate the overall relationship between chronic inflammation and timing of menopause. We use data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project on inflammation, age of last menstruation, and race as well as relevant social and medical covariates. We conduct event history modeling to predict age at menopause by inflammatory biomarker levels. Using interaction analysis, we investigate whether being black may shape the overall relationship between inflammation status and menopause timing. Our analyses find no significant statistical interactions between black race and inflammation in predicting menopausal onset. However, we do identify independent correlational relationships between inflammation and black race (r = 0.136) and between menopausal timing and black race (r = -0.129) as well as inflammation (r = -0.138) that emerge as significant in corresponding regression models. We conclude that race probably does not moderate associations between inflammation and menopause. Yet, we also note that the original parameter estimate for black race's impact on menopausal onset (HR = 1.29, p menopause relationship and recommend future research using mediation modeling.

  7. Balancing Exploration, Uncertainty Representation and Computational Time in Many-Objective Reservoir Policy Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatarain-Salazar, J.; Reed, P. M.; Quinn, J.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.

    2016-12-01

    As we confront the challenges of managing river basin systems with a large number of reservoirs and increasingly uncertain tradeoffs impacting their operations (due to, e.g. climate change, changing energy markets, population pressures, ecosystem services, etc.), evolutionary many-objective direct policy search (EMODPS) solution strategies will need to address the computational demands associated with simulating more uncertainties and therefore optimizing over increasingly noisy objective evaluations. Diagnostic assessments of state-of-the-art many-objective evolutionary algorithms (MOEAs) to support EMODPS have highlighted that search time (or number of function evaluations) and auto-adaptive search are key features for successful optimization. Furthermore, auto-adaptive MOEA search operators are themselves sensitive to having a sufficient number of function evaluations to learn successful strategies for exploring complex spaces and for escaping from local optima when stagnation is detected. Fortunately, recent parallel developments allow coordinated runs that enhance auto-adaptive algorithmic learning and can handle scalable and reliable search with limited wall-clock time, but at the expense of the total number of function evaluations. In this study, we analyze this tradeoff between parallel coordination and depth of search using different parallelization schemes of the Multi-Master Borg on a many-objective stochastic control problem. We also consider the tradeoff between better representing uncertainty in the stochastic optimization, and simplifying this representation to shorten the function evaluation time and allow for greater search. Our analysis focuses on the Lower Susquehanna River Basin (LSRB) system where multiple competing objectives for hydropower production, urban water supply, recreation and environmental flows need to be balanced. Our results provide guidance for balancing exploration, uncertainty, and computational demands when using the EMODPS

  8. Running out of time: exploring women's motivations for social egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2018-04-12

    Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6). Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Women's use of egg freezing was shaped by fears of running out of time to form a conventional family, difficulties in finding a partner and concerns about "panic partnering", together with a desire to avoid future regrets and blame. For some women, use of egg freezing was influenced by recent fertility or health diagnoses as well as critical life events. A fifth of the participants also disclosed an underlying fertility or health issue as affecting their decision. The study provides new insights in to the complex motivations women have for banking eggs. It identifies how women's use of egg freezing was an attempt to "preserve fertility" in the absence of the particular set of "life conditions" they regarded as crucial for pursuing parenthood. It also demonstrates that few women were motivated by a desire to enhance their career and that the boundaries between egg freezing for medical and for social reasons may be more porous than first anticipated.

  9. A tool for exploring space-time patterns : an animation user research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogao Patrick J

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813–1854 used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping – all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Results Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred

  10. A tool for exploring space-time patterns: an animation user research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogao, Patrick J

    2006-08-29

    Ever since Dr. John Snow (1813-1854) used a case map to identify water well as the source of a cholera outbreak in London in the 1800s, the use of spatio-temporal maps have become vital tools in a wide range of disease mapping and control initiatives. The increasing use of spatio-temporal maps in these life-threatening sectors warrants that they are accurate, and easy to interpret to enable prompt decision making by health experts. Similar spatio-temporal maps are observed in urban growth and census mapping--all critical aspects a of a country's socio-economic development. In this paper, a user test research was carried out to determine the effectiveness of spatio-temporal maps (animation) in exploring geospatial structures encompassing disease, urban and census mapping. Three types of animation were used, namely; passive, interactive and inference-based animation, with the key differences between them being on the level of interactivity and complementary domain knowledge that each offers to the user. Passive animation maintains the view only status. The user has no control over its contents and dynamic variables. Interactive animation provides users with the basic media player controls, navigation and orientation tools. Inference-based animation incorporates these interactive capabilities together with a complementary automated intelligent view that alerts users to interesting patterns, trends or anomalies that may be inherent in the data sets. The test focussed on the role of animation passive and interactive capabilities in exploring space-time patterns by engaging test-subjects in thinking aloud evaluation protocol. The test subjects were selected from a geoinformatics (map reading, interpretation and analysis abilities) background. Every test-subject used each of the three types of animation and their performances for each session assessed. The results show that interactivity in animation is a preferred exploratory tool in identifying, interpreting and

  11. Exploring students' understanding of reference frames and time in Galilean and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Hosson, C; Kermen, I; Parizot, E

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims at exploring prospective physics teachers' reasoning associated with the concepts of reference frame, time and event which form the framework of the classical kinematics and that of the relativistic kinematics. About 100 prospective physics teachers were surveyed by means of a questionnaire involving classical kinematics situations and relativistic ones. The analysis of the answers shows a deep lack of understanding of both concepts of reference frame and event. Some students think that events may be simultaneous for an observer and not simultaneous for another one, even when both observers are located in the same reference frame. Most of the students surveyed cannot give an answer only depending on the location of the observer when his/her velocity is mentioned as if the movement contaminated the event. This lack of understanding is embodied in reasoning implemented by the population surveyed to address classical kinematics questions and seems to form a major obstacle to grasping relativistic kinematics.

  12. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor Localization of SGR 1627-41

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Donald A.; Bradt, Hale V.; Levine, Alan M.

    1999-07-01

    The fourth unambiguously identified soft gamma repeater (SGR), SGR 1627-41, was discovered with the BATSE instrument on 1998 June 15. Interplanetary Network (IPN) measurements and BATSE data constrained the location of this new SGR to a 6° segment of a narrow (19") annulus. We present two bursts from this source observed by the All-Sky Monitor (ASM) on the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer. We use the ASM data to further constrain the source location to a 5' long segment of the BATSE/IPN error box. The ASM/IPN error box lies within 0.3 arcmin of the supernova remnant G337.0-0.1. The probability that a supernova remnant would fall so close to the error box purely by chance is ~5%.

  13. Exploring space-time structure of human mobility in urban space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, J. B.; Yuan, J.; Wang, Y.; Si, H. B.; Shan, X. M.

    2011-03-01

    Understanding of human mobility in urban space benefits the planning and provision of municipal facilities and services. Due to the high penetration of cell phones, mobile cellular networks provide information for urban dynamics with a large spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage in comparison with traditional approaches. The original data investigated in this paper were collected by cellular networks in a southern city of China, recording the population distribution by dividing the city into thousands of pixels. The space-time structure of urban dynamics is explored by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to the original data, from temporal and spatial perspectives between which there is a dual relation. Based on the results of the analysis, we have discovered four underlying rules of urban dynamics: low intrinsic dimensionality, three categories of common patterns, dominance of periodic trends, and temporal stability. It implies that the space-time structure can be captured well by remarkably few temporal or spatial predictable periodic patterns, and the structure unearthed by PCA evolves stably over time. All these features play a critical role in the applications of forecasting and anomaly detection.

  14. An Exploration of Dual Systems via Time Pressure Manipulation in Decision-making Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Lisa

    Every day, decisions need to be made where time is a limiting factor. Regardless of situation, time constraints often place a premium on rapid decision-making. Researchers have been interested in studying this human behavior and understanding its underlying cognitive processes. In previous studies, scientists have believed that the cognitive processes underlying decision-making behavior were consistent with dual-process modes of thinking. Critics of dual-process theory question the vagueness of its definition, and claim that single-process accounts can explain the data just as well. My aim is to elucidate the cognitive processes that underlie decisions which involve some level of risk through the experimental manipulation of time pressure. Using this method, I hope to distinguish between competing hypotheses related to the origin of the effect. I will explore three types of decisions that illustrate these concepts: risky decision-making involving gambles, intertemporal choice, and one-shot public goods games involving social cooperation. In our experiments, participants made decisions about gambles framed as either gains or losses; decided upon intertemporal choices for smaller but sooner rewards or larger but later rewards; and played a one-shot public goods game involving social cooperation and contributing an amount of money to a group. In each case, we experimentally manipulated time pressure, either within subjects or among individuals. Results showed under time pressure, increased framing effects under in both hypothetical and incentivized choices; and greater contributions and cooperation among individuals, lending support to the dual process hypothesis that these effects arise from a fast, intuitive system. However, our intertemporal choice experiment showed that time constraints led to increased selection of the larger but later options, which suggests that the magnitude of the reward may play larger role in choice selection under cognitive load than

  15. EEG biometric identification: a thorough exploration of the time-frequency domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    DelPozo-Banos, Marcos; Travieso, Carlos M.; Weidemann, Christoph T.; Alonso, Jesús B.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Although interest in using electroencephalogram (EEG) activity for subject identification has grown in recent years, the state of the art still lacks a comprehensive exploration of the discriminant information within it. This work aims to fill this gap, and in particular, it focuses on the time-frequency representation of the EEG. Approach. We executed qualitative and quantitative analyses of six publicly available data sets following a sequential experimentation approach. This approach was divided in three blocks analysing the configuration of the power spectrum density, the representation of the data and the properties of the discriminant information. A total of ten experiments were applied. Main results. Results show that EEG information below 40 Hz is unique enough to discriminate across subjects (a maximum of 100 subjects were evaluated here), regardless of the recorded cognitive task or the sensor location. Moreover, the discriminative power of rhythms follows a W-like shape between 1 and 40 Hz, with the central peak located at the posterior rhythm (around 10 Hz). This information is maximized with segments of around 2 s, and it proved to be moderately constant across montages and time. Significance. Therefore, we characterize how EEG activity differs across individuals and detail the optimal conditions to detect subject-specific information. This work helps to clarify the results of previous studies and to solve some unanswered questions. Ultimately, it will serve as guide for the design of future biometric systems.

  16. GENEASE: Real time bioinformatics tool for multi-omics and disease ontology exploration, analysis and visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghandikota, Sudhir; Hershey, Gurjit K Khurana; Mersha, Tesfaye B

    2018-03-24

    Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have made it possible to generate multiple omics data at an unprecedented rate and scale. The accumulation of these omics data far outpaces the rate at which biologists can mine and generate new hypothesis to test experimentally. There is an urgent need to develop a myriad of powerful tools to efficiently and effectively search and filter these resources to address specific post-GWAS functional genomics questions. However, to date, these resources are scattered across several databases and often lack a unified portal for data annotation and analytics. In addition, existing tools to analyze and visualize these databases are highly fragmented, resulting researchers to access multiple applications and manual interventions for each gene or variant in an ad hoc fashion until all the questions are answered. In this study, we present GENEASE, a web-based one-stop bioinformatics tool designed to not only query and explore multi-omics and phenotype databases (e.g., GTEx, ClinVar, dbGaP, GWAS Catalog, ENCODE, Roadmap Epigenomics, KEGG, Reactome, Gene and Phenotype Ontology) in a single web interface but also to perform seamless post genome-wide association downstream functional and overlap analysis for non-coding regulatory variants. GENEASE accesses over 50 different databases in public domain including model organism-specific databases to facilitate gene/variant and disease exploration, enrichment and overlap analysis in real time. It is a user-friendly tool with point-and-click interface containing links for support information including user manual and examples. GENEASE can be accessed freely at http://research.cchmc.org/mershalab/genease_new/login.html. Tesfaye.Mersha@cchmc.org, Sudhir.Ghandikota@cchmc.org. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  17. Phenomenology: Exploring Women’s Experiences of First Time IUD Insertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransiska Imavike Fevriasanty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to explore Indonesian women’s experiences of first-time IUD insertion.Method: This study using phenomenological approach. Three Javanese women who lived in Malang Indonesia were interviewed using an unstructured process and the women’s native language was utilized. Soon after the interview, transcripts were translated from Indonesian into English, and phenomenological analysis of data was used.Result: The results revealed one major and three minor themes and identify embarrassment as the major contribution to women’s feelings of powerlessness. These feelings emerged because women experienced a lack of privacy during the insertion procedure. Women are vulnerable especially when there is no support received while facing a stressful medical procedure.Conclusion: Women need assistance from the health staff in order to deal with this traumatic experience. This improvement will includes the enhancement of clinic staff communication skills, the enrichment of health practice in providing better service and the upgrading of health policy that focuses on nurses/ doctors’ attitudes to give women-centered care.

  18. Factors influencing first-time mothers' introduction of complementary foods: a qualitative exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Anne; Kearney, Lauren; Dennis, Nicole

    2015-09-22

    Optimal infant nutrition comprises exclusive breastfeeding, with complementary foods introduced from six months of age. How parents make decisions regarding this is poorly studied. This study begins to address the dearth of research into the decision-making processes used by first-time mothers relating to the introduction of complementary foods. This qualitative explorative study was conducted using interviews (13) and focus groups (3). A semi-structured interview guide based on the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The TPB, a well-validated decision-making model, identifies the key determinants of a behaviour through behavioural beliefs, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control over the behaviour. It is purported that these beliefs predict behavioural intention to perform the behaviour, and performing the behaviour. A purposive, convenience, sample of 21 metropolitan parents recruited through advertising at local playgroups and childcare centres, and electronically through the University community email list self-selected to participate. Data were analysed thematically within the theoretical constructs: behavioural beliefs, subjective norms and perceived behavioural control. Data relating to sources of information about the introduction of complementary foods were also collected. Overall, first-time mothers found that waiting until six months was challenging despite knowledge of the WHO recommendations and an initial desire to comply with this guideline. Beliefs that complementary foods would assist the infants' weight gain, sleeping patterns and enjoyment at meal times were identified. Barriers preventing parents complying with the recommendations included subjective and group norms, peer influences, infant cues indicating early readiness and food labelling inconsistencies. The most valued information source was from peers who had recently introduced complementary foods. First-time mothers in this study did not demonstrate a good understanding of the

  19. The "Carbon Data Explorer": Web-Based Space-Time Visualization of Modeled Carbon Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billmire, M.; Endsley, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    The visualization of and scientific "sense-making" from large datasets varying in both space and time is a challenge; one that is still being addressed in a number of different fields. The approaches taken thus far are often specific to a given academic field due to the unique questions that arise in different disciplines, however, basic approaches such as geographic maps and time series plots are still widely useful. The proliferation of model estimates of increasing size and resolution further complicates what ought to be a simple workflow: Model some geophysical phenomen(on), obtain results and measure uncertainty, organize and display the data, make comparisons across trials, and share findings. A new tool is in development that is intended to help scientists with the latter parts of that workflow. The tentatively-titled "Carbon Data Explorer" (http://spatial.mtri.org/flux-client/) enables users to access carbon science and related spatio-temporal science datasets over the web. All that is required to access multiple interactive visualizations of carbon science datasets is a compatible web browser and an internet connection. While the application targets atmospheric and climate science datasets, particularly spatio-temporal model estimates of carbon products, the software architecture takes an agnostic approach to the data to be visualized. Any atmospheric, biophysical, or geophysical quanity that varies in space and time, including one or more measures of uncertainty, can be visualized within the application. Within the web application, users have seamless control over a flexible and consistent symbology for map-based visualizations and plots. Where time series data are represented by one or more data "frames" (e.g. a map), users can animate the data. In the "coordinated view," users can make direct comparisons between different frames and different models or model runs, facilitating intermodal comparisons and assessments of spatio-temporal variability. Map

  20. Visual Data Exploration for Balance Quantification in Real-Time During Exergaming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venustiano Soancatl Aguilar

    Full Text Available Unintentional injuries are among the ten leading causes of death in older adults; falls cause 60% of these deaths. Despite their effectiveness to improve balance and reduce the risk of falls, balance training programs have several drawbacks in practice, such as lack of engaging elements, boring exercises, and the effort and cost of travelling, ultimately resulting in low adherence. Exergames, that is, digital games controlled by body movements, have been proposed as an alternative to improve balance. One of the main challenges for exergames is to automatically quantify balance during game-play in order to adapt the game difficulty according to the skills of the player. Here we perform a multidimensional exploratory data analysis, using visualization techniques, to find useful measures for quantifying balance in real-time. First, we visualize exergaming data, derived from 400 force plate recordings of 40 participants from 20 to 79 years and 10 trials per participant, as heat maps and violin plots to get quick insight into the nature of the data. Second, we extract known and new features from the data, such as instantaneous speed, measures of dispersion, turbulence measures derived from speed, and curvature values. Finally, we analyze and visualize these features using several visualizations such as a heat map, overlapping violin plots, a parallel coordinate plot, a projection of the two first principal components, and a scatter plot matrix. Our visualizations and findings suggest that heat maps and violin plots can provide quick insight and directions for further data exploration. The most promising measures to quantify balance in real-time are speed, curvature and a turbulence measure, because these measures show age-related changes in balance performance. The next step is to apply the present techniques to data of whole body movements as recorded by devices such as Kinect.

  1. Exploring the utility of real-time hydrologic data for landslide early warning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, B. B.; Smith, J. B.; Becker, R.; Baum, R. L.; Koss, E.

    2017-12-01

    Early warning systems can provide critical information for operations managers, emergency planners, and the public to help reduce fatalities, injuries, and economic losses due to landsliding. For shallow, rainfall-triggered landslides early warning systems typically use empirical rainfall thresholds, whereas the actual triggering mechanism involves the non-linear hydrological processes of infiltration, evapotranspiration, and hillslope drainage that are more difficult to quantify. Because hydrologic monitoring has demonstrated that shallow landslides are often preceded by a rise in soil moisture and pore-water pressures, some researchers have developed early warning criteria that attempt to account for these antecedent wetness conditions through relatively simplistic storage metrics or soil-water balance modeling. Here we explore the potential for directly incorporating antecedent wetness into landslide early warning criteria using recent landslide inventories and in-situ hydrologic monitoring near Seattle, WA, and Portland, OR. We use continuous, near-real-time telemetered soil moisture and pore-water pressure data measured within a few landslide-prone hillslopes in combination with measured and forecasted rainfall totals to inform easy-to-interpret landslide initiation thresholds. Objective evaluation using somewhat limited landslide inventories suggests that our new thresholds based on subsurface hydrologic monitoring and rainfall data compare favorably to the capabilities of existing rainfall-only thresholds for the Seattle area, whereas there are no established rainfall thresholds for the Portland area. This preliminary investigation provides a proof-of-concept for the utility of developing landslide early warning criteria in two different geologic settings using real-time subsurface hydrologic measurements from in-situ instrumentation.

  2. Exploring Mediating and Moderating Influences on the Links between Cycle Time, Proficiency in Entry Timing and New Product Profitability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, F.; Hultink, E.J.; Griffin, A.

    2006-01-01

    Development cycle time is the elapsed time from the beginning of idea generation to the moment that the new product is ready for market introduction. Market entry timing is contingent upon the new product’s cycle time. Only when the product is completed can a firm decide whether and when to enter

  3. Exploring the acceptable travel time concept in the US and European contexts. Results from Berkeley, CA and Delft, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milakis, D.; van Wee, G.P.

    2016-01-01

    “Do people consider an acceptable travel time?” We raised this question in Milakis, Cervero, and van Wee (2015) to explore the validity of the acceptable travel time concept as a possible factor in the travel and destination decision-making process. Results from interviews with 20 subjects in

  4. Late Strunian age : a key time frame for VMS deposit exploration in the Iberian Pyrite Belt

    OpenAIRE

    Matos, João Xavier; Pereira, Zélia; Rosa, Carlos J. P.; Rosa, Diogo R. N.; Oliveira, José Tomás; Relvas, Jorge M. R. S.

    2011-01-01

    Estimate of geological environments favorable for the formation of massive sulphide deposits is an important goal to the exploration companies working in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB), the main European VMS base metals province, with giant deposits such as Neves Corvo, Aljustrel (Portugal), Rio Tinto and Tharsis (Spain). Palynostratigraphic research programs using more than 40 exploration boreholes (>30 km length) allowed the dating of the sediments of the Volcano-Sedimentary Comp...

  5. An Expanded Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Survey of X-Ray Variability in Seyfert 1 Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.; Edelson, R.

    2004-12-01

    The first seven years of RXTE monitoring of Seyfert 1 active galactic nuclei have been systematically analyzed to yield five homogeneous samples of 2-12 keV light curves, probing hard X-ray variability on successively longer durations from ~1 day to ~3.5 yr. The 2-10 keV variability on timescales of ~1 day, as probed by ASCA, is included. All sources exhibit stronger X-ray variability toward longer timescales, but the increase is greater for relatively higher luminosity sources. Variability amplitudes are anticorrelated with X-ray luminosity and black hole mass, but amplitudes saturate and become independent of luminosity or black hole mass toward the longest timescales. The data are consistent with the models of power spectral density (PSD) movement described by Markowitz and coworkers and McHardy and coworkers, whereby Seyfert 1 galaxies' variability can be described by a single, universal PSD shape whose break frequency scales with black hole mass. The best-fitting scaling relations between variability timescale, black hole mass, and X-ray luminosity imply an average accretion rate of ~5% of the Eddington limit for the sample. Nearly all sources exhibit stronger variability in the relatively soft 2-4 keV band compared to the 7-12 keV band on all timescales. There are indications that relatively less luminous or less massive sources exhibit a greater degree of spectral variability for a given increase in overall flux.

  6. Design-time application mapping and platform exploration for MP-SoC customised run-time management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ykman-Couvreur, Ch.; Nollet, V.; Marescaux, T.M.; Brockmeyer, E.; Catthoor, F.; Corporaal, H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: In an Multi-Processor system-on-Chip (MP-SoC) environment, a customized run-time management layer should be incorporated on top of the basic Operating System services to alleviate the run-time decision-making and to globally optimise costs (e.g. energy consumption) across all active

  7. Exploration of an alluvial aquifer in Oman by time-domain electromagnetic sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, M. E.; de Bruijn, R. G. M.; Al-Ismaily, A. Salim

    One-third of the population of Oman depends upon groundwater extracted from the alluvium of the Batinah Plain, on the coast of the Gulf of Oman. Deep geophysical exploration techniques were used to determine the depth and nature of the alluvium and the boundaries of the aquifer. The base and structural controls of the alluvial basin at its contact with Tertiary marine sediments and Cretaceous ophiolite were mapped with seismic reflection data, recorded originally for oil exploration. The base of the alluvium dips northward from the foothills of the Northern Oman Mountains, reaching a maximum depth of 2000m at the coast. The varying facies of the alluvium are grossly characterised by different, overlapping ranges of electrical resistivity, depending largely on the clay content and degree of cementation. Resistivities near the coast are reduced by saline intrusion. These variations of resistivity were mapped with time-domain electromagnetic sounding along 400km of profile, to distinguish among the three zones of the alluvial aquifer. The wedge of saline intrusion was also delineated, up to 10km from the coast. The thickness of the saturated gravel aquifer ranges from 20-160m in an area greater than 600km2. Résumé Un tiers de la population d'Oman est alimenté par de l'eau souterraine pompée dans les alluvions de la plaine de Batinah, sur la côte du golfe d'Oman. Des techniques d'exploration géophysique profonde ont été mises en oeuvre pour déterminer la profondeur et la nature des alluvions et les limites de l'aquifère. La base et les contrôles structuraux du bassin alluvial au contact des sédiments marins tertiaires et des ophiolites crétacées ont été cartographiés à partir des données de sismique réflexion obtenues à l'origine pour la recherche pétrolière. La base des alluvions plonge vers le nord à partir du piémont du massif septentrional d'Oman, pour atteindre une profondeur maximale de 2000m sur la côte. Les divers faciès alluviaux

  8. Predicting Change over Time in Career Planning and Career Exploration for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creed, Peter A.; Patton, Wendy; Prideaux, Lee-Ann

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed 166 high school students in Grade 8 and again in Grade 10. Four models were tested: (a) whether the T1 predictor variables (career knowledge, indecision, decision-making selfefficacy, self-esteem, demographics) predicted the outcome variable (career planning/exploration) at T1; (b) whether the T1 predictor variables predicted…

  9. Exploring Time Perspective in Greek Young Adults: Validation of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory and Relationships with Mental Health Indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Griva, Fay

    2012-01-01

    In this article we examine the factorial structure of the Greek version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (ZTPI; Zimbardo and Boyd in "J Personal Soc Psychol" 77:1271-1288, 1999), in a sample of 337 university students, using principal axis factoring (PAF) with oblique rotation, and its dimensionality using parallel analysis.…

  10. Exploring the effects of adolescent perceptions of parenting in free time and gender on adolescent motivation in free time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton E., Jr. Watts; Linda L. Caldwell

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how gender and perceptions of parenting related to adolescent motivation during free-time. The sample consisted of 377 ninthgraders from high schools in eastern Massachusetts. Significant gender differences were found for rules enacted, with females reporting more rules in place than males. When examining the relationship between parenting practices...

  11. Timing Is Everything: One Teacher's Exploration of the Best Time to Use Visual Media in a Science Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Debra

    2006-01-01

    Kids today are growing up with televisions, movies, videos and DVDs, so it's logical to assume that this type of media could be motivating and used to great effect in the classroom. But at what point should film and other visual media be used? Are there times in the inquiry process when showing a film or incorporating other visual media is more…

  12. Peripleo: a Tool for Exploring Heterogeneous Data through the Dimensions of Space and Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Simon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces Peripleo, a prototype spatiotemporal search and visualization tool. Peripleo enables users to explore the geographic, temporal and thematic composition of distributed digital collections in their entirety, and then to progressively filter and drill down to explore individual records. We provide an overview of Peripleo's features, and present the underlying technical architecture. Furthermore, we discuss how datasets that differ vastly in terms of size, content type and theme can be made uniformly accessible through a set of lightweight metadata conventions we term "connectivity through common references". Our current demo installation links approximately half a million records from 25 datasets. These datasets originate from a spectrum of sources, ranging from the small personal photo collection with 35 records, to the large institutional database with 134.000 objects. The product of research in the Andrew W. Mellon-funded Pelagios 3 project, Peripleo is Open Source software.

  13. The Influence of a Career Exploration Course on New First-Time Student Retention at a Public Midwest Community College

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Brenda F.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a relationship exists between new first- time students enrolled in a career exploration course and retention during the academic years of 2009 to 2011 at a public Midwest community college. Change of major after the first semester was also investigated. The study utilized quantitative, archival data…

  14. Exploring the Relationship between Time Management Skills and the Academic Achievement of African Engineering Students--A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Arthur James; Lombard, Kobus; de Jager, Henk

    2010-01-01

    Poor academic success by African engineering students is currently experienced in many higher educational institutions, contributing to lower financial subsidies by local governments. One of the contributing factors to this low academic success may be the poor time management skills of these students. This article endeavours to explore this…

  15. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  16. Exploring the Relationships Between Just-In-Time Technique and Manufacturing Performance: Empirical Evidence From Selected Nigerian Firms

    OpenAIRE

    Ph. D. John Kolade Obamiro

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between just-in-time technique and manufacturing performance of some selected Nigerian companies. Just-in time was considered to be an overall organisational phenomenon. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire from a sample size of 300 knowledgeable employees to test the developed model and formulated hypotheses that cover both just-intime and the supporting infrastructures. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to test the three hypotheses...

  17. A stage-wise approach to exploring performance effects of cycle time reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eling, K.; Langerak, F.; Griffin, A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on reducing new product development (NPD) cycle time has shown that firms tend to adopt different cycle time reduction mechanisms for different process stages. However, the vast majority of previous studies investigating the relationship between new product performance and NPD cycle time

  18. First X-ray Statistical Tests for Clumpy Torii Models: Constraints from RXTE monitoring of Seyfert AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, A.

    2015-09-01

    We summarize two papers providing the first X-ray-derived statistical constraints for both clumpy-torus model parameters and cloud ensemble properties. In Markowitz, Krumpe, & Nikutta (2014), we explored multi-timescale variability in line-of-sight X-ray absorbing gas as a function of optical classification. We examined 55 Seyferts monitored with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer, and found in 8 objects a total of 12 eclipses, with durations between hours and years. Most clouds are commensurate with the outer portions of the BLR, or the inner regions of infrared-emitting dusty tori. The detection of eclipses in type Is disfavors sharp-edged tori. We provide probabilities to observe a source undergoing an absorption event for both type Is and IIs, yielding constraints in [N_0, sigma, i] parameter space. In Nikutta et al., in prep., we infer that the small cloud angular sizes, as seen from the SMBH, imply the presence of >10^7 clouds in BLR+torus to explain observed covering factors. Cloud size is roughly proportional to distance from the SMBH, hinting at the formation processes (e.g. disk fragmentation). All observed clouds are sub-critical with respect to tidal disruption; self-gravity alone cannot contain them. External forces (e.g. magnetic fields, ambient pressure) are needed to contain them, or otherwise the clouds must be short-lived. Finally, we infer that the radial cloud density distribution behaves as 1/r^{0.7}, compatible with VLTI observations. Our results span both dusty and non-dusty clumpy media, and probe model parameter space complementary to that for short-term eclipses observed with XMM-Newton, Suzaku, and Chandra.

  19. Combined Spectral and Timing Analysis of the Black Hole Candidate MAXI J1659-152 Discovered by MAXI and Swift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Allured, Ryan; Kaaret, Philip; Kennea, Jamie A.; Kawaguchi, Toshihiro; Gandhi, Poshak; Shaposhnikov, Nicholai; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Nakahira, Satoshi; Kotani, Taro; hide

    2011-01-01

    We report on X-ray spectral and timing results of the new black hole candidate (BHC) MAXI J1659-152 with the orbital period of 2.41 hours (shortest among BHCs) in the 2010 outburst from 65 Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations and 8 simultaneous Swift and RXTE observations. According to the definitions of the spectral states in Remillard & McClintock (2006), most of the observations have been classified into the intermediate state. All the X-ray broadband spectra can be modeled by a multi-color disk plus a power-law with an exponential cutoff or a multi-color disk plus a Comptonization component. During the initial phase of the outburst, a high energy cutoff was visible at 30-40 keV. The innermost radius of the disk gradually decreased by a factor of more than 3 from the onset of the outburst and reached a constant value of 35 d(sub 10)cos(i sup -1/2) km, where d(sub 10) is the distance in units of 10 kpc and i is the inclination. The type-C quasi-periodic oscillation (QPO) frequency varied from 1.6 Hz to 7.3 Hz in association with a change of the innermost radius, while the innermost radius remained constant during the type-B QPO detections at 1.6-4.1 Hz. Hence, we suggest that the origin of the type-B QPOs is different from that of type-C QPOs, the latter of which would originate from the disk truncation radius. Assuming the constant innermost radius in the latter phase of the outburst as the innermost stable circular orbit, the black hole mass in MAXI J1659-152 is estimated to be 3.6-8.0 solar mass for a distance of 5.3-8.6 kpc and an inclination angle of 60-75 degrees.

  20. Design and realization of real-time processing system for seismic exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Sifeng; Cao Ping; Song Kezhu; Yao Lin

    2010-01-01

    For solving real-time seismic data processing problems, a high-speed, large-capacity and real-time data processing system is designed based on FPGA and ARM. With the advantages of multi-processor, DRPS has the characteristics of high-speed data receiving, large-capacity data storage, protocol analysis, data splicing, data converting from time sequence into channel sequence, no dead time data ping-pong storage, etc. And with the embedded Linux operating system, DRPS has the characteristics of flexibility and reliability. (authors)

  1. The Effects of Reinforcing Intermediate Elementary Students to Constructively Use Free Time for Vocational Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosie, Thomas W.

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of operant conditioning procedures in stimulating intermediate elementary students to constructively utilize free time for pursuing occupational information. (RC)

  2. Time-based prospective memory in young children-Exploring executive functions as a developmental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmer, Anett; Voigt, Babett; Friedrich, Sylva; Pfeiffer, Kathrin; Kliegel, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated time-based prospective memory (PM) during the transition from kindergarten/preschool to school age and applied mediation models to test the impact of executive functions (working memory, inhibitory control) and time monitoring on time-based PM development. Twenty-five preschool (age: M = 5.75, SD = 0.28) and 22 primary school children (age: M = 7.83, SD = 0.39) participated. To examine time-based PM, children had to play a computer-based driving game requiring them to drive a car on a road without hitting others cars (ongoing task) and to refill the car regularly according to a fuel gauge, which serves as clock equivalent (PM task). The level of gas that was still left in the fuel gauge was not displayed on the screen and children had to monitor it via a button press (time monitoring). Results revealed a developmental increase in time-based PM performance from preschool to school age. Applying the mediation models, only working memory was revealed to influence PM development. Neither inhibitory control alone nor the mediation paths leading from both executive functions to time monitoring could explain the link between age and time-based PM. Thus, results of the present study suggest that working memory may be one key cognitive process driving the developmental growth of time-based PM during the transition from preschool to school age.

  3. Interaction matters? : exploring interactive music as a reminder to break sedentary office time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, X.; Lu, Y.; Visser, V.J.J.; Le, P.D.Huy; van den Burg, R.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a within-subject field test (n=24) with Flow platform, a smart cushion that uses interactive music to motivate office workers to break excessive sedentary time. In this study, we compared continuous music and interactive music as reminders to inform sedentary time by every

  4. Exploring Time-Lapse Photography as a Means for Qualitative Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persohn, Lindsay

    2015-01-01

    Collecting information via time-lapse photography is nothing new. Scientists and artists have been using this kind of data since the late 1800s. However, my research and experiments with time-lapse have shown that great potential may lie in its application to educational and social scientific research methods. This article is part history, part…

  5. Future time orientation and temperament: exploration of their relationship to primary and secondary psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørnebekk, Gunnar; Gjesme, Torgrim

    2009-08-01

    The present study combines Lykken's theory about the role of reward sensitivity and punishment insensitivity in the development of antisocial behavior with Gjesme's theory of future time orientation. 158 adolescents comprised a target group of 79 adolescents who had defined behavioral problems and a matched referential group of 79 adolescents who did not have notable behavioral problems. The results suggest that attributes related to primary psychopathy are associated with a relatively weak or hyporeactive behavioral inhibition system, behavioral approach reactivity, and low future time orientation. Moreover, attributes related to secondary psychopathy are related to an overly sensitive (hyper-reactive) behavioral approach system and low future time orientation. Robust positive associations for behavioral approach reactivity and low future time orientation with primary and secondary psychopathy suggest that high behavioral approach/low future time orientation may represent a core feature common to the two factors of psychopathy.

  6. Exploring the relationships between free-time management and boredom in leisure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ching; Wu, Chung-Chi; Wu, Chang-Yang; Huan, Tzung-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relations of five dimensions of free-time management (including goal setting and evaluating, technique, values, immediate response, and scheduling) with leisure boredom, and whether these factors could predict leisure boredom. A total of 500 undergraduates from a university in southern Taiwan were surveyed with 403 usable questionnaires was returned. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that five dimensions of free-time management had significant negative relationships with leisure boredom. Furthermore, the results of stepwise regression analysis revealed that four dimensions of free-time management were significant contributors to leisure boredom. Finally, we suggested students can avoid boredom by properly planning and organizing leisure time and applying techniques for managing leisure time.

  7. Interactive exploration of large-scale time-varying data using dynamic tracking graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Widanagamaachchi, W.; Christensen, C.; Bremer, P.-T; Pascucci, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    that use one spatial dimension to indicate time and show the "tracks" of each feature as it evolves, merges or disappears. However, for practical data sets creating the corresponding optimal graph layouts that minimize the number of intersections can take

  8. Real-Time Integrated Navigation System for Planetary Exploration (RT-INSPEX), Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — For supporting NASA's efforts in enhancing robotic autonomy and off-loading work from operators and astronauts, American GNC Corporation has developed the "Real-Time...

  9. An Exploration of Dual Systems via Time Pressure Manipulation in Decision-making Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    Every day, decisions need to be made where time is a limiting factor. Regardless of situation, time constraints often place a premium on rapid decision-making. Researchers have been interested in studying this human behavior and understanding its underlying cognitive processes. In previous studies, scientists have believed that the cognitive processes underlying decision-making behavior were consistent with dual-process modes of thinking. Critics of dual-process theory question the vagueness ...

  10. A dynamical approach in exploring the unknown mass in the Solar system using pulsar timing arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Y. J.; Lee, K. J.; Caballero, R. N.

    2018-04-01

    The error in the Solar system ephemeris will lead to dipolar correlations in the residuals of pulsar timing array for widely separated pulsars. In this paper, we utilize such correlated signals, and construct a Bayesian data-analysis framework to detect the unknown mass in the Solar system and to measure the orbital parameters. The algorithm is designed to calculate the waveform of the induced pulsar-timing residuals due to the unmodelled objects following the Keplerian orbits in the Solar system. The algorithm incorporates a Bayesian-analysis suit used to simultaneously analyse the pulsar-timing data of multiple pulsars to search for coherent waveforms, evaluate the detection significance of unknown objects, and to measure their parameters. When the object is not detectable, our algorithm can be used to place upper limits on the mass. The algorithm is verified using simulated data sets, and cross-checked with analytical calculations. We also investigate the capability of future pulsar-timing-array experiments in detecting the unknown objects. We expect that the future pulsar-timing data can limit the unknown massive objects in the Solar system to be lighter than 10-11-10-12 M⊙, or measure the mass of Jovian system to a fractional precision of 10-8-10-9.

  11. Exploring Part-Time Teacher Professional Development and Best Practices on Adult Learners' Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sandra K.

    2017-01-01

    The issue of limited part-time teacher professional development and its effect on adult learners' success at an adult education center in the northeast United States was addressed in this study. At the research site, almost 50% of the teaching staff are adjuncts. Professional development opportunities have been limited, with only 1 opportunity…

  12. CellProfiler Tracer: exploring and validating high-throughput, time-lapse microscopy image data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Mark-Anthony; Carpenter, Anne E

    2015-11-04

    Time-lapse analysis of cellular images is an important and growing need in biology. Algorithms for cell tracking are widely available; what researchers have been missing is a single open-source software package to visualize standard tracking output (from software like CellProfiler) in a way that allows convenient assessment of track quality, especially for researchers tuning tracking parameters for high-content time-lapse experiments. This makes quality assessment and algorithm adjustment a substantial challenge, particularly when dealing with hundreds of time-lapse movies collected in a high-throughput manner. We present CellProfiler Tracer, a free and open-source tool that complements the object tracking functionality of the CellProfiler biological image analysis package. Tracer allows multi-parametric morphological data to be visualized on object tracks, providing visualizations that have already been validated within the scientific community for time-lapse experiments, and combining them with simple graph-based measures for highlighting possible tracking artifacts. CellProfiler Tracer is a useful, free tool for inspection and quality control of object tracking data, available from http://www.cellprofiler.org/tracer/.

  13. Exploring Continuity of Care in Patients with Alcohol Use Disorders Using Time-Variant Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. de Vries (Sjoerd); A.I. Wierdsma (André)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground/Aims: We used time-variant measures of continuity of care to study fluctuations in long-term treatment use by patients with alcohol-related disorders. Methods: Data on service use were extracted from the Psychiatric Case Register for the Rotterdam Region, The Netherlands.

  14. Perseverance time of informal carers. A new concept in dementia care. Validation and exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraijo, H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction and aim Because of the expected increase of dementia patients in the next decades and the growing demand for formal care, an important question appears: how to predict and influence the caring possibilities of informal carers. We introduce the concept perseverance time, describedas

  15. Exploring the potential of digital resources as a source of social support in first time pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Newhouse

    2015-10-01

    First-time pregnancy is a time of huge physical and emotional change and women often need support. One way of providing this is to provide wellbeing information. However, pregnant women are bombarded with information, much of it generic, conflicting or anecdotal. Large numbers of women look for information and advice online, increasingly engaging with alternative forms of ‘expert’ information, in the form of other people’s experiences. This context provides a unique opportunity for digital resources to act as preventative medicine: bringing women together in a safe online environment allows them to speak freely, develop practical skills and feel supported as they become parents. This in turn relieves healthcare burden by preventing negative maternal and neonatal outcomes. This project will determine the context-driven user needs and requirements of a unique group of people and demonstrates the importance of a multidisciplinary approach to the development of pragmatic digital health solutions.

  16. A compact multifunctional microfluidic platform for exploring cellular dynamics in real-time using electrochemical detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zor, Kinga; Heiskanen, Arto; Caviglia, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    and electrochemical analysis platform with in-built fluid handling and detection, enabling complete cell based assays comprising on-line electrode cleaning, sterilization, surface functionalization, cell seeding, cultivation and electrochemical real-time monitoring of cellular dynamics. To demonstrate the versatility...... capability. The here presented platform is aimed at applications utilizing cell based assays, ranging from e.g. monitoring of drug effects in pharmacological studies, characterization of neural stem cell differentiation, and screening of genetically modified microorganisms to environmental monitoring....

  17. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study...

  18. Exploring the Dynamics of Superconductors by Time-Resolved Far-Infrared Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, G. L.; Lobo, R. P. S. M.; LaVeigne, J.; Reitze, D. H.; Tanner, D. B.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the recombination of excess quasiparticles in superconducting Pb by time-resolved far-infrared spectroscopy using a pulsed synchrotron source. The energy gap shift calculated by Owen and Scalapino [Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 1559 (1972)] is directly observed, as is the associated reduction in the Cooper pair density. The relaxation process involves a two-component decay; the faster (∼200 ps) is associated with the actual (effective) recombination process, while the slower (∼10 to 100ns) is due to heat transport across the film/substrate interface. The temperature dependence of the recombination process between 0.5T c and 0.85T c is in good agreement with theory

  19. Understanding Global Change: Tools for exploring Earth processes and biotic change through time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, J. R.; White, L. D.; Berbeco, M.

    2014-12-01

    Teaching global change is one of the great pedagogical challenges of our day because real understanding entails integrating a variety of concepts from different scientific subject areas, including chemistry, physics, and biology, with a variety of causes and impacts in the past, present, and future. With the adoption of the Next Generation Science Standards, which emphasize climate change and other human impacts on natural systems, there has never been a better time to provide instructional support to educators on these topics. In response to this clear need, the University of California Museum of Paleontology, in collaboration with the National Center for Science Education, developed a new web resource for teachers and students titled "Understanding Global Change" (UGC) that introduces the drivers and impacts of global change. This website clarifies the connections among deep time, modern Earth system processes, and anthropogenic influences, and provides K-16 instructors with a wide range of easy-to-use tools, strategies, and lesson plans for communicating these important concepts regarding global change and the basic Earth systems processes. In summer 2014, the UGC website was field-tested during a workshop with 25 K-12 teachers and science educators. Feedback from participants helped the UGC team develop and identify pedagogically sound lesson plans and instructional tools on global change. These resources are accessible through UGC's searchable database, are aligned with NGSS and Common Core, and are categorized by grade level, subject, and level of inquiry-based instruction (confirmation, structured, guided, open). Providing a range of content and tools at levels appropriate for teachers is essential because our initial needs assessment found that educators often feel that they lack the content knowledge and expertise to address complex, but relevant global change issues, such as ocean acidification and deforestation. Ongoing needs assessments and surveys of

  20. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR Analysis in Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Xie, Wen; Zhang, Zhuo; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xiaomao; Zhou, Xuguo; Zhang, Youjun

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), a primary tool in gene expression analysis, requires an appropriate normalization strategy to control for variation among samples. The best option is to compare the mRNA level of a target gene with that of reference gene(s) whose expression level is stable across various experimental conditions. In this study, expression profiles of eight candidate reference genes from the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella, were evaluated under diverse experimental conditions. RefFinder, a web-based analysis tool, integrates four major computational programs including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the comparative ΔCt method to comprehensively rank the tested candidate genes. Elongation factor 1 (EF1) was the most suited reference gene for the biotic factors (development stage, tissue, and strain). In contrast, although appropriate reference gene(s) do exist for several abiotic factors (temperature, photoperiod, insecticide, and mechanical injury), we were not able to identify a single universal reference gene. Nevertheless, a suite of candidate reference genes were specifically recommended for selected experimental conditions. Our finding is the first step toward establishing a standardized qRT-PCR analysis of this agriculturally important insect pest. PMID:23983612

  1. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real - time rt - pce studies of hydrogenperoxide signaling in arabidopsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H.; Han, B.; Xie, Y.; Zhang, J.; Shen, W.

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ ) acts as a signaling molecule modulating the expression of various genes in plants. However, the reference gene(s) used for gene expression analysis of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ signaling is still arbitrary. A reliable result obtained by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) highly depends on accurate transcript normalization using stably expressed reference genes, whereas the inaccurate normalization could easily lead to the false conclusions. In this report, by using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, 12 candidate reference genes were evaluated and compared in root and shoot tissues of Arabidopsis upon different doses of H/sub 2/O/sub 2/. The results revealed that, in our experimental conditions, three novel reference genes (TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21) were identified and validated as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in both root and shoot tissues under oxidative stress. This conclusion was further confirmed by publicly available microarray data of methyl viologen and drought stress. In comparison with a single reference gene (EF-1a), the expression pattern of ZAT12 modulated by H/sub 2/O/sub 2/, when using TIP41-like, UKN, and UBC21 as multiple reference gene(s), was similar with the previous reports by using northern blotting. Thus, we proposed that these three reference genes might be good candidates for other researchers to include in their reference gene validation in gene expression studies under H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ related oxidative stress. (author)

  2. Exploring What Determines the Use of Forecasts of Varying Time Periods in Guanacaste, Costa Rica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, M.; Wong-Parodi, G.; Grossmann, I.; Small, M. J.

    2016-12-01

    Weather and climate forecasts are promoted as ways to improve water management, especially in the face of changing environmental conditions. However, studies indicate many stakeholders who may benefit from such information do not use it. This study sought to better understand which personal factors (e.g., trust in forecast sources, perceptions of accuracy) were important determinants of the use of 4-day, 3-month, and 12-month rainfall forecasts by stakeholders in water management-related sectors in the seasonally dry province of Guanacaste, Costa Rica. From August to October 2015, we surveyed 87 stakeholders from a mix of government agencies, local water committees, large farms, tourist businesses, environmental NGO's, and the public. The result of an exploratory factor analysis suggests that trust in "informal" forecast sources (traditional methods, family advice) and in "formal" sources (government, university and private company science) are independent of each other. The result of logistic regression analyses suggest that 1) greater understanding of forecasts is associated with a greater probability of 4-day and 3-month forecast use, but not 12-month forecast use, 2) a greater probability of 3-month forecast use is associated with a lower level of trust in "informal" sources, and 3), feeling less secure about water resources, and regularly using many sources of information (and specifically formal meetings and reports) are each associated with a greater probability of using 12-month forecasts. While limited by the sample size, and affected by the factoring method and regression model assumptions, these results do appear to suggest that while forecasts of all times scales are used to some extent, local decision makers' decisions to use 4-day and 3-month forecasts appear to be more intrinsically motivated (based on their level of understanding and trust) and the use of 12-month forecasts seems to be more motivated by a sense of requirement or mandate.

  3. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Sun

    Full Text Available The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA, elongation factor 1 (EF1, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13, ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20, tubulin (TUB, and β-actin (ACTB were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1 were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands. 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults. 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C. To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83 was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  4. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  5. Systematic analysis of low/hard state RXTE spectra of GX 339–4 to constrain the geometry of the system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagri, Kalyani; Misra, Ranjeev; Rao, Anjali; Singh Yadav, Jagdish; Pandey, Shiv Kumar

    2018-05-01

    One of the popular models for the low/hard state of black hole binaries is that the standard accretion disk is truncated and the hot inner region produces, via Comptonization, hard X-ray flux. This is supported by the value of the high energy photon index, which is often found to be small, ∼ 1.7(2. This would mean that the medium is not photon deficient, reconciling the presence of a broad Fe line in the observed hard state. To test this hypothesis, we have analyzed the RXTE observations of GX 339–4 from the four outbursts during 2002–2011 and identify observations when the system was in the hard state and showed a broad Fe line. We have then attempted to fit these observationswith models,which include smeared reflection, to understandwhether the intrinsic photon index can indeed be large. We find that, while for some observations the inclusion of reflection does increase the photon index, there are hard state observations with a broad Fe line that have photon indices less than 2.

  6. The Fall and the Rise of X-Rays from Dwarf Novae in Outburst: RXTE Observations of VW Hydri and WW Ceti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fertig, D.; Mukai, K.; Nelson, T.; Cannizzo, J. K.

    2011-01-01

    In a dwarf nova, the accretion disk around the white dwarf is a source of ultraviolet, optical, and infrared photons, but is never hot enough to emit X-rays. Observed X-rays instead originate from the boundary layer between the disk and the white dwarf. As the disk switches between quiescence and outburst states, the 2-10 keV X-ray flux is usually seen to be anti-correlated with the optical brightness. Here we present RXTE monitoring observations of two dwarf novae, VW Hyi and WW Cet, confirming the optical/X-ray anti-correlation in these two systems. However, we do not detect any episodes of increased hard X-ray flux on the rise (out of two possible chances for WW Cet) or the decline (two for WW Cet and one for VW Hyi) from outburst, attributes that are clearly established in SS Cyg. The addition of these data to the existing literature establishes the fact that the behavior of SS Cyg is the exception, rather than the archetype as is often assumed. We speculate that only dwarf novae with a massive white dwarf may show these hard X-ray spikes.

  7. Exploring the Relationships Between Just-In-Time Technique and Manufacturing Performance: Empirical Evidence From Selected Nigerian Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph. D. John Kolade Obamiro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the relationship between just-in-time technique and manufacturing performance of some selected Nigerian companies. Just-in time was considered to be an overall organisational phenomenon. Data were obtained through a structured questionnaire from a sample size of 300 knowledgeable employees to test the developed model and formulated hypotheses that cover both just-intime and the supporting infrastructures. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to test the three hypotheses. The results showed that: (1 there was a significant relationship between total quality management (supporting infrastructure and just-in-time practices; (2 Human resources management (supporting infrastructure was positively related to just-in-time practices; (3 there was a positive significant relationship between Just-in-time practices and manufacturing performance. These results demonstrate that justin- time practices can be successfully implemented if certain supporting infrastructures are provided, and also support the notion that just-in-time should be practiced at all levels and departments of the organisation, rather than viewing it strictly for shop floor workers.

  8. The relationships between communication, care and time are intertwined: a narrative inquiry exploring the impact of time on registered nurses' work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Engle Angela; Jones, Aled; Wong, Kitty

    2013-09-01

    To report a qualitative study which explores registered nurses' views on the issue of time in the workplace. There is a worldwide shortage of healthcare workers, subsequently time as a healthcare resource is both finite and scarce. As a result, increased attention is being paid to the restructuring of nursing work. However, the experience of time passing is a subjective one and there exists little research which, over a prolonged period of time, describes nurses' experiences of working in time-pressurized environments. A narrative inquiry. Five registered nurses were individually interviewed a total of three times over a period of 12 months, amounting to a total of 15 interviews and 30 hours of data. Data were collected and analysed following a narrative enquiry approach during the period 2008-2010. Participants describe how attempts to work more effectively sometimes resulted in unintended negative consequences for patient care and how time pressure encourages collegiality amongst nurses. Furthermore, the registered nurses' account of how they opportunistically create time for communication with patients compels us to re-evaluate the nature of communication during procedural nursing care. Increasingly nursing work is translated into quantitative data or metrics. This is an inescapable development which seeks to enhance understanding of nursing work. However, qualitative research may also offer a useful approach which captures the otherwise hidden, subjective experiences associated with time and work. Such data can exist alongside nursing metrics, and together these can build a better and more nuanced consideration of nursing practice. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Exploring the relationship between time management skills and the academic achievement of African engineering students - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Arthur James; Lombard, Kobus; de Jager, Henk

    2010-03-01

    Poor academic success by African engineering students is currently experienced in many higher educational institutions, contributing to lower financial subsidies by local governments. One of the contributing factors to this low academic success may be the poor time management skills of these students. This article endeavours to explore this relationship by means of a theoretical literature review and an empirical study. Numerous studies have been conducted in this regard, but with mixed results. The case study of this article involves a design module termed Design Projects III, where the empirical study incorporated an ex post facto study involving a pre-experimental/exploratory design using descriptive statistics. The results of this study were applied to various tests, which indicated no statistically significant relationship between time management skills and the academic achievement of African engineering students.

  10. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We report here results from detailed timing and spectral studies of the high mass X-ray binary pulsar 4U 1538–52 over several binary periods using observations made with the Rossi X-rayTiming Explorer (RXTE) and BeppoSAX satellites. Pulse timing analysis with the 2003 RXTE data over two binary ...

  11. Exploring the time-frequency content of high frequency oscillations for automated identification of seizure onset zone in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Su; Sha, Zhiyi; Sencer, Altay; Aydoseli, Aydin; Bebek, Nerse; Abosch, Aviva; Henry, Thomas; Gurses, Candan; Ince, Nuri Firat

    2016-04-01

    High frequency oscillations (HFOs) in intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) recordings are considered as promising clinical biomarkers of epileptogenic regions in the brain. The aim of this study is to improve and automatize the detection of HFOs by exploring the time-frequency content of iEEG and to investigate the seizure onset zone (SOZ) detection accuracy during the sleep, awake and pre-ictal states in patients with epilepsy, for the purpose of assisting the localization of SOZ in clinical practice. Ten-minute iEEG segments were defined during different states in eight patients with refractory epilepsy. A three-stage algorithm was implemented to detect HFOs in these segments. First, an amplitude based initial detection threshold was used to generate a large pool of HFO candidates. Then distinguishing features were extracted from the time and time-frequency domain of the raw iEEG and used with a Gaussian mixture model clustering to isolate HFO events from other activities. The spatial distribution of HFO clusters was correlated with the seizure onset channels identified by neurologists in seven patient with good surgical outcome. The overlapping rates of localized channels and seizure onset locations were high in all states. The best result was obtained using the iEEG data during sleep, achieving a sensitivity of 81%, and a specificity of 96%. The channels with maximum number of HFOs identified epileptogenic areas where the seizures occurred more frequently. The current study was conducted using iEEG data collected in realistic clinical conditions without channel pre-exclusion. HFOs were investigated with novel features extracted from the entire frequency band, and were correlated with SOZ in different states. The results indicate that automatic HFO detection with unsupervised clustering methods exploring the time-frequency content of raw iEEG can be efficiently used to identify the epileptogenic zone with an accurate and efficient manner.

  12. Building X-ray pulsar timing model without the use of radio parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hai-feng; Sun, Xiong; Fang, Hai-yan; Shen, Li-rong; Cong, Shao-peng; Liu, Yan-ming; Li, Xiao-ping; Bao, Wei-min

    2018-02-01

    This paper develops a timing solution for the X-ray pulsar timing model without the use of the initial radio model parameters. First, we address the problem of phase ambiguities for the pre-fit residuals in the construction of pulsar timing model. To improve the estimation accuracy of the pulse time of arrival (TOA), we have deduced the general form of test statistics in Fourier transform, and discussed their estimation performances. Meanwhile, a fast maximum likelihood (FML) technique is presented to estimate the pulse TOA, which outperforms cross correlation (CC) estimator and exhibits a performance comparable with maximum likelihood (ML) estimator in spite of a much less reduced computational complexity. Depending on the strategy of the difference minimum of pre-fit residuals, we present an effective forced phase-connected technique to achieve initial model parameters. Then, we use the observations with the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and X-ray pulsar navigation-I (XPNAV-1) satellites for experimental studies, and discuss main differences for the root mean square (RMS) residuals calculated with the X-ray and radio ephemerides. Finally, a chi-square value (CSV) of pulse profiles is presented as a complementary indicator to the RMS residuals for evaluating the model parameters. The results show that the proposed timing solution is valid and effective, and the obtained model parameters can be a reasonable alternative to the radio ephemeris.

  13. Exploring inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.

  14. Patterns of a spatial exploration under time evolution of the attractiveness: Persistent nodes, degree distribution, and spectral properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Roberto

    2018-06-01

    This work explores the features of a graph generated by agents that hop from one node to another node, where the nodes have evolutionary attractiveness. The jumps are governed by Boltzmann-like transition probabilities that depend both on the euclidean distance between the nodes and on the ratio (β) of the attractiveness between them. It is shown that persistent nodes, i.e., nodes that never been reached by this special random walk are possible in the stationary limit differently from the case where the attractiveness is fixed and equal to one for all nodes (β = 1). Simultaneously, one also investigates the spectral properties and statistics related to the attractiveness and degree distribution of the evolutionary network. Finally, a study of the crossover between persistent phase and no persistent phase was performed and it was also observed the existence of a special type of transition probability which leads to a power law behaviour for the time evolution of the persistence.

  15. TopKube: A Rank-Aware Data Cube for Real-Time Exploration of Spatiotemporal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Fabio; Lins, Lauro; Klosowski, James; Silva, Claudio

    2017-02-17

    From economics to sports to entertainment and social media, ranking objects according to some notion of importance is a fundamental tool we humans use all the time to better understand our world. With the ever-increasing amount of user-generated content found online, "what's trending" is now a commonplace phrase that tries to capture the zeitgeist of the world by ranking the most popular microblogging hashtags in a given region and time. However, before we can understand what these rankings tell us about the world, we need to be able to more easily create and explore them, given the significant scale of today's data. In this paper, we describe the computational challenges in building a real-time visual exploratory tool for finding top-ranked objects; build on the recent work involving in-memory and rank-aware data cubes to propose TOPKUBE: a data structure that answers top-k queries up to one order of magnitude faster than the previous state of the art; demonstrate the usefulness of our methods using a set of real-world, publicly available datasets; and provide a new set of benchmarks for other researchers to validate their methods and compare to our own.

  16. Exploration of CPT violation via time-dependent geometric quantities embedded in neutrino oscillation through fluctuating matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zisheng, E-mail: zishengwang@yahoo.com [College of Physics and Communication Electronics, Jiangxi Normal University, Nanchang 330022 (China); Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Macao SAR (China); Pan, Hui, E-mail: huipan@umac.mo [Institute of Applied Physics and Materials Engineering, University of Macau, Macao SAR (China)

    2017-02-15

    We propose a new approach to explore CPT violation of neutrino oscillations through a fluctuating matter based on time-dependent geometric quantities. By mapping the neutrino oscillations onto a Poincaré sphere structure, we obtain an analytic solution of master equation and further define the geometric quantities, i.e., radius of Poincaré sphere and geometric phase. We find that the mixing process between electron and muon neutrinos can be described by the radius of Poincaré sphere that depends on the intrinsic CP-violating angle. Such a radius reveals a dynamic mechanism of CPT-violation, i.e., both spontaneous symmetry breaking and Majorana–Dirac neutrino confusion. We show that the time-dependent geometric phase can be used to find the neutrino nature and observe the CPT-violation because it is strongly enhanced under the neutrino propagation. We further show that the time-dependent geometric phase can be easily detected by simulating the neutrino oscillation based on fluctuating magnetic fields in nuclear magnetic resonance, which makes the experimental observation of CPT-violation possible in the neutrino mixing and oscillations.

  17. Long time scale hard X-ray variability in Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Alex Gary

    This dissertation examines the relationship between long-term X-ray variability characteristics, black hole mass, and luminosity of Seyfert 1 Active Galactic Nuclei. High dynamic range power spectral density functions (PSDs) have been constructed for six Seyfert 1 galaxies. These PSDs show "breaks" or characteristic time scales, typically on the order of a few days. There is resemblance to PSDs of lower-mass Galactic X-ray binaries (XRBs), with the ratios of putative black hole masses and variability time scales approximately the same (106--7) between the two classes of objects. The data are consistent with a linear correlation between Seyfert PSD break time scale and black hole mass estimate; the relation extrapolates reasonably well over 6--7 orders of magnitude to XRBs. All of this strengthens the case for a physical similarity between Seyfert galaxies and XRBs. The first six years of RXTE monitoring of Seyfert 1s have been systematically analyzed to probe hard X-ray variability on multiple time scales in a total of 19 Seyfert is in an expansion of the survey of Markowitz & Edelson (2001). Correlations between variability amplitude, luminosity, and black hole mass are explored, the data support the model of PSD movement with black hole mass suggested by the PSD survey. All of the continuum variability results are consistent with relatively more massive black holes hosting larger X-ray emission regions, resulting in 'slower' observed variability. Nearly all sources in the sample exhibit stronger variability towards softer energies, consistent with softening as they brighten. Direct time-resolved spectral fitting has been performed on continuous RXTE monitoring of seven Seyfert is to study long-term spectral variability and Fe Kalpha variability characteristics. The Fe Kalpha line displays a wide range of behavior but varies less strongly than the broadband continuum. Overall, however, there is no strong evidence for correlated variability between the line and

  18. Incorporating real-time traffic and weather data to explore road accident likelihood and severity in urban arterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theofilatos, Athanasios

    2017-06-01

    The effective treatment of road accidents and thus the enhancement of road safety is a major concern to societies due to the losses in human lives and the economic and social costs. The investigation of road accident likelihood and severity by utilizing real-time traffic and weather data has recently received significant attention by researchers. However, collected data mainly stem from freeways and expressways. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to add to the current knowledge by investigating accident likelihood and severity by exploiting real-time traffic and weather data collected from urban arterials in Athens, Greece. Random Forests (RF) are firstly applied for preliminary analysis purposes. More specifically, it is aimed to rank candidate variables according to their relevant importance and provide a first insight on the potential significant variables. Then, Bayesian logistic regression as well finite mixture and mixed effects logit models are applied to further explore factors associated with accident likelihood and severity respectively. Regarding accident likelihood, the Bayesian logistic regression showed that variations in traffic significantly influence accident occurrence. On the other hand, accident severity analysis revealed a generally mixed influence of traffic variations on accident severity, although international literature states that traffic variations increase severity. Lastly, weather parameters did not find to have a direct influence on accident likelihood or severity. The study added to the current knowledge by incorporating real-time traffic and weather data from urban arterials to investigate accident occurrence and accident severity mechanisms. The identification of risk factors can lead to the development of effective traffic management strategies to reduce accident occurrence and severity of injuries in urban arterials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  19. Exploring Data Collection Innovations by Examining the Effects of Relationship Marketing on Performance in Times of Crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Luís Vieira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The scientific quality, rigour, and impact of a considerable number, if not the vast majority, of marketing studies depend on an effective data collection process. Most of the researchers in these and related areas rely on traditional data collection tools, such as face-to-face, pen-andpaper, or online questionnaires, which are not very effective, both in terms of the time and money required to gather a reasonable number of observations. Bearing in mind that crises should also be an opportunity for researchers and institutions to develop more productive and effective research tools and procedures, the aim of this research is twofold: 1 to test a model that relates relationship marketing (RM efforts with performance; and 2 to explore innovative, more effective, data collection tools to be employed in a marketing research context. To this end, this study proposes and tests a model of the effects of RM antecedents and mediators on objective performance. The empirical work draws on the perceptions of 4,389 firm representatives in terms of their relationships with their counterparts in hotels, collected by using AppGeneration Npolls . Structural equation modelling results suggest that commitment is the strongest determinant of share of business, and fully mediates the impact of relationship quality (with satisfaction and trust as first-order dimensions on objective performance. From an innovative, methodological perspective, this study demonstrates that it is possible to collect a significantly high number of observations in a very short period of time, with considerable advantages when compared to traditional data collection procedures.

  20. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  1. Circulation of the polar thermosphere during geomagnetically quiet and active times as observed by Dynamics Explorer 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormac, F.G.; Killeen, T.L.; Thayer, J.P.; Hernandez, G.; Tschan, C.R.; Ponthieu, J.J.; Spencer, N.W.

    1987-01-01

    Neutral wind measurements obtained by instruments on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 (DE 2) spacecraft have been used to study the effects of geomagnetic activity on the circulation of the high-latitude neutral thermosphere for solar maximum conditions during the periods of November 1981 through January 1982 and November 1982 through January 1983. The data have been sorted and ordered according to the two geophysical indices Kp and (auroral electrojet) AE. Simple expressions have been derived which describe (1) the maximum antisunward wind speed in the geomagnetic polar cap, (2) the maximum sunward wind speeds in the dawn and dusk sectors of the auroral oval, and (3) the latitudinal extent of the polar cap antisunward neutral wind as functions of Kp and AE. The results show a positive correlation between the geomagnetic indices and the three characteristic features of the neutral circulation described above. Averaged vector wind fields in geomagnetic coordinates for Kp ≤ 2 and Kp ≥ 4 in both northern and southern hemispheres for the 6 months have been derived from the data. In doing this, a first-order invariance of the neutral wind circulation in geomagnetic coordinates as a function of universal time (UT) was assumed. The results show a two-cell circulation pattern in the northern winter hemisphere for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. The cell sizes increase with increasing geomagnetic activity. The dusk cell is always dominant. The southern summer hemisphere averages show only the dusk circulation cell for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. The cell sizes increase with increasing geomagnetic activity. The dusk cell is always dominant. The southern summer hemisphere averages show only the dusk circulation cell for both quiet and active geomagnetic periods. A diminution of this cell occurs for reduced levels of geomagnetic activity

  2. Exploring and modelling impacts of third molar experience on quality of life: a real-time qualitative study using Twitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Kamal; Sambrook, Paul; Armfield, Jason M; Brennan, David S

    2017-10-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to explore and model domains describing the real-time impact of third molars (TMs) on quality of life (QoL); and (ii) to assess the percentage coverage, in some generic health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) instruments, of the TM QoL domains identified in this study. A global cross-sectional sample of tweets containing 'wisdom tooth' over a 1-week period retrieved 3,537 tweets. After random quota sampling, classification and filtering, only 843 tweets were included in the thematic analysis. A TM QoL model was constructed based on the associations of the identified domains. Domains for the selected generic HRQoL and OHRQoL instruments were plotted against the domains identified in the study to calculate the percentage coverage for each. The QoL domains identified were pain (n = 348, 41%), mood (n = 173, 20%), anxiety and fear (n = 54, 7%), enjoying food (n = 41, 4%), coping (n = 37, 4%), daily activities (n = 34, 4%), sleep (n = 24, 2%), social life (n = 19, 2%), physical health (n = 17, 2%), ability to think (n = 9, 1%), self-care (n = 8, 1%) and sporting & recreation (n = 2, <1%). The Assessment Quality of Life instrument (AQoL-8D) covers 87% of the TM QoL domains, while the rest of the HRQoL and OHRQoL instruments cover 33-60%. This study shows how Twitter can be used to obtain real-time QoL data, which might be used to model how TMs impact on QoL. The TM QoL domains identified in the study were generally under-represented among the generic OHRQoL instruments assessed while, the HRQoL AQoL-8D covered most of the TM QoL domains. The QoL domains identified in the study might be used to develop a new OHRQoL measure for TMs. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  3. Students as Non-Standard Employees. Exploring Work Related Issues in Students’ Perceptions on their Term-time Job

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    The article presents the results of an explorative study that aimed at exploring work related issues in students’ perceptions of their job as atypical employees. An individual picture of the experienced work reality of students is drawn according to work task, flexible working hours, instructions...... and training opportunities, students’ relations to other employees, and social integration. By adopting a qualitative design, I was able to emphasize the subjective perspective of students describing their very own experiences as flexible workers. The study revealed various perceptions of students working...... as flexible employees and related this picture to current empirical and theoretical research in the field of non-standard employment....

  4. Is Dating Dated in Times of Tinder? Exploring the Mediatization of Casual Sexual Intimacy:Is Dating Dated in Times of Tinder? Exploring the Mediatization of Casual Sexual Intimacy

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Due to large societal changes, such as the detrimental increase in divorce rates and the increase in partner choice, young adults have become cautious about commitment. As more and more people become aware that relationships do not last forever, they are more likely to invest in themselves and quit relationships that no longer offer mutual satisfaction or personal growth. Casual sex gives young adults the opportunity to connect with and fully explore potential partners, resulting in contempor...

  5. Don't Waste My Time; Exploring the Reflective Journaling Requirement in the Student Teaching Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiker, Amy

    2014-01-01

    For many years reflective journaling has been a required component of the student teaching experience at the University of Wyoming. Through action research, Amy Spiker, an instructor at the University of Wyoming, set out to explore the perceived disconnect between what faculty desires for and from student teachers and what student teachers view as…

  6. Academic Sensemaking and Behavioural Responses--Exploring How Academics Perceive and Respond to Identity Threats in Times of Turmoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degn, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Reforms and changing ideas about what higher education institutions are and should be have put pressure on academic identity. The present paper explores the way academics in Danish universities make sense of their changing circumstances, and how this affects their perceptions of their organization, their leaders and of themselves. The study…

  7. Academic sensemaking and behavioural responses – exploring how academics perceive and respond to identity threats in times of turmoil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degn, Lise

    2018-01-01

    Reforms and changing ideas about what higher education institutions are and should be have put pressure on academic identity. The present paper explores the way academics in Danish universities make sense of their changing circumstances, and how this affects their perceptions of their organization...

  8. Take a Selfie of Life: A Qualitative Exploration of College Students' Self-Reflections on Free Time Use and Personal Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Yarnal, Careen; Hustad, John T. P.; Sims, Damon

    2016-01-01

    Adopting a qualitative approach, this study explores college students' self-reflections on free time use and personal values. Data were collected from 111 students' final reflection papers for a class entitled "Leisure and Human Behavior." The findings suggest that leisure education may empower students with fundamental knowledge about…

  9. A Case Study in Exploring Time Series: Inflation and the Growth of the Money Supply in Zaire, 1965-1982

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Mamingi (Nlandu); M.E. Wuyts (Marc)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractTo the economist, time series constitute key data sources for empirical analysis. This is especially true for macroeconomic analysis, which relies virtually exclusively on observations of macroeconomic aggregates as they evolve over time.

  10. A time for change: an exploration of attitudes toward part-time work in academia among women internists and their division chiefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Rebecca A; Gregg, Jessica L

    2009-01-01

    Increasing numbers of clinicians desire part-time work, and many will opt out of academic medicine if the barriers to part-time work are too great. Purposeful sampling was used to investigate the experiences of part-time academic physicians and their division leaders to understand (1) how each identified the negative and positive consequences of part-time work, and (2) how each conceptualize part-time work. In 2004, the authors interviewed the Society of General Medicine Horn Scholars Program applicants and their division chiefs from the 2001 and 2004 award cycles and performed a qualitative analysis of the one- to two-hour audiotaped interviews. Seven out of nine eligible applicants and six of seven division chiefs participated. All applicants were female junior faculty clinician educators in academic internal medicine from seven institutions. All division chiefs were male full-time faculty members. Both applicants and division chiefs identified multiple specific negative and positive consequences of part-time work. Analysis of interviews suggested that both groups tended to frame part-time work as a decision to "work less" or to "work differently." Self-reflection and articulation of values helped some faculty determine where they derive the greatest happiness and fulfillment personally and professionally. As more academics seek work-life balance and consider part-time work as a tool to achieve that balance, academic medicine will be challenged to develop creative models for integrating successful part-time physicians, or it will lose that segment of the workforce. This study's findings suggest that one such model may require that physicians and their leaders reconceptualize work altogether.

  11. Job Involvement of Part-Time Faculty: Exploring Associations with Distributive Justice, Underemployment, Work Status Congruence, and Empowerment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jae Young

    2013-01-01

    For decades, higher education institutions have been increasingly reliant upon part-time faculty. As the role of part-time faculty in colleges and universities has evolved and gained prominence, it is increasingly important to gain a deeper understanding of their perceptions of job involvement considered as potential predictor of turnover and…

  12. Timing of Enhanced Post-Deployment Screening: Exploration of Participants' Preferences and of the Associations among Timing, the Prevalence of Health Problems, and the Likelihood of Referral

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamorski, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    .... The optimal timing of such screening is uncertain: If done immediately upon return, few members endorse health concerns, perhaps because of a "honeymoon" effect in which homecoming is seen as the solution to any and...

  13. Real-time Accurate Surface Reconstruction Pipeline for Vision Guided Planetary Exploration Using Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Eduardo DeBrito

    2012-01-01

    This report discusses work completed over the summer at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology. A system is presented to guide ground or aerial unmanned robots using computer vision. The system performs accurate camera calibration, camera pose refinement and surface extraction from images collected by a camera mounted on the vehicle. The application motivating the research is planetary exploration and the vehicles are typically rovers or unmanned aerial vehicles. The information extracted from imagery is used primarily for navigation, as robot location is the same as the camera location and the surfaces represent the terrain that rovers traverse. The processed information must be very accurate and acquired very fast in order to be useful in practice. The main challenge being addressed by this project is to achieve high estimation accuracy and high computation speed simultaneously, a difficult task due to many technical reasons.

  14. Photophysical characterization and time-resolved spectroscopy of a anthradithiophene dimer: exploring the role of conformation in singlet fission

    KAUST Repository

    Dean, Jacob C.; Zhang, Ruomeng; Hallani, Rawad K.; Pensack, Ryan D.; Sanders, Samuel N.; Oblinsky, Daniel G.; Parkin, Sean R.; Campos, Luis M.; Anthony, John E.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2017-01-01

    carried out in toluene and acetone solution via absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and their photo-initiated dynamics were investigated with time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. In accordance

  15. "I Have to Rest All the Time Because You Are Not Allowed to Play": Exploring Children's Perceptions of Autonomy during Sleep-Time in Long Day Care Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothard, Michaela; Irvine, Susan; Theobald, Maryanne; Staton, Sally; Pattinson, Cassandra; Thorpe, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Daytime sleep is a significant part of the daily routine for children attending early childhood education and care (ECEC) services in Australia and many other countries. The practice of sleep-time can account for a substantial portion of the day in ECEC and often involves a mandated sleep/rest period for all children, including older…

  16. A preliminary estimate of the EUVE cumulative distribution of exposure time on the unit sphere. [Extreme Ultra-Violet Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, C. C. H.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary study of an all-sky coverage of the EUVE mission is given. Algorithms are provided to compute the exposure of the celestial sphere under the spinning telescopes, taking into account that during part of the exposure time the telescopes are blocked by the earth. The algorithms are used to give an estimate of exposure time at different ecliptic latitudes as a function of the angle of field of view of the telescope. Sample coverage patterns are also given for a 6-month mission.

  17. The World Spatiotemporal Analytics and Mapping Project (WSTAMP): Discovering, Exploring, and Mapping Spatiotemporal Patterns Across Heterogenous Space-Time Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, A.; Stewart, R.; Held, E.; Piburn, J.; Allen, M. R.; McManamay, R.; Sanyal, J.; Sorokine, A.; Bhaduri, B. L.

    2017-12-01

    Spatiotemporal (ST) analytics applied to major spatio-temporal data sources from major vendors such as USGS, NOAA, World Bank and World Health Organization have tremendous value in shedding light on the evolution of physical, cultural, and geopolitical landscapes on a local and global level. Especially powerful is the integration of these physical and cultural datasets across multiple and disparate formats, facilitating new interdisciplinary analytics and insights. Realizing this potential first requires an ST data model that addresses challenges in properly merging data from multiple authors, with evolving ontological perspectives, semantical differences, changing attributes, and content that is textual, numeric, categorical, and hierarchical. Equally challenging is the development of analytical and visualization approaches that provide a serious exploration of this integrated data while remaining accessible to practitioners with varied backgrounds. The WSTAMP project at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has yielded two major results in addressing these challenges: 1) development of the WSTAMP database, a significant advance in ST data modeling that integrates 16000+ attributes covering 200+ countries for over 50 years from over 30 major sources and 2) a novel online ST exploratory and analysis tool providing an array of modern statistical and visualization techniques for analyzing these data temporally, spatially, and spatiotemporally under a standard analytic workflow. We report on these advances, provide an illustrative case study, and inform how others may freely access the tool.

  18. Geothermal Exploration By Using Time Domain IP Method:Balikesir (Gure) And Canakkale (Geyikli) Cases From Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezel, O.; Ozcep, F.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal energy is heat derived from the earth. It is the thermal energy contained in the rock and fluid (that fills the fractures and pores within the rock) in the earth's crust. These resources are always at a temperature higher than 20°C. Geothermal energy requires no fuel, and is therefore virtually emission free and independent of fluctuations in fuel cost. Since a geothermal power plant doesn't rely on transient sources of energy, unlike, for example, wind turbines or solar panels, its capacity factor can be quite large. Induced polarization (IP) results at geothermal regions show prominent, extended low resistivity zones. Environmental-IP methods can assist in the assessment of the acid generating potential of waste rock and tailings from mine operations. Resistivity can be used to map contamination plumes. Resistivity and chargeability values were determined using the IP method on geothermal resources in Balikesir Güre (Turkey). In this study we found low resistance values and high chargeability values at the geothermal resource. Finally drilling and IP results were correlated to verify our findings. After the positive results of obtained data, a similar study was carried out in Geyikli Area (Canakkale) and a geothermal resource with 450C temperature of 5 lt/sec was explored at a depth of 970 m.

  19. Exploring heterogeneity in travel time expenditure of aging populations in the Netherlands : results of a CHAID analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, D.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Grigolon, A.B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to the increasing literature on travel behavior and time use of the elderly. The Dutch National Travel Survey, administered in 2009, was used as a data source. First, various facets of activity-travel patterns of the elderly were compared against overall sample

  20. A Topological Extension of General Relativity to Explore the Nature of Quantum Space-Time, Dark Energy and Inflation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    General Relativity is extended into the quantum domain. A thought experiment is ex- plored to derive a specific topological build-up for Planckian space-time. The presented arguments are inspired by Feynman’s path integral for superposition andWheeler’s quan- tum foam of Planck mass mini black

  1. Exploring the relationship between timing of menarche and eating disorder symptoms in black and white adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Striegel-Moore, RH; McMahon, RP; Biro, FM; Schreiber, G; Crawford, PB; Voorhees, C

    2001-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between timing of sexual maturation and eating disorders symptoms in adolescent girls. Method: Data were collected over 10 years for a cohort of 1,213 Black girls and 1,166 White girls who were either 9 or 10 years old at study entry. Annually, girls'

  2. Using real-time syndromic surveillance systems to help explore the acute impact of the air pollution incident of March/April 2014 in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gillian E; Bawa, Zharain; Macklin, Yolande; Morbey, Roger; Dobney, Alec; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Elliot, Alex J

    2015-01-01

    During March and early April 2014 there was widespread poor air quality across the United Kingdom. Public Health England used existing syndromic surveillance systems to monitor community health during the period. Short lived statistically significant rises in a variety of respiratory conditions, including asthma and wheeze, were detected. This incident has demonstrated the value of real-time syndromic surveillance systems, during an air pollution episode, for helping to explore the impact of poor air quality on community health in real-time. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Original research: Giving sexual assault survivors time to decide: an exploration of the use and effects of the nonreport option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Laurie Cook; Busch-Armendariz, Noël Bridget; Vohra, Shetal S; Johnson, Regina Jones; Camp, Victoria

    2014-03-01

    Forensic nurses, sexual assault nurse examiners (SANEs), and victim advocates have long recognized the trauma of sexual assault crimes and the significance of survivors' decisions around reporting these crimes to law enforcement agencies. Until recently, survivors who didn't report the crime were not entitled to a free medical forensic examination. In a significant policy shift, the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 provided an additional decision option with regard to the medical examination for survivors of sexual assault. This provision, referred to here as the nonreport option, was established to offer survivors a full range of reporting options and to ensure exemplary health care, with evidence collection as an important secondary goal. This study sought to examine the implementation of the nonreport option in Texas; explore its impact on SANEs, survivors, and the criminal justice system; and identify strengths and challenges of the nonreport process. A mixed-method approach was used that included qualitative interviews with 79 professionals who regularly respond to sexual assault crimes, a Web-based survey questionnaire of such professionals that yielded 131 completed surveys, and a review of existing data. The step-by-step process involved in a nonreport case was described, and findings in three descriptive areas emerged: confidentiality processes, storage and shipment of evidence, and the use of the nonreport option. Beneficial effects of the nonreport option were identified in five areas: the role of SANEs, the impact on survivors, collaborative relationships, collateral crimes, and anonymous reporting strategies. Seven areas of remaining dilemmas were also identified. Findings indicate that the nonreport option has had a considerable positive impact on SANEs, survivors of sexual assault, and the criminal justice system. But challenges remain if this option is to be fully utilized in the future; further research

  4. Time to question diabetes self-management support for Arabic-speaking migrants: exploring a new model of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alzubaidi, H; Mc Namara, K; Browning, C

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore a new model for diabetes self-management support in Arabic-speaking migrants. Two qualitative methods were used: face-to-face semi-structured individual interviews and focus groups. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and coded thematically. Arabic-speaking migrants with Type 2 diabetes were recruited from several primary, secondary and tertiary healthcare settings in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia. These settings were purposefully selected to obtain a diverse group of participants. Data collection continued until saturation was reached. This is the first study that involved members of Arabic-speaking communities in Australia in a formal process of consumer and public involvement to inform research design and recruitment in order to provide evidence for a new model of diabetes self-management for Arabic-speaking migrants. No self-management support was offered to Arabic-speaking migrants beyond the initial diagnosis period. Significant knowledge gaps and skills deficits in all self-management domains were evident. The provision of tailored self-management support was considered crucial. When asked about preferred structure and delivery modalities, a strong preference was reported for face-to-face storytelling interactions over telephone- or internet-based interventions. Gender-specific group education and self-management support sessions delivered by Arabic-speaking diabetes health professionals, lay peers or social workers trained in diabetes self-management were highly regarded. A patient and public involvement approach allows genuine engagement with Arabic-speaking migrants with diabetes. There is urgent need for a new model for self-management support among Arabic-speaking migrants. Findings yielded new recommendations for diabetes health professionals working with these migrant communities to support behaviour change. © 2016 Diabetes UK.

  5. Exploration of time-course combinations of outcome scales for use in a global test of stroke recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldie, Fraser C; Fulton, Rachael L; Dawson, Jesse; Bluhmki, Erich; Lees, Kennedy R

    2014-08-01

    Clinical trials for acute ischemic stroke treatment require large numbers of participants and are expensive to conduct. Methods that enhance statistical power are therefore desirable. We explored whether this can be achieved by a measure incorporating both early and late measures of outcome (e.g. seven-day NIH Stroke Scale combined with 90-day modified Rankin scale). We analyzed sensitivity to treatment effect, using proportional odds logistic regression for ordinal scales and generalized estimating equation method for global outcomes, with all analyses adjusted for baseline severity and age. We ran simulations to assess relations between sample size and power for ordinal scales and corresponding global outcomes. We used R version 2·12·1 (R Development Core Team. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) for simulations and SAS 9·2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA) for all other analyses. Each scale considered for combination was sensitive to treatment effect in isolation. The mRS90 and NIHSS90 had adjusted odds ratio of 1·56 and 1·62, respectively. Adjusted odds ratio for global outcomes of the combination of mRS90 with NIHSS7 and NIHSS90 with NIHSS7 were 1·69 and 1·73, respectively. The smallest sample sizes required to generate statistical power ≥80% for mRS90, NIHSS7, and global outcomes of mRS90 and NIHSS7 combined and NIHSS90 and NIHSS7 combined were 500, 490, 400, and 380, respectively. When data concerning both early and late outcomes are combined into a global measure, there is increased sensitivity to treatment effect compared with solitary ordinal scales. This delivers a 20% reduction in required sample size at 80% power. Combining early with late outcomes merits further consideration. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  6. Optimization of the Extraction Conditions for Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Using Response Surface Methodology and Exploration of the Optimum Harvest Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyong Xie

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the methanol concentration (60–100%, liquid to solid ratio (20:1 to 40:1 mL/g and extraction time (20–40 min on the yield of 11 constituents from Buddleja officinalis Maxim using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The Derringer’s desirability function approach showed that the modified optimum extraction conditions were: 76% methanol concentration, 33 min extraction time and a 34:1 mL/g solvent to solid ratio. Under these conditions, the experimentally measured yields of the compounds were in good agreement with the predicted values. An accurate and sensitive method was also established using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 11 compounds in Buddleja officinalis. The newly developed method was used to determine the amounts of bioactive components in Buddleja officinalis during four different growth stages. According to these results, we recommend that the full blossom stage is the best time for harvesting this plant to obtain the highest yield of crude materials.

  7. Optimization of the Extraction Conditions for Buddleja officinalis Maxim. Using Response Surface Methodology and Exploration of the Optimum Harvest Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Guoyong; Li, Ran; Han, Yu; Zhu, Yan; Wu, Gang; Qin, Minjian

    2017-11-01

    The Box-Behnken design was used to evaluate the effects of the methanol concentration (60-100%), liquid to solid ratio (20:1 to 40:1 mL/g) and extraction time (20-40 min) on the yield of 11 constituents from Buddleja officinalis Maxim using ultrasound-assisted extraction. The Derringer's desirability function approach showed that the modified optimum extraction conditions were: 76% methanol concentration, 33 min extraction time and a 34:1 mL/g solvent to solid ratio. Under these conditions, the experimentally measured yields of the compounds were in good agreement with the predicted values. An accurate and sensitive method was also established using high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection for the simultaneous determination of the 11 compounds in Buddleja officinalis . The newly developed method was used to determine the amounts of bioactive components in Buddleja officinalis during four different growth stages. According to these results, we recommend that the full blossom stage is the best time for harvesting this plant to obtain the highest yield of crude materials.

  8. The Smallest R/V: A Small-scale Ocean Exploration Demonstration of Real-time Bathymetric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, S. M.; Boston, B.; Maher, S. M.; Sleeper, J. D.; Togia, H.; Tree, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    In October 2013, graduate student members of the University of Hawaii Geophysical Society designed a small-scale model research vessel (R/V) that uses sonar to create 3D maps of a model seafloor in real-time. This pilot project was presented to the public at the School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology's (SOEST) Biennial Open House weekend. An estimated 7,600 people attended the two-day event, including children and teachers from Hawaii's schools, home school students, community groups, families, and science enthusiasts. Our exhibit demonstrated real-time sonar mapping of a cardboard volcano using a toy size research vessel on a fixed 2D model ship track suspended above a model seafloor. Sound wave travel times were recorded using an unltrasonic emitter/receiver attached to an Arduino microcontroller platform, while the same system measured displacement along the ship track. This data was streamed through a USB connection to a PC running MatLab, where a 3D model was updated as the ship collected data. Our exhibit demonstrates the practical use of complicated concepts, like wave physics and data processing, in a way that even the youngest elementary students are able to understand. It provides an accessible avenue to learn about sonar mapping, and could easily be adapted to talk about bat and marine mammal echolocation by replacing the model ship and volcano. The exhibit received an overwhelmingly positive response from attendees, and has inspired the group to develop a more interactive model for future exhibitions, using multiple objects to be mapped that participants could arrange, and a more robust ship movement system that participants could operate.

  9. Exploring Heterogeneous and Time-Varying Materials for Photonic Applications, Towards Solutions for the Manipulation and Confinement of Light.

    KAUST Repository

    San Roman Alerigi, Damian

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades our understanding and meticulous characterization of the transient and spatial properties of materials evolved rapidly. The results present an exciting field for discovery, and craft materials to control and reshape light that we are just beginning to fathom. State-of-the-art nano-deposition processes, for example, can be utilized to build stratified waveguides made of thin dielectric layers, which put together result in a material with effective abnormal dispersion. Moreover, materials once deemed well known are revealing astonishing properties, v.gr. chalcogenide glasses undergo an atomic reconfiguration when illuminated with electrons or photons, this ensues in a temporal modification of its permittivity and permeability which could be used to build new Photonic Integrated Circuits.. This work revolves around the characterization and model of heterogeneous and time-varying materials and their applications, revisits Maxwell's equations in the context of nonlinear space- and time-varying media, and based on it introduces a numerical scheme that can be used to model waves in this kind of media. Finally some interesting applications for light confinement and beam transformations are shown.

  10. Exploring Heterogeneous and Time-Varying Materials for Photonic Applications, Towards Solutions for the Manipulation and Confinement of Light.

    KAUST Repository

    San Roman Alerigi, Damian

    2014-11-01

    Over the past several decades our understanding and meticulous characterization of the transient and spatial properties of materials evolved rapidly. The results present an exciting field for discovery, and craft materials to control and reshape light that we are just beginning to fathom. State-of-the-art nano-deposition processes, for example, can be utilized to build stratified waveguides made of thin dielectric layers, which put together result in a material with effective abnormal dispersion. Moreover, materials once deemed well known are revealing astonishing properties, v.gr. chalcogenide glasses undergo an atomic reconfiguration when illuminated with electrons or photons, this ensues in a temporal modification of its permittivity and permeability which could be used to build new Photonic Integrated Circuits.. This work revolves around the characterization and model of heterogeneous and time-varying materials and their applications, revisits Maxwell\\'s equations in the context of nonlinear space- and time-varying media, and based on it introduces a numerical scheme that can be used to model waves in this kind of media. Finally some interesting applications for light confinement and beam transformations are shown.

  11. Real-Time Location Systems for Asset Management in Nursing Homes: An Explorative Study of Ethical Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Real-time location systems (RTLS can be implemented in aged care for monitoring persons with wandering behaviour and asset management. RTLS can help retrieve personal items and assistive technologies that when lost or misplaced may have serious financial, economic and practical implications. Various ethical questions arise during the design and implementation phases of RTLS. This study investigates the perspectives of various stakeholders on ethical questions regarding the use of RTLS for asset management in nursing homes. Three focus group sessions were conducted concerning the needs and wishes of (1 care professionals; (2 residents and their relatives; and (3 researchers and representatives of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs. The sessions were transcribed and analysed through a process of open, axial and selective coding. Ethical perspectives concerned the design of the system, the possibilities and functionalities of tracking, monitoring in general and the user-friendliness of the system. In addition, ethical concerns were expressed about security and responsibilities. The ethical perspectives differed per focus group. Aspects of privacy, the benefit of reduced search times, trust, responsibility, security and well-being were raised. The main focus of the carers and residents was on a reduced burden and privacy, whereas the SMEs stressed the potential for improving products and services.

  12. Exploring the time course of face matching: temporal constraints impair unfamiliar face identification under temporally unconstrained viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Müge; Bindemann, Markus

    2011-10-01

    The identification of unfamiliar faces has been studied extensively with matching tasks, in which observers decide if pairs of photographs depict the same person (identity matches) or different people (mismatches). In experimental studies in this field, performance is usually self-paced under the assumption that this will encourage best-possible accuracy. Here, we examined the temporal characteristics of this task by limiting display times and tracking observers' eye movements. Observers were required to make match/mismatch decisions to pairs of faces shown for 200, 500, 1000, or 2000ms, or for an unlimited duration. Peak accuracy was reached within 2000ms and two fixations to each face. However, intermixing exposure conditions produced a context effect that generally reduced accuracy on identity mismatch trials, even when unlimited viewing of faces was possible. These findings indicate that less than 2s are required for face matching when exposure times are variable, but temporal constraints should be avoided altogether if accuracy is truly paramount. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exploring Just-in-Time Teaching 3D Development as a Tool for Enhancing Knowledge and Understanding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morag C.E. McFadyen

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The integumentary system (skin is the first line of defence in the body and part of the innate immune system. Within first year modules on Pharmaceutical Biology and Integrative Physiology in the Masters of Pharmacy degree at Robert Gordon University (RGU several software tools were used to support both lecture and coursework material for the immune and integumentary systems. However, students had difficulty visualizing the various layers of the skin and how they become affected by different skin lesions. As a response to these identified learning difficulties, a just-in-time teaching 3-Dimensional elearning object was developed using free-to-use 3D CAD packages alongside common elearning software. The outcome was a virtualised human arm equipped to illustrate and label primary or secondary skin lesions whilst allowing spatial manipulation of the arm. This allowed students to manipulate and identify the specific skin layers involved. Evaluation of student engagement and learning was favourable, with students reflecting that they had a better understanding of the topic. Initial findings from this study highlight the benefits of quick, low-cost 3D production processes as just-in-time teaching elearning tools that have a positive impact on students’ performance.

  14. Photophysical characterization and time-resolved spectroscopy of a anthradithiophene dimer: exploring the role of conformation in singlet fission

    KAUST Repository

    Dean, Jacob C.

    2017-08-18

    Quantitative singlet fission has been observed for a variety of acene derivatives such as tetracene and pentacene, and efforts to extend the library of singlet fission compounds is of current interest. Preliminary calculations suggest anthradithiophenes exhibit significant exothermicity between the first optically-allowed singlet state, S1, and 2 × T1 with an energy difference of >5000 cm−1. Given the fulfillment of this ingredient for singlet fission, here we investigate the singlet fission capability of a difluorinated anthradithiophene dimer (2ADT) covalently linked by a (dimethylsilyl)ethane bridge and derivatized by triisobutylsilylethynyl (TIBS) groups. Photophysical characterization of 2ADT and the single functionalized ADT monomer were carried out in toluene and acetone solution via absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, and their photo-initiated dynamics were investigated with time-resolved fluorescence (TRF) and transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy. In accordance with computational predictions, two conformers of 2ADT were observed via fluorescence spectroscopy and were assigned to structures with the ADT cores trans or cis to one another about the covalent bridge. The two conformers exhibited markedly different excited state deactivation mechanisms, with the minor trans population being representative of the ADT monomer showing primarily radiative decay, while the dominant cis population underwent relaxation into an excimer geometry before internally converting to the ground state. The excimer formation kinetics were found to be solvent dependent, yielding time constants of ∼1.75 ns in toluene, and ∼600 ps in acetone. While the difference in rates elicits a role for the solvent in stabilizing the excimer structure, the rate is still decidedly long compared to most singlet fission rates of analogous dimers, suggesting that the excimer is neither a kinetic nor a thermodynamic trap, yet singlet fission was still not observed. The result

  15. A qualitative study exploring the impact of student nurses working part time as a health care assistant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasson, Felicity; McKenna, Hugh P; Keeney, Sinead

    2013-08-01

    National and international evidence indicates that university students engage in employment whilst studying. Research has suggested that nursing students either enter training with previous care experience or tend to work part time in a health related area whilst undertaking higher education. The impact of this on the socialisation process remains unclear. Based on the symbolic interactionist framework, this paper reports on a theme from a large mixed methods study - the extent and implications of student nurses' work experience on learning and training. One qualitative stage from a sequential exploratory mixed methods design. One higher education institution in the United Kingdom. Forty-five pre-registration nursing students. Thirty-two students took part in four focus groups and 13 took part in individual interviews. Findings revealed that 27 (60%) of students were in paid nursing related employment. This was reported to be advantageous by most participants with regards to enhancing confidence, skills and time spent in the clinical setting. However, it was also perceived by a small number of participants as being detrimental to subsequent learning resulting in role confusion, influencing placement behaviour, and preferences for future nursing practice. Student participants with no prior work experience believed this placed them at a disadvantage, negatively influencing their learning, ability to fit in, and adjustment on placement. Findings have suggested that student participants desire more recognition of the experience and skills they have gained from their employment. Whilst care experience among the student nursing population is advocated, the results of this study show that it is perceived to impinged on their learning and educational journey. Policy makers, educationalists and health service providers need to be aware of the students who operate within the dual roles of student and health care worker so as to provide guidance and appropriate direction

  16. Trajectories of 12-Month Usage Patterns for Two Smoking Cessation Websites: Exploring How Users Engage Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Jonathan B; Sridharan, Vasundhara; Zhu, Yifan; Mull, Kristin E; Heffner, Jaimee L; Watson, Noreen L; McClure, Jennifer B; Di, Chongzhi

    2018-04-20

    Little is known about how individuals engage with electronic health (eHealth) interventions over time and whether this engagement predicts health outcomes. The objectives of this study, by using the example of a specific type of eHealth intervention (ie, websites for smoking cessation), were to determine (1) distinct groups of log-in trajectories over a 12-month period, (2) their association with smoking cessation, and (3) baseline user characteristics that predict trajectory group membership. We conducted a functional clustering analysis of 365 consecutive days of log-in data from both arms of a large (N=2637) randomized trial of 2 website interventions for smoking cessation (WebQuit and Smokefree), with a primary outcome of 30-day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 12 months. We conducted analyses for each website separately. A total of 3 distinct trajectory groups emerged for each website. For WebQuit, participants were clustered into 3 groups: 1-week users (682/1240, 55.00% of the sample), 5-week users (399/1240, 32.18%), and 52-week users (159/1240, 12.82%). Compared with the 1-week users, the 5- and 52-week users had 57% higher odds (odds ratio [OR] 1.57, 95% CI 1.13-2.17; P=.007) and 124% higher odds (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.45-3.43; Pusers were clustered into 3 groups: 1-week users (645/1309, 49.27% of the sample), 4-week users (395/1309, 30.18%), and 5-week users (269/1309, 20.55%). Compared with the 1-week users, 5-week users (but not 4-week users; P=.99) had 48% higher odds (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.05-2.07; P=.02) of being abstinent at 12 months. In general, the WebQuit intervention had a greater number of weekly log-ins within each of the 3 trajectory groups as compared with those of the Smokefree intervention. Baseline characteristics associated with trajectory group membership varied between websites. Patterns of 1-, 4-, and 5-week usage of websites may be common for how people engage in eHealth interventions. The 5-week usage of either website, and 52-week

  17. Whittling Down the Wait Time: Exploring Models to Minimize the Delay from Initial Concern to Diagnosis and Treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Lipkin, Eliza; Foster, Jessica; Peacock, Georgina

    2016-10-01

    The process from initial concerns to diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can be a long and complicated process. The traditional model for evaluation and diagnosis of ASD often consists of long wait-lists and evaluations that result in a 2-year difference between the earliest signs of ASD and mean age of diagnosis. Multiple factors contribute to this diagnostic bottleneck, including time-consuming evaluations, cost of care, lack of providers, and lack of comfort of primary care providers to diagnose autism. This article explores innovative clinical models that have been implemented to address this as well as future directions and opportunities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Novel Interactive Data Visualization: Exploration of the ESCAPE Trial (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigdan, Matthew; Hill, Michael D; Jagdev, Abhijeet; Kamal, Noreen

    2018-01-01

    The ESCAPE (Endovascular Treatment for Small Core and Anterior Circulation Proximal Occlusion With Emphasis on Minimizing CT to Recanalization Times) randomized clinical trial collected a large diverse data set. However, it is difficult to fully understand the effects of the study on certain patient groups and disease progression. We developed and evaluated an interactive visualization of the ESCAPE trial data. We iteratively designed an interactive visualization using Python's Bokeh software library. The design was evaluated through a user study, which quantitatively evaluated its efficiency and accuracy against traditional modified Rankin Scalegraphic. Qualitative feedback was also evaluated. The novel interactive visualization of the ESCAPE data are publicly available at http://escapevisualization.herokuapp.com/. There was no difference in the efficiency and accuracy when comparing the use of the novel with the traditional visualization. However, users preferred the novel visualization because it allowed for greater exploration. Some insights obtained through exploration of the ESCAPE data are presented. Novel interactive visualizations can be applied to acute stroke trial data to allow for greater exploration of the results. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01778335. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Analysis of GPS Data Using Near Real-Time Data from the Volcano Exploration Project in the Community College Classroom (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    House, M.; Nagy-Shadman, E.; Wilbur, B.

    2010-12-01

    Using real-time data or near-real-time data in the classroom is an exciting prospect in Introductory Physical Geology courses, especially since it promises to offer students a chance to experience the excitement and uncertainty associated with the study of the natural world that appeals to so many of their instructors. However, there are several obstacles to this approach in the community college. Namely, many introductory level community college earth science courses have no mathematics prerequisites; as such, a typical classroom may include a wide range of mathematical skills and many students may be unable to participate in the analysis of “real” data. Further, reliable computer access to websites offering real-time data can be spotty at some institutions and for some students on home computers. In response to this problem we have created a multipart volcano monitoring activity based on the USGS Volcano Exploration Project: Pu`u `O`o (VEPP) website. This activity is designed for freshman or sophomore level courses in Introductory Geology or Geological Hazards for non-majors. No prior math skills are assumed; the activity can be completed without prior knowledge of GPS data, volcano monitoring or Hawaiian geology. The activity consists of three parts: (1) a background lecture on basic geology of volcanoes like Kilauea and use of GPS in volcano monitoring; (2) a lab activity or a homework assignment based on near real-time data downloaded from the VEPP website; and (3) a group wrap-up that focuses on real-time data by exploring other aspects of the VEPP website. The lab activity requires examination of downloaded GPS time series data for a specified time period (this can be modified as desired by the instructor), computation of displacements, graphing of displacement vectors for identified time intervals and determination of actual motion vectors, followed by a discussion of the displacements observed. These activities are interspersed by guided questions

  20. `Teaching What I Learned': Exploring students' Earth and Space Science learning experiences in secondary school with a particular focus on their comprehension of the concept of `geologic time'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sae Yeol; Peate, David W.

    2015-06-01

    According to the national survey of science education, science educators in the USA currently face many challenges such as lack of qualified secondary Earth and Space Science (ESS) teachers. Less qualified teachers may have difficulty teaching ESS because of a lack of conceptual understanding, which leads to diminished confidence in content knowledge. More importantly, teachers' limited conceptual understanding of the core ideas automatically leads to a lack of pedagogical content knowledge. This mixed methods study aims to explore the ways in which current secondary schooling, especially the small numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in the USA, might influence students' learning of the discipline. To gain a better understanding of the current conditions of ESS education in secondary schools, in the first phase, we qualitatively examined a sample middle and high school ESS textbook to explore how the big ideas of ESS, particularly geological time, are represented. In the second phase, we quantitatively analyzed the participating college students' conceptual understanding of geological time by comparing those who had said they had had secondary school ESS learning experience with those who did not. Additionally, college students' perceptions on learning and teaching ESS are discussed. Findings from both the qualitative and quantitative phases indicate participating students' ESS learning experience in their secondary schools seemed to have limited or little influence on their conceptual understandings of the discipline. We believe that these results reflect the current ESS education status, connected with the declining numbers of highly qualified ESS teachers in secondary schools.

  1. Exploration of CdTe quantum dots as mesoscale pressure sensors via time-resolved shock-compression photoluminescent emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Zhitao [Georgia Tech Research Institute, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0826 (United States); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States); Banishev, Alexandr A.; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana D. [School of Chemical Sciences and Fredrick Seitz Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Lee, Gyuhyon; Scripka, David A.; Breidenich, Jennifer; Summers, Christopher J.; Thadhani, Naresh N., E-mail: naresh.thadhani@mse.gatech.edu [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0245 (United States); Xiao, Pan [LNM, Institute of Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States); Zhou, Min [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332-0405 (United States)

    2016-07-28

    The nanometer size of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and their unique optical properties, including size-tunable narrow photoluminescent emission, broad absorption, fast photoluminescence decay, and negligible light scattering, are ideal features for spectrally tagging the shock response of localized regions in highly heterogeneous materials such as particulate media. In this work, the time-resolved laser-excited photoluminescence response of QDs to shock-compression was investigated to explore their utilization as mesoscale sensors for pressure measurements and in situ diagnostics during shock loading experiments. Laser-driven shock-compression experiments with steady-state shock pressures ranging from 2.0 to 13 GPa were performed on nanocomposite films of CdTe QDs dispersed in a soft polyvinyl alcohol polymer matrix and in a hard inorganic sodium silicate glass matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescent emission spectroscopy was used to correlate photoluminescence changes with the history of shock pressure and the dynamics of the matrix material surrounding the QDs. The results revealed pressure-induced blueshifts in emitted wavelength, decreases in photoluminescent emission intensity, reductions in peak width, and matrix-dependent response times. Data obtained for these QD response characteristics serve as indicators for their use as possible time-resolved diagnostics of the dynamic shock-compression response of matrix materials in which such QDs are embedded as in situ sensors.

  2. Exploration of CdTe quantum dots as mesoscale pressure sensors via time-resolved shock-compression photoluminescent emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Zhitao; Banishev, Alexandr A.; Christensen, James; Dlott, Dana D.; Lee, Gyuhyon; Scripka, David A.; Breidenich, Jennifer; Summers, Christopher J.; Thadhani, Naresh N.; Xiao, Pan; Zhou, Min

    2016-01-01

    The nanometer size of CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and their unique optical properties, including size-tunable narrow photoluminescent emission, broad absorption, fast photoluminescence decay, and negligible light scattering, are ideal features for spectrally tagging the shock response of localized regions in highly heterogeneous materials such as particulate media. In this work, the time-resolved laser-excited photoluminescence response of QDs to shock-compression was investigated to explore their utilization as mesoscale sensors for pressure measurements and in situ diagnostics during shock loading experiments. Laser-driven shock-compression experiments with steady-state shock pressures ranging from 2.0 to 13 GPa were performed on nanocomposite films of CdTe QDs dispersed in a soft polyvinyl alcohol polymer matrix and in a hard inorganic sodium silicate glass matrix. Time-resolved photoluminescent emission spectroscopy was used to correlate photoluminescence changes with the history of shock pressure and the dynamics of the matrix material surrounding the QDs. The results revealed pressure-induced blueshifts in emitted wavelength, decreases in photoluminescent emission intensity, reductions in peak width, and matrix-dependent response times. Data obtained for these QD response characteristics serve as indicators for their use as possible time-resolved diagnostics of the dynamic shock-compression response of matrix materials in which such QDs are embedded as in situ sensors.

  3. The swan song in context: long-time-scale X-ray variability of NGC 4051

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttley, P.; McHardy, I. M.; Papadakis, I. E.; Guainazzi, M.; Fruscione, A.

    1999-07-01

    On 1998 May 9-11, the highly variable, low-luminosity Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 4051 was observed in an unusual low-flux state by BeppoSAX, RXTE and EUVE. We present fits of the 4-15keV RXTE spectrum and BeppoSAX MECS spectrum obtained during this observation, which are consistent with the interpretation that the source had switched off, leaving only the spectrum of pure reflection from distant cold matter. We place this result in context by showing the X-ray light curve of NGC 4051 obtained by our RXTE monitoring campaign over the past two and a half years, which shows that the low state lasted for ~150d before the May observations (implying that the reflecting material is >10^17cm from the continuum source) and forms part of a light curve showing distinct variations in long-term average flux over time-scales > months. We show that the long-time-scale component to X-ray variability is intrinsic to the primary continuum and is probably distinct from the variability at shorter time-scales. The long-time-scale component to variability maybe associated with variations in the accretion flow of matter on to the central black hole. As the source approaches the low state, the variability process becomes non-linear. NGC 4051 may represent a microcosm of all X-ray variability in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs), displaying in a few years a variety of flux states and variability properties which more luminous AGNs may pass through on time-scales of decades to thousands of years.

  4. Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Rasmus Vestergaard; Pedersen, Katja Venborg; Christrup, Lona Louring

    III-60 Rasmus Juul Exploring the relationship between analgesic event rate and pain intensity in kidney stone surgery: A Repeated Time to Event Pilot Study RV Juul(1), KV Pedersen(2, 4), LL Christrup(1), AE Olesen(1, 3), AM Drewes(3), PJS Osther(4), TM Lund(1) 1) Department of Drug Design...... a relationship with pain intensity has not yet been established. The aim of this pilot study was to discuss how best to investigate the relationship between RTTE hazard of analgesic events and pain intensity in postoperative pain. Methods: Data was available from 44 patients undergoing kidney stone surgery......). Gompertz and exponential distribution models were evaluated. Post-hoc linear mixed effect modelling was performed between estimated RTTE hazard and observed NRS using the lme4 package in R (3). Results: A Gompertz distribution model adequately described data, with a baseline event rate of 0.64h-1 (RSE 25...

  5. If times change, should we throw away the hearthstone?Exploring (Dis continuities in autonomy and decision-making in the lives of Ghanaian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akosua K Darkwah

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate continuities and discontinuities between traditional and modern representations of womanhood and female gender roles focusing primarily on family and work settings. Using approaches informed by Sociology, Cultural Psychology, and African Studies, the paper explores traditional views of womanhood encapsulated in (and also transmitted intergenerationally through proverbs. This customary perspective is contrasted with the results of the Everyday Lives Survey from the Pathways of Women's Empowerment Ghana project. The survey investigated the nature of everyday life– education, work, decision making, access to institutions, and autonomy in relationships - in six hundred (600 adult women in both rural and urban communities in three regions of Ghana. We argue that although the times are changing, Ghanaian women who live in a culture that values an interdependent way of being have not changed statistically significantly so far as issues of autonomy and decision-making are concerned.

  6. Breastfeeding Initiation and Duration in First-Time Mothers: Exploring the Impact of Father Involvement in the Early Post-Partum Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa Hunter

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The early post-partum period is a crucial time for breastfeeding support. Mothers who have physical and emotional support during this period are more likely to be successful in breastfeeding. This study examined the relationship between father involvement and support for breast feeding initiation and duration in first-time mothers. Methods: Overall, 146 women who attended a childbirth education class or breastfeeding course at BABS were asked to fill out the Childbirth Experiences Survey, which explored key topics such as (1 breastfeeding initiation, (2 early post-partum breastfeeding, (3 breastfeeding plan, (4 post-partum breastfeeding support and (5 breast feeding duration. This was a voluntary self-reported questionnaire. The surveys were completed by the mothers during the post-partum period. Results: 45.9% (n=67 of mothers received helped from their husband or partner with breastfeeding while in the hospital, while 54.1% (n=79 of mothers did not receive support from their partners. Mothers who received early post-partum breastfeeding support were more likely to continue breastfeeding after leaving the hospital. Conclusion: First-time mothers who identified as having breastfeeding support from their partners, the infant’s father, during the early post-partum period were more likely to initiate breastfeeding and had longer breastfeeding durations.

  7. Exploring public sector physicians' resilience, reactions and coping strategies in times of economic crisis; findings from a survey in Portugal's capital city area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuliano; Pires, Carlos André; Perelman, Julian; Gonçalves, Luzia; Barros, Pedro Pita

    2017-03-15

    Evidence is accumulating on the impact of the recent economic crisis on health and health systems across Europe. However, little is known about the effect this is having on physicians - a crucial resource for the delivery of healthcare services. This paper explores the adaptation to the crisis of public sector physicians and their ability to keep performing their functions, with the objective of gaining a better understanding of health workers' resilience under deteriorating conditions. We conducted a survey among 484 public primary care and hospital physicians in Portugal's capital city area and explored their perceptions of the crisis, adaptation and coping strategies. We used ordinal and logistic regression models to link changes in hours worked and intentions to migrate with physicians' characteristics and specific answers. We found little evidence of physicians changing their overall allocation of working time before and after the crisis, with their age, types of specialisation, valuation of job flexibility and independence significantly associated with changes in public sector hours between 2010 and 2015. Being divorced, not Portuguese, of younger age, and working a high number of hours per week, were found to increase the probability of physicians considering migration, the same as having a poor opinion of recent government health policies. On the other hand, enjoying their current working environment, not wanting to disrupt provision of service, and leisure time were found to protect against scaling down public sector hours or considering migration. Our work on Portuguese physicians contributes to the debate on health workers' resilience, showing the value of understanding the influence of personal characteristics and opinions on their adaptation to changing circumstances, before designing policies to improve their working conditions and retention.

  8. Synchronized 2D/3D optical mapping for interactive exploration and real-time visualization of multi-function neurological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Alexander, Murray; Ryner, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Efficient software with the ability to display multiple neurological image datasets simultaneously with full real-time interactivity is critical for brain disease diagnosis and image-guided planning. In this paper, we describe the creation and function of a new comprehensive software platform that integrates novel algorithms and functions for multiple medical image visualization, processing, and manipulation. We implement an opacity-adjustment algorithm to build 2D lookup tables for multiple slice image display and fusion, which achieves a better visual result than those of using VTK-based methods. We also develop a new real-time 2D and 3D data synchronization scheme for multi-function MR volume and slice image optical mapping and rendering simultaneously through using the same adjustment operation. All these methodologies are integrated into our software framework to provide users with an efficient tool for flexibly, intuitively, and rapidly exploring and analyzing the functional and anatomical MR neurological data. Finally, we validate our new techniques and software platform with visual analysis and task-specific user studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. From advance exploration to real time steering of TBMs: A review on pertinent research in the Collaborative Research Center “Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunneling”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Meschke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on planning and construction related results from research performed at the Collaborative Research Center “Interaction Modeling in Mechanized Tunneling” at Ruhr-University Bochum, Germany. Research covers a broad spectrum of topics relevant for mechanized tunneling in soft soil conditions. This includes inverse numerical methods for advance exploration and models for the characterization of the in situ ground conditions, the interaction of the face support and the tail gap grouting with the porous soil, multi-scale models for the design of fiber reinforced segmental linings with enhanced robustness, computational methods for the numerical simulation of the tunnel advancement, the soil excavation and the material transport in the pressure chamber, logistics processes and risk analysis in urban tunneling. Targeted towards the continuous support of the construction process, a concept for real-time steering support of tunnel boring machines in conjunction with model update procedures and methods of uncertainty quantification is addressed. Keywords: Mechanized tunneling, Computational simulation, Tunnel reconnaissance, Tunnel linings, Face support, Tail void grouting, Real-time analysis, Abrasion, Process simulation

  10. Spectral and Timing States in Black Hole Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, J.

    Results on the long term variability of galactic black hole candidates are reviewed. I mainly present the results of a > 2 year long campaign with RXTE to monitor the canonical soft state black hole candidates LMC X-1 and LMC X-3 using monthly observations. These observations are presented within the context of the RXTE-ASM long term quasi-periodic variability on timescales of about 150d. For LMC X-3, times of low ASM count rate are correlated with a significant hardening of the X-ray spectrum. The observation with the lowest flux during the whole monitoring campaign can be modeled with a simple γ=1.7 power law -- a hard state spectrum. Since these spectral hardenings occur on the 150 d timescale it is probable that they are associated with periodic changes in the accretion rate. Possible causes for this behavior are discussed, e.g. a wind driven limit-cycle or long-term variability of the donor star.

  11. Documenting of Geologic Field Activities in Real-Time in Four Dimensions: Apollo 17 as a Case Study for Terrestrial Analogues and Future Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feist, B.; Bleacher, J. E.; Petro, N. E.; Niles, P. B.

    2018-01-01

    During the Apollo exploration of the lunar surface, thousands of still images, 16 mm videos, TV footage, samples, and surface experiments were captured and collected. In addition, observations and descriptions of what was observed was radioed to Mission Control as part of standard communications and subsequently transcribed. The archive of this material represents perhaps the best recorded set of geologic field campaigns and will serve as the example of how to conduct field work on other planetary bodies for decades to come. However, that archive of material exists in disparate locations and formats with varying levels of completeness, making it not easily cross-referenceable. While video and audio exist for the missions, it is not time synchronized, and images taken during the missions are not time or location tagged. Sample data, while robust, is not easily available in a context of where the samples were collected, their descriptions by the astronauts are not connected to them, or the video footage of their collection (if available). A more than five year undertaking to reconstruct and reconcile the Apollo 17 mission archive, from launch through splashdown, has generated an integrated record of the entire mission, resulting in searchable, synchronized image, voice, and video data, with geologic context provided at the time each sample was collected. Through www.apollo17.org the documentation of the field investigation conducted by the Apollo 17 crew is presented in chronologic sequence, with additional context provided by high-resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) images and a corresponding digital terrain model (DTM) of the Taurus-Littrow Valley.

  12. Surface Explorations: 3D Moving Images as Cartographies of Time = Exploraciones de superficie: Imágenes 3D en movimiento como cartografiáis del tiempo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Verhoeff

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Moving images of travel and exploration have a long history. In this essay I will examine how the trope of navigation in 3D moving images can work towards an intimate and haptic encounter with other times and other places – elsewhen and elsewhere. The particular navigational construction of space in time afforded by 3D moving images can be considered a cartography of time. This is a haptic cartography of exploration of the surfaces on which this encounter takes place. Taking Werner Herzog’s film Cave of Forgotten Dreams (2010 as a theoretical object, the main question addressed is how the creative exploration of new technologies of visualization – here: from rock painting, principles of animation, to 3D moving images – entails an epistemological inquiry into, and statements about, the power of images, technologies of vision, and the media cartographies they make. These questions turn new technologies into relevant sources for cultural, historical and philosophical reflection.Las imágenes en movimiento del viaje y de la exploración tienen una larga tradición. En este artículo examinaré cómo el tropo de la navegación en las imágenes en tres dimensiones puede crear un encuentro íntimo y háptico con otros tiempos y otros lugares. La particular construcción relativa a la navegación del espacio en el tiempo en las imágenes en tres dimensiones puede ser considerada como una cartografía del tiempo. Esta es una cartografía háptica de la exploración de superficies en las cuales ese encuentro tiene lugar. Tomando el film de Werner Herzog Cueva de los sueños olvidados (2010 como un objeto teórico, la cuestión principal que se formula es cómo la exploración creativa de las nuevas tecnologías de la visualización – ya sea desde la pintura sobre rocas, y los principios de animación, hasta las imágenes en tres dimensiones – implica una investigación epistemológica, con las consecuentes afirmaciones, sobre el poder de

  13. 2 years of INTEGRAL monitoring of GRS 1915+105. I. Multiwavelength coverage with INTEGRAL, RXTE, and the Ryle radio telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez, J.; Hannikainen, D.C.; Shaw, S.E.

    2008-01-01

    . A possible correlation between the amplitude of the radio flare and the duration of the X-ray dip is found. The X-ray dips prior to ejections could thus represent the time during which the source accumulates energy and material that is ejected later. The fact that these results do not rely on any spectral...

  14. X-Ray Timing and Spectral Observations of Galactic Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550--564 During Outburst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-11

    Soft X-ray transients (SXTs), a sub-class of low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), provide a unique opportunity to test General Relativity and to probe fundamental physics under conditions terrestrially unattainable. SXT outbursts are of great interest because they allow the study of LMXBs under a wide range of accretion rates. The majority of known SXTs contain black holes, therefore SXT outbursts are key to understanding accretion physics around black holes and in active galactic nuclei, which are thought to contain supermassive, M {approx} 10{sup 6} - 10{sup 10} M{circle_dot}, where M{circle_dot} is one solar mass, central compact objects. These compact objects are most likely black holes, which exhibit, on a much larger scale, accretion physics similar to that around black holes in SXTs. In this work, the timing and spectral properties of the SXT and microquasar XTE J1550-564 during outburst are studied. Observations made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS) are emphasized. USA data show a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing USA flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the USA hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV). Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) were detected by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the USA hardness ratio with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram shows counterclockwise cyclical evolution and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a geometrically thin, optically thick accretion disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  15. AN EXTENDED AND MORE SENSITIVE SEARCH FOR PERIODICITIES IN ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER/ALL-SKY MONITOR X-RAY LIGHT CURVES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, Alan M.; Bradt, Hale V.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Corbet, Robin H. D.; Harris, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results of a systematic search in ∼14 years of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor (ASM) data for evidence of periodicities. Two variations of the commonly used Fourier analysis search method have been employed to significantly improve upon the sensitivity achieved by Wen et al. in 2006, who also searched for periodicities in ASM data. In addition, the present search is comprehensive in terms of sources studied and frequency range covered, and has yielded the detection of the signatures of the orbital periods of eight low-mass X-ray binary systems and of ten high-mass X-ray binaries not listed in the tables of Wen et al. Orbital periods, epochs, signal amplitudes, modulation fractions, and folded light curves are given for each of these systems. Seven of the orbital periods are the most precise reported to date. In the course of this work, the 18.545 day orbital period of IGR J18483-0311 was co-discovered, and the first detections in X-rays were made of the ∼3.9 day orbital period of LMC X-1 and the ∼3.79 hr orbital period of 4U 1636-536. The results inform future searches for orbital and other periodicities in X-ray binaries.

  16. BURST FLUENCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF SOFT GAMMA REPEATERS 1806–20 AND 1900+14 IN THE ROSSI X-RAY TIMING EXPLORER PCA ERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieskorn, Zachary; Kaaret, Philip

    2012-01-01

    We study the fluence distributions of over 3040 bursts from SGR 1806–20 and over 1963 bursts from SGR 1900+14 using the complete set of observations available from the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer/Proportional Counter Array through 2011 March. Cumulative event distributions are presented for both sources and are fitted with single and broken power laws as well as an exponential cutoff. The distributions are best fitted by a broken power law with exponential cutoff; however the statistical significance of the cutoff is not high and the upper portion of the broken power law can be explained as the expected number of false bursts due to random noise fluctuations. Event distributions are also examined in high and low burst rate regimes and power-law indices are found to be consistent, independent of the burst rate. The contribution function of the event fluence is calculated. This distribution shows that the energy released in the soft gamma repeater (SGR) bursts is dominated by the most powerful events for both sources. The power-law nature of these distributions combined with the dominant energy dissipation of the system occurring in the large, less frequent bursts is indicative of a self-organized critical system, as suggested by Goğus et al. in 1999.

  17. Respectability, morality and disgust in the night‐time economy: exploring reactions to ‘lap dance’ clubs in England and Wales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Phil; Colosi, Rachela

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The night‐time economy is often described as repelling consumers fearful of the ‘undesirable Others’ imagined dominant within such time‐spaces. In this paper we explore this by describing attitudes towards, and reactions to, one particularly contentious site: the ‘lap dance’ club. Often targeted by campaigners in England and Wales as a source of criminality and anti‐sociality, in this paper we shift the focus from fear to disgust, and argue that Sexual Entertainment Venues (SEVs) are opposed on the basis of moral judgments that reflect distinctions of both class and gender. Drawing on documentary analysis, survey results and interview data collected during guided walks, we detail the concerns voiced by those anxious about the presence of lap dance or striptease clubs in their town or city, particularly the notion that they ‘lower the tone’ of particular streets or neighbourhoods. Our conclusion is that the opposition expressed to lap dance clubs is part of an attempt to police the boundaries of respectable masculinities and femininities, marginalizing the producers and consumers of sexual entertainment through ‘speech acts’ which identify such entertainment as unruly, vulgar and uncivilized. These findings are considered in the light of ongoing debates concerning the relations of morality, respectability and disgust. PMID:27708460

  18. Lost in hospital: a qualitative interview study that explores the perceptions of NHS inpatients who spent time on clinically inappropriate hospital wards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulding, Lucy; Adamson, Joy; Watt, Ian; Wright, John

    2015-10-01

    Prior research suggests that the placement of patients on clinically inappropriate hospital wards may increase the risk of experiencing patient safety issues. To explore patients' perspectives of the quality and safety of the care received during their inpatient stay on a clinically inappropriate hospital ward. Qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Nineteen patients who had spent time on at least one clinically inappropriate ward during their hospital stay at a large NHS teaching hospital in England. Patients would prefer to be treated on the correct specialty ward, but it is generally accepted that this may not be possible. When patients are placed on inappropriate wards, they may lack a sense of belonging. Participants commented on potential failings in communication, medical staff availability, nurses' knowledge and the resources available, each of which may contribute to unsafe care. Patients generally acknowledge the need for placement on inappropriate wards due to demand for inpatient beds, but may report dissatisfaction in terms of preference and belonging. Importantly, patients recount issues resulting from this placement that may compromise their safety. Hospital managers should be encouraged to appreciate this insight and potential threat to safe practice and where possible avoid inappropriate ward transfers and admissions. Where such admissions are unavoidable, staff should take action to address the gaps in safety of care that have been identified. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Internet-accessible, near-real-time volcano monitoring data for geoscience education: the Volcanoes Exploration Project—Pu`u `O`o

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poland, M. P.; Teasdale, R.; Kraft, K.

    2010-12-01

    Internet-accessible real- and near-real-time Earth science datasets are an important resource for geoscience education, but relatively few comprehensive datasets are available, and background information to aid interpretation is often lacking. In response to this need, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, in collaboration with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the University of Hawai‘i, Mānoa, established the Volcanoes Exploration Project: Pu‘u ‘O‘o (VEPP). The VEPP Web site provides access, in near-real time, to geodetic, seismic, and geologic data from the Pu‘u ‘O‘o eruptive vent on Kilauea Volcano, Hawai‘i. On the VEPP Web site, a time series query tool provides a means of interacting with continuous geophysical data. In addition, results from episodic kinematic GPS campaigns and lava flow field maps are posted as data are collected, and archived Webcam images from Pu‘u ‘O‘o crater are available as a tool for examining visual changes in volcanic activity over time. A variety of background information on volcano surveillance and the history of the 1983-present Pu‘u ‘O‘o-Kupaianaha eruption puts the available monitoring data in context. The primary goal of the VEPP Web site is to take advantage of high visibility monitoring data that are seldom suitably well-organized to constitute an established educational resource. In doing so, the VEPP project provides a geoscience education resource that demonstrates the dynamic nature of volcanoes and promotes excitement about the process of scientific discovery through hands-on learning. To support use of the VEPP Web site, a week-long workshop was held at Kilauea Volcano in July 2010, which included 25 participants from the United States and Canada. The participants represented a diverse cross-section of higher learning, from community colleges to research universities, and included faculty who teach both large introductory non-major classes

  20. Exploration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilburn, D.R.; Stanley, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    This summary of international mineral exploration activities for 2012 draws upon information from industry sources, published literature and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) specialists. The summary provides data on exploration budgets by region and mineral commodity, identifies significant mineral discoveries and areas of mineral exploration, discusses government programs affecting the mineral exploration industry and presents analyses of exploration activities performed by the mineral industry. Three sources of information are reported and analyzed in this annual review of international exploration for 2012: 1) budgetary statistics expressed in U.S. nominal dollars provided by SNL Metals Economics Group (MEG) of Halifax, Nova Scotia; 2) regional and site-specific exploration activities that took place in 2012 as compiled by the USGS and 3) regional events including economic, social and political conditions that affected exploration activities, which were derived from published sources and unpublished discussions with USGS and industry specialists.

  1. Exploration technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roennevik, H.C. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    The paper evaluates exploration technology. Topics discussed are: Visions; the subsurface challenge; the creative tension; the exploration process; seismic; geology; organic geochemistry; seismic resolution; integration; drilling; value creation. 4 refs., 22 figs.

  2. Augmented Virtuality: A Real-time Process for Presenting Real-world Visual Sensory Information in an Immersive Virtual Environment for Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, D.; Tavakkoli, A.; Regenbrecht, J.; Wilson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) applications have recently seen an impressive growth, thanks to the advent of commercial Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). This new visualization era has opened the possibility of presenting researchers from multiple disciplines with data visualization techniques not possible via traditional 2D screens. In a purely VR environment researchers are presented with the visual data in a virtual environment, whereas in a purely AR application, a piece of virtual object is projected into the real world with which researchers could interact. There are several limitations to the purely VR or AR application when taken within the context of remote planetary exploration. For example, in a purely VR environment, contents of the planet surface (e.g. rocks, terrain, or other features) should be created off-line from a multitude of images using image processing techniques to generate 3D mesh data that will populate the virtual surface of the planet. This process usually takes a tremendous amount of computational resources and cannot be delivered in real-time. As an alternative, video frames may be superimposed on the virtual environment to save processing time. However, such rendered video frames will lack 3D visual information -i.e. depth information. In this paper, we present a technique to utilize a remotely situated robot's stereoscopic cameras to provide a live visual feed from the real world into the virtual environment in which planetary scientists are immersed. Moreover, the proposed technique will blend the virtual environment with the real world in such a way as to preserve both the depth and visual information from the real world while allowing for the sensation of immersion when the entire sequence is viewed via an HMD such as Oculus Rift. The figure shows the virtual environment with an overlay of the real-world stereoscopic video being presented in real-time into the virtual environment. Notice the preservation of the object

  3. Repository exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pentz, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses exploration objectives and requirements for a nuclear repository in the U.S.A. The importance of designing the exploration program to meet the system performance objectives is emphasized and some examples of the extent of exploration required before the License Application for Construction Authorization is granted are also discussed

  4. A study of the cross-correlation and time lag in black hole X-ray binary XTE J1859+226

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Songpeng; Ding, Guoqiang; Li, Zhibing; Lei, Yajuan; Yuen, Rai; Qu, Jinlu

    2017-07-01

    With Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data, we systematically study the cross-correlation and time lag in all spectral states of black hole X-ray binary (BHXB) XTE J1859+226 in detail during its entire 1999-2000 outburst that lasted for 166 days. Anti-correlations and positive correlations and their respective soft and hard X-ray lags are only detected in the first 100 days of the outburst when the luminosity is high. This suggests that the cross-correlations may be related to high luminosity. Positive correlations are detected in every state of XTE J1859+226, viz., hard state, hard-intermediate state (HIMS), soft-intermediate state (SIMS) and soft state. However, anti-correlations are only detected in HIMS and SIMS, anti-correlated hard lags are only detected in SIMS, while anti-correlated soft lags are detected in both HIMS and SIMS. Moreover, the ratio of the observations with anti-correlated soft lags to hard lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is significantly different from that in neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries (NS LMXBs). So far, anti-correlations are never detected in the soft state of BHXBs but detected in every branch or state of NS LMXBs. This may be due to the origin of soft seed photons in BHXBs is confined to the accretion disk and, for NS LMXBs, from both accretion disk and the surface of the NS. We notice that the timescale of anti-correlated time lags detected in XTE J1859+226 is similar with that of other BHXBs and NS LMXBs. We suggest that anti-correlated soft lag detected in BHXB may result from fluctuation in the accretion disk as well as NS LMXB.

  5. Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    New range Passage Tomb may be the first structure with known astronomical significance. It was built around 3,200 B.C. in Ireland. It's central passage allows light end-to-end for about 2 weeks around winter solstice. The Sun, Moon, Planets, and Stars held significance in early times due to the seasons, significance for food crops, and mythology. Citation: Corel Photography and Windows to the Universe The Greek may be among the first to pursue analytical interpretations of what they saw in the sky. In about 280 B.C. Aristarchus suggested Earth revolves around the Sun and estimated the distance between. Around 130 B.C. Hipparchus developed the first accurate star map. Today still seek to understand how the universe formed and how we came to be and are we alone. Understanding the causes and consequences of climate change using advanced space missions with major Earth science and applications research. center dotFire the public imagination and inspire students to pursue STEM fields. Train college and graduate students to create a U.S. technical workforce with employees that embody the values of competence, innovation, and service. center dotDrive the technical innovations that enable exploration and become the engine of National economic growth. center dotPartner domestically and internationally to leverage resources to extend the reach of research.

  6. Exploring Normalized Systems Potential for Dutch MoD’s Agility : A Proof of Concept on Flexibility, Time-to-market, Productivity and Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Op 't Land, M.; Krouwel, M.R.; Van Dipten, E.G.; Verelst, J.

    2011-01-01

    Both the Command and Control Support Centre (C2SC) of the Dutch Ministry of Defense, and Capgemini are constantly exploring better ways of building and maintaining information systems which ef- fectively support strategy and operations of an enterprise. In a Proof of Concept conducted in March and

  7. Exploring Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuil, Stéphanie

    2016-04-01

    Mars is our neighbour planet and has always fascinated humans as it has been seen as a potential abode for life. Knowledge about Mars is huge and was constructed step by step through numerous missions. It could be difficult to describe these missions, the associated technology, the results, the questions they raise, that's why an activity is proposed, that directly interests students. Their production is presented in the poster. Step 1: The main Mars feature and the first Mars explorations using telescope are presented to students. It should be really interesting to present "Mars Canals" from Percival Lowell as it should also warn students against flawed interpretation. Moreover, this study has raised the big question about extra-terrestrial life on Mars for the first time. Using Google Mars is then a good way to show the huge knowledge we have on the planet and to introduce modern missions. Step 2: Students have to choose and describe one of the Mars mission from ESA and NASA. They should work in pairs. Web sites from ESA and NASA are available and the teacher makes sure the main missions will be studied. Step 3: Students have to collect different pieces of information about the mission - When? Which technology? What were the main results? What type of questions does it raise? They prepare an oral presentation in the form they want (role play, academic presentation, using a poster, PowerPoint). They also have to produce playing cards about the mission that could be put on a timeline. Step 4: As a conclusion, the different cards concerning different missions are mixed. Groups of students receive cards and they have to put them on a timeline as fast as possible. It is also possible to play the game "timeline".

  8. Application of RVA and Time-Lapse Photography to Explore Effects of Extent of Chlorination, Milling Extraction Rate, and Particle-Size Reduction of Flour on Cake-Baking Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three factors (extent of chlorination, milling extraction rate and particle-size reduction) in the cake-bakeing functionality of Croplan 594W flour were explored by Rapid Visco-Analyzer (RVA) and time-lapse photography. The extent of chlorination and milling extraction rate showed dramatic effects,...

  9. Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer Observations of the First Transient Z Source XTE J1701-462: Shedding New Light on Mass Accretion in Luminous Neutron Star X-Ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homan, Jeroen; van der Klis, Michiel; Wijnands, Rudy; Belloni, Tomaso; Fender, Rob; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Casella, Piergiorgio; Méndez, Mariano; Gallo, Elena; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Gehrels, Neil

    2007-02-01

    We report on the first 10 weeks of RXTE observations of the X-ray transient XTE J1701-462 and conclude that it had all the characteristics of the neutron star Z sources, i.e., the brightest persistent neutron star low-mass X-ray binaries. These include the typical Z-shaped tracks traced out in X-ray color diagrams and the variability components detected in the power spectra, such as kHz QPOs and normal and horizontal branch oscillations. XTE J1701-462 is the first transient Z source and provides unique insights into mass accretion rate (m˙) and luminosity dependencies in neutron star X-ray binaries. As its overall luminosity decreased, we observed a switch between two types of Z source behavior, with the branches of the Z track changing their shape and/or orientation. We interpret this as an extreme case of the more moderate long-term changes seen in the persistent Z sources and suggest that they result from changes in m˙. We also suggest that the Cyg-like Z sources (Cyg X-2, GX 5-1, and GX 340+0) are substantially more luminous (>50%) than the Sco-like Z sources (Sco X-1, GX 17+2, and GX 349+2). Adopting a possible explanation for the behavior of kHz QPOs, which involves a prompt as well as a filtered response to changes in m˙, we further propose that changes in m˙ can explain both movement along the Z track and changes in the shape of the Z track. We discuss some consequences of this and consider the possibility that the branches of the Z will smoothly evolve into the branches observed in X-ray color diagrams of the less luminous atoll sources, although not in a way that was previously suggested.

  10. Farside explorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon

    2012-01-01

    the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from...... the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar......Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded...

  11. Uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Voto, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    This paper is a review of the methodology and technology that are currently being used in varying degrees in uranium exploration activities worldwide. Since uranium is ubiquitous and occurs in trace amounts (0.2 to 5 ppm) in virtually all rocks of the crust of the earth, exploration for uranium is essentially the search of geologic environments in which geologic processes have produced unusual concentrations of uranium. Since the level of concentration of uranium of economic interest is dependent on the present and future price of uranium, it is appropriate here to review briefly the economic realities of uranium-fueled power generation. (author)

  12. College Explorer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, David H.

    1985-01-01

    The "College Explorer" is a software package (for the 64K Apple II, IBM PC, TRS-80 model III and 4 microcomputers) which aids in choosing a college. The major features of this package (manufactured by The College Board) are described and evaluated. Sample input/output is included. (JN)

  13. Exploring Size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    "Exploring" is a magazine of science, art, and human perception that communicates ideas museum exhibits cannot demonstrate easily by using experiments and activities for the classroom. This issue concentrates on size, examining it from a variety of viewpoints. The focus allows students to investigate and discuss interconnections among…

  14. Is it time to abandon care planning in mental health services? A qualitative study exploring the views of professionals, service users and carers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Helen L; Lovell, Karina; Bee, Penny; Sanders, Caroline; Rogers, Anne

    2018-06-01

    It has been established that mental health-care planning does not adequately respond to the needs of those accessing services. Understanding the reasons for this and identifying whose needs care plans serve requires an exploration of the perspectives of service users, carers and professionals within the wider organizational context. To explore the current operationalization of care planning and perceptions of its function within mental health services from the perspectives of multiple stakeholders. Participants included 21 mental health professionals, 29 service users and 4 carers from seven Mental Health Trusts in England. All participants had experience of care planning processes within secondary mental health-care services. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted with participants and analysed utilizing a qualitative framework approach. Care plans and care planning were characterized by a failure to meet the complexity of mental health needs, and care planning processes were seen to prioritize organizational agendas and risk prevention which distanced care planning from the everyday lives of service users. Care planning is recognized, embedded and well established in the practices of mental health professionals and service users. However, it is considered too superficial and mainly irrelevant to users for managing mental health in their everyday lives. Those responsible for the planning and delivery of mental health services should consider ways to increase the relevance of care planning to the everyday lives of service users including separating risk from holistic needs assessment, using support aids and utilizing a peer workforce in this regard. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Why do general dental practitioners become involved in clinical teaching? A pilot study exploring the views of part-time practitioner teachers, King's College London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, B R; Leung, A N; Dunne, S M

    2013-05-01

    Dental schools in the United Kingdom are becoming increasingly reliant on the services of part-time teachers to deliver the clinical educational component of the dental course. Their background is predominantly from general dental practice but the opportunities to progress in the system are limited. The aim of this study was to ascertain the views and perceptions of such teachers at a dental school. An anonymous, non-incentivised online survey was used to obtain both qualitative and quantitative views of the part timers. The department has n = 40 part-time teachers and there was a response rate of 78%. Overall 73% were satisfied with their current teaching position, whereas the remaining 27% of teachers were seeking higher rewards both in terms of recognition and status. This study demonstrated the need for formal teaching skills and training to be made available to part-time clinical teachers. Allied to this is the requirement for a clearly defined and achievable career pathway.

  16. Exploring the effects of driving experience on hazard awareness and risk perception via real-time hazard identification, hazard classification, and rating tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowsky, Avinoam; Oron-Gilad, Tal

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of driving experience on hazard awareness and risk perception skills. These topics have previously been investigated separately, yet a novel approach is suggested where hazard awareness and risk perception are examined concurrently. Young, newly qualified drivers, experienced drivers, and a group of commercial drivers, namely, taxi drivers performed three consecutive tasks: (1) observed 10 short movies of real-world driving situations and were asked to press a button each time they identified a hazardous situation; (2) observed one of three possible sub-sets of 8 movies (out of the 10 they have seen earlier) for the second time, and were asked to categorize them into an arbitrary number of clusters according to the similarity in their hazardous situation; and (3) observed the same sub-set for a third time and following each movie were asked to rate its level of hazardousness. The first task is considered a real-time identification task while the other two are performed using hindsight. During it participants' eye movements were recorded. Results showed that taxi drivers were more sensitive to hidden hazards than the other driver groups and that young-novices were the least sensitive. Young-novice drivers also relied heavily on materialized hazards in their categorization structure. In addition, it emerged that risk perception was derived from two major components: the likelihood of a crash and the severity of its outcome. Yet, the outcome was rarely considered under time pressure (i.e., in real-time hazard identification tasks). Using hindsight, when drivers were provided with the opportunity to rate the movies' hazardousness more freely (rating task) they considered both components. Otherwise, in the categorization task, they usually chose the severity of the crash outcome as their dominant criterion. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han; Barton, Michael; Jiang, Caigui; Wonka, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  18. Exploring quadrangulations

    KAUST Repository

    Peng, Chi-Han

    2014-02-04

    Here we presented a framework to explore quad mesh topologies. The core of our work is a systematic enumeration algorithm that can generate all possible quadrangular meshes inside a defined boundary with an upper limit of v3-v5 pairs. The algorithm is orders of magnitude more efficient than previous work. The combination of topological enumeration and shape-space exploration demonstrates that mesh topology has a powerful influence on geometry. The Fig. 18. A gallery of different quadrilateral meshes for a Shuriken. The quadrilaterals of the model were colored in a postprocess. Topological variations have distinctive, interesting patterns of mesh lines. © 2014 ACM 0730-0301/2014/01-ART3 15.00.

  19. Exploring stop-go decision zones at rural high-speed intersections with flashing green signal and insufficient yellow time in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Keshuang; Xu, Yanqing; Wang, Fen; Oguchi, Takashi

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study is to empirically analyze and model the stop-go decision behavior of drivers at rural high-speed intersections in China, where a flashing green signal of 3s followed by a yellow signal of 3s is commonly applied to end a green phase. 1, 186 high-resolution vehicle trajectories were collected at four typical high-speed intersection approaches in Shanghai and used for the identification of actual stop-go decision zones and the modeling of stop-go decision behavior. Results indicate that the presence of flashing green significantly changed the theoretical decision zones based on the conventional Dilemma Zone theory. The actual stop-go decision zones at the study intersections were thus formulated and identified based on the empirical data. Binary Logistic model and Fuzzy Logic model were then developed to further explore the impacts of flashing green on the stop-go behavior of drivers. It was found that the Fuzzy Logic model could produce comparably good estimation results as compared to the traditional Binary Logistic models. The findings of this study could contribute the development of effective dilemma zone protection strategies, the improvement of stop-go decision model embedded in the microscopic traffic simulation software and the proper design of signal change and clearance intervals at high-speed intersections in China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Explorative Faktorenanalyse

    OpenAIRE

    Klopp, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Die explorative Faktorenanalyse (EFA) ist ein Verfahren aus der multivariaten Statistik. Mithilfe der Faktorenanalyse kann aus den Beobachtungen vieler manifester Variablen (z .B Items eines Fragebogens) auf wenige zugrunde liegende latente Variablen, die Faktoren genannt werden, geschlossen werden. Eine EFA führt zu einer Reduktion der Variablen auf wenige, den manifesten Variablen zugrunde liegende Faktoren. Der folgende Text gibt einen Überblick über die Grundlagen der EFA sowie der wichti...

  1. Asteroid exploration and utilization: The Hawking explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Alan; Date, Medha; Duarte, Manny; Erian, Neil; Gafka, George; Kappler, Peter; Patano, Scott; Perez, Martin; Ponce, Edgar; Radovich, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The Earth is nearing depletion of its natural resources at a time when human beings are rapidly expanding the frontiers of space. The resources which may exist on asteroids could have enormous potential for aiding and enhancing human space exploration as well as life on Earth. With the possibly limitless opportunities that exist, it is clear that asteroids are the next step for human existence in space. This report comprises the efforts of NEW WORLDS, Inc. to develop a comprehensive design for an asteroid exploration/sample return mission. This mission is a precursor to proof-of-concept missions that will investigate the validity of mining and materials processing on an asteroid. Project STONER (Systematic Transfer of Near Earth Resources) is based on two utilization scenarios: (1) moving an asteroid to an advantageous location for use by Earth; and (2) mining an asteroids and transporting raw materials back to Earth. The asteroid explorer/sample return mission is designed in the context of both scenarios and is the first phase of a long range plane for humans to utilize asteroid resources. The report concentrates specifically on the selection of the most promising asteroids for exploration and the development of an exploration scenario. Future utilization as well as subsystem requirements of an asteroid sample return probe are also addressed.

  2. Advanced time-series analysis of MEG data as a method to explore olfactory function in healthy controls and Parikinson's disease patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesveldt, S.; Knol, D.L.; Verbunt, J.P.A.; Berendse, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether time-series analysis of magnetoencephalography (MEG) data is a suitable method to study brain activity related to olfactory information processing, and to detect differences in odor-induced brain activity between patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and controls.

  3. Exploring parents' screen-viewing behaviours and sedentary time in association with their attitudes toward their young child's screen-viewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Solomon-Moore

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary time and screen-viewing (SV are associated with chronic disease risk in adults. Parent and child sedentary time and SV are associated. Parents influence children's SV through parenting styles and role modelling. Understanding whether parents' attitudes toward child SV are associated with their own SV and sedentary time will aid development of family interventions to reduce sedentary behaviours. Cross-sectional data with 809 parents from Bristol, UK were collected in 2012–2013 and analysed in 2016. Parental total sedentary time was derived from accelerometer data. Parents self-reported daily television viewing, use of computers, games consoles, and smartphone/tablets (none, 1–59 min, 1–2 h, >2 h and attitudes toward child SV. Adjusted linear and logistic regression models were used to examine associations, separately for weekdays and weekend days. Having negative attitudes toward child SV was associated with lower weekend sedentary time (Coeff: −6.41 [95% CI: −12.37 to −0.45] min/day. Limiting behaviours and having negative attitudes toward child SV were associated with lower weekday television viewing (OR: 0.72 [0.57–0.90] and 0.57 [0.47–0.70] respectively, weekend television viewing (0.75 [0.59–0.95] and 0.61 [0.50–0.75], and weekend computer use (0.73 [0.58–0.92] and 0.80 [0.66–0.97]. Negative attitudes were also associated with lower smartphone use on weekdays (0.70 [0.57–0.85] and weekends (0.70 [0.58–0.86]. Parent self-efficacy for limiting child SV and setting SV rules were not associated with sedentary time or SV. Reporting negative attitudes toward child SV was associated with lower accelerometer-assessed weekend total sedentary time and self-reported SV behaviours, while limiting child SV was also associated with lower self-reported SV.

  4. Exploring Seafloor Volcanoes in Cyberspace: NOAA's "Ocean Explorer" Inspires Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelm, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Seafloor exploration being done by scientists is an ideal way to introduce students to technology as a tool for inquiry. The same technology that allows scientists to share data in near real time can also provide students the tools to become researchers. NOAA's Ocean Explorer Explorations website is a rich research data bank that can be used by…

  5. Exploring Nuclear Photorelaxation of Pyranine in Aqueous Solution: an Integrated Ab-Initio Molecular Dynamics and Time Resolved Vibrational Analysis Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiariello, Maria Gabriella; Rega, Nadia

    2018-03-22

    Advances in time-resolved vibrational spectroscopy techniques provided a new stimulus for understanding the transient molecular dynamics triggered by the electronic excitation. The detailed interpretation of such time-dependent spectroscopic signals is a challenging task from both experimental and theoretical points of view. We simulated and analyzed the transient photorelaxation of the pyranine photoacid in aqueous solution, with special focus on structural parameters and low frequency skeleton modes that are possibly preparatory for the photoreaction occurring at later time, as suggested by experimental spectroscopic studies. To this aim, we adopted an accurate computational protocol that combines excited state ab initio molecular dynamics within an hybrid quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics framework and a time-resolved vibrational analysis based on the Wavelet transform. According to our results, the main nuclear relaxation on the excited potential energy surface is completed in about 500 fs, in agreement with experimental data. The rearrangement of C-C bonds occurs according to a complex vibrational dynamics, showing oscillatory patterns that are out of phase and modulated by modes below 200 cm -1 . We also analyzed in both the ground and the excited state the evolution of some structural parameters involved in excited state proton transfer reaction, namely, those involving the pyranine and the water molecule hydrogen bonded to the phenolic O-H group. Both the hydrogen bond distance and the intermolecular orientation are optimized in the excited state, resulting in a tighter proton donor-acceptor couple. Indeed, we found evidence that collective low frequency skeleton modes, such as the out of plane wagging at 108 cm -1 and the deformation at 280 cm -1 , are photoactivated by the ultrafast part of the relaxation and modulate the pyranine-water molecule rearrangement, favoring the preparatory step for the photoreactivity.

  6. Exploring Science Through Polar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfirman, S. L.; Bell, R. E.; Zadoff, L.; Kelsey, R.

    2003-12-01

    Exploring the Poles is a First Year Seminar course taught at Barnard College, Columbia University. First Year Seminars are required of incoming students and are designed to encourage critical analysis in a small class setting with focused discussion. The class links historical polar exploration with current research in order to: introduce non-scientists to the value of environmental science through polar literature; discuss issues related to venturing into the unknown that are of relevance to any discipline: self-reliance, leadership, preparation, decisions under uncertainty; show students the human face of science; change attitudes about science and scientists; use data to engage students in exploring/understanding the environment and help them learn to draw conclusions from data; integrate research and education. These goals are met by bringing analysis of early exploration efforts together with a modern understanding of the polar environment. To date to class has followed the efforts of Nansen in the Fram, Scott and Amundsen in their race to the pole, and Shackleton's Endurance. As students read turn-of-the-century expedition journals, expedition progress is progressively revealed on an interactive map showing the environmental context. To bring the exploration process to life, students are assigned to expedition teams for specific years and the fates of the student "expeditions" are based on their own decisions. For example, in the Arctic, they navigate coastal sea ice and become frozen into the ice north of Siberia, re-creating Nansen's polar drift. Fates of the teams varied tremendously: some safely emerged at Fram Strait in 4 years, while others nearly became hopelessly lost in the Beaufort Gyre. Students thus learn about variability in the current polar environment through first hand experience, enabling them to appreciate the experiences, decisions, and, in some cases, the luck, of polar explorers. Evaluation by the Columbia Center for New Media, Teaching

  7. What Can Catchment Transit Time Distributions Tell Us About Runoff Mechanisms? Exploring "Age Equifinality" with an Integrated Surface-Groundwater Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilusz, D. C.; Harman, C. J.; Ball, W. P.; Maxwell, R. M.; Buda, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The backward transit-time distribution (bTTD) is the time-varying, probabilistic distribution of water travel times or, equivalently, water ages in catchment outflow. The bTTD is increasingly seen as a master variable of catchment hydrology that links flow and transport processes, in part because it is believed to embed information about runoff generation mechanisms (RGMs) that are difficult to directly observe. The ability to use water age to make inferences about RGMs depends on the degree of "age equifinality" in a watershed, defined here as the phenomenon where significant volumes of similarly-aged water are delivered to the outlet by different RGMs at the same time. When age equifinality is low (e.g., all discharge is old groundwater), the mapping of water age to the RGM may be simple; when age equifinality is high (e.g., discharge is a mix of old groundwater and old interflow), this mapping may be impossible. In this study we conduct experiments in a virtual watershed to (1) understand the hydrologic conditions that lead to age equifinality, (2) identify relationships between water age and RGMs that are particularly obscured/unobscured by age equifinality, and (3) test the generalizability of these relationships in other watersheds. Our experiments used the fully-distributed surface-groundwater model ParFlow, which simulates a suite of RGMs, plus SLIM-FAST particle tracking. To improve realism, the watershed model was parameterized and forced using extensive field data from the USDA's Mahantango Creek experimental catchment in PA, USA. The model output is being interrogated to understand the time-varying relationships between the composition of RGMs and the bTTD at the outlet. We are also testing the robustness of these relationships by re-running our model with controlled differences in climate, topography, and scale. Initial results suggest high age equifinality at peak flows due to overlapping young water contributions from infiltration- and saturation

  8. Space exploration

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Space Exploration, is one book in the Britannica Illustrated Science Library Series that is correlated to the science curriculum in grades 5-8. The Britannica Illustrated Science Library is a visually compelling set that covers earth science, life science, and physical science in 16 volumes.  Created for ages 10 and up, each volume provides an overview on a subject and thoroughly explains it through detailed and powerful graphics-more than 1,000 per volume-that turn complex subjects into information that students can grasp.  Each volume contains a glossary with full definitions for vocabulary help and an index.

  9. In-Flight Observations of Long-Term Single Event Effect(SEE)Performance on Orbview-2 and Xray Timing Explorer(XTE)Solid State Recorders (SSR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poivey, Christian; Barth, Janet L.; LaBel, Ken A.; Gee, George; Safren, Harvey

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents Single Event Effect (SEE) in-flight data on Solid State Recorders (SSR) that have been collected over a long period of time for two NASA spacecraft: Orbview-2 and XTE. SEE flight data on solid-state memories give an opportunity to study the behavior in space of SEE sensitive commercial devices. The actual Single Event Upset (SEU) rates can be compared with the calculated rates based on environment models and ground test data. The SEE mitigation schemes can also be evaluated in actual implementation. A significant amount of data has already been published concerning observed SEE effects on memories in space. However, most of the data presented cover either a short period of time or a small number of devices. The data presented here has been collected on a large number of devices during several years. This allows statistically significant information about the effect of space weather fluctuations on SEU rates, and the effectiveness of SEE countermeasures used to be analyzed. Only Orbview-2 data is presented in this summary. XTE data will be included in the final paper.

  10. RTEMP: Exploring an end-to-end, agnostic platform for multidisciplinary real-time analytics in the space physics community and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaddock, D.; Donovan, E.; Spanswick, E.; Jackel, B. J.

    2014-12-01

    Large-scale, real-time, sensor-driven analytics are a highly effective set of tools in many research environments; however, the barrier to entry is expensive and the learning curve is steep. These systems need to operate efficiently from end to end, with the key aspects being data transmission, acquisition, management and organization, and retrieval. When building a generic multidisciplinary platform, acquisition and data management needs to be designed with scalability and flexibility as the primary focus. Additionally, in order to leverage current sensor web technologies, the integration of common sensor data standards (ie. SensorML and SWE Services) should be supported. Perhaps most important, researchers should be able to get started and integrate the platform into their set of research tools as easily and quickly as possible. The largest issue with current platforms is that the sensor data must be formed and described using the previously mentioned standards. As useful as these standards are for organizing data, they are cumbersome to adopt, often restrictive, and are required to be geospatially-driven. Our solution, RTEMP (Real-time Environment Monitoring Platform), is a real-time analytics platform with over ten years and an estimated two million dollars of investment. It has been developed for our continuously expanding requirements of operating and building remote sensors and supporting equipment for space physics research. A key benefit of our approach is RTEMP's ability to manage agnostic data. This allows data that flows through the system to be structured in any way that best addresses the needs of the sensor operators and data users, enabling extensive flexibility and streamlined development and research. Here we begin with an overview of RTEMP and how it is structured. Additionally, we will showcase the ways that we are using RTEMP and how it is being adopted by researchers in an increasingly broad range of other research fields. We will lay out a

  11. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as part of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual?, I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early- and mid-career academics to navigate through this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human-scale approach to early- and mid-career mentoring through the establishment of small team-based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issues and provides new insight into teaching and learning in higher education.

  12. Geoelectrical exploration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Said Barseem

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Sinai development is a goal of successive governments in Egypt. The present study is a geoelectrical exploration to find appropriate solutions of the problems affecting the land of a Research Station in Southeast Al Qantara. This research station is one of the Desert Research Center stations to facilitate the development of desert land for agriculture by introducing applied research. It suffers from some problems which can be summarized in the shortage of irrigation water and water logging. The appropriate solutions of these problems have been delineated by the results of 1D and 2D geoelectrical measurements. Electrical resistivity (ER revealed the subsurface sedimentary sequences and extension of subsurface layers in the horizontal and vertical directions, especially, the water bearing layer. Additionally it helped to choose the most suitable places to drill productive wells with a good condition.

  13. Exploration economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mcgill, R.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper deals with determining the economic viability of the play or prospect. At the outset, one point is important. Preexploration economists are important because they enable geologists to see if their assumptions will prove profitable. Their assumptions must consider the full range of possible outcomes, even if only some portion of that range may contain prospects or plays that are estimated to be profitable. Play economics are preferable to prospect economics because, being the sum of several prospects, they give a broader view of the investment opportunity. Finally, remember that play and prospect economics are always slightly optimistic. They seldom include all of the exploration and overhead changes that must ultimately be borne by the successful prospects

  14. HR Explorer

    CERN Document Server

    Möller, M

    1997-01-01

    At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics Research (CERN), Geneva Switzerland we are using OracleHR for managing our human resources since 1995. After the first year of production it became clear that there was a strong need for an easy-to-use Decision Support Tool exploring the data in OracleHR. This paper illustrates an approach which we have adopted to provide on-line management reporting, multi-dimensional analysis, drill-down and slicing & dicing of data, warehoused from OracleHR. The tool offers strong resource management and planning capabilities including career follow-up. The user management and security monitoring are implemented using the Oracle WebServer.

  15. Hydrocarbon exploration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerche, I. (South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-01-01

    This special issue of the journal examines various aspects of the on-going search for hydrocarbons, ranging from frontier basins where little data are available, to more mature areas where considerable data are available. The incentives underlying the search for oil are roughly: the social, economic and industrial needs of a nation; the incentive of a corporation to be profitable; and the personal incentives of individuals in the oil industry and governments, which range from financial wealth to power and which are as diverse as the individuals who are involved. From a geopolitical perspective, the needs, requirements, goals, strategies, and philosophies of nations, and groups of nations, also impact on the oil exploration game. Strategies that have been employed have ranged from boycott to austerity and rationing, to physical intervention, to global ''flooding'' with oil by over-production. (author)

  16. Exploring ESASky

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marchi, Guido; ESASky Team

    2017-06-01

    ESASky is a science-driven discovery portal for all ESA space astronomy missions. It also includes missions from international partners such as Suzaku and Chandra. The first public release of ESASky features interfaces for sky exploration and for single and multiple target searches. Using the application requires no prior-knowledge of any of the missions involved and gives users world-wide simplified access to high-level science-ready data products from space-based Astronomy missions, plus a number of ESA-produced source catalogues, including the Gaia Data Release 1 catalogue. We highlight here the latest features to be developed, including one that allows the user to project onto the sky the footprints of the JWST instruments, at any chosen position and orientation. This tool has been developed to aid JWST astronomers when they are defining observing proposals. We aim to include other missions and instruments in the near future.

  17. [Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Patricia; Muñoz, Rubén; Stival, Matías

    2017-01-01

    This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials - including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes - were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV) as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  18. Exploring physical and chemical factors influencing the properties of recombinant prion protein and the real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Keding; Sloan, Angela; Avery, Kristen M; Coulthart, Michael; Carpenter, Michael; Knox, J David

    2014-01-01

    Real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QuIC), a highly specific and sensitive assay able to detect low levels of the disease-inducing isoform of the prion protein (PrP(d)) in brain tissue biopsies and cerebral spinal fluid, has great potential to become a method for diagnosing prion disease ante mortem. In order to standardize the assay method for routine analysis, an understanding of how physical and chemical factors affect the stability of the recombinant prion protein (rPrP) substrate and the RT-QuIC assay's sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility is required. In this study, using sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease brain homogenate to seed the reactions and an in vitro-expressed recombinant prion protein, hamster rPrP, as the substrate, the following factors affecting the RT-QuIC assay were examined: salt and substrate concentrations, substrate storage, and pH. Results demonstrated that both the generation of the quality and quantities of rPrP substrate critical to the reaction, as well as the RT-QuIC reaction itself required strict adherence to specific physical and chemical conditions. Once optimized, the RT-QuIC assay was confirmed to be a very specific and sensitive assay method for sCJD detection. Findings in this study indicate that further optimization and standardization of RT-QuIC assay is required before it can be adopted as a routine diagnostic test.

  19. Indigenous peoples, HIV and public policy in Latin America: an exploration of the current situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and timely treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Ponce

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to describe and analyze the situations of epidemiological prevalence, prevention, care and treatment of HIV in indigenous populations of Latin America. In order to do so, 304 published materials – including declarations, public policy and health program protocols, case studies and literature reviews with local, national and regional scopes – were identified, classified and analyzed. The differential social vulnerability to HIV infection and the inequity in health care access among indigenous populations can be attributed to the juxtaposition of factors such as structural violence, gender, racism, and discrimination due health condition (living with HIV as well as the subordinated position of indigenous peoples in societies stratified not only socially and economically but also ethnically and culturally. The few studies done in the region on epidemiological prevalence, morbidity and mortality that are disaggregated by ethnicity reveal alarming data highlighting the need for further information on the epidemic in this population so as to address its repercussions in terms of prevention, care and timely follow-up.

  20. Use of a time-domain electromagnetic method with geochemical tracers to explore the salinity anomalies in a small coastal aquifer in north-eastern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekirbane, Anis; Tsujimura, Maki; Kawachi, Atsushi; Lachaal, Fethi; Isoda, Hiroko; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2014-12-01

    The study area is a small coastal plain in north-eastern Tunisia. It is drained by an ephemeral stream network and is subject to several pollutant discharges such as oilfield brine coming from a neighboring oil company and wastewater from Somâa city, located in the upstream of the plain. Furthermore, a hydraulic head near the coastal part of the aquifer is below sea level, suggesting that seawater intrusion may occur. A time-domain electromagnetic (TDEM) survey, based on 28 soundings, was conducted in Wadi Al Ayn and Daroufa plains to delineate the saline groundwater. Based on longitudinal and transversal resistivity two-dimensional pseudosections calibrated with boring data, the extent of saline water was identified. Geochemical tracers were combined with the resistivity dataset to differentiate the origin of groundwater salinization. In the upstream part of the plain, the infiltration of oilfield brine through the sandy bed of Wadi Al Ayn seems to have a considerable effect on groundwater salinization. However, in the coastal part of the aquifer, groundwater salinization is due to seawater intrusion and the saltwater is reaching an inland extent around 1.3 km from the shoreline. The contribution ratios of saline water bodies derived from the inverted chloride data vary for the oilfield brine from 1 to 13 % and for the seawater from 2 to 21 %.

  1. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-test kits: time to explore their use for men who have sex with men in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheri A. Lippman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Increasing access and frequency of human immunodeficiency virus testing are critical to stemming the epidemic. In Brazil's concentrated epidemic, human immunodeficiency virus prevalence in the men who have sex with men/transgender population far exceeds that in the general population, but testing rates fall below what is needed to ensure early detection and treatment. Over-the-counter human immunodeficiency virus self-testing kits, now available in stores in the U.S., have enormous potential to increase testing access and frequency and to facilitate early detection and treatment. With the advent of human immunodeficiency virus self-testing upon us, it is timely to engage the scientific community, government, and civil society in a dialog around how to best utilize this technology in Brazil. We summarize recent research on over-the-counter testing among men who have sex with men, raise potential questions and challenges to using self-tests, suggest implementation strategies, and outline a research agenda moving forward.

  2. Into the future with little past: exploring mental time travel in a patient with damage to the mammillary bodies/fornix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedder, Jacqui; Miller, Laurie; Tu, Sicong; Hornberger, Michael; Lah, Suncica

    2016-02-01

    Remembering the past and imaging the future are both manifestations of 'mental time travel'. These processes have been found to be impaired in patients with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Here, we examined the question of whether future thinking is affected by other Papez circuit lesions, namely: damage to the mammillary bodies/fornix. Case (SL) was a 43-year-old woman who developed dense anterograde and retrograde amnesia suddenly, as a result of Wernicke-Korsakoff's syndrome. A region of interest volumetric Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis was performed. We assessed past and future thinking in SL and 11 control subjects of similar age and education with the adapted Autobiographical Interview (AI). Participants also completed a battery of neuropsychological tests. Volumetric MRI analyses revealed severely reduced fornix and mammillary body volumes, but intact hippocampi. SL showed substantial, albeit temporally graded retrograde memory deficits on the adapted AI. Strikingly, whilst SL could not provide any specific details of events from the past two weeks or past two years and had impaired recall of events from her late 30s, her descriptions of potential future events were normal in number of event details and plausibility. This dissociation of past and future events' performance after mammillary body and fornix damage is at odds with the findings of the majority of patients with adult onset hippocampal amnesia. It suggests that these non-hippocampal regions of the Papez circuit are only critical for past event retrieval and not for the generation of possible future events.

  3. The Exploration of Peptide Biomarkers in Malignant Pleural Effusion of Lung Cancer Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Diagnoses of malignant pleural effusion (MPE are a crucial problem in clinics. In our study, we compared the peptide profiles of MPE and tuberculosis pleural effusion (TPE to investigate the value of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS in diagnosis of MPE. Material and Methods. The 46 MPE and 32 TPE were randomly assigned to training set and validation set. Peptides were isolated by weak cation exchange magnetic beads and peaks in the m/z range of 800–10000 Da were analyzed. Comparing the peptide profile between 30 MPE and 22 TPE samples in training set by ClinProTools software, we screened the specific biomarkers and established a MALDI-TOF-MS classification of MPE. Finally, the other 16 MPE and 10 TPE were included to verify the model. We additionally determined carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA in MPE and TPE samples using electrochemiluminescent immunoassay method. Results. Five peptide peaks (917.37 Da, 4469.39 Da, 1466.5 Da, 4585.21 Da, and 3216.87 Da were selected to separate MPE and TPE by MALDI-TOF-MS. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the classification were 93.75%, 100%, and 96.15%, respectively, after blinded test. The sensitivity of CEA was significantly lower than MALDI-TOF-MS classification (P=0.035. Conclusions. The results indicate MALDI-TOF-MS is a potential method for diagnosing MPE.

  4. CROSS DRIVE: A New Interactive and Immersive Approach for Exploring 3D Time-Dependent Mars Atmospheric Data in Distributed Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerndt, Andreas M.; Engelke, Wito; Giuranna, Marco; Vandaele, Ann C.; Neary, Lori; Aoki, Shohei; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Garcia, Arturo; Fernando, Terrence; Roberts, David; CROSS DRIVE Team

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric phenomena of Mars can be highly dynamic and have daily and seasonal variations. Planetary-scale wavelike disturbances, for example, are frequently observed in Mars' polar winter atmosphere. Possible sources of the wave activity were suggested to be dynamical instabilities and quasi-stationary planetary waves, i.e. waves that arise predominantly via zonally asymmetric surface properties. For a comprehensive understanding of these phenomena, single layers of altitude have to be analyzed carefully and relations between different atmospheric quantities and interaction with the surface of Mars have to be considered. The CROSS DRIVE project tries to address the presentation of those data with a global view by means of virtual reality techniques. Complex orbiter data from spectrometer and observation data from Earth are combined with global circulation models and high-resolution terrain data and images available from Mars Express or MRO instruments. Scientists can interactively extract features from those dataset and can change visualization parameters in real-time in order to emphasize findings. Stereoscopic views allow for perception of the actual 3D behavior of Mars's atmosphere. A very important feature of the visualization system is the possibility to connect distributed workspaces together. This enables discussions between distributed working groups. The workspace can scale from virtual reality systems to expert desktop applications to web-based project portals. If multiple virtual environments are connected, the 3D position of each individual user is captured and used to depict the scientist as an avatar in the virtual world. The appearance of the avatar can also scale from simple annotations to complex avatars using tele-presence technology to reconstruct the users in 3D. Any change of the feature set (annotations, cutplanes, volume rendering, etc.) within the VR is immediately exchanged between all connected users. This allows that everybody is always

  5. Exploration of polyamide structure-property relationships by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrère, Caroline; Rejaibi, Majed; Curat, Aurélien; Hubert-Roux, Marie; Lavanant, Hélène; Afonso, Carlos; Kebir, Nasreddine; Desilles, Nicolas; Lecamp, Laurence; Burel, Fabrice; Loutelier-Bourhis, Corinne

    2014-08-15

    Polyamides (PA) are among the most used classes of polymers because of their attractive properties. Depending on the nature and proportion of the co-monomers used for their synthesis, they can exhibit a very large range of melting temperatures (Tm ). This study aims at the correlation of data from mass spectrometry (MS) with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analyses to relate molecular structure to physical properties such as melting temperature, enthalpy change and crystallinity rate. Six different PA copolymers with molecular weights around 3500 g mol(-1) were synthesized with varying proportions of different co-monomers (amino-acid AB/di-amine AA/di-acid BB). Their melting temperature, enthalpy change and crystallinity rate were measured by DSC and X-ray diffraction. Their structural characterization was carried out by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Because of the poor solubility of PA, a solvent-free sample preparation strategy was used with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHB) as the matrix and sodium iodide as the cationizing agent. The different proportions of the repeating unit types led to the formation of PA with melting temperatures ranging from 115°C to 185°C. The structural characterization of these samples by MALDI-TOF-MS revealed a collection of different ion distributions with different sequences of repeating units (AA, BB; AB/AA, BB and AB) in different proportions according to the mixture of monomers used in the synthesis. The relative intensities of these ion distributions were related to sample complexity and structure. They were correlated to DSC and X-ray results, to explain the observed physical properties. The structural information obtained by MALDI-TOF-MS provided a better understanding of the variation of the PA melting temperature and established a structure-properties relationship. This work will allow future PA designs to be monitored. Copyright

  6. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. The problems of communications and logistics caused by different cultures and by geographic distances must be carefully evaluated. A mid-term to long-term strategy tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company should be prepared and followed by a careful planning of the operations. This paper addresses some aspects of foreign exploration that should be considered before an independent venture into the foreign field. It also provides some guidelines for conducting successful overseas operations. When properly assessed, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents and presents no greater risk than domestic exploration; the rewards, however, can be much larger. Furthermore, the Oil and Gas Journal surveys of the 300 largest U.S. petroleum companies show that companies with a consistent foreign exploration policy have fared better financially during difficult times

  7. Exploring gender, age, time and space in research with older Pakistani Muslims in the United Kingdom: formalised research 'ethics' and performances of the public/private divide in 'the field'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubair, Maria; Victor, Christina

    2015-05-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in researching ageing ethnic minority populations in the West. However, older people from such minority communities have received comparatively little attention in wide-ranging discussions on appropriate research methodologies. By a process of critically reflecting on our experiences of undertaking fieldwork for our Economic and Social Research Council New Dynamics of Ageing study of 'Families and Caring in South Asian Communities', this paper maps out the key methodological and ethical challenges we faced and, in the process, highlights the importance of developing socially appropriate research methodologies and ethical frameworks for research with such populations. With a reflexive approach, we specifically explore the significance of gender, age, time and space to the fieldwork processes and the 'field' relationships formed at various stages of the research process. In particular, we explore three key emergent issues which conflicted with our formal research protocols and presented particular challenges for us and our older Pakistani Muslim participants: (a) structuring of time in daily life; (b) gendered use of public and private spaces; and (c) orality of informal social contexts and relationships. Using illustrations from our fieldwork which reveal the particular significance of these issues to our fieldwork experiences and performativities of public/private identities, we highlight important tensions between formalised ethical and methodological dimensions of conducting funded research and the realities of being in 'the field'. We conclude the paper by emphasising the need to explore further not only the ways in which researchers can adopt more socially and culturally sensitive data collection processes and methodologies at the micro level of their interactions with research participants, but also contextualising the particular challenges experienced by researchers and their participants in terms of the

  8. Spectral-Timing Analysis of Kilohetrz Quasi-Periodic Osciallations in Neutron Star Low-Mass X-ray Binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cackett, Edward; Troyer, Jon; Peille, Philippe; Barret, Didier

    2018-01-01

    Kilohertz quasi-periodic oscillations or kHz QPOs are intensity variations that occur in the X-ray band observed in neutron star low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) systems. In such systems, matter is transferred from a secondary low-mass star to a neutron star via the process of accretion. kHz QPOs occur on the timescale of the inner accretion flow and may carry signatures of the physics of strong gravity (c2 ~ GM/R) and possibly clues to constraining the neutron star equation of state (EOS). Both the timing behavior of kHz QPOs and the time-averaged spectra of these systems have been studied extensively. No model derived from these techniques has been able to illuminate the origin of kHz QPOs. Spectral-timing is an analysis technique that can be used to derive information about the nature of physical processes occurring within the accretion flow on the timescale of the kHz QPO. To date, kHz QPOs of (4) neutron star LMXB systems have been studied with spectral-timing techniques. We present a comprehensive study of spectral-timing products of kHz QPOs from systems where data is available in the RXTE archive to demonstrate the promise of this technique to gain insights regarding the origin of kHz QPOs. Using data averaged over the entire RXTE archive, we show correlated time-lags as a function of QPO frequency and energy, as well as energy-dependent covariance spectra for the various LMXB systems where spectral-timing analysis is possible. We find similar trends in all average spectral-timing products for the objects studied. This suggests a common origin of kHz QPOs.

  9. An X-ray view of the very faint black hole X-ray transient Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Armas Padilla, M.; Wijnands, R.; Altamirano, D.; Méndez, M.; Miller, J. M.; Degenaar, N.

    We report on the X-ray spectral (using XMM-Newton data) and timing behaviour [using XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data] of the very faint X-ray transient and black hole system Swift J1357.2-0933 during its 2011 outburst. The XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum of this source can be

  10. Real-time management of data of the petroleum exploration process at Campos Basin - Brazil; Gerenciamento em tempo real de dados do processo de exploracao de petroleo na Bacia de Campos - Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladeira, Eduardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Saad, Sergio Sami [Cybertecnica, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The main goal of this paper is to show the importance of a secure and efficient information system for a company, from the plant floor to the top management level, as well as the impact of this efficiency on the employees' working routine and on the company's results. The change in the working methodology of the company brought by the implementation of the Operational Information System allowed the sharing of all the information that used to be concentrated almost exclusively at the operational level in true information islands (the offshore platforms) and the delivery of information in real-time to all engineers and technicians from various onshore areas of the company: process monitoring, maintenance, technical assistance, laboratory and planning, also making possible the integration with the Enterprise Management System. All these features allowed an increase in the knowledge about the process, leading to time saving and improvement of the cost/return of investment relationship in several kinds of projects and processes. After the system had been implemented it was possible to monitor in real-time and store all the process data of approximately 30 offshore petroleum exploration platforms of the Campos Basin in a unique repository. (author)

  11. Bile Duct Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Health Library / Diagnostics & Testing / Bile Duct Exploration Bile Duct Exploration Common bile duct exploration is a ... Test Details Results and Follow-Up What is bile, and what is bile duct exploration? Bile is ...

  12. USA Observation of Spectral and Timing Evolution During the 2000 Outburst of XTE J1550--564

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reilly, Kaice T

    2002-12-06

    We report on timing and spectral observations of the 2000 outburst of XTE J1550--564 made by the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) Experiment on board the Advanced Research and Global Observation Satellite (ARGOS). We observe a low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) with a centroid frequency that tends to increase with increasing flux and a fractional rms amplitude which is correlated with the hardness ratio. Several high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPO) were detected by RXTE, during periods where the LFQPO is seen to be weakening or not detectable at all. The evolution of the hardness ratio (4-16 keV/1-4 keV) with time and source flux is examined. The hardness-intensity diagram (HID) shows a cyclical movement in the counterclockwise direction and possibly indicates the presence of two independent accretion flows: a thin disk and a hot sub-Keplerian flow.

  13. Application of a Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Design to Explore the Effects of Air Pollution and Season on Childhood Asthma Hospitalization in Cities of Differing Urban Patterns: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Yen; Pan, Ren-Hao; Chan, Chin-Kan; Wu, Chiung-Yi; Phan, Dinh-Van; Chan, Chien-Lung

    2018-03-31

    Few studies have assessed the lagged effects of levels of different urban city air pollutants and seasons on asthma hospitalization in children. This study used big data analysis to explore the effects of daily changes in air pollution and season on childhood asthma hospitalization from 2001 to 2010 in Taipei and Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover study and conditional logistic regression analysis were employed to identify associations between the risk of hospitalization due to asthma in children and the levels of air pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O₃, SO₂, and NO₂) in the days preceding hospitalization. During the study period, 2900 children in Taipei and 1337 in Kaohsiung aged ≤15 years were hospitalized due to asthma for the first time. The results indicated that the levels of air pollutants were significantly associated with the risk of asthma hospitalization in children, and seasonal effects were observed. High levels of air pollution in Kaohsiung had greater effects than in Taipei after adjusting for seasonal variation. The most important factor was O₃ in spring in Taipei. In children aged 0-6 years, asthma was associated with O₃ in Taipei and SO₂ in Kaohsiung, after controlling for the daily mean temperature and relative humidity.

  14. Application of a Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Design to Explore the Effects of Air Pollution and Season on Childhood Asthma Hospitalization in Cities of Differing Urban Patterns: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yen Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the lagged effects of levels of different urban city air pollutants and seasons on asthma hospitalization in children. This study used big data analysis to explore the effects of daily changes in air pollution and season on childhood asthma hospitalization from 2001 to 2010 in Taipei and Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover study and conditional logistic regression analysis were employed to identify associations between the risk of hospitalization due to asthma in children and the levels of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, and NO2 in the days preceding hospitalization. During the study period, 2900 children in Taipei and 1337 in Kaohsiung aged ≤15 years were hospitalized due to asthma for the first time. The results indicated that the levels of air pollutants were significantly associated with the risk of asthma hospitalization in children, and seasonal effects were observed. High levels of air pollution in Kaohsiung had greater effects than in Taipei after adjusting for seasonal variation. The most important factor was O3 in spring in Taipei. In children aged 0–6 years, asthma was associated with O3 in Taipei and SO2 in Kaohsiung, after controlling for the daily mean temperature and relative humidity.

  15. An X-ray and optical study of the ultracompact X-ray binary A 1246-58

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    in 't Zand, J.J.M.; Bassa, C.G.; Jonker, P.G.; Keek, L.; Verbunt, F.W.M.; Méndez, M.; Markwardt, C.B.

    2008-01-01

    Results are discussed of an X-ray and optical observation campaign of the low-mass X-ray binary A 1246-58 performed with instruments on Satellite per Astronomia X ("BeppoSAX"), the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission ("XMM-Newton"), the Swift mission, and the Very

  16. Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... We have investigated the Quasi Periodic Oscillation (QPO) properties of the transient accreting X-ray pulsar XTE J1858 + 034 during the second outburst of this source in April–May 2004. We have used observations made with the Proportional Counter Array (PCA) of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) ...

  17. Results of the first simultaneous X-ray, optical, and radio campaign on the blazar PKS 1622-297

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Angela Osterman; Miller, H. Richard; Marshall, Kevin; Ryle, Wesley T.; Aller, Hugh; Aller, Margo; McFarland, John P.; Pollock, Joseph T.; Reichart, Daniel E.; Crain, J. Adam; Ivarsen, Kevin M.; LaCluyze, Aaron P.; Nysewander, Melissa C.

    Coordinated X-ray, optical, and radio observations of the blazar PKS 1622-297 were obtained during a three-week campaign in 2006 using the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), the University of Michigan Radio Astronomy Observatory, and optical telescopes at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

  18. Exploring C++ 11

    CERN Document Server

    Lischner, Ray

    2014-01-01

    Exploring C++ divides C++ up into bite-sized chunks that will help you learn the language one step at a time. Assuming no familiarity with C++, or any other C-based language, you'll be taught everything you need to know in a logical progression of small lessons that you can work through as quickly or as slowly as you need.C++ can be a complicated language. Writing even the most straight-forward of programs requires you to understand many disparate aspects of the language and how they interact with one another. C++ doesn't lend itself to neat compartmentalization the way other languages do. Rat

  19. COACH – EXPLORER - MANAGER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđe Nićin

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays technologies are characterised by the expert specialists. In training technologies there are also coaches-experts for some sports. Aport from governing training technology, thus he performs manager’s work (planning, programing, accomplishing, controlling, correcting the coach also performs the work of an explorer, because the work of the coach is creative, creating, exploring and it is necessary to include innovation into training process, and innovations are nothing but rehearse of someting new, what is but scientific approach to the training. More the coach succeeds in controlling more factors which influence the sport achievement, he will be more successful. To be able to do all that, the coach must observe, follow, control and correct sportist’s reactions on exercises and loads all the time. The coach demonstrates his activity even through marketing, educational psychological, administrative- technical, nutritional and entire useful social role, so his work is interdisciplinary very complex, important, public, and thus it is a subject to critics. In order to be successful, a modern coach must be an exellent expert-specialist, but also an explorer and manager, and before all a creator of training technology

  20. JAXA's Space Exploration Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, N. S.

    2018-04-01

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has been studying space exploration scenario, including human exploration for Japan since 2015, which encompasses goals, knowledge gap assessment, and architecture. assessment, and technology roadmap.

  1. Religion and Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, V.

    1969: The Eagle lands on the Moon. A moment that would not only mark the highest scientific achievement of all times, but would also have significant religious impli- cations. While the island of Bali lodges a protest at the United Nations against the US for desecrating a sacred place, Hopi Indians celebrate the fulfilment of an ancient prophecy that would reveal the "truth of the Sacred Ways". The plaque fastened to the Eagle - "We Came in Peace for All Mankind" would have contained the words "under God" as directed by the US president, if not for an assistant administrator at NASA that did not want to offend any religion. In the same time, Buzz Aldrin takes the Holy Communion on the Moon, and a Bible is left there by another Apollo mission - not long after the crew of Apollo 8 reads a passage from Genesis while circling the Moon. 1998: Navajo Indians lodge a protest with NASA for placing human ashes aboard the Lunar Prospector, as the Moon is a sacred place in their religion. Past, present and fu- ture exploration of the Moon has significant religious and spiritual implications that, while not widely known, are nonetheless important. Is lunar exploration a divine duty, or a sacrilege? This article will feature and thoroughly analyse the examples quoted above, as well as other facts, as for instance the plans of establishing lunar cemeteries - welcomed by some religions, and opposed by others.

  2. Exploring the perspectives of 10-, 11-, and 12-year-old primary school students on physical activity engagement-"'Cause you can't just be sitting at a desk all the time!"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, J; Pearson, E S; Sanzo, P; Lennon, A E

    2018-05-01

    Research indicates that 91% of Canadian children are not engaging in enough physical activity (PA) to achieve health benefits. Physical education (PE) classes have been identified as a way to improve child health by facilitating engagement in movement-based activities. The daily physical activity (DPA) initiative was created with similar intentions and requires that students participate in at least 20 min of PA daily via PE classes and/or during instructional time for other subjects. Despite recommendations that 150 min of exercise/play be incurred weekly through either avenue, nearly half of Canadian schools fail to achieve this goal. The disconnect between PA-related school policies and low reported participation rates suggests that additional research is warranted. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of primary students regarding the facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for PA engagement at their schools. Researchers conducted nine group interviews with 53 children aged 10-12, representing six primary schools in Northwestern Ontario using a semi-structured interview format. Sessions were analysed using inductive content analysis. Participants discussed several facilitators of PA including enjoying activities (alleviating boredom and participating with others), accomplishment (skill building and enhanced self-image), and benefits in the classroom (thinking clearly and enhanced readiness to learn). Barriers to PA participation included school rules and culture (PA/PE restrictions, heavy workload, and "no work, no PA"), personal struggles (physical challenges and varied skill levels), and technology (being addictive and a replacement for being active). Recommendations for enhancing engagement that were outlined by the children centred around PE and daily physical activity (increase opportunities and involve students in planning/delivery) and recess-based themes (decrease focus on safety and make equipment more available). These

  3. Exploration Medical System Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, D. A.; Watkins, S. D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exploration class missions will present significant new challenges and hazards to the health of the astronauts. Regardless of the intended destination, beyond low Earth orbit a greater degree of crew autonomy will be required to diagnose medical conditions, develop treatment plans, and implement procedures due to limited communications with ground-based personnel. SCOPE: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will act as a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to demonstrate to crew and ground personnel that an end-to-end medical system can assist clinician and non-clinician crew members in optimizing medical care delivery and data management during an exploration mission. Challenges facing exploration mission medical care include limited resources, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and potential rendering of medical care by non-clinicians. This system demonstrates the integration of medical devices and informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making and can be designed to assist crewmembers in nominal, non-emergent situations and in emergent situations when they may be suffering from performance decrements due to environmental, physiological or other factors. PROJECT OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a. Reduce or eliminate the time required of an on-orbit crew and ground personnel to access, transfer, and manipulate medical data. b. Demonstrate that the on-orbit crew has the ability to access medical data/information via an intuitive and crew-friendly solution to aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c. Develop a common data management framework that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all activities pertaining to crew health and life sciences. d. Ensure crew access to medical data during periods of restricted ground communication. e. Develop a common data management framework that

  4. Recent developments in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barretto, P.M.

    1981-01-01

    Even in the most experienced and competent hands, mineral exploration is an expensive, risky, and time-consuming business. Uranium exploration is no different from the above, its sole advantage being that the uranium can be detected from afar because it emits gamma radiation. Therefore, radiometric techniques are the most useful exploration methods. In developing countries that are interested in starting or that have started uranium exploration programmes there are other problems as well as those outlined above: Lack of, or difficulty in obtaining, the requisite number of qualified personnel for field and laboratory activities (lack of manpower); Lack of administrative and technological infrastructure needed to support an exploration effort (lack of technology); and Relatively small budget for a multi-year programme (lack of money). In view of the above it is very important that the time and resources available to an exploration programme are utilized wisely. This means selecting optimum methods of obtaining the information needed and avoiding unnecessary duplication of effort by government organizations. Such duplication of effort in exploration is common in developing countries. In some cases three government organizations have been discovered doing geological mapping of the same area. As the amount, quality and availability of geological information vary from place to place, and since the exploration programmes can have different sizes and objectives, following a standard procedure is difficult. The procedures or sequences outlined are suggested for areas that are being prospected for the first time. If carried out systematically, it will be possible to obtain both an inventory of the geology, and an assessment of the mineral potential of a given area with minimum investment and maximum efficiency

  5. The advanced composition explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, E.C.; Burlaga, L.F.; Cummings, A.C.; Feldman, W.C.; Frain, W.E.; Geiss, J.; Gloeckler, G.; Gold, R.E.; Hovestadt, D.; Krimigis, S.M.; Mason, G.M.; McComas, D.; Mewaldt, R.A.; Simpson, J.A.; von Rosenvinge, T.T.; Wiedenbeck, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) was recently selected as one of two new Explorer-class missions to be developed for launch during the mid-1990's ACE will observe particles of solar, interplanetary, interstellar, and galactic origins, spanning the energy range from that of the solar wind (∼1 keV/nucleon) to galactic cosmic ray energies (several hundred MeV/nucleon). Definitive studies will be made of the abundance of nearly all isotopes from H to Zn (1≤Z≤30), with exploratory isotope studies extending to Zr(Z=40). To accomplish this, the ACE payload includes six high-resolution spectrometers, each designed to provide the optimum charge, mass, or charge-state resolution in its particular energy range, and each having a geometry factor optimized for the expected flux levels, so as to provide a collecting power a factor of 10 to 1000 times greater than previous or planned experiments. The payload also includes several instruments of standard design that will monitor solar wind and magnetic field conditions and energetic H, He, and electron fluxes. We summarize here the scientific objectives, instrumentation, spacecraft, and mission approach that were defined for ACE during the Phase-A study period

  6. Exploration Supply Chain Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    The Exploration Supply Chain Simulation project was chartered by the NASA Exploration Systems Mission Directorate to develop a software tool, with proper data, to quantitatively analyze supply chains for future program planning. This tool is a discrete-event simulation that uses the basic supply chain concepts of planning, sourcing, making, delivering, and returning. This supply chain perspective is combined with other discrete or continuous simulation factors. Discrete resource events (such as launch or delivery reviews) are represented as organizational functional units. Continuous resources (such as civil service or contractor program functions) are defined as enabling functional units. Concepts of fixed and variable costs are included in the model to allow the discrete events to interact with cost calculations. The definition file is intrinsic to the model, but a blank start can be initiated at any time. The current definition file is an Orion Ares I crew launch vehicle. Parameters stretch from Kennedy Space Center across and into other program entities (Michaud Assembly Facility, Aliant Techsystems, Stennis Space Center, Johnson Space Center, etc.) though these will only gain detail as the file continues to evolve. The Orion Ares I file definition in the tool continues to evolve, and analysis from this tool is expected in 2008. This is the first application of such business-driven modeling to a NASA/government-- aerospace contractor endeavor.

  7. Exploring the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, G.; Vernier, P.; Le Bihan, D.; Comtat, C.; Van Wassenhove, V.; Texier, I.; Planat-Chretien, A.; Poher, V.; Dinten, J.M.; Pannetier-lecoeur, M.; Trebossen, R.; Lethimonnier, F.; Eger, E.; Thirion, B.; Dehaene-Lambertz, G.; Piazza, M.; Mangin, J.F.; Dehaene, S.; Pallier, C.; Marti, S.; Klein, E.; Martinot, J.L.; Paillere, M.L.; Artiges, E.; Lemaitre, H.; Karila, L.; Houenou, J.; Sarrazin, S.; Hantraye, P.; Aron Badin, R.; Mergui, S.; Palfi, S.; Bemelmans, A.; Berger, F.; Frouin, V.; Pinel, J.F.; Crivello, F.; Mazoyer, B.; Flury-Herard, A.

    2014-01-01

    CEA (French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission) has been involved in brain research for over 50 years and this 62. issue of 'Clefs CEA' is the best occasion to come back on the latest advances in this wide field. The purpose is to show how neuroimaging combined with neuro sciences and computational sciences has shed light on various aspects of the brain life and experience such as for instance learning (with highlights on dyslexia and dyscalculia), vision, the feeling of time, consciousness, addictions, ageing, and neuro-degenerative diseases. This document is divided into 6 parts: 1) non-invasive exploration of the brain, 2) development, learning and plasticity of the brain, 3) cognitive architecture and the brain, 4) mental health and vulnerability, 5) neuro-degenerative diseases, and 6) identifying bio-markers for cerebral disorders. (A.C.)

  8. NOAA Office of Exploration and Research > Exploration > Systematic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessel (E/V) Nautilus in real-time on Internet 2 and the Internet. A legacy of high quality imagery, high . Contact Information for OER Okeanos Explorer Program: Craig Russell NOAA/OAR/OER 7600 Sand Point Way NE | Disclaimer | Privacy Policy | FOIA | Web Accessibility Statement | Information Quality Copyright NOAA 2013

  9. Geophysical Exploration. New site exploration method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Tsuneo; Otomo, Hideo; Sakayama, Toshihiko

    1988-07-25

    Geophysical exploration is used for geologic survey to serve purposes in civil engineering. New methods are being developed inside and outside Japan and are used to serve various purposes. This paper discusses recently developed techniques based on the measurement of seismic waves and electric potential. It also explains seismic tomography, radar tomography, and resistivity tomography which are included in the category of geotomography. At present, effort is being made to apply geophysical exploration technology to problems which were considered to be unsuitable for conventional exploration techniques. When such effort proceeds successfully, it is necessary to develop technology for presenting results quickly and exploration equipment which can work in various conditions. (10 figs, 15 refs)

  10. Uranium: the exploration process and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merwin, S.S.

    1977-01-01

    Mineral exploration is a combination of technical and nontechnical disciplines seasoned with competence, imagination, tenacity, and luck. The objectives and phases of mineral exploration are discussed. The roles of incentive, finance, staff, area, techniques, time, and luck are discussed briefly. Some of the recent developments in the uranium industry include exploitation of lower-grade deposits, vertical integration in the industry, involvement of governments, hardrock deposits, and technical innovations. The costs involved in a hypothetical exploration program are described. The time element is also considered. The odds of successful exploration is 0.5%, but persistence with a competent staff over a long period of time will improve the odds

  11. About time

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Adam

    2012-01-01

    From Stonehenge to beyond the Big Bang, an exhilarating scientific exploration of how we make time Time is the grandest conception of the universe that we humans have been able to imagine – and its most intimate, the very frame of human life. In About Time, astrophysicist and award-winning writer Adam Frank tells the scientific story of this wonderful and tyrannical invention. A Palaeolithic farmer moved through the sun-fuelled day and star-steered night in a radically different way than the Elizabethan merchants who set their pace to the clocks newly installed in their town squares. Since th

  12. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  13. Bibliotherapy: "Literature as Exploration" Reconsidered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Stewart

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author examines Louise Rosenblatt's "Literature as Exploration," a popular textbook used since 1938 (in five successive editions) in high school English classrooms across America. He discusses how the one-time college roommate of Margaret Mead managed to transform teaching literature into a form of student therapy that…

  14. STROBE-X: X-ray Timing & Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Microseconds to Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, Paul S.; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Gendreau, Keith C.; Arzoumanian, Zaven; Jenke, Peter; Ballantyne, David; Bozzo, Enrico; Brandt, Soren; Brenneman, Laura; Christophersen, Marc; DeRosa, Alessandra; Feroci, Marco; Goldstein, Adam; Hartmann, Dieter; Hernanz, Margarita; McDonald, Michael; Phlips, Bernard; Remillard, Ronald; Stevens, Abigail; Tomsick, John; Watts, Anna; Wood, Kent S.; Zane, Silvia; STROBE-X Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER, with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT, to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with ~20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis. We include updated instrument designs resulting from the GSFC IDL run in November 2017.For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO/Virgo and neutrino events. Extragalactic science, such as constraining bulk metalicity

  15. STROBE-X: X-ray Timing & Spectroscopy on Dynamical Timescales from Milliseconds to Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Ray, P. S.; Maccarone, T; Chakrabarty, D.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Jenke, P.; Ballantyne, D.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; hide

    2018-01-01

    We describe a probe-class mission concept that provides an unprecedented view of the X-ray sky, performing timing and 0.2-30 keV spectroscopy over timescales from microseconds to years. The Spectroscopic Time-Resolving Observatory for Broadband Energy X-rays (STROBE-X) comprises three primary instruments. The first uses an array of lightweight optics (3-m focal length) that concentrate incident photons onto solid state detectors with CCD-level (85-130 eV) energy resolution, 100 ns time resolution, and low background rates to cover the 0.2-12 keV band. This technology is scaled up from NICER [1], with enhanced optics to take advantage of the longer focal length of STROBE-X. The second uses large-area collimated silicon drift detectors, developed for ESA's LOFT [2], to cover the 2-30 keV band. These two instruments each provide an order of magnitude improvement in effective area compared with its predecessor (NICER and RXTE, respectively). Finally, a sensitive sky monitor triggers pointed observations, provides high duty cycle, high time resolution, high spectral resolution monitoring of the X-ray sky with approx. 20 times the sensitivity of the RXTE ASM, and enables multi-wavelength and multi-messenger studies on a continuous, rather than scanning basis. For the first time, the broad coverage provides simultaneous study of thermal components, non-thermal components, iron lines, and reflection features from a single platform for accreting black holes at all scales. The enormous collecting area allows detailed studies of the dense matter equation of state using both thermal emission from rotation-powered pulsars and harder emission from X-ray burst oscillations. The combination of the wide-field monitor and the sensitive pointed instruments enables observations of potential electromagnetic counterparts to LIGO and neutrino events. Additional extragalactic science, such as high quality spectroscopy of clusters of galaxies and unprecedented timing investigations of

  16. Timely Rubies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie

    2018-01-01

    Based on anthropological fieldwork in Greenland, I explore how rubies as a natural resource create and organise forms of temporality in order for the stones to appear as a valuable good. I suggest that a circular argument is at play with regard to the Greenlandic rubies, namely that time creates ...... embedded in and generated through social practices. Accordingly, time in relation to mining does not so much present a philosophical challenge, but is rather just a “thing” that happens to be good to think a Greenlandic resource landscape through – as are rubies.......Based on anthropological fieldwork in Greenland, I explore how rubies as a natural resource create and organise forms of temporality in order for the stones to appear as a valuable good. I suggest that a circular argument is at play with regard to the Greenlandic rubies, namely that time creates...... valuable rubies and rubies create time. I further argue that this interdependence is an important self-fulfilling driver in creating a viable mining industry for gemstones in Greenland. A focus on temporality enables me to engage in this circularity and thereby explore one component in the work of making...

  17. Modelling oil exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilla, V.R.

    1992-01-01

    The analysis of oil exploration models in this paper is developed in four parts. The way in which exploration has been dealt with in oil supply models is first described. Five recent models are then looked at, paying particular attention to the explanatory variables used when modelling exploration activities. This is followed by a discussion of the factors which have been shown by several empirical studies to determine exploration in less developed countries. Finally, the interdependence between institutional factors, oil prices and exploration effort is analysed with a view to drawing conclusions for modelling in the future. (UK)

  18. Marine Mineral Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    in EEZ areas are fairly unknown; many areas need detailed mapping and mineral exploration, and the majority of coastal or island states with large EEZ areas have little experience in exploration for marine hard minerals. This book describes the systematic steps in marine mineral exploration....... Such exploration requires knowledge of mineral deposits and models of their formation, of geophysical and geochemical exploration methods, and of data evaluation and interpretation methods. These topics are described in detail by an international group of authors. A short description is also given of marine...

  19. On the physical processes which lie at the bases of time variability of GRBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Fraschetti, F.; Xue, S-S.

    2001-01-01

    The relative-space-time-transformation (RSTT) paradigm and the interpretation of the burst-structure (IBS) paradigm are applied to probe the origin of the time variability of GRBs. Again GRB 991216 is used as a prototypical case, thanks to the precise data from the CGRO, RXTE and Chandra satellites. It is found that with the exception of the relatively inconspicuous but scientifically very important signal originating from the initial proper gamma ray burst (P-GRB), all the other spikes and time variabilities can be explained by the interaction of the accelerated-baryonic-matter pulse with inhomogeneities in the interstellar matter. This can be demonstrated by using the RSTT paradigm as well as the IBS paradigm, to trace a typical spike observed in arrival time back to the corresponding one in the laboratory time. Using these paradigms, the identification of the physical nature of the time variability of the GRBs can be made most convincingly. It is made explicit the dependence of a) the intensities of the afterglow, b) the spikes amplitude and c) the actual time structure on the Lorentz gamma factor of the accelerated-baryonic-matter pulse. In principle it is possible to read off from the spike structure the detailed density contrast of the interstellar medium in the host galaxy, even at very high redshift

  20. Recent Improvements to the Calibration Models for RXTE/PCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahoda, K.

    2008-01-01

    We are updating the calibration of the PCA to correct for slow variations, primarily in energy to channel relationship. We have also improved the physical model in the vicinity of the Xe K-edge, which should increase the reliability of continuum fits above 20 keV. The improvements to the matrix are especially important to simultaneous observations, where the PCA is often used to constrain the continuum while other higher resolution spectrometers are used to study the shape of lines and edges associated with Iron.

  1. MEMS applications in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William C.

    1997-09-01

    Space exploration in the coming century will emphasize cost effectiveness and highly focused mission objectives, which will result in frequent multiple missions that broaden the scope of space science and to validate new technologies on a timely basis. MEMS is one of the key enabling technology to create cost-effective, ultra-miniaturized, robust, and functionally focused spacecraft for both robotic and human exploration programs. Examples of MEMS devices at various stages of development include microgyroscope, microseismometer, microhygrometer, quadrupole mass spectrometer, and micropropulsion engine. These devices, when proven successful, will serve as models for developing components and systems for new-millennium spacecraft.

  2. International exploration by independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertragne, R.G.

    1992-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller U.S. independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. Foreign finding costs per barrel usually are accepted to be substantially lower than domestic costs because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved in overseas exploration, however, requires the explorationist to adapt to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally, foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic exploration because concessions are granted by a country's government, or are explored in partnership with a national oil company. First, the explorationist must prepare a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company; next, is an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work. Ideally, these team members will have had a considerable amount of on-site experience in various countries and climates. Independents best suited for foreign expansion are those who have been financially successful in domestic exploration. When properly approached, foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller U.S. independents, and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; however, the reward can be much larger and can catapult the company into the 'big leagues.'

  3. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This Technical Report is designed mainly to introduce the methods and techniques of uranium geochemical exploration to exploration geologists who may not have had experience with geochemical exploration methods in their uranium programmes. The methods presented have been widely used in the uranium exploration industry for more than two decades. The intention has not been to produce an exhaustive, detailed manual, although detailed instructions are given for a field and laboratory data recording scheme and a satisfactory analytical method for the geochemical determination of uranium. Rather, the intention has been to introduce the concepts and methods of uranium exploration geochemistry in sufficient detail to guide the user in their effective use. Readers are advised to consult general references on geochemical exploration to increase their understanding of geochemical techniques for uranium

  4. Visual explorer facilitator's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Palus, Charles J

    2010-01-01

    Grounded in research and practice, the Visual Explorer™ Facilitator's Guide provides a method for supporting collaborative, creative conversations about complex issues through the power of images. The guide is available as a component in the Visual Explorer Facilitator's Letter-sized Set, Visual Explorer Facilitator's Post card-sized Set, Visual Explorer Playing Card-sized Set, and is also available as a stand-alone title for purchase to assist multiple tool users in an organization.

  5. Exploring digital professionalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellaway, Rachel H; Coral, Janet; Topps, David; Topps, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of digital media (both computing devices and the services they access) has blurred the boundaries between our personal and professional lives. Contemporary students are the last to remember a time before the widespread use of the Internet and they will be the first to practice in a largely e-health environment. This article explores concepts of digital professionalism and their place in contemporary medical education, and proposes a series of principles of digital professionalism to guide teaching, learning and practice in the healthcare professions. Despite the many risks and fears surrounding their use, digital media are not an intrinsic threat to medical professionalism. Professionals should maintain the capacity for deliberate, ethical, and accountable practice when using digital media. The authors describe a digital professionalism framework structured around concepts of proficiency, reputation, and responsibility. Digital professionalism can be integrated into medical education using strategies based on awareness, alignment, assessment, and accountability. These principles of digital professionalism provide a way for medical students and medical practitioners to embrace the positive aspects of digital media use while being mindful and deliberate in its use to avoid or minimize any negative consequences.

  6. MESSENGER: Exploring Mercury's Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The MESSENGER mission to Mercury offers our first opportunity to explore this planet's miniature magnetosphere since Mariner 10's brief fly-bys in 1974-5. Mercury's magnetosphere is unique in many respects. The magnetosphere of Mercury is the smallest in the solar system with its magnetic field typically standing off the solar wind only - 1000 to 2000 km above the surface. For this reason there are no closed dri-fi paths for energetic particles and, hence, no radiation belts; the characteristic time scales for wave propagation and convective transport are short possibly coupling kinetic and fluid modes; magnetic reconnection at the dayside magnetopause may erode the subsolar magnetosphere allowing solar wind ions to directly impact the dayside regolith; inductive currents in Mercury's interior should act to modify the solar In addition, Mercury's magnetosphere is the only one with its defining magnetic flux tubes rooted in a planetary regolith as opposed to an atmosphere with a conductive ionosphere. This lack of an ionosphere is thought to be the underlying reason for the brevity of the very intense, but short lived, approx. 1-2 min, substorm-like energetic particle events observed by Mariner 10 in Mercury's magnetic tail. In this seminar, we review what we think we know about Mercury's magnetosphere and describe the MESSENGER science team's strategy for obtaining answers to the outstanding science questions surrounding the interaction of the solar wind with Mercury and its small, but dynamic magnetosphere.

  7. Real-time systems

    OpenAIRE

    Badr, Salah M.; Bruztman, Donald P.; Nelson, Michael L.; Byrnes, Ronald Benton

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the basic issues involved in real-time systems. Both real-time operating sys and real-time programming languages are explored. Concurrent programming and process synchronization and communication are also discussed. The real-time requirements of the Naval Postgraduate School Autonomous Under Vehicle (AUV) are then examined. Autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV), hard real-time system, real-time operating system, real-time programming language, real-time sy...

  8. XTE J1946+274: An Enigmatic X-Ray Pulsar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Colleen A.; Finger, Mark H.; Coe, M. J.; Negueruela, Ignacio; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    XTE J1946+274 = GRO J1944+26 is a 15.8-s X-ray pulsar discovered simultaneously by the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) and the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) in September 1998. Follow-up optical/IR observations resulted in the discovery of a Be star companion. Our pulse timing analysis of BATSE and RXTE data indicates that the orbital period is approximately 169 days. Since its discovery in 1998, XTE J1946+274 has undergone 13 outbursts. These outbursts axe not regularly spaced. They occur approximately twice per orbit and are not locked in orbital phase, unlike most Be/X-ray transient systems. A possible explanation for this is a global-one armed oscillation or density perturbation propagating rapidly in the Be star's disk. We will investigate radial velocity variations in the central peak of the H-alpha line to look for evidence of such a perturbation. From 2001 March-September, we regularly monitored XTE J1946+274 with the RXTE PCA. We will demonstrate that the spectrum appears to be varying with orbital phase, based on the 2001 and 1998 RXTE PCA observations. We will also present histories of pulsed frequency and flux.

  9. Uranium exploration in Ecuador

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severne, B.; Penaherrera, P.F.; Fiallos, V.S.

    1981-01-01

    The 600-km segment of the Andean Cordillera in Ecuador includes zones that can be correlated, geologically, with uranium districts elsewhere in the Andes. It is believed that these essentially unexplored zones have the potential for economic uranium mineralization. Exploration activity to date has been limited, although it has involved both geochemical and radiometric techniques to evaluate geological concepts. Minor uranium occurrences (with chemical analyses up to 100 ppm) have been encountered, which provide further incentive to commence large-scale systematic exploration. It is recognized that a very large exploration budget and considerable technical expertise will be required to ensure exploration success. Consequently, participation by groups of proven capability from other countries will be sought for Ecuador's national exploration programme. (author)

  10. Exploring Emerging India - Eight Essays

    OpenAIRE

    Müller-Brandeck-Bocquet, Gisela; Gieg, Philipp; Lowinger, Timo; Gsänger, Matthias; Becker, Michael; Kundu, Amitabh; Valerian, Rodrigues; S, Shaji; Schömbucher-Kusterer, Elisabeth; Biswas, Aparajita

    2015-01-01

    India's economic rise since the 1990s has been followed by a more prominent global role for the country. Despite economic setbacks in recent years and huge domestic challenges like poverty, caste issues, and gender inequality, India today is almost universally characterised as an “emerging power”. At the same time, the country continues to show an enormous diversity. Thus, exploring emerging India can surely not be confined to economic analysis only. Instead, it is vital to take current devel...

  11. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Pacific Ocean from 2015-07-10 to 2015-09-03 (NCEI Accession 0141435)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0141435 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  12. Underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-08 to 2014-02-10 (NODC Accession 0123613)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123613 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, optical, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  13. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2015-02-09 to 2015-02-13 (NODC Accession 0125757)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125757 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  14. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Pacific Ocean from 2015-09-12 to 2015-09-30 (NCEI Accession 0142173)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0142173 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  15. Underway meteorological, time series, navigational, physical and optical data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-02-24 to 2014-03-18 (NCEI Accession 0123616)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0123616 contains raw underway meteorological, time series, navigational, physical and optical data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS)...

  16. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Pacific Ocean from 2015-10-07 to 2015-10-16 (NCEI Accession 0150689)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0150689 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  17. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-08-09 to 2014-10-07 (NODC Accession 0125346)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125346 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  18. Underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data collected aboard NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer in the Gulf of Mexico and North Atlantic Ocean from 2014-05-07 to 2014-05-22 (NODC Accession 0125618)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0125618 contains raw underway meteorological, navigational, physical and time series data logged by the Scientific Computer System (SCS) aboard NOAA...

  19. International exploration by independents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagne, R.G.

    1991-01-01

    Recent industry trends indicate that the smaller US independents are looking at foreign exploration opportunities as one of the alternatives for growth in the new age of exploration. It is usually accepted that foreign finding costs per barrel are substantially lower than domestic because of the large reserve potential of international plays. To get involved overseas requires, however, an adaptation to different cultural, financial, legal, operational, and political conditions. Generally foreign exploration proceeds at a slower pace than domestic because concessions are granted by the government, or are explored in partnership with the national oil company. First, a mid- to long-term strategy, tailored to the goals and the financial capabilities of the company, must be prepared; it must be followed by an ongoing evaluation of quality prospects in various sedimentary basins, and a careful planning and conduct of the operations. To successfully explore overseas also requires the presence on the team of a minimum number of explorationists and engineers thoroughly familiar with the various exploratory and operational aspects of foreign work, having had a considerable amount of onsite experience in various geographical and climatic environments. Independents that are best suited for foreign expansion are those that have been financially successful domestically, and have a good discovery track record. When properly approached foreign exploration is well within the reach of smaller US independents and presents essentially no greater risk than domestic exploration; the reward, however, can be much larger and can catapult the company into the big leagues

  20. Uranium exploration in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faruquee, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    The sedimentary succession of Bangladesh has continental sandstones with lignite and organic matter which are favourable host rocks for sedimentary uranium. The shield areas around Bangladesh are considered good source areas for uranium. Encouraged by this idea, the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) started an exploration programme in 1976 with the assistance of the IAEA and the United Nations Development Programme. Preliminary reconnaissance radiometric surveys carried out in 1976-1977 in the Chittagong, Chittagong hill tract and Sylhet districts identified some anomalies with 3 to 5 times the background (XBG). This was followed by regional reconnaissance radiometric surveys which were carried out between 1977 and 1985 in some of the anticlines of the Chittagong and Sylhet districts, including an airborne (helicopter) survey over the Jaldi area. These surveys resulted in the discovery of more than 300 radiometric anomalies of 3 to 60 XBG. They occur in the medium to fine grained ferruginous sandstones of the Dupitila and Tipam Formations of Mio-Pliocene age. These anomalous beds show variation in slime and heavy mineral contents. Some samples collected from the anomalous beds contain uranium and thorium ranging from 20 to 100 ppm and 100 to 1000 ppm, respectively. Exploratory drilling to a depth of about 400 ft was carried out on a very limited scale in the northeastern part of the Sylhet district. Gamma logging of these holes indicated many subsurface anomalies (3 to 21 XBG) in the Dupitila Formation. These anomalies are linked to thin layers with restricted lateral extensions. Geochemical orientation studies and radon surveys were done in some selected areas of Sylhet to test their suitability for further surveys. 9 refs, 13 figs, 4 tabs

  1. Exploration: A misunderstood business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrenz, J.

    1991-01-01

    The business of exploration is persistently misunderstand. Why? Misunderstandings persist and even pervade educated, sophisticated, and obviously capable business practitioners and savants of an array of disciplines - finance, economics, and the management sciences. Routine and appropriate assumptions that apply for most businesses invoke nonsense applied to exploration, a unique business. The uniqueness of exploration, unrecognized, sustains the misunderstandings. The authors will not here obliterate these obdurate misunderstandings with some revelation. They show, however, how the misunderstandings naturally arise among those who certainly are not used to being naive

  2. Arts of urban exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinder, David

    2005-01-01

    to the city’ and ‘writing the city’. Through addressing recent cases of psychogeographical experimentation in terms of these themes, the paper raises broad questions about artistic practices and urban exploration to introduce this theme issue on ‘Arts of urban exploration’ and to lead into the specific......This paper addresses ways in which artists and cultural practitioners have recently been using forms of urban exploration as a means of engaging with, and intervening in, cities. It takes its cues from recent events on the streets of New York that involved exploring urban spaces through artistic...

  3. MBN Explorer Users' Guide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia A.; Sushko, Gennady; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    The MBN Explorer Users' Guide describes how to install and to run MBN Explorer, the software package for advanced multiscale simulations of complex molecular structure and dynamics. This guide includes the description of the main features and the algorithms of the program, the manual how to use...... simulations of structure and dynamics of a broad range of systems with the sizes from the atomic up to the mesoscopic scales. MBN Explorer is being developed and distributed by MBN Research Center, www.mbnresearch.com, which organises hands-on tutorials for the software, user's workshops and conferences....

  4. Risk behavior in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, P.R.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses the term risk aversion, which weighs the magnitude of investment against four factors: size of available budget, potential gain, potential loss, and probabilities of each outcome. Modern petroleum exploration consists of a series of investment decisions on whether to acquire additional technical data (geological, geophysical, engineering, drilling, or economic) and/or additional mineral interests. Each decision should allow a progressively clearer perception of project risk versus reward and should support timely management action concerning the inferred accumulation. Companies searching for oil and natural gas make hundreds of such exploration decisions each year. So the problem in serial exploration decision making is twofold: to be consistent in the way we deal with risk and uncertainty and to perceive risk and uncertainty accurately and reduce them where possible. Risk aversion is not just a hypothetical nuisance. It causes explorationists to make inconsistent investment decisions, and it costs exploration companies millions of dollars annually in lost opportunities, bad choices, and wasted investment dollars

  5. Avionics Architecture for Exploration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of the AES Avionics Architectures for Exploration (AAE) project is to develop a reference architecture that is based on standards and that can be scaled and...

  6. Titanic: A Statistical Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takis, Sandra L.

    1999-01-01

    Uses the available data about the Titanic's passengers to interest students in exploring categorical data and the chi-square distribution. Describes activities incorporated into a statistics class and gives additional resources for collecting information about the Titanic. (ASK)

  7. Exploration Augmentation Module Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Exploration Augmentation Module (EAM) project goal is to design and deliver a flight module that is to be deployed to Earth-Lunar Distant Retrograde Orbit (DRO)....

  8. Foreign Aid Explorer)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Foreign Aid Explorer shows the multi-dimensional picture of U.S. foreign assistance through a highly visual and interactive website. The website makes it easy...

  9. Brazilian uranium exploration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques, J.P.M.

    1981-01-01

    General information on Brazilian Uranium Exploration Program, are presented. The mineralization processes of uranium depoits are described and the economic power of Brazil uranium reserves is evaluated. (M.C.K.) [pt

  10. Exploring Vietnam's oil potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    A brief review is given of the oil production potential in Vietnam. Since Since 1987, the country has been open to foreign investment in offshore exploration but has suffered from a US embargo on trade and economic ties. Nevertheless some exploration has occurred and twenty production sharing contracts with international oil companies has been signed. To date most of the finds have been non-commercial but optimism remains high. (U.K.)

  11. Developing the MD Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Philip V.

    1993-04-01

    The MD Explorer is an eight-seat twin-turbine engine helicopter which is being developed using integrated product definition (IPD) team methodology. New techniques include NOTAR antitorque system for directional control, a composite fuselage, an all-composite bearingless main rotor, and digital cockpit displays. Three-dimensional CAD models are the basis of the entire Explorer design. Solid models provide vendor with design clarification, removing much of the normal drawing interpretation errors.

  12. Exploration Laboratory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, M.; Ronzano, K.; Shaw, T.

    2016-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) risk to minimize or reduce the risk of adverse health outcomes and decrements in performance due to in-flight medical capabilities on human exploration missions. To mitigate this risk, the availability of inflight laboratory analysis instrumentation has been identified as an essential capability for manned exploration missions. Since a single, compact space-ready laboratory analysis capability to perform all exploration clinical measurements is not commercially available, the ELA project objective is to demonstrate the feasibility of emerging operational and analytical capability as a biomedical diagnostics precursor to long duration manned exploration missions. The initial step towards ground and flight demonstrations in fiscal year (FY) 2015 was the down selection of platform technologies for demonstrations in the space environment. The technologies selected included two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) performers: DNA Medicine Institutes rHEALTH X and Intelligent Optical Systems later flow assays combined with Holomics smartphone analyzer. The selection of these technologies were based on their compact size, breadth of analytical capability and favorable ability to process fluids in a space environment, among several factors. These two technologies will be advanced to meet ground and flight demonstration success criteria and requirements that will be finalized in FY16. Also, the down selected performers will continue the technology development phase towards meeting prototype deliverables in either late 2016 or 2017.

  13. Time domain electromagnetic method for petroleum exploration. Part 3. Case study in Yoneyama area; Sekiyu tansa ni okeru TDEM ho data shutoku to kaiseki ni tsuite. 3. Niigataken Yoneyama chiiki deno tekiyorei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H; Mitsuhata, Y [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Shiga, N [Mitsui Mineral Development Engineering Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The result is reported of a TDEM method-based survey for oil exploration conducted in the Yoneyama district, Niigata Prefecture. The survey covered the southern part of the sedimentary basin in the prefecture, known for the poor quality of the seismic prospecting data that had been recorded. The purpose of the TDEM method-assisted survey was to probe the high-resistivity volcanic rock structure and low-resistivity sedimentary layer, and to know their details. The obtained data were subjected to interpretation by use of the 1D inversion method. A 4000m-deep level was subjected to interpretation, 34 data were inputted, and the early model consisted of 20 layers. As the result, it was found that there was a high-resistivity layer ranging from the ground surface down to a depth of approximately 500m, that a low-resistivity layer 2500-3000m in thickness lay thereunder, and that the lowest layer had a high resistivity of approximately 100 Ohm m. By comparing these data with the geological structure, structures were disclosed corresponding to the rock bed depth, Ukawa syncline, Ishiguro anticline, and Yoneyama mountain mass. 3 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A flooding algorithm for multirobot exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Mora, Flavio; Xiao, Jizhong

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we present a multirobot exploration algorithm that aims at reducing the exploration time and to minimize the overall traverse distance of the robots by coordinating the movement of the robots performing the exploration. Modeling the environment as a tree, we consider a coordination model that restricts the number of robots allowed to traverse an edge and to enter a vertex during each step. This coordination is achieved in a decentralized manner by the robots using a set of active landmarks that are dropped by them at explored vertices. We mathematically analyze the algorithm on trees, obtaining its main properties and specifying its bounds on the exploration time. We also define three metrics of performance for multirobot algorithms. We simulate and compare the performance of this new algorithm with those of our multirobot depth first search (MR-DFS) approach presented in our recent paper and classic single-robot DFS.

  15. Time and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Anna E.

    2012-01-01

    This essay invites reflection on the phenomena of time as it impacts the day-to-day life of teachers. It also explores assumptions about time and teaching in three areas: first, beliefs about the force of time and the teacher's struggle to control it; second, beliefs about the potential of time and the benefits of its passing for teachers and…

  16. Discovery of Hard Nonthermal Pulsed X-Ray Emission from the Anomalous X-Ray Pulsar 1E 1841-045

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, L.; Hermsen, W.; Méndez, R.M.

    2004-01-01

    We report the discovery of nonthermal pulsed X-ray/soft gamma-ray emission up to ~150 keV from the anomalous 11.8 s X-ray pulsar AXP 1E 1841-045 located near the center of supernova remnant Kes 73 using Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) Proportional Counter Array and High Energy X-Ray Timing

  17. 'I thought they were going to handle me like a queen but they didn't': A qualitative study exploring the quality of care provided to women at the time of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jaki; Etsane, Elsie; Bergh, Anne-Marie; Pattinson, Robert; van den Broek, Nynke

    2018-04-22

    To explore experiences of care during labour and birth from the perspectives of both the healthcare provider and women receiving care, to inform recommendations for how the quality of care can be improved and monitored, and, to identify the main aspects of care that are important to women. A descriptive phenomenological approach. 53 interviews and 10KII as per table 1 took place including in-depth interviews (IDI), focus group discussions (FGD) and key informant interviews (KII) conducted with women, healthcare providers, managers and policy makers. Following verbatim transcription thematic framework analysis was used to describe the lived experience of those interviewed. 11 public healthcare facilities providing maternity care in urban Tshwane District, Gauteng Province (n = 4) and rural Waterberg District, Limpopo Province (n = 7), South Africa. Women who had given birth in the preceding 12 weeks (49 women, 7 FGD and 23 IDI); healthcare providers working in the labour wards (33 healthcare providers; nurses, midwives, medical staff, 5 FGD, 18 IDI; managers and policy makers (10 KII). Both women and healthcare providers largely feel alone and unsupported. There is mutual distrust between women and healthcare providers exacerbated by word of mouth and the media. A lack of belief in women's ability to make appropriate choices negates principles of choice and consent. Procedure- rather than patient-centred care is prioritised by healthcare providers. Although healthcare providers know the principles of good quality care, this was not reflected in the care women described as having received. Beliefs and attitudes as well as structural and organisational problems make it difficult to provide good quality care. Caring behaviour and environment as well as companionship are the most important needs highlighted by women. Professional hierarchy is rarely seen as supportive by healthcare providers but when present, good leadership changes the culture and experience of

  18. Turning Exploration (R&D) into a Sustainable Business Model

    OpenAIRE

    Buskard, James Livingstone

    2012-01-01

    Nevada Exploration Inc. (“NGE”) is a public exploration company that has developed new technology to identify gold exploration projects in Nevada’s valleys where the bedrock is covered. Covered bedrock settings challenge conventional exploration tools and NGE’s technology represents a significant improvement; however, because the technology is still new, NGE has had a hard time attracting buyers for its projects. Instead, NGE has advanced its exploration targets in house, which has proven cos...

  19. Exploring if day and time of admission is associated with average length of stay among inpatients from a tertiary hospital in Singapore: an analytic study based on routine admission data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earnest, Arul; Chen, Mark I C; Seow, Eillyne

    2006-01-22

    It has been postulated that patients admitted on weekends or after office hours may experience delays in clinical management and consequently have longer length of stay (LOS). We investigated if day and time of admission is associated with LOS in Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH), a 1,400 bed acute care tertiary hospital serving the central and northern regions of Singapore. This was a historical cohort study based on all admissions from TTSH from 1st September 2003 to 31st August 2004. Data was extracted from routinely available computerized hospital information systems for analysis by episode of care. LOS for each episode of care was log-transformed before analysis, and a multivariate linear regression model was used to study if sex, age group, type of admission, admission source, day of week admitted, admission on a public holiday or eve of public holiday, admission on a weekend and admission time were associated with an increased LOS. In the multivariate analysis, sex, age group, type of admission, source of admission, admission on the eve of public holiday and weekends and time of day admitted were independently and significantly associated with LOS. Patients admitted on Friday, Saturday or Sunday stayed on average 0.3 days longer than those admitted on weekdays, after adjusting for potential confounders; those admitted on the eve of public holidays, and those admitted in the afternoons and after office hours also had a longer LOS (differences of 0.71, 1.14 and 0.65 days respectively). Cases admitted over a weekend, eve of holiday, in the afternoons, and after office hours, do have an increased LOS. Further research is needed to identify processes contributing to the above phenomenon.

  20. Exploring if day and time of admission is associated with average length of stay among inpatients from a tertiary hospital in Singapore: an analytic study based on routine admission data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Mark IC

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been postulated that patients admitted on weekends or after office hours may experience delays in clinical management and consequently have longer length of stay (LOS. We investigated if day and time of admission is associated with LOS in Tan Tock Seng Hospital (TTSH, a 1,400 bed acute care tertiary hospital serving the central and northern regions of Singapore. Methods This was a historical cohort study based on all admissions from TTSH from 1st September 2003 to 31st August 2004. Data was extracted from routinely available computerized hospital information systems for analysis by episode of care. LOS for each episode of care was log-transformed before analysis, and a multivariate linear regression model was used to study if sex, age group, type of admission, admission source, day of week admitted, admission on a public holiday or eve of public holiday, admission on a weekend and admission time were associated with an increased LOS. Results In the multivariate analysis, sex, age group, type of admission, source of admission, admission on the eve of public holiday and weekends and time of day admitted were independently and significantly associated with LOS. Patients admitted on Friday, Saturday or Sunday stayed on average 0.3 days longer than those admitted on weekdays, after adjusting for potential confounders; those admitted on the eve of public holidays, and those admitted in the afternoons and after office hours also had a longer LOS (differences of 0.71, 1.14 and 0.65 days respectively. Conclusion Cases admitted over a weekend, eve of holiday, in the afternoons, and after office hours, do have an increased LOS. Further research is needed to identify processes contributing to the above phenomenon.

  1. A Near Real-Time Seismic Exploration and Monitoring (i.e., Ambient Seismic Noise Interferometry) Solution Based Upon a Novel "At the Edge" Approach that Leverages Commercially Available Digitizers, Embedded Systems, and an Open-Source Big Data Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, F.; Thangraj, J. S.; Quiros, D.; Pulliam, J.; Queen, J. H.; Queen, M.; Iovenitti, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic interferometry that makes use of ambient noise requires that cross-correlations of data recorded at two or more stations be stacked over a "long enough" time interval that off-axis sources cancel and the estimated inter-station Green's function converges to the actual function. However, the optimal length of the recording period depends on the characteristics of ambient noise at the site, which vary over time and are therefore not known before data acquisition. Data acquisition parameters cannot be planned in ways that will ensure success while minimizing cost and effort. Experiment durations are typically either too long or too short. Automated, in-field processing can provide inter-station Green's functions in near-real-time, allowing for the immediate evaluation of results and enabling operators to alter data acquisition parameters before demobilizing. We report on the design, system integration, and testing of a strategy for the automation of data acquisition, distribution, and processing of ambient noise using industry-standard, widely-available instrumentation (Reftek 130-01 digitizers and 4.5 Hz geophones). Our solution utilizes an inexpensive embedded system (Raspberry Pi 3), which is configured to acquire data from the Reftek and insert it into a big data store called Apache Cassandra. Cassandra distributes and maintains up-to-date copies of the data, through a WiFi network, as defined by tunable consistency levels and replication factors thus allowing for efficient multi-station computations. At regular intervals, data is extracted from Cassandra and is used to compute Green's functions for all receiver pairs. Results are reviewed and progress toward convergence can be assessed. We successfully tested a 20-node prototype of what we call the "Raspberry Pi-Enhanced Reftek" (RaPiER) array at the Soda Lake Geothermal Field in Nevada in June 2017. While intermittent problems with the WiFi network interfered with the real-time data delivery from some

  2. Tree exploration for Bayesian RL exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrakakis, C.; Mohammadian, M.

    2008-01-01

    Research in reinforcement learning has produced algo-rithms for optimal decision making under uncertainty thatfall within two main types. The first employs a Bayesianframework, where optimality improves with increased com-putational time. This is because the resulting planning tasktakes the form of

  3. Dealing with exploration uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capen, E.

    1992-01-01

    Exploration for oil and gas should fulfill the most adventurous in their quest for excitement and surprise. This paper tries to cover that tall order. The authors will touch on the magnitude of the uncertainty (which is far greater than in most other businesses), the effects of not knowing target sizes very well, how to build uncertainty into analyses naturally, how to tie reserves and chance estimates to economics, and how to look at the portfolio effect of an exploration program. With no apologies, the authors will be using a different language for some readers - the language of uncertainty, which means probability and statistics. These tools allow one to combine largely subjective exploration information with the more analytical data from the engineering and economic side

  4. Exploring ambiguous realms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemensen, Nana

    2016-01-01

    In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities in their intera...... in their interactions, testing social roles and conventions. This article explores the vigilance and creative agency displayed by Hang'ombe children, in an environment spurring their acquisition of distinct social and discursive skills.......In Hang'ombe Village in rural Zambia, the relative lack of physical boundaries between the activities of family members allow children to observe the actions and discussions of adults on close hand, exposing them to the ambiguities of daily life. Children explore these ambiguities...

  5. Exploring the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    Bond, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The exploration of our solar system is one of humanity's greatest scientific achievements. The last fifty years in particular have seen huge steps forward in our understanding of the planets, the sun, and other objects in the solar system. Whilst planetary science is now a mature discipline - involving geoscientists, astronomers, physicists, and others - many profound mysteries remain, and there is indeed still the tantalizing possibility that we may find evidence of life on another planet in our system.Drawing upon the latest results from the second golden age of Solar System exploration, aut

  6. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available -of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study... for the following equation: n∑ i=r ( n i ) pi(1− p)n−i = 0.95 . (1) Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results METHODS (cont. . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION...

  7. Comet radar explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnham, Tony; Asphaug, Erik; Barucci, Antonella; Belton, Mike; Bockelee-Morvan, Dominique; Brownlee, Donald; Capria, Maria Teresa; Carter, Lynn; Chesley, Steve; Farnham, Tony; Gaskell, Robert; Gim, Young; Heggy, Essam; Herique, Alain; Klaasen, Ken; Kofman, Wlodek; Kreslavsky, Misha; Lisse, Casey; Orosei, Roberto; Plaut, Jeff; Scheeres, Dan

    The Comet Radar Explorer (CORE) is designed to perform a comprehensive and detailed exploration of the interior, surface, and inner coma structures of a scientifically impor-tant Jupiter family comet. These structures will be used to investigate the origins of cometary nuclei, their physical and geological evolution, and the mechanisms driving their spectacular activity. CORE is a high heritage spacecraft, injected by solar electric propulsion into orbit around a comet. It is capable of coherent deep radar imaging at decameter wavelengths, high resolution stereo color imaging, and near-IR imaging spectroscopy. Its primary objective is to obtain a high-resolution map of the interior structure of a comet nucleus at a resolution of ¿100 elements across the diameter. This structure shall be related to the surface geology and morphology, and to the structural details of the coma proximal to the nucleus. This is an ideal complement to the science from recent comet missions, providing insight into how comets work. Knowing the structure of the interior of a comet-what's inside-and how cometary activity works, is required before we can understand the requirements for a cryogenic sample return mission. But more than that, CORE is fundamental to understanding the origin of comets and their evolution in time. The mission is made feasible at low cost by the use of now-standard MARSIS-SHARAD reflec-tion radar imaging hardware and data processing, together with proven flight heritage of solar electric propulsion. Radar flight heritage has been demonstrated by the MARSIS radar on Mars Express (Picardi et al., Science 2005; Plaut et al., Science 2007), the SHARAD radar onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (Seu et al., JGR 2007), and the LRS radar onboard Kaguya (Ono et al, EPS 2007). These instruments have discovered detailed subsurface structure to depths of several kilometers in a variety of terrains on Mars and the Moon. A reflection radar deployed in orbit about a comet

  8. Dramatic change of the recurrence time and outburst parameters of the intermediate polar GK Persei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šimon, V.

    2002-02-01

    This analysis has shown that the intermediate polar GK Per experienced a very striking evolution. Its outbursts became wider and brighter in the last five decades. These changes were accompanied by striking variations of the recurrence time T_C, from 385 days within the years 1948-1967 to 890 days in 1970. Nowadays, T_C displays a strong trend of linear increase. Decrease of irradiation of the disk by the WD, combined with the decrease of viscosity, offers a plausible explanation. It is argued that variations of the mass transfer rate are unlikely to play a major role. The morphology of the outburst light curves in the optical and the X-ray region is also studied. The decay branch in the optical remains remarkably similar for all the events while the largest changes of the light curve occur in the rising branch. This can be explained if the thermal instability may start at different distances from the disk center. The quiescent level of brightness does not display any secular trend in recent decades but a wave on the time scale of about 30 years with the full amplitude of 0.3 m_v, probably due to activity of the cool star, is detected. This research has made use of the AFOEV database, operated at CDS, France, and the observations provided by the ASM/RXTE team.

  9. Exploring Racism through Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fey, Cass; Shin, Ryan; Cinquemani, Shana; Marino, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Photography is a powerful medium with which to explore social issues and concerns through the intersection of artistic form and concept. Through the discussions of images and suggested activities, students will understand various ways photographers have documented and addressed racism and discrimination. This Instructional Resource presents a…

  10. Exploring pedestrian movement patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orellana, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to develop an approach for exploring, analysing and interpreting movement patterns of pedestrians interacting with the environment. This objective is broken down in sub-objectives related to four research questions. A case study of the movement of visitors in a

  11. Exploring Sound with Insects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Laura; Meyer, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Differences in insect morphology and movement during singing provide a fascinating opportunity for students to investigate insects while learning about the characteristics of sound. In the activities described here, students use a free online computer software program to explore the songs of the major singing insects and experiment with making…

  12. Geophysics in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darnley, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    There are no revolutionary new methods of uranium exploration on the horizon. Continuing improvements in existing methods and types of instrumentation are to be expected, but the main scope of improvement will hinge upon using the best of the available methods more meticulously and systematically, and paying more attention to the analysis of data. (author)

  13. Exploring heroin consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trautmann, Franz; Frijns, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In this report we explore some aspects of heroin consumption, using the data we collected through the face-to-face interviews and comparing our findings with data from other research and monitoring sources. We focus on Italy, the Netherlands and England, the three sample Member States where we have

  14. Antarctica: Discovery & Exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, Toss; Collett, Peter

    An examination of Antarctica, from the first sightings to the heroic explorations of the late 18th and early 19th centuries to modern-day research, is presented in this book. Twelve chapters are as follows: (1) The search begins; (2) Whalers and sealers: bites and nibbles; (3) The new continent: first sight; (4) Wintering: the first party; (5)…

  15. Exploring Project Management Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steven Nijhuis

    2017-01-01

    From the article: "The object of this paper is to explore the actual practice in project management education in the Netherlands and compare it to reference institutions and recent literature. A little over 40% of the Higher Education institutions in the Netherlands mentions PM education in

  16. Exploring processes and deviations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leemans, S.J.J.; Fahland, D.; Aalst, van der W.M.P.; Fournier, F.; Mendling, J.

    2015-01-01

    In process mining, one of the main challenges is to discover a process model, while balancing several quality criteria. This often requires repeatedly setting parameters, discovering a map and evaluating it, which we refer to as process exploration. Commercial process mining tools like Disco,

  17. Beyond frontier exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, A.; Ji, X.; van Ittersum, M.; González Jaime, L.A.; Stancu, L.A.

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the prerequisites for a global exploration strategy in an unknown environment on a virtual disaster site. Assume that a robot equipped with a laser range scanner can build a detailed map of a previous unknown environment. The remaining question is how to use this

  18. Domestic uranium exploration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-01-01

    Uranium exploration in the United States reached its alltime high in 1978 when the chief exploration indicator, surface drilling, totaled 47 million feet. In 1979, however, total drilling declined to 41 million feet, and during the first 8 months of 1980 the trend continued, as surface drilling was 27% less than for the same period in 1979. The total drilling for 1980 now is expected to be below 30 million feet, far less than the 39.4 million feet planned by industry at the beginning of the year. Falling uranium prices, the uncertainties of future uranium demand, rising costs, and the possibility of stiff foreign competition are the prime causes for the current reduction in domestic uranium exploration. Uranium exploration in the United States continues to be concentrated in the vicinity of major producing areas such as the San Juan Basin, Wyoming Basins, Texas Coastal Plain, Paradox Basin, and northeastern Washington, and in areas of recent discoveries including the Henry Mountains, Utah, the McDermitt caldera in Nevada and Oregon, and central Colorado. The distributions, by location, of total surface drilling for 1979 and the first half of 1980 are presented

  19. Exploring the nanoworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockayne, D.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: The nanoworld is a real world waiting to be explored and to be exploited, and the key to this world is microscopy. Modem techniques of microscopy reveal not only atoms and molecules, but also how they combine and interact. They allow us to explore not only the natural but also the synthesised nanoworld. Through this exploration, we can discover new natural forms which can act as templates for constructing novel materials of technological and scientific importance, we can obtain knowledge about the nanoworld (eg the structure of macromolecules) which gives us the means to manipulate the natural world, and we can discover how nature uses microstructure to achieve materials properties (eg strength) which we can then mimic. There are many modern forms of microscopy which are used in this exploration. They include not only a variety of microscopes (eg electron, atomic force, scanning tunnelling) but also an increasing range of sophisticated techniques such as electron tomography, image reconstruction, energy loss spectroscopy and high resolution microscopy, in which mathematical manipulation of the data is playing an increasingly important role. Meanwhile developments in aberration correctors and electron energy monochromation are taking microscopy into a new realm of resolution both in imaging and spectroscopy. Research at the nanoscale is causing a convergence between the biological and physical sciences, largely because the tools and techniques they use are becoming increasingly common to both fields. This challenges us to arrange our activities to optimise our efforts and resources. So we see significant developments in shared instrumentation and remote operation, and we see the setting up of nanotechnology institutes where researchers from across the biological, mathematical, materials and medical disciplines explore together. Copyright (2002) Australian Society for Electron Microscopy Inc

  20. Uranium exploration in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battey, G.C.; Hawkins, B.W.

    1977-01-01

    As a result of exploration which recommenced in 1966 Australia's uranium reserves increased from 6,200 tonnes in 1967 to 227,000 tonnes uranium by June 1976. Most discoveries in the early 1950's were made by prospectors. The increase in reserves during the past decade is the result of exploration by companies utilising improved technology in areas selected as geologically favourable. These reserves were established at relatively low cost. In the Alligator Rivers Uranium Province the ''vein'' type deposits at Jabiluka, Ranger, Koongarra and Nabarlek contain 17% of the world's reserves. Most of these discoveries resulted from the investigation of airborne radiometric anomalies but cover over the prospective host rocks will necessitate the future use of costlier and more indirect exploration techniques. There was exploration for sandstone type uranium deposits in most of Australia's sedimentary basins. The greatest success was achieved in the Lake Frome Basin in South Australia. Other deposits were found in the Ngalia and Amadeus Basins in Central Australia and in the Westmoreland area, N.W. Queensland. A major uranium deposit was found in an unusual environment at Yeelirrie, Western Australia where carnotite occurs in a caliche and clay host which fills a shallow, ancient drainage channel. Although caliche occurrences are relatively widespread on the Precambrian shield no other economic deposit has been found. Recent discoveries in the Georgetown area of Queensland indicate the presence of another uranium province but it is too early to assess its potential. The ore occurs in clastic sediments at the base of a volcanic sequence overlying a Precambrian basement. Several companies which have established large uranium reserves have a number of additional attractive prospects. Exploration activity in Australia in 1975 was at a lower level than in previous years, but the potential for discovering further deposits is considered to be high

  1. Applicability of neutrino beams to Earth exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgoshein, B.A.; Kalinovskij, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    The projects on applicability of neutrino beams from high energy accelerators for geological exploration and study of the Earth structure are discussed. The GENIUS (Geological Exploration by Neutrino Induced Underground Sound) project is among them. It covers detecting and studying space-time characteristics of acoustic signal arising in case of neutrino interaction with Earth depth rocks discussed. The GEMINI (Geological Exploration with Muons Induced by neutrino interactions) project represents one more possibility for using geotron neutrino beam for the purpose of geological exploration. The GEOSCAN project represents the possibility for applying high energy neutrino beams for the purpose of the Earth translusence to determine the changes in the density of internal part of the Earth. The necessity of detailed investigations of the problem of applicability of neutrino beams in the field of the Earth exploration is pointed out

  2. Time Management for Educators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burden, Paul R.

    Time management principles can help teachers become more aware of ways in which time can be used to the greatest advantage. An exploration of personal time perspectives is a step toward establishing effective patterns of behavior. Productivity may be high in the morning and low in the late afternoon, for example, and organizing some activities to…

  3. Exploring Disks Around Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Giant planets are thought to form in circumstellar disks surrounding young stars, but material may also accrete into a smaller disk around the planet. Weve never detected one of these circumplanetary disks before but thanks to new simulations, we now have a better idea of what to look for.Image from previous work simulating a Jupiter-mass planet forming inside a circumstellar disk. The planet has its own circumplanetary disk of accreted material. [Frdric Masset]Elusive DisksIn the formation of giant planets, we think the final phase consists of accretion onto the planet from a disk that surrounds it. This circumplanetary disk is important to understand, since it both regulates the late gas accretion and forms the birthplace of future satellites of the planet.Weve yet to detect a circumplanetary disk thus far, because the resolution needed to spot one has been out of reach. Now, however, were entering an era where the disk and its kinematics may be observable with high-powered telescopes (like the Atacama Large Millimeter Array).To prepare for such observations, we need models that predict the basic characteristics of these disks like the mass, temperature, and kinematic properties. Now a researcher at the ETH Zrich Institute for Astronomy in Switzerland, Judit Szulgyi, has worked toward this goal.Simulating CoolingSzulgyi performs a series of 3D global radiative hydrodynamic simulations of 1, 3, 5, and 10 Jupiter-mass (MJ) giant planets and their surrounding circumplanetary disks, embedded within the larger circumstellar disk around the central star.Density (left column), temperature (center), and normalized angular momentum (right) for a 1 MJ planet over temperatures cooling from 10,000 K (top) to 1,000 K (bottom). At high temperatures, a spherical circumplanetary envelope surrounds the planet, but as the planet cools, the envelope transitions around 64,000 K to a flattened disk. [Szulgyi 2017]This work explores the effects of different planet temperatures and

  4. Time over time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Navarro, Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The present essay is designed to be a general introduction to the philosophical problem of time from its very different forms and ways of approaching. In this sense, the article covers the problem from different perspectives and gives a brief account of the plurality and diversity of the time found in the different philosophical definitions, in the different layers of knowledge, in different periods and cultures and also in the different instruments used to measure time itself

  5. New Moon water, exploration, and future habitation

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-01-01

    Explore Earth's closest neighbor, the Moon, in this fascinating and timely book and discover what we should expect from this seemingly familiar but strange, new frontier. What startling discoveries are being uncovered on the Moon? What will these tell us about our place in the Universe? How can exploring the Moon benefit development on Earth? Discover the role of the Moon in Earth's past and present; read about the lunar environment and how it could be made more habitable for humans; consider whether continued exploration of the Moon is justified; and view rare Apollo-era photos and film still

  6. Exploring Urban Screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatan Krajina

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a tautological tendency in the widespread claims that urban space is 'me-diated'. Never before has the citizen, it is argued, been confronted with such an unprecedented array of signage. I depart from the rhetoric of 'biggest-ever-saturation' as not necessarily untrue, but as insufficient in exploring the diverse spatial operations of urban screens. I examine some contemporary cases of ani-mated architectural surfaces, informational panels, and advertising billboards, with reference to much longer standing cultural practices of spatial management in modern cities, such as illumination, to suggest that the contemporary display media do not mediate the city anew but re-invent urban space as a field of ubiqui-tous mediation. From that standpoint I suggest exploring urban screens as a both singular visual agents and indivisible items in plural structural assemblages, b complementary forces of public illumination, and c complex perceptual platforms in visual play of scale and distance.

  7. Exploring rationality in schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Rasmus; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Owen, Gareth

    2015-01-01

    Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Meth...... differences became non-significant. Conclusions When taking intelligence and neuropsychological performance into account, patients with schizophrenia and controls perform similarly on syllogism tests of rationality.......Background Empirical studies of rationality (syllogisms) in patients with schizophrenia have obtained different results. One study found that patients reason more logically if the syllogism is presented through an unusual content. Aims To explore syllogism-based rationality in schizophrenia. Method...... Thirty-eight first-admitted patients with schizophrenia and 38 healthy controls solved 29 syllogisms that varied in presentation content (ordinary v. unusual) and validity (valid v. invalid). Statistical tests were made of unadjusted and adjusted group differences in models adjusting for intelligence...

  8. Exploring textual data

    CERN Document Server

    Lebart, Ludovic; Berry, Lisette

    1998-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines deal with large text sets requiring both text management and text analysis. Faced with a large amount of textual data collected in marketing surveys, literary investigations, historical archives and documentary data bases, these researchers require assistance with organizing, describing and comparing texts. Exploring Textual Data demonstrates how exploratory multivariate statistical methods such as correspondence analysis and cluster analysis can be used to help investigate, assimilate and evaluate textual data. The main text does not contain any strictly mathematical demonstrations, making it accessible to a large audience. This book is very user-friendly with proofs abstracted in the appendices. Full definitions of concepts, implementations of procedures and rules for reading and interpreting results are fully explored. A succession of examples is intended to allow the reader to appreciate the variety of actual and potential applications and the complementary processin...

  9. Exploring improvisation in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, Mary Anne; Fenton, Mary V

    2007-06-01

    Improvisation has long been considered a function of music, dance, and the theatre arts. An exploration of the definitions and characteristics of this concept in relation to the art and practice of nursing provide an opportunity to illuminate related qualities within the field of nursing. Nursing has always demonstrated improvisation because it is often required to meet the needs of patients in a rapidly changing environment. However, little has been done to identify improvisation in the practice of nursing or to teach improvisation as a nursing knowledge-based skill. This article strives to explore the concept of improvisation in nursing, to describe the characteristics of improvisation as applied to nursing, and to utilize case studies to illustrate various manifestations of improvisation in nursing practice.

  10. The Primordial Inflation Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogut, Alan J.

    2012-01-01

    The Primordial Inflation Explorer is an Explorer-class mission to measure the gravity-wave signature of primordial inflation through its distinctive imprint on the linear polarization of the cosmic microwave background. PIXIE uses an innovative optical design to achieve background-limited sensitivity in 400 spectral channels spanning 2.5 decades in frequency from 30 GHz to 6 THz (1 cm to 50 micron wavelength). The principal science goal is the detection and characterization of linear polarization from an inflationary epoch in the early universe, with tensor-to-scalar ratio r < 10(exp -3) at 5 standard deviations. The rich PIXIE data set will also constrain physical processes ranging from Big Bang cosmology to the nature of the first stars to physical conditions within the interstellar medium of the Galaxy. I describe the PIXIE instrument and mission architecture needed to detect the inflationary signature using only 4 semiconductor bolometers.

  11. Scientific Resource EXplorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Z.; Wormuth, A.; Smith, A.; Arca, J.; Lu, Y.; Sayfi, E.

    2014-12-01

    Inquisitive minds in our society are never satisfied with curatedimages released by a typical public affairs office. They always want tolook deeper and play directly on original data. However, most scientificdata products are notoriously hard to use. They are immensely large,highly distributed and diverse in format. In this presentation,we will demonstrate Resource EXplorer (REX), a novel webtop applicationthat allows anyone to conveniently explore and visualize rich scientificdata repositories, using only a standard web browser. This tool leverageson the power of Webification Science (w10n-sci), a powerful enabling technologythat simplifies the use of scientific data on the web platform.W10n-sci is now being deployed at an increasing number of NASA data centers,some of which are the largest digital treasure troves in our nation.With REX, these wonderful scientific resources are open for teachers andstudents to learn and play.

  12. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available prospective map are the weights-of-evidence (WofE) method logistic regression canonical favorability analysis neural networks evidential belief functions Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote.... . . ): FITNESS FUNCTION φWMSD+V(Sn) = λ N(A) ∑ −→x ∈A P(−→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣−→x −QSn( −→x ) ∣ ∣ ∣ ∣ +(1− λ)s2(OSn) , (2) where QSn( −→x ) is the location vector of an optimal exploration focal point in Sn nearest to −→x , and s2(OSn) is the variance...

  13. An asteroseismology explorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.M.; Cox, A.N.

    1987-01-01

    In response to a NASA opportunity, a proposal has been made to study the concept of an Asteroseismology Explorer (ASE). The goal of the ASE would be to measure solar-like oscillations on many (perhaps hundreds) of stars during a 1-year mission, including many members of open clusters. In this paper, the authors describe this proposal's observational goals, a strawman technical approach, and likely scientific rewards

  14. Gases in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Pacer, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    Interest continues to grow in the use of helium and radon detection as a uranium exploration tool because, in many instances, these radiogenic gases are the only indicators of deeply buried mineralization. The origin of these gases, their migration in the ground, the type of samples and measurement techniques are discussed. Case histories of comparative tests conducted on known uranium deposits at three geologically diverse sites in the United States of America are also presented. (author)

  15. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  16. Time-dependent search for neutrino emission from X-ray binaries with the ANTARES telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A. [GRPHE—Université de Haute Alsace—Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit, BP 50568, Colmar, 68008 France (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, 08800 Spain (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, Erlangen, 91058 Germany (Germany); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Gandia, 46730 Spain (Spain); Aubert, J.-J. [Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille, 13288 France (France); Avgitas, T.; Baret, B. [APC, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/IRFU, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, 75205 France (France); Barrios-Martí, J., E-mail: antares.spokesperson@in2p3.fr [IFIC—Instituto de Física Corpuscular (CSIC—Universitat de València), c/ Catedrático José Beltrán, 2, Paterna, Valencia, E-46980 Spain (Spain); and others

    2017-04-01

    ANTARES is currently the largest neutrino telescope operating in the Northern Hemisphere, aiming at the detection of high-energy neutrinos from astrophysical sources. Neutrino telescopes constantly monitor at least one complete hemisphere of the sky, and are thus well-suited to detect neutrinos produced in transient astrophysical sources. A time-dependent search has been applied to a list of 33 X-ray binaries undergoing high flaring activities in satellite data (RXTE/ASM, MAXI and Swift/BAT) and during hardness transition states in the 2008–2012 period. The background originating from interactions of charged cosmic rays in the Earth's atmosphere is drastically reduced by requiring a directional and temporal coincidence with astrophysical phenomena. The results of this search are presented together with comparisons between the neutrino flux upper limits and the neutrino flux predictions from astrophysical models. The neutrino flux upper limits resulting from this search limit the jet parameter space for some astrophysical models.

  17. PathlinesExplorer — Image-based exploration of large-scale pathline fields

    KAUST Repository

    Nagoor, Omniah H.

    2015-10-25

    PathlinesExplorer is a novel image-based tool, which has been designed to visualize large scale pathline fields on a single computer [7]. PathlinesExplorer integrates explorable images (EI) technique [4] with order-independent transparency (OIT) method [2]. What makes this method different is that it allows users to handle large data on a single workstation. Although it is a view-dependent method, PathlinesExplorer combines both exploration and modification of visual aspects without re-accessing the original huge data. Our approach is based on constructing a per-pixel linked list data structure in which each pixel contains a list of pathline segments. With this view-dependent method, it is possible to filter, color-code, and explore large-scale flow data in real-time. In addition, optimization techniques such as early-ray termination and deferred shading are applied, which further improves the performance and scalability of our approach.

  18. Learning Time and Educational Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W.

    1980-01-01

    To explore the relationship between time and school learning, this paper defines the three kinds of learning time identified by researchers--allocated time, time-on-task, and academic learning time--and relates them to curriculum development. The author cites evidence that time-on-task is related to student achievement and describes two…

  19. Exploration Medical System Demonstration Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, D. A.; McGrath, T. L.; Reyna, B.; Watkins, S. D.

    2011-01-01

    A near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission will present significant new challenges including hazards to crew health created by exploring a beyond low earth orbit destination, traversing the terrain of asteroid surfaces, and the effects of variable gravity environments. Limited communications with ground-based personnel for diagnosis and consultation of medical events require increased crew autonomy when diagnosing conditions, creating treatment plans, and executing procedures. Scope: The Exploration Medical System Demonstration (EMSD) project will be a test bed on the International Space Station (ISS) to show an end-to-end medical system assisting the Crew Medical Officers (CMO) in optimizing medical care delivery and medical data management during a mission. NEA medical care challenges include resource and resupply constraints limiting the extent to which medical conditions can be treated, inability to evacuate to Earth during many mission phases, and rendering of medical care by a non-clinician. The system demonstrates the integration of medical technologies and medical informatics tools for managing evidence and decision making. Project Objectives: The objectives of the EMSD project are to: a) Reduce and possibly eliminate the time required for a crewmember and ground personnel to manage medical data from one application to another. b) Demonstrate crewmember's ability to access medical data/information via a software solution to assist/aid in the treatment of a medical condition. c) Develop a common data management architecture that can be ubiquitously used to automate repetitive data collection, management, and communications tasks for all crew health and life sciences activities. d) Develop a common data management architecture that allows for scalability, extensibility, and interoperability of data sources and data users. e) Lower total cost of ownership for development and sustainment of peripheral hardware and software that use EMSD for data management f) Provide

  20. Exploring Monte Carlo methods

    CERN Document Server

    Dunn, William L

    2012-01-01

    Exploring Monte Carlo Methods is a basic text that describes the numerical methods that have come to be known as "Monte Carlo." The book treats the subject generically through the first eight chapters and, thus, should be of use to anyone who wants to learn to use Monte Carlo. The next two chapters focus on applications in nuclear engineering, which are illustrative of uses in other fields. Five appendices are included, which provide useful information on probability distributions, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes for radiation transport, and other matters. The famous "Buffon's needle proble

  1. Spacecraft exploration of asteroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veverka, J.; Langevin, Y.; Farquhar, R.; Fulchignoni, M.

    1989-01-01

    After two decades of spacecraft exploration, we still await the first direct investigation of an asteroid. This paper describes how a growing international interest in the solar system's more primitive bodies should remedy this. Plans are under way in Europe for a dedicated asteroid mission (Vesta) which will include multiple flybys with in situ penetrator studies. Possible targets include 4 Vesta, 8 Flora and 46 Hestia; launch its scheduled for 1994 or 1996. In the United States, NASA plans include flybys of asteroids en route to outer solar system targets

  2. SpaceExplorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Riisgaard

    2007-01-01

    Web pages are designed to be displayed on a single screen, but as more and more screens are being introduced in our surroundings a burning question becomes how to design, interact, and display web pages on multiple devices and displays. In this paper I present the SpaceExplorer prototype, which...... is able to display standard HTML web pages on multiple displays with only a minor modification to the language. Based on the prototype a number of different examples are presented and discussed and some preliminary findings are presented....

  3. The Cosmic Background Explorer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulkis, Samuel; Lubin, Philip M.; Meyer, Stephan S.; Silverberg, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    The Cosmic Background Explorer (CBE), NASA's cosmological satellite which will observe a radiative relic of the big bang, is discussed. The major questions connected to the big bang theory which may be clarified using the CBE are reviewed. The satellite instruments and experiments are described, including the Differential Microwave Radiometer, which measures the difference between microwave radiation emitted from two points on the sky, the Far-Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer, which compares the spectrum of radiation from the sky at wavelengths from 100 microns to one cm with that from an internal blackbody, and the Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment, which searches for the radiation from the earliest generation of stars.

  4. Uranium exploration techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    The subject is discussed under the headings: introduction (genetic description of some uranium deposits; typical concentrations of uranium in the natural environment); sedimentary host rocks (sandstones; tabular deposits; roll-front deposits; black shales); metamorphic host rocks (exploration techniques); geologic techniques (alteration features in sandstones; favourable features in metamorphic rocks); geophysical techniques (radiometric surveys; surface vehicle methods; airborne methods; input surveys); geochemical techniques (hydrogeochemistry; petrogeochemistry; stream sediment geochemistry; pedogeochemistry; emanometry; biogeochemistry); geochemical model for roll-front deposits; geologic model for vein-like deposits. (U.K.)

  5. Exploring Opponent Formats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Rasmussen, Majken; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    of how the opponent format and relationships impact a game are almost absent in current research. Thus, this paper aims to elucidate how the perception of a competition differs, depending on the opponent format, by presenting a game mechanic framework. The paper furthermore presents an interactive...... football-training platform, as well as games designed to explore the different opponent formats. The games are qualitatively evaluated to illuminate the qualities of and distinctions between different types of opponent formats, proposed by the framework terminology....

  6. Uranium reserves and exploration activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meehan, R.J.

    1975-01-01

    The strategy that ERDA plans to employ regarding resource appraisal is outlined. All types of uranium occurrences will be evaluated as sources of domestic ore reserves. Industry's exploration efforts will be compiled. These data will include information on land acquisition and costs, footage drilled and costs, estimates of exploration activities and expenditures, exploration for non-sandstone deposits, exploration in non-established areas, and foreign exploration plans and costs. Typical data in each of these areas are given

  7. Exploring Rare Diseases in South Africa, a Personal Journey: Time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the absence of an established National Health Insurance (NHI), there is unequal ... The mining sector, which provides healthcare for its employees, is responsible for ... enjoys the prescribed minimum benefit, and it is a statutory requirement in ...

  8. Exploring the dark energy biosphere, 15 seconds at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, C.; Tossey, L.; Biddle, J.

    2016-12-01

    Science communication often suffers from numerous pitfalls including jargon, complexity, ageneral lack of (science) education of the audience, and short attention spans. With the Center for Dark EnergyBiosphere Investigations (C-DEBI), Delaware Sea Grant is expanding its collection of 15 Second Science videos, whichdeliver complex science topics, with visually stimulating footage and succinct audio. Featuring a diverse cast of scientistsand educators in front of the camera, we are expanded our reach into the public and classrooms. We're alsoexperimenting with smartphone-based virtual reality, for a more immersive experience into the deep! We will show youthe process for planning, producing, and posting our #15secondscience videos and VR segments, and how we areevaluating effectiveness.

  9. Exploring Complex Engineering Learning Over Time with Epistemic Network Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Svarovsky, Gina Navoa

    2011-01-01

    Recently, K-12 engineering education has received increased attention as a pathway to building stronger foundations in math andscience and introducing young people to the profession. However, the National Academy of Engineering found that many K-12engineering programs focus heavily on engineering design and science and math learning while minimizing the development ofengineering habits of mind. This narrowly-focused engineering activity can leave young people – and in particular, girls – with...

  10. Human Factors in Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Patricia M.; Fiedler, Edna

    2010-01-01

    The exploration of space is one of the most fascinating domains to study from a human factors perspective. Like other complex work domains such as aviation (Pritchett and Kim, 2008), air traffic management (Durso and Manning, 2008), health care (Morrow, North, and Wickens, 2006), homeland security (Cooke and Winner, 2008), and vehicle control (Lee, 2006), space exploration is a large-scale sociotechnical work domain characterized by complexity, dynamism, uncertainty, and risk in real-time operational contexts (Perrow, 1999; Woods et ai, 1994). Nearly the entire gamut of human factors issues - for example, human-automation interaction (Sheridan and Parasuraman, 2006), telerobotics, display and control design (Smith, Bennett, and Stone, 2006), usability, anthropometry (Chaffin, 2008), biomechanics (Marras and Radwin, 2006), safety engineering, emergency operations, maintenance human factors, situation awareness (Tenney and Pew, 2006), crew resource management (Salas et aI., 2006), methods for cognitive work analysis (Bisantz and Roth, 2008) and the like -- are applicable to astronauts, mission control, operational medicine, Space Shuttle manufacturing and assembly operations, and space suit designers as they are in other work domains (e.g., Bloomberg, 2003; Bos et al, 2006; Brooks and Ince, 1992; Casler and Cook, 1999; Jones, 1994; McCurdy et ai, 2006; Neerincx et aI., 2006; Olofinboba and Dorneich, 2005; Patterson, Watts-Perotti and Woods, 1999; Patterson and Woods, 2001; Seagull et ai, 2007; Sierhuis, Clancey and Sims, 2002). The human exploration of space also has unique challenges of particular interest to human factors research and practice. This chapter provides an overview of those issues and reports on sorne of the latest research results as well as the latest challenges still facing the field.

  11. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  12. Cosmochemistry and Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2004-12-01

    About 125 scientists, engineers, business men and women, and other specialists attended the sixth meeting of the Space Resources Roundtable, held at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden, Colorado. The meeting was co-sponsored by the Space Resources Roundtable, Inc. (a nonprofit organization dedicated to the use of space resources for the benefit of humankind), the Lunar and Planetary Institute, and the Colorado School of Mines. Presentations and discussions during the meeting made it clear that the knowledge gained from cosmochemical studies of the Moon and Mars is central to devising ways to use in situ resources. This makes cosmochemistry central to the human exploration and development of space, which cannot happen without extensive in situ resource utilization (ISRU). Cosmochemists at the meeting reported on an array of topics: the nature of lunar surface materials and our lack of knowledge about surface materials in permanently shadowed regions at the lunar poles; how to make reasonable simulated lunar materials for resource extraction testbeds, vehicle design tests, and construction experiments on Earth; and how to explore for resources on the Moon and Mars.

  13. Human exploration mission studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  14. Exploring Servitization in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raja, Jawwad Z.; Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network of a Eur......Purpose: Previous research has predominately focused on the servitization strategies of Western manufacturers in advanced economies, neglecting the potential for servitization in those which are emerging, such as China. This paper explores the role of the external service partner network...... of a European manufacturer providing services in China, in order to develop a better understanding of the resulting and associated challenges. Design/methodology/approach: An in-depth case study approach was used to examine the parent company, its subsidiary in China and the related service partner network....... Data collection involved all three actors and took place in Denmark and China. Findings: The findings suggest that motivation, opportunity and ability (MOA) need not only be mutually reinforcing for the organization attempting to move towards services but also aligned between organizational units...

  15. Estimating strategic interactions in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, C.-Y. Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    When individual petroleum-producing firms make their exploration decisions, information externalities and extraction externalities may lead them to interact strategically with their neighbors. If they do occur, strategic interactions in exploration would lead to a loss in both firm profit and government royalty revenue. Since these strategic interactions would be inefficient, changes in the government offshore leasing policy would need to be considered. The possibility of strategic interactions thus poses a concern to policy-makers and affects the optimal government policy. This paper examines whether these inefficient strategic interactions take place in U.S. federal lands in the Gulf of Mexico. In particular, it analyzes whether a firm's exploration decisions depend on the decisions of firms owning neighboring tracts of land. A discrete response model of a firm's exploration timing decision that uses variables based on the timing of a neighbor's lease term as instruments for the neighbor's decision is employed. The results suggest that strategic interactions do not actually take place, at least not in exploration, and therefore that the current parameters of the government offshore leasing policy do not lead to inefficient petroleum exploration. (author)

  16. Systems Engineering for Space Exploration Medical Capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindock, Jennifer; Reilly, Jeffrey; Rubin, David; Urbina, Michelle; Hailey, Melinda; Hanson, Andrea; Burba, Tyler; McGuire, Kerry; Cerro, Jeffrey; Middour, Chris; hide

    2017-01-01

    Human exploration missions that reach destinations beyond low Earth orbit, such as Mars, will present significant new challenges to crew health management. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is applying systems engineering principles and practices to accomplish its goals. This paper discusses the structured and integrative approach that is guiding the medical system technical development. Assumptions for the required levels of care on exploration missions, medical system goals, and a Concept of Operations are early products that capture and clarify stakeholder expectations. Model-Based Systems Engineering techniques are then applied to define medical system behavior and architecture. Interfaces to other flight and ground systems, and within the medical system are identified and defined. Initial requirements and traceability are established, which sets the stage for identification of future technology development needs. An early approach for verification and validation, taking advantage of terrestrial and near-Earth exploration system analogs, is also defined to further guide system planning and development.

  17. Petroleum exploration in Africa from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinetto, Marco; Frassy, Federico; Aiello, Martina; Rota Nodari, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    Hydrocarbons are nonrenewable resources but today they are the cheaper and easier energy we have access and will remain the main source of energy for this century. Nevertheless, their exploration is extremely high-risk, very expensive and time consuming. In this context, satellite technologies for Earth observation can play a fundamental role by making hydrocarbon exploration more efficient, economical and much more eco-friendly. Complementary to traditional geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetic (gravmag) surveys, satellite remote sensing can be used to detect onshore long-term biochemical and geochemical alterations on the environment produced by invisible small fluxes of light hydrocarbons migrating from the underground deposits to the surface, known as microseepage effect. This paper describes two case studies: one in South Sudan and another in Mozambique. Results show how remote sensing is a powerful technology for detecting active petroleum systems, thus supporting hydrocarbon exploration in remote or hardly accessible areas and without the need of any exploration license.

  18. A perspective on worldwide exploration for minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowson, P.C.F.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide as firm a factual basis as possible for debate about patterns of mineral exploration spending throughout the world, both geographically and over time. The data compiled for this purpose are presented in the chapter. After describing some of the major problems in gathering, arranging, and utilizing these data, the chapter focuses on a few of the many possible conclusions that can be drawn from them. The section summarize statistics on mineral exploration expenditures, discuss trends in these expenditures, consider aspects of exploration costs such as the relative effectiveness of expenditures in different parts of the world, and describe the roles of public and private organizations that are active in the various stages of exploration

  19. Exploration Mission Benefits From Logistics Reduction Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James Lee, Jr.; Schlesinger, Thilini; Ewert, Michael K.

    2016-01-01

    Technologies that reduce logistical mass, volume, and the crew time dedicated to logistics management become more important as exploration missions extend further from the Earth. Even modest reductions in logical mass can have a significant impact because it also reduces the packing burden. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems' Logistics Reduction Project is developing technologies that can directly reduce the mass and volume of crew clothing and metabolic waste collection. Also, cargo bags have been developed that can be reconfigured for crew outfitting and trash processing technologies to increase habitable volume and improve protection against solar storm events are under development. Additionally, Mars class missions are sufficiently distant that even logistics management without resupply can be problematic due to the communication time delay with Earth. Although exploration vehicles are launched with all consumables and logistics in a defined configuration, the configuration continually changes as the mission progresses. Traditionally significant ground and crew time has been required to understand the evolving configuration and locate misplaced items. For key mission events and unplanned contingencies, the crew will not be able to rely on the ground for logistics localization assistance. NASA has been developing a radio frequency identification autonomous logistics management system to reduce crew time for general inventory and enable greater crew self-response to unplanned events when a wide range of items may need to be located in a very short time period. This paper provides a status of the technologies being developed and there mission benefits for exploration missions.

  20. Telling time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Populizio Ivan

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available According to Einstein’s renowned declaration, for those who believe in physics – or, more precisely, in its capability to offer a “scientific” representation of the world – the distinction between present, past and future is just “an illusion, though obstinate”. If we consider an effective analogy by Mauro Dorato, we can state that those who agree with the famous German scientist will recognize in the present, past and future a relationship very similar to that between “here” and “somewhere else” – in other words, the present is just a located moment and has no privileged status. In other conceptual universes, some of which are explored by philosophy, or imagined by art, as well as in other scientific disciplines like biology, the need for a strong distinction between “what has happened”, “what will happen” and “what is happening” seems to be unavoidable. At the macroscopic level of living beings there does not seem to be a way out of the “eternal present”, which cannot be escaped even by the desire of some well-developed mammals to understand reality or such an apparently primary experience as the “passing of time”. Even the “timeless” description of reality offered by physics is immersed in time and changes with it. This paradox seems to contain the core of the irreducibility between two cultural constructions which we will be calling “the time of the soul” and “the time of the world”, after Ricoeur. The main thesis of this essay is that there are two fundamentally different ways of facing the mystery of time, which have a precise relationship with the mentioned contrast between the subjective and the objective conception of time – mental, qualitative and experienced in the first case; physical, quantitative and measurable in the second. Considering Ricoeur’s research on time and stories, we can conclude that this dichotomy may give rise to another similarly radical difference between

  1. Exploring exploration orientation and its determinants : Some empirical evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Commandeur, H.R.; Volberda, H.W.; Sidhu, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Adopting an information-process perspective, this article conceptualizes exploration orientation in terms of scope of information acquisition. In line with this conceptualization, a multidimensional operational measure of exploration orientation is developed and its internal consistency established.

  2. The design explorer project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pejtersen, Annelise Mark; Sonnenwald, Diane H.; Buur, Jacob

    1997-01-01

    the 'Design Explorer' research project whose goal is to specify requirements for an information system that will effectively help design team members from different domains and organizational cultures to locate and utilize diverse information sources and interact more effectively throughout the design process....... The project introduces a new approach to support of design; instead of design guidelines, support is given by creating a transparent information environment in which designers can navigate freely according to their individual preferences. The project is based on a framework that structures the dimensions......, or categories, of domain information which need to be available for a system or product designer/design team in order to determine the characteristics of the artefact, or object of design. These dimensions include information about the different work domains in which the product plays a role during its lifetime...

  3. Exploring the Sharing Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netter, Sarah

    Despite the growing interest on the part of proponents and opponents - ranging from business, civil society, media, to policy-makers alike - there is still limited knowledge about the working mechanisms of the sharing economy. The thesis is dedicated to explore this understudied phenomenon...... and to provide a more nuanced understanding of the micro- and macro-level tensions that characterize the sharing economy. This thesis consists of four research papers, each using different literature, methodology, and data sets. The first paper investigates how the sharing economy is diffused and is ‘talked......-level tensions experience by sharing platforms by looking at the case of mobile fashion reselling and swapping markets. The final paper combines the perspectives of different sharing economy stakeholders and outlines some of the micro and macro tensions arising in and influencing the organization of these multi...

  4. Nutrition for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.

    2005-01-01

    Nutrition has proven to be critical throughout the history of human exploration, on both land and water. The importance of nutrition during long-duration space exploration is no different. Maintaining optimal nutritional status is critical for all bodily systems, especially in light of the fact that that many are also affected by space flight itself. Major systems of concern are bone, muscle, the cardiovascular system, the immune system, protection against radiation damage, and others. The task ahead includes defining the nutritional requirements for space travelers, ensuring adequacy of the food system, and assessing crew nutritional status before, during, and after flight. Accomplishing these tasks will provide significant contributions to ensuring crew health on long-duration missions. In addition, development and testing of nutritional countermeasures to effects of space flight is required, and assessment of the impact of other countermeasures (such as exercise and pharmaceuticals) on nutrition is also critical for maintaining overall crew health. Vitamin D stores of crew members are routinely low after long-duration space flight. This occurs even when crew members take vitamin D supplements, suggesting that vitamin D metabolism may be altered during space flight. Vitamin D is essential for efficient absorption of calcium, and has numerous other benefits for other tissues with vitamin D receptors. Protein is a macronutrient that requires additional study to define the optimal intake for space travelers. Administration of protein to bed rest subjects can effectively mitigate muscle loss associated with disuse, but too much or too little protein can also have negative effects on bone. In another bed rest study, we found that the ratio of protein to potassium was correlated with the level of bone resorption: the higher the ratio, the more bone resorption. These relationships warrant further study to optimize the beneficial effect of protein on both bone and muscle

  5. Mineral nuclear exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, E.M.

    1978-01-01

    The information on quantitative determination in rocks of water (humidity), rock-forming chemical elements, and various usefull components are presented. When considering separate chemical elements given are brief information on their content in natural objects, nuclear properties (the main reactions, their cross sections, isotope characteristics etc.). Possibilities of different nuclear methods in determination of chemical element concentrations in ores and rocks are analyzed. The greatest attention is paid to analysis of methods, based on gamma quantum and neutron irradiation. The results of application of laboratory nuclear-physical methods of rapid analysis are briefly considered, whereas the results of different field methods of nuclear exploration are considered in detail: field survey, well logging, inspection of mine roadway walls. In the appendix general information on chemical elements and sensitivity thresholds of certain activation methods are presented

  6. Exploring Entrepreneurial Network Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norus, Jesper

    2003-01-01

    explores four different strategies for dealing with network relations; the research oriented strategy, the incubator strategy, the industrial partnering strategy, and the policy-oriented strategy. The research-oriented strategy is narrowly focusing on how a biotechnology firm transforms their scientific...... treated as a contingent factor. However only little attention have been giving to a specific focus on the strategies that new business ventures have obtained to establish the fit between small firms, university research, and public policies such as regulatory policies and R&D policies. The emergence...... results into promising technologies, services or products. The incubator strategy is concerned with localization and how to come about specific types of managerial problem in the initial stage of forming a business venture. The industrial partnering strategy concerns how to overcome the problem...

  7. Exploring bacterial lignin degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Margaret E; Chang, Michelle C Y

    2014-04-01

    Plant biomass represents a renewable carbon feedstock that could potentially be used to replace a significant level of petroleum-derived chemicals. One major challenge in its utilization is that the majority of this carbon is trapped in the recalcitrant structural polymers of the plant cell wall. Deconstruction of lignin is a key step in the processing of biomass to useful monomers but remains challenging. Microbial systems can provide molecular information on lignin depolymerization as they have evolved to break lignin down using metalloenzyme-dependent radical pathways. Both fungi and bacteria have been observed to metabolize lignin; however, their differential reactivity with this substrate indicates that they may utilize different chemical strategies for its breakdown. This review will discuss recent advances in studying bacterial lignin degradation as an approach to exploring greater diversity in the environment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exploring the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2008-01-01

    David Harland opens with a review of the robotic probes, namely the Rangers which returned television before crashing into the Moon, the Surveyors which ''soft landed'' in order to investigate the nature of the surface, and the Lunar Orbiters which mapped prospective Apollo landing sites. He then outlines the historic landing by Apollo 11 in terms of what was discovered, and how over the next several missions the program was progressively geared up to enable the final three missions each to spend three days on comprehensive geological investigations. He concludes with a review of the robotic spacecraft that made remote-sensing observations of the Moon. Although aimed at the enthusiast, and can be read as an adventure in exploration, the book develops the scientific theme of lunar geology, and therefore will be of use as background reading for undergraduate students of planetary sciences. In addition, with the prospect of a resumption of human missions, it will help journalists understand what Apollo achieved ...

  9. Solar system exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, G.A.; Quaide, W.L.

    1986-01-01

    Two fundamental goals lie at the heart of U.S. solar system exploration efforts: first, to characterize the evolution of the solar system; second, to understand the processes which produced life. Progress in planetary science is traced from Newton's definition of the principles of gravitation through a variety of NASA planetary probes in orbit, on other planets and traveling beyond the solar system. It is noted that most of the planetary data collected by space probes are always eventually applied to improving the understanding of the earth, moon, Venus and Mars, the planets of greatest interest to humans. Significant data gathered by the Mariner, Viking, Apollo, Pioneer, and Voyager spacecraft are summarized, along with the required mission support capabilities and mission profiles. Proposed and planned future missions to Jupiter, Saturn, Titan, the asteroids and for a comet rendzvous are described

  10. Analysis of exploration expenditure for unconventional gas : how investing in exploration would improve reserves and production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virine, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper described a method for analyzing the efficiency of exploration investment, which can improve corporate planning. Exploration expenditure is held to be a main indicator of economic activities in the oil and gas industry because exploration is supposed to lead to booking more reserves and increased production. A model was developed for analyzing the correlation between exploration expenditure and producer's reserves and production for conventional and unconventional gas plays in the United States. The model was used to quantitatively assess the exploration expenditures production and reserves of different producers for various conventional and unconventional gas plays. Producer's booked reserves, production from public sources, and reserves and production forecasts were incorporated into the model, which was used to analyze different types of exploration expenditure (land, drilling, and seismic) incurred at various times prior to reserves and production being booked. There was an overall positive correlation between exploration expenditure and reserves and production, but there was significant variance in the correlation between various producers operating in different plays. Unproved land acquisition was strongly correlated to the booking of proved reserves, but there was no correlation between unproved land acquisition and exploration expenditure ratio, reserves, or production. A number of companies had a high exploration expenditure to overall expenditure ratio, but the resulting payoffs were inconsistent. 6 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  11. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Gendreau, K.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2014-01-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer (NICER) is an approved NASA Explorer Mission of Opportunity dedicated to the study of the extraordinary gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments embodied by neutron stars. Scheduled to be launched in 2016 as an International Space Station payload, NICER will explore the exotic states of matter, using rotation-resolved spectroscopy of the thermal and non-thermal emissions of neutron stars in the soft (0.2-12 keV) X-ray band. Grazing-incidence "concentrator" optics coupled with silicon drift detectors, actively pointed for a full hemisphere of sky coverage, will provide photon-counting spectroscopy and timing registered to GPS time and position, with high throughput and relatively low background. The NICER project plans to implement a Guest Observer Program, which includes competitively selected user targets after the first year of flight operations. I will describe NICER and discuss ideas for potential Be/X-ray binary science.

  12. Old times Old times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubiratan Paiva de Oliveira

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In Pinter: A Study of His Plays, Martin Esslin mentions three levels of possible interpretation for Old Times. According to him, Pinter's play could be interpreted on a realistic level, or either representing the male character's dream or a ritual game. He correctly remarks, though, that none of those levels excludes the others, because "... they must co-exist to create the atmosphere of poetic ambivalence on which the image of the play rests..1 In Pinter: A Study of His Plays, Martin Esslin mentions three levels of possible interpretation for Old Times. According to him, Pinter's play could be interpreted on a realistic level, or either representing the male character's dream or a ritual game. He correctly remarks, though, that none of those levels excludes the others, because "... they must co-exist to create the atmosphere of poetic ambivalence on which the image of the play rests..1

  13. Mineral exploration in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.J.; Clark, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview and comparisons of mineral exploration in Botswana and Papua New Guinea, including selection comparisons with Australia and Canada. It describes the history of exploration in Botswana and PNG. The concluding section summarizes the findings

  14. Exploring Causal Models of Educational Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkerson, Jo Ann; And Others

    1984-01-01

    This article evaluates five causal model of educational productivity applied to learning science in a sample of 882 fifth through eighth graders. Each model explores the relationship between achievement and a combination of eight constructs: home environment, peer group, media, ability, social environment, time on task, motivation, and…

  15. Missing a trick in geothermal exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Paul L.

    2014-07-01

    Expansion of geothermal energy use across the globe is restricted by out-of-date prejudices. It is time for geothermal exploration to be extended to a broader range of environments and rejuvenated with the latest insights from relevant geoscience disciplines.

  16. Maple Explorations, Perfect Numbers, and Mersenne Primes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghusayni, B.

    2005-01-01

    Some examples from different areas of mathematics are explored to give a working knowledge of the computer algebra system Maple. Perfect numbers and Mersenne primes, which have fascinated people for a very long time and continue to do so, are studied using Maple and some questions are posed that still await answers.

  17. Supporting Exploration of Historical Perspectives across Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, Daan; Garbacea, Cristina; Schoegje, Thomas; Hollink, Laura; de Boer, Victor; Ribbens, Kees; van Ossenbruggen, Jacco

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous

  18. Supporting Exploration of Historical Perspectives Across Collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Odijk, D.; Gârbacea, C.; Schoegje, T.; Hollink, L.; de Boer, V.; Ribbens, K.; van Ossenbruggen, J.; Kapidakis, S.; Mazurek, C.; Werla, M.

    2015-01-01

    The ever growing number of textual historical collections calls for methods that can meaningfully connect and explore these. Different collections offer different perspectives, expressing views at the time of writing or even a subjective view of the author. We propose to connect heterogeneous

  19. Exploring Effective Communication for Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Eric John

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to explore experiences and perceptions of organizational leaders regarding organizational change communication to improve change results in an organizational setting. Building on a conceptual framework of organizational theory, 25 full-time online faculty at an institution of higher learning in the southwestern…

  20. Old times Old times

    OpenAIRE

    Ubiratan Paiva de Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    In Pinter: A Study of His Plays, Martin Esslin mentions three levels of possible interpretation for Old Times. According to him, Pinter's play could be interpreted on a realistic level, or either representing the male character's dream or a ritual game. He correctly remarks, though, that none of those levels excludes the others, because "... they must co-exist to create the atmosphere of poetic ambivalence on which the image of the play rests..1 In Pinter: A Study of His Plays, Martin Esslin ...

  1. Language and Identity Explored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rozanov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between language and identity is widely discussed in applied linguistics, sociology, communications and other related scholarly fields. Furthermore, many researchers have focused on the post-Soviet region, which given its unique historical context allows for testing of this relationship. The widespread bilingualism as a result of historical russification and the linguistic transformations that occurred after the collapse of the Soviet Union make the region a ‘sociolinguistic playground’. Recent events in Ukraine have given grounds to further explore this relationship, now in attempt to link language and identity as potential forces for geopolitical change in the region. This paper presents an overview of existing research, theories, and opposing perspectives related to the relationship between language and identity, and considers complications such as historical russification, religious influence, socioeconomic factors, and education with regards to the Ukrainian and post-Soviet context.  I aim to illustrate the significance of language and its effects on socio-political change in the case of Ukraine, by presenting arguments and complications in support of the relationship between language and identity.

  2. Exploring the dusty Universe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghese, F

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Dust is an ubiquitous inhabitant of the interstellar medium, and leaves an unmistakable signature in its optical properties, and physico-chemical evolution. Although there is little direct knowledge of the true nature of interstellar dust grains, strong evidences point toward the possibility that such grains are composites of many small monomers (mainly made of silicates and carbonaceous materials. We consider two different models of fluffy dust aggregates, occurring as result of ballistic particle-cluster and cluster-cluster aggregation, and a cluster with a Gaussian-like sphere size distribution. We study the optical properties of such composite structures through the multipole fields and the Transition Matrix approach. Our results show the severe limits of applicability of the effective medium theories. By comparing radiation and gravitational forces, we also infer some relevant insights into the dynamical evolution of composite grains in the Solar System. We finally explore the possible role of composite fluffy dust grains in igniting an extraterrestrial prebiotic chemistry.

  3. Explore Your Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole Marie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This warm-up lab is intended to get students familiar with the large numbers encountered in astronomy (e.g. distances, times, numbers of stars and galaxies in the universe). Students will measure the dimensions of the classroom and/or the distance between objects in the classroom, and report their findings in units of millimeters, micrometers and nanometers.

  4. Research on geochemical exploration in geotherm development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirowatari, Kazuo; Imaizumi, Yukio; Koga, Akito; Iwanaga, Tatsuto.

    1987-01-01

    The decisive factor of geotherm development is to improve the exploration techniques. By effectively carrying out the selection of promising development spots and the decision of well drilling positions, the geotherm development exceeding existing energy sources becomes feasible. There have been many problems in conventional geotherm exploration such as the high cost and long work period, therefore, it was decided to advance the research on geochemical exploration techniques which are relatively simple and can be carried out with low cost. When the techniques of geochemistry are used, for example, in the case that there are hot springs or fumaroles, the temperature, origin, properties and so on of underground hot water reservoirs can be estimated from their chemical composition. The method of examining the mercury concentration in soil and soil air has been in practical use in the geothermal districts where the ground surface symptom lacks. This time, the method of investigation using radon, thoron and gamma ray as the exploration indices was newly studied. The index compositions for geochemical exploration, new exploration index compositions, the method of measurement, the basic investigation and on-the-spot investigation are reported. (Kako, I.)

  5. The psychological value of time: two experiments on the appraisal of time during the train journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Ad; van Hagen, M.; Vos, Martijn; Moritz, Brit; Gostelie, Floor

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies that explore the impact of digital signage, environmental design and the use of background music on time perception and customer experience, thus exploring the psychological value of time.

  6. The psychological value of time : two experiments on the appraisal of time during the train journey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galetzka, Mirjam; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Van Hagen, Mark; Vos, Martijn Christiaan; Moritz, Brit; Gostelie, Floor

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies that explore the impact of digital signage, environmental design and the use of background music on time perception and customer experience, thus exploring the psychological value of time.

  7. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  8. New Tools to Explore Troy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    During the Golden Age of Greece the poet Homer wrote of the epic battles between Agamemnon and Priam-the fabled Trojan War. Although the city of Troy was a tourist attraction in Greek and Roman times, by the 1800s its location was lost, and many believed the story was only a myth. Frank Calvert and Heinrich Schliemann thought otherwise, and in the 1870s began excavating an earthen mound in western Turkey, near the Dardanelles. The site did indeed turn out to be the legendary city of Troy, and much more. Different layers-each corresponding to a different city-revealed evidence of a sequence (progression) of human habitation stretching back almost 5000 years. Although the ruins of Troy have been explored for 130 years, archaeologists have only excavated 10 percent of the site. To help them, NASA scientists are exploring new ways of using remote sensing data. The image above shows Troy and the surrounding image in true color. Taken by the Advanced Land Imager (ALI) aboard the EO-1 satellite, the full-size image has a resolution of 10 meters. The city of Troy is circled, and the body of water to the north is the Dardanelles. These and other sensors may help find the boundaries of a harbor near Trojan-war era Troy that has since filled with sediment, trace the route of a Roman aqueduct that carried water to the city 2000 years ago, locate an ancient cemetary, and map the outer walls. A high-resolution image of Troy from the Ikonos satellite, posted previously on the Earth Observatory, reveals more details of the city. Image courtesy Konstantinos Stefanidis, EO-1 team

  9. Uranium geochemistry, mineralogy, geology, exploration and resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vivo, B.

    1984-01-01

    This book comprises papers on the following topics: history of radioactivity; uranium in mantle processes; transport and deposition of uranium in hydrothermal systems at temperatures up to 300 0 C: Geological implications; geochemical behaviour of uranium in the supergene environment; uranium exploration techniques; uranium mineralogy; time, crustal evolution and generation of uranium deposits; uranium exploration; geochemistry of uranium in the hydrographic network; uranium deposits of the world, excluding Europe; uranium deposits in Europe; uranium in the economics of energy; role of high heat production granites in uranium province formation; and uranium deposits

  10. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welz, Claudia

    . Claudia Welz offers an interdisciplinary exploration of theological and ethical 'visions' of the invisible. By analysing poetry and art, Welz exemplifies human self-understanding in the interface between the visual and the linguistic. The content of the imago Dei cannot be defined apart from the image......How can we, in our times, understand the biblical concept that human beings have been created in the image of an invisible God? This is a perennial but increasingly pressing question that lies at the heart of theological anthropology. Humanity in God's Image: An Interdisciplinary Exploration...

  11. Applications of MEMS for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, William C.

    1998-03-01

    Space exploration in the coming century will emphasize cost effectiveness and highly focused mission objectives, which will result in frequent multiple missions that broaden the scope of space science and to validate new technologies on a timely basis. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is one of the key enabling technologies to create cost-effective, ultra-miniaturized, robust, and functionally focused spacecraft for both robotic and human exploration programs. Examples of MEMS devices at various stages of development include microgyroscope, microseismometer, microhygrometer, quadrupole mass spectrometer, and micropropulsion engine. These devices, when proven successful, will serve as models for developing components and systems for new-millennium spacecraft.

  12. FAST TIMING ANALYSIS OF CYGNUS X-1 USING THE SPECTROMETER ON THE INTERNATIONAL GAMMA-RAY ASTROPHYSICS LABORATORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabanac, Clement; Roques, Jean-Pierre; Jourdain, Elisabeth

    2011-01-01

    We report for the first time the high-frequency analysis of Cyg X-1 up to hard X-ray using the spectrometer on International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL). After analyzing the possible contribution from the background, and using the INTEGRAL archive from 2005 March to 2008 May, power density spectra were obtained up to 130 keV. First, we show that their overall shape is very similar to that observed at lower energies as they are well described by sets of Lorentzians. The strength of this fast variability (up to 40 Hz) does not drop at high energy since we show that it remains at ∼25% rms, even in the highest energy bands. Second, the hard X-ray variability patterns of Cyg X-1 are state dependent: the softer the spectrum (or the lower the hardness ratio), the lower the total fractional variability and the higher the typical frequencies observed. The strength of the total variability as a function of energy and state is then investigated. By comparison with simultaneous and published RXTE/Proportional Counter Array data, we show that in the hard state it remains quite constant in the 2-130 keV energy range. In the softer state it is also flat up to 50 keV and may increase at higher energy. The implications of this behavior on the models are then discussed.

  13. Heliborne time domain electromagnetic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Minerals Directorate (AMD), are using heliborne and ground time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) system for the exploration of deep seated unconformity type uranium deposits. Uranium has been explored in various parts of the world like Athabasca basin using time domain electromagnetic system. AMD has identified some areas in India where such deposits are available. Apart from uranium exploration, the TDEM systems are used for the exploration of deep seated minerals like diamonds. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) is involved in the indigenous design of the heliborne time domain system since this system is useful for DAE and also it has a scope of wide application. In this paper we discuss about the principle of time domain electromagnetic systems, their capabilities and the development and problems of such system for various other mineral exploration. (author)

  14. Exploring adaptive program behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Lars Frydendal; Probst, Christian W.

    Modern computer systems are increasingly complex, with ever changing bottlenecks. This makes it difficult to ensure consistent performance when porting software, or even running it. Adaptivity, ie, switching between program variations, and dynamic recompilation have been suggested as solutions....... Both solutions come at a cost; adaptivity issues a runtime overhead and requires more design effort, while dynamic recompilation takes time to perform. In this project, we plan to investigate the possibilities, limitations, and benefits of these techniques. This abstract covers our thoughts on how...

  15. Exploring Lightning Jump Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronis, Themis; Carey, Larry D.; Schultz, Christopher J.; Schultz, Elise; Calhoun, Kristin; Goodman, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    This study is concerned with the characteristics of storms exhibiting an abrupt temporal increase in the total lightning flash rate (i.e., lightning jump, LJ). An automated storm tracking method is used to identify storm "clusters" and total lightning activity from three different lightning detection systems over Oklahoma, northern Alabama and Washington, D.C. On average and for different employed thresholds, the clusters that encompass at least one LJ (LJ1) last longer, relate to higher Maximum Expected Size of Hail, Vertical Integrated Liquid and lightning flash rates (area-normalized) than the clusters that did not exhibit any LJ (LJ0). The respective mean values for LJ1 (LJ0) clusters are 80 min (35 min), 14 mm (8 mm), 25 kg per square meter (18 kg per square meter) and 0.05 flash per min per square kilometer (0.01 flash per min per square kilometer). Furthermore, the LJ1 clusters are also characterized by slower decaying autocorrelation functions, a result that implies a less "random" behavior in the temporal flash rate evolution. In addition, the temporal occurrence of the last LJ provides an estimate of the time remaining to the storm's dissipation. Depending of the LJ strength (i.e., varying thresholds), these values typically range between 20-60 min, with stronger jumps indicating more time until storm decay. This study's results support the hypothesis that the LJ is a proxy for the storm's kinematic and microphysical state rather than a coincidental value.

  16. International Planning for Subglacial Lake Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennicutt, M.; Priscu, J.

    2003-04-01

    As one of the last unexplored frontiers on our planet, subglacial lakes offer a unique and exciting venue for exploration and research. Over the past several years, subglacial lakes have captured the imagination of the scientific community and public, evoking images of potential exotic life forms surviving under some of the most extreme conditions on earth. Various planning activities have recognized that due to the remote and harsh conditions, that a successful subglacial lake exploration program will entail a concerted effort for a number of years. It will also require an international commitment of major financial and human resources. To begin a detailed planning process, the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) convened the Subglacial Antarctic Lake Exploration Group of Specialists (SALEGOS) in Tokyo in 2000. The group was asked to build on previous workshops and meetings to develop a plan to explore subglacial lake environments. Its mandate adopted the guiding principles as agreed in Cambridge in 1999 that the program would be interdisciplinary in scope, be designed for minimum contamination and disturbance of the subglacial lake environment, have as a goal lake entry and sample retrieval, and that the ultimate target of the program should be Lake Vostok exploration. Since its formation SALEGOS has met three times and addressed some of the more intractable issues related to subglacial lake exploration. Topics under discussion include current state-of-the-knowledge of subglacial environments, technological needs, international management and organizational strategies, a portfolio of scientific projects, "clean" requirements, and logistical considerations. In this presentation the actvities of SALEGOS will be summarized and recommendations for an international subglacial lake exploration program discussed.

  17. Uranium exploration techniques in Bolivia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virreira, V.

    1981-01-01

    The exploration techniques used by the Bolivian Nuclear Energy Commission/Comision Boliviana de Energia Nuclear (COBOEN) in certain areas of Bolivia that are considered promising from the standpoint of uranium deposits are presented in summary form. The methods and results obtained are described, including the techniques used by the Italian company AGIP-URANIUM during four years of exploration under contract with COBOEN. Statistical data are also given explaining the present level of uranium exploration in Bolivia. (author)

  18. Sustaining Exploration in Mature Basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayo, A.

    2002-01-01

    Exploration is a business like any other business driven by opportunity, resources and expectation of profit. Therefore, exploration will thrive anywhere the opportunities are significant, the resources are available and the outlook for profit (or value creation) is good. To sustain exploration activities anywhere, irrespective of the environment, there must be good understanding of the drivers of these key investment criteria. This paper will examine these investment criteria as they relate to exploration business and address the peculiarity of exploration in mature basin. Mature basins are unique environment that lends themselves a mix of fears, paradigms and realities, particularly with respect to the perception of value. To sustain exploration activities in a mature basin, we need to understand these perceptions relative to the true drivers of profitability. Exploration in the mature basins can be as profitable as exploration in emerging basins if the dynamics of value definition-strategic and fiscal values are understood by operators, regulators and co ventures alike. Some suggestions are made in this presentation on what needs to be done in addressing these dynamic investment parameters and sustaining exploration activities in mature basins

  19. Exploring science through science fiction

    CERN Document Server

    Luokkala, Barry B

    2014-01-01

    How does Einstein’s description of space and time compare with Dr. Who? Can James Bond really escape from an armor-plated railroad car by cutting through the floor with a laser concealed in a wristwatch? What would it take to create a fully-intelligent android, such as Star Trek’s Commander Data? How might we discover intelligent civilizations on other planets in the galaxy? Is human teleportation possible? Will our technological society ever reach the point at which it becomes lawful to discriminate on the basis of genetic information, as in the movie GATTACA? Exploring Science Through Science Fiction addresses these and other interesting questions, using science fiction as a springboard for discussing fundamental science concepts and cutting-edge science research. The book is designed as a primary text for a college-level course which should appeal to students in the fine arts and humanities as well as to science and engineering students. It includes references to original research papers, landmark scie...

  20. Exploring the dynamics of mucoadhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popeski-Dimovski, Riste

    2015-01-01

    The bio adhesion phenomenon is of great interest for the pharmaceutics and medicine as a new method for drug delivery, production of implants and tissue scaffolds. Contrary to its use, the exploration of bio adhesion falls in the area of physics and chemistry. In this research we study the dynamic of mucoadhesion from the initial contact until the formation of permanent or semipermanent bond. The bio adhesion is separated in time phases and in this paper correlation is given to the bio adhesion theory that covers each phase. The research is made by following the bio adhesion between a calcium alginate gel and a mucous layer. First the alginates and the mucin used in the research are studied with gel permeation chromatography, static light scattering, dynamic light scattering and viscosimetry. We establish a one-step method for preparation of calcium alginate gel microspheres with spray drying technique, which are then studied with scanning electron microscopy and light diffraction. Furthermore, AFM scans are used to study the changes of the surface characteristics of thin gel layers depending on the increase of alginate concentration, G/M ratio and crosslink ratio. After the preparation and characterization we studied the dynamics of mucoadhesion by following the change of the total work of adhesion between a mucin macromolecule and the thin gel layer, dependent on: the rime of contact, G/M ratio of the gel, molecular mass of the alginate and the crosslink ratio of the gel. The results showed that the work of adhesion does not depend on the molecular mass of the alginate, G/M or the crosslink ration. Slight increase is noted with the increase of the alginate concentration. The time dependence showed an increase of the total work of adhesion following a Gompertz growth distribution. These results are associated with the theories of adhesion and with that the dynamics of mucoadhesion is explained. (author)

  1. Time in the Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dirckinck-Holmfeld, Katrine Remmen

    ? These are research questions Katrine Dirckinck - Holmfeld explores in the artistic research project Time in the Making: Rehearsing Reparative Critical Practices. Through the development of video installations Leap into Colour (20 12 - 2015) and movement (2012) and in dialogue with the work of artists Rania & Raed...

  2. Geochemical exploration for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    The processes and types of dispersion that produce anomalies in stream water, stream sediment, and ground water, and the factors that must be considered in planning and interpreting geochemical surveys are reviewed. Examples of surveys near known deposits show the types of results to be expected. Background values depend mainly on the content of U in rocks of the drainage area. In igneous rocks, U tends to increase with potassium from ultramafic rocks (0.01 ppM) to granitic rocks (1 to 5 ppM). Some alkalic rocks have unusually high contents of U (15 to 100 ppM). Uranium-rich provinces marked by igneous rocks unusually rich in U are recognized in several areas and appear to have a deep crustal or mantle origin. In western U.S., many tertiary tuffaceous rocks have a high U content. Sandstones, limestones, and many shales approximate the crustal abundance at 0.5 to 4 ppM, but black shales, phosphates, and some organic materials are notably enriched in U. Uranium is very soluble in most oxidizing waters at the earth's surface, but is precipitated by reducing agents (organic matter, H 2 S) and adsorbed by organic material and some Fe oxides. In most surface and ground waters, U correlates approximately with the total dissolved solids, conductivity, and bicarbonate concentration of the water, and with the U content of rocks it comes into contact with. Most surveys of stream water near known districts show distinct anomalies extending a few km to tens of km downstream. A complication with water is the large variability with time, up to x 50, as a result of changes in the ratio of ground water to direct runoff, and changes in rate of oxidation and leaching. Collection and analysis of water samples also pose some difficulties

  3. The New National Vision for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackheim, Robert L.; Geveden, Rex; King, David A.

    2004-01-01

    From the Apollo landings on the Moon, to robotic surveys of the Sun and the planets, to the compelling images captured by advanced space telescopes, U.S. achievements in space have revolutionized humanity s view of the universe and have inspired Americans and people around the world. These achievements also have led to the development of technologies that have widespread applications to address problems on Earth. As the world enters the second century of powered flight, it is appropriate to articulate a new vision that will define and guide U.S. space exploration activities for the next several decades. Today, humanity has the potential to seek answers to the most fundamental questions posed about the existence of life beyond Earth. Telescopes have found planets around other stars. Robotic probes have identified potential resources on the Moon, and evidence of water - a key ingredient for life - has been found on Mars and the moons of Jupiter. Direct human experience in space has fundamentally altered our perspective of humanity and our place in the universe. Humans have the ability to respond to the unexpected developments inherent in space travel and possess unique skills that enhance discoveries. Just as Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo challenged a generation of Americans, a renewed U.S. space exploration program with a significant human component can inspire us - and our youth - to greater achievements on Earth and in space. The loss of Space Shuttles Challenger and Columbia and their crews are a stark reminder of the inherent risks of space flight and the severity of the challenges posed by space exploration. In preparation for future human exploration, we must advance our ability to live and work safely in space and, at the same time, develop the technologies to extend humanity s reach to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. The new technologies required for further space exploration also will improve the Nation s other space activities and may provide applications that

  4. Overseas uranium exploration by PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Reiji; Iida, Yoshimasa; Shigeta, Naotaka; Takahashi, Osamu; Yamagishi, Akiko; Miyada, Hatsuho; Kobayashi, Takao

    1998-01-01

    Japan entirely depends on overseas countries for uranium resources for its nuclear electric power generation due to the lack of domestic resources. In order to secure a steady supply of natural uranium, Japanese government has implemented a long-term procurement policy through purchase contracts by private sectors, subsidizing private sectors' exploration and initial stage exploration outside the reach of private sectors' activity by PNC (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation). The subsequent long slump in the price of uranium, however, led most of Japanese private sectors to discontinue their exploration activity. Upon this situation, PNC has pursued a little more advanced stage exploration in addition to basic research and initial stage exploration and has improved its exploration techniques to enable the discovery of deep-seated uranium ore deposits. As the result, PNC has acquired significant uranium exploration tenements and interests similar to those owned by major uranium companies such as Cameco and Cogema. PNC has also contributed to discovery of new uranium deposits. In this report, the history of PNC's activities and its role in the long-term uranium procurement policy are reviewed and it is also described about the outcome thorough its activities and future exploration trend and the tasks. (author)

  5. Dog Mathematics: Exploring Base-4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Terri L.; Yanik, H. Bahadir; Lee, Mi Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Using a dog's paw as a basis for numerical representation, sixth grade students explored how to count and regroup using the dog's four digital pads. Teachers can connect these base-4 explorations to the conceptual meaning of place value and regrouping using base-10.

  6. Colombia extends its exploration horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carta Petrolera

    1997-01-01

    The Return 1 Contract, currently being awarded under the tender system, faithfully reflects Colombia's new approach to hydrocarbon exploration and exploitation. This policy aims to increase reserves and has Ecopetrol assume a more aggressive role in its direct activities by sharing the exploration risks with private partners

  7. Exploring compression techniques for ROOT IO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Bockelman, B.

    2017-10-01

    ROOT provides an flexible format used throughout the HEP community. The number of use cases - from an archival data format to end-stage analysis - has required a number of tradeoffs to be exposed to the user. For example, a high “compression level” in the traditional DEFLATE algorithm will result in a smaller file (saving disk space) at the cost of slower decompression (costing CPU time when read). At the scale of the LHC experiment, poor design choices can result in terabytes of wasted space or wasted CPU time. We explore and attempt to quantify some of these tradeoffs. Specifically, we explore: the use of alternate compressing algorithms to optimize for read performance; an alternate method of compressing individual events to allow efficient random access; and a new approach to whole-file compression. Quantitative results are given, as well as guidance on how to make compression decisions for different use cases.

  8. Exploring Pulsars with Polestar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappallo, Rigel; Laycock, Silas; Christodoulou, Dimitris

    2018-06-01

    An X-ray pulsar (XRP) is a highly-magnetized neutron star (NS) that rotates while emitting beams of X-ray radiation produced primarily in the vicinity of its magnetic poles. If these beams happen to cross our line of sight and the NS’s spin and magnetic axes are not aligned, then our telescopes detect it as a periodically pulsating source. With the introduction of a new class of orbit-based observatories over the last quarter of a century the field of X-ray pulsar astronomy has seen an influx of high-resolution data. This windfall demands new models of pulsar behavior and emission geometry be created and subsequently fit to this high-quality data.We have written a model (Polestar) in Python 2.7.6 that mathematically represents a simplified XRP. The code has ten different, tunable geometric parameters that can be individually incorporated or suppressed. Any given XRP has a unique pulse profile which is often energy-dependent, and changes with different luminosity states. A change in luminosity coincides with a change in the system (e.g. a periodic Type-1 outburst is triggered following periastron passage, or the orientation of the decretion disk around the donor star has changed), and as such an increase in luminosity tends to produce an increase in complexity of the accompanying pulse profile. If a particular source in a low-luminosity state can be fit well with Polestar incorporating only a few parameters then an underlying geometry may be inferred. Further, if profiles from the same source in higher-luminosity states can be fit with the addition of only one or two additional parameters it will serve to further solidify current XRP theory (e.g. the emergence of fan-like emission patterns, or the vertical growth of the accretion column).Our initial fitting campaign was directed at the ~ 100 XRPs in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Polestar also includes an interactive slider GUI that allows the user to see in real time how changing the various profiles alter the

  9. VIP Data Explorer: A Tool for Exploring 30 years of Vegetation Index and Phenology Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto-munoz, A.; Didan, K.; Rivera-Camacho, J.; Yitayew, M.; Miura, T.; Tsend-Ayush, J.

    2011-12-01

    Continuous acquisition of global satellite imagery over the years has contributed to the creation of long term data records from AVHRR, MODIS, TM, SPOT-VGT and other sensors. These records account for 30+ years, as these archives grow, they become invaluable tools for environmental, resources management, and climate studies dealing with trends and changes from local, regional to global scale. In this project, the Vegetation Index and Phenology Lab (VIPLab) is processing 30 years of daily global surface reflectance data into an Earth Science Data Record of Vegetation Index and Phenology metrics. Data from AVHRR (N07,N09,N11 and N14) and MODIS (AQUA and TERRA collection 5) for the periods 1981-1999 and 2000-2010, at CMG resolution were processed into one seamless and sensor independent data record using various filtering, continuity and gap filling techniques (Tsend-Ayush et al., AGU 2011, Rivera-Camacho et al, AGU 2011). An interactive online tool (VIP Data Explorer) was developed to support the visualization, qualitative and quantitative exploration, distribution, and documentation of these records using a simple web 2.0 interface. The VIP Data explorer (http://vip.arizona.edu/viplab_data_explorer) can display any combination of multi temporal and multi source data, enable the quickly exploration and cross comparison of the various levels of processing of this data. It uses the Google Earth (GE) model and was developed using the GE API for images rendering, manipulation and geolocation. These ESDRs records can be quickly animated in this environment and explored for visual trends and anomalies detection. Additionally the tool enables extracting and visualizing any land pixel time series while showing the different levels of processing it went through. User can explore this ESDR database within this data explorer GUI environment, and any desired data can be placed into a dynamic "cart" to be ordered and downloaded later. More functionalities are planned and will be

  10. Interactively exploring optimized treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, Isaac; Liu, H. Helen; Childress, Nathan; Liao Zhongxing

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: A new paradigm for treatment planning is proposed that embodies the concept of interactively exploring the space of optimized plans. In this approach, treatment planning ignores the details of individual plans and instead presents the physician with clinical summaries of sets of solutions to well-defined clinical goals in which every solution has been optimized in advance by computer algorithms. Methods and materials: Before interactive planning, sets of optimized plans are created for a variety of treatment delivery options and critical structure dose-volume constraints. Then, the dose-volume parameters of the optimized plans are fit to linear functions. These linear functions are used to show in real time how the target dose-volume histogram (DVH) changes as the DVHs of the critical structures are changed interactively. A bitmap of the space of optimized plans is used to restrict the feasible solutions. The physician selects the critical structure dose-volume constraints that give the desired dose to the planning target volume (PTV) and then those constraints are used to create the corresponding optimized plan. Results: The method is demonstrated using prototype software, Treatment Plan Explorer (TPEx), and a clinical example of a patient with a tumor in the right lung. For this example, the delivery options included 4 open beams, 12 open beams, 4 wedged beams, and 12 wedged beams. Beam directions and relative weights were optimized for a range of critical structure dose-volume constraints for the lungs and esophagus. Cord dose was restricted to 45 Gy. Using the interactive interface, the physician explored how the tumor dose changed as critical structure dose-volume constraints were tightened or relaxed and selected the best compromise for each delivery option. The corresponding treatment plans were calculated and compared with the linear parameterization presented to the physician in TPEx. The linear fits were best for the maximum PTV dose and worst

  11. Active Exploration for Robust Object Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Velez, Javier J.; Hemann, Garrett A.; Huang, Albert S.; Posner, Ingmar; Roy, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Today, mobile robots are increasingly expected to operate in ever more complex and dynamic environments. In order to carry out many of the higher-level tasks envisioned a semantic understanding of a workspace is pivotal. Here our field has benefited significantly from successes in machine learning and vision: applications in robotics of off-the-shelf object detectors are plentiful. This paper outlines an online, any-time planning framework enabling the active exploration of such detections. O...

  12. 76 FR 18800 - NASA Advisory Council; Exploration Committee; Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ... NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION [Notice (11-028)] NASA Advisory Council; Exploration... National Aeronautics and Space Administration announces a meeting of the Exploration Committee of the NASA Advisory Council. DATES: Tuesday, April 26, 2011, 1 p.m.-6 p.m., Local Time ADDRESSES: NASA Headquarters...

  13. Exploring the Foundations of Philosophy of Natural Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGough, David J.

    This paper explores the historical and philosophical basis of naturalistic education. The exploration focuses on prominent epistemological views of the relationship between sensation and thought. Three time periods of intellectual study were considered: (1) the classical period during which Plato established the model for philosophic inquiry and…

  14. Risk and Exploration: Earth, Sea and Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Steven J. (Editor); Cowing, Keith L. (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The NASA History Division is pleased to present the record of a unique meeting on risk and exploration held under the auspices of the NASA Administrator, Sean O Keefe, at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California, from September 26-29, 2004. The meeting was the brainchild of Keith Cowing and astronaut John Grunsfeld, NASA's chief scientist at the time. Its goals, stated in the letter of invitation published herein, were precipitated by the ongoing dialogue on risk and exploration in the wake of the Columbia Shuttle accident, the Hubble Space Telescope servicing question, and, in a broader sense, by the many NASA programs that inevitably involve a balance between risk and forward-looking exploration. The meeting, extraordinarily broad in scope and participant experience, offers insights on why we explore, how to balance risk and exploration, how different groups defi ne and perceive risk differently, and the importance of exploration to a creative society. At NASA Headquarters, Bob Jacobs, Trish Pengra, and Joanna Adamus of NASA Public Affairs led the meeting's implementation. The Naval Postgraduate School, commanded by Rear Admiral Patrick W. Dunne, provided a congenial venue. The meeting was broadcast on NASA TV, and thanks are due in this regard to Al Feinberg, Tony Stewart, Jim Taylor, and the planners collaborative: Mark Shaddock and Spotlight Productions, Donovan Gates of Donovan Gates Production, and Michael Ditertay and his staff on this 30-person television crew. Thanks to their efforts, a DVD record of the meeting has also been produced. Thanks are also due to the moderators: Miles O Brien of CNN, Chris McKay of NASA Ames, David Halpern of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy, and John Grunsfeld, NASA Headquarters. In order to maintain the informal flavor of the meetings, these proceedings are based on transcripts that have been lightly edited for grammar and punctuation. Most references to slides shown during the

  15. Exploration Medical Cap Ability System Engineering Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K.; Mindock, J.

    2018-01-01

    Deep Space Gateway and Transport missions will change the way NASA currently practices medicine. The missions will require more autonomous capability compared to current low Earth orbit operations. For the medical system, lack of consumable resupply, evacuation opportunities, and real-time ground support are key drivers toward greater autonomy. Recognition of the limited mission and vehicle resources available to carry out exploration missions motivates the Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element's approach to enabling the necessary autonomy. The ExMC Systems Engineering team's mission is to "Define, develop, validate, and manage the technical system design needed to implement exploration medical capabilities for Mars and test the design in a progression of proving grounds." The Element's work must integrate with the overall exploration mission and vehicle design efforts to successfully provide exploration medical capabilities. ExMC is using Model-Based System Engineering (MBSE) to accomplish its integrative goals. The MBSE approach to medical system design offers a paradigm shift toward greater integration between vehicle and the medical system, and directly supports the transition of Earth-reliant ISS operations to the Earth-independent operations envisioned for Mars. This talk will discuss how ExMC is using MBSE to define operational needs, decompose requirements and architecture, and identify medical capabilities needed to support human exploration. How MBSE is being used to integrate across disciplines and NASA Centers will also be described. The medical system being discussed in this talk is one system within larger habitat systems. Data generated within the medical system will be inputs to other systems and vice versa. This talk will also describe the next steps in model development that include: modeling the different systems that comprise the larger system and interact with the medical system, understanding how the various systems work together, and

  16. Existing and new techniques in uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowie, S.H.U.; Cameron, J.

    1976-01-01

    The demands on uranium exploration over the next 25 years will be very great indeed and will call for every possible means of improvement in exploration capability. The first essential is to increase geological knowledge of the mode of occurrence of uranium ore deposits. The second is to improve existing exploration techniques and instrumentation while, at the same time, promoting research and development on new methods to discover uranium ore bodies on the earth's surface and at depth. The present symposium is an effort to increase co-operation and the exchange of information in the critical field of uranium exploration techniques and instrumentation. As an introduction to the symposium a brief review is presented, firstly of what can be considered as existing techniques and, secondly, of techniques which have not yet been used on an appreciable scale. Some fourteen techniques used over the last 30 years are identified and their appropriate application, advantages and limitations are briefly summarized and the possibilities of their further development considered. The aim of future research on new techniques, in addition to finding new ways and means of identifying surface deposits, should be mainly directed to devising methods and instrumentation capable of detecting buried ore bodies that do not give a gamma signal at the surface. To achieve this aim, two contributory factors are essential: adequate financial support for research and development and increased specialized training in uranium exploration and instrumentation design. The papers in this symposium describe developments in the existing techniques, proposals for future research and development and case histories of exploration programmes

  17. Changes in the Long-Term Intensity Variations in Cygnus X-2 and LMC X-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, B.; Kitamoto, S.; Makino, F.

    2000-01-01

    We report the detection of changes in the long-term intensity variations in two X-ray binaries, Cyg X-2 and LMC X-3. In this work, we have used the long-term light curves obtained with the All-Sky Monitors (ASMs) of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), Ginga, Ariel 5, and Vela 5B and the scanning modulation collimator of HEAO 1. It is found that in the light curves of both the sources, obtained with these instruments at various times over the last 30 years, more than one periodic or quasi-periodic component is always present. The multiple prominent peaks in the periodograms have frequencies unrelated to each other. In Cyg X-2, RXTE-ASM data show strong peaks at 40.4 and 68.8 days, and Ginga-ASM data show strong peaks at 53.7 and 61.3 days. Multiple peaks are also observed in LMC X-3. The various strong peaks in the periodograms of LMC X-3 appear at 104, 169, and 216 days (observed with RXTE-ASM) and 105, 214, and 328 days (observed with Ginga-ASM). The present results, when compared with the earlier observations of periodicities in these two systems, demonstrate the absence of any stable long period. The 78 day periodicity detected earlier in Cyg X-2 was probably due to the short time base in the RXTE data that were used, and the periodicity of 198 days in LMC X-3 was due to a relatively short duration of observation with HEAO 1.

  18. Human haptic perception is interrupted by explorative stops of milliseconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eGrunwald

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The explorative scanning movements of the hands have been compared to those of the eyes. The visual process is known to be composed of alternating phases of saccadic eye movements and fixation pauses. Descriptive results suggest that during the haptic exploration of objects short movement pauses occur as well. The goal of the present study was to detect these explorative stops (ES during one-handed and two-handed haptic explorations of various objects and patterns, and to measure their duration. Additionally, the associations between the following variables were analyzed: a between mean exploration time and duration of ES, b between certain stimulus features and ES frequency, and c the duration of ES during the course of exploration. Methods: Five different experiments were used. The first two experiments were classical recognition tasks of unknown haptic stimuli (A and of common objects (B. In experiment C space-position information of angle legs had to be perceived and reproduced. For experiments D and E the PHANToM haptic device was used for the exploration of virtual (D and real (E sunken reliefs. Results: In each experiment we observed explorative stops of different average durations. For experiment A: 329.50 ms, experiment B: 67.47 ms, experiment C: 189.92 ms, experiment D: 186.17 ms and experiment E: 140.02 ms. Significant correlations were observed between exploration time and the duration of the ES. Also, ES occurred more frequently, but not exclusively, at defined stimulus features like corners, curves and the endpoints of lines. However, explorative stops do not occur every time a stimulus feature is explored. Conclusions: We assume that ES are a general aspect of human haptic exploration processes. We have tried to interpret the occurrence and duration of ES with respect to the Hypotheses-Rebuild-Model and the Limited Capacity Control System theory.

  19. New Age for Lunar Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. J.; Martel, L. M. V.

    2018-04-01

    Lunar-focused research and plans to return to the lunar surface for science and exploration have reemerged since the Space Policy Directive-1 of December 11, 2017 amended the National Space Policy to include the following, "Lead an innovative and sustainable program of exploration with commercial and international partners to enable human expansion across the solar system and to bring back to Earth new knowledge and opportunities. Beginning with missions beyond low-Earth orbit, the United States will lead the return of humans to the Moon for long-term exploration and utilization, followed by human missions to Mars and other destinations." In response to this revision, NASA proposes a Lunar Exploration and Discovery Program in the U.S. fiscal year 2019 Budget Request. It supports NASA's interests in commercial and international partnerships in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), long-term exploration in Cislunar space beyond LEO, and research and exploration conducted on the Moon to inform future crewed missions, even to destinations beyond the Moon. (Cislunar refers to the volume of space between LEO and the Moon's orbital distance.) The lunar campaign strengthens the integration of human and robotic activities on the lunar surface with NASA's science, technology, and exploration goals.

  20. Trends in exploration and exploration equipment for uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitz, C.H.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium exploration once again is in a ''boom'' cycle. The energy needs of the OPEC and non-OPEC countries alike have created a demand for uranium which appears certain to increase in future years. In turn, this demand has stimulated a dramatic rise in both the price of uranium and the exploration activity necessary to discover new reserves. One immediate reaction to the sudden increase in uranium exploration activity has been the evaluation of old exploration methods and equipment. This paper briefly reviews some of the traditional equipment and techniques which currently are being refined and updated. Undoubtedly this equipment, complemented with good exploration planning and judgment, will continue to be relied upon for many years and will lead to the discovery of many new deposits. The paper also covers in greater detail some of the newer, less conventional techniques and equipment now being introduced for uranium exploration. These new methods may be expected to keep this country in the forefront among the uranium producers of the world

  1. Time reversal transfer: Exploring the robustness of time reversed acoustics in media with geometry perturbations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kober, Jan; Dvořáková, Zuzana; Převorovský, Zdeněk; Krofta, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 138, č. 1 (2015), EL49-EL53 ISSN 0001-4966 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : acoustic waves * boundary value problems * elastic waves * green's function methods * acoustic scattering Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics Impact factor: 1.572, year: 2015 http://scitation.aip.org/content/asa/journal/jasa/138/1/10.1121/1.4922623

  2. Racing against Time: Using Technology To Explore Distance, Rate, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, N. Kathryn; Lambdin, Diana V.; McGraw, Rebecca H.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates ways to analyze change in various contexts. Focuses on computer technology providing contexts for children's investigations of patterns of change and helping to develop foundational ideas of algebra and calculus. Discusses relationships between patterns of change, fundamental algebraic notions as linear and nonlinear functions, and…

  3. Powering the Space Exploration Initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) establishes the long-term goal of returning to the Moon and then exploring Mars. One of the prerequisites of SEI is the Exploration Technology Program which includes program elements on space nuclear power and surface solar power. These program elements in turn build upon the ongoing NASA research and technology base program in space energy conversion. There is a wide range of missions in NASA's strategic planning and most would benefit from power sources with improved efficiency, lighter weight and reduced cost

  4. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  5. Borehole logging for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The present text has been prepared taking into account the requirements of both developing countries, which might be at an incipient stage of uranium exploration, and industrialized countries, where more advanced exploration and resource evaluation techniques are commonly in use. While it was felt necessary to include some discussion of exploration concepts and fundamental physical principles underlying various logging methods, it was not the intention of the consultants to provide a thorough, detailed explanation of the various techniques, or even to give a comprehensive listing thereof. However, a list of references has been included, and it is strongly recommended that the serious student of mineral logging consult this list for further guidance

  6. Ethnomathematics: Exploration in Javanese culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risdiyanti, Irma; Charitas Indra Prahmana, Rully

    2017-12-01

    This research is the exploration study to indicate the correlation between mathematics and Javanese culture. These studies have a purpose of exploring Javanese culture in Yogyakarta that contains mathematics concept namely Batik. The activity of society in making Batik in all regency at Yogyakarta is the focus of this study. The research use ethnography method. The technic to collection data uses principles in ethnography such as observation, interview, documentation, and field note making with the original ethnography description. The result is exploration ethnomathematics in the several motifs of Yogyakarta batik that contains philosophy, deep cultural value, and mathematics concept, especially geometry transform subject.

  7. The Early Identity Exploration Scale-a measure of initial exploration in breadth during early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłym, Maria; Cieciuch, Jan

    2015-01-01

    The existing models and measurement instruments concerning identity appear to primarily focus on adolescence and early adulthood, and studies extending identity research to younger stages of life are scarce. There has been a particular lack of instruments measuring the early stages of identity formation, especially the process of exploration, which has been portrayed as a central process during this particular period of life. Our aim is to help fill the gap in the literature and facilitate further studies of the exploration process by providing an appropriate instrument to measure exploration in breadth during early adolescence. As a coherent and mature sense of identity is closely associated with psychosocial well-being, an effective identity exploration scale will enable researchers to assess the predictors of young adolescents' well-being. We propose a model of identity exploration domains based on the literature and considering 12 exploration domains: physical appearance, free time, family, work, boyfriend-girlfriend relationships, own opinion formation, perception of own place in the life cycle, self-reflection, future, future family, outlook on life, and attitude toward rules. The study was conducted on a group of N = 454 adolescents (50% males, M age = 13.04, SD = 0.98). Both reliability and structural validity, as verified by confirmatory factor analysis were satisfactory. The instrument is invariant across gender groups at the scalar level of measurement invariance.

  8. Exploring the Hard and Soft X-ray Emission of Magnetic Cataclysmic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Martino, D.; Anzolin, G.; Bonnet-Bidaud, J.-M.; Falanga, M.; Matt, G.; Mouchet, M.; Mukai, K.; Masetti, N.

    2009-05-01

    A non-negligible fraction of galactic hard (>20 keV) X-ray sources were identified as CVs of the magnetic Intermediate Polar type in INTEGRAL, SWIFT and RXTE surveys, that suggests a still hidden but potentially important population of faint hard X-ray sources. Simbol-X has the unique potential to simultaneously characterize their variable and complex soft and hard X-ray emission thus allowing to understand their putative role in galactic populations of X-ray sources.

  9. Into the Wild Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg Johansen, Christina

    2018-01-01

    I want to feel the temporalities I am theorizing and writing about. To feel, explore, be moved through, tugged under by my research subject, to not know where my explorations will take me. How does time appear when I take responsibility for it instead of placing it as and with the Other? Can my...... temporal research emerge in symbiotic play with other human and non-human entities? In this essay, I will share how a methodological breakdown opened to me a net of (auto-)ethnographic wo/anderings, dialogical interviews and performative time-laboratories. I do not know where I am headed, but every...... sensuous memory lies in store, waiting for its time....

  10. Superorbital Period Variations in the X-ray Pulsar LMC X-4 B. Paul ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    RXTE-ASM data alone. The second solution requires a period of 30.31 d, close to the value obtained with the RXTE-ASM light curve. The second solution gives large residuals for the GINGA and EXOSAT arrival times. To account for the residuals, we introduced a period derivative and fitted a quadratic function to the arrival ...

  11. Time outs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000756.htm Time outs To use the sharing features on this ... children, 2 to 12 years old. Why Does Time out Work? When you put children in time ...

  12. Program options to explore ocean worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, B.; Lunine, J.; Sotin, C.; Cwik, T.; Naderi, F.

    2018-02-01

    Including Earth, roughly a dozen water ocean worlds exist in the solar system: the relict worlds Ceres and Mars, vast oceans inside most of the large Jovian and Saturnian icy moons, and Kuiper Belt Objects like Triton, Charon, and Pluto whose geologies are dominated by water and ammonia. Key pieces of the ocean-world science puzzle - which when completed may reveal whether life is widespread in the cosmos, why it exists where it does, and how it originates - are distributed among them. The eventual exploration of all these worlds will yield humanity's total tangible knowledge about life in the universe, essentially forever. Thus, their exploration has existential significance for humanity's self-regard, and indeed perhaps of our place in the natural scheme. The matter of planning how to pursue such a difficult and unprecedented exploration opportunity is therefore historic. The technical challenges are formidable, far harder than at Mars: missions to the Jovian and Saturnian ocean worlds are severely power-limited; trip times can be as much as a half decade and decade, respectively. And the science targets are global-scale oceans beneath kilometers of cryogenic ice. Reaching and exploring them would be a multi-generational undertaking, so again it is essential to plan and prepare. Today, we lack the instrumentation, subsystems, and remote operational-intelligence technologies needed to build and use exploration avatars as good as what we can envision needing. Each ocean world holds a piece of the puzzle, but the three priority targets are Europa at Jupiter, and Enceladus and Titan at Saturn. As with the systematic exploration of Mars, exploring these diverse worlds poses a complex technical and programmatic challenge - a strategic challenge - that needs to be designed and managed if each generation is to see its work bear fruit, and if the space science community is to make most effective use of the public money devoted to the quest. Strategic programs benefit from

  13. Human-Robot Planetary Exploration Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Kimberly

    2004-01-01

    areas of our research are safety and crew time efficiency. For safety, our work involves enabling humans to reliably communicate with a robot while moving in the same workspace, and enabling robots to monitor and advise humans of potential problems. Voice, gesture, remote computer control, and enhanced robot intelligence are methods we are studying. For crew time efficiency, we are investigating the effects of assigning different roles to humans and robots in collaborative exploration scenarios.

  14. Automation &robotics for future Mars exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, W.; von Richter, A.; Bertrand, R.

    2003-04-01

    Automation and Robotics (A&R) are currently considered as a key technology for Mars exploration. initiatives in this field aim at developing new A&R systems and technologies for planetary surface exploration. Kayser-Threde led the study AROMA (Automation &Robotics for Human Mars Exploration) under ESA contract in order to define a reference architecture of A&R elements in support of a human Mars exploration program. One of the goals was to define new developments and to maintain the competitiveness of European industry within this field. We present a summary of the A&R study in respect to a particular system: The Autonomous Research Island (ARI). In the Mars exploration scenario initially a robotic outpost system lands at pre-selected sites in order to search for life forms and water and to analyze the surface, geology and atmosphere. A&R systems, i.e. rovers and autonomous instrument packages, perform a number of missions with scientific and technology development objectives on the surface of Mars as part of preparations for a human exploration mission. In the Robotic Outpost Phase ARI is conceived as an automated lander which can perform in-situ analysis. It consists of a service module and a micro-rover system for local investigations. Such a system is already under investigation and development in other TRP activities. The micro-rover system provides local mobility for in-situ scientific investigations at a given landing or deployment site. In the long run ARI supports also human Mars missions. An astronaut crew would travel larger distances in a pressurized rover on Mars. Whenever interesting features on the surface are identified, the crew would interrupt the travel and perform local investigations. In order to save crew time ARI could be deployed by the astronauts to perform time-consuming investigations as for example in-situ geochemistry analysis of rocks/soil. Later, the crew could recover the research island for refurbishment and deployment at another

  15. The business of petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinmetz, R.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the Business of Petroleum Exploration. The following topics are included: Petroleum business; Economic aspects of the business; Managing business; and Legal, Political, Ethical and environment aspects of the business

  16. Starting to Explore Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Described is a simple, cheap and versatile homemade windmill and electrical generator suitable for a school class to use to explore many aspects and practicalities of using wind to generate electrical power. (Contains 8 figures.)

  17. China's roadmap for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yong; Yao, Zhonghua; Wan, Weixing

    2018-05-01

    China has approved or planned a string of several space exploration missions to be launched over the next decade. A new generation of planetary scientists in China is playing an important role in determining the scientific goals of future missions.

  18. Isotope analysis in petroleum exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R.

    1982-01-01

    The study about isotopic analysis in petroleum exploration performed at Petrobras Research Center is showed. The results of the petroleum recuperation in same Brazilian basin and shelves are comented. (L.H.L.L.) [pt

  19. StreamExplorer: A Multi-Stage System for Visually Exploring Events in Social Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yingcai; Chen, Zhutian; Sun, Guodao; Xie, Xiao; Cao, Nan; Liu, Shixia; Cui, Weiwei

    2017-10-18

    Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer to facilitate the visual analysis, tracking, and comparison of a social stream at three levels. At a macroscopic level, StreamExplorer uses a new glyph-based timeline visualization, which presents a quick multi-faceted overview of the ebb and flow of a social stream. At a mesoscopic level, a map visualization is employed to visually summarize the social stream from either a topical or geographical aspect. At a microscopic level, users can employ interactive lenses to visually examine and explore the social stream from different perspectives. Two case studies and a task-based evaluation are used to demonstrate the effectiveness and usefulness of StreamExplorer.Analyzing social streams is important for many applications, such as crisis management. However, the considerable diversity, increasing volume, and high dynamics of social streams of large events continue to be significant challenges that must be overcome to ensure effective exploration. We propose a novel framework by which to handle complex social streams on a budget PC. This framework features two components: 1) an online method to detect important time periods (i.e., subevents), and 2) a tailored GPU-assisted Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method, which clusters the tweets of subevents stably and efficiently. Based on the framework, we present StreamExplorer

  20. Time Operators and Time Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Nakatsugawa, K.; Fujii, T.; Saxena, A.; Tanda, S.

    2017-01-01

    We investigate time operators in the context of quantum time crystals in ring systems. We demonstrate that a self-adjoint time operator with a periodic time evolution can be derived for a free particle on a ring system: The conventional Aharonov-Bohm time operator is obtained by taking the infinite-radius limit. We also reveal the relationship between our time operator and a $\\mathcal PT$-symmetric time operator. We find that both time operators indeed describe the periodic time evolution of ...

  1. Time in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stupar, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    One of the most important questions concerning the foundations of physics, especially since the discovery of relativity and quantum theory, is the nature and role of time. In this book we bring together researchers from different areas of physics, mathematics, computer science and philosophy to discuss the role time plays in physics. There have been few books on this topic to date, and two of the key aims of the workshop and this book are to encourage more researchers to explore this area, and to pique students’ interest in the different roles time plays in physics.

  2. Accelerating time to benefit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svejvig, Per; Geraldi, Joana; Grex, Sara

    Despite the ubiquitous pressure for speed, our approaches to accelerate projects remain constrained to the old-fashioned understanding of the project as a vehicle to deliver products and services, not value. This article explores an attempt to accelerate time to benefit. We describe and deconstruct...... of the time. Although all cases valued speed and speed to benefit, and implemented most practices proposed by the methodology, only three of the five projects were more successful in decreasing time to speed. Based on a multi-case study comparison between these five different projects and their respective...

  3. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION OF GEOTHERMAL RESOURCES

    OpenAIRE

    A. B. Alkhasov; D. A. Аlkhasova; R. M. Aliyev; A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    The aim. The aim is to develop the energy efficient technologies to explore hydro geothermal resources of different energy potential.Methods. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the proposed technologies has been carried out with the use of physical and mathematical, thermodynamic and optimization methods of calculation and the physical and chemical experimental research.Results. We propose the technology of integrated exploration of low-grade geothermal resources with the application of heat ...

  4. Uranium exploration/development policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    The Honeymoon joint venturers have been advised that their request for compensation has been refused. This follows the South Australian Government's decision not to grant a mining lease. An application for a retention lease to the joint venturers at Beverley was also refused. The Government has formulated clear guidelines for both retention leases and exploration licences which will be applied to all companies engaged specifically in exploration for uranium

  5. Time-out/Time-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    time-in and time-out use. Time-in technology use coincides and co-exists within the flow of ordinary life, while time-out use entails ‘taking time out’ of everyday life to accomplish a circumscribed task or engage reflectively in a particular experience. We apply a theoretically informed grounded...

  6. New NASA Technologies for Space Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing new technologies to enable planetary exploration. NASA's Space Launch System is an advance vehicle for exploration beyond LEO. Robotic explorers like the Mars Science Laboratory are exploring Mars, making discoveries that will make possible the future human exploration of the planet. In this presentation, we report on technologies being developed at NASA KSC for planetary exploration.

  7. MIT solar wind plasma data from Explorer 33 and Explorer 35: July 1966 to September 1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, H.; Binsack, J.; Wang, C.; Clapp, E.

    1971-01-01

    The plasma experiments on Explorer 33 and Explorer 35 have yielded large amounts of solar wind data. This report gives a brief review of the method used to obtain the data, provides a description of the plasma parameters, and describes in detail the format of the plots and tapes which are available from the Data Center. Hourly average plots of the data are included at the end of the report. From these plots, the availability and interest of the solar wind data for any period of time may be determined.

  8. Recent advances in uranium exploration with electronic alpha cups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, R.K.

    1977-01-01

    Data from a new radon measuring device, based on electronic alpha cups are compared with data from the nonelectronic, plastic alpha cups commonly used in exploring for uranium. A burial time of three days appears to be adequate for the electronic alpha cups to collect exploration data equivalent to those from plastic sensing devices. The advantages of the electronic cups are short time of burial and instant readout in the field; the major disadvantages is the capital expenditure required for the instruments. It is possible the cups may be useful for copper exploration too. 5 refs

  9. Ambler - An autonomous rover for planetary exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, John; Hebert, Martial; Kanade, Takeo; Krotkov, Eric; Mitchell, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The authors are building a prototype legged rover, called the Ambler (loosely an acronym for autonomous mobile exploration robot) and testing it on full-scale, rugged terrain of the sort that might be encountered on the Martian surface. They present an overview of their research program, focusing on locomotion, perception, planning, and control. They summarize some of the most important goals and requirements of a rover design and describe how locomotion, perception, and planning systems can satisfy these requirements. Since the program is relatively young (one year old at the time of writing) they identify issues and approaches and describe work in progress rather than report results. It is expected that many of the technologies developed will be applicable to other planetary bodies and to terrestrial concerns such as hazardous waste assessment and remediation, ocean floor exploration, and mining.

  10. Exploring Conflict Management Using Qualitative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaleha Yazid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on qualitative methods in researching the area of conflict management, specifically in Self-Managed Project Team (SMPT. The research aims to explore the evolvement of conflict management strategies in SMPT as this type of team is given the responsibility to solve problems and make decision by themselves. The inductive approach will overcome the limitation of quantitative method in management research as one of its objectives is to explain the different elements of the explored social system and their interconnection. Hence, it aims at the contextual understanding of social behavior rather than extensive measurement. This paper also includes the research activities in details such as the data collection methods which involved semi-structured interviews and weekly telephone interviews. The findings of the research proposed that conflict management strategies in SMPT changes over time from confrontation and cooperative style towards avoidance due to the issues of reputation and the deadline.

  11. Time change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Winkel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The mathematical operation of time-changing continuous-time stochastic processes can be regarded as a standard method for building financial models. We briefly review the theory on time-changed stochastic processes and relate them to stochastic volatility models in finance. Popular models......, including time-changed Lévy processes, where the time-change process is given by a subordinator or an absolutely continuous time change, are presented. Finally, we discuss the potential and the limitations of using such processes for constructing multivariate financial models....

  12. Exploration Medical Capability - Technology Watch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krihak, Michael; Watkins, Sharmila; Barr, Yael; Barsten, Kristina; Fung, Paul; Baumann, David

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the Technology Watch process are to identify emerging, high-impact technologies that augment current ExMC development efforts, and to work with academia, industry, and other government agencies to accelerate the development of medical care and research capabilities for the mitigation of potential health issues that could occur during space exploration missions. The establishment of collaborations with these entities is beneficial to technology development, assessment and/or insertion. Such collaborations also further NASA s goal to provide a safe and healthy environment for human exploration. The Tech Watch project addresses requirements and capabilities identified by knowledge and technology gaps that are derived from a discrete set of medical conditions that are most likely to occur on exploration missions. These gaps are addressed through technology readiness level assessments, market surveys, collaborations and distributed innovation opportunities. Ultimately, these gaps need to be closed with respect to exploration missions, and may be achieved through technology development projects. Information management is a key aspect to this process where Tech Watch related meetings, research articles, collaborations and partnerships are tracked by the HRP s Exploration Medical Capabilities (ExMC) Element. In 2011, ExMC will be introducing the Tech Watch external website and evidence wiki that will provide access to ExMC technology and knowledge gaps, technology needs and requirements documents.

  13. Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, S. J. (Editor); Gaddis, L. R.; Joy, K. H.; Petro, N. E.

    2017-01-01

    The announcement of the Vision for Space Exploration in 2004 sparked a resurgence in lunar missions worldwide. Since the publication of the first "New Views of the Moon" volume, as of 2017 there have been 11 science-focused missions to the Moon. Each of these missions explored different aspects of the Moon's geology, environment, and resource potential. The results from this flotilla of missions have revolutionized lunar science, and resulted in a profoundly new emerging understanding of the Moon. The New Views of the Moon II initiative itself, which is designed to engage the large and vibrant lunar science community to integrate the results of these missions into new consensus viewpoints, is a direct outcome of this impressive array of missions. The "Lunar Exploration Missions Since 2006" chapter will "set the stage" for the rest of the volume, introducing the planetary community at large to the diverse array of missions that have explored the Moon in the last decade. Content: This chapter will encompass the following missions: Kaguya; ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon’s Interaction with the Sun); Chang’e-1; Chandrayaan-1; Moon Impact Probe; Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO); Lunar Crater Observation Sensing Satellite (LCROSS); Chang’e-2; Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL); Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE); Chang’e-3.

  14. Timing and Spectral Studies of the Peculiar X-ray Binary Circinus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo M.

    2003-08-26

    Circinus X-1 (Cir X-1) is an X-ray binary displaying an array of phenomena which makes it unique in our Galaxy. Despite several decades of observation, controversy surrounds even the most basic facts about this system. It is generally classified as a Neutron Star (NS) Low Mass X-ray Binary (LMXB),though this classification is based primarily on the observation of Type I X-ray Bursts by EXOSAT in 1985. It is believed to be in a very eccentric {approx} 16.5 day orbit, displaying periodic outbursts in the radio and other frequency bands (including optical and IR) which reinforce the notion that this is in fact the orbital period. Cir X-1 lies in the plane of the Galaxy, where optical identification of the companion is made difficult due to dust obscuration. The companion is thought to be a low mass star, though a high mass companion has not currently been ruled out. In this work, the author analyzes recent observations of Cir X-1 made with the Unconventional Stellar Aspect (USA) experiment, as well as archival observations of Cir X-1 made by a variety of instruments, from as early as 1969. The fast (< 1 s) timing properties of Cir X-1 are studied by performing FFT analyses of the USA data. Quasi-Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the 1-50 Hz range are found and discussed in the context of recent correlations which question the leading models invoked for their generation. The energy dependence of the QPOs (rms increasing with energy) argues against them being generated in the disk and favors models in which the QPOs are related to a higher energy Comptonizing component. The power spectrum of Cir X-1 in its soft state is compared to that of Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1), the prototypical black hole candidate. Using scaling arguments the author argues that the mass of Cir X-1 could exceed significantly the canonical 1.4 M{circle_dot} mass of a neutron star, possibly partly explaining why this object appears so different to other neutron stars. The spectral evolution of Cir X-1 is

  15. Urban Times

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2017-01-01

    This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me.......This is a proposed special issue with six thematic articles by different contributors on 'urban times' edited by me....

  16. Historic Cosmology Identity and Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebergall, K.

    The role of the soul and spirit in the composition of human endeavour generally takes the form of motivational poster catch phrases or third-hand quotes. If the spirit equals the life of a creature, and one of the signs of life is locomotion, are humans not obliged by something even deeper than our humanity to explore the universe? This paper examines the roots and perspectives of our worldviews on identity, exploration, and the limitations and capacities of humanity. It will equip the reader to discuss the nature of exploration with audiences across a wide range of worldviews. Current cultures, regardless of religion or politics, are looped into a series of nihilistic patterns that must be broken by rediscovering our nature as living beings, and our obligations as human beings.

  17. Artistic explorations of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eberhard E Fetz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The symbiotic relationships between art and the brain begin with the obvious fact that brain mechanisms underlie the creation and appreciation of art. Conversely, many spectacular images of neural structures have remarkable aesthetic appeal. But beyond its fascinating forms, the many functions performed by brain mechanisms provide a profound subject for aesthetic exploration. Complex interactions in the tangled neural networks in our brain miraculously generate coherent behavior and cognition. Neuroscientists tackle these phenomena with specialized methodologies that limit the scope of exposition and are comprehensible to an initiated minority. Artists can perform an end run around this impasse by representing the brain’s many functions in a manner that can communicate to a wide and receptive audience. This paper explores the ways that brain mechanisms can provide a largely untapped subject for artistic exploration.

  18. Exploration through Business Model Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knab, Sebastian; Rohrbeck, René

    2015-01-01

    With this research we aim to enhance our understanding about how incumbents can explore emerging opportunities through business model innovation. Using a multiple-case, longitudinal research design spanning 2008 to 2014 we investigate exploration activities of the four largest German energy...... utilities in the emerging virtual power plant market. Based on the behavioral theory of the firm, we study how the cognitive and physical elements of an incumbent’s strategy can be changed and how these changes affect its business model innovation activities in the exploration process. Our preliminary...... findings suggest that the use of synergies and probing can lead to changing physical elements and primarily increase business model maturity. CEO change and structural separation can lead to changing cognitive elements and primarily increase business model sophistication....

  19. Artistic explorations of the brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetz, Eberhard E.

    2012-01-01

    The symbiotic relationships between art and the brain begin with the obvious fact that brain mechanisms underlie the creation and appreciation of art. Conversely, many spectacular images of neural structures have remarkable aesthetic appeal. But beyond its fascinating forms, the many functions performed by brain mechanisms provide a profound subject for aesthetic exploration. Complex interactions in the tangled neural networks in our brain miraculously generate coherent behavior and cognition. Neuroscientists tackle these phenomena with specialized methodologies that limit the scope of exposition and are comprehensible to an initiated minority. Artists can perform an end run around these limitations by representing the brain's remarkable functions in a manner that can communicate to a wide and receptive audience. This paper explores the ways that brain mechanisms can provide a largely untapped subject for artistic exploration. PMID:22347178

  20. Different Times?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Broek; W.P. Knulst; K. Breedveld

    1999-01-01

    Original title: Naar andere tijden? The report Different times? Time use and time structuring in the Netherlands, 1975-1995 (Naar andere tijden? Tijdsbesteding en tijdsordening in Nederland, 1975-1995) paints a picture of the way in which the Dutch spend the 168 hours that are available each