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Sample records for timing cues improve

  1. Cueing spatial attention through timing and probability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girardi, Giovanna; Antonucci, Gabriella; Nico, Daniele

    2013-01-01

    Even when focused on an effortful task we retain the ability to detect salient environmental information, and even irrelevant visual stimuli can be automatically detected. However, to which extent unattended information affects attentional control is not fully understood. Here we provide evidences of how the brain spontaneously organizes its cognitive resources by shifting attention between a selective-attending and a stimulus-driven modality within a single task. Using a spatial cueing paradigm we investigated the effect of cue-target asynchronies as a function of their probabilities of occurrence (i.e., relative frequency). Results show that this accessory information modulates attentional shifts. A valid spatial cue improved participants' performance as compared to an invalid one only in trials in which target onset was highly predictable because of its more robust occurrence. Conversely, cuing proved ineffective when spatial cue and target were associated according to a less frequent asynchrony. These patterns of response depended on asynchronies' probability and not on their duration. Our findings clearly demonstrate that through a fine decision-making, performed trial-by-trial, the brain utilizes implicit information to decide whether or not voluntarily shifting spatial attention. As if according to a cost-planning strategy, the cognitive effort of shifting attention depending on the cue is performed only when the expected advantages are higher. In a trade-off competition for cognitive resources, voluntary/automatic attending may thus be a more complex process than expected. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of Cue Timing and Modality on Gait Initiation in Parkinson Disease With Freezing of Gait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chiahao; Amundsen Huffmaster, Sommer L; Tuite, Paul J; Vachon, Jacqueline M; MacKinnon, Colum D

    2017-07-01

    To examine the effects of cue timing, across 3 sensory modalities, on anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) during gait initiation in people with Parkinson disease (PD). Observational study. Biomechanics research laboratory. Individuals with idiopathic PD (N=25; 11 with freezing of gait [FOG]) were studied in the off-medication state (12-h overnight withdrawal). Gait initiation was tested without cueing (self-initiated) and with 3 cue timing protocols: fixed delay (3s), random delay (4-12s), and countdown (3-2-1-go, 1-s intervals) across 3 sensory modalities (acoustic, visual, and vibrotactile). The incidence and spatiotemporal characteristics of APAs during gait initiation were analyzed, including vertical ground reaction forces and center of pressure. All cue timings and modalities increased the incidence and amplitude of APAs compared with self-initiated stepping. Acoustic and visual cues, but not vibrotactile stimulation, improved the timing of APAs. Fixed delay or countdown timing protocols were more effective at decreasing APA durations than random delay cues. Cue-evoked improvements in APA timing, but not amplitude, correlated with the level of impairment during self-initiated gait. Cues did not improve the late push-off phase in the FOG group. External cueing improves gait initiation in PD regardless of cue timing, modality, or clinical phenotype (with and without FOG). Acoustic or visual cueing with predictive timing provided the greatest improvements in gait initiation; therefore, these protocols may provide the best outcomes when applied by caregivers or devices. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Contextual Cueing Improves Attentional Guidance, Even When Guidance Is Supposedly Optimal

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, A. M.; Remington, R. W.

    2017-01-01

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in whic...

  4. The time course of attentional deployment in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuhong V; Sigstad, Heather M; Swallow, Khena M

    2013-04-01

    The time course of attention is a major characteristic on which different types of attention diverge. In addition to explicit goals and salient stimuli, spatial attention is influenced by past experience. In contextual cueing, behaviorally relevant stimuli are more quickly found when they appear in a spatial context that has previously been encountered than when they appear in a new context. In this study, we investigated the time that it takes for contextual cueing to develop following the onset of search layout cues. In three experiments, participants searched for a T target in an array of Ls. Each array was consistently associated with a single target location. In a testing phase, we manipulated the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) between the repeated spatial layout and the search display. Contextual cueing was equivalent for a wide range of SOAs between 0 and 1,000 ms. The lack of an increase in contextual cueing with increasing cue durations suggests that as an implicit learning mechanism, contextual cueing cannot be effectively used until search begins.

  5. Contextual cueing improves attentional guidance, even when guidance is supposedly optimal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Anthony M; Remington, Roger W

    2017-05-01

    Visual search through previously encountered contexts typically produces reduced reaction times compared with search through novel contexts. This contextual cueing benefit is well established, but there is debate regarding its underlying mechanisms. Eye-tracking studies have consistently shown reduced number of fixations with repetition, supporting improvements in attentional guidance as the source of contextual cueing. However, contextual cueing benefits have been shown in conditions in which attentional guidance should already be optimal-namely, when attention is captured to the target location by an abrupt onset, or under pop-out conditions. These results have been used to argue for a response-related account of contextual cueing. Here, we combine eye tracking with response time to examine the mechanisms behind contextual cueing in spatially cued and pop-out conditions. Three experiments find consistent response time benefits with repetition, which appear to be driven almost entirely by a reduction in number of fixations, supporting improved attentional guidance as the mechanism behind contextual cueing. No differences were observed in the time between fixating the target and responding-our proxy for response related processes. Furthermore, the correlation between contextual cueing magnitude and the reduction in number of fixations on repeated contexts approaches 1. These results argue strongly that attentional guidance is facilitated by familiar search contexts, even when guidance is near-optimal. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Time to guide: evidence for delayed attentional guidance in contextual cueing \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that, when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when the observers are not aware of the repetition. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit in standard contextual cueing tasks is not likely to be due to an improvement in attentional guidance (Kunar, Flusberg, Horowitz, & Wolfe, 2007). Nevertheless, we ask whether guidance can help participants find the target in a repeated display, if they are given sufficie...

  7. Cueing listeners to attend to a target talker progressively improves word report as the duration of the cue-target interval lengthens to 2,000 ms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Emma; Kitterick, Padraig T; Summerfield, A Quentin

    2018-04-25

    Endogenous attention is typically studied by presenting instructive cues in advance of a target stimulus array. For endogenous visual attention, task performance improves as the duration of the cue-target interval increases up to 800 ms. Less is known about how endogenous auditory attention unfolds over time or the mechanisms by which an instructive cue presented in advance of an auditory array improves performance. The current experiment used five cue-target intervals (0, 250, 500, 1,000, and 2,000 ms) to compare four hypotheses for how preparatory attention develops over time in a multi-talker listening task. Young adults were cued to attend to a target talker who spoke in a mixture of three talkers. Visual cues indicated the target talker's spatial location or their gender. Participants directed attention to location and gender simultaneously ("objects") at all cue-target intervals. Participants were consistently faster and more accurate at reporting words spoken by the target talker when the cue-target interval was 2,000 ms than 0 ms. In addition, the latency of correct responses progressively shortened as the duration of the cue-target interval increased from 0 to 2,000 ms. These findings suggest that the mechanisms involved in preparatory auditory attention develop gradually over time, taking at least 2,000 ms to reach optimal configuration, yet providing cumulative improvements in speech intelligibility as the duration of the cue-target interval increases from 0 to 2,000 ms. These results demonstrate an improvement in performance for cue-target intervals longer than those that have been reported previously in the visual or auditory modalities.

  8. IMPROVING STUDENTS’ WRITING ABILITY THROUGH CUE CARDS TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenny Thresia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This research is a qualitative research with two variables. The classroom action research is conducted at phisics study program of Muhammadiyah University of Metro. The subject of this research is first semester students of physics study program. The number of the students is 22. The objective of this research was to know how cue cards technique improve the students’ writing ability in descriptive text. The researcher choose one class because they have problem in writing ability. This research was conducted in two cycles. Each cycle consisted of planning, acting, observing and reflecting. The data were collected from test (pre test and post test, observation. The result of this research can be seen from the average score of pre test (before treatment was 61,86, in cycle 1 was 70,90 and in post test cycle 2 was 78. That was involved in upgrading maximally. It implied that cue cards technique can improve the students writing ability in descriptive text. In other words, the class had fulfilled criteria success of standard students competency from the school.It was supported by the observation of the students. From the result of the discussion, the researcher concludes that in this research there is an improvement student writing ability in descriptive text using cue cards technique at the students of physics academic year 2015/2016. Key Words : Descriptive Text, Writing Ability, Cue Cards Technique

  9. Salient cues improve prospective remembering in Korsakoff's syndrome.

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    Altgassen, Mareike; Ariese, Laura; Wester, Arie J; Kessels, Roy P C

    2016-06-01

    Korsakoff's syndrome is characterized by deficits in episodic memory and executive functions. Both cognitive functions are needed to remember to execute delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM), an ability that is crucial for independent living in everyday life. So far, PM has only been targeted by one study in Korsakoff's syndrome. This study explored the effects of executive control demands on PM to shed further light on a possible interdependence of memory and executive functions in Korsakoff's syndrome, Twenty-five individuals with Korsakoff's syndrome and 23 chronic alcoholics (without amnesia) performed a categorization task into which a PM task was embedded that put either high or low demands on executive control processes (using low vs. high salient cues). Overall, Korsakoff patients had fewer PM hits than alcoholic controls. Across groups, participants had fewer PM hits when cues were low salient as compared to high salient. Korsakoff patients performed better on PM when highly salient cues were presented than cues of low salience, while there were no differential effects for alcoholic controls. While overall Korsakoff patients' showed a global PM deficit, the extent of this deficit was moderated by the executive control demands of the task applied. This indicated further support for an interrelation of executive functions and memory performance in Korsakoff. Positive clinical implications of the work Prospective memory (PM) performance in Korsakoff's syndrome is related to executive control load. Increasing cues' salience improves PM performance in Korsakoff's syndrome. Salient visual aids may be used in everyday life to improve Korsakoff individuals' planning and organization skills. Cautions or limitations of the study Results were obtained in a structured laboratory setting and need to be replicated in a more naturalistic setting to assess their transferability to everyday life. Given the relatively small sample size, individual predictors of PM

  10. Gait parameter control timing with dynamic manual contact or visual cues

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    Shi, Peter; Werner, William

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the timing of gait parameter changes (stride length, peak toe velocity, and double-, single-support, and complete step duration) to control gait speed. Eleven healthy participants adjusted their gait speed on a treadmill to maintain a constant distance between them and a fore-aft oscillating cue (a place on a conveyor belt surface). The experimental design balanced conditions of cue modality (vision: eyes-open; manual contact: eyes-closed while touching the cue); treadmill speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.85, and 1.3 m/s); and cue motion (none, ±10 cm at 0.09, 0.11, and 0.18 Hz). Correlation analyses revealed a number of temporal relationships between gait parameters and cue speed. The results suggest that neural control ranged from feedforward to feedback. Specifically, step length preceded cue velocity during double-support duration suggesting anticipatory control. Peak toe velocity nearly coincided with its most-correlated cue velocity during single-support duration. The toe-off concluding step and double-support durations followed their most-correlated cue velocity, suggesting feedback control. Cue-tracking accuracy and cue velocity correlations with timing parameters were higher with the manual contact cue than visual cue. The cue/gait timing relationships generalized across cue modalities, albeit with greater delays of step-cycle events relative to manual contact cue velocity. We conclude that individual kinematic parameters of gait are controlled to achieve a desired velocity at different specific times during the gait cycle. The overall timing pattern of instantaneous cue velocities associated with different gait parameters is conserved across cues that afford different performance accuracies. This timing pattern may be temporally shifted to optimize control. Different cue/gait parameter latencies in our nonadaptation paradigm provide general-case evidence of the independent control of gait parameters previously demonstrated in gait adaptation paradigms

  11. Gait parameter control timing with dynamic manual contact or visual cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabin, Ely; Shi, Peter; Werner, William

    2016-06-01

    We investigated the timing of gait parameter changes (stride length, peak toe velocity, and double-, single-support, and complete step duration) to control gait speed. Eleven healthy participants adjusted their gait speed on a treadmill to maintain a constant distance between them and a fore-aft oscillating cue (a place on a conveyor belt surface). The experimental design balanced conditions of cue modality (vision: eyes-open; manual contact: eyes-closed while touching the cue); treadmill speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.85, and 1.3 m/s); and cue motion (none, ±10 cm at 0.09, 0.11, and 0.18 Hz). Correlation analyses revealed a number of temporal relationships between gait parameters and cue speed. The results suggest that neural control ranged from feedforward to feedback. Specifically, step length preceded cue velocity during double-support duration suggesting anticipatory control. Peak toe velocity nearly coincided with its most-correlated cue velocity during single-support duration. The toe-off concluding step and double-support durations followed their most-correlated cue velocity, suggesting feedback control. Cue-tracking accuracy and cue velocity correlations with timing parameters were higher with the manual contact cue than visual cue. The cue/gait timing relationships generalized across cue modalities, albeit with greater delays of step-cycle events relative to manual contact cue velocity. We conclude that individual kinematic parameters of gait are controlled to achieve a desired velocity at different specific times during the gait cycle. The overall timing pattern of instantaneous cue velocities associated with different gait parameters is conserved across cues that afford different performance accuracies. This timing pattern may be temporally shifted to optimize control. Different cue/gait parameter latencies in our nonadaptation paradigm provide general-case evidence of the independent control of gait parameters previously demonstrated in gait adaptation paradigms

  12. Retrospective cues based on object features improve visual working memory performance in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Amanda L; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were presented either with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an uninformative, neutral cue. Although older adults were less accurate overall, both age groups benefited from the presentation of an informative, feature-based cue relative to a neutral cue. Surprisingly, we also observed differences in the effectiveness of shape versus color cues and their effects upon post-cue memory load. These results suggest that older adults can use top-down attention to remove irrelevant items from visual working memory, provided that task-relevant features function as cues.

  13. Time to learn: evidence for two types of attentional guidance in contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2010-01-01

    Repetition of the same spatial configurations of a search display implicitly facilitates performance of a visual-search task when the target location in the display is fixed. The improvement of performance is referred to as contextual cueing. We examined whether the association process between target location and surrounding configuration of distractors occurs during active search or at the instant the target is found. To dissociate these two processes, we changed the surrounding configuration of the distractors at the instant of target detection so that the layout where the participants had searched for the target and the layout presented at the instant of target detection differed. The results demonstrated that both processes are responsible for the contextual-cueing effect, but they differ in the accuracies of attentional guidance and their time courses, suggesting that two different types of attentional-guidance processes may be involved in contextual cueing.

  14. Children’s identification of familiar songs from pitch and timing cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eVolkova

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the present study was to ascertain whether children with normal hearing and prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants could use pitch or timing cues alone or in combination to identify familiar songs. Children 4-7 years of age were required to identify the theme songs of familiar TV shows in a simple task with excerpts that preserved (1 the relative pitch and timing cues of the melody but not the original instrumentation, (2 the timing cues only (rhythm, meter, and tempo, and (3 the relative pitch cues only (pitch contour and intervals. Children with normal hearing performed at high levels and comparably across the three conditions. The performance of child implant users was well above chance levels when both pitch and timing cues were available, marginally above chance with timing cues only, and at chance with pitch cues only. This is the first demonstration that children can identify familiar songs from monotonic versions—timing cues but no pitch cues—and from isochronous versions—pitch cues but no timing cues. The study also indicates that, in the context of a very simple task, young implant users readily identify songs from melodic versions that preserve pitch and timing cues.

  15. Improved multi-microphone noise reduction preserving binaural cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutrouvelis, A.; Hendriks, R.C.; Jensen, J; Heusdens, R.; Dong, Min; Zheng, Thomas Fang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new multi-microphone noise reduction technique for binaural cue preservation of the desired source and the interferers. This method is based on the linearly constrained minimum variance (LCMV) framework, where the constraints are used for the binaural cue preservation of the desired

  16. Circadian-Time Sickness: Time-of-Day Cue-Conflicts Directly Affect Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ee, Raymond; Van de Cruys, Sander; Schlangen, Luc J M; Vlaskamp, Björn N S

    2016-11-01

    A daily rhythm that is not in synchrony with the environmental light-dark cycle (as in jetlag and shift work) is known to affect mood and health through an as yet unresolved neural mechanism. Here, we combine Bayesian probabilistic 'cue-conflict' theory with known physiology of the biological clock of the brain, entailing the insight that, for a functional pacemaker, it is sufficient to have two interacting units (reflecting environmental and internal time-of-day cues), without the need for an extra homuncular directing unit. Unnatural light-dark cycles cause a time-of-day cue-conflict that is reflected by a desynchronization between the ventral (environmental) and dorsal (internal) pacemaking signals of the pacemaker. We argue that this desynchronization, in-and-of-itself, produces health issues that we designate as 'circadian-time sickness', analogous to 'motion sickness'. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Time to Guide: Evidence for Delayed Attentional Guidance in Contextual Cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Flusberg, Stephen J; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that, when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when the observers are not aware of the repetition. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit in standard contextual cueing tasks is not likely to be due to an improvement in attentional guidance (Kunar, Flusberg, Horowitz & Wolfe, 2007). Nevertheless, we ask whether guidance can help participants find the target in a repeated display, if they are given sufficient time to encode the display. In Experiment 1 we increased the display complexity so that it took participants longer to find the target. Here we found a larger effect of guidance than in a condition with shorter RTs. Experiment 2 gave participants prior exposure to the display context. The data again showed that with more time participants could implement guidance to help find the target, provided that there was something in the search stimuli locations to guide attention to. The data suggest that although the benefit in a standard contextual cueing task is unlikely to be a result of guidance, guidance can play a role if it is given time to develop.

  18. Retrospective Cues Based on Object Features Improve Visual Working Memory Performance in Older Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gilchrist, Amanda L.; Duarte, Audrey; Verhaeghen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Research with younger adults has shown that retrospective cues can be used to orient top-down attention toward relevant items in working memory. We examined whether older adults could take advantage of these cues to improve memory performance. Younger and older adults were presented with visual arrays of five colored shapes; during maintenance, participants were either presented with an informative cue based on an object feature (here, object shape or color) that would be probed, or with an u...

  19. The importance of source and cue type in time-based everyday prospective memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Joyce M; Peynircioğlu, Zehra F

    2014-01-01

    We examined the effects of the source of a prospective memory task (provided or generated) and the type of cue (specific or general) triggering that task in everyday settings. Participants were asked to complete both generated and experimenter-provided tasks and to send a text message when each task was completed. The cue/context for the to-be-completed tasks was either a specific time or a general deadline (time-based cue), and the cue/context for the texting task was the completion of the task itself (activity-based cue). Although generated tasks were completed more often, generated cues/contexts were no more effective than provided ones in triggering the intention. Furthermore, generated tasks were completed more often when the cue/context comprised a specific time, whereas provided tasks were completed more often when the cue/context comprised a general deadline. However, texting was unaffected by the source of the cue/context. Finally, emotion modulated the effects. Results are discussed within a process-driven framework.

  20. Effects of the timing and identity of retrieval cues in individual recall: an attempt to mimic cross-cueing in collaborative recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Jan; Hitch, Graham; Meudell, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Inhibitory effects in collaborative recall have been attributed to cross-cueing among partners, in the same way that part-set cues are known to impair recall in individuals. However, studies of part-set cueing in individuals typically involve presenting cues visually at the start of recall, whereas cross-cueing in collaboration is likely to be spoken and distributed over time. In an attempt to bridge this gap, three experiments investigated effects of presenting spoken part-set or extra-list cues at different times during individual recall. Cues had an inhibitory effect on recollection in the early part of the recall period, especially when presented in immediate succession at the start of recall. There was no difference between the effects of part-set and extra-list cues under these presentation conditions. However, more inhibition was generated by part-set than extra-list cues when cue presentation was distributed throughout recall. These results are interpreted as suggesting that cues presented during recall disrupt memory in two ways, corresponding to either blocking or modifying retrieval processes. Implications for explaining and possibly ameliorating inhibitory effects in collaborative recall are discussed.

  1. Task-specific visual cues for improving process model understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrusel, Razvan; Mendling, Jan; Reijers, Hajo A.

    2016-01-01

    Context Business process models support various stakeholders in managing business processes and designing process-aware information systems. In order to make effective use of these models, they have to be readily understandable. Objective Prior research has emphasized the potential of visual cues to

  2. FREQUENCY COMPONENT EXTRACTION OF HEARTBEAT CUES WITH SHORT TIME FOURIER TRANSFORM (STFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumarna Sumarna

    2017-01-01

      Electro-acoustic human heartbeat detector have been made with the main parts : (a stetoscope (piece chest, (b mic condenser, (c transistor amplifier, and (d cues analysis program with MATLAB. The frequency components that contained in heartbeat. cues have also been extracted with Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT from 9 volunteers. The results of the analysis showed that heart rate appeared in every cue frequency spectrum with their harmony. The steps of the research were including detector instrument design, test and instrument repair, cues heartbeat recording with Sound Forge 10 program and stored in wav file ; cues breaking at the start and the end, and extraction/cues analysis using MATLAB. The MATLAB program included filter (bandpass filter with bandwidth between 0.01 – 110 Hz, cues breaking with hamming window and every part was calculated using Fourier Transform (STFT mechanism and the result were shown in frequency spectrum graph.   Keywords: frequency components extraction, heartbeat cues, Short Time Fourier Transform

  3. The use of contextual cues to improve warning symbol comprehension: making the connection for older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesch, Mary F.; Powell, W. Ryan; Horrey, William J.; Wogalter, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    This study teased apart the effects of comprehensibility and complexity on older adults' comprehension of warning symbols by manipulating the relevance of additional information in further refining the meaning of the symbol. Symbols were systematically altered such that increased visual complexity (in the form of contextual cues) resulted in increased comprehensibility. One hundred older adults, aged 50–71 years, were tested on their comprehension of these symbols before and after training. High comprehensibility–complexity symbols were found to be better understood than low- or medium-comprehensibility–complexity symbols and the effectiveness of the contextual cues varied as a function of training. Therefore, the nature of additional detail determines whether increased complexity is detrimental or beneficial to older adults' comprehension – if the additional details provide ‘cues to knowledge’, older adults' comprehension improves as a result of the increased complexity. However, some cues may require training in order to be effective. Practitioner Summary: Research suggests that older adults have greater difficulty in understanding more complex symbols. However, we found that when the complexity of symbols was increased through the addition of contextual cues, older adults' comprehension actually improved. Contextual cues aid older adults in making the connection between the symbol and its referent. PMID:23767856

  4. Exposure to retrieval cues improves retention performance and induces changes in ACTH and corticosterone release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisquet-Verrier, Pascale; Botreau, Fanny; Venero, Cesar; Sandi, Carmen

    2004-05-01

    Memory retrieval can be facilitated by pretest exposure to cues associated with the original training. The present series of experiments was aimed at investigating whether the effectiveness of the retrieval cues might be due to their emotional value and thus be associated to a particular pattern of activation of stress systems. Therefore, the effects of exposing rats to different cueing conditions were investigated both on retention performance and on the level of different stress hormones (ACTH, corticosterone and glucose; the latter as an indirect index of adrenergic/sympathetic nervous system activation). Rats trained in a brightness avoidance discrimination task exhibited an enhancement of the retention performance following exposure to the light discriminative stimulus when delivered 1-day after training and not after 21 days, while exposure to contextual cues led to opposite effects on the retention performance, confirming our previous results. Analyses of the level of stress hormones at the time of testing indicated that when the retrieval cues were effective at the behavioral level, cued rats exhibited higher ACTH plasmatic levels than controls, but did not differ in their glucose or corticosterone levels. Further experiments showed that one day after training, both ACTH and corticosterone levels were elevated in light-cued rats if hormone samples were taken 15 min after cueing. These results show that exposure to an effective retrieval cue is accompanied by the activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. The possible involvement of the Corticotropin Releasing Factor at the level of the hypothalamus and amygdala (particularly the central nucleus) on the facilitating effect on retention performance following exposure to aversive training-associated cues is discussed. The present results strengthen the notion that emotion can interact with retrieval processes.

  5. A short cut to the past: Cueing via concrete objects improves autobiographical memory retrieval in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Marie; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2018-02-01

    Older adults diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease (AD) have difficulties accessing autobiographical memories. However, this deficit tends to spare memories dated to earlier parts of their lives, and may partially reflect retrieval deficits rather than complete memory loss. Introducing a novel paradigm, the present study examines whether autobiographical memory recall can be improved in AD by manipulating the sensory richness, concreteness and cultural dating of the memory cues. Specifically, we examine whether concrete everyday objects historically dated to the participants' youth (e.g., a skipping rope), relative to verbal cues (i.e., the verbal signifiers for the objects) facilitate access to autobiographical memories. The study includes 49 AD patients, and 50 healthy, older matched control participants, all tested on word versus object-cued recall. Both groups recalled significantly more memories, when cued by objects relative to words, but the advantage was significantly larger in the AD group. In both groups, memory descriptions were longer and significantly more episodic in nature in response to object-cued recall. Together these findings suggest that the multimodal nature of the object cues (i.e. vision, olfaction, audition, somatic sensation) along with specific cue characteristics, such as time reference, texture, shape, may constrain the retrieval search, potentially minimizing executive function demands, and hence strategic processing requirements, thus easing access to autobiographical memories in AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Spatially valid proprioceptive cues improve the detection of a visual stimulus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jackson, Carl P T; Miall, R Chris; Balslev, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    , which has been demonstrated for other modality pairings. The aim of this study was to test whether proprioceptive signals can spatially cue a visual target to improve its detection. Participants were instructed to use a planar manipulandum in a forward reaching action and determine during this movement...

  7. Timing reproduction in teleost fish: cues and mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juntti, Scott A; Fernald, Russell D

    2016-01-01

    Fish comprise half of extant vertebrate species and use a rich variety of reproductive strategies that have yielded insights into the basic mechanisms that evolved for sex. To maximize the chances of fertilization and survival of offspring, fish species time reproduction to occur at optimal times. For years, ethologists have performed painstaking experiments to identify sensory inputs and behavioral outputs of the brain during mating. Here we review known mechanisms that generate sexual behavior, focusing on the factors that govern the timing of these displays. The development of new technologies, including high-throughput sequencing and genome engineering, have the potential to provide novel insights into how the vertebrate brain consummates mating at the appropriate time. PMID:26952366

  8. Conflict adaptation in time: foreperiods as contextual cues for attentional adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Mike; Kiesel, Andrea

    2011-10-01

    Interference evoked by distractor stimulus information, such as flankers in the Eriksen task, is reduced when the proportion of conflicting stimuli is increased. This modulation is sensitive to contextual cues such as stimulus location or color, suggesting attentional adjustment to conflict contingencies on the basis of context information. In the present study, we explored whether conflict adjustment is modulated by temporal variation of conflict likelihood. To this end, we associated low and high proportions of conflict stimuli with foreperiods of different lengths. Flanker interference was higher with foreperiods associated with low conflict proportions, suggesting that participants use the foreperiod as a contextual cue for attentional adjustment. We conjecture that participants initially adopt the strategy useful for conflict contingencies associated with short foreperiods, and then readjust during the trial, in the absence of any additional exogenous cue, when the imperative stimulus has not occurred during a certain time interval.

  9. Body temperature predicts the direction of internal desynchronization in humans isolated from time cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daan, Serge; Honma, Sato; Honma, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    This publication presents a new analysis of experiments that were carried out in human subjects in isolation from time cues, under supervision of Jurgen Aschoff and Rutger Wever at the Max Planck Institute for Behavioural Physiology (Erling-Andechs, Germany, 1964-1974). Mean rectal temperatures

  10. [Intermodal timing cues for audio-visual speech recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of lip-reading advantages for Japanese young adults by desynchronizing visual and auditory information in speech. In the experiment, audio-visual speech stimuli were presented under the six test conditions: audio-alone, and audio-visually with either 0, 60, 120, 240 or 480 ms of audio delay. The stimuli were the video recordings of a face of a female Japanese speaking long and short Japanese sentences. The intelligibility of the audio-visual stimuli was measured as a function of audio delays in sixteen untrained young subjects. Speech intelligibility under the audio-delay condition of less than 120 ms was significantly better than that under the audio-alone condition. On the other hand, the delay of 120 ms corresponded to the mean mora duration measured for the audio stimuli. The results implied that audio delays of up to 120 ms would not disrupt lip-reading advantage, because visual and auditory information in speech seemed to be integrated on a syllabic time scale. Potential applications of this research include noisy workplace in which a worker must extract relevant speech from all the other competing noises.

  11. Musically cued gait-training improves both perceptual and motor timing in Parkinson’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit, C.; Dalla Bella, S.; Farrugia, N.; Obrig, H.; Mainka, S.; Kotz, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor, and sensorimotor integration, auditory ...

  12. Involuntary attention with uncertainty: peripheral cues improve perception of masked letters, but may impair perception of low-contrast letters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerzel, Dirk; Gauch, Angélique; Buetti, Simona

    2010-10-01

    Improvements of perceptual performance following the presentation of peripheral cues have been ascribed to accelerated accrual of information, enhanced contrast perception, and decision bias. We investigated effects of peripheral cues on the perception of Gabor and letter stimuli. Non-predictive, peripheral cues improved perceptual accuracy when the stimuli were masked. In contrast, peripheral cues degraded perception of low-contrast letters and did not affect the perception of low-contrast Gabors. The results suggest that involuntary attention accelerates accrual of information but are not entirely consistent with the idea that involuntary attention enhances subjective contrast. Rather, peripheral cues may cause crowding with single letter targets of low contrast. Further, we investigated the effect of the amount of uncertainty on involuntary attention. Cueing effects were (initially) larger when there were more possible target locations. In addition, cueing effects were larger when error feedback was absent and observers had no knowledge of results. Despite these strategic factors, location uncertainty was not sufficient to produce cueing effects, showing that location uncertainty paired with non-predictive cues reveals perceptual and not (only) decisional processes.

  13. Delay of constant light-induced persistent vaginal estrus by 24-hour time cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, A L; Adler, N T

    1979-04-20

    The normal ovarian cycle of female rats is typically replaced by persistent estrus when these animals are housed under constant light. Evidence presented here shows that the maintenance of periodicity in the environment can at least delay (if not prevent) the photic induction of persistent vaginal estrus. Female rats in constant light were exposed to vaginal smearing at random times or at the same time every day. In another experiment, female rats were exposed to either constant bright light, constant dim light, or a 24-hour photic cycle of bright and dim light. The onset of persistent vaginal estrus was delayed in rats exposed to 24-hour time cues even though the light intensities were the same as or greater than those for the aperiodic control groups. The results suggest that the absence of 24-hour time cues in constant light contributes to the induction of persistent estrus.

  14. Beating time: How ensemble musicians' cueing gestures communicate beat position and tempo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Laura; Goebl, Werner

    2018-01-01

    Ensemble musicians typically exchange visual cues to coordinate piece entrances. "Cueing-in" gestures indicate when to begin playing and at what tempo. This study investigated how timing information is encoded in musicians' cueing-in gestures. Gesture acceleration patterns were expected to indicate beat position, while gesture periodicity, duration, and peak gesture velocity were expected to indicate tempo. Same-instrument ensembles (e.g., piano-piano) were expected to synchronize more successfully than mixed-instrument ensembles (e.g., piano-violin). Duos performed short passages as their head and (for violinists) bowing hand movements were tracked with accelerometers and Kinect sensors. Performers alternated between leader/follower roles; leaders heard a tempo via headphones and cued their partner in nonverbally. Violin duos synchronized more successfully than either piano duos or piano-violin duos, possibly because violinists were more experienced in ensemble playing than pianists. Peak acceleration indicated beat position in leaders' head-nodding gestures. Gesture duration and periodicity in leaders' head and bowing hand gestures indicated tempo. The results show that the spatio-temporal characteristics of cueing-in gestures guide beat perception, enabling synchronization with visual gestures that follow a range of spatial trajectories.

  15. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Watson, Derrick G; Cole, Louise; Cox, Angeline

    2014-02-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or scenes) prior to a contextual cueing task. In a typical contextual cueing experiment, RTs are reduced if displays are repeated across the experiment compared with novel displays that are not repeated. The results showed that a smaller contextual cueing effect was obtained after participants viewed negative stimuli than when they viewed neutral stimuli. However, in contrast to previous work, overall search RTs were not faster after viewing negative stimuli (Experiments 2 to 4). The findings are discussed in terms of the impact of emotional content on visual processing and the ability to use scene context to help facilitate search.

  16. Real-Time Lane Detection on Suburban Streets Using Visual Cue Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehan Fernando

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The detection of lane boundaries on suburban streets using images obtained from video constitutes a challenging task. This is mainly due to the difficulties associated with estimating the complex geometric structure of lane boundaries, the quality of lane markings as a result of wear, occlusions by traffic, and shadows caused by road-side trees and structures. Most of the existing techniques for lane boundary detection employ a single visual cue and will only work under certain conditions and where there are clear lane markings. Also, better results are achieved when there are no other on-road objects present. This paper extends our previous work and discusses a novel lane boundary detection algorithm specifically addressing the abovementioned issues through the integration of two visual cues. The first visual cue is based on stripe-like features found on lane lines extracted using a two-dimensional symmetric Gabor filter. The second visual cue is based on a texture characteristic determined using the entropy measure of the predefined neighbourhood around a lane boundary line. The visual cues are then integrated using a rule-based classifier which incorporates a modified sequential covering algorithm to improve robustness. To separate lane boundary lines from other similar features, a road mask is generated using road chromaticity values estimated from CIE L*a*b* colour transformation. Extraneous points around lane boundary lines are then removed by an outlier removal procedure based on studentized residuals. The lane boundary lines are then modelled with Bezier spline curves. To validate the algorithm, extensive experimental evaluation was carried out on suburban streets and the results are presented.

  17. Walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length after stroke more than walking training alone: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Lucas R; de Oliveira, Camila Quel; Ada, Louise; Michaelsen, Stella M; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci F

    2015-01-01

    After stroke, is walking training with cueing of cadence superior to walking training alone in improving walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry? Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised or controlled trials. Adults who have had a stroke. Walking training with cueing of cadence. Four walking outcomes were of interest: walking speed, stride length, cadence and symmetry. This review included seven trials involving 211 participants. Because one trial caused substantial statistical heterogeneity, meta-analyses were conducted with and without this trial. Walking training with cueing of cadence improved walking speed by 0.23 m/s (95% CI 0.18 to 0.27, I(2)=0%), stride length by 0.21 m (95% CI 0.14 to 0.28, I(2)=18%), cadence by 19 steps/minute (95% CI 14 to 23, I(2)=40%), and symmetry by 15% (95% CI 3 to 26, random effects) more than walking training alone. This review provides evidence that walking training with cueing of cadence improves walking speed and stride length more than walking training alone. It may also produce benefits in terms of cadence and symmetry of walking. The evidence appears strong enough to recommend the addition of 30 minutes of cueing of cadence to walking training, four times a week for 4 weeks, in order to improve walking in moderately disabled individuals with stroke. PROSPERO (CRD42013005873). Copyright © 2014 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Involuntary memories of emotional scenes: The effects of cue discriminability and emotion over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staugaard, Søren Risløv; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    a range of clinical disorders, there is no broadly agreed upon explanation of their underlying mechanisms and no successful experimental simulations of their retrieval. In a series of experiments, we experimentally manipulated the activation of involuntary episodic memories for emotional and neutral...... scenes and predicted their activation on the basis of manipulations carried out at encoding and retrieval. Our findings suggest that the interplay between cue discriminability at the time of retrieval and emotional arousal at the time of encoding are crucial for explaining intrusive memories following...... negative events. While cue distinctiveness is important directly following encoding of the scenes, emotional intensity influences retrieval after delays of 24 hr and 1 week. Voluntary remembering follows the same pattern as involuntary remembering. Our results suggest an explanatory model of intrusive...

  19. Negative emotional stimuli reduce contextual cueing but not response times in inefficient search

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Watson, Derrick G.; Cole, Louise (Researcher in Psychology); Cox, Angeline

    2014-01-01

    In visual search, previous work has shown that negative stimuli narrow the focus of attention and speed reaction times (RTs). This paper investigates these two effects by first asking whether negative emotional stimuli narrow the focus of attention to reduce the learning of a display context in a contextual cueing task and, second, whether exposure to negative stimuli also reduces RTs in inefficient search tasks. In Experiment 1, participants viewed either negative or neutral images (faces or...

  20. Effects of teacher-directed versus student-directed instruction and cues versus no cues for improving spelling performance

    OpenAIRE

    Gettinger, Maribeth

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: to examine the effects of imitating children's spelling errors alone and in combination with visual and verbal cues on spelling accuracy and retention among poor spellers and to compare the effectiveness of student-directed versus teacher-directed spelling instruction on children's spelling accuracy and retention. Nine children received four alternating experimental treatments during a 16-week spelling program. Results indicated that student-directed ins...

  1. Improving visual spatial working memory in younger and older adults: effects of cross-modal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Ashley F; Turner, Gary R; Park, Norman W; Murtha, Susan J E

    2017-11-06

    Spatially informative auditory and vibrotactile (cross-modal) cues can facilitate attention but little is known about how similar cues influence visual spatial working memory (WM) across the adult lifespan. We investigated the effects of cues (spatially informative or alerting pre-cues vs. no cues), cue modality (auditory vs. vibrotactile vs. visual), memory array size (four vs. six items), and maintenance delay (900 vs. 1800 ms) on visual spatial location WM recognition accuracy in younger adults (YA) and older adults (OA). We observed a significant interaction between spatially informative pre-cue type, array size, and delay. OA and YA benefitted equally from spatially informative pre-cues, suggesting that attentional orienting prior to WM encoding, regardless of cue modality, is preserved with age.  Contrary to predictions, alerting pre-cues generally impaired performance in both age groups, suggesting that maintaining a vigilant state of arousal by facilitating the alerting attention system does not help visual spatial location WM.

  2. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A; Montoya, Estrella R; Stein, Dan J; van Honk, Jack

    2015-03-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are disregarded by subjects scoring high on depressive mood who are low in reward drive. We investigated whether a single 0.2mg administration of the mixed mu-opioid agonist/kappa-antagonist, buprenorphine, would influence short-term memory for happy, angry or fearful expressions relative to neutral faces. Healthy human subjects (n38) participated in a randomized placebo-controlled within-subject design, and performed an emotional face relocation task after administration of buprenorphine and placebo. We show that, compared to placebo, buprenorphine administration results in a significant improvement of memory for happy faces. Our data demonstrate that acute manipulation of the opioid system by buprenorphine increases short-term memory for social reward cues. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Virtual Reality Feedback Cues for Improvement of Gait in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samih Badarny

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Our aim was to study the effects of visual feedback cues, responding dynamically to patient's self‐motion and provided through a portable see‐through virtual reality apparatus, on the walking abilities of patients with Parkinson's disease.Methods: Twenty patients participated. On‐line and residual effects on walking speed and stride length were measured. Results Attaching the visual feedback device to the patient with the display turned off showed a negligible effect of about 2%. With the display turned on, 56% of the patients improved either their walking speed, or their stride length, or both, by over 20%. After device removal, and waiting for 15 minutes, the patients were instructed to walk again: 68% of the patients showed over 20% improvement in either walking speed or stride length or both. One week after participating in the first test, 36% of the patients showed over 20% improvement in baseline performance with respect to the previous test. Some of the patients reported that they still walked on the tiles in their minds.Discussion: Improvements in walking abilities were measured in patients with Parkinson's disease using virtual reality visual feedback cues. Residual effects suggest the examination of this approach in a comprehensive therapy program.

  4. Feasibility of external rhythmic cueing with the Google Glass for improving gait in people with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yan; Nonnekes, Jorik; Storcken, Erik J M; Janssen, Sabine; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; Heida, Tjitske; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2016-06-01

    New mobile technologies like smartglasses can deliver external cues that may improve gait in people with Parkinson's disease in their natural environment. However, the potential of these devices must first be assessed in controlled experiments. Therefore, we evaluated rhythmic visual and auditory cueing in a laboratory setting with a custom-made application for the Google Glass. Twelve participants (mean age = 66.8; mean disease duration = 13.6 years) were tested at end of dose. We compared several key gait parameters (walking speed, cadence, stride length, and stride length variability) and freezing of gait for three types of external cues (metronome, flashing light, and optic flow) and a control condition (no-cue). For all cueing conditions, the subjects completed several walking tasks of varying complexity. Seven inertial sensors attached to the feet, legs and pelvis captured motion data for gait analysis. Two experienced raters scored the presence and severity of freezing of gait using video recordings. User experience was evaluated through a semi-open interview. During cueing, a more stable gait pattern emerged, particularly on complicated walking courses; however, freezing of gait did not significantly decrease. The metronome was more effective than rhythmic visual cues and most preferred by the participants. Participants were overall positive about the usability of the Google Glass and willing to use it at home. Thus, smartglasses like the Google Glass could be used to provide personalized mobile cueing to support gait; however, in its current form, auditory cues seemed more effective than rhythmic visual cues.

  5. Combination of light and melatonin time cues for phase advancing the human circadian clock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Tina M; Markwald, Rachel R; Chinoy, Evan D; Snider, Jesse A; Bessman, Sara C; Jung, Christopher M; Wright, Kenneth P

    2013-11-01

    Photic and non-photic stimuli have been shown to shift the phase of the human circadian clock. We examined how photic and non-photic time cues may be combined by the human circadian system by assessing the phase advancing effects of one evening dose of exogenous melatonin, alone and in combination with one session of morning bright light exposure. Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind circadian protocol. The effects of four conditions, dim light (∼1.9 lux, ∼0.6 Watts/m(2))-placebo, dim light-melatonin (5 mg), bright light (∼3000 lux, ∼7 Watts/m(2))-placebo, and bright light-melatonin on circadian phase was assessed by the change in the salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) prior to and following treatment under constant routine conditions. Melatonin or placebo was administered 5.75 h prior to habitual bedtime and 3 h of bright light exposure started 1 h prior to habitual wake time. Sleep and chronobiology laboratory environment free of time cues. Thirty-six healthy participants (18 females) aged 22 ± 4 y (mean ± SD). Morning bright light combined with early evening exogenous melatonin induced a greater phase advance of the DLMO than either treatment alone. Bright light alone and melatonin alone induced similar phase advances. Information from light and melatonin appear to be combined by the human circadian clock. The ability to combine circadian time cues has important implications for understanding fundamental physiological principles of the human circadian timing system. Knowledge of such principles is important for designing effective countermeasures for phase-shifting the human circadian clock to adapt to jet lag, shift work, and for designing effective treatments for circadian sleep-wakefulness disorders.

  6. The Cues and Care Trial: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety and improve developmental outcomes in very low birthweight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunkley David

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very low birthweight infants are at risk for deficits in cognitive and language development, as well as attention and behaviour problems. Maternal sensitive behaviour (i.e. awareness of infant cues and appropriate responsiveness to those cues in interaction with her very low birthweight infant is associated with better outcomes in these domains; however, maternal anxiety interferes with the mother's ability to interact sensitively with her very low birthweight infant. There is a need for brief, cost-effective and timely interventions that address both maternal psychological distress and interactive behaviour. The Cues and Care trial is a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to reduce maternal anxiety and promote sensitive interaction in mothers of very low birthweight infants. Methods and design Mothers of singleton infants born at weights below 1500 g are recruited in the neonatal intensive care units of 2 tertiary care hospitals, and are randomly assigned to the experimental (Cues intervention or to an attention control (Care condition. The Cues intervention teaches mothers to attend to their own physiological, cognitive, and emotional cues that signal anxiety and worry, and to use cognitive-behavioural strategies to reduce distress. Mothers are also taught to understand infant cues and to respond sensitively to those cues. Mothers in the Care group receive general information about infant care. Both groups have 6 contacts with a trained intervener; 5 of the 6 sessions take place during the infant's hospitalization, and the sixth contact occurs after discharge, in the participant mother's home. The primary outcome is maternal symptoms of anxiety, assessed via self-report questionnaire immediately post-intervention. Secondary outcomes include maternal sensitive behaviour, maternal symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and infant development at 6 months corrected age. Discussion The Cues and Care trial will

  7. The Cues and Care Trial: A randomized controlled trial of an intervention to reduce maternal anxiety and improve developmental outcomes in very low birthweight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Feeley, Nancy; Shrier, Ian; Stremler, Robyn; Westreich, Ruta; Dunkley, David; Steele, Russell; Rosberger, Zeev; Lefebvre, Francine; Papageorgiou, Apostolos

    2008-01-01

    Background Very low birthweight infants are at risk for deficits in cognitive and language development, as well as attention and behaviour problems. Maternal sensitive behaviour (i.e. awareness of infant cues and appropriate responsiveness to those cues) in interaction with her very low birthweight infant is associated with better outcomes in these domains; however, maternal anxiety interferes with the mother's ability to interact sensitively with her very low birthweight infant. There is a need for brief, cost-effective and timely interventions that address both maternal psychological distress and interactive behaviour. The Cues and Care trial is a randomized controlled trial of an intervention designed to reduce maternal anxiety and promote sensitive interaction in mothers of very low birthweight infants. Methods and design Mothers of singleton infants born at weights below 1500 g are recruited in the neonatal intensive care units of 2 tertiary care hospitals, and are randomly assigned to the experimental (Cues) intervention or to an attention control (Care) condition. The Cues intervention teaches mothers to attend to their own physiological, cognitive, and emotional cues that signal anxiety and worry, and to use cognitive-behavioural strategies to reduce distress. Mothers are also taught to understand infant cues and to respond sensitively to those cues. Mothers in the Care group receive general information about infant care. Both groups have 6 contacts with a trained intervener; 5 of the 6 sessions take place during the infant's hospitalization, and the sixth contact occurs after discharge, in the participant mother's home. The primary outcome is maternal symptoms of anxiety, assessed via self-report questionnaire immediately post-intervention. Secondary outcomes include maternal sensitive behaviour, maternal symptoms of posttraumatic stress, and infant development at 6 months corrected age. Discussion The Cues and Care trial will provide important information

  8. Post-cueing deficits with maintained cueing benefits in patients with Parkinson's disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne eGräber

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease (PD internal cueing mechanisms are impaired leading to symptoms such as like hypokinesia. However external cues can improve movement execution by using cortical resources. These cortical processes can be affected by cognitive decline in dementia.It is still unclear how dementia in PD influences external cueing. We investigated a group of 25 PD patients with dementia (PDD and 25 non-demented PD patients (PDnD matched by age, sex and disease duration in a simple reaction time (SRT task using an additional acoustic cue. PDD patients benefited from the additional cue in similar magnitude as did PDnD patients. However, withdrawal of the cue led to a significantly increased reaction time in the PDD group compared to the PDnD patients. Our results indicate that even PDD patients can benefit from strategies using external cue presentation but the process of cognitive worsening can reduce the effect when cues are withdrawn.

  9. Role of short-time acoustic temporal fine structure cues in sentence recognition for normal-hearing listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Limin; Xu, Li

    2018-02-01

    Short-time processing was employed to manipulate the amplitude, bandwidth, and temporal fine structure (TFS) in sentences. Fifty-two native-English-speaking, normal-hearing listeners participated in four sentence-recognition experiments. Results showed that recovered envelope (E) played an important role in speech recognition when the bandwidth was > 1 equivalent rectangular bandwidth. Removing TFS drastically reduced sentence recognition. Preserving TFS greatly improved sentence recognition when amplitude information was available at a rate ≥ 10 Hz (i.e., time segment ≤ 100 ms). Therefore, the short-time TFS facilitates speech perception together with the recovered E and works with the coarse amplitude cues to provide useful information for speech recognition.

  10. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Aalt D J; Molenaar, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  11. Floral pathway integrator gene expression mediates gradual transmission of environmental and endogenous cues to flowering time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aalt D.J. van Dijk

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The appropriate timing of flowering is crucial for the reproductive success of plants. Hence, intricate genetic networks integrate various environmental and endogenous cues such as temperature or hormonal statues. These signals integrate into a network of floral pathway integrator genes. At a quantitative level, it is currently unclear how the impact of genetic variation in signaling pathways on flowering time is mediated by floral pathway integrator genes. Here, using datasets available from literature, we connect Arabidopsis thaliana flowering time in genetic backgrounds varying in upstream signalling components with the expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes in these genetic backgrounds. Our modelling results indicate that flowering time depends in a quite linear way on expression levels of floral pathway integrator genes. This gradual, proportional response of flowering time to upstream changes enables a gradual adaptation to changing environmental factors such as temperature and light.

  12. Perceptual Real-Time 2D-to-3D Conversion Using Cue Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leimkuhler, Thomas; Kellnhofer, Petr; Ritschel, Tobias; Myszkowski, Karol; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    2018-06-01

    We propose a system to infer binocular disparity from a monocular video stream in real-time. Different from classic reconstruction of physical depth in computer vision, we compute perceptually plausible disparity, that is numerically inaccurate, but results in a very similar overall depth impression with plausible overall layout, sharp edges, fine details and agreement between luminance and disparity. We use several simple monocular cues to estimate disparity maps and confidence maps of low spatial and temporal resolution in real-time. These are complemented by spatially-varying, appearance-dependent and class-specific disparity prior maps, learned from example stereo images. Scene classification selects this prior at runtime. Fusion of prior and cues is done by means of robust MAP inference on a dense spatio-temporal conditional random field with high spatial and temporal resolution. Using normal distributions allows this in constant-time, parallel per-pixel work. We compare our approach to previous 2D-to-3D conversion systems in terms of different metrics, as well as a user study and validate our notion of perceptually plausible disparity.

  13. Multimodal Pilot Behavior in Multi-Axis Tracking Tasks with Time-Varying Motion Cueing Gains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaal, P. M. T; Pool, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    In a large number of motion-base simulators, adaptive motion filters are utilized to maximize the use of the available motion envelope of the motion system. However, not much is known about how the time-varying characteristics of such adaptive filters affect pilots when performing manual aircraft control. This paper presents the results of a study investigating the effects of time-varying motion filter gains on pilot control behavior and performance. An experiment was performed in a motion-base simulator where participants performed a simultaneous roll and pitch tracking task, while the roll and/or pitch motion filter gains changed over time. Results indicate that performance increases over time with increasing motion gains. This increase is a result of a time-varying adaptation of pilots' equalization dynamics, characterized by increased visual and motion response gains and decreased visual lead time constants. Opposite trends are found for decreasing motion filter gains. Even though the trends in both controlled axes are found to be largely the same, effects are less significant in roll. In addition, results indicate minor cross-coupling effects between pitch and roll, where a cueing variation in one axis affects the behavior adopted in the other axis.

  14. Improved memory for reward cues following acute buprenorphine administration in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syal, Supriya; Ipser, Jonathan; Terburg, David|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/32304087X; Solms, Mark; Panksepp, Jaak; Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Bos, Peter A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337018995; Montoya, Estrella R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34141347X; Stein, Dan J.; van Honk, Jack|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/188602801

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, there is abundant evidence for the involvement of the opioid system in the processing of reward cues, but this system has remained understudied in humans. In humans, the happy facial expression is a pivotal reward cue. Happy facial expressions activate the brain's reward system and are

  15. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson's disease : The RESCUE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Van Wegen, E.; Willems, A. M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity.

  16. Cueing training in the home improves gait-related mobility in Parkinson's disease: the RESCUE trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwboer, A.; Kwakkel, G.; Rochester, L.; Jones, D.; Wegen, E. van; Willems, A.M.; Chavret, F.; Hetherington, V.; Baker, K.; Lim, I.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Gait and mobility problems are difficult to treat in people with Parkinson's disease. The Rehabilitation in Parkinson's Disease: Strategies for Cueing (RESCUE) trial investigated the effects of a home physiotherapy programme based on rhythmical cueing on gait and gait-related activity.

  17. Ready...go: Amplitude of the FMRI signal encodes expectation of cue arrival time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Cui

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available What happens when the brain awaits a signal of uncertain arrival time, as when a sprinter waits for the starting pistol? And what happens just after the starting pistol fires? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI, we have discovered a novel correlate of temporal expectations in several brain regions, most prominently in the supplementary motor area (SMA. Contrary to expectations, we found little fMRI activity during the waiting period; however, a large signal appears after the "go" signal, the amplitude of which reflects learned expectations about the distribution of possible waiting times. Specifically, the amplitude of the fMRI signal appears to encode a cumulative conditional probability, also known as the cumulative hazard function. The fMRI signal loses its dependence on waiting time in a "countdown" condition in which the arrival time of the go cue is known in advance, suggesting that the signal encodes temporal probabilities rather than simply elapsed time. The dependence of the signal on temporal expectation is present in "no-go" conditions, demonstrating that the effect is not a consequence of motor output. Finally, the encoding is not dependent on modality, operating in the same manner with auditory or visual signals. This finding extends our understanding of the relationship between temporal expectancy and measurable neural signals.

  18. Feasibility of external rhythmic cueing with the Google Glass for improving gait in people with Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yan; Nonnekes, Johan Hendrik; Storcken, Erik J.M.; Janssen, Sabine; van Wegen, Erwin E.H.; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; van Vugt, Jeroen P.P.; Heida, Tjitske; van Wezel, Richard Jack Anton

    New mobile technologies like smartglasses can deliver external cues that may improve gait in people with Parkinson’s disease in their natural environment. However, the potential of these devices must first be assessed in controlled experiments. Therefore, we evaluated rhythmic visual and auditory

  19. Feasibility of external rhythmic cueing with the Google Glass for improving gait in people with Parkinson's disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Y; Nonnekes, J.H.; Storcken, E.J.; Janssen, S.; Wegen, E. van; Bloem, B.R.; Dorresteijn, L.D.A.; Vugt, J.P.P. van; Heida, T.; Wezel, R.J.A. van

    2016-01-01

    New mobile technologies like smartglasses can deliver external cues that may improve gait in people with Parkinson's disease in their natural environment. However, the potential of these devices must first be assessed in controlled experiments. Therefore, we evaluated rhythmic visual and auditory

  20. Feasibility of external rhythmic cueing with the Google Glass for improving gait in people with Parkinson’s disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Yan; Nonnekes, Jorik; Storcken, Erik J M; Janssen, Sabine; van Wegen, Erwin E H; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; van Vugt, Jeroen P P; Heida, Tjitske; van Wezel, Richard J A

    2016-01-01

    New mobile technologies like smartglasses can deliver external cues that may improve gait in people with Parkinson’s disease in their natural environment. However, the potential of these devices must first be assessed in controlled experiments. Therefore, we evaluated rhythmic visual and auditory

  1. Time course of electrocortical food-cue responses during cognitive regulation of craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Kübler, Andrea; Blechert, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs) and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25) were presented with either high-calorie (HC) or low-calorie (LC) food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW) or long-term effects (LATER) of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms) were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550 ms) were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms), but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to an early attentional analysis of food type and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.

  2. Time course of electrocortical food-cue responses during cognitive regulation of craving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian eMeule

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In our current obesogenic environment, exposure to visual food-cues can easily lead to craving and overeating because short-term, pleasurable effects of food intake dominate over the anticipated long-term adverse effects such as weight gain and associated health problems. Here we contrasted these two conditions during food-cue presentation while acquiring event-related potentials (ERPs and subjective craving ratings. Female participants (n = 25 were presented with either high-calorie (HC or low-calorie (LC food images under instructions to imagine either immediate (NOW or long-term effects (LATER of consumption. On subjective ratings for HC foods, the LATER perspective reduced cravings as compared to the NOW perspective. For LC foods, by contrast, craving increased under the LATER perspective. Early ERPs (occipital N1, 150-200 ms were sensitive to food type but not to perspective. Late ERPs (late positive potential, LPP, 350-550ms were larger in the HC-LATER condition than in all other conditions, possibly indicating that a cognitive focus on negative long-term consequences induced negative arousal. This enhancement for HC-LATER attenuated to the level of the LC conditions during the later slow wave (550-3000 ms, but amplitude in the HC-NOW condition was larger than in all other conditions, possibly due to a delayed appetitive response. Across all conditions, LPP amplitudes were positively correlated with self-reported emotional eating. In sum, results reveal that regulation effects are secondary to early neural appetitive responses and dynamically evolve over time. Adopting a long-term perspective on eating might promote a healthier food choice across a range of food types.

  3. Retrieving autobiographical memories: How different retrieval strategies associated with different cues explain reaction time differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzer, Tugba

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that memories cued by concrete concepts, such as objects, are retrieved faster than those cued by more abstract concepts, such as emotions. This effect has been explained by the fact that more memories are directly retrieved from object versus emotion cues. In the present study, we tested whether RT differences between memories cued by emotion versus object terms occur not only because object cues elicit direct retrieval of more memories (Uzer, Lee, & Brown, 2012), but also because of differences in memory generation in response to emotions versus objects. One hundred university students retrieved memories in response to basic-level (e.g. orange), superordinate-level (e.g. plant), and emotion (e.g. surprised) cues. Retrieval speed was measured and participants reported whether memories were directly retrieved or generated on each trial. Results showed that memories were retrieved faster in response to basic-level versus superordinate-level and emotion cues because a) basic-level cues elicited more directly retrieved memories, and b) generating memories was more difficult when cues were abstract versus concrete. These results suggest that generative retrieval is a cue generation process in which additional cues that provide contextual information including the target event are produced. Memories are retrieved more slowly in response to emotion cues in part because emotion labels are less effective cues of appropriate contextual information. This particular finding is inconsistent with the idea that emotion is a primary organizational unit for autobiographical memories. In contrast, the difficulty of emotional memory generation implies that emotions represent low-level event information in the organization of autobiographical memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The Accuracy Enhancing Effect of Biasing Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Vanhouche (Wouter); S.M.J. van Osselaer (Stijn)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractExtrinsic cues such as price and irrelevant attributes have been shown to bias consumers’ product judgments. Results in this article replicate those findings in pretrial judgments but show that such biasing cues can improve quality judgments at a later point in time. Initially biasing

  5. Musically cued gait-training improves both perceptual and motor timing in Parkinson's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles-Etienne eBenoit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that auditory cueing improves gait in patients with Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease (IPD. Disease-related reductions in speed and step length can be improved by providing rhythmical auditory cues via a metronome or music. However, effects on cognitive aspects of motor control have yet to be thoroughly investigated. If synchronization of movement to an auditory cue relies on a supramodal timing system involved in perceptual, motor and sensorimotor integration, auditory cueing can be expected to affect both motor and perceptual timing. Here we tested this hypothesis by assessing perceptual and motor timing in 15 IPD patients before and after a four-week music training program with rhythmic auditory cueing. Long-term effects were assessed one month after the end of the training. Perceptual and motor timing was evaluated with the Battery for the Assessment of Auditory Sensorimotor and Timing Abilities (BAASTA and compared to that of age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls. Prior to training, IPD patients exhibited impaired perceptual and motor timing. Training improved patients’ performance in tasks requiring synchronization with isochronous sequences, and enhanced their ability to adapt to durational changes in a sequence in hand tapping tasks. Benefits of cueing extended to time perception (duration discrimination and detection of misaligned beats in musical excerpts. The current results demonstrate that auditory cueing leads to benefits beyond gait and support the idea that coupling gait to rhythmic auditory cues in IPD patients relies on a neuronal network engaged in both perceptual and motor timing.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ATTENTION THRESHOLD IN RATS BY TITRATION OF VISUAL CUE DURATION DURING THE FIVE CHOICE SERIAL REACTION TIME TASK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Thomas J.; Grigg, Amanda; Kim, Susy A.; Ririe, Douglas G.; Eisenach, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The 5 choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) is commonly used to assess attention in rodents. We sought to develop a variant of the 5CSRTT that would speed training to objective success criteria, and to test whether this variant could determine attention capability in each subject. New Method Fisher 344 rats were trained to perform a variant of the 5CSRTT in which the duration of visual cue presentation (cue duration) was titrated between trials based upon performance. The cue duration was decreased when the subject made a correct response, or increased with incorrect responses or omissions. Additionally, test day challenges were provided consisting of lengthening the intertrial interval and inclusion of a visual distracting stimulus. Results Rats readily titrated the cue duration to less than 1 sec in 25 training sessions or less (mean ± SEM, 22.9 ± 0.7), and the median cue duration (MCD) was calculated as a measure of attention threshold. Increasing the intertrial interval increased premature responses, decreased the number of trials completed, and increased the MCD. Decreasing the intertrial interval and time allotted for consuming the food reward demonstrated that a minimum of 3.5 sec is required for rats to consume two food pellets and successfully attend to the next trial. Visual distraction in the form of a 3 Hz flashing light increased the MCD and both premature and time out responses. Comparison with existing method The titration variant of the 5CSRTT is a useful method that dynamically measures attention threshold across a wide range of subject performance, and significantly decreases the time required for training. Task challenges produce similar effects in the titration method as reported for the classical procedure. Conclusions The titration 5CSRTT method is an efficient training procedure for assessing attention and can be utilized to assess the limit in performance ability across subjects and various schedule manipulations. PMID

  7. A semelparous fish continues upstream migration when exposed to alarm cue, but adjusts movement speed and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luhring, Thomas M; Meckley, Trevor D.; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Siefkes, Michael J.; Hume, John B.; Wagner, C. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Animals make trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of opportunities such as foraging and reproduction. Trade-offs between antipredator behaviours and foraging are well suited to manipulation in laboratory and field settings and have generated a vast compendium of knowledge. However, much less is known about how animals manage trade-offs between predation risk and pursuit of reproductive opportunities in the absence of the confounding effects of foraging. In the present study, we investigated how the nonfeeding migratory life stage of sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, responds to odour from dead conspecifics (a cue that induces avoidance behaviours in laboratory and field studies). We released groups of PIT-tagged sea lamprey 65 m from the shore of Lake Michigan or 287 m upstream in Carp Lake River and used antennas to detect their movements in the river. As the breeding season progressed, sea lamprey initiated upstream movement earlier and were more likely to enter the river. Sea lamprey that began the night in Lake Michigan entered Carp Lake River at higher rates and accelerated upstream when exposed to high concentrations of alarm cue, consistent with animals attempting to minimize time spent in risky areas. Sea lampreys that began the night in the river delayed upstream movement when exposed to alarm cue, consistent with animals sheltering and gathering information about a source of risk. We attribute this context-specific reaction to alarm cue to differences in perceived vulnerability to predation in sheltered positions in the river versus exposed positions in the lake. Once in the river, the vast majority of sea lamprey moved upstream independent of alarm cue or Julian date. Although life-history-induced time and energy budgets place rigid constraints on the direction of migration, sea lamprey attend to predation risk by modifying movement timing and speed.

  8. Contribution of monaural and binaural cues to sound localization in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss: improved directional hearing with a bone-conduction device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agterberg, Martijn J H; Snik, Ad F M; Hol, Myrthe K S; Van Wanrooij, Marc M; Van Opstal, A John

    2012-04-01

    Sound localization in the horizontal (azimuth) plane relies mainly on interaural time differences (ITDs) and interaural level differences (ILDs). Both are distorted in listeners with acquired unilateral conductive hearing loss (UCHL), reducing their ability to localize sound. Several studies demonstrated that UCHL listeners had some ability to localize sound in azimuth. To test whether listeners with acquired UCHL use strongly perturbed binaural difference cues, we measured localization while they listened with a sound-attenuating earmuff over their impaired ear. We also tested the potential use of monaural pinna-induced spectral-shape cues for localization in azimuth and elevation, by filling the cavities of the pinna of their better-hearing ear with a mould. These conditions were tested while a bone-conduction device (BCD), fitted to all UCHL listeners in order to provide hearing from the impaired side, was turned off. We varied stimulus presentation levels to investigate whether UCHL listeners were using sound level as an azimuth cue. Furthermore, we examined whether horizontal sound-localization abilities improved when listeners used their BCD. Ten control listeners without hearing loss demonstrated a significant decrease in their localization abilities when they listened with a monaural plug and muff. In 4/13 UCHL listeners we observed good horizontal localization of 65 dB SPL broadband noises with their BCD turned off. Localization was strongly impaired when the impaired ear was covered with the muff. The mould in the good ear of listeners with UCHL deteriorated the localization of broadband sounds presented at 45 dB SPL. This demonstrates that they used pinna cues to localize sounds presented at low levels. Our data demonstrate that UCHL listeners have learned to adapt their localization strategies under a wide variety of hearing conditions and that sound-localization abilities improved with their BCD turned on.

  9. The Effects of Cues on Neurons in the Basal Ganglia in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sridevi V. Sarma

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual cues open a unique window to the understanding of Parkinson’s disease (PD. These cues can temporarily but dramatically improve PD motor symptoms. Although details are unclear, cues are believed to suppress pathological basal ganglia (BG activity through activation of corticostriatal pathways. In this study, we investigated human BG neurophysiology under different cued conditions. We evaluated bursting, 10-30Hz oscillations (OSCs, and directional tuning (DT dynamics in the subthalamic nucleus activity while 7 patients executed a two-step motor task. In the first step (predicted +cue, the patient moved to a target when prompted by a visual go cue that appeared 100% of the time. Here, the timing of the cue is predictable and the cue serves an external trigger to execute a motor plan. In the second step, the cue appeared randomly 50% of the time, and the patient had to move to the same target as in the first step. When it appeared (unpredicted +cue, the motor plan was to be triggered by the cue, but its timing was not predictable. When the cue failed to appear (unpredicted -cue, the motor plan was triggered by the absence of the visual cue. We found that during predicted +cue and unpredicted -cue trials, OSCs significantly decreased and DT significantly increased above baseline, though these modulations occurred an average of 640 milliseconds later in unpredicted -cue trials. Movement and reaction times were comparable in these trials. During unpredicted +cue trials, OSCs and DT failed to modulate though bursting significantly decreased after movement. Correspondingly, movement performance deteriorated. These findings suggest that during motor planning either a predictably timed external cue or an internally generated cue (generated by the absence of a cue trigger the execution of a motor plan in premotor cortex, whose increased activation then suppresses pathological activity in STN through direct pathways, leading to motor facilitation in

  10. Further explorations of the facing bias in biological motion perception: perspective cues, observer sex, and response times.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Schouten

    Full Text Available The human visual system has evolved to be highly sensitive to visual information about other persons and their movements as is illustrated by the effortless perception of point-light figures or 'biological motion'. When presented orthographically, a point-light walker is interpreted in two anatomically plausible ways: As 'facing the viewer' or as 'facing away' from the viewer. However, human observers show a 'facing bias': They perceive such a point-light walker as facing towards them in about 70-80% of the cases. In studies exploring the role of social and biological relevance as a possible account for the facing bias, we found a 'figure gender effect': Male point-light figures elicit a stronger facing bias than female point-light figures. Moreover, we also found an 'observer gender effect': The 'figure gender effect' was stronger for male than for female observers. In the present study we presented to 11 males and 11 females point-light walkers of which, very subtly, the perspective information was manipulated by modifying the earlier reported 'perspective technique'. Proportions of 'facing the viewer' responses and reaction times were recorded. Results show that human observers, even in the absence of local shape or size cues, easily pick up on perspective cues, confirming recent demonstrations of high visual sensitivity to cues on whether another person is potentially approaching. We also found a consistent difference in how male and female observers respond to stimulus variations (figure gender or perspective cues that cause variations in the perceived in-depth orientation of a point-light walker. Thus, the 'figure gender effect' is possibly caused by changes in the relative locations and motions of the dots that the perceptual system tends to interpret as perspective cues. Third, reaction time measures confirmed the existence of the facing bias and recent research showing faster detection of approaching than receding biological motion.

  11. Does Cueing Training Improve Physical Activity in Patients With Parkinson's Disease?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lim-de Vries, L.I.I.K.; van Wegen, E.E.H.; Jones, D.; Rochester, L.; Nieuwboer, A.; Willems, A.M.; Baker, K.; Hetherington, V.; Kwakkel, G.

    2010-01-01

    Background. Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are encouraged to stay active to maintain their mobility. Ambulatory activity monitoring (AM) provides an objective way to determine type and amount of gait-related daily activities. Objective. To investigate the effects of a home cueing training

  12. Telling friend from foe : Environmental cues improve recognition of individuals with hostile intentions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijn, R.; Kleij, R. van der; Kallen, V.L.; Stekkinger, M.; Vries, P. de

    2017-01-01

    Detecting deviant behaviours that precede and are related to crimes can help prevent these crimes. Research suggests that the psychological mindset of wrongdoers may differ from others, such that they are more anxious, self-focussed, and vigilant. As a result, their responses to environmental cues,

  13. Listenmee and Listenmee smartphone application: synchronizing walking to rhythmic auditory cues to improve gait in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, William Omar Contreras; Higuera, Carlos Andres Escalante; Fonoff, Erich Talamoni; Souza, Carolina de Oliveira; Albicker, Ulrich; Martinez, Jairo Alberto Espinoza

    2014-10-01

    Evidence supports the use of rhythmic external auditory signals to improve gait in PD patients (Arias & Cudeiro, 2008; Kenyon & Thaut, 2000; McIntosh, Rice & Thaut, 1994; McIntosh et al., 1997; Morris, Iansek, & Matyas, 1994; Thaut, McIntosh, & Rice, 1997; Suteerawattananon, Morris, Etnyre, Jankovic, & Protas , 2004; Willems, Nieuwboer, Chavert, & Desloovere, 2006). However, few prototypes are available for daily use, and to our knowledge, none utilize a smartphone application allowing individualized sounds and cadence. Therefore, we analyzed the effects on gait of Listenmee®, an intelligent glasses system with a portable auditory device, and present its smartphone application, the Listenmee app®, offering over 100 different sounds and an adjustable metronome to individualize the cueing rate as well as its smartwatch with accelerometer to detect magnitude and direction of the proper acceleration, track calorie count, sleep patterns, steps count and daily distances. The present study included patients with idiopathic PD presented gait disturbances including freezing. Auditory rhythmic cues were delivered through Listenmee®. Performance was analyzed in a motion and gait analysis laboratory. The results revealed significant improvements in gait performance over three major dependent variables: walking speed in 38.1%, cadence in 28.1% and stride length in 44.5%. Our findings suggest that auditory cueing through Listenmee® may significantly enhance gait performance. Further studies are needed to elucidate the potential role and maximize the benefits of these portable devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between amygdala activation and passive exposure time to an aversive cue during a continuous performance task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina A Strigo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of attention modulates negative emotional processing in the amygdala. However, the role of passive exposure time to emotional signals in the modulation of amygdala activity during active task performance has not been examined. In two functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI experiments conducted in two different groups of healthy human subjects, we examined activation in the amygdala due to cued anticipation of painful stimuli while subjects performed a simple continuous performance task (CPT with either a fixed or a parametrically varied trial duration. In the first experiment (N = 16, engagement in the CPT during a task with fixed trial duration produced the expected attenuation of amygdala activation, but close analysis suggested that the attenuation occurred during the period of active engagement in CPT, and that amygdala activity increased proportionately during the remainder of each trial, when subjects were passively exposed to the pain cue. In the second experiment (N = 12, the duration of each trial was parametrically varied, and we found that amygdala activation was linearly related to the time of passive exposure to the anticipatory cue. We suggest that amygdala activation during negative anticipatory processing depends directly on the passive exposure time to the negative cue.

  15. A novel teaching tool using dynamic cues improves visualisation of chest lesions by naive observers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Ali, M. A.; Toomey, R. J.; Ryan, J. T.; Cuffe, F. C.; Brennan, P. C.

    2009-02-01

    Introduction Dynamic cueing is an effective way of stimulating perception of regions of interest within radiological images. This study explores the impact of a novel teaching tool using dynamic cueing for lesion detection on plain chest radiographs. Materials and methods Observer performance studies were carried out where 36 novices examined 30 chest images in random order. Half of these contained between one and three simulated pulmonary nodules. Three groups were investigated: A (control: no teaching tool), B (retested immediately after undergoing the teaching tool) and C (retested a week after undergoing the teaching tool). The teaching tool involved dynamically displaying the same images with and without lesions. Results were compared using Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC), sensitivity and specificity analyses. Results The second reading showed significantly greater area under the ROC curve (Az value) (pchest radiographs in the short term.

  16. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M.; Eendebak, P.T.; Schropp, G.Y.R.; Hermes, H.V.; Elzendoorn, B.S.Q.; Magielsen, A.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not

  17. Introducing artificial depth cues to improve task performance in ITER maintenance actions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heemskerk, C.J.M., E-mail: c.heemskerk@heemskerk-innovative.nl [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Eendebak, P.T. [TNO Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (Netherlands); Schropp, G.Y.R. [Heemskerk Innovative Technology, Sassenheim (Netherlands); Hermes, H.V. [TU Eindhoven (Netherlands); Elzendoorn, B.S.Q. [FOM Institute DIFFER (Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research), Association EURATOM-FOM, Partner in the Trilateral Euregio Cluster, P.O. Box 1207, 3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Magielsen, A.J. [NRG, P.O. Box 25, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► Operators regard lack of 3D perception as primary factor hindering remote maintenance. ► Promising techniques to improve depth perception are depth gauges and stereo vision. ► First experiment shows artificial depth gauges need to be designed with care. ► Second experiment shows that stereo vision improves task performance significantly. -- Abstract: Maintenance operations on ITER tokamak components will be largely performed by remote handling. In previous work it was shown that representative maintenance tasks could be performed significantly faster with direct visual feedback than with camera feedback. In post-test interviews, operators indicated that they regarded the lack of 3D perception as the primary factor hindering their performance. This paper discusses various techniques to improve depth perception in teleoperation, including stereo vision, head tracking, virtual camera views and depth gauges. The most promising techniques were tested. Performance metrics included time-to-complete, path analysis and operator work-load. In a first experiment, artificial depth gauges views were tested in a 1:1 scale hardware testbed with mechanical master-slave manipulators handled by experienced operators. Robust real-time image processing was achieved with marker-based objects. The simple depth gauge and graphical overlay did not significantly improve task performance. Operators commented on their view of the task being “obstructed” by the graphical overlay, and the depth gauge was judged not very informative. In a second experiment, real time tracking was combined with VR display including stereo and head tracking. While stereo was found to improve the task performance significantly over the 1 camera (mono) condition, head tracking unexpectedly did not.

  18. Rhythmic auditory cueing to improve walking in patients with neurological conditions other than Parkinson's disease--what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether synchronising over-ground walking to rhythmic auditory cues improves temporal and spatial gait measures in adults with neurological clinical conditions other than Parkinson's disease. A search was performed in June 2011 using the computerised databases AGELINE, AMED, AMI, CINAHL, Current Contents, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and PUBMED, and extended using hand-searching of relevant journals and article reference lists. Methodological quality was independently assessed by two reviewers. A best evidence synthesis was applied to rate levels of evidence. Fourteen studies, four of which were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), met the inclusion criteria. Patient groups included those with stroke (six studies); Huntington's disease and spinal cord injury (two studies each); traumatic brain injury, dementia, multiple sclerosis and normal pressure hydrocephalus (one study each). The best evidence synthesis found moderate evidence of improved velocity and stride length of people with stroke following gait training with rhythmic music. Insufficient evidence was found for other included neurological disorders due to low study numbers and poor methodological quality of some studies. Synchronising walking to rhythmic auditory cues can result in short-term improvement in gait measures of people with stroke. Further high quality studies are needed before recommendations for clinical practice can be made.

  19. Can Victoria's Secret Change the Future? A Subjective Time Perception Account of Sexual-Cue Effects on Impatience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B. Kyu; Zauberman, Gal

    2013-01-01

    Sexual cues influence decisions not only about sex, but also about unrelated outcomes such as money. In the presence of sexual cues, individuals are more "impatient" when making intertemporal monetary tradeoffs, choosing smaller immediate amounts over larger delayed amounts. Previous research has emphasized the power of sexual cues to induce a…

  20. Sound localization in common vampire bats: Acuity and use of the binaural time cue by a small mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffner, Rickye S.; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Passive sound-localization acuity and the ability to use binaural time and intensity cues were determined for the common vampire bat (Desmodus rotundus). The bats were tested using a conditioned suppression/avoidance procedure in which they drank defibrinated blood from a spout in the presence of sounds from their right, but stopped drinking (i.e., broke contact with the spout) whenever a sound came from their left, thereby avoiding a mild shock. The mean minimum audible angle for three bats for a 100-ms noise burst was 13.1°—within the range of thresholds for other bats and near the mean for mammals. Common vampire bats readily localized pure tones of 20 kHz and higher, indicating they could use interaural intensity-differences. They could also localize pure tones of 5 kHz and lower, thereby demonstrating the use of interaural time-differences, despite their very small maximum interaural distance of 60 μs. A comparison of the use of locus cues among mammals suggests several implications for the evolution of sound localization and its underlying anatomical and physiological mechanisms. PMID:25618037

  1. Visual Cues Contribute Differentially to Audiovisual Perception of Consonants and Vowels in Improving Recognition and Reducing Cognitive Demands in Listeners With Hearing Impairment Using Hearing Aids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Shahram; Lidestam, Björn; Danielsson, Henrik; Ng, Elaine Hoi Ning; Rönnberg, Jerker

    2017-09-18

    We sought to examine the contribution of visual cues in audiovisual identification of consonants and vowels-in terms of isolation points (the shortest time required for correct identification of a speech stimulus), accuracy, and cognitive demands-in listeners with hearing impairment using hearing aids. The study comprised 199 participants with hearing impairment (mean age = 61.1 years) with bilateral, symmetrical, mild-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss. Gated Swedish consonants and vowels were presented aurally and audiovisually to participants. Linear amplification was adjusted for each participant to assure audibility. The reading span test was used to measure participants' working memory capacity. Audiovisual presentation resulted in shortened isolation points and improved accuracy for consonants and vowels relative to auditory-only presentation. This benefit was more evident for consonants than vowels. In addition, correlations and subsequent analyses revealed that listeners with higher scores on the reading span test identified both consonants and vowels earlier in auditory-only presentation, but only vowels (not consonants) in audiovisual presentation. Consonants and vowels differed in terms of the benefits afforded from their associative visual cues, as indicated by the degree of audiovisual benefit and reduction in cognitive demands linked to the identification of consonants and vowels presented audiovisually.

  2. Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of Visual Cue Training to Improve Adaptability of Walking after Stroke: Multi-Centre, Single-Blind Randomised Control Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollands, Kristen L.; Pelton, Trudy A.; Wimperis, Andrew; Whitham, Diane; Tan, Wei; Jowett, Sue; Sackley, Catherine M.; Wing, Alan M.; Tyson, Sarah F.; Mathias, Jonathan; Hensman, Marianne; van Vliet, Paulette M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Given the importance of vision in the control of walking and evidence indicating varied practice of walking improves mobility outcomes, this study sought to examine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of varied walking practice in response to visual cues, for the rehabilitation of walking following stroke. Design This 3 arm parallel, multi-centre, assessor blind, randomised control trial was conducted within outpatient neurorehabilitation services Participants Community dwelling stroke survivors with walking speed adaptability practice using visual cues are feasible and may improve mobility and balance. Future studies should continue a carefully phased approach using identified methods to improve retention. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01600391 PMID:26445137

  3. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing: Configural cues are stronger than colour cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; John, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2014-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed "contextual cueing" (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they appeared together. In Experiment 1, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configural cues, compared with when the target was only predicted by configural information. The results showed that the addition of a colour cue did not increase contextual cueing. In Experiment 2, participants searched for a target that was cued by both colour and distractor configuration compared with when the target was only cued by colour. The results showed that adding a predictive configural cue led to a stronger CC benefit. Experiments 3 and 4 tested the disruptive effects of removing either a learned colour cue or a learned configural cue and whether there was cue competition when colour and configural cues were presented together. Removing the configural cue was more disruptive to CC than removing colour, and configural learning was shown to overshadow the learning of colour cues. The data support a configural dominant account of CC, where configural cues act as the stronger cue in comparison to colour when they are presented together.

  4. Improving productivity through more effective time management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Edwin; Pulich, Marcia

    2004-01-01

    Effective time management has become increasingly important for managers as they seek to accomplish objectives in today's organizations, which have been restructured for efficiency while employing fewer people. Managers can improve their ability to manage time effectively by examining their attitudes toward time, analyzing time-wasting behaviors, and developing better time management skills. Managers can improve their performance and promotion potential with more effective time utilization. Strategies for improving time management skills are presented.

  5. Absence of both auditory evoked potentials and auditory percepts dependent on timing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, A; McPherson, D; Patterson, J; Don, M; Luxford, W; Shannon, R; Sininger, Y; Tonakawa, L; Waring, M

    1991-06-01

    An 11-yr-old girl had an absence of sensory components of auditory evoked potentials (brainstem, middle and long-latency) to click and tone burst stimuli that she could clearly hear. Psychoacoustic tests revealed a marked impairment of those auditory perceptions dependent on temporal cues, that is, lateralization of binaural clicks, change of binaural masked threshold with changes in signal phase, binaural beats, detection of paired monaural clicks, monaural detection of a silent gap in a sound, and monaural threshold elevation for short duration tones. In contrast, auditory functions reflecting intensity or frequency discriminations (difference limens) were only minimally impaired. Pure tone audiometry showed a moderate (50 dB) bilateral hearing loss with a disproportionate severe loss of word intelligibility. Those auditory evoked potentials that were preserved included (1) cochlear microphonics reflecting hair cell activity; (2) cortical sustained potentials reflecting processing of slowly changing signals; and (3) long-latency cognitive components (P300, processing negativity) reflecting endogenous auditory cognitive processes. Both the evoked potential and perceptual deficits are attributed to changes in temporal encoding of acoustic signals perhaps occurring at the synapse between hair cell and eighth nerve dendrites. The results from this patient are discussed in relation to previously published cases with absent auditory evoked potentials and preserved hearing.

  6. ISO 14001: time for improvements?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss a number of issues related to ISO 14001:2004, the international standard for Environmental Management Systems (EMS) with the purpose of improving the next edition in order to recognise and reflect new recognitions in approaches to pollution prevention. A case...

  7. Effectiveness of auditory and tactile crossmodal cues in a dual-task visual and auditory scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Kevin; Kass, Steven J; Blalock, Lisa Durrance; Brill, J Christopher

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we examined how spatially informative auditory and tactile cues affected participants' performance on a visual search task while they simultaneously performed a secondary auditory task. Visual search task performance was assessed via reaction time and accuracy. Tactile and auditory cues provided the approximate location of the visual target within the search display. The inclusion of tactile and auditory cues improved performance in comparison to the no-cue baseline conditions. In comparison to the no-cue conditions, both tactile and auditory cues resulted in faster response times in the visual search only (single task) and visual-auditory (dual-task) conditions. However, the effectiveness of auditory and tactile cueing for visual task accuracy was shown to be dependent on task-type condition. Crossmodal cueing remains a viable strategy for improving task performance without increasing attentional load within a singular sensory modality. Practitioner Summary: Crossmodal cueing with dual-task performance has not been widely explored, yet has practical applications. We examined the effects of auditory and tactile crossmodal cues on visual search performance, with and without a secondary auditory task. Tactile cues aided visual search accuracy when also engaged in a secondary auditory task, whereas auditory cues did not.

  8. Boosting Vocabulary Learning by Verbal Cueing During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Rasch, Björn

    2015-11-01

    Reactivating memories during sleep by re-exposure to associated memory cues (e.g., odors or sounds) improves memory consolidation. Here, we tested for the first time whether verbal cueing during sleep can improve vocabulary learning. We cued prior learned Dutch words either during non-rapid eye movement sleep (NonREM) or during active or passive waking. Re-exposure to Dutch words during sleep improved later memory for the German translation of the cued words when compared with uncued words. Recall of uncued words was similar to an additional group receiving no verbal cues during sleep. Furthermore, verbal cueing failed to improve memory during active and passive waking. High-density electroencephalographic recordings revealed that successful verbal cueing during NonREM sleep is associated with a pronounced frontal negativity in event-related potentials, a higher frequency of frontal slow waves as well as a cueing-related increase in right frontal and left parietal oscillatory theta power. Our results indicate that verbal cues presented during NonREM sleep reactivate associated memories, and facilitate later recall of foreign vocabulary without impairing ongoing consolidation processes. Likewise, our oscillatory analysis suggests that both sleep-specific slow waves as well as theta oscillations (typically associated with successful memory encoding during wakefulness) might be involved in strengthening memories by cueing during sleep. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. CueO-immobilized porous carbon electrode exhibiting improved performance of electrochemical reduction of dioxygen to water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, Seiya [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)], E-mail: seiya@kais.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Miura, Yuko; Kano, Kenji [Division of Applied Life Sciences, Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2008-07-20

    We report the electro-enzymatic reduction of O{sub 2} to water at a current density controlled by the diffusion of the dissolved O{sub 2} in rotating disk electrode experiments under a broad pH range between 2 and 8. The electrocatalyst is CueO from Escherichia coli, which belongs to the family of multi-copper oxidases, immobilized on mesoporous carbon supports. The electrons are transferred from the electrode to CueO without an electron transfer mediator. The current density reached a value as high as 12 mA cm{sup -2} at 1 atm O{sub 2}, 25 deg. C, and 10,000 rpm on the CueO-modified electrodes. The CueO-modified mesoporous carbon cathode is quite superior to the smooth CueO cathode in the current density, electrode kinetics, pH tolerance, and thermal stability.

  10. "I can see clearly now": The effect of cue imageability on mental time travel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine Willemoes; Berntsen, Dorthe

    2014-01-01

    Mental time travel (MTT) is the ability to mentally project oneself backward or forward in time, in order to remember an event from one’s personal past or to imagine a possible event in one’s personal future. Recent work has suggested that, although past and future MTT may rely on shared...

  11. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy

    1975-01-01

    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  12. Cue-elicited craving in heroin addicts at different abstinent time: an fMRI pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-05-01

    We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Following short-term abstinence, greater activation was found in response to heroin cues compared to neutral cues in bilateral temporal, occipital, posterior cingulate, anterior cingulate, thalamus, cerebellum, and left hippocampus. In contrast, activations in bilateral temporal and occipital and deactivations in bilateral frontal, bilateral parietal, left posterior cingulate, insula, thalamus, dorsal striatum, and bilateral cerebellum were observed following long-term abstinence. Direct comparisons between conditions showed greater brain reactivity in response to smoking cues following short-term abstinence. In addition, short-term abstinence had more serious withdrawal symptoms than the long-term. The present findings indicate that compared to short-term, long-term abstinence manifests less serious withdrawal symptoms and significantly decreases neural responses to heroin-related cues in brain regions subserving visual sensory processing, attention, memory, and action planning. These findings suggest that long-term abstinence can decrease the salience of conditioned cues, thereby reducing the risk of relapses. The study's limitations are noted.

  13. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Vansteenkiste

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5% compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7% and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; p<0.05. Novices had a remarkably high range of reaction time but no significant differences were found in comparison to the reaction time of elite and intermediate players. In general, the three groups showed similar gaze behaviour with the apparent use of visual pivots at moments of reception and final pass. This confirms the holistic model of image perception for volleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions.

  14. Mobility timing for agent communities, a cue for advanced connectionist systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolloni, Bruno; Bassis, Simone; Pagani, Elena; Rossi, Gian Paolo; Valerio, Lorenzo

    2011-12-01

    We introduce a wait-and-chase scheme that models the contact times between moving agents within a connectionist construct. The idea that elementary processors move within a network to get a proper position is borne out both by biological neurons in the brain morphogenesis and by agents within social networks. From the former, we take inspiration to devise a medium-term project for new artificial neural network training procedures where mobile neurons exchange data only when they are close to one another in a proper space (are in contact). From the latter, we accumulate mobility tracks experience. We focus on the preliminary step of characterizing the elapsed time between neuron contacts, which results from a spatial process fitting in the family of random processes with memory, where chasing neurons are stochastically driven by the goal of hitting target neurons. Thus, we add an unprecedented mobility model to the literature in the field, introducing a distribution law of the intercontact times that merges features of both negative exponential and Pareto distribution laws. We give a constructive description and implementation of our model, as well as a short analytical form whose parameters are suitably estimated in terms of confidence intervals from experimental data. Numerical experiments show the model and related inference tools to be sufficiently robust to cope with two main requisites for its exploitation in a neural network: the nonindependence of the observed intercontact times and the feasibility of the model inversion problem to infer suitable mobility parameters.

  15. Attention Cueing and Activity Equally Reduce False Alarm Rate in Visual-Auditory Associative Learning through Improving Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikouei Mahani, Mohammad-Ali; Haghgoo, Hojjat Allah; Azizi, Solmaz; Nili Ahmadabadi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    In our daily life, we continually exploit already learned multisensory associations and form new ones when facing novel situations. Improving our associative learning results in higher cognitive capabilities. We experimentally and computationally studied the learning performance of healthy subjects in a visual-auditory sensory associative learning task across active learning, attention cueing learning, and passive learning modes. According to our results, the learning mode had no significant effect on learning association of congruent pairs. In addition, subjects' performance in learning congruent samples was not correlated with their vigilance score. Nevertheless, vigilance score was significantly correlated with the learning performance of the non-congruent pairs. Moreover, in the last block of the passive learning mode, subjects significantly made more mistakes in taking non-congruent pairs as associated and consciously reported lower confidence. These results indicate that attention and activity equally enhanced visual-auditory associative learning for non-congruent pairs, while false alarm rate in the passive learning mode did not decrease after the second block. We investigated the cause of higher false alarm rate in the passive learning mode by using a computational model, composed of a reinforcement learning module and a memory-decay module. The results suggest that the higher rate of memory decay is the source of making more mistakes and reporting lower confidence in non-congruent pairs in the passive learning mode.

  16. Continuous Re-Exposure to Environmental Sound Cues During Sleep Does Not Improve Memory for Semantically Unrelated Word Pairs

    OpenAIRE

    Donohue, Kelly C.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

    2011-01-01

    Two recent studies illustrated that cues present during encoding can enhance recall if re-presented during sleep. This suggests an academic strategy. Such effects have only been demonstrated with spatial learning and cue presentation was isolated to slow wave sleep (SWS). The goal of this study was to examine whether sounds enhance sleep-dependent consolidation of a semantic task if the sounds are re-presented continuously during sleep. Participants encoded a list of word pairs in the evening...

  17. Cue-Elicited Craving in Heroin Addicts at Different Abstinent Time: An fMRI Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Lou, Mingwu; Wang, Erlei; Shen, Yunxia; Wang, Jiping

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effect of short-term and long-term heroin abstinence on brain responses to heroin-related cues using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods: Eighteen male heroin addicts following short-term abstinence and 19 male heroin addicts following long-term abstinence underwent fMRI scanning while viewing heroin-related and neutral images. Cue-elicited craving and withdrawal symptoms in the subjects were measured. Results: Following short-term abstinence, gre...

  18. CUE USAGE IN VOLLEYBALL: A TIME COURSE COMPARISON OF ELITE, INTERMEDIATE AND NOVICE FEMALE PLAYERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaeyens, R; Zeuwts, L; Philippaerts, R; Lenoir, M

    2014-01-01

    This study compared visual search strategies in adult female volleyball players of three levels. Video clips of the attack of the opponent team were presented on a large screen and participants reacted to the final pass before the spike. Reaction time, response accuracy and eye movement patterns were measured. Elite players had the highest response accuracy (97.50 ± 3.5%) compared to the intermediate (91.50 ± 4.7%) and novice players (83.50 ± 17.6%; pvolleyball and suggests that expert players extract more information from parafoveal regions. PMID:25609887

  19. Does Contextual Cueing Guide the Deployment of Attention?

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2007-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when observers are not aware of the repetition. It has been thought that the context of the display guides attention to the target. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of guidance in a standard search task to the effects of contextual cueing. Firstly, in standard search, an improvement in guidance causes search slopes (derived from RT × Set Size func...

  20. Trading of dynamic interaural time and level difference cues and its effect on the auditory motion-onset response measured with electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Christian F; Ueda, Ryuhei; Bucher, Benoit; Furukawa, Shigeto; Ono, Kentaro; Kashino, Makio; Mima, Tatsuya; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2017-10-01

    Interaural time (ITD) and level differences (ILD) constitute the two main cues for sound localization in the horizontal plane. Despite extensive research in animal models and humans, the mechanism of how these two cues are integrated into a unified percept is still far from clear. In this study, our aim was to test with human electroencephalography (EEG) whether integration of dynamic ITD and ILD cues is reflected in the so-called motion-onset response (MOR), an evoked potential elicited by moving sound sources. To this end, ITD and ILD trajectories were determined individually by cue trading psychophysics. We then measured EEG while subjects were presented with either static click-trains or click-trains that contained a dynamic portion at the end. The dynamic part was created by combining ITD with ILD either congruently to elicit the percept of a right/leftward moving sound, or incongruently to elicit the percept of a static sound. In two experiments that differed in the method to derive individual dynamic cue trading stimuli, we observed an MOR with at least a change-N1 (cN1) component for both the congruent and incongruent conditions at about 160-190 ms after motion-onset. A significant change-P2 (cP2) component for both the congruent and incongruent ITD/ILD combination was found only in the second experiment peaking at about 250 ms after motion onset. In sum, this study shows that a sound which - by a combination of counter-balanced ITD and ILD cues - induces a static percept can still elicit a motion-onset response, indicative of independent ITD and ILD processing at the level of the MOR - a component that has been proposed to be, at least partly, generated in non-primary auditory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The combined effect of sleep and time of day on emotion decoding from dynamic visual cues in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsokanaki P

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Paraskevi Tsokanaki,1 Despina Moraitou,1 Georgia Papantoniou2 1Section of Cognitive and Experimental Psychology, School of Psychology, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 2Department of Early Childhood Education, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece Abstract: It is well known that night sleep is a decisive factor for the effective functioning of the human body and mind. In addition to the role of sleep, older adults report that they are “morning types” and that their cognitive and emotional abilities seem to be at a higher level in the morning hours. In this vein, this study is aimed at examining the effect of sleep combined with the “time of day” condition on a specific ability that is crucial for interpersonal communication, namely, emotion recognition, in older adults. Specifically, the study compared older adults’ performance in decoding emotions from ecologically valid, dynamic visual cues, in two conditions: “early in the morning and after night sleep”, and “in the afternoon and after many hours since night sleep”. An emotion recognition task was administered twice to 37 community-dwelling older adults. The results showed a statistically significant higher performance in the morning in decoding all emotions presented, compared to the afternoon condition. Pleasant surprise, sadness, and anxiety were revealed as the most difficult emotions to be recognized in the afternoon condition. Keywords: aging, cognition, emotion recognition

  2. Prospective memory and intraindividual variability in ongoing task response times in an adult lifespan sample: the role of cue focality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Ghisletta, Paolo; Kliegel, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    To contribute to the ongoing conceptual debate of what traditional mean-level ongoing task (OT) costs tell us about the attentional processes underlying prospective memory (PM), we investigated costs to intraindividual variability (IIV) in OT response times as a potentially sensitive indicator of attentional processes. Particularly, we tested whether IIV in OT responses may reflect controlled employment of attentional processes versus lapses of controlled attention, whether these processes differ across adulthood, and whether it is moderated by cue focality. We assessed 150 individuals (19-82 years) in a focal and a nonfocal PM condition. In addition, external measures of inhibition and working memory were assessed. In line with the predictions of the lapses-of-attention/inefficient-executive-control account, our data support the view that costs to IIV in OT trials of PM tasks reflect fluctuations in the efficiency of executive functioning, which was related to failures in prospective remembering, particularly in nonfocal PM tasks, potentially due to their increased executive demands. The additional value of considering costs to IIV over and beyond traditional mean-level OT costs in PM research is discussed.

  3. Processing of recognition information and additional cues: A model-based analysis of choice, confidence, and response time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Glockner

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Research on the processing of recognition information has focused on testing the recognition heuristic (RH. On the aggregate, the noncompensatory use of recognition information postulated by the RH was rejected in several studies, while RH could still account for a considerable proportion of choices. These results can be explained if either a a part of the subjects used RH or b nobody used it but its choice predictions were accidentally in line with predictions of the strategy used. In the current study, which exemplifies a new approach to model testing, we determined individuals' decision strategies based on a maximum-likelihood classification method, taking into account choices, response times and confidence ratings simultaneously. Unlike most previous studies of the RH, our study tested the RH under conditions in which we provided information about cue values of unrecognized objects (which we argue is fairly common and thus of some interest. For 77.5% of the subjects, overall behavior was best explained by a compensatory parallel constraint satisfaction (PCS strategy. The proportion of subjects using an enhanced RH heuristic (RHe was negligible (up to 7.5%; 15% of the subjects seemed to use a take the best strategy (TTB. A more-fine grained analysis of the supplemental behavioral parameters conditional on strategy use supports PCS but calls into question process assumptions for apparent users of RH, RHe, and TTB within our experimental context. Our results are consistent with previous literature highlighting the importance of individual strategy classification as compared to aggregated analyses.

  4. Human strategies for solving a time-place learning task: the role of counting and following verbal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Gallardo, Daniel; Aguilar, Francisco; Armenta, Benjamín; Carpio, Claudio

    2015-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the emergence of time-place learning in humans. In experiment 1, a computer based software was designed in which participants had to choose to enter one of four rooms in an abandoned house search for a zombie every 3-15s. Zombies could be found in only one of these rooms every trial in 3 min periods during the 12 min sessions. After 4 training sessions, participants were exposed to a probe session in which zombies could be found in any room on every trial. Almost all participants behaved as if they were timing the availability intervals: they anticipated the changes in the location of the zombie and they persisted in their performance patterns during the probe session; however, verbal reports revealed that they were counting the number of trials in each period in order to decide when to switch between rooms. In the second experiment, the task was modified in two ways: counting was made harder by using three different intertrial ranges within each session: 2-6s, 2-11s and 2-16s. Second, labels were displaced during the final session to assess whether participants learned to click on a given place or to follow a set of verbal cues. We found that participants did not notice the label changes suggesting that they learned to click on a given place, and that a win/stay-lose/shift strategy was clearly used to decide when to switch rooms in the second experiment. The implications of verbal behavior when assessing time-place learning with humans and the possible differences in this process between humans and animals are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Retro-dimension-cue benefit in visual working memory

    OpenAIRE

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Gendron, Maria; Liu, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants? performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants? performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased prob...

  6. Using multisensory cues to facilitate air traffic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Mary K; Pierce, Russell S; Spence, Charles

    2012-12-01

    In the present study, we sought to investigate whether auditory and tactile cuing could be used to facilitate a complex, real-world air traffic management scenario. Auditory and tactile cuing provides an effective means of improving both the speed and accuracy of participants' performance in a variety of laboratory-based visual target detection and identification tasks. A low-fidelity air traffic simulation task was used in which participants monitored and controlled aircraft.The participants had to ensure that the aircraft landed or exited at the correct altitude, speed, and direction and that they maintained a safe separation from all other aircraft and boundaries. The performance measures recorded included en route time, handoff delay, and conflict resolution delay (the performance measure of interest). In a baseline condition, the aircraft in conflict was highlighted in red (visual cue), and in the experimental conditions, this standard visual cue was accompanied by a simultaneously presented auditory, vibrotactile, or audiotactile cue. Participants responded significantly more rapidly, but no less accurately, to conflicts when presented with an additional auditory or audiotactile cue than with either a vibrotactile or visual cue alone. Auditory and audiotactile cues have the potential for improving operator performance by reducing the time it takes to detect and respond to potential visual target events. These results have important implications for the design and use of multisensory cues in air traffic management.

  7. Improving Patient Satisfaction with Waiting Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilers, Gayleen M.

    2004-01-01

    Waiting times are a significant component of patient satisfaction. A patient satisfaction survey performed in the author's health center showed that students rated waiting time lowest of the listed categories--A ratings of 58% overall, 63% for scheduled appointments, and 41% for the walk-in clinic. The center used a quality improvement process and…

  8. Monitoring and regulation of learning in medical education: the need for predictive cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Anique B H; Dunlosky, John; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo B

    2017-06-01

    Being able to accurately monitor learning activities is a key element in self-regulated learning in all settings, including medical schools. Yet students' ability to monitor their progress is often limited, leading to inefficient use of study time. Interventions that improve the accuracy of students' monitoring can optimise self-regulated learning, leading to higher achievement. This paper reviews findings from cognitive psychology and explores potential applications in medical education, as well as areas for future research. Effective monitoring depends on students' ability to generate information ('cues') that accurately reflects their knowledge and skills. The ability of these 'cues' to predict achievement is referred to as 'cue diagnosticity'. Interventions that improve the ability of students to elicit predictive cues typically fall into two categories: (i) self-generation of cues and (ii) generation of cues that is delayed after self-study. Providing feedback and support is useful when cues are predictive but may be too complex to be readily used. Limited evidence exists about interventions to improve the accuracy of self-monitoring among medical students or trainees. Developing interventions that foster use of predictive cues can enhance the accuracy of self-monitoring, thereby improving self-study and clinical reasoning. First, insight should be gained into the characteristics of predictive cues used by medical students and trainees. Next, predictive cue prompts should be designed and tested to improve monitoring and regulation of learning. Finally, the use of predictive cues should be explored in relation to teaching and learning clinical reasoning. Improving self-regulated learning is important to help medical students and trainees efficiently acquire knowledge and skills necessary for clinical practice. Interventions that help students generate and use predictive cues hold the promise of improved self-regulated learning and achievement. This framework is

  9. Enhanced Time Out: An Improved Communication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Patricia E

    2017-06-01

    An enhanced time out is an improved communication process initiated to prevent such surgical errors as wrong-site, wrong-procedure, or wrong-patient surgery. The enhanced time out at my facility mandates participation from all members of the surgical team and requires designated members to respond to specified time out elements on the surgical safety checklist. The enhanced time out incorporated at my facility expands upon the safety measures from the World Health Organization's surgical safety checklist and ensures that all personnel involved in a surgical intervention perform a final check of relevant information. Initiating the enhanced time out at my facility was intended to improve communication and teamwork among surgical team members and provide a highly reliable safety process to prevent wrong-site, wrong-procedure, and wrong-patient surgery. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Motion Cueing Algorithm Development: Human-Centered Linear and Nonlinear Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Jacob A. (Technical Monitor); Telban, Robert J.; Cardullo, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. Prior research identified viable features from two algorithms: the nonlinear "adaptive algorithm", and the "optimal algorithm" that incorporates human vestibular models. A novel approach to motion cueing, the "nonlinear algorithm" is introduced that combines features from both approaches. This algorithm is formulated by optimal control, and incorporates a new integrated perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. Using a time-varying control law, the matrix Riccati equation is updated in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. The neurocomputing approach was crucial in that the number of presentations of an input vector could be reduced to meet the real time requirement without degrading the quality of the motion cues.

  11. The Role of Place Cues in Voluntary Stream Segregation for Cochlear Implant Users

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paredes Gallardo, Andreu; Madsen, Sara Miay Kim; Dau, Torsten

    2018-01-01

    of the A and B sequences should improve performance. In Experiment 1, the electrode separation and the sequence duration were varied to clarify whether place cues help CI listeners to voluntarily segregate sounds and whether a two-stream percept needs time to build up. Results suggested that place cues can...

  12. Dopaminergic-like neurons derived from oral mucosa stem cells by developmental cues improve symptoms in the hemi-parkinsonian rat model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Ganz

    Full Text Available Achieving safe and readily accessible sources for cell replacement therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD is still a challenging unresolved issue. Recently, a primitive neural crest stem cell population (hOMSC was isolated from the adult human oral mucosa and characterized in vitro and in vivo. In this study we assessed hOMSC ability to differentiate into dopamine-secreting cells with a neuronal-dopaminergic phenotype in vitro in response to dopaminergic developmental cues and tested their therapeutic potential in the hemi-Parkinsonian rat model. We found that hOMSC express constitutively a repertoire of neuronal and dopaminergic markers and pivotal transcription factors. Soluble developmental factors induced a reproducible neuronal-like morphology in the majority of hOMSC, downregulated stem cells markers, upregulated the expression of the neuronal and dopaminergic markers that resulted in dopamine release capabilities. Transplantation of these dopaminergic-induced hOMSC into the striatum of hemi-Parkinsonian rats improved their behavioral deficits as determined by amphetamine-induced rotational behavior, motor asymmetry and motor coordination tests. Human TH expressing cells and increased levels of dopamine in the transplanted hemispheres were observed 10 weeks after transplantation. These results demonstrate for the first time that soluble factors involved in the development of DA neurons, induced a DA phenotype in hOMSC in vitro that significantly improved the motor function of hemiparkinsonian rats. Based on their neural-related origin, their niche accessibility by minimal-invasive procedures and their propensity for DA differentiation, hOMSC emerge as an attractive tool for autologous cell replacement therapy in PD.

  13. Continuous Re-Exposure to Environmental Sound Cues During Sleep Does Not Improve Memory for Semantically Unrelated Word Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Kelly C; Spencer, Rebecca M C

    2011-06-01

    Two recent studies illustrated that cues present during encoding can enhance recall if re-presented during sleep. This suggests an academic strategy. Such effects have only been demonstrated with spatial learning and cue presentation was isolated to slow wave sleep (SWS). The goal of this study was to examine whether sounds enhance sleep-dependent consolidation of a semantic task if the sounds are re-presented continuously during sleep. Participants encoded a list of word pairs in the evening and recall was probed following an interval with overnight sleep. Participants encoded the pairs with the sound of "the ocean" from a sound machine. The first group slept with this sound; the second group slept with a different sound ("rain"); and the third group slept with no sound. Sleeping with sound had no impact on subsequent recall. Although a null result, this work provides an important test of the implications of context effects on sleep-dependent memory consolidation.

  14. An Evidence-Based Cue-Selection Guide and Logic Model to Improve Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Tracey L.; Kennerly, Susan M.; Bergstrom, Nancy; Hudak, Sandra L.; Horn, Susan D.

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers (PrUs) have consistently resisted prevention efforts in long term care (LTC) facilities nationwide. Recent research has described cueing innovations that – when selected according to the assumptions and resources of particular facilities – support best practices of PrU prevention. This paper synthesizes that research into a unified, dynamic logic model to facilitate effective staff implementation of a PrU prevention program. PMID:26066791

  15. Video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention improves postdischarge drinking outcomes among alcohol-dependent men: A prospective study at a government addiction treatment setting in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattala, Prasanthi; Murthy, Pratima; Leung, Kit Sang; Rentala, Sreevani; Ramakrishna, Jayashree

    2017-04-25

    Returning to alcohol use following inpatient treatment occurs due to various real life cues/triggers. It is a challenge to demonstrate to patients how to deal with these triggers during inpatient treatment. Aims of the current study were (a) to evaluate the effectiveness of video-enabled cue-exposure-based intervention (VE-CEI) in influencing treatment outcomes in alcohol dependence, (b) to identify postdischarge predictors of intervention failure (returning to ≥50% of baseline alcohol consumption quantity/day). The VE-CEI comprises live action videos in which human characters model various alcohol use cues and strategies to deal with them effectively. The VE-CEI was administered to an inpatient alcohol-dependent sample (n = 43) and compared with treatment as usual (TAU) (n = 42) at a government addiction treatment setting in India. Patients were followed up over 6 months postdischarge to evaluate effectiveness of the VE-CEI on specific drinking outcomes. Over 6-month follow-up, VE-CEI group (vs. TAU) reported significantly lesser alcohol consumption quantity, fewer drinking days, and lower intervention failure rates. Results of multivariate Cox regression showed that participants who did not receive VE-CEI had an elevated risk of intervention failure (hazards ratio: 11.14; 95% confidence interval [4.93, 25.15]), other intervention failure predictors being early-onset dependence and increased baseline drinking. Findings provide evidence from India for effectiveness of cue-exposure-based intervention delivered using video technology in improving postdischarge treatment outcomes.

  16. Contextual cueing by global features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    In visual search tasks, attention can be guided to a target item, appearing amidst distractors, on the basis of simple features (e.g. find the red letter among green). Chun and Jiang’s (1998) “contextual cueing” effect shows that RTs are also speeded if the spatial configuration of items in a scene is repeated over time. In these studies we ask if global properties of the scene can speed search (e.g. if the display is mostly red, then the target is at location X). In Experiment 1a, the overall background color of the display predicted the target location. Here the predictive color could appear 0, 400 or 800 msec in advance of the search array. Mean RTs are faster in predictive than in non-predictive conditions. However, there is little improvement in search slopes. The global color cue did not improve search efficiency. Experiments 1b-1f replicate this effect using different predictive properties (e.g. background orientation/texture, stimuli color etc.). The results show a strong RT effect of predictive background but (at best) only a weak improvement in search efficiency. A strong improvement in efficiency was found, however, when the informative background was presented 1500 msec prior to the onset of the search stimuli and when observers were given explicit instructions to use the cue (Experiment 2). PMID:17355043

  17. The influence of emotional cues on prospective memory: a systematic review with meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostler, Thomas J; Wood, Chantelle; Armitage, Christopher J

    2018-01-10

    Remembering to perform a behaviour in the future, prospective memory, is essential to ensuring that people fulfil their intentions. Prospective memory involves committing to memory a cue to action (encoding), and later recognising and acting upon the cue in the environment (retrieval). Prospective memory performance is believed to be influenced by the emotionality of the cues, however the literature is fragmented and inconsistent. We conducted a systematic search to synthesise research on the influence of emotion on prospective memory. Sixty-seven effect sizes were extracted from 17 articles and hypothesised effects tested using three meta-analyses. Overall, prospective memory was enhanced when positively-valenced rather than neutral cues were presented (d = 0.32). In contrast, negatively-valenced cues did not enhance prospective memory overall (d = 0.07), but this effect was moderated by the timing of the emotional manipulation. Prospective memory performance was improved when negatively-valenced cues were presented during both encoding and retrieval (d = 0.40), but undermined when presented only during encoding (d = -0.25). Moderating effects were also found for cue-focality and whether studies controlled for the arousal level of the cues. The principal finding is that positively-valenced cues improve prospective memory performance and that timing of the manipulation can moderate emotional effects on prospective memory. We offer a new agenda for future empirical work and theorising in this area.

  18. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olwal, TO

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available are transmitted to the receiver. In the proposed method, the receiver exploits the soft decisions computed at each turbo decoding iteration to provide reliable estimates of a soft timing signal, which in turn, improves the decoding time. The derived method... as ( ) ( )( )1 2 1 2, ,..., , ,...,Q Qk k k k k k k k ka a x x x P a x x xη∗ ∗∈Β= ∑ (29) where ( )1 2, ,..., Qk k kx x x are the Q coded bits in a multilevel symbol modulation scheme [32]. According to [29], the soft information demapper computes posteriori...

  19. Grasp cueing and joint attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschentscher, Nadja; Fischer, Martin H

    2008-10-01

    We studied how two different hand posture cues affect joint attention in normal observers. Visual targets appeared over lateralized objects, with different delays after centrally presented hand postures. Attention was cued by either hand direction or the congruency between hand aperture and object size. Participants pressed a button when they detected a target. Direction cues alone facilitated target detection following short delays but aperture cues alone were ineffective. In contrast, when hand postures combined direction and aperture cues, aperture congruency effects without directional congruency effects emerged and persisted, but only for power grips. These results suggest that parallel parameter specification makes joint attention mechanisms exquisitely sensitive to the timing and content of contextual cues.

  20. Compound cueing in free recall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohnas, Lynn J.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    According to the retrieved context theory of episodic memory, the cue for recall of an item is a weighted sum of recently activated cognitive states, including previously recalled and studied items as well as their associations. We show that this theory predicts there should be compound cueing in free recall. Specifically, the temporal contiguity effect should be greater when the two most recently recalled items were studied in contiguous list positions. A meta-analysis of published free recall experiments demonstrates evidence for compound cueing in both conditional response probabilities and inter-response times. To help rule out a rehearsal-based account of these compound cueing effects, we conducted an experiment with immediate, delayed and continual-distractor free recall conditions. Consistent with retrieved context theory but not with a rehearsal-based account, compound cueing was present in all conditions, and was not significantly influenced by the presence of interitem distractors. PMID:23957364

  1. Estimating the relative weights of visual and auditory tau versus heuristic-based cues for time-to-contact judgments in realistic, familiar scenes by older and younger adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Behrang; Campos, Jennifer L; DeLucia, Patricia R; Oberfeld, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Estimating time to contact (TTC) involves multiple sensory systems, including vision and audition. Previous findings suggested that the ratio of an object's instantaneous optical size/sound intensity to its instantaneous rate of change in optical size/sound intensity (τ) drives TTC judgments. Other evidence has shown that heuristic-based cues are used, including final optical size or final sound pressure level. Most previous studies have used decontextualized and unfamiliar stimuli (e.g., geometric shapes on a blank background). Here we evaluated TTC estimates by using a traffic scene with an approaching vehicle to evaluate the weights of visual and auditory TTC cues under more realistic conditions. Younger (18-39 years) and older (65+ years) participants made TTC estimates in three sensory conditions: visual-only, auditory-only, and audio-visual. Stimuli were presented within an immersive virtual-reality environment, and cue weights were calculated for both visual cues (e.g., visual τ, final optical size) and auditory cues (e.g., auditory τ, final sound pressure level). The results demonstrated the use of visual τ as well as heuristic cues in the visual-only condition. TTC estimates in the auditory-only condition, however, were primarily based on an auditory heuristic cue (final sound pressure level), rather than on auditory τ. In the audio-visual condition, the visual cues dominated overall, with the highest weight being assigned to visual τ by younger adults, and a more equal weighting of visual τ and heuristic cues in older adults. Overall, better characterizing the effects of combined sensory inputs, stimulus characteristics, and age on the cues used to estimate TTC will provide important insights into how these factors may affect everyday behavior.

  2. Music and metronome cues produce different effects on gait spatiotemporal measures but not gait variability in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Joanne E; Webster, Kate E; Hill, Keith

    2013-02-01

    Rhythmic auditory cues including music and metronome beats have been used, sometimes interchangeably, to improve disordered gait arising from a range of clinical conditions. There has been limited investigation into whether there are optimal cue types. Different cue types have produced inconsistent effects across groups which differed in both age and clinical condition. The possible effect of normal ageing on response to different cue types has not been reported for gait. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of both rhythmic music and metronome cues on gait spatiotemporal measures (including variability) in healthy older people. Twelve women and seven men (>65 years) walked on an instrumented walkway at comfortable pace and then in time to each of rhythmic music and metronome cues at comfortable pace stepping frequency. Music but not metronome cues produced a significant increase in group mean gait velocity of 4.6 cm/s, due mostly to a significant increase in group mean stride length of 3.1cm. Both cue types produced a significant but small increase in cadence of 1 step/min. Mean spatio-temporal variability was low at baseline and did not increase with either cue type suggesting cues did not disrupt gait timing. Study findings suggest music and metronome cues may not be used interchangeably and cue type as well as frequency should be considered when evaluating effects of rhythmic auditory cueing on gait. Further work is required to determine whether optimal cue types and frequencies to improve walking in different clinical groups can be identified. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The time-course of activation in the dorsal and ventral visual streams during landmark cueing and perceptual discrimination tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Anthony J; Wootton, Adrienne

    2017-08-01

    Different patterns of high density EEG activity were elicited by the same peripheral stimuli, in the context of Landmark Cueing and Perceptual Discrimination tasks. The C1 component of the visual event-related potential (ERP) at parietal - occipital electrode sites was larger in the Landmark Cueing task, and source localisation suggested greater activation in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in this task, compared to the Perceptual Discrimination task, indicating stronger early recruitment of the dorsal visual stream. In the Perceptual Discrimination task, source localisation suggested widespread activation of the inferior temporal gyrus (ITG) and fusiform gyrus (FFG), structures associated with the ventral visual stream, during the early phase of the P1 ERP component. Moreover, during a later epoch (171-270ms after stimulus onset) increased temporal-occipital negativity, and stronger recruitment of ITG and FFG were observed in the Perceptual Discrimination task. These findings illuminate the contrasting functions of the dorsal and ventral visual streams, to support rapid shifts of attention in response to contextual landmarks, and conscious discrimination, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Does Contextual Cueing Guide the Deployment of Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when observers are not aware of the repetition. It has been thought that the context of the display guides attention to the target. We tested this hypothesis by comparing the effects of guidance in a standard search task to the effects of contextual cueing. Firstly, in standard search, an improvement in guidance causes search slopes (derived from RT × Set Size functions) to decrease. In contrast, we found that search slopes in contextual cueing did not become more efficient over time (Experiment 1). Secondly, when guidance is optimal (e.g. in easy feature search) we still found a small, but reliable contextual cueing effect (Experiments 2a and 2b), suggesting that other factors, such as response selection, contribute to the effect. Experiment 3 supported this hypothesis by showing that the contextual cueing effect disappeared when we added interference to the response selection process. Overall, our data suggest that the relationship between guidance and contextual cueing is weak and that response selection can account for part of the effect. PMID:17683230

  5. Global Repetition Influences Contextual Cueing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Xuelian; Zinchenko, Artyom; Jia, Lina; Li, Hong

    2018-01-01

    Our visual system has a striking ability to improve visual search based on the learning of repeated ambient regularities, an effect named contextual cueing. Whereas most of the previous studies investigated contextual cueing effect with the same number of repeated and non-repeated search displays per block, the current study focused on whether a global repetition frequency formed by different presentation ratios between the repeated and non-repeated configurations influence contextual cueing effect. Specifically, the number of repeated and non-repeated displays presented in each block was manipulated: 12:12, 20:4, 4:20, and 4:4 in Experiments 1–4, respectively. The results revealed a significant contextual cueing effect when the global repetition frequency is high (≥1:1 ratio) in Experiments 1, 2, and 4, given that processing of repeated displays was expedited relative to non-repeated displays. Nevertheless, the contextual cueing effect reduced to a non-significant level when the repetition frequency reduced to 4:20 in Experiment 3. These results suggested that the presentation frequency of repeated relative to the non-repeated displays could influence the strength of contextual cueing. In other words, global repetition statistics could be a crucial factor to mediate contextual cueing effect. PMID:29636716

  6. Cognition and balance control: does processing of explicit contextual cues of impending perturbations modulate automatic postural responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Daniel Boari; Teixeira, Luis Augusto

    2017-08-01

    Processing of predictive contextual cues of an impending perturbation is thought to induce adaptive postural responses. Cueing in previous research has been provided through repeated perturbations with a constant foreperiod. This experimental strategy confounds explicit predictive cueing with adaptation and non-specific properties of temporal cueing. Two experiments were performed to assess those factors separately. To perturb upright balance, the base of support was suddenly displaced backwards in three amplitudes: 5, 10 and 15 cm. In Experiment 1, we tested the effect of cueing the amplitude of the impending postural perturbation by means of visual signals, and the effect of adaptation to repeated exposures by comparing block versus random sequences of perturbation. In Experiment 2, we evaluated separately the effects of cueing the characteristics of an impending balance perturbation and cueing the timing of perturbation onset. Results from Experiment 1 showed that the block sequence of perturbations led to increased stability of automatic postural responses, and modulation of magnitude and onset latency of muscular responses. Results from Experiment 2 showed that only the condition cueing timing of platform translation onset led to increased balance stability and modulation of onset latency of muscular responses. Conversely, cueing platform displacement amplitude failed to induce any effects on automatic postural responses in both experiments. Our findings support the interpretation of improved postural responses via optimized sensorimotor processes, at the same time that cast doubt on the notion that cognitive processing of explicit contextual cues advancing the magnitude of an impending perturbation can preset adaptive postural responses.

  7. An improved real time superresolution FPGA system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi Narasimha, Pramod; Mudigoudar, Basavaraj; Yue, Zhanfeng; Topiwala, Pankaj

    2009-05-01

    In numerous computer vision applications, enhancing the quality and resolution of captured video can be critical. Acquired video is often grainy and low quality due to motion, transmission bottlenecks, etc. Postprocessing can enhance it. Superresolution greatly decreases camera jitter to deliver a smooth, stabilized, high quality video. In this paper, we extend previous work on a real-time superresolution application implemented in ASIC/FPGA hardware. A gradient based technique is used to register the frames at the sub-pixel level. Once we get the high resolution grid, we use an improved regularization technique in which the image is iteratively modified by applying back-projection to get a sharp and undistorted image. The algorithm was first tested in software and migrated to hardware, to achieve 320x240 -> 1280x960, about 30 fps, a stunning superresolution by 16X in total pixels. Various input parameters, such as size of input image, enlarging factor and the number of nearest neighbors, can be tuned conveniently by the user. We use a maximum word size of 32 bits to implement the algorithm in Matlab Simulink as well as in FPGA hardware, which gives us a fine balance between the number of bits and performance. The proposed system is robust and highly efficient. We have shown the performance improvement of the hardware superresolution over the software version (C code).

  8. Estimated capacity of object files in visual short-term memory is not improved by retrieval cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, Jun; Miyatsuji, Hirofumi

    2009-03-23

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) has been claimed to maintain three to five feature-bound object representations. Some results showing smaller capacity estimates for feature binding memory have been interpreted as the effects of interference in memory retrieval. However, change-detection tasks may not properly evaluate complex feature-bound representations such as triple conjunctions in VSTM. To understand the general type of feature-bound object representation, evaluation of triple conjunctions is critical. To test whether interference occurs in memory retrieval for complete object file representations in a VSTM task, we cued retrieval in novel paradigms that directly evaluate the memory for triple conjunctions, in comparison with a simple change-detection task. In our multiple object permanence tracking displays, observers monitored for a switch in feature combination between objects during an occlusion period, and we found that a retrieval cue provided no benefit with the triple conjunction tasks, but significant facilitation with the change-detection task, suggesting that low capacity estimates of object file memory in VSTM reflect a limit on maintenance, not retrieval.

  9. Assessing the Role of Place and Timing Cues in Coding Frequency and Amplitude Modulation as a Function of Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Kelly L; Kreft, Heather A; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-08-01

    Natural sounds can be characterized by their fluctuations in amplitude and frequency. Ageing may affect sensitivity to some forms of fluctuations more than others. The present study used individual differences across a wide age range (20-79 years) to test the hypothesis that slow-rate, low-carrier frequency modulation (FM) is coded by phase-locked auditory-nerve responses to temporal fine structure (TFS), whereas fast-rate FM is coded via rate-place (tonotopic) cues, based on amplitude modulation (AM) of the temporal envelope after cochlear filtering. Using a low (500 Hz) carrier frequency, diotic FM and AM detection thresholds were measured at slow (1 Hz) and fast (20 Hz) rates in 85 listeners. Frequency selectivity and TFS coding were assessed using forward masking patterns and interaural phase disparity tasks (slow dichotic FM), respectively. Comparable interaural level disparity tasks (slow and fast dichotic AM and fast dichotic FM) were measured to control for effects of binaural processing not specifically related to TFS coding. Thresholds in FM and AM tasks were correlated, even across tasks thought to use separate peripheral codes. Age was correlated with slow and fast FM thresholds in both diotic and dichotic conditions. The relationship between age and AM thresholds was generally not significant. Once accounting for AM sensitivity, only diotic slow-rate FM thresholds remained significantly correlated with age. Overall, results indicate stronger effects of age on FM than AM. However, because of similar effects for both slow and fast FM when not accounting for AM sensitivity, the effects cannot be unambiguously ascribed to TFS coding.

  10. Effect of type of cue, type of response, time delay and two different ongoing tasks on prospective memory functioning after acquired brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, Sarah A; Buckheit, Carol A; Waxman, Amanda

    2012-01-01

    Failures of prospective memory (PM) are one of the most frequent, and least studied, sequelae of brain injury. PM, also referred to as memory for intentions, is the ability to remember to carry out a future task. Successful completion of a PM task requires the ability to monitor time, keep the action to be performed periodically in awareness, remember the task to be performed, and initiate the action. Although PM has been shown to be a common difficulty after brain injury, it remains unknown which aspects of performance are impaired. In this study, the performance of 25 individuals with brain injury and that of 25 healthy participants were measured separately on the following variables: time until completion of the task, difficulty of the ongoing task being performed while waiting, whether the task to be performed is an action or is verbal, and whether the cue to perform the task is the passing of a particular amount of time (e.g., 10 minutes) or is an external cue (e.g., an alarm sounding). Individuals with brain injury demonstrated impairment compared to healthy adults on virtually all variables. PM performance was also compared to a battery of standard neuropsychological measures of attention, memory, and executive functions, and to self-report measures of PM functioning, in order to determine the underlying cognitive deficits responsible for poor PM performance, if any. PM performance was correlated with measures of executive functioning but not to self-report measures of PM functioning. Implications are discussed in terms of cognitive rehabilitation recommendations.

  11. Structural and Functional Plasticity within the Nucleus Accumbens and Prefrontal Cortex Associated with Time-Dependent Increases in Food Cue-Seeking Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingess, Paige M; Darling, Rebecca A; Derman, Rifka C; Wulff, Shaun S; Hunter, Melissa L; Ferrario, Carrie R; Brown, Travis E

    2017-11-01

    Urges to consume food can be driven by stimuli in the environment that are associated with previous food experience. Identifying adaptations within brain reward circuits that facilitate cue-induced food seeking is critical for understanding and preventing the overconsumption of food and subsequent weight gain. Utilizing electrophysiological, biochemical, and DiI labeling, we examined functional and structural changes in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC) associated with time-dependent increases in food craving ('incubation of craving'). Rats self-administered 60% high fat or chow 45 mg pellets and were then tested for incubation of craving either 1 or 30 days after training. High fat was chosen for comparison to determine whether palatability differentially affected incubation and/or plasticity. Rats showed robust incubation of craving for both food rewards, although responding for cues previously associated with high fat was greater than chow at both 1 and 30 days. In addition, previous experience with high-fat consumption reduced dendritic spine density in the PFC at both time points. In contrast, incubation was associated with an increase in NAc spine density and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR)-mediated transmission at 30 days in both groups. Finally, incubation of craving for chow and high fat was accompanied by an increase in calcium-permeable and calcium-impermeable AMPARs, respectively. Our results suggest that incubation of food craving alters brain reward circuitry and macronutrient composition specifically induces cortical changes in a way that may facilitate maladaptive food-seeking behaviors.

  12. Improving generalized inverted index lock wait times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodin, A.; Mirvoda, S.; Porshnev, S.; Ponomareva, O.

    2018-01-01

    Concurrent operations on tree like data structures is a cornerstone of any database system. Concurrent operations intended for improving read\\write performance and usually implemented via some way of locking. Deadlock-free methods of concurrency control are known as tree locking protocols. These protocols provide basic operations(verbs) and algorithm (ways of operation invocations) for applying it to any tree-like data structure. These algorithms operate on data, managed by storage engine which are very different among RDBMS implementations. In this paper, we discuss tree locking protocol implementation for General inverted index (Gin) applied to multiversion concurrency control (MVCC) storage engine inside PostgreSQL RDBMS. After that we introduce improvements to locking protocol and provide usage statistics about evaluation of our improvement in very high load environment in one of the world’s largest IT company.

  13. Hope for improvements as negotiation time starts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    There are indications that Australian producers can expect a significant price increase for coking coal in 2001. The outlook for thermal coal looks even more promising since prices for thermal coal in the Pacific have been steadily improving. The major demand centres for 2001 are Korea, Taiwan and the ASEAN countries. 2 photos.

  14. Auditory Emotional Cues Enhance Visual Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeelenberg, Rene; Bocanegra, Bruno R.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies show that emotional stimuli impair performance to subsequently presented neutral stimuli. Here we show a cross-modal perceptual enhancement caused by emotional cues. Auditory cue words were followed by a visually presented neutral target word. Two-alternative forced-choice identification of the visual target was improved by…

  15. Prospective memory in multiple sclerosis: The impact of cue distinctiveness and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Emmanuelle; Rouleau, Isabelle; Tremblay, Alexandra; Demers, Mélanie; Roger, Élaine; Jobin, Céline; Duquette, Pierre

    2016-11-01

    Prospective memory (PM), the ability to remember to do something at the appropriate time in the future, is crucial in everyday life. One way to improve PM performance is to increase the salience of a cue announcing that it is time to act. Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients often report PM failures and there is growing evidence of PM deficits among this population. However, such deficits are poorly characterized and their relation to cognitive status remains unclear. To better understand PM deficits in MS patients, this study investigated the impact of cue salience on PM, and its relation to retrospective memory (RM) and executive deficits. Thirty-nine (39) MS patients were compared to 18 healthy controls on a PM task modulating cue salience during an ongoing general knowledge test. MS patients performed worse than controls on the PM task, regardless of cue salience. MS patients' executive functions contributed significantly to the variance in PM performance, whereas age, education and RM did not. Interestingly, low- and high-executive patients' performance differed when the cue was not salient, but not when it was, suggesting that low-executive MS patients benefited more from cue salience. These findings add to the growing evidence of PM deficits in MS and highlight the contribution of executive functions to certain aspects of PM. In low-executive MS patients, high cue salience improves PM performance by reducing the detection threshold and need for environmental monitoring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The effectiveness of external sensory cues in improving functional performance in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassimatis, Constantine; Liu, Karen P Y; Fahey, Paul; Bissett, Michelle

    2016-09-01

    A systematic review with meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect external sensory cued therapy on activities of daily living (ADL) performance that include walking and daily tasks such as dressing for individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). A detailed computer-aided search of the literature was applied to MEDLINE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE and PubMed. Studies investigating the effects of external sensory cued therapy on ADL performance for individuals with PD in all stages of disease progression were collected. Relevant articles were critically reviewed and study results were synthesized by two independent researchers. A data-analysis method was used to extract data from selected articles. A meta-analysis was carried out for all randomized-controlled trials. Six studies with 243 individuals with PD were included in this review. All six studies yielded positive findings in favour of external sensory cues. The meta-analysis showed that external sensory cued therapy improved statistically after treatment (P=0.011) and at follow-up (Psensory into a training programme focused on improving daily task performance.

  17. Timely bystander CPR improves outcomes despite longer EMS times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Gwan Jin; Song, Kyoung Jun; Shin, Sang Do; Lee, Kyung Won; Ahn, Ki Ok; Lee, Eui Jung; Hong, Ki Jeong; Ro, Young Sun

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of bystander CPR on clinical outcomes in patients with increasing response time from collapse to EMS response. A population-based observational study was conducted in patients with witnessed out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) of presumed cardiac etiology from 2012 to 2014. The time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers was categorized into quartile groups: fastest group (bystander CPR and the time interval from collapse to CPR by EMS providers. A total of 15,354 OHCAs were analyzed. Bystander CPR was performed in 8591 (56.0%). Survival to hospital discharge occurred in 1632 (10.6%) and favorable neurological outcome in 996 (6.5%). In an interaction model of bystander CPR, compared to the fastest group, adjusted odds ratios (AORs) (95% CIs) for survival to discharge were 0.89 (0.66-1.20) in the fast group, 0.76 (0.57-1.02) in the late group, and 0.52 (0.37-0.73) in the latest group. For favorable neurological outcome, AORs were 1.12 (0.77-1.62) in the fast group, 0.90 (0.62-1.30) in the late group, 0.59 (0.38-0.91) in the latest group. The survival from OHCA decreases as the ambulance response time increases. The increase in mortality and worsening neurologic outcomes appear to be mitigated in those patients who receive bystander CPR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Improving Supervision of Part-Time Instructors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eney, Patricia R.; Davidson, Evelyn

    2012-01-01

    With an increasing number of colleges and universities turning to part-time instructors to teach courses at their institutions, developmental education professionals are faced with the task of finding appropriate ways to train, serve, and evaluate these instructors. Unfortunately, there is little published information on how to accomplish these…

  19. TIME MANAGEMENT - AN INSTRUMENT TO IMPROVE PRODUCTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Nortje

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: TIME is an Important element in any persons life as a plannlng mechanlsm to meaningfully organIse activities, or to ensure that a oroject runs WIth but also as a generator of destructive forces over it is lost. In the process of growth and progress ln a dynamIC everchanging envIronment. tIme not only becomes dearer to management, but also $carcet-, and an era of "time poverty" is experienced by many. A varIety of uncontrollable factors may be the cause of such problems, but a danger eXIsts that those factors over which control may be exercised could be lost within the uncontrol labie ones. The objective of this artIcle on tIme management is then to assist in identIfying those "barriers" which lead to "time pover'ty", how to avoid and prevent tIme wastage and apply methods, and make use of ways to promote the effective use of tIme.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: TYD is 'n belangrlke faktor In dIe lewe van dIe mens enersyds dlen dlt as 'n beplannlngsmeganlsme am jOU daaglikse aktiwitelte slnvol te orden of am 'n pro.lek met preS1Sle te laat verloop, maar andersvds kan dlt ook vernietigende kragte genereer lndlen 'n mens daaroor beheer verloor. In die proses van groel en voorultgang In 'n dinamles veranderende omgewlng, raak dIe tyd van bestuur nle aIleen kosbaarder n ie, maarook skaar'ser en 'n era van' tydarmoede' word deur ba i e ervaar·. ' n Verskel denhe 1d van onbehee rbare faktore mag hiervoor verantwoordeilk wees, maar dIe gevaar bestaan dat die mens dle greep op dIe beheerbare faktore mag verloor. Die DOEL met hierdle artlkel oor tydsbestuur IS jU1S om behulpsaam te wees met dIe ldentiflsering van "slaggate" wat tot'tydat-moede" aanlelding gee. hoe am tydverkwlstlng te voorkom of te hanteer en die toepassing van metodes en gebruik van hulpmiddels om effektiewe tydsbestuur te bevorder.

  20. Cue-induced craving among inhalant users: Development and preliminary validation of a visual cue paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shobhit; Dhawan, Anju; Kumaran, S Senthil; Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Jain, Raka

    2017-12-01

    Cue-induced craving is known to be associated with a higher risk of relapse, wherein drug-specific cues become conditioned stimuli, eliciting conditioned responses. Cue-reactivity paradigm are important tools to study psychological responses and functional neuroimaging changes. However, till date, there has been no specific study or a validated paradigm for inhalant cue-induced craving research. The study aimed to develop and validate visual cue stimulus for inhalant cue-associated craving. The first step (picture selection) involved screening and careful selection of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures based on their relevance for naturalistic settings. In the second step (time optimization), a random selection of ten cue-pictures each was presented for 4s, 6s, and 8s to seven adolescent male inhalant users, and pre-post craving response was compared using a Visual Analogue Scale(VAS) for each of the picture and time. In the third step (validation), craving response for each of 30 cue- and 30 neutral-pictures were analysed among 20 adolescent inhalant users. Findings revealed a significant difference in before and after craving response for the cue-pictures, but not neutral-pictures. Using ROC-curve, pictures were arranged in order of craving intensity. Finally, 20 best cue- and 20 neutral-pictures were used for the development of a 480s visual cue paradigm. This is the first study to systematically develop an inhalant cue picture paradigm which can be used as a tool to examine cue induced craving in neurobiological studies. Further research, including its further validation in larger study and diverse samples, is required. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. COPD: time to improve its taxonomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartolomé R. Celli

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to well-conducted epidemiological studies and advances in genetics, molecular biology, translational research, the advent of computed tomography of the lungs and bioinformatics, the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a single entity caused by susceptibility to cigarette smoke is no longer tenable. Furthermore, the once-accepted concept that COPD results from a rapid and progressive loss of lung function over time is not true for a sizeable proportion of adults with the disease. Now we know that some genetic predisposition and/or different environmental interactions (nutritional, infectious, pollution and immunological may negatively modulate post-natal lung development and lead to poorly reversible airflow limitation later in life, consistent with COPD. We believe it is time to rethink the taxonomy of this disease based on the evidence at hand. To do so, we have followed the principles outlined in the 1980s by J.D. Scadding who proposed that diseases can be defined by four key characteristics: 1 clinical description (syndrome, 2 disorder of structure (morbid anatomy, 3 disorder of function (pathophysiology and 4 causation (aetiology. Here, we propose a pragmatic approach to the taxonomy of COPD based on different processes that result in a similar syndromic presentation. It can accommodate changes over time, as the pathobiology that may lead to COPD expands. We hope that stakeholders in the field may find it useful to better define the patients now boxed into one single entity, so that specific studies can be designed and conducted for each type of COPDs.

  2. Visible propagation from invisible exogenous cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; Murray, Scott O

    2013-09-20

    Perception and performance is affected not just by what we see but also by what we do not see-inputs that escape our awareness. While conscious processing and unconscious processing have been assumed to be separate and independent, here we report the propagation of unconscious exogenous cueing as determined by conscious motion perception. In a paradigm combining masked exogenous cueing and apparent motion, we show that, when an onset cue was rendered invisible, the unconscious exogenous cueing effect traveled, manifesting at uncued locations (4° apart) in accordance with conscious perception of visual motion; the effect diminished when the cue-to-target distance was 8° apart. In contrast, conscious exogenous cueing manifested in both distances. Further evidence reveals that the unconscious and conscious nonretinotopic effects could not be explained by an attentional gradient, nor by bottom-up, energy-based motion mechanisms, but rather they were subserved by top-down, tracking-based motion mechanisms. We thus term these effects mobile cueing. Taken together, unconscious mobile cueing effects (a) demonstrate a previously unknown degree of flexibility of unconscious exogenous attention; (b) embody a simultaneous dissociation and association of attention and consciousness, in which exogenous attention can occur without cue awareness ("dissociation"), yet at the same time its effect is contingent on conscious motion tracking ("association"); and (c) underscore the interaction of conscious and unconscious processing, providing evidence for an unconscious effect that is not automatic but controlled.

  3. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Badham, S. P.; Poirier, M.; Gandhi, N.; Hadjivassiliou, A.; Maylor, E. A.

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue?s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue?s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encod...

  4. Paired Synchronous Rhythmic Finger Tapping without an External Timing Cue Shows Greater Speed Increases Relative to Those for Solo Tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Masahiro; Shinya, Masahiro; Kudo, Kazutoshi

    2017-03-09

    In solo synchronization-continuation (SC) tasks, intertap intervals (ITI) are known to drift from the initial tempo. It has been demonstrated that people in paired and group contexts modulate their action timing unconsciously in various situations such as choice reaction tasks, rhythmic body sway, and hand clapping in concerts, which suggests the possibility that ITI drift is also affected by paired context. We conducted solo and paired SC tapping experiments with three tempos (75, 120, and 200 bpm) and examined whether tempo-keeping performance changed according to tempo and/or the number of players. Results indicated that those tapping in the paired conditions were faster, relative to those observed in the solo conditions, for all tempos. For the faster participants, the degree of ITI drift in the solo conditions was strongly correlated with that in the paired conditions. Regression analyses suggested that both faster and slower participants adapted their tap timing to that of their partners. A possible explanation for these results is that the participants reset the phase of their internal clocks according to the faster beat between their own tap and the partners' tap. Our results indicated that paired context could bias the direction of ITI drift toward decreasing.

  5. Quality Improvement Cycles that Reduced Waiting Times at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was decided to undertake quality improvement (QI) cycles to analyse and improve the situation, using waiting time as a measure of improvement. Methods: A QI team was chosen to conduct two QI cycles. The allocated time for QI cycle 1 was from May to August 2006 and for QI cycle 2 from September to December 2006.

  6. Course Development Cycle Time: A Framework for Continuous Process Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Erinn

    2003-01-01

    Details Edinboro University's efforts to reduce the extended cycle time required to develop new courses and programs. Describes a collaborative process improvement framework, illustrated data findings, the team's recommendations for improvement, and the outcomes of those recommendations. (EV)

  7. Cueing Complex Animations: Does Direction of Attention Foster Learning Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Richard; Boucheix, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    The time course of learners' processing of a complex animation was studied using a dynamic diagram of a piano mechanism. Over successive repetitions of the material, two forms of cueing (standard colour cueing and anti-cueing) were administered either before or during the animated segment of the presentation. An uncued group and two other control…

  8. Improvement on Timing Accuracy of LIDAR for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Huang, W.; Zhou, X.; Huang, Y.; He, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, L.

    2018-05-01

    The traditional timing discrimination technique for laser rangefinding in remote sensing, which is lower in measurement performance and also has a larger error, has been unable to meet the high precision measurement and high definition lidar image. To solve this problem, an improvement of timing accuracy based on the improved leading-edge timing discrimination (LED) is proposed. Firstly, the method enables the corresponding timing point of the same threshold to move forward with the multiple amplifying of the received signal. Then, timing information is sampled, and fitted the timing points through algorithms in MATLAB software. Finally, the minimum timing error is calculated by the fitting function. Thereby, the timing error of the received signal from the lidar is compressed and the lidar data quality is improved. Experiments show that timing error can be significantly reduced by the multiple amplifying of the received signal and the algorithm of fitting the parameters, and a timing accuracy of 4.63 ps is achieved.

  9. The contribution of dynamic visual cues to audiovisual speech perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaekl, Philip; Pesquita, Ana; Alsius, Agnes; Munhall, Kevin; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-08-01

    Seeing a speaker's facial gestures can significantly improve speech comprehension, especially in noisy environments. However, the nature of the visual information from the speaker's facial movements that is relevant for this enhancement is still unclear. Like auditory speech signals, visual speech signals unfold over time and contain both dynamic configural information and luminance-defined local motion cues; two information sources that are thought to engage anatomically and functionally separate visual systems. Whereas, some past studies have highlighted the importance of local, luminance-defined motion cues in audiovisual speech perception, the contribution of dynamic configural information signalling changes in form over time has not yet been assessed. We therefore attempted to single out the contribution of dynamic configural information to audiovisual speech processing. To this aim, we measured word identification performance in noise using unimodal auditory stimuli, and with audiovisual stimuli. In the audiovisual condition, speaking faces were presented as point light displays achieved via motion capture of the original talker. Point light displays could be isoluminant, to minimise the contribution of effective luminance-defined local motion information, or with added luminance contrast, allowing the combined effect of dynamic configural cues and local motion cues. Audiovisual enhancement was found in both the isoluminant and contrast-based luminance conditions compared to an auditory-only condition, demonstrating, for the first time the specific contribution of dynamic configural cues to audiovisual speech improvement. These findings imply that globally processed changes in a speaker's facial shape contribute significantly towards the perception of articulatory gestures and the analysis of audiovisual speech. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dominance dynamics of competition between intrinsic and extrinsic grouping cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Dolores; Villalba-García, Cristina; Montoro, Pedro R; Hinojosa, José A

    2016-10-01

    In the present study we examined the dominance dynamics of perceptual grouping cues. We used a paradigm in which participants selectively attended to perceptual groups based on several grouping cues in different blocks of trials. In each block, single and competing grouping cues were presented under different exposure durations (50, 150 or 350ms). Using this procedure, intrinsic vs. intrinsic cues (i.e. proximity and shape similarity) were compared in Experiment 1; extrinsic vs. extrinsic cues (i.e. common region and connectedness) in Experiment 2; and intrinsic vs. extrinsic cues (i.e. common region and shape similarity) in Experiment 3. The results showed that in Experiment 1, no dominance of any grouping cue was found: shape similarity and proximity grouping cues showed similar reaction times (RTs) and interference effects. In contrast, in Experiments 2 and 3, common region dominated processing: (i) RTs to common region were shorter than those to connectedness (Exp. 2) or shape similarity (Exp. 3); and (ii) when the grouping cues competed, common region interfered with connectedness (Exp. 2) and shape similarity (Exp. 3) more than vice versa. The results showed that the exposure duration of stimuli only affected the connectedness grouping cue. An important result of our experiments indicates that when two grouping cues compete, both the non-attended intrinsic cue in Experiment 1, and the non-dominant extrinsic cue in Experiments 2 and 3, are still perceived and they are not completely lost. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Body and Mind: Mindfulness Helps Consumers to Compensate for Prior Food Intake by Enhancing the Responsiveness to Physiological Cues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veer, van de E.; Herpen, van E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2016-01-01

    External cues regularly override physiological cues in food consumption resulting in mindless eating. In a series of experiments, this study shows that mindfulness, an enhanced attention state, improves consumers’ reliance on physiological cues across consumption episodes. Consumers who are

  12. Role of Gaze Cues in Interpersonal Motor Coordination: Towards Higher Affiliation in Human-Robot Interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Khoramshahi

    Full Text Available The ability to follow one another's gaze plays an important role in our social cognition; especially when we synchronously perform tasks together. We investigate how gaze cues can improve performance in a simple coordination task (i.e., the mirror game, whereby two players mirror each other's hand motions. In this game, each player is either a leader or follower. To study the effect of gaze in a systematic manner, the leader's role is played by a robotic avatar. We contrast two conditions, in which the avatar provides or not explicit gaze cues that indicate the next location of its hand. Specifically, we investigated (a whether participants are able to exploit these gaze cues to improve their coordination, (b how gaze cues affect action prediction and temporal coordination, and (c whether introducing active gaze behavior for avatars makes them more realistic and human-like (from the user point of view.43 subjects participated in 8 trials of the mirror game. Each subject performed the game in the two conditions (with and without gaze cues. In this within-subject study, the order of the conditions was randomized across participants, and subjective assessment of the avatar's realism was assessed by administering a post-hoc questionnaire. When gaze cues were provided, a quantitative assessment of synchrony between participants and the avatar revealed a significant improvement in subject reaction-time (RT. This confirms our hypothesis that gaze cues improve the follower's ability to predict the avatar's action. An analysis of the pattern of frequency across the two players' hand movements reveals that the gaze cues improve the overall temporal coordination across the two players. Finally, analysis of the subjective evaluations from the questionnaires reveals that, in the presence of gaze cues, participants found it not only more human-like/realistic, but also easier to interact with the avatar.This work confirms that people can exploit gaze cues to

  13. An Evidence-Based Cue-Selection Guide and Logic Model to Improve Pressure Ulcer Prevention in Long-term Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Tracey L; Kennerly, Susan M; Bergstrom, Nancy; Hudak, Sandra L; Horn, Susan D

    2016-01-01

    Pressure ulcers have consistently resisted prevention efforts in long-term care facilities nationwide. Recent research has described cueing innovations that-when selected according to the assumptions and resources of particular facilities-support best practices of pressure ulcer prevention. This article synthesizes that research into a unified, dynamic logic model to facilitate effective staff implementation of a pressure ulcer prevention program.

  14. Saccade frequency response to visual cues during gait in Parkinson's disease: the selective role of attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Samuel; Lord, Sue; Galna, Brook; Rochester, Lynn

    2018-04-01

    Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) with implications for falls risk. Visual cues improve gait in PD, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests that attention and vision play an important role; however, the relative contribution from each is unclear. Measurement of visual exploration (specifically saccade frequency) during gait allows for real-time measurement of attention and vision. Understanding how visual cues influence visual exploration may allow inferences of the underlying mechanisms to response which could help to develop effective therapeutics. This study aimed to examine saccade frequency during gait in response to a visual cue in PD and older adults and investigate the roles of attention and vision in visual cue response in PD. A mobile eye-tracker measured saccade frequency during gait in 55 people with PD and 32 age-matched controls. Participants walked in a straight line with and without a visual cue (50 cm transverse lines) presented under single task and dual-task (concurrent digit span recall). Saccade frequency was reduced when walking in PD compared to controls; however, visual cues ameliorated saccadic deficit. Visual cues significantly increased saccade frequency in both PD and controls under both single task and dual-task. Attention rather than visual function was central to saccade frequency and gait response to visual cues in PD. In conclusion, this study highlights the impact of visual cues on visual exploration when walking and the important role of attention in PD. Understanding these complex features will help inform intervention development. © 2018 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Attentional reorienting triggers spatial asymmetries in a search task with cross-modal spatial cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Paladini

    Full Text Available Cross-modal spatial cueing can affect performance in a visual search task. For example, search performance improves if a visual target and an auditory cue originate from the same spatial location, and it deteriorates if they originate from different locations. Moreover, it has recently been postulated that multisensory settings, i.e., experimental settings, in which critical stimuli are concurrently presented in different sensory modalities (e.g., visual and auditory, may trigger asymmetries in visuospatial attention. Thereby, a facilitation has been observed for visual stimuli presented in the right compared to the left visual space. However, it remains unclear whether auditory cueing of attention differentially affects search performance in the left and the right hemifields in audio-visual search tasks. The present study investigated whether spatial asymmetries would occur in a search task with cross-modal spatial cueing. Participants completed a visual search task that contained no auditory cues (i.e., unimodal visual condition, spatially congruent, spatially incongruent, and spatially non-informative auditory cues. To further assess participants' accuracy in localising the auditory cues, a unimodal auditory spatial localisation task was also administered. The results demonstrated no left/right asymmetries in the unimodal visual search condition. Both an additional incongruent, as well as a spatially non-informative, auditory cue resulted in lateral asymmetries. Thereby, search times were increased for targets presented in the left compared to the right hemifield. No such spatial asymmetry was observed in the congruent condition. However, participants' performance in the congruent condition was modulated by their tone localisation accuracy. The findings of the present study demonstrate that spatial asymmetries in multisensory processing depend on the validity of the cross-modal cues, and occur under specific attentional conditions, i.e., when

  16. Auditory Verbal Cues Alter the Perceived Flavor of Beverages and Ease of Swallowing: A Psychometric and Electrophysiological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aya Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the possible effects of auditory verbal cues on flavor perception and swallow physiology for younger and elder participants. Apple juice, aojiru (grass juice, and water were ingested with or without auditory verbal cues. Flavor perception and ease of swallowing were measured using a visual analog scale and swallow physiology by surface electromyography and cervical auscultation. The auditory verbal cues had significant positive effects on flavor and ease of swallowing as well as on swallow physiology. The taste score and the ease of swallowing score significantly increased when the participant’s anticipation was primed by accurate auditory verbal cues. There was no significant effect of auditory verbal cues on distaste score. Regardless of age, the maximum suprahyoid muscle activity significantly decreased when a beverage was ingested without auditory verbal cues. The interval between the onset of swallowing sounds and the peak timing point of the infrahyoid muscle activity significantly shortened when the anticipation induced by the cue was contradicted in the elderly participant group. These results suggest that auditory verbal cues can improve the perceived flavor of beverages and swallow physiology.

  17. Shifting attention among working memory representations: testing cue type, awareness, and strategic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryhill, Marian E; Richmond, Lauren L; Shay, Cara S; Olson, Ingrid R

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that visual working memory (VWM) performance is modulated by attentional cues presented during encoding. Interestingly, retrospective cues presented after encoding, but prior to the test phase also improve performance. This improvement in performance is termed the retro-cue benefit. We investigated whether the retro-cue benefit is sensitive to cue type, whether participants were aware of their improvement in performance due to the retro-cue, and whether the effect was under strategic control. Experiment 1 compared the potential cueing benefits of abrupt onset retro-cues relying on bottom-up attention, number retro-cues relying on top-down attention, and arrow retro-cues, relying on a mixture of both. We found a significant retro-cue effect only for arrow retro-cues. In Experiment 2, we tested participants' awareness of their use of the informative retro-cue and found that they were aware of their improved performance. In Experiment 3, we asked whether participants have strategic control over the retro-cue. The retro-cue was difficult to ignore, suggesting that strategic control is low. The retro-cue effect appears to be within conscious awareness but not under full strategic control.

  18. Improving Retention and Enrollment Forecasting in Part-Time Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Joel; Bray, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a model that can be used to analyze student enrollment data and can give insights for improving retention of part-time students and refining institutional budgeting and planning efforts. Adult higher-education programs are often challenged in that part-time students take courses less reliably than full-time students. For…

  19. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Janine W Y; Lucas, Christophe; Kölliker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia) if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism) and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC). Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  20. Cues of maternal condition influence offspring selfishness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine W Y Wong

    Full Text Available The evolution of parent-offspring communication was mostly studied from the perspective of parents responding to begging signals conveying information about offspring condition. Parents should respond to begging because of the differential fitness returns obtained from their investment in offspring that differ in condition. For analogous reasons, offspring should adjust their behavior to cues/signals of parental condition: parents that differ in condition pay differential costs of care and, hence, should provide different amounts of food. In this study, we experimentally tested in the European earwig (Forficula auricularia if cues of maternal condition affect offspring behavior in terms of sibling cannibalism. We experimentally manipulated female condition by providing them with different amounts of food, kept nymph condition constant, allowed for nymph exposure to chemical maternal cues over extended time, quantified nymph survival (deaths being due to cannibalism and extracted and analyzed the females' cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC. Nymph survival was significantly affected by chemical cues of maternal condition, and this effect depended on the timing of breeding. Cues of poor maternal condition enhanced nymph survival in early broods, but reduced nymph survival in late broods, and vice versa for cues of good condition. Furthermore, female condition affected the quantitative composition of their CHC profile which in turn predicted nymph survival patterns. Thus, earwig offspring are sensitive to chemical cues of maternal condition and nymphs from early and late broods show opposite reactions to the same chemical cues. Together with former evidence on maternal sensitivities to condition-dependent nymph chemical cues, our study shows context-dependent reciprocal information exchange about condition between earwig mothers and their offspring, potentially mediated by cuticular hydrocarbons.

  1. Image segmentation algorithm based on T-junctions cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yanyu; Cao, Fengyun; Wang, Lu; Yang, Xuejie

    2016-03-01

    To improve the over-segmentation and over-merge phenomenon of single image segmentation algorithm,a novel approach of combing Graph-Based algorithm and T-junctions cues is proposed in this paper. First, a method by L0 gradient minimization is applied to the smoothing of the target image eliminate artifacts caused by noise and texture detail; Then, the initial over-segmentation result of the smoothing image using the graph-based algorithm; Finally, the final results via a region fusion strategy by t-junction cues. Experimental results on a variety of images verify the new approach's efficiency in eliminating artifacts caused by noise,segmentation accuracy and time complexity has been significantly improved.

  2. Aging and memory as discrimination: Influences of encoding specificity, cue overload, and prior knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Poirier, Marie; Gandhi, Navina; Hadjivassiliou, Anna; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-11-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue's relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue's capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue-target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue-target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults' associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates-hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. New human-centered linear and nonlinear motion cueing algorithms for control of simulator motion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telban, Robert J.

    While the performance of flight simulator motion system hardware has advanced substantially, the development of the motion cueing algorithm, the software that transforms simulated aircraft dynamics into realizable motion commands, has not kept pace. To address this, new human-centered motion cueing algorithms were developed. A revised "optimal algorithm" uses time-invariant filters developed by optimal control, incorporating human vestibular system models. The "nonlinear algorithm" is a novel approach that is also formulated by optimal control, but can also be updated in real time. It incorporates a new integrated visual-vestibular perception model that includes both visual and vestibular sensation and the interaction between the stimuli. A time-varying control law requires the matrix Riccati equation to be solved in real time by a neurocomputing approach. Preliminary pilot testing resulted in the optimal algorithm incorporating a new otolith model, producing improved motion cues. The nonlinear algorithm vertical mode produced a motion cue with a time-varying washout, sustaining small cues for longer durations and washing out large cues more quickly compared to the optimal algorithm. The inclusion of the integrated perception model improved the responses to longitudinal and lateral cues. False cues observed with the NASA adaptive algorithm were absent. As a result of unsatisfactory sensation, an augmented turbulence cue was added to the vertical mode for both the optimal and nonlinear algorithms. The relative effectiveness of the algorithms, in simulating aircraft maneuvers, was assessed with an eleven-subject piloted performance test conducted on the NASA Langley Visual Motion Simulator (VMS). Two methods, the quasi-objective NASA Task Load Index (TLX), and power spectral density analysis of pilot control, were used to assess pilot workload. TLX analysis reveals, in most cases, less workload and variation among pilots with the nonlinear algorithm. Control input

  4. Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous utilization of service does not improve timely booking in antenatal care: Cross sectional study ... Journal Home > Vol 24, No 3 (2010) > ... Results: Past experience on antenatal care service utilization did not come out as a predictor for ...

  5. Drivers anticipate lead-vehicle conflicts during automated longitudinal control: Sensory cues capture driver attention and promote appropriate and timely responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morando, Alberto; Victor, Trent; Dozza, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) has been shown to reduce the exposure to critical situations by maintaining a safe speed and headway. It has also been shown that drivers adapt their visual behavior in response to the driving task demand with ACC, anticipating an impending lead vehicle conflict by directing their eyes to the forward path before a situation becomes critical. The purpose of this paper is to identify the causes related to this anticipatory mechanism, by investigating drivers' visual behavior while driving with ACC when a potential critical situation is encountered, identified as a forward collision warning (FCW) onset (including false positive warnings). This paper discusses how sensory cues capture attention to the forward path in anticipation of the FCW onset. The analysis used the naturalistic database EuroFOT to examine visual behavior with respect to two manually-coded metrics, glance location and glance eccentricity, and then related the findings to vehicle data (such as speed, acceleration, and radar information). Three sensory cues (longitudinal deceleration, looming, and brake lights) were found to be relevant for capturing driver attention and increase glances to the forward path in anticipation of the threat; the deceleration cue seems to be dominant. The results also show that the FCW acts as an effective attention-orienting mechanism when no threat anticipation is present. These findings, relevant to the study of automation, provide additional information about drivers' response to potential lead-vehicle conflicts when longitudinal control is automated. Moreover, these results suggest that sensory cues are important for alerting drivers to an impending critical situation, allowing for a prompt reaction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Speech cues contribute to audiovisual spatial integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W Bishop

    Full Text Available Speech is the most important form of human communication but ambient sounds and competing talkers often degrade its acoustics. Fortunately the brain can use visual information, especially its highly precise spatial information, to improve speech comprehension in noisy environments. Previous studies have demonstrated that audiovisual integration depends strongly on spatiotemporal factors. However, some integrative phenomena such as McGurk interference persist even with gross spatial disparities, suggesting that spatial alignment is not necessary for robust integration of audiovisual place-of-articulation cues. It is therefore unclear how speech-cues interact with audiovisual spatial integration mechanisms. Here, we combine two well established psychophysical phenomena, the McGurk effect and the ventriloquist's illusion, to explore this dependency. Our results demonstrate that conflicting spatial cues may not interfere with audiovisual integration of speech, but conflicting speech-cues can impede integration in space. This suggests a direct but asymmetrical influence between ventral 'what' and dorsal 'where' pathways.

  7. Automaticity of phasic alertness: Evidence for a three-component model of visual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhicheng; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2016-10-01

    The automaticity of phasic alertness is investigated using the attention network test. Results show that the cueing effect from the alerting cue-double cue-is strongly enhanced by the task relevance of visual cues, as determined by the informativeness of the orienting cue-single cue-that is being mixed (80 % vs. 50 % valid in predicting where the target will appear). Counterintuitively, the cueing effect from the alerting cue can be negatively affected by its visibility, such that masking the cue from awareness can reveal a cueing effect that is otherwise absent when the cue is visible. Evidently, then, top-down influences-in the form of contextual relevance and cue awareness-can have opposite influences on the cueing effect from the alerting cue. These findings lead us to the view that a visual cue can engage three components of attention-orienting, alerting, and inhibition-to determine the behavioral cueing effect. We propose that phasic alertness, particularly in the form of specific response readiness, is regulated by both internal, top-down expectation and external, bottom-up stimulus properties. In contrast to some existing views, we advance the perspective that phasic alertness is strongly tied to temporal orienting, attentional capture, and spatial orienting. Finally, we discuss how translating attention research to clinical applications would benefit from an improved ability to measure attention. To this end, controlling the degree of intraindividual variability in the attentional components and improving the precision of the measurement tools may prove vital.

  8. Visual cues for data mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogowitz, Bernice E.; Rabenhorst, David A.; Gerth, John A.; Kalin, Edward B.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a set of visual techniques, based on principles of human perception and cognition, which can help users analyze and develop intuitions about tabular data. Collections of tabular data are widely available, including, for example, multivariate time series data, customer satisfaction data, stock market performance data, multivariate profiles of companies and individuals, and scientific measurements. In our approach, we show how visual cues can help users perform a number of data mining tasks, including identifying correlations and interaction effects, finding clusters and understanding the semantics of cluster membership, identifying anomalies and outliers, and discovering multivariate relationships among variables. These cues are derived from psychological studies on perceptual organization, visual search, perceptual scaling, and color perception. These visual techniques are presented as a complement to the statistical and algorithmic methods more commonly associated with these tasks, and provide an interactive interface for the human analyst.

  9. What You Don't Notice Can Harm You: Age-Related Differences in Detecting Concurrent Visual, Auditory, and Tactile Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Brandon J; Sarter, Nadine

    2018-06-01

    Objective This research sought to determine whether people can perceive and process three nonredundant (and unrelated) signals in vision, hearing, and touch at the same time and how aging and concurrent task demands affect this ability. Background Multimodal displays have been shown to improve multitasking and attention management; however, their potential limitations are not well understood. The majority of studies on multimodal information presentation have focused on the processing of only two concurrent and, most often, redundant cues by younger participants. Method Two experiments were conducted in which younger and older adults detected and responded to a series of singles, pairs, and triplets of visual, auditory, and tactile cues in the absence (Experiment 1) and presence (Experiment 2) of an ongoing simulated driving task. Detection rates, response times, and driving task performance were measured. Results Compared to younger participants, older adults showed longer response times and higher error rates in response to cues/cue combinations. Older participants often missed the tactile cue when three cues were combined. They sometimes falsely reported the presence of a visual cue when presented with a pair of auditory and tactile signals. Driving performance suffered most in the presence of cue triplets. Conclusion People are more likely to miss information if more than two concurrent nonredundant signals are presented to different sensory channels. Application The findings from this work help inform the design of multimodal displays and ensure their usefulness across different age groups and in various application domains.

  10. Improved timing of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+21 using real-time coherent dedispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, T.H.; Stinebring, D.R.; Rawley, L.A.; Princeton Univ., NJ)

    1987-01-01

    Profiles of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+21 have been obtained with 6-micron resolution using a real-time hardware dispersion removal device. This dedisperser has a potential resolution of better than 0.5 microsec and is immune to time-of-arrival jitter caused by scintillation-induced spectral gradients across the receiver passband. It significantly reduces the time-of-arrival residuals when compared with the timing technique currently in use. This increased timing accuracy, when utilized in a long-term timing program of millisec pulsars, will improve the solar system ephemeris and will substantially improve the detection limit of a gravitational wave background. 27 references

  11. Negative emotion provides cues for orienting auditory spatial attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkin eAsutay

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The auditory stimuli provide information about the objects and events around us. They can also carry biologically significant emotional information (such as unseen dangers and conspecific vocalizations, which provides cues for allocation of attention and mental resources. Here, we investigated whether task-irrelevant auditory emotional information can provide cues for orientation of auditory spatial attention. We employed a covert spatial orienting task: the dot-probe task. In each trial, two task irrelevant auditory cues were simultaneously presented at two separate locations (left-right or front-back. Environmental sounds were selected to form emotional vs. neutral, emotional vs. emotional, and neutral vs. neutral cue pairs. The participants’ task was to detect the location of an acoustic target that was presented immediately after the task-irrelevant auditory cues. The target was presented at the same location as one of the auditory cues. The results indicated that participants were significantly faster to locate the target when it replaced the negative cue compared to when it replaced the neutral cue. The positive cues did not produce a clear attentional bias. Further, same valence pairs (emotional-emotional or neutral-neutral did not modulate reaction times due to a lack of spatial attention capture by one cue in the pair. Taken together, the results indicate that negative affect can provide cues for the orientation of spatial attention in the auditory domain.

  12. Average chewing pattern improvements following Disclusion Time reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerstein, Robert B; Radke, John

    2017-05-01

    Studies involving electrognathographic (EGN) recordings of chewing improvements obtained following occlusal adjustment therapy are rare, as most studies lack 'chewing' within the research. The objectives of this study were to determine if reducing long Disclusion Time to short Disclusion Time with the immediate complete anterior guidance development (ICAGD) coronoplasty in symptomatic subjects altered their average chewing pattern (ACP) and their muscle function. Twenty-nine muscularly symptomatic subjects underwent simultaneous EMG and EGN recordings of right and left gum chewing, before and after the ICAGD coronoplasty. Statistical differences in the mean Disclusion Time, the mean muscle contraction cycle, and the mean ACP resultant from ICAGD underwent the Student's paired t-test (α = 0.05). Disclusion Time reductions from ICAGD were significant (2.11-0.45 s. p = 0.0000). Post-ICAGD muscle changes were significant in the mean area (p = 0.000001), the peak amplitude (p = 0.00005), the time to peak contraction (p chewing position became closer to centric occlusion (p chewing velocities increased (p chewing pattern (ACP) shape, speed, consistency, muscular coordination, and vertical opening improvements can be significantly improved in muscularly dysfunctional TMD patients within one week's time of undergoing the ICAGD enameloplasty. Computer-measured and guided occlusal adjustments quickly and physiologically improved chewing, without requiring the patients to wear pre- or post-treatment appliances.

  13. An Improved Scheduling Technique for Time-Triggered Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1999-01-01

    clock synchronization and mode changes. We have improved the quality of the schedules by introducing a new priority function that takes into consideration the communication protocol. Communication has been optimized through packaging messages into slots with a properly selected order and lengths......In this paper we present an improved scheduling technique for the synthesis of time-triggered embedded systems. Our system model captures both the flow of data and that of control. We have considered communication of data and conditions for a time-triggered protocol implementation that supports...

  14. Improving Autopsy Report Turnaround Times by Implementing Lean Management Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cromwell, Susan; Chiasson, David A; Cassidy, Debra; Somers, Gino R

    2018-01-01

    The autopsy is an integral part of the service of a large academic pathology department. Timely reporting is central to providing good service and is beneficial for many stakeholders, including the families, the clinical team, the hospital, and the wider community. The current study aimed to improve hospital-consented autopsy reporting times (turnaround time, TAT) by using lean principles modified for a healthcare setting, with an aim of signing out 90% of autopsies in 90 days. An audit of current and historical TATs was performed, and a working group incorporating administrative, technical, and professional staff constructed a value stream map documenting the steps involved in constructing an autopsy report. Two areas of delay were noted: examination of the microscopy and time taken to sign-out the report after the weekly autopsy conference. Several measures were implemented to address these delays, including visual tracking using a whiteboard and individualized tracking sheets, weekly whiteboard huddles, and timelier scheduling of clinicopathologic conference rounds. All measures resulted in an improvement of TATs. In the 30 months prior to the institution of lean, 37% of autopsies (53/144) were signed out in 90 days, with a wide variation in reporting times. In the 30 months following the institution of lean, this improved to 74% (136/185) ( P lean; 63 days post-lean). The application of lean principles to autopsy sign-out workflow can significantly improve TATs and reduce variability, without changing staffing levels or significantly altering scheduling structure.

  15. Improving Reports Turnaround Time: An Essential Healthcare Quality Dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mustafa; Khalid, Parwaiz; Al-Said, Youssef; Cupler, Edward; Almorsy, Lamia; Khalifa, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Turnaround time is one of the most important healthcare performance indicators. King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia worked on reducing the reports turnaround time of the neurophysiology lab from more than two weeks to only five working days for 90% of cases. The main quality improvement methodology used was the FOCUS PDCA. Using root cause analysis, Pareto analysis and qualitative survey methods, the main factors contributing to the delay of turnaround time and the suggested improvement strategies were identified and implemented, through restructuring transcriptionists daily tasks, rescheduling physicians time and alerting for new reports, engaging consultants, consistent coordination and prioritizing critical reports. After implementation; 92% of reports are verified within 5 days compared to only 6% before implementation. 7% of reports were verified in 5 days to 2 weeks and only 1% of reports needed more than 2 weeks compared to 76% before implementation.

  16. Effects of cues in a binary categorization task on dual-task performance, mental workload, and effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2016-09-01

    Binary cues help operators perform binary categorization tasks, such as monitoring for system failures. They may also allow them to attend to other tasks they concurrently perform. If the time saved by using cues is allocated to other concurrent tasks, users' overall effort may remain unchanged. In 2 experiments, participants performed a simulated quality control task, together with a tracking task. In half the experimental blocks cues were available, and participants could use them in their decisions about the quality of products (intact or faulty). In Experiment 1, the difficulty of tracking was constant, while in Experiment 2, tracking difficulty differed in the 2 halves of the experiment. In both experiments, participants reported on the NASA Task Load Index that cues improved their performance and reduced their frustration. Consequently, their overall score on mental workload (MWL) was lower with cues. They also reported, however, that cues did not reduce their effort. We conclude that cues and other forms of automation may support task performance and reduce overall MWL, but this will not necessarily mean that users will work less hard. Thus, effort and overall MWL should be evaluated separately, if one wants to obtain a full picture of the effects of automation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Some techniques to improve time structure of slow extracted beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoji, Y.; Sato, H.; Toyama, T.; Marutsuka, K.; Sueno, T.; Mikawa, K.; Ninomiya, S.; Yoshii, M.

    1992-01-01

    In order to improve the time structure of slow extracted beam spill for the KEK 12GeV PS, the spill control system has been upgraded by adding feed forward signal to feedback signal. Further, the wake field in the RF cavity has been cancelled by the beam bunch signal to reduce the re-bunch effect during extraction period. (author)

  18. Can an interprofessional tracheostomy team improve weaning to decannulation times? A quality improvement evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Melissa; Catalig, Marifel; Chris, Juliana; Pataki, Janos

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Percutaneous tracheostomy is a common procedure in the intensive care unit and, on patient transfer to the wards, there is a gap in ongoing tracheostomy management. There is some evidence that tracheostomy teams can shorten weaning to decannulation times. In response to lengthy weaning to decannulation times at Trillium Health Partners – Credit Valley Hospital site (Mississauga, Ontario), an interprofessional tracheostomy team, led by respiratory therapists and consisting of speech-language pathologists and intensive care physicians, was implemented. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the interprofessional tracheostomy team and its impact on time from weaning off mechanical ventilation to decannulation; and time from weaning to speech-language pathology referral. METHODS: Performance metrics were collected retrospectively through chart review pre- and post-team implementation. The primary metrics evaluated were the time from weaning off mechanical ventilation to decannulation, and time to referral to speech-language pathology. RESULTS: Following implementation of the interprofessional tracheostomy team, there was no improvement in decannulation times or time from weaning to speech-language pathology referral. A significant improvement was noted in the average time to first tracheostomy tube change (36.2 days to 22.9 days; P=0.01) and average time to speech-language pathology referral following initial tracheostomy insertion (51.8 days to 26.3 days; P=0.01). CONCLUSION: An interprofessional tracheostomy team can improve the quality of tracheostomy care through earlier tracheostomy tube changes and swallowing assessment referrals. The lack of improved weaning to decannulation time was potentially due to poor adherence with established protocols as well as a change in mechanical ventilation practices. To validate the findings from this particular institution, a more rigorous quality improvement methodology should be considered in addition to strategies to improve

  19. Laserlight cues for gait freezing in Parkinson's disease: an open-label study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, S; Lim, C; Diaz, N; Browner, N; Rose, P; Sudarsky, L R; Tarsy, D; Fahn, S; Simon, D K

    2011-05-01

    Freezing of gait (FOG) and falls are major sources of disability for Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, and show limited responsiveness to medications. We assessed the efficacy of visual cues for overcoming FOG in an open-label study of 26 patients with PD. The change in the frequency of falls was a secondary outcome measure. Subjects underwent a 1-2 month baseline period of use of a cane or walker without visual cues, followed by 1 month using the same device with the laserlight visual cue. The laserlight visual cue was associated with a modest but significant mean reduction in FOG Questionnaire (FOGQ) scores of 1.25 ± 0.48 (p = 0.0152, two-tailed paired t-test), representing a 6.6% improvement compared to the mean baseline FOGQ scores of 18.8. The mean reduction in fall frequency was 39.5 ± 9.3% with the laserlight visual cue among subjects experiencing at least one fall during the baseline and subsequent study periods (p = 0.002; two-tailed one-sample t-test with hypothesized mean of 0). Though some individual subjects may have benefited, the overall mean performance on the timed gait test (TGT) across all subjects did not significantly change. However, among the 4 subjects who underwent repeated testing of the TGT, one showed a 50% mean improvement in TGT performance with the laserlight visual cue (p = 0.005; two-tailed paired t-test). This open-label study provides evidence for modest efficacy of a laserlight visual cue in overcoming FOG and reducing falls in PD patients. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of harmonic ratios to examine the effect of cueing strategies on gait stability in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Kristin A; Carrel, Andrew J; McIlrath, Jessica M; Smiley-Oyen, Ann L

    2010-04-01

    To determine if gait stability, as measured by harmonic ratios (HRs) derived from trunk accelerations, is improved during 3 amplitude-based cueing strategies (visual cues, lines on the floor 20% longer than preferred step length; verbal cues, experimenter saying "big step" every third; cognitive cues, participants think "big step") in people with Parkinson's disease. Gait analysis with a triaxial accelerometer. University research laboratory. A volunteer sample of persons with Parkinson's disease (N=7) (Hoehn and Yahr stages 2-3). Not applicable Gait stability was quantified by anterior-posterior (AP), vertical, and mediolateral (ML) HRs; higher ratios indicated improved gait stability. Spatiotemporal parameters assessed were walking speed, stride length, cadence, and the coefficient of variation for stride time. Of the amplitude-based cues, verbal and cognitive resulted in the largest improvements in the AP HR (P=.018) with a trend in the vertical HR as well as the largest improvements in both stride length and velocity. None of the cues positively affected stability in the ML direction. Descriptively, all participants increased speed and stride length, but only those in Hoehn and Yahr stage 2 (not Hoehn and Yahr stage 3) showed improvements in HRs. Cueing for "big steps" is effective for improving gait stability in the AP direction with modest improvements in the vertical direction, but it is not effective in the ML direction. These data support the use of trunk acceleration measures in assessing the efficacy of common therapeutic interventions. Copyright 2010 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved hybrid information filtering based on limited time window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wen-Jun; Guo, Qiang; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2014-12-01

    Adopting the entire collecting information of users, the hybrid information filtering of heat conduction and mass diffusion (HHM) (Zhou et al., 2010) was successfully proposed to solve the apparent diversity-accuracy dilemma. Since the recent behaviors are more effective to capture the users' potential interests, we present an improved hybrid information filtering of adopting the partial recent information. We expand the time window to generate a series of training sets, each of which is treated as known information to predict the future links proven by the testing set. The experimental results on one benchmark dataset Netflix indicate that by only using approximately 31% recent rating records, the accuracy could be improved by an average of 4.22% and the diversity could be improved by 13.74%. In addition, the performance on the dataset MovieLens could be preserved by considering approximately 60% recent records. Furthermore, we find that the improved algorithm is effective to solve the cold-start problem. This work could improve the information filtering performance and shorten the computational time.

  2. Conditioned responses elicited by experimentally produced cues for smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, R F; Pauli, P; Angrilli, A

    1998-03-01

    Several theories of drug-craving postulate that a signal for drug elicits conditioned responses. However, depending on the theory, a drug cue is said to elicit drug similar, drug compensatory, positive motivational, and negative motivational effects. Since animal data alone cannot tease apart the relative importance of different cue-related processes in the addict, we developed and examined a model of drug cues in the human based on a two-sound, differential conditioning procedure using smoking as the reinforcer. After multiple pairings of a sound with smoking, there was a preference for the smoking cue on a conditioned preference test. The acute effects of smoking (increased heart rate, respiration rate, skin conductance level, skin conductance fluctuations, EEG beta power and trapezius EMG, decreased alpha power) were not affected by the smoking cue, although subjects drew more on their cigarette in the presence of the smoking cue than in the presence of a control cue. Moreover, the cue did not change baseline behaviour except for a possible increase in EEG beta power and an increase in trapezius EMG at about the time when smoking should have occurred. The findings confirm the value of experimental models of drug cues in the human for comparing different cue phenomena in the dependent individual. They indicate that an acquired signal for drug in the human may elicit incentive motivational effects and associated preparatory motor responses in addition to possible conditioned tolerance.

  3. Retro-dimension-cue benefit in visual working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Chaoxiong; Hu, Zhonghua; Ristaniemi, Tapani; Gendron, Maria; Liu, Qiang

    2016-10-24

    In visual working memory (VWM) tasks, participants' performance can be improved by a retro-object-cue. However, previous studies have not investigated whether participants' performance can also be improved by a retro-dimension-cue. Three experiments investigated this issue. We used a recall task with a retro-dimension-cue in all experiments. In Experiment 1, we found benefits from retro-dimension-cues compared to neutral cues. This retro-dimension-cue benefit is reflected in an increased probability of reporting the target, but not in the probability of reporting the non-target, as well as increased precision with which this item is remembered. Experiment 2 replicated the retro-dimension-cue benefit and showed that the length of the blank interval after the cue disappeared did not influence recall performance. Experiment 3 replicated the results of Experiment 2 with a lower memory load. Our studies provide evidence that there is a robust retro-dimension-cue benefit in VWM. Participants can use internal attention to flexibly allocate cognitive resources to a particular dimension of memory representations. The results also support the feature-based storing hypothesis.

  4. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  5. Targeting Reductions in Sitting Time to Increase Physical Activity and Improve Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keadle, Sarah K; Conroy, David E; Buman, Matthew P; Dunstan, David W; Matthews, Charles E

    2017-08-01

    : New evidence suggests that reductions in sedentary behavior may increase physical activity and improve health. These findings point to new behavioral targets for intervention and new ways to think about intervening to increase overall physical activity in the population. This report provides a knowledge update reflecting the rapid accumulation of new evidence related to sedentary behavior and health among adults. Recent observational studies suggest that leveraging the time-inverse relationship between sedentary and active behaviors by replacing sitting with standing, light- or moderate-intensity activity can have important health benefits, particularly among less active adults. Clinical studies are providing evidence of the probable physiologic mechanisms underlying these associations, as well as insights into the cardiometabolic impact of breaking up and reducing sedentary behavior. In contrast to the well-established behavioral theories that guide the development and dissemination of evidence-based interventions to increase moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity, much less is known about how to reduce sedentary time to increase daily activities. It has become clear that the environmental, social, and individual level determinants for sedentary time are distinct from those linked to the adoption and maintenance of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity. As a result, novel intervention strategies that focus on sitting and lower-intensity activities by leveraging the surrounding environment (e.g., workplace, school, and home) as well as individual-level cues and habits of sedentary behavior are being tested to increase the potency of interventions designed to increase overall physical activity. Herein we summarize the solutions-oriented research across the behavioral research framework, with a focus on highlighting areas of synergy across disciplines and identifying gaps for future research.

  6. Real-Time Pore Pressure Detection: Indicators and Improved Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jincai Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High uncertainties may exist in the predrill pore pressure prediction in new prospects and deepwater subsalt wells; therefore, real-time pore pressure detection is highly needed to reduce drilling risks. The methods for pore pressure detection (the resistivity, sonic, and corrected d-exponent methods are improved using the depth-dependent normal compaction equations to adapt to the requirements of the real-time monitoring. A new method is proposed to calculate pore pressure from the connection gas or elevated background gas, which can be used for real-time pore pressure detection. The pore pressure detection using the logging-while-drilling, measurement-while-drilling, and mud logging data is also implemented and evaluated. Abnormal pore pressure indicators from the well logs, mud logs, and wellbore instability events are identified and analyzed to interpret abnormal pore pressures for guiding real-time drilling decisions. The principles for identifying abnormal pressure indicators are proposed to improve real-time pore pressure monitoring.

  7. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G

    2003-11-07

    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  8. Early, but not late visual distractors affect movement synchronization to a temporal-spatial visual cue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley J Booth

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The ease of synchronising movements to a rhythmic cue is dependent on the modality of the cue presentation: timing accuracy is much higher when synchronising with discrete auditory rhythms than an equivalent visual stimulus presented through flashes. However, timing accuracy is improved if the visual cue presents spatial as well as temporal information (e.g. a dot following an oscillatory trajectory. Similarly, when synchronising with an auditory target metronome in the presence of a second visual distracting metronome, the distraction is stronger when the visual cue contains spatial-temporal information rather than temporal only. The present study investigates individuals’ ability to synchronise movements to a temporal-spatial visual cue in the presence of same-modality temporal-spatial distractors. Moreover, we investigated how increasing the number of distractor stimuli impacted on maintaining synchrony with the target cue. Participants made oscillatory vertical arm movements in time with a vertically oscillating white target dot centred on a large projection screen. The target dot was surrounded by 2, 8 or 14 distractor dots, which had an identical trajectory to the target but at a phase lead or lag of 0, 100 or 200ms. We found participants’ timing performance was only affected in the phase-lead conditions and when there were large numbers of distractors present (8 and 14. This asymmetry suggests participants still rely on salient events in the stimulus trajectory to synchronise movements. Subsequently, distractions occurring in the window of attention surrounding those events have the maximum impact on timing performance.

  9. A configural dominant account of contextual cueing : configural cues are stronger than colour cues

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Johnston, Rebecca; Sweetman, Hollie

    2013-01-01

    Previous work has shown that reaction times to find a target in displays that have been repeated are faster than those for displays that have never been seen before. This learning effect, termed “contextual cueing” (CC), has been shown using contexts such as the configuration of the distractors in the display and the background colour. However, it is not clear how these two contexts interact to facilitate search. We investigated this here by comparing the strengths of these two cues when they...

  10. Process improvement by cycle time reduction through Lean Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva, R.; patan, Mahamed naveed khan; lakshmi pavan kumar, Mane; Purusothaman, M.; pitchai, S. Antony; Jegathish, Y.

    2017-05-01

    In present world, every customer needs their products to get on time with good quality. Presently every industry is striving to satisfy their customer requirements. An aviation concern trying to accomplish continuous improvement in all its projects. In this project the maintenance service for the customer is analyzed. The maintenance part service is split up into four levels. Out of it, three levels are done in service shops and the fourth level falls under customer’s privilege to change the parts in their aircraft engines at their location. An enhancement for electronics initial provisioning (eIP) is done for fourth level. Customers request service shops to get their requirements through Recommended Spare Parts List (RSPL) by eIP. To complete this RSPL for one customer, it takes 61.5 hours as a cycle time which is very high. By mapping current state VSM and takt time, future state improvement can be done in order to reduce cycle time using Lean tools such as Poke-Yoke, Jidoka, 5S, Muda etc.,

  11. How rats combine temporal cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Keen, Richard; MacInnis, Mika L M; Church, Russell M

    2005-05-31

    The procedures for classical and operant conditioning, and for many timing procedures, involve the delivery of reinforcers that may be related to the time of previous reinforcers and responses, and to the time of onsets and terminations of stimuli. The behavior resulting from such procedures can be described as bouts of responding that occur in some pattern at some rate. A packet theory of timing and conditioning is described that accounts for such behavior under a wide range of procedures. Applications include the food searching by rats in Skinner boxes under conditions of fixed and random reinforcement, brief and sustained stimuli, and several response-food contingencies. The approach is used to describe how multiple cues from reinforcers and stimuli combine to determine the rate and pattern of response bouts.

  12. Engaging Frontline Leaders and Staff in Real-Time Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennifer; Hebish, Linda J; Mann, Sharon; Ching, Joan M; Blackmore, C Craig

    2016-04-01

    The relationship of staff satisfaction and engagement to organizational success, along with the integral influence of frontline managers on this dimension, is well established in health care and other industries. To specifically address staff engagement, Virginia Mason Medical Center, an integrated, single-hospital health system, developed an approach that involved leaders, through the daily use of standard work for leaders, as well as staff, through a Lean-inspired staff idea system. Kaizen Promotion Office (KPO) staff members established three guiding principles: (1) Staff engagement begins with leader engagement; (2) Integrate daily improve- ment (kaizen) as a habitual way of life not as an add-on; and (3) Create an environment in which staff feel psycho- logically safe and valued. Two design elements--Standard Work for Leaders (SWL) and Everyday Lean Ideas (ELIs) were implemented. For the emergency department (ED), an early adopter of the staff engagement work, the challenge was to apply the guiding principles to improve staff engagement while improving quality and patient and staff satisfaction, even as patient volumes were increasing. Daily huddles for the KPO staff members and weekly leader rounds are used to elicit staff ideas and foster ELIs in real time. Overall progress to date has been tracked in terms of staff satisfaction surveys, voluntary staff turnover, adoption of SWL, and testing and implementation of staff ideas. For example, voluntary turnover of ED staff decreased from 14.6% in 2011 to 7.5% in 2012, and 2.0% in 2013. Organizationwide, at least 800 staff ideas are in motion at any given time, with finished ones posted in an idea supermarket website. A leadership and staff engagement approach that focuses on SWL and on capturing staff ideas for daily problem solving and improvement can contribute to organization success and improve the quality of health care delivery.

  13. Improved real-time dynamics from imaginary frequency lattice simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawlowski Jan M.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The computation of real-time properties, such as transport coefficients or bound state spectra of strongly interacting quantum fields in thermal equilibrium is a pressing matter. Since the sign problem prevents a direct evaluation of these quantities, lattice data needs to be analytically continued from the Euclidean domain of the simulation to Minkowski time, in general an ill-posed inverse problem. Here we report on a novel approach to improve the determination of real-time information in the form of spectral functions by setting up a simulation prescription in imaginary frequencies. By carefully distinguishing between initial conditions and quantum dynamics one obtains access to correlation functions also outside the conventional Matsubara frequencies. In particular the range between ω0 and ω1 = 2πT, which is most relevant for the inverse problem may be more highly resolved. In combination with the fact that in imaginary frequencies the kernel of the inverse problem is not an exponential but only a rational function we observe significant improvements in the reconstruction of spectral functions, demonstrated in a simple 0+1 dimensional scalar field theory toy model.

  14. Improved real-time dynamics from imaginary frequency lattice simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Jan M.; Rothkopf, Alexander

    2018-03-01

    The computation of real-time properties, such as transport coefficients or bound state spectra of strongly interacting quantum fields in thermal equilibrium is a pressing matter. Since the sign problem prevents a direct evaluation of these quantities, lattice data needs to be analytically continued from the Euclidean domain of the simulation to Minkowski time, in general an ill-posed inverse problem. Here we report on a novel approach to improve the determination of real-time information in the form of spectral functions by setting up a simulation prescription in imaginary frequencies. By carefully distinguishing between initial conditions and quantum dynamics one obtains access to correlation functions also outside the conventional Matsubara frequencies. In particular the range between ω0 and ω1 = 2πT, which is most relevant for the inverse problem may be more highly resolved. In combination with the fact that in imaginary frequencies the kernel of the inverse problem is not an exponential but only a rational function we observe significant improvements in the reconstruction of spectral functions, demonstrated in a simple 0+1 dimensional scalar field theory toy model.

  15. Improving wheat productivity through source and timing of nitrogen fertilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.T.; Khan, A.; Afridi, M.Z.; Arif, M.; Khan, M.J.; Farhatullah; Jan, D.; Saeed, M.

    2011-01-01

    Efficient nitrogen (N) fertilizer management is critical for the improved production of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and can be achieved through source and timing of N application. Thus, an experiment was carried out at the Research Farm of KPK Agricultural University Peshawar during 2005-06 to test the effects of sources and timing of N application on yield and yield components of wheat. Nitrogen sources were ammonium (NH/sub 4/) and nitrate (NO/sub 3/) applied at the rate of 100 kg ha/sup -1/ at three different stages i.e., at sowing (S1), tillering (S2) and boot stage (S3). Ammonium N increased yield component but did not affect the final grain yield. Split N application at sowing, tillering and boot stages had increased productive tillers m-2, and thousand grains weight, whereas grain yield was higher when N was applied at tillering and boot stages. Nitrogen fertilization increased 20% grain yield compared to control regardless of N application time. It was concluded from the experiment that split application of NH/sub 4/-N performed better than full dose application and/or NO/sub 3/-N for improved wheat productivity and thus, is recommended for general practice in agro-climatic conditions of Peshawar. (author)

  16. Mind your pricing cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric; Simester, Duncan

    2003-09-01

    For most of the items they buy, consumers don't have an accurate sense of what the price should be. Ask them to guess how much a four-pack of 35-mm film costs, and you'll get a variety of wrong answers: Most people will underestimate; many will only shrug. Research shows that consumers' knowledge of the market is so far from perfect that it hardly deserves to be called knowledge at all. Yet people happily buy film and other products every day. Is this because they don't care what kind of deal they're getting? No. Remarkably, it's because they rely on retailers to tell them whether they're getting a good price. In subtle and not-so-subtle ways, retailers send signals to customers, telling them whether a given price is relatively high or low. In this article, the authors review several common pricing cues retailers use--"sale" signs, prices that end in 9, signpost items, and price-matching guarantees. They also offer some surprising facts about how--and how well--those cues work. For instance, the authors' tests with several mail-order catalogs reveal that including the word "sale" beside a price can increase demand by more than 50%. The practice of using a 9 at the end of a price to denote a bargain is so common, you'd think customers would be numb to it. Yet in a study the authors did involving a women's clothing catalog, they increased demand by a third just by changing the price of a dress from $34 to $39. Pricing cues are powerful tools for guiding customers' purchasing decisions, but they must be applied judiciously. Used inappropriately, the cues may breach customers' trust, reduce brand equity, and give rise to lawsuits.

  17. Transfer of memory retrieval cues in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, James F; Fitz, Kelly I; Riccio, David C

    2007-06-01

    Two experiments using rats were conducted to determine whether the retrieval of a memory could be brought under the control of new contextual cues that had not been present at the time of training. In Experiment 1, rats were trained in one context and then exposed to different contextual cues immediately, 60 min, or 120 min after training. When tested in the shifted context, rats that had been exposed shortly after training treated the shifted context as if it were the original context. The control that the previously neutral context had over retrieval disappeared with longer posttraining delays, suggesting the importance of an active memory representation during exposure. Experiment 2 replicated the basic finding and demonstrated that the transfer of retrieval cues was specific to the contextual cues present during exposure. These findings with rats are consistent with findings from infant research (see, e.g., Boller & Rovee-Collier, 1992) that have shown that a neutral context can come to serve as a retrieval cue for an episode experienced elsewhere.

  18. Scene-Based Contextual Cueing in Pigeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Brooks, Daniel I.

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of such contextual cueing. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four locations on color photographs of real-world scenes. On half of the trials, each of four scenes was consistently paired with one of four possible target locations; on the other half of the trials, each of four different scenes was randomly paired with the same four possible target locations. In Experiments 1 and 2, pigeons exhibited robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 1 s to 8 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials. Pigeons also responded more frequently during the delay on predictive-scene trials than on random-scene trials; indeed, during the delay on predictive-scene trials, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. In Experiment 3, involving left-right and top-bottom scene reversals, pigeons exhibited stronger control by global than by local scene cues. These results attest to the robustness and associative basis of contextual cueing in pigeons. PMID:25546098

  19. Turn-taking cue delays in human-robot communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuijpers, R. H.; Van Den Goor, V. J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Fluent communication between a human and a robot relies on the use of effective turn-taking cues. In human speech staying silent after a sequence of utterances is usually accompanied by an explicit turnyielding cue to signal the end of a turn. Here we study the effect of the timing of four

  20. Strategy selection in cue-based decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, David J

    2014-06-01

    People can make use of a range of heuristic and rational, compensatory strategies to perform a multiple-cue judgment task. It has been proposed that people are sensitive to the amount of cognitive effort required to employ decision strategies. Experiment 1 employed a dual-task methodology to investigate whether participants' preference for heuristic versus compensatory decision strategies can be altered by increasing the cognitive demands of the task. As indicated by participants' decision times, a secondary task interfered more with the performance of a heuristic than compensatory decision strategy but did not affect the proportions of participants using either type of strategy. A stimulus set effect suggested that the conjunction of cue salience and cue validity might play a determining role in strategy selection. The results of Experiment 2 indicated that when a perceptually salient cue was also the most valid, the majority of participants preferred a single-cue heuristic strategy. Overall, the results contradict the view that heuristics are more likely to be adopted when a task is made more cognitively demanding. It is argued that people employ 2 learning processes during training, one an associative learning process in which cue-outcome associations are developed by sampling multiple cues, and another that involves the sequential examination of single cues to serve as a basis for a single-cue heuristic.

  1. EyeFrame: Real-time memory aid improves human multitasking via domain-general eye tracking procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. eTaylor

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We developed an extensively general closed-loop system to improve human interaction in various multitasking scenarios, with semi-autonomous agents, processes, and robots. BACKGROUND: Much technology is converging toward semi-independent processes with intermittent human supervision distributed over multiple computerized agents. Human operators multitask notoriously poorly, in part due to cognitive load and limited working memory. To multitask optimally, users must remember task order, e.g., the most neglected task, since longer times not monitoring an element indicates greater probability of need for user input. The secondary task of monitoring attention history over multiple spatial tasks requires similar cognitive resources as primary tasks themselves. Humans can not reliably make more than ~2 decisions/s. METHODS: Participants managed a range of 4-10 semi-autonomous agents performing rescue tasks. To optimize monitoring and controlling multiple agents, we created an automated short term memory aid, providing visual cues from users' gaze history. Cues indicated when and where to look next, and were derived from an inverse of eye fixation recency. RESULTS: Contingent eye tracking algorithms drastically improved operator performance, increasing multitasking capacity. The gaze aid reduced biases, and reduced cognitive load, measured by smaller pupil dilation. CONCLUSIONS: Our eye aid likely helped by delegating short-term memory to the computer, and by reducing decision making load. Past studies used eye position for gaze-aware control and interactive updating of displays in application-specific scenarios, but ours is the first to successfully implement domain-general algorithms. Procedures should generalize well to: process control, factory operations, robot control, surveillance, aviation, air traffic control, driving, military, mobile search and rescue, and many tasks where probability of utility is predicted by duration since last

  2. Overlay improvements using a real time machine learning algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt-Weaver, Emil; Kubis, Michael; Henke, Wolfgang; Slotboom, Daan; Hoogenboom, Tom; Mulkens, Jan; Coogans, Martyn; ten Berge, Peter; Verkleij, Dick; van de Mast, Frank

    2014-04-01

    While semiconductor manufacturing is moving towards the 14nm node using immersion lithography, the overlay requirements are tightened to below 5nm. Next to improvements in the immersion scanner platform, enhancements in the overlay optimization and process control are needed to enable these low overlay numbers. Whereas conventional overlay control methods address wafer and lot variation autonomously with wafer pre exposure alignment metrology and post exposure overlay metrology, we see a need to reduce these variations by correlating more of the TWINSCAN system's sensor data directly to the post exposure YieldStar metrology in time. In this paper we will present the results of a study on applying a real time control algorithm based on machine learning technology. Machine learning methods use context and TWINSCAN system sensor data paired with post exposure YieldStar metrology to recognize generic behavior and train the control system to anticipate on this generic behavior. Specific for this study, the data concerns immersion scanner context, sensor data and on-wafer measured overlay data. By making the link between the scanner data and the wafer data we are able to establish a real time relationship. The result is an inline controller that accounts for small changes in scanner hardware performance in time while picking up subtle lot to lot and wafer to wafer deviations introduced by wafer processing.

  3. Real time information management for improving productivity in metallurgical complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascur, O.A.; Kennedy, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Applying the latest information technologies in industrial plants has become a serious challenge to management and technical teams. The availability of real time and historical operations information to identify the most critical part of the processing system from mechanical integrity is a must for global plant optimization. Expanded use of plant information on the desktop is a standard tool for revenue improvement, cost reduction, and adherence to production constraints. The industrial component desktop supports access to information for process troubleshooting, continuous improvement and innovation by plant and staff personnel. Collaboration between groups enables the implementation of an overall process effectiveness index based on losses due to equipment availability, production and product quality. The key to designing technology is to use the Internet based technologies created by Microsoft for its marketplace-office automation and the Web. Time derived variables are used for process analysis, troubleshooting and performance assessment. Connectivity between metallurgical complexes, research centers and their business system has become a reality. Two case studies of large integrated mining/metallurgical complexes are highlighted. (author)

  4. How Photonic Crystals Can Improve the Timing Resolution of Scintillators

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Knapitsch, A

    2013-01-01

    Photonic crystals (PhCs) and quantum optics phenomena open interesting perspectives to enhance the light extraction from scintillating me dia with high refractive indices as demonstrated by our previous work. By doing so, they also in fl uence the timing resolution of scintillators by improving the photostatistics. The present cont ribution will demonstrate that they are actually doing much more. Indeed, photonic crystals, if properly designed, allow the extr action of fast light propagation modes in the crystal with higher efficiency, therefore contributing to increasing the density of photons in the early phase of the light pulse. This is of particular interest to tag events at future high-energy physics colliders, such as CLIC, with a bunch-crossing rate of 2 GHz, as well as for a new generation of time-of-flight positron emission tomographs (TOFPET) aiming at a coincidence timing resolution of 100 ps FWHM. At this level of precision, good control of the light propagation modes is crucial if we consid...

  5. [Real-time feedback systems for improvement of resuscitation quality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, R P; Van Aken, H; Engel, P; Bohn, A

    2011-07-01

    The quality of chest compression is a determinant of survival after cardiac arrest. Therefore, the European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2010 guidelines on resuscitation strongly focus on compression quality. Despite its impact on survival, observational studies have shown that chest compression quality is not reached by professional rescue teams. Real-time feedback devices for resuscitation are able to measure chest compression during an ongoing resuscitation attempt through a sternal sensor equipped with a motion and pressure detection system. In addition to the electrocardiograph (ECG) ventilation can be detected by transthoracic impedance monitoring. In cases of quality deviation, such as shallow chest compression depth or hyperventilation, feedback systems produce visual or acoustic alarms. Rescuers can thereby be supported and guided to the requested quality in chest compression and ventilation. Feedback technology is currently available both as a so-called stand-alone device and as an integrated feature in a monitor/defibrillator unit. Multiple studies have demonstrated sustainable enhancement in the education of resuscitation due to the use of real-time feedback technology. There is evidence that real-time feedback for resuscitation combined with training and debriefing strategies can improve both resuscitation quality and patient survival. Chest compression quality is an independent predictor for survival in resuscitation and should therefore be measured and documented in further clinical multicenter trials.

  6. Auditory feedback blocks memory benefits of cueing during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Thomas; Lehmann, Mick; Rasch, Björn

    2015-10-28

    It is now widely accepted that re-exposure to memory cues during sleep reactivates memories and can improve later recall. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. As reactivation during wakefulness renders memories sensitive to updating, it remains an intriguing question whether reactivated memories during sleep also become susceptible to incorporating further information after the cue. Here we show that the memory benefits of cueing Dutch vocabulary during sleep are in fact completely blocked when memory cues are directly followed by either correct or conflicting auditory feedback, or a pure tone. In addition, immediate (but not delayed) auditory stimulation abolishes the characteristic increases in oscillatory theta and spindle activity typically associated with successful reactivation during sleep as revealed by high-density electroencephalography. We conclude that plastic processes associated with theta and spindle oscillations occurring during a sensitive period immediately after the cue are necessary for stabilizing reactivated memory traces during sleep.

  7. Assessment of Time Series Complexity Using Improved Approximate Entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong De-Ren; Xie Hong-Bo

    2011-01-01

    Approximate entropy (ApEn), a measure quantifying complexity and/or regularity, is believed to be an effective method of analyzing diverse settings. However, the similarity definition of vectors based on Heaviside function may cause some problems in the validity and accuracy of ApEn. To overcome the problems, an improved approximate entropy (iApEn) based on the sigmoid function is proposed. The performance of iApEn is tested on the independent identically distributed (IID) Gaussian noise, the MIX stochastic model, the Rossler map, the logistic map, and the high-dimensional Mackey—Glass oscillator. The results show that iApEn is superior to ApEn in several aspects, including better relative consistency, freedom of parameter selection, robust to noise, and more independence on record length when characterizing time series with different complexities. (general)

  8. Managing contamination delay to improve Timing Speculation architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Durga Prasad Avirneni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Timing Speculation (TS is a widely known method for realizing better-than-worst-case systems. Aggressive clocking, realizable by TS, enable systems to operate beyond specified safe frequency limits to effectively exploit the data dependent circuit delay. However, the range of aggressive clocking for performance enhancement under TS is restricted by short paths. In this paper, we show that increasing the lengths of short paths of the circuit increases the effectiveness of TS, leading to performance improvement. Also, we propose an algorithm to efficiently add delay buffers to selected short paths while keeping down the area penalty. We present our algorithm results for ISCAS-85 suite and show that it is possible to increase the circuit contamination delay by up to 30% without affecting the propagation delay. We also explore the possibility of increasing short path delays further by relaxing the constraint on propagation delay and analyze the performance impact.

  9. Cue conflicts in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Poulsen, Mads

    2015-01-01

    When learning their first language, children develop strategies for assigning semantic roles to sentence structures, depending on morphosyntactic cues such as case and word order. Traditionally, comprehension experiments have presented transitive clauses in isolation, and crosslinguistically...... preschoolers. However, object-first clauses may be context-sensitive structures, which are infelicitous in isolation. In a second act-out study we presented OVS clauses in supportive and unsupportive discourse contexts and in isolation and found that five-to-six-year-olds’ OVS comprehension was enhanced...

  10. Improvement of laboratory turnaround time using lean methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shradha; Kapil, Sahil; Sharma, Monica

    2018-05-14

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of lean methodology to reduce the turnaround time (TAT) of a clinical laboratory in a super speciality hospital. Delays in report delivery lead to delayed diagnosis increased waiting time and decreased customer satisfaction. The reduction in TAT will lead to increased patient satisfaction, quality of care, employee satisfaction and ultimately the hospital's revenue. Design/methodology/approach The generic causes resulting in increasing TAT of clinical laboratories were identified using lean tools and techniques such as value stream mapping (VSM), Gemba, Pareto Analysis and Root Cause Analysis. VSM was used as a tool to analyze the current state of the process and further VSM was used to design the future state with suggestions for process improvements. Findings This study identified 12 major non-value added factors for the hematology laboratory and 5 major non-value added factors for the biochemistry lab which were acting as bottlenecks resulting in limiting throughput. A four-month research study by the authors together with hospital quality department and laboratory staff members led to reduction of the average TAT from 180 to 95minutes in the hematology lab and from 268 to 208 minutes in the biochemistry lab. Practical implications Very few improvement initiatives in Indian healthcare are based on industrial engineering tools and techniques, which might be due to a lack of interaction between healthcare and engineering. The study provides a positive outcome in terms of improving the efficiency of services in hospitals and identifies a scope for lean in the Indian healthcare sector. Social implications Applying lean in the Indian healthcare sector gives its own potential solution to the problem caused, due to a wide gap between lean accessibility and lean implementation. Lean helped in changing the mindset of an organization toward providing the highest quality of services with faster delivery at

  11. Reclaiming Spare Capacity and Improving Aperiodic Response Times in Real-Time Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xue

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scheduling recurring task sets that allow some instances of the tasks to be skipped produces holes in the schedule which are nonuniformly distributed. Similarly, when the recurring tasks are not strictly periodic but are sporadic, there is extra processor bandwidth arising because of irregular job arrivals. The additional computation capacity that results from skips or sporadic tasks can be reclaimed to service aperiodic task requests efficiently and quickly. We present techniques for improving the response times of aperiodic tasks by identifying nonuniformly distributed spare capacity—because of skips or sporadic tasks—in the schedule and adding such extra capacity to the capacity queue of a BASH server. These gaps can account for a significant portion of aperiodic capacity, and their reclamation results in considerable improvement to aperiodic response times. We present two schemes: NCLB-CBS, which performs well in periodic real-time environments with firm tasks, and NCLB-CUS, which can be deployed when the basic task set to schedule is sporadic. Evaluation via simulations and implementation suggests that performance improvements for aperiodic tasks can be obtained with limited additional overhead.

  12. Cue reactivity towards shopping cues in female participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Schlereth, Berenike; Domass, Debora; Schöler, Tobias; Brand, Matthias

    2013-03-01

    Background and aims It is currently under debate whether pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. Addictions have often been investigated with cue-reactivity paradigms to assess subjective, physiological and neural craving reactions. The current study aims at testing whether cue reactivity towards shopping cues is related to pathological buying tendencies. Methods A sample of 66 non-clinical female participants rated shopping related pictures concerning valence, arousal, and subjective craving. In a subgroup of 26 participants, electrodermal reactions towards those pictures were additionally assessed. Furthermore, all participants were screened concerning pathological buying tendencies and baseline craving for shopping. Results Results indicate a relationship between the subjective ratings of the shopping cues and pathological buying tendencies, even if baseline craving for shopping was controlled for. Electrodermal reactions were partly related to the subjective ratings of the cues. Conclusions Cue reactivity may be a potential correlate of pathological buying tendencies. Thus, pathological buying may be accompanied by craving reactions towards shopping cues. Results support the assumption that pathological buying can be considered as a behavioural addiction. From a methodological point of view, results support the view that the cue-reactivity paradigm is suited for the investigation of craving reactions in pathological buying and future studies should implement this paradigm in clinical samples.

  13. Evidence for a shared representation of sequential cues that engage sign-tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedley, Elizabeth B; Smith, Kyle S

    2018-06-19

    Sign-tracking is a phenomenon whereby cues that predict rewards come to acquire their own motivational value (incentive salience) and attract appetitive behavior. Typically, sign-tracking paradigms have used single auditory, visual, or lever cues presented prior to a reward delivery. Yet, real world examples of events often can be predicted by a sequence of cues. We have shown that animals will sign-track to multiple cues presented in temporal sequence, and with time develop a bias in responding toward a reward distal cue over a reward proximal cue. Further, extinction of responding to the reward proximal cue directly decreases responding to the reward distal cue. One possible explanation of this result is that serial cues become representationally linked with one another. Here we provide further support of this by showing that extinction of responding to a reward distal cue directly reduces responding to a reward proximal cue. We suggest that the incentive salience of one cue can influence the incentive salience of the other cue. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Fear memory for cue and context: opposite and time-dependent effects of a physiological dose of corticosterone in male BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, Anastasia; Oitzl, Melly S; Grauer, Ettie

    2012-07-23

    Highly emotional, stress reactive BALB/c mice secrete more corticosterone in response to fear conditioning than the low stress reactive C57BL/6J mice. Fear memory to cue and context differs between the strains. We injected corticosterone at physiological concentrations (250 μg/kg i.p.) 30 min before fear conditioning. Fear memory was tested 48 and 72 h later. Although corticosterone had little effect on acquisition, it differentially affected fear memories in strain dependent manner: while BALB/c mice decreased freezing during cue and context episodes, C57BL/6J mice showed an overall increase in freezing. BALB/c mice showed extinction over days while no such extinction was seen in C57BL/6J mice. Evaluation of these data in the perspective of previous studies using the same fear conditioning paradigm with corticosterone injections 5 min before or immediately after acquisition, revealed the impact of corticosterone during conditioning on the strength of fear memories. In C57BL/6J mice the overall increase in fear memories was higher if corticosterone was injected 30 min pre acquisition than if injected 5 min pre. In contrast, BALB/c mice showed reduced fear memories when injected 30 min pre compared to that seen 5 min pre acquisition. Both strains showed decreased fear memories compared to vehicle if corticosterone was administered immediately after acquisition. We conclude that the timing of physiologically relevant, stress levels increase in corticosterone is essential for the processing of aversive events and the formation of fear memories. However, the quality of the effect depends on the genetic background. These findings contribute to the understanding of the etiology of stress-related disorders. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Most people do not ignore salient invalid cues in memory-based decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platzer, Christine; Bröder, Arndt

    2012-08-01

    Former experimental studies have shown that decisions from memory tend to rely only on a few cues, following simple noncompensatory heuristics like "take the best." However, it has also repeatedly been demonstrated that a pictorial, as opposed to a verbal, representation of cue information fosters the inclusion of more cues in compensatory strategies, suggesting a facilitated retrieval of cue patterns. These studies did not properly control for visual salience of cues, however. In the experiment reported here, the cue salience hierarchy established in a pilot study was either congruent or incongruent with the validity order of the cues. Only the latter condition increased compensatory decision making, suggesting that the apparent representational format effect is, rather, a salience effect: Participants automatically retrieve and incorporate salient cues irrespective of their validity. Results are discussed with respect to reaction time data.

  16. Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata Sugiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

  17. Time Series of Images to Improve Tree Species Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, G. T.; Imai, N. N.; de Moraes, M. V. A.; Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Näsi, R.

    2017-10-01

    Tree species classification provides valuable information to forest monitoring and management. The high floristic variation of the tree species appears as a challenging issue in the tree species classification because the vegetation characteristics changes according to the season. To help to monitor this complex environment, the imaging spectroscopy has been largely applied since the development of miniaturized sensors attached to Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). Considering the seasonal changes in forests and the higher spectral and spatial resolution acquired with sensors attached to UAV, we present the use of time series of images to classify four tree species. The study area is an Atlantic Forest area located in the western part of São Paulo State. Images were acquired in August 2015 and August 2016, generating three data sets of images: only with the image spectra of 2015; only with the image spectra of 2016; with the layer stacking of images from 2015 and 2016. Four tree species were classified using Spectral angle mapper (SAM), Spectral information divergence (SID) and Random Forest (RF). The results showed that SAM and SID caused an overfitting of the data whereas RF showed better results and the use of the layer stacking improved the classification achieving a kappa coefficient of 18.26 %.

  18. Should visual speech cues (speechreading) be considered when fitting hearing aids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ken

    2002-05-01

    When talker and listener are face-to-face, visual speech cues become an important part of the communication environment, and yet, these cues are seldom considered when designing hearing aids. Models of auditory-visual speech recognition highlight the importance of complementary versus redundant speech information for predicting auditory-visual recognition performance. Thus, for hearing aids to work optimally when visual speech cues are present, it is important to know whether the cues provided by amplification and the cues provided by speechreading complement each other. In this talk, data will be reviewed that show nonmonotonicity between auditory-alone speech recognition and auditory-visual speech recognition, suggesting that efforts designed solely to improve auditory-alone recognition may not always result in improved auditory-visual recognition. Data will also be presented showing that one of the most important speech cues for enhancing auditory-visual speech recognition performance, voicing, is often the cue that benefits least from amplification.

  19. Spying on real-time computers to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taff, L.M.

    1975-01-01

    The sampled program-counter histogram, an established technique for shortening the execution times of programs, is described for a real-time computer. The use of a real-time clock allows particularly easy implementation. (Auth.)

  20. Modeling the Effects of Attentional Cueing on Meditators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vugt, Marieke K.; van den Hurk, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Training in meditation has been shown to affect functioning of several attentional subsystems, most prominently conflict monitoring, and to some extent orienting. These previous findings described the effects of cueing and manipulating stimulus congruency on response times and accuracies. However,

  1. Improving prehospital trauma care in Rwanda through continuous quality improvement: an interrupted time series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John W; Nyinawankusi, Jeanne D'Arc; Enumah, Samuel; Maine, Rebecca; Uwitonze, Eric; Hu, Yihan; Kabagema, Ignace; Byiringiro, Jean Claude; Riviello, Robert; Jayaraman, Sudha

    2017-07-01

    Injury is a major cause of premature death and disability in East Africa, and high-quality pre-hospital care is essential for optimal trauma outcomes. The Rwandan pre-hospital emergency care service (SAMU) uses an electronic database to evaluate and optimize pre-hospital care through a continuous quality improvement programme (CQIP), beginning March 2014. The SAMU database was used to assess pre-hospital quality metrics including supplementary oxygen for hypoxia (O2), intravenous fluids for hypotension (IVF), cervical collar placement for head injuries (c-collar), and either splinting (splint) or administration of pain medications (pain) for long bone fractures. Targets of >90% were set for each metric and daily team meetings and monthly feedback sessions were implemented to address opportunities for improvement. These five pre-hospital quality metrics were assessed monthly before and after implementation of the CQIP. Met and unmet needs for O2, IVF, and c-collar were combined into a summative monthly SAMU Trauma Quality Scores (STQ score). An interrupted time series linear regression model compared the STQ score during 14 months before the CQIP implementation to the first 14 months after. During the 29-month study period 3,822 patients met study criteria. 1,028 patients needed one or more of the five studied interventions during the study period. All five endpoints had a significant increase between the pre-CQI and post-CQI periods (pRwanda. This programme may be used as an example for additional efforts engaging frontline staff with real-time data feedback in order to rapidly translate data collection efforts into improved care for the injured in a resource-limited setting. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A magnetorheological haptic cue accelerator for manual transmission vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Young-Min; Noh, Kyung-Wook; Choi, Seung-Bok; Lee, Yang-Sub

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a new haptic cue function for manual transmission vehicles to achieve optimal gear shifting. This function is implemented on the accelerator pedal by utilizing a magnetorheological (MR) brake mechanism. By combining the haptic cue function with the accelerator pedal, the proposed haptic cue device can transmit the optimal moment of gear shifting for manual transmission to a driver without requiring the driver's visual attention. As a first step to achieve this goal, a MR fluid-based haptic device is devised to enable rotary motion of the accelerator pedal. Taking into account spatial limitations, the design parameters are optimally determined using finite element analysis to maximize the relative control torque. The proposed haptic cue device is then manufactured and its field-dependent torque and time response are experimentally evaluated. Then the manufactured MR haptic cue device is integrated with the accelerator pedal. A simple virtual vehicle emulating the operation of the engine of a passenger vehicle is constructed and put into communication with the haptic cue device. A feed-forward torque control algorithm for the haptic cue is formulated and control performances are experimentally evaluated and presented in the time domain

  3. Quality improvement cycles that reduced waiting times at Tshwane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    improvement. QI in medical practices is a method for continuously finding better ways to provide better care and service.11 The QI cycle is a recognised tool for analysing and improving the efficiency and quality of healthcare services.12 QI is a team effort, requiring knowledge, skills, experience and perspective of each team ...

  4. Improved Undecidability Results for Reachability Games on Recursive Timed Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankara Narayanan Krishna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We study reachability games on recursive timed automata (RTA that generalize Alur-Dill timed automata with recursive procedure invocation mechanism similar to recursive state machines. It is known that deciding the winner in reachability games on RTA is undecidable for automata with two or more clocks, while the problem is decidable for automata with only one clock. Ouaknine and Worrell recently proposed a time-bounded theory of real-time verification by claiming that restriction to bounded-time recovers decidability for several key decision problem related to real-time verification. We revisited games on recursive timed automata with time-bounded restriction in the hope of recovering decidability. However, we found that the problem still remains undecidable for recursive timed automata with three or more clocks. Using similar proof techniques we characterize a decidability frontier for a generalization of RTA to recursive stopwatch automata.

  5. Augmented Reality Cues and Elderly Driver Hazard Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schall, Mark C.; Rusch, Michelle L.; Lee, John D.; Dawson, Jeffrey D.; Thomas, Geb; Aksan, Nazan; Rizzo, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the effectiveness of augmented reality (AR) cues in improving driving safety in elderly drivers who are at increased crash risk due to cognitive impairments. Background Cognitively challenging driving environments pose a particular crash risk for elderly drivers. AR cueing is a promising technology to mitigate risk by directing driver attention to roadway hazards. This study investigates whether AR cues improve or interfere with hazard perception in elderly drivers with age-related cognitive decline. Methods Twenty elderly (Mean= 73 years, SD= 5 years), licensed drivers with a range of cognitive abilities measured by a speed of processing (SOP) composite participated in a one-hour drive in an interactive, fixed-base driving simulator. Each participant drove through six, straight, six-mile-long rural roadway scenarios following a lead vehicle. AR cues directed attention to potential roadside hazards in three of the scenarios, and the other three were uncued (baseline) drives. Effects of AR cueing were evaluated with respect to: 1) detection of hazardous target objects, 2) interference with detecting nonhazardous secondary objects, and 3) impairment in maintaining safe distance behind a lead vehicle. Results AR cueing improved the detection of hazardous target objects of low visibility. AR cues did not interfere with detection of nonhazardous secondary objects and did not impair ability to maintain safe distance behind a lead vehicle. SOP capacity did not moderate those effects. Conclusion AR cues show promise for improving elderly driver safety by increasing hazard detection likelihood without interfering with other driving tasks such as maintaining safe headway. PMID:23829037

  6. Improving Music Genre Classification by Short-Time Feature Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Anders; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Many different short-time features, using time windows in the size of 10-30 ms, have been proposed for music segmentation, retrieval and genre classification. However, often the available time frame of the music to make the actual decision or comparison (the decision time horizon) is in the range...... of seconds instead of milliseconds. The problem of making new features on the larger time scale from the short-time features (feature integration) has only received little attention. This paper investigates different methods for feature integration and late information fusion for music genre classification...

  7. POST-RETRIEVAL EXTINCTION ATTENUATES ALCOHOL CUE REACTIVITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofresí, Roberto U.; Lewis, Suzanne M.; Chaudhri, Nadia; Lee, Hongjoo J.; Monfils, Marie-H.; Gonzales, Rueben A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Conditioned responses to alcohol-associated cues can hinder recovery from alcohol use disorder (AUD). Cue exposure (extinction) therapy (CET) can reduce reactivity to alcohol cues, but its efficacy is limited by phenomena such as spontaneous recovery and reinstatement that can cause a return of conditioned responding after extinction. Using a preclinical model of alcohol cue reactivity in rats, we evaluated whether the efficacy of alcohol CET could be improved by conducting CET during the memory reconsolidation window after retrieval of a cue-alcohol association. METHODS Rats were provided with intermittent access to unsweetened alcohol. Rats were then trained to predict alcohol access based on a visual cue. Next, rats were treated with either standard extinction (n=14) or post-retrieval extinction (n=13). Rats were then tested for long-term memory of extinction and susceptibility to spontaneous recovery and reinstatement. RESULTS Despite equivalent extinction, rats treated with post-retrieval extinction exhibited reduced spontaneous recovery and reinstatement relative to rats treated with standard extinction. CONCLUSIONS Post-retrieval CET shows promise for persistently attenuating the risk to relapse posed by alcohol cues in individuals with AUD. PMID:28169439

  8. Magpies can use local cues to retrieve their food caches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenders, Gesa; Smulders, Tom V

    2011-03-01

    Much importance has been placed on the use of spatial cues by food-hoarding birds in the retrieval of their caches. In this study, we investigate whether food-hoarding birds can be trained to use local cues ("beacons") in their cache retrieval. We test magpies (Pica pica) in an active hoarding-retrieval paradigm, where local cues are always reliable, while spatial cues are not. Our results show that the birds use the local cues to retrieve their caches, even when occasionally contradicting spatial information is available. The design of our study does not allow us to test rigorously whether the birds prefer using local over spatial cues, nor to investigate the process through which they learn to use local cues. We furthermore provide evidence that magpies develop landmark preferences, which improve their retrieval accuracy. Our findings support the hypothesis that birds are flexible in their use of memory information, using a combination of the most reliable or salient information to retrieve their caches. © Springer-Verlag 2010

  9. Hierarchical acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Kin-Pou

    2015-01-01

    Spatial contextual cueing refers to visual search performance's being improved when invariant associations between target locations and distractor spatial configurations are learned incidentally. Using the instance theory of automatization and the reverse hierarchy theory of visual perceptual learning, this study explores the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing. Two experiments in which detailed visual features were irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts found that spatial contextual cueing was visually generic in difficult trials when the trials were not preceded by easy trials (Experiment 1) but that spatial contextual cueing progressed to visual specificity when difficult trials were preceded by easy trials (Experiment 2). These findings support reverse hierarchy theory, which predicts that even when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing can progress to visual specificity if the stimuli remain constant, the task is difficult, and difficult trials are preceded by easy trials. However, these findings are inconsistent with instance theory, which predicts that when detailed visual features are irrelevant for distinguishing between spatial contexts, spatial contextual cueing will not progress to visual specificity. This study concludes that the acquisition of visual specificity in spatial contextual cueing is more plausibly hierarchical, rather than instance-based.

  10. Stimulus homogeneity enhances implicit learning: evidence from contextual cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldmann-Wüstefeld, Tobias; Schubö, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Visual search for a target object is faster if the target is embedded in a repeatedly presented invariant configuration of distractors ('contextual cueing'). It has also been shown that the homogeneity of a context affects the efficiency of visual search: targets receive prioritized processing when presented in a homogeneous context compared to a heterogeneous context, presumably due to grouping processes at early stages of visual processing. The present study investigated in three Experiments whether context homogeneity also affects contextual cueing. In Experiment 1, context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-relevant dimension (orientation) and contextual cueing was most pronounced for context configurations with high orientation homogeneity. When context homogeneity varied on three levels of the task-irrelevant dimension (color) and orientation homogeneity was fixed, no modulation of contextual cueing was observed: high orientation homogeneity led to large contextual cueing effects (Experiment 2) and low orientation homogeneity led to low contextual cueing effects (Experiment 3), irrespective of color homogeneity. Enhanced contextual cueing for homogeneous context configurations suggest that grouping processes do not only affect visual search but also implicit learning. We conclude that memory representation of context configurations are more easily acquired when context configurations can be processed as larger, grouped perceptual units. However, this form of implicit perceptual learning is only improved by stimulus homogeneity when stimulus homogeneity facilitates grouping processes on a dimension that is currently relevant in the task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of a Self-Cueing Treatment on Top-Level Goal Setting Strategies and Attention to Task in Timed-Writing Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, JaneE

    A case study examined one college student's poor performances during timed-writing sessions to develop a method to allow students to maintain the quality and ease in writing they achieve in other writing situations. The student, assigned to write a movie review, volunteered to participate in two 90 minute talk-aloud protocol sessions to examine…

  12. Real-time subway information for improving transit ridership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, the standardization of transit schedule information has yielded a dramatic increase in the accessibility of computerized transit schedules and given rise to real-time service schedules. Two such real-time service schedules are the Ge...

  13. Improving Timeliness in Real-Time Secure Database Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Son, Sang H; David, Rasikan; Thuraisingham, Bhavani

    2006-01-01

    .... In addition to real-time requirements, security is usually required in many applications. Multilevel security requirements introduce a new dimension to transaction processing in real-time database systems...

  14. Time resolution measurements with an improved discriminator and conical scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGervey, J.D.; Vogel, J.; Sen, P.; Knox, C.

    1977-01-01

    A new constant fraction discriminator with improved stability and walk characteristics is described. The discriminator was used with RCA C31024 photomultiplier tubes to test scintillators of conical and cylindrical shapes. Conical scintillators of 2.54 cm base diameter, 1.0 cm top diameter, and 2.54 cm height gave a fwhm of 155 ps for 60 Co gamma rays; larger conical scintillators gave an improvement of 10-15% in fwhm over cylindrical scintillators of equal volume. (Auth.)

  15. Individual differences in using geometric and featural cues to maintain spatial orientation: cue quantity and cue ambiguity are more important than cue type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jonathan W; McNamara, Timothy P; Bodenheimer, Bobby; Carr, Thomas H; Rieser, John J

    2009-02-01

    Two experiments explored the role of environmental cues in maintaining spatial orientation (sense of self-location and direction) during locomotion. Of particular interest was the importance of geometric cues (provided by environmental surfaces) and featural cues (nongeometric properties provided by striped walls) in maintaining spatial orientation. Participants performed a spatial updating task within virtual environments containing geometric or featural cues that were ambiguous or unambiguous indicators of self-location and direction. Cue type (geometric or featural) did not affect performance, but the number and ambiguity of environmental cues did. Gender differences, interpreted as a proxy for individual differences in spatial ability and/or experience, highlight the interaction between cue quantity and ambiguity. When environmental cues were ambiguous, men stayed oriented with either one or two cues, whereas women stayed oriented only with two. When environmental cues were unambiguous, women stayed oriented with one cue.

  16. Sensory modality of smoking cues modulates neural cue reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalachkov, Yavor; Kaiser, Jochen; Görres, Andreas; Seehaus, Arne; Naumer, Marcus J

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral experiments have demonstrated that the sensory modality of presentation modulates drug cue reactivity. The present study on nicotine addiction tested whether neural responses to smoking cues are modulated by the sensory modality of stimulus presentation. We measured brain activation using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 15 smokers and 15 nonsmokers while they viewed images of smoking paraphernalia and control objects and while they touched the same objects without seeing them. Haptically presented, smoking-related stimuli induced more pronounced neural cue reactivity than visual cues in the left dorsal striatum in smokers compared to nonsmokers. The severity of nicotine dependence correlated positively with the preference for haptically explored smoking cues in the left inferior parietal lobule/somatosensory cortex, right fusiform gyrus/inferior temporal cortex/cerebellum, hippocampus/parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and supplementary motor area. These observations are in line with the hypothesized role of the dorsal striatum for the expression of drug habits and the well-established concept of drug-related automatized schemata, since haptic perception is more closely linked to the corresponding object-specific action pattern than visual perception. Moreover, our findings demonstrate that with the growing severity of nicotine dependence, brain regions involved in object perception, memory, self-processing, and motor control exhibit an increasing preference for haptic over visual smoking cues. This difference was not found for control stimuli. Considering the sensory modality of the presented cues could serve to develop more reliable fMRI-specific biomarkers, more ecologically valid experimental designs, and more effective cue-exposure therapies of addiction.

  17. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    Spatial localization of sound is often described as unconscious evaluation of cues given by the interaural time difference (ITD) and the spectral information of the sound that reaches the two ears. Our present knowledge suggests the hypothesis that the ITD roughly determines the cone of the perce...... independently in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis. The ITD seems to be dominant for localization in the horizontal plane even when the spectral information is severely degraded....

  18. Real-time vision, tactile cues, and visual form agnosia in pantomimed grasping: removing haptic feedback induces a switch from natural to pantomime-like grasps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leslie Whitwell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Investigators study the kinematics of grasping movements (prehension under a variety of conditions to probe visuomotor function in normal and brain-damaged individuals. When patient DF, who suffers from visual form agnosia, performs natural grasps, her in-flight hand aperture is scaled to the widths of targets ('grip scaling' that she cannot discriminate amongst. In contrast, when DF's pantomime grasps are based on a memory of a previewed object, her grip scaling is very poor. Her failure on this task has been interpreted as additional support for the dissociation between the use of object vision for action and object vision for perception. Curiously, however, when DF directs her pantomimed grasps towards a displaced imagined copy of a visible object where her fingers make contact with the surface of the table, her grip scaling does not appear to be particularly poor. In the first of two experiments, we revisit this previous work and show that her grip scaling in this real-time pantomime grasping task does not differ from controls, suggesting that terminal tactile feedback from a proxy of the target can maintain DF's grip scaling. In a second experiment with healthy participants, we tested a recent variant of a grasping task in which no tactile feedback is available (i.e. no haptic feedback by comparing the kinematics of target-directed grasps with and without haptic feedback to those of real-time pantomime grasps without haptic feedback. Compared to natural grasps, removing haptic feedback increased RT, slowed the velocity of the reach, reduced grip aperture, sharpened the slopes relating grip aperture to target width, and reduced the final grip aperture. All of these effects were also observed in the pantomime grasping task. Taken together, these results provide compelling support for the view that removing haptic feedback induces a switch from real-time visual control to one that depends more on visual perception and cognitive supervision.

  19. Global cue inconsistency diminishes learning of cue validity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel two-stage probabilistic learning task that examines the participants’ ability to learn and utilize valid cues across several levels of probabilistic feedback. In the first stage, participants sample from one of three cues that gives predictive information about the outcome of the second stage. Participants are rewarded for correct prediction of the outcome in stage two. Only one of the three cues gives valid predictive information and thus participants can maximise their reward by learning to sample from the valid cue. The validity of this predictive information, however, is reinforced across several levels of probabilistic feedback. A second manipulation involved changing the consistency of the predictive information in stage one and the outcome in stage two. The results show that participants, with higher probabilistic feedback, learned to utilise the valid cue. In inconsistent task conditions, however, participants were significantly less successful in utilising higher validity cues. We interpret this result as implying that learning in probabilistic categorization is based on developing a representation of the task that allows for goal-directed action.

  20. Effects of cue types on sex differences in human spatial memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Xiaoqian J; Jacobs, Lucia F

    2010-04-02

    We examined the effects of cue types on human spatial memory in 3D virtual environments adapted from classical animal and human tasks. Two classes of cues of different functions were investigated: those that provide directional information, and those that provide positional information. Adding a directional cue (geographical slant) to the spatial delayed-match-to-sample task improved performance in males but not in females. When the slant directional cue was removed in a hidden-target location task, male performance was impaired but female performance was unaffected. The removal of positional cues, on the other hand, impaired female performance but not male performance. These results are consistent with results from laboratory rodents and thus support the hypothesis that sex differences in spatial memory arise from the dissociation between a preferential reliance on directional cues in males and on positional cues in females. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Improved timing recovery in wireless mobile receivers | Olwal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of timing recovery in wireless mobile receiver systems is critical. This is partly because timing recovery functions must follow rapid parameter changes inherent in mobile systems and partly because both bandwidth and power must be conserved in low signal to noise ratio communication channels. The ultimate ...

  2. The molecular cues for the biological effects of ionizing radiation dose and post-irradiation time on human breast cancer SKBR3 cell line: A Raman spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarzadeh, Naser; Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Gilany, Kambiz; Eynali, Samira; Ghaznavi, Habib; Shakeri-Zadeh, Ali

    2018-03-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the main modalities of cancer treatment. The utility of Raman spectroscopy (RS) for detecting the distinct radiobiological responses in human cancer cells is currently under investigation. RS holds great promises to provide good opportunities for personalizing radiotherapy treatments. Here, we report the effects of the radiation dose and post-irradiation time on the molecular changes in the human breast cancer SKBR3 cells, using RS. The SKBR3 cells were irradiated by gamma radiation with different doses of 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 Gy. The Raman signals were acquired 24 and 48 h after the gamma radiation. The collected Raman spectra were analyzed by different statistical methods such as principal component analysis, linear discriminant analysis, and genetic algorithm. A thorough analysis of the obtained Raman signals revealed that 2 Gy of gamma radiation induces remarkable molecular and structural changes in the SKBR3 cells. We found that the wavenumbers in the range of 1000-1400 cm -1 in Raman spectra are selective for discriminating between the effects of the different doses of irradiation. The results also revealed that longer post-irradiation time leads to the relaxation of the cells to their initial state. The molecular changes that occurred in the 2Gy samples were mostly reversible. On the other hand, the exposure to doses higher than 4Gy induced serious irreversible changes, mainly seen in 2700-2800 cm -1 in Raman spectra. The classification models developed in this study would help to predict the radiation-based molecular changes induced in the cancer cells by only using RS. Also, this designed framework may facilitate the process of biodosimetry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  4. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  5. Time to Eat: Improving Mealtimes of Young Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruns, Deborah A.; Thompson, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Many young children with autism exhibit feeding-related difficulties, such as accepting a limited diet, demonstrating texture aversions, or using only specific mealtime utensils. Young children with autism need assistance to acquire skills to improve mealtime behavior, including increased acceptance of a variety of foods (types and textures) at…

  6. Cue combination in a combined feature contrast detection and figure identification task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinhardt, Günter; Persike, Malte; Mesenholl, Björn; Hagemann, Cordula

    2006-11-01

    Target figures defined by feature contrast in spatial frequency, orientation or both cues had to be detected in Gabor random fields and their shape had to be identified in a dual task paradigm. Performance improved with increasing feature contrast and was strongly correlated among both tasks. Subjects performed significantly better with combined cues than with single cues. The improvement due to cue summation was stronger than predicted by the assumption of independent feature specific mechanisms, and increased with the performance level achieved with single cues until it was limited by ceiling effects. Further, cue summation was also strongly correlated among tasks: when there was benefit due to the additional cue in feature contrast detection, there was also benefit in figure identification. For the same performance level achieved with single cues, cue summation was generally larger in figure identification than in feature contrast detection, indicating more benefit when processes of shape and surface formation are involved. Our results suggest that cue combination improves spatial form completion and figure-ground segregation in noisy environments, and therefore leads to more stable object vision.

  7. The effects of motion and g-seat cues on pilot simulator performance of three piloting tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showalter, T. W.; Parris, B. L.

    1980-01-01

    Data are presented that show the effects of motion system cues, g-seat cues, and pilot experience on pilot performance during takeoffs with engine failures, during in-flight precision turns, and during landings with wind shear. Eight groups of USAF pilots flew a simulated KC-135 using four different cueing systems. The basic cueing system was a fixed-base type (no-motion cueing) with visual cueing. The other three systems were produced by the presence of either a motion system or a g-seat, or both. Extensive statistical analysis of the data was performed and representative performance means were examined. These data show that the addition of motion system cueing results in significant improvement in pilot performance for all three tasks; however, the use of g-seat cueing, either alone or in conjunction with the motion system, provides little if any performance improvement for these tasks and for this aircraft type.

  8. Evaluation of multimodal ground cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordahl, Rolf; Lecuyer, Anatole; Serafin, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an array of results on the perception of ground surfaces via multiple sensory modalities,with special attention to non visual perceptual cues, notably those arising from audition and haptics, as well as interactions between them. It also reviews approaches to combining...... synthetic multimodal cues, from vision, haptics, and audition, in order to realize virtual experiences of walking on simulated ground surfaces or other features....

  9. Usability of Three-dimensional Augmented Visual Cues Delivered by Smart Glasses on (Freezing of Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Janssen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available External cueing is a potentially effective strategy to reduce freezing of gait (FOG in persons with Parkinson’s disease (PD. Case reports suggest that three-dimensional (3D cues might be more effective in reducing FOG than two-dimensional cues. We investigate the usability of 3D augmented reality visual cues delivered by smart glasses in comparison to conventional 3D transverse bars on the floor and auditory cueing via a metronome in reducing FOG and improving gait parameters. In laboratory experiments, 25 persons with PD and FOG performed walking tasks while wearing custom-made smart glasses under five conditions, at the end-of-dose. For two conditions, augmented visual cues (bars/staircase were displayed via the smart glasses. The control conditions involved conventional 3D transverse bars on the floor, auditory cueing via a metronome, and no cueing. The number of FOG episodes and percentage of time spent on FOG were rated from video recordings. The stride length and its variability, cycle time and its variability, cadence, and speed were calculated from motion data collected with a motion capture suit equipped with 17 inertial measurement units. A total of 300 FOG episodes occurred in 19 out of 25 participants. There were no statistically significant differences in number of FOG episodes and percentage of time spent on FOG across the five conditions. The conventional bars increased stride length, cycle time, and stride length variability, while decreasing cadence and speed. No effects for the other conditions were found. Participants preferred the metronome most, and the augmented staircase least. They suggested to improve the comfort, esthetics, usability, field of view, and stability of the smart glasses on the head and to reduce their weight and size. In their current form, augmented visual cues delivered by smart glasses are not beneficial for persons with PD and FOG. This could be attributable to distraction, blockage of visual

  10. Time improvement of photoelectric effect calculation for absorbed dose estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massa, J M; Wainschenker, R S; Doorn, J H; Caselli, E E

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation therapy is a very useful tool in cancer treatment. It is very important to determine absorbed dose in human tissue to accomplish an effective treatment. A mathematical model based on affected areas is the most suitable tool to estimate the absorbed dose. Lately, Monte Carlo based techniques have become the most reliable, but they are time expensive. Absorbed dose calculating programs using different strategies have to choose between estimation quality and calculating time. This paper describes an optimized method for the photoelectron polar angle calculation in photoelectric effect, which is significant to estimate deposited energy in human tissue. In the case studies, time cost reduction nearly reached 86%, meaning that the time needed to do the calculation is approximately 1/7 th of the non optimized approach. This has been done keeping precision invariant

  11. Later Start Time for Teens Improves Grades, Mood, and Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlstrom, Kyla L.

    2017-01-01

    A recent study by the University of Minnesota looked at eight high schools across the U.S. that chose later start times, from 8:00 a.m. to 8:55 a.m. The study found significant decreases in absences and tardiness as well as greater academic benefits for schools with the latest start times. Among the 9,395 students in the study, those who slept…

  12. Can Transient Phenomena Help Improving Time Resolution in Scintillators?

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P; Vasiliev, A

    2014-01-01

    The time resolution of a scintillator-based detector is directly driven by the density of photoelectrons generated in the photodetector at the detection threshold. At the scintillator level it is related to the intrinsic light yield, the pulse shape (rise time and decay time) and the light transport from the gamma-ray conversion point to the photodetector. When aiming at 10 ps time resolution, fluctuations in the thermalization and relaxation time of hot electrons and holes generated by the interaction of ionization radiation with the crystal become important. These processes last for up to a few tens of ps and are followed by a complex trapping-detrapping process, Poole-Frenkel effect, Auger ionization of traps and electron-hole recombination, which can last for a few ns with very large fluctuations. This paper will review the different processes at work and evaluate if some of the transient phenomena taking place during the fast thermalization phase can be exploited to extract a time tag with a precision in...

  13. Visual form Cues, Biological Motions, Auditory Cues, and Even Olfactory Cues Interact to Affect Visual Sex Discriminations

    OpenAIRE

    Rick Van Der Zwan; Anna Brooks; Duncan Blair; Coralia Machatch; Graeme Hacker

    2011-01-01

    Johnson and Tassinary (2005) proposed that visually perceived sex is signalled by structural or form cues. They suggested also that biological motion cues signal sex, but do so indirectly. We previously have shown that auditory cues can mediate visual sex perceptions (van der Zwan et al., 2009). Here we demonstrate that structural cues to body shape are alone sufficient for visual sex discriminations but that biological motion cues alone are not. Interestingly, biological motions can resolve ...

  14. Is mindfulness research methodology improving over time? A systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon B Goldberg

    Full Text Available Despite an exponential growth in research on mindfulness-based interventions, the body of scientific evidence supporting these treatments has been criticized for being of poor methodological quality.The current systematic review examined the extent to which mindfulness research demonstrated increased rigor over the past 16 years regarding six methodological features that have been highlighted as areas for improvement. These feature included using active control conditions, larger sample sizes, longer follow-up assessment, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of instructor training and intent-to-treat (ITT analyses.We searched PubMed, PsychInfo, Scopus, and Web of Science in addition to a publically available repository of mindfulness studies.Randomized clinical trials of mindfulness-based interventions for samples with a clinical disorder or elevated symptoms of a clinical disorder listed on the American Psychological Association's list of disorders with recognized evidence-based treatment.Independent raters screened 9,067 titles and abstracts, with 303 full text reviews. Of these, 171 were included, representing 142 non-overlapping samples.Across the 142 studies published between 2000 and 2016, there was no evidence for increases in any study quality indicator, although changes were generally in the direction of improved quality. When restricting the sample to those conducted in Europe and North America (continents with the longest history of scientific research in this area, an increase in reporting of ITT analyses was found. When excluding an early, high-quality study, improvements were seen in sample size, treatment fidelity assessment, and reporting of ITT analyses.Taken together, the findings suggest modest adoption of the recommendations for methodological improvement voiced repeatedly in the literature. Possible explanations for this and implications for interpreting this body of research and conducting future studies are

  15. Improving Scotland's health: time for a fresh approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, D H

    2012-05-01

    Scotland's health remains the worst in the UK. There are several probable reasons for this. Of those that are amenable to change, health improvement policy has been excessively preoccupied with targeting individuals perceived to be 'at risk' rather than adopting a whole population perspective. Environmental as opposed to behavioural approaches to health improvement have been relatively neglected. To meet the challenge of Scotland's poor health more effectively in the future, new strategic thinking is necessary. Three initial steps are required: recognize that current approaches are inadequate and that fresh ideas are needed; identify the principles that should underlie future strategy development; translate these principles into achievable operational objectives. Five principles of a revitalized strategy to improve the health of Scotland in the future are proposed. These are start early and sustain effort; create a healthy and safe environment; reduce geographical as well as social inequalities in health; adopt an evidence-based approach to public health interventions; use epidemiology to assess need, plan interventions and monitor progress. These principles may then be translated into achievable operational policy and practice objectives.

  16. Sensitivity and response time improvements in millimeter-wave spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, W.F.; Leskovar, B.

    1980-09-01

    A new version of a microwave spectrometer for the detection of gaseous pollutants and other atmospheric constituents is described. The spectrometer, which operates in the vicinity of 70 GHz, employs a Fabry-Perot resonator as a sample cell and uses superhetrodyne detection for high sensitivity. The spectrometer has been modified to incorporate a frequency doubler modulated at 30 MHz to permit operation with a single Gunn oscillator source. As a result, faster response time and somewhat greater sensitivity are obtained. The spectrometer is capable of detecting a minimum concentration of 1 ppM of SO 2 diluted in air with a 1 second time constant. For OCS diluted in air, the minimum detectable concentration is 800 ppB and with a 10 second time constant 300 ppB

  17. Deceptive body movements reverse spatial cueing in soccer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Wright

    Full Text Available The purpose of the experiments was to analyse the spatial cueing effects of the movements of soccer players executing normal and deceptive (step-over turns with the ball. Stimuli comprised normal resolution or point-light video clips of soccer players dribbling a football towards the observer then turning right or left with the ball. Clips were curtailed before or on the turn (-160, -80, 0 or +80 ms to examine the time course of direction prediction and spatial cueing effects. Participants were divided into higher-skilled (HS and lower-skilled (LS groups according to soccer experience. In experiment 1, accuracy on full video clips was higher than on point-light but results followed the same overall pattern. Both HS and LS groups correctly identified direction on normal moves at all occlusion levels. For deceptive moves, LS participants were significantly worse than chance and HS participants were somewhat more accurate but nevertheless substantially impaired. In experiment 2, point-light clips were used to cue a lateral target. HS and LS groups showed faster reaction times to targets that were congruent with the direction of normal turns, and to targets incongruent with the direction of deceptive turns. The reversed cueing by deceptive moves coincided with earlier kinematic events than cueing by normal moves. It is concluded that the body kinematics of soccer players generate spatial cueing effects when viewed from an opponent's perspective. This could create a reaction time advantage when anticipating the direction of a normal move. A deceptive move is designed to turn this cueing advantage into a disadvantage. Acting on the basis of advance information, the presence of deceptive moves primes responses in the wrong direction, which may be only partly mitigated by delaying a response until veridical cues emerge.

  18. Wireless Time Tracking Improves Productivity at CSU Long Beach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charmack, Scott; Walsh, Randy

    2002-01-01

    Describes California State University Long Beach's implementation of new maintenance management software, which integrated maintenance, inventory control, and key control and allows technicians to enter and receive information through handheld wireless devices for more accurate time accounting. The school estimates a 10 percent increase in…

  19. Improving the Timed Automata Approach to Biological Pathway Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langerak, R.; Pol, Jaco van de; Post, Janine N.; Schivo, Stefano; Aceto, Luca; Bacci, Giorgio; Bacci, Giovanni; Ingólfsdóttir, Anna; Legay, Axel; Mardare, Radu

    2017-01-01

    Biological systems such as regulatory or gene networks can be seen as a particular type of distributed systems, and for this reason they can be modeled within the Timed Automata paradigm, which was developed in the computer science context. However, tools designed to model distributed systems often

  20. Improving real-time train dispatching : Models, algorithms and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D'Ariano, A.

    2008-01-01

    Traffic controllers monitor railway traffic sequencing train movements and setting routes with the aim of ensuring smooth train behaviour and limiting as much as existing delays. Due to the strict time limit available for computing a new timetable during operations, which so far is rather infeasible

  1. An important improvement in Ferron-timed spectrophotometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Jing; Chang, Fang; Ren, Yijin; Shi, Qiuyi

    Ferron dosage ([Ferron]) is key to ferron-timed spectrophotometry (ferron assay). In order to clarify some important questions, the following studies were conducted: (1) The effect of [Ferron] on the sensitivity of total aluminum (AlT) determination was experimentally investigated and ²⁷Al nuclear

  2. Improving time in molecular identification of Mycosphaerella fijiensis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cantocanche

    2012-04-24

    Apr 24, 2012 ... List of Mycosphaerella isolates used in this study. Isolate. Fungi. Geographical ... taxonomy studies of pathogenic fungi given their simplicity ... simple in-house method for DC-PCR. This direct ..... proposal for a standardized protocol. J. Ind. Microbiol. .... This study. *qPCR, Quantitative PCR or real time PCR.

  3. Save medical personnel's time by improved user interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, H

    1997-01-01

    Common objectives in the industrial countries are the improvement of quality of care, clinical effectiveness, and cost control. Cost control, in particular, has been addressed through the introduction of case mix systems for reimbursement by social-security institutions. More data is required to enable quality improvement, increases in clinical effectiveness and for juridical reasons. At first glance, this documentation effort is contradictory to cost reduction. However, integrated services for resource management based on better documentation should help to reduce costs. The clerical effort for documentation should be decreased by providing a co-operative working environment for healthcare professionals applying sophisticated human-computer interface technology. Additional services, e.g., automatic report generation, increase the efficiency of healthcare personnel. Modelling the medical work flow forms an essential prerequisite for integrated resource management services and for co-operative user interfaces. A user interface aware of the work flow provides intelligent assistance by offering the appropriate tools at the right moment. Nowadays there is a trend to client/server systems with relational databases or object-oriented databases as repository. The work flows used for controlling purposes and to steer the user interfaces must be represented in the repository.

  4. Environmental Cues in Double-Occupancy Rooms to Support Patients With Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motzek, Tom; Bueter, Kathrin; Marquardt, Gesine

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different environmental cues in double-occupancy rooms of an acute care hospital to support patients' abilities to identify their bed and wardrobe. The quasi-experiment was conducted on a geriatric ward of an acute care hospital. Patients with dementia were included (n = 42). To test the effectiveness of environmental cues, two rooms were enhanced with the environmental cue "color," two rooms with the cue "number," and two rooms with the cue "patient's name". Four rooms were not redesigned and were used as control rooms. For analysis, we pooled the intervention groups color and number (n = 14) and compared it with the control group (n = 22). The environmental cues color and number were significantly effective to improve the identification of the wardrobe from the third to the fifth day after admission. However, for the 10th-12th day after admission, we found no difference in results. Furthermore, results indicate improvements in the ability to identify the bed by using the environmental cues color and number. As this study indicated, the environmental cues color and number are helpful for these patients to identify their bed and wardrobe. However, these cues were most effective from the third to the fifth day after admission. To sustain their effectiveness on patients' identification abilities during their hospital stay, we discuss, whether verbal prompting and an ongoing mentioning of such cues, embedded in the daily work of nurses, could be beneficial. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Department of Defense Precise Time and Time Interval program improvement plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowser, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Naval Observatory is responsible for ensuring uniformity in precise time and time interval operations including measurements, the establishment of overall DOD requirements for time and time interval, and the accomplishment of objectives requiring precise time and time interval with minimum cost. An overview of the objectives, the approach to the problem, the schedule, and a status report, including significant findings relative to organizational relationships, current directives, principal PTTI users, and future requirements as currently identified by the users are presented.

  6. Improvement in MFTF data base system response times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, N.C.; Nelson, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    The Supervisory Control and Diagnostic System for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) has been designed as an event driven system. To this end we have designed a data base notification facility in which a task can request that it be loaded and started whenever an element in the data base is changed beyond some user defined range. Our initial implementation of the notify facility exhibited marginal response times whenever a data base table with a large number of outstanding notifies was written into. In this paper we discuss the sources of the slow response and describe in detail a new structure for the list of notifies which minimizes search time resulting in significantly faster response

  7. Improving education: just-in-time splinting video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Vincent; Cheng, Yu-Tsun; Liu, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Just-in-time training (JITT) is an emerging concept in medical procedural education, but with few studies to support its routine use. Providing a brief educational intervention in the form of a digital video immediately prior to patient care may be an effective method to reteach knowledge for procedural techniques learned previously. Paediatric resident physicians were taught to perform a volar splint in a small workshop setting. Subsequently, they were asked to demonstrate their splinting proficiency by performing a splint on another doctor. Proficiency was scored on a five-point assessment tool. After 2-12 months, participants were asked to demonstrate their splinting proficiency on one of the investigators, and were divided into the control group (no further instruction) and the intervention group, which viewed a 3-minute JITT digital video demonstrating the splinting technique prior to performing the procedure. Thirty subjects were enrolled between August 2012 and July 2013, and 29 of 30 completed the study. The retest splinting time was not significantly different, but if the JITT group included watching the video, the total time difference was statistically significant: 3.86 minutes (control) versus 7.07 minutes (JITT) (95% confidence interval: 2.20-3.90 minutes). The average assessment score difference was 1.87 points higher for the JITT group, which was a statistically significant difference (95% confidence interval: 1.00-3.00). Just-in-time training is an emerging concept in medical procedural education JITT seems to be an effective tool in medical education for reinforcing previously learned skills. JITT may offer other possibilities for enhancing medical education. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An Explicit Cue Improves Creative Analogical Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Adam E.; Cohen, Michael S.; Kim, Joseph U.; Gray, Jeremy R.

    2012-01-01

    Creativity is likely to be related to intelligence, though the nature of this relationship remains largely unresolved and few studies have examined creativity in the context of measures traditionally related to intelligence. Like intelligence, creativity has often been studied as a static trait or as subject to change over long durations through…

  9. Nurses' beliefs and values about doing cue-based care in an NICU in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaw, Jen-Jiuan; Chen, Shu-Yueh; Yin, Ying-Ti

    2004-12-01

    Although advances in medical technology have increased the survival rate of preterm infants, science is no cure-all for these high-risk patients. A growing number of studies report that caregiving interventions cause physiological and behavioral distress in such infants. The results have prompted changes in caregiving practices, attempting to reduce stress and strengthen protection for the infants, in order to promote their stability and development in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) . This study uses qualitative research methods to grasp the richness and diversity of nurses' beliefs and experience in the taking care of preterm infants. Ten groups of questions explore how NICU nurses take care of premature infants, nurses' perspectives on cue-based care, and the extent to which NICU nurses practice cue-based care. The results generated three themes: (1) timely and skillful management of the preterm infants; (2) compassionate and holistic care for the infants and their highly stressed families; and (3) the relationship between good nursing care and meeting the needs of preterm infants, families, physicians, units, and the environment. It is apparent that the approach to care delivery in NICU practice is still clinical-based, and that there are some obstacles to the delivery of cue-based care. The reasons for this include lack of knowledge, incomplete collaboration with team members, and insufficient support from the administrative systems. To improve the quality of nursing care and preterm infant outcomes, it will be necessary to educate NICU nurses on cue-based care, to enhance collaboration among all team members, to reduce their non-nursing workload, and to re-design NICUs for optimal cue-based care.

  10. IMPROVED REAL-TIME SCAN MATCHING USING CORNER FEATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. A. Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The automation of unmanned vehicle operation has gained a lot of research attention, in the last few years, because of its numerous applications. The vehicle localization is more challenging in indoor environments where absolute positioning measurements (e.g. GPS are typically unavailable. Laser range finders are among the most widely used sensors that help the unmanned vehicles to localize themselves in indoor environments. Typically, automatic real-time matching of the successive scans is performed either explicitly or implicitly by any localization approach that utilizes laser range finders. Many accustomed approaches such as Iterative Closest Point (ICP, Iterative Matching Range Point (IMRP, Iterative Dual Correspondence (IDC, and Polar Scan Matching (PSM handles the scan matching problem in an iterative fashion which significantly affects the time consumption. Furthermore, the solution convergence is not guaranteed especially in cases of sharp maneuvers or fast movement. This paper proposes an automated real-time scan matching algorithm where the matching process is initialized using the detected corners. This initialization step aims to increase the convergence probability and to limit the number of iterations needed to reach convergence. The corner detection is preceded by line extraction from the laser scans. To evaluate the probability of line availability in indoor environments, various data sets, offered by different research groups, have been tested and the mean numbers of extracted lines per scan for these data sets are ranging from 4.10 to 8.86 lines of more than 7 points. The set of all intersections between extracted lines are detected as corners regardless of the physical intersection of these line segments in the scan. To account for the uncertainties of the detected corners, the covariance of the corners is estimated using the extracted lines variances. The detected corners are used to estimate the transformation parameters

  11. Examining the durability of incidentally learned trust from gaze cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, James W A; Tipper, Steven P

    2017-10-01

    In everyday interactions we find our attention follows the eye gaze of faces around us. As this cueing is so powerful and difficult to inhibit, gaze can therefore be used to facilitate or disrupt visual processing of the environment, and when we experience this we infer information about the trustworthiness of the cueing face. However, to date no studies have investigated how long these impressions last. To explore this we used a gaze-cueing paradigm where faces consistently demonstrated either valid or invalid cueing behaviours. Previous experiments show that valid faces are subsequently rated as more trustworthy than invalid faces. We replicate this effect (Experiment 1) and then include a brief interference task in Experiment 2 between gaze cueing and trustworthiness rating, which weakens but does not completely eliminate the effect. In Experiment 3, we explore whether greater familiarity with the faces improves the durability of trust learning and find that the effect is more resilient with familiar faces. Finally, in Experiment 4, we push this further and show that evidence of trust learning can be seen up to an hour after cueing has ended. Taken together, our results suggest that incidentally learned trust can be durable, especially for faces that deceive.

  12. Improved methods for nightside time domain Lunar Electromagnetic Sounding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuqua-Haviland, H.; Poppe, A. R.; Fatemi, S.; Delory, G. T.; De Pater, I.

    2017-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic (TDEM) Sounding isolates induced magnetic fields to remotely deduce material properties at depth. The first step of performing TDEM Sounding at the Moon is to fully characterize the dynamic plasma environment, and isolate geophysically induced currents from concurrently present plasma currents. The transfer function method requires a two-point measurement: an upstream reference measuring the pristine solar wind, and one downstream near the Moon. This method was last performed during Apollo assuming the induced fields on the nightside of the Moon expand as in an undisturbed vacuum within the wake cavity [1]. Here we present an approach to isolating induction and performing TDEM with any two point magnetometer measurement at or near the surface of the Moon. Our models include a plasma induction model capturing the kinetic plasma environment within the wake cavity around a conducting Moon, and a geophysical forward model capturing induction in a vacuum. The combination of these two models enable the analysis of magnetometer data within the wake cavity. Plasma hybrid models use the upstream plasma conditions and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) to capture the wake current systems formed around the Moon. The plasma kinetic equations are solved for ion particles with electrons as a charge-neutralizing fluid. These models accurately capture the large scale lunar wake dynamics for a variety of solar wind conditions: ion density, temperature, solar wind velocity, and IMF orientation [2]. Given the 3D orientation variability coupled with the large range of conditions seen within the lunar plasma environment, we characterize the environment one case at a time. The global electromagnetic induction response of the Moon in a vacuum has been solved numerically for a variety of electrical conductivity models using the finite-element method implemented within the COMSOL software. This model solves for the geophysically induced response in vacuum to

  13. Extinction of conditioned cues attenuates incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Heather B; Zbukvic, Isabel C; Luikinga, Sophia J; Lawrence, Andrew J; Kim, Jee Hyun

    2017-09-01

    Relapse to drug use is often precipitated by exposure to drug associated cues that evoke craving. Cue-induced drug craving has been observed in both animals and humans to increase over the first few weeks of abstinence and remain high over extended periods, a phenomenon known as 'incubation of craving'. As adolescence represents a period of vulnerability to developing drug addiction, potentially due to persistent reactivity to drug associated cues, we first compared incubation of cocaine craving in adolescent and adult rats. Adolescent (P35) and adult (P70) rats were trained to lever press to obtain intravenous cocaine, with each drug delivery accompanied by a light cue that served as the conditioned stimulus (CS). Following acquisition of stable responding, rats were tested for cue-induced cocaine-seeking after either 1 or 30days of abstinence. Additional groups of rats were also tested after 30days of abstinence, however these rats were subjected to a cue extinction session 1week into the abstinence period. Rats were injected with aripiprazole, a dopamine 2 receptor (D2R)-like partial agonist, or vehicle, 30min prior to cue extinction. We found that adolescent and adult rats acquired and maintained a similar level of cocaine self-administration, and rats of both ages exhibited a higher level of cue-induced cocaine-seeking if they were tested after 30days of abstinence compared to 1day. Incubation of cocaine craving was significantly reduced to 1day levels in both adults and adolescents that received cue extinction training. Administration of aripiprazole prior to cue extinction did not further reduce cue-induced drug-seeking. These results indicate that cue extinction training during abstinence may effectively reduce cue-induced relapse at a time when cue-induced drug craving is usually high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Improving operating room turnover time: a systems based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Ankeet S; Carlson, Grant W; Deckers, Peter J

    2014-12-01

    Operating room (OR) turnover time (TT) has a broad and significant impact on hospital administrators, providers, staff and patients. Our objective was to identify current problems in TT management and implement a consistent, reproducible process to reduce average TT and process variability. Initial observations of TT were made to document the existing process at a 511 bed, 24 OR, academic medical center. Three control groups, including one consisting of Orthopedic and Vascular Surgery, were used to limit potential confounders such as case acuity/duration and equipment needs. A redesigned process based on observed issues, focusing on a horizontally structured, systems-based approach has three major interventions: developing consistent criteria for OR readiness, utilizing parallel processing for patient and room readiness, and enhancing perioperative communication. Process redesign was implemented in Orthopedics and Vascular Surgery. Comparisons of mean and standard deviation of TT were made using an independent 2-tailed t-test. Using all surgical specialties as controls (n = 237), mean TT (hh:mm:ss) was reduced by 0:20:48 min (95 % CI, 0:10:46-0:30:50), from 0:44:23 to 0:23:25, a 46.9 % reduction. Standard deviation of TT was reduced by 0:10:32 min, from 0:16:24 to 0:05:52 and frequency of TT≥30 min was reduced from 72.5to 11.7 %. P systems-based focus should drive OR TT design.

  15. Improving OCD time to solution using Signal Response Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Vaid, Alok; Pandev, Stilian; Sanko, Dimitry; Ramanathan, Vidya; Venkataraman, Kartik; Haupt, Ronny

    2016-03-01

    In recent technology nodes, advanced process and novel integration scheme have challenged the precision limits of conventional metrology; with critical dimensions (CD) of device reduce to sub-nanometer region. Optical metrology has proved its capability to precisely detect intricate details on the complex structures, however, conventional RCWA-based (rigorous coupled wave analysis) scatterometry has the limitations of long time-to-results and lack of flexibility to adapt to wide process variations. Signal Response Metrology (SRM) is a new metrology technique targeted to alleviate the consumption of engineering and computation resources by eliminating geometric/dispersion modeling and spectral simulation from the workflow. This is achieved by directly correlating the spectra acquired from a set of wafers with known process variations encoded. In SPIE 2015, we presented the results of SRM application in lithography metrology and control [1], accomplished the mission of setting up a new measurement recipe of focus/dose monitoring in hours. This work will demonstrate our recent field exploration of SRM implementation in 20nm technology and beyond, including focus metrology for scanner control; post etch geometric profile measurement, and actual device profile metrology.

  16. Default mode network deactivation to smoking cue relative to food cue predicts treatment outcome in nicotine use disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Claire E; Claus, Eric D; Calhoun, Vince D; Rachakonda, Srinivas; Littlewood, Rae A; Mickey, Jessica; Arenella, Pamela B; Goodreau, Natalie; Hutchison, Kent E

    2018-01-01

    Identifying predictors of treatment outcome for nicotine use disorders (NUDs) may help improve efficacy of established treatments, like varenicline. Brain reactivity to drug stimuli predicts relapse risk in nicotine and other substance use disorders in some studies. Activity in the default mode network (DMN) is affected by drug cues and other palatable cues, but its clinical significance is unclear. In this study, 143 individuals with NUD (male n = 91, ages 18-55 years) received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan during a visual cue task during which they were presented with a series of smoking-related or food-related video clips prior to randomization to treatment with varenicline (n = 80) or placebo. Group independent components analysis was utilized to isolate the DMN, and temporal sorting was used to calculate the difference between the DMN blood-oxygen-level dependent signal during smoke cues and that during food cues for each individual. Food cues were associated with greater deactivation compared with smoke cues in the DMN. In correcting for baseline smoking and other clinical variables, which have been shown to be related to treatment outcome in previous work, a less positive Smoke - Food difference score predicted greater smoking at 6 and 12 weeks when both treatment groups were combined (P = 0.005, β = -0.766). An exploratory analysis of executive control and salience networks demonstrated that a more positive Smoke - Food difference score for executive control network predicted a more robust response to varenicline relative to placebo. These findings provide further support to theories that brain reactivity to palatable cues, and in particular in DMN, may have a direct clinical relevance in NUD. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. Meals and snacks: Children's characterizations of food and eating cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, Jenna M; Hoffmann, Debra A; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R

    2016-02-01

    This study examined preschoolers' and their parents' categorizations of eating episodes based on cues used for defining these occasions (i.e., time, portion size, preparation, content, and emotion) as a meal or snack. Thirty-four children aged 4 to 6 saw pictorial representations of each cue, along with a short verbal description, and were asked to place the picture in one of three boxes: "meal", "snack", or "either meal or snack". One parent per child (85% mothers, Mean age = 35.1 years) separately categorized the same items in an online survey. Results illustrated which cues play a role in how parents and children categorize eating occasions as meals or snacks. Parents used 24 of the 32 cue-related items to distinguish between eating occasions as a meal or a snack, while children used only four. Parents and preschoolers were consistent in using cartoon character packaging to indicate a snack, and also used several of the same content cues. The current study highlights the various cues used to categorize an eating occasion, and the unhealthy character of snacks, as participants associated some unhealthy foods and very few healthy foods with snacks. Future research should focus on the role of parents, the home environment, and advertising media in shaping children's characterizations of eating occasions towards development of healthy eating habits and away from problematic eating behaviors that may persist later in life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Pigeons Exhibit Contextual Cueing to Both Simple and Complex Backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserman, Edward A.; Teng, Yuejia; Castro, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Repeated pairings of a particular visual context with a specific location of a target stimulus facilitate target search in humans. We explored an animal model of this contextual cueing effect using a novel Cueing-Miscueing design. Pigeons had to peck a target which could appear in one of four possible locations on four possible color backgrounds or four possible color photographs of real-world scenes. On 80% of the trials, each of the contexts was uniquely paired with one of the target locations; on the other 20% of the trials, each of the contexts was randomly paired with the remaining target locations. Pigeons came to exhibit robust contextual cueing when the context preceded the target by 2 s, with reaction times to the target being shorter on correctly-cued trials than on incorrectly-cued trials. Contextual cueing proved to be more robust with photographic backgrounds than with uniformly colored backgrounds. In addition, during the context-target delay, pigeons predominately pecked toward the location of the upcoming target, suggesting that attentional guidance contributes to contextual cueing. These findings confirm the effectiveness of animal models of contextual cueing and underscore the important part played by associative learning in producing the effect. PMID:24491468

  19. Development of the sound localization cues in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollin, Daniel J.

    2004-05-01

    Cats are a common model for developmental studies of the psychophysical and physiological mechanisms of sound localization. Yet, there are few studies on the development of the acoustical cues to location in cats. The magnitude of the three main cues, interaural differences in time (ITDs) and level (ILDs), and monaural spectral shape cues, vary with location in adults. However, the increasing interaural distance associated with a growing head and pinnae during development will result in cues that change continuously until maturation is complete. Here, we report measurements, in cats aged 1 week to adulthood, of the physical dimensions of the head and pinnae and the localization cues, computed from measurements of directional transfer functions. At 1 week, ILD depended little on azimuth for frequencies 10 dB) shift to lower frequencies, and the maximum ITD increases to nearly 370 μs. Changes in the cues are correlated with the increasing size of the head and pinnae. [Work supported by NIDCD DC05122.

  20. Intelligence as the efficiency of cue-driven retrieval from secondary memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesefeld, Heinrich René; Hoffmann, Eugenia; Wentura, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Complex-span (working-memory-capacity) tasks are among the most successful predictors of intelligence. One important contributor to this relationship is the ability to efficiently employ cues for the retrieval from secondary memory. Presumably, intelligent individuals can considerably restrict their memory search sets by using such cues and can thereby improve recall performance. We here test this assumption by experimentally manipulating the validity of retrieval cues. When memoranda are drawn from the same semantic category on two successive trials of a verbal complex-span task, the category is a very strong retrieval cue on its first occurrence (strong-cue trial) but loses some of its validity on its second occurrence (weak-cue trial). If intelligent individuals make better use of semantic categories as retrieval cues, their recall accuracy suffers more from this loss of cue validity. Accordingly, our results show that less variance in intelligence is explained by recall accuracy on weak-cue compared with strong-cue trials.

  1. Are multiple visual short-term memory storages necessary to explain the retro-cue effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovski, Tal

    2012-06-01

    Recent research has shown that change detection performance is enhanced when, during the retention interval, attention is cued to the location of the upcoming test item. This retro-cue advantage has led some researchers to suggest that visual short-term memory (VSTM) is divided into a durable, limited-capacity storage and a more fragile, high-capacity storage. Consequently, performance is poor on the no-cue trials because fragile VSTM is overwritten by the test display and only durable VSTM is accessible under these conditions. In contrast, performance is improved in the retro-cue condition because attention keeps fragile VSTM accessible. The aim of the present study was to test the assumptions underlying this two-storage account. Participants were asked to encode an array of colors for a change detection task involving no-cue and retro-cue trials. A retro-cue advantage was found even when the cue was presented after a visual (Experiment 1) or a central (Experiment 2) interference. Furthermore, the magnitude of the interference was comparable between the no-cue and retro-cue trials. These data undermine the main empirical support for the two-storage account and suggest that the presence of a retro-cue benefit cannot be used to differentiate between different VSTM storages.

  2. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...

  3. Habituation of adult sea lamprey repeatedly exposed to damage-released alarm and predator cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imre, Istvan; Di Rocco, Richard T.; Brown, Grant E.; Johnson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Predation is an unforgiving selective pressure affecting the life history, morphology and behaviour of prey organisms. Selection should favour organisms that have the ability to correctly assess the information content of alarm cues. This study investigated whether adult sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus habituate to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker Catostomus commersoniiextract), predator cues (Northern water snake Nerodia sipedon washing, human saliva and 2-phenylethylamine hydrochloride (PEA HCl)) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract and human saliva) after they were pre-exposed 4 times or 8 times, respectively, to a given stimulus the previous night. Consistent with our prediction, adult sea lamprey maintained an avoidance response to conspecific damage-released alarm cues (fresh and decayed sea lamprey extract), a predator cue presented at high relative concentration (PEA HCl) and a conspecific damage-released alarm cue and predator cue combination (fresh sea lamprey extract plus human saliva), irrespective of previous exposure level. As expected, adult sea lamprey habituated to a sympatric heterospecific damage-released alarm cue (white sucker extract) and a predator cue presented at lower relative concentration (human saliva). Adult sea lamprey did not show any avoidance of the Northern water snake washing and the Amazon sailfin catfish extract (heterospecific control). This study suggests that conspecific damage-released alarm cues and PEA HCl present the best options as natural repellents in an integrated management program aimed at controlling the abundance of sea lamprey in the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  4. Melodic cues for metre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, P G; van Dijk, A; Schomaker, Lambertus

    1994-01-01

    A method of time-series analysis and a time-beating experiment were used to test the structural and perceptual validity of notated metre. Autocorrelation applied to the flow of melodic intervals between notes from thirty fragments of compositions for solo instruments by J S Bach strongly supported

  5. Influence of cue word perceptual information on metamemory accuracy in judgement of learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao; Liu, Zhaomin; Li, Tongtong; Luo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that perceptual information regarding to-be-remembered words in the study phase affects the accuracy of judgement of learning (JOL). However, few have investigated whether the perceptual information in the JOL phase influences JOL accuracy. This study examined the influence of cue word perceptual information in the JOL phase on immediate and delayed JOL accuracy through changes in cue word font size. In Experiment 1, large-cue word pairs had significantly higher mean JOL magnitude than small-cue word pairs in immediate JOLs and higher relative accuracy than small-cue pairs in delayed JOLs, but font size had no influence on recall performance. Experiment 2 increased the JOL time, and mean JOL magnitude did not reliably differ for large-cue compared with small-cue pairs in immediate JOLs. However, the influence on relative accuracy still existed in delayed JOLs. Experiment 3 increased the familiarity of small-cue words in the delayed JOL phase by adding a lexical decision task. The results indicated that cue word font size no longer affected relative accuracy in delayed JOLs. The three experiments in our study indicated that the perceptual information regarding cue words in the JOL phase affects immediate and delayed JOLs in different ways.

  6. Discrimination and streaming of speech sounds based on differences in interaural and spectral cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marion; Lavandier, Mathieu; Grimault, Nicolas; Oxenham, Andrew J

    2017-09-01

    Differences in spatial cues, including interaural time differences (ITDs), interaural level differences (ILDs) and spectral cues, can lead to stream segregation of alternating noise bursts. It is unknown how effective such cues are for streaming sounds with realistic spectro-temporal variations. In particular, it is not known whether the high-frequency spectral cues associated with elevation remain sufficiently robust under such conditions. To answer these questions, sequences of consonant-vowel tokens were generated and filtered by non-individualized head-related transfer functions to simulate the cues associated with different positions in the horizontal and median planes. A discrimination task showed that listeners could discriminate changes in interaural cues both when the stimulus remained constant and when it varied between presentations. However, discrimination of changes in spectral cues was much poorer in the presence of stimulus variability. A streaming task, based on the detection of repeated syllables in the presence of interfering syllables, revealed that listeners can use both interaural and spectral cues to segregate alternating syllable sequences, despite the large spectro-temporal differences between stimuli. However, only the full complement of spatial cues (ILDs, ITDs, and spectral cues) resulted in obligatory streaming in a task that encouraged listeners to integrate the tokens into a single stream.

  7. Individualization of music-based rhythmic auditory cueing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bella, Simone Dalla; Dotov, Dobromir; Bardy, Benoît; de Cock, Valérie Cochen

    2018-06-04

    Gait dysfunctions in Parkinson's disease can be partly relieved by rhythmic auditory cueing. This consists in asking patients to walk with a rhythmic auditory stimulus such as a metronome or music. The effect on gait is visible immediately in terms of increased speed and stride length. Moreover, training programs based on rhythmic cueing can have long-term benefits. The effect of rhythmic cueing, however, varies from one patient to the other. Patients' response to the stimulation may depend on rhythmic abilities, often deteriorating with the disease. Relatively spared abilities to track the beat favor a positive response to rhythmic cueing. On the other hand, most patients with poor rhythmic abilities either do not respond to the cues or experience gait worsening when walking with cues. An individualized approach to rhythmic auditory cueing with music is proposed to cope with this variability in patients' response. This approach calls for using assistive mobile technologies capable of delivering cues that adapt in real time to patients' gait kinematics, thus affording step synchronization to the beat. Individualized rhythmic cueing can provide a safe and cost-effective alternative to standard cueing that patients may want to use in their everyday lives. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  8. Visual search and contextual cueing: differential effects in 10-year-old children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couperus, Jane W; Hunt, Ruskin H; Nelson, Charles A; Thomas, Kathleen M

    2011-02-01

    The development of contextual cueing specifically in relation to attention was examined in two experiments. Adult and 10-year-old participants completed a context cueing visual search task (Jiang & Chun, The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54A(4), 1105-1124, 2001) containing stimuli presented in an attended (e.g., red) and unattended (e.g., green) color. When the spatial configuration of stimuli in the attended and unattended color was invariant and consistently paired with the target location, adult reaction times improved, demonstrating learning. Learning also occurred if only the attended stimuli's configuration remained fixed. In contrast, while 10 year olds, like adults, showed incrementally slower reaction times as the number of attended stimuli increased, they did not show learning in the standard paradigm. However, they did show learning when the ratio of attended to unattended stimuli was high, irrespective of the total number of attended stimuli. Findings suggest children show efficient attentional guidance by color in visual search but differences in contextual cueing.

  9. Predicting the benefit of binaural cue preservation in bilateral directional processing schemes for listeners with impaired hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Thomas; Hauth, Christopher; Wagener, Kirsten C.

    2018-01-01

    Linked pairs of hearing aids offer various possibilities for directional processing providing adjustable trade-off between improving signal-to-noise ratio and preserving binaural listening. The benefit depends on the processing scheme, the acoustic scenario, and the listener’s ability to exploit...... fine structure. BSIM revealed a benefit due to binaural processing in well-performing listeners when processing provided low-frequency interaural timing cues....

  10. Use of an Enactive Insole for Reducing the Risk of Falling on Different Types of Soil Using Vibrotactile Cueing for the Elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin J-D Otis

    Full Text Available Our daily activities imply displacements on various types of soil. For persons with gait disorder or losing functional autonomy, walking on some types of soil could be challenging because of the risk of falling it represents.In this paper, we present, in a first part, the use of an enactive shoe for an automatic differentiation of several types of soil. In a second part, using a second improved prototype (an enactive insole, twelve participants with Parkinson's disease (PD and nine age-matched controls have performed the Timed Up and Go (TUG test on six types of soil with and without cueing. The frequency of the cueing was set at 10% above the cadence computed at the lower risk of falling (walking over the concrete. Depending on the cadence computed at the lower risk, the enactive insole activates a vibrotactile cueing aiming to improve gait and balance control. Finally, a risk index is computed using gait parameters in relation to given type of soil.The frequency analysis of the heel strike vibration allows the differentiation of various types of soil. The risk computed is associated to an appropriate rhythmic cueing in order to improve balance and gait impairment. The results show that a vibrotactile cueing could help to reduce the risk of falling.Firstly, this paper demonstrates the feasibility of reducing the risk of falling while walking on different types of soil using vibrotactile cueing. We found a significant difference and a significant decrease in the computed risks of falling for most of types of soil especially for deformable soils which can lead to fall. Secondly, heel strike provides an approximation of the impulse response of the soil that can be analyzed with time and frequency-domain modeling. From these analyses, an index is computed enabling differentiation the types of soil.

  11. Estimating location without external cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen Cheung

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The ability to determine one's location is fundamental to spatial navigation. Here, it is shown that localization is theoretically possible without the use of external cues, and without knowledge of initial position or orientation. With only error-prone self-motion estimates as input, a fully disoriented agent can, in principle, determine its location in familiar spaces with 1-fold rotational symmetry. Surprisingly, localization does not require the sensing of any external cue, including the boundary. The combination of self-motion estimates and an internal map of the arena provide enough information for localization. This stands in conflict with the supposition that 2D arenas are analogous to open fields. Using a rodent error model, it is shown that the localization performance which can be achieved is enough to initiate and maintain stable firing patterns like those of grid cells, starting from full disorientation. Successful localization was achieved when the rotational asymmetry was due to the external boundary, an interior barrier or a void space within an arena. Optimal localization performance was found to depend on arena shape, arena size, local and global rotational asymmetry, and the structure of the path taken during localization. Since allothetic cues including visual and boundary contact cues were not present, localization necessarily relied on the fusion of idiothetic self-motion cues and memory of the boundary. Implications for spatial navigation mechanisms are discussed, including possible relationships with place field overdispersion and hippocampal reverse replay. Based on these results, experiments are suggested to identify if and where information fusion occurs in the mammalian spatial memory system.

  12. The reliability of retro-cues determines the fate of noncued visual working memory representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Günseli, E.; van Moorselaar, D.; Meeter, M.; Olivers, C.N.L.

    2015-01-01

    Retrospectively cueing an item retained in visual working memory during maintenance is known to improve its retention. However, studies have provided conflicting results regarding the costs of such retro-cues for the noncued items, leading to different theories on the mechanisms behind visual

  13. Aging and Memory as Discrimination: Influences of Encoding Specificity, Cue Overload, and Prior Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    From the perspective of memory-as-discrimination, whether a cue leads to correct retrieval simultaneously depends on the cue’s relationship to (a) the memory target and (b) the other retrieval candidates. A corollary of the view is that increasing encoding-retrieval match may only help memory if it improves the cue’s capacity to discriminate the target from competitors. Here, age differences in this discrimination process were assessed by manipulating the overlap between cues present at encoding and retrieval orthogonally with cue–target distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, associative memory differences for cue–target sets between young and older adults were minimized through training and retrieval efficiency was assessed through response time. In Experiment 2, age-group differences in associative memory were left to vary and retrieval efficiency was assessed through accuracy. Both experiments showed age-invariance in memory-as-discrimination: cues increasing encoding-retrieval match did not benefit memory unless they also improved discrimination between the target and competitors. Predictions based on the age-related associative deficit were also supported: prior knowledge alleviated age-related associative deficits (Experiment 1), and increasing encoding-retrieval match benefited older more than young adults (Experiment 2). We suggest that the latter occurred because older adults’ associative memory deficits reduced the impact of competing retrieval candidates—hence the age-related benefit was not attributable to encoding-retrieval match per se, but rather it was a joint function of an increased probability of the cue connecting to the target combined with a decrease in competing retrieval candidates. PMID:27831714

  14. Using space-time features to improve detection of forest disturbances from Landsat time series

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamunyela, E.; Reiche, J.; Verbesselt, J.; Herold, M.

    2017-01-01

    Current research on forest change monitoring using medium spatial resolution Landsat satellite data aims for accurate and timely detection of forest disturbances. However, producing forest disturbance maps that have both high spatial and temporal accuracy is still challenging because of the

  15. The Influence of Cue Reliability and Cue Representation on Spatial Reorientation in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ian M.; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Ratliff, Kristin R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of children's reorientation have focused on cue representation (e.g., whether cues are geometric) as a predictor of performance but have not addressed cue reliability (the regularity of the relation between a given cue and an outcome) as a predictor of performance. Here we address both factors within the same series of…

  16. Cues for localization in the horizontal plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Jakob; Møller, Henrik

    2005-01-01

    manipulated in HRTFs used for binaural synthesis of sound in the horizontal plane. The manipulation of cues resulted in HRTFs with cues ranging from correct combinations of spectral information and ITDs to combinations with severely conflicting cues. Both the ITD and the spectral information seem...

  17. Improvements in Cycling Time Trial Performance Are Not Sustained Following the Acute Provision of Challenging and Deceptive Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hollie S Jones

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available TThe provision of performance-related feedback during exercise is acknowledged as an influential external cue used to inform pacing decisions. The provision of this feedback in a challenging or deceptive context allows research to explore how feedback can be used to improve performance and influence perceptual responses. However, the effects of deception on both acute and residual responses have yet to be explored, despite potential application for performance enhancement. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of challenging and deceptive feedback on perceptual responses and performance in self-paced cycling time trials (TT and explored whether changes in performance are sustained in a subsequent TT following the disclosure of the deception.Seventeen trained male cyclists were assigned to either an accurate or deceptive feedback group and performed four 16.1 km cycling TTs; 1 and 2 ride-alone baseline TTs where a fastest baseline (FBL performance was identified, 3 a TT against a virtual avatar representing 102% of their FBL performance (PACER, and 4 a subsequent ride-alone TT (SUB. The deception group, however, were initially informed that the avatar accurately represented their FBL, but prior to SUB were correctly informed of the nature of the avatar. Affect, self-efficacy and RPE were measured every quartile. Both groups performed PACER faster than FBL and SUB (p < 0.05 and experienced lower affect (p = 0.016, lower self-efficacy (p = 0.011, and higher RPE (p < 0.001 in PACER than FBL. No significant differences were found between FBL and SUB for any variable. The presence of the pacer rather than the manipulation of performance beliefs acutely facilitates TT performance and perceptual responses. Revealing that athletes’ performance beliefs were falsely negative due to deceptive feedback provision has no effect on subsequent perceptions or performance. A single experiential exposure may not be sufficient to produce meaningful

  18. Sensorimotor Adaptation Following Exposure to Ambiguous Inertial Motion Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S. J.; Clement, G. R.; Rupert, A. H.; Reschke, M. F.; Harm, D. L.; Guedry, F. E.

    2007-01-01

    The central nervous system must resolve the ambiguity of inertial motion sensory cues in order to derive accurate spatial orientation awareness. Adaptive changes in how inertial cues from the otolith system are integrated with other sensory information lead to perceptual and postural disturbances upon return to Earth s gravity. The primary goals of this ground-based research investigation are to explore physiological mechanisms and operational implications of tilt-translation disturbances during and following re-entry, and to evaluate a tactile prosthesis as a countermeasure for improving control of whole-body orientation during tilt and translation motion.

  19. Chemosensory cues of predators and competitors influence search for refuge in fruit by the coconut mite Aceria guerreronis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, Érica C; Lima, Debora B; Melo, José W S; Gondim, Manoel G C

    2018-03-01

    Organisms are adapted to recognize environmental cues that can provide information about predation risk or competition. Non-vagrant eriophyoid mites mainly avoid predation by using habitats that are difficult for predators to access (galls or confined spaces in plants) such as the meristematic region of the coconut fruit, which is inhabited by the phytophagous mites Aceria guerreronis and Steneotarsonemus concavuscutum. The objective of this study was to investigate the response of A. guerreronis to cues from the predators Neoseiulus baraki and Amblyseius largoensis in coconut fruits, cues from conspecifics (A. guerreronis injured) and cues from the phytophage S. concavuscutum. The test was carried out through the release of about 300 A. guerreronis on coconut fruits previously treated with cues from predators, conspecific or heterospecific phytophagous. We also observed the walking behaviour of A. guerreronis exposed to the same chemical cues using a video tracking system. The infestation of fruits by A. guerreronis was greater in the presence of predator cues and reduced in the presence of S. concavuscutum cues, but cues from injured conspecifics did not interfere in the infestation process. In addition, the cues also altered the walking parameters of A. guerreronis: it walked more in response to cues from predators and the heterospecific phytophage. Aceria guerreronis spent more time in activity in the treatments with clues than in the control treatment. These results suggest that A. guerreronis recognizes cues from predators and competitors and modifies its behaviour to increase its fitness.

  20. Children Use Nonverbal Cues to Make Inferences About Social Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brey, Elizabeth; Shutts, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    Four studies (N=192) tested whether young children use nonverbal information to make inferences about differences in social power. Five- and 6-year-old children were able to determine which of two adults was “in charge” in dynamic videotaped conversations (Study 1) and in static photographs (Study 4) using only nonverbal cues. Younger children (3–4 years) were not successful in Study 1 or Study 4. Removing irrelevant linguistic information from conversations did not improve the performance of 3–4-year-old children (Study 3), but including relevant linguistic cues did (Study 2). Thus, at least by 5 years of age, children show sensitivity to some of the same nonverbal cues adults use to determine other people’s social roles. PMID:25521913

  1. Cue lure and the mating behavior of male melon flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelly, T.E.; Villalobos, E.M.

    1995-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted to assess the effect of the parapheromone cue lure on the mating behavior of male Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett). Exposure to cue lure resulted in a short-term mating advantage. For wild flies, treated males that fed on cue lure on the day of testing, or 1 day prior to testing, mated more frequently than control males that had no prior exposure to cue lure. However, control and treated males had similar mating success in tests performed 3 or 7 days after the treated males were exposed to the lure. Exposure to cue lure also increased the mating success of mass-reared, irradiated males relative to unexposed wild males, though this advantage was evident for only 1 day following exposure. Cue lure appeared to enhance mating performance by increasing male wing-fanning activity but not the attractiveness of the signal per se. A field study revealed that irradiated males exposed to cue lure 1 week prior to release were less likely to be captured (in Steiner traps baited with cue lure and naled) than unexposed males. These findings suggest that exposure of sterile males to cue lure might improve the effectiveness of sterile insect release as well as enable simultaneous control programs of sterile insect release and male annihilation

  2. Quality Improvement, Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-Mix Manufacturing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-13

    Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle B.S...Mechanical Engineering Chairman, Department Committee on Graduate Theses 2 Quality Improvement , Inventory Management, Lead Time Reduction and... Production Scheduling in High-mix Manufacturing Environments by Sean Daigle Submitted to the Department of Mechanical Engineering on January 13, 2017, in

  3. How hearing aids, background noise, and visual cues influence objective listening effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picou, Erin M; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W Y

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate factors that influence the listening effort experienced when processing speech for people with hearing loss. Specifically, the change in listening effort resulting from introducing hearing aids, visual cues, and background noise was evaluated. An additional exploratory aim was to investigate the possible relationships between the magnitude of listening effort change and individual listeners' working memory capacity, verbal processing speed, or lipreading skill. Twenty-seven participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss were fitted with linear behind-the-ear hearing aids and tested using a dual-task paradigm designed to evaluate listening effort. The primary task was monosyllable word recognition and the secondary task was a visual reaction time task. The test conditions varied by hearing aids (unaided, aided), visual cues (auditory-only, auditory-visual), and background noise (present, absent). For all participants, the signal to noise ratio was set individually so that speech recognition performance in noise was approximately 60% in both the auditory-only and auditory-visual conditions. In addition to measures of listening effort, working memory capacity, verbal processing speed, and lipreading ability were measured using the Automated Operational Span Task, a Lexical Decision Task, and the Revised Shortened Utley Lipreading Test, respectively. In general, the effects measured using the objective measure of listening effort were small (~10 msec). Results indicated that background noise increased listening effort, and hearing aids reduced listening effort, while visual cues did not influence listening effort. With regard to the individual variables, verbal processing speed was negatively correlated with hearing aid benefit for listening effort; faster processors were less likely to derive benefit. Working memory capacity, verbal processing speed, and lipreading ability were related to benefit from visual cues. No

  4. Decreasing laboratory turnaround time and patient wait time by implementing process improvement methodologies in an outpatient oncology infusion unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjolaj, Lauren N; Gari, Gloria A; Olier-Pino, Angela I; Garcia, Juan D; Fernandez, Gustavo L

    2014-11-01

    Prolonged patient wait times in the outpatient oncology infusion unit indicated a need to streamline phlebotomy processes by using existing resources to decrease laboratory turnaround time and improve patient wait time. Using the DMAIC (define, measure, analyze, improve, control) method, a project to streamline phlebotomy processes within the outpatient oncology infusion unit in an academic Comprehensive Cancer Center known as the Comprehensive Treatment Unit (CTU) was completed. Laboratory turnaround time for patients who needed same-day lab and CTU services and wait time for all CTU patients was tracked for 9 weeks. During the pilot, the wait time from arrival to CTU to sitting in treatment area decreased by 17% for all patients treated in the CTU during the pilot. A total of 528 patients were seen at the CTU phlebotomy location, representing 16% of the total patients who received treatment in the CTU, with a mean turnaround time of 24 minutes compared with a baseline turnaround time of 51 minutes. Streamlining workflows and placing a phlebotomy station inside of the CTU decreased laboratory turnaround times by 53% for patients requiring same day lab and CTU services. The success of the pilot project prompted the team to make the station a permanent fixture. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  5. Eliciting nicotine craving with virtual smoking cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamito, Pedro; Oliveira, Jorge; Baptista, André; Morais, Diogo; Lopes, Paulo; Rosa, Pedro; Santos, Nuno; Brito, Rodrigo

    2014-08-01

    Craving is a strong desire to consume that emerges in every case of substance addiction. Previous studies have shown that eliciting craving with an exposure cues protocol can be a useful option for the treatment of nicotine dependence. Thus, the main goal of this study was to develop a virtual platform in order to induce craving in smokers. Fifty-five undergraduate students were randomly assigned to two different virtual environments: high arousal contextual cues and low arousal contextual cues scenarios (17 smokers with low nicotine dependency were excluded). An eye-tracker system was used to evaluate attention toward these cues. Eye fixation on smoking-related cues differed between smokers and nonsmokers, indicating that smokers focused more often on smoking-related cues than nonsmokers. Self-reports of craving are in agreement with these results and suggest a significant increase in craving after exposure to smoking cues. In sum, these data support the use of virtual environments for eliciting craving.

  6. Effectiveness of external cues to facilitate task performance in people with neurological disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Stephanie L; Laver, Kate E; Ninnis, Kayla; Rowett, Cherie; Lannin, Natasha A; Crotty, Maria

    2018-03-09

    To examine in people with neurological disorders, which method/s of providing external cues to improve task performance are most effective. Medline, EMBASE, and PsycINFO were systematically searched. Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data, and assessed the quality of the evidence using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Twenty six studies were included. Studies examined a wide-range of cues including visual, tactile, auditory, verbal, and multi-component cues. Cueing (any type) improved walking speed when comparing cues to no cues (mean difference (95% confidence interval): 0.08 m/s (0.06-0.10), I 2  = 68%, low quality of evidence). Remaining evidence was analysed narratively; evidence that cueing improves activity-related outcomes was inconsistent and rated as very low quality. It was not possible to determine which form of cueing may be more effective than others. Providing cues to encourage successful task performance is a core component of rehabilitation, however there is limited evidence on the type of cueing or which tasks benefit most from external cueing. Low-quality evidence suggests there may be a beneficial effect of cueing (any type) on walking speed. Sufficiently powered randomised controlled trials are needed to inform therapists of the most effective cueing strategies to improve activity performance in populations with a neurological disorder. Implications for rehabilitation Providing cues is a core component of rehabilitation and may improve successful task performance and activities in people with neurological conditions including stroke, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain injury, and multiple sclerosis, but evidence is limited for most neurological conditions with much research focusing on stroke and Parkinson's disease. Therapists should consider using a range of different types of cues depending on the aims of treatment and the neurological condition. There is

  7. Modeling the Development of Audiovisual Cue Integration in Speech Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getz, Laura M; Nordeen, Elke R; Vrabic, Sarah C; Toscano, Joseph C

    2017-03-21

    Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories. Is this also true for the more complex problem of acquiring audiovisual correspondences, which require the learner to integrate information from multiple modalities? In this paper, we present simulations using Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) that learn cue weights and combine cues on the basis of their distributional statistics. First, we simulate the developmental process of acquiring phonological categories from auditory and visual cues, asking whether simple statistical learning approaches are sufficient for learning multi-modal representations. Second, we use this time course information to explain audiovisual speech perception in adult perceivers, including cases where auditory and visual input are mismatched. Overall, we find that domain-general statistical learning techniques allow us to model the developmental trajectory of audiovisual cue integration in speech, and in turn, allow us to better understand the mechanisms that give rise to unified percepts based on multiple cues.

  8. G-cueing microcontroller (a microprocessor application in simulators)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horattas, C. G.

    1980-01-01

    A g cueing microcontroller is described which consists of a tandem pair of microprocessors, dedicated to the task of simulating pilot sensed cues caused by gravity effects. This task includes execution of a g cueing model which drives actuators that alter the configuration of the pilot's seat. The g cueing microcontroller receives acceleration commands from the aerodynamics model in the main computer and creates the stimuli that produce physical acceleration effects of the aircraft seat on the pilots anatomy. One of the two microprocessors is a fixed instruction processor that performs all control and interface functions. The other, a specially designed bipolar bit slice microprocessor, is a microprogrammable processor dedicated to all arithmetic operations. The two processors communicate with each other by a shared memory. The g cueing microcontroller contains its own dedicated I/O conversion modules for interface with the seat actuators and controls, and a DMA controller for interfacing with the simulation computer. Any application which can be microcoded within the available memory, the available real time and the available I/O channels, could be implemented in the same controller.

  9. Top down modulation of attention to food cues via working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgs, Suzanne; Rutters, Femke; Thomas, Jason M; Naish, Katherine; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2012-08-01

    Attentional biases towards food cues may be linked to the development of obesity. The present study investigated the mechanisms underlying attentional biases to food cues by assessing the role of top down influences, such as working memory (WM). We assessed whether attention in normal-weight, sated participants was drawn to food items specifically when that food item was held in WM. Twenty-three participants (15 f/8 m, age 23.4±5 year, BMI 23.5±4 kg/m(2)) took part in a laboratory based study assessing reaction times to food and non-food stimuli. Participants were presented with an initial cue stimulus to either hold in WM or to merely attend to, and then searched for the target (a circle) in a two-item display. On valid trials the target was flanked by a picture matching the cue, on neutral trials the display did not contain a picture matching the cue, and on invalid trials the distractor (a square) was flanked by a picture matching the cue. Cues were food, cars or stationery items. We observed that, relative to the effects with non-food stimuli, food items in WM strongly affected attention when the memorised cue re-appeared in the search display. In particular there was an enhanced response on valid trials, when the re-appearance of the memorised cue coincided with the search target. There were no effects of cue category on attentional guidance when the cues were merely attended to but not held in WM. These data point towards food having a strong effect on top-down guidance of search from working memory, and suggest a mechanism whereby individuals who are preoccupied with thoughts of food, for example obese individuals, show facilitated detection of food cues in the environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atypical Visual Orienting to Gaze- and Arrow-Cues in Adults with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlamings, Petra H. J. M.; Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van Son, Ilona A. M.; Mottron, Laurent

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates visual orienting to directional cues (arrow or eyes) in adults with high functioning autism (n = 19) and age matched controls (n = 19). A choice reaction time paradigm is used in which eye-or arrow direction correctly (congruent) or incorrectly (incongruent) cues target location. In typically developing participants,…

  11. Improving a real-time object detector with compact temporal information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrnbom, Martin; Jensen, Morten Bornø; Åström, Kalle

    2017-01-01

    Neural networks designed for real-time object detection have recently improved significantly, but in practice, look- ing at only a single RGB image at the time may not be ideal. For example, when detecting objects in videos, a foreground detection algorithm can be used to obtain compact temporal......, a problem this approach is well suited for. The ac- curacy was found to improve significantly (up to 66%), with a roughly 40% increase in computational time....

  12. Interrupted Time Series Versus Statistical Process Control in Quality Improvement Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson Hagiwara, Magnus; Andersson Gäre, Boel; Elg, Mattias

    2016-01-01

    To measure the effect of quality improvement interventions, it is appropriate to use analysis methods that measure data over time. Examples of such methods include statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis. This article compares the use of statistical process control analysis and interrupted time series with segmented regression analysis for evaluating the longitudinal effects of quality improvement interventions, using an example study on an evaluation of a computerized decision support system.

  13. The Kinetic Specificity of Plyometric Training: Verbal Cues Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louder Talin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training is a popular method utilized by strength and conditioning professionals to improve aspects of functional strength. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of extrinsic verbal cueing on the specificity of jumping movements. Thirteen participants (age: 23.4 ± 1.9 yr, body height: 170.3 ± 15.1 cm, body mass: 70.3 ± 23.8 kg, performed four types of jumps: a depth jump “as quickly as possible” (DJT, a depth jump “as high as possible” (DJH, a countermovement jump (CMJ, and a squat jump (SJ. Dependent measures, which included measurement of strength and power, were acquired using a force platform. From the results, differences in body-weight normalized peak force (BW (DJH: 4.3, DJT: 5.6, CMJ: 2.5, SJ: 2.2, time in upward propulsion (s (DJH: 0.34, DJT: 0.20, CMJ: 0.40, SJ: 0.51, and mean acceleration (m·s-2 (DJH: 26.7, DJT: 36.2, CMJ: 19.8, SJ: 17.3 were observed across all comparisons (p = 0.001 - 0.033. Differences in the body-weight normalized propulsive impulse (BW·s (DJH: 0.55, DJT: 0.52, CMJ: 0.39, SJ: 0.39 and propulsive power (kW (DJH: 13.7, DJT: 16.5, CMJ: 11.5, SJ: 12.1 were observed across all comparisons (p = 0.001 - 0.050 except between the CMJ and SJ (p = 0.128 - 0.929. The results highlight key kinetic differences influencing the specificity of plyometric movements and suggest that verbal cues may be used to emphasize the development of reactive strength (e.g. DJT or high-velocity concentric power (e.g. DJH.

  14. Attentional bias in smokers: exposure to dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Voogd, Hubert; Scholte, Ron H J; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2011-04-01

    Research has shown that smokers have an attentional bias for pictorial smoking cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether smokers also have an attentional bias for dynamic smoking cues in contemporary movies and therefore fixate more quickly, more often and for longer periods of time on dynamic smoking cues than non-smokers. By drawing upon established methods for assessing attentional biases for pictorial cues, we aimed to develop a new method for assessing attentional biases for dynamic smoking cues. We examined smokers' and non-smokers' eye movements while watching a movie clip by using eye-tracking technology. The sample consisted of 16 smoking and 17 non-smoking university students. Our results confirm the results of traditional pictorial attentional bias research. Smokers initially directed their gaze more quickly towards smoking-related cues (p = 0.01), focusing on them more often (p = 0.05) and for a longer duration (p = 0.01) compared with non-smokers. Thus, smoking cues in movies directly affect the attention of smokers. These findings indicate that the effects of dynamic smoking cues, in addition to other environmental smoking cues, need to be taken into account in smoking cessation therapies in order to increase successful smoking cessation and to prevent relapses.

  15. The impact of different perceptual cues on fear and presence in virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peperkorn, Henrik M; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    The impact of perceptual visual cues on spider phobic reactions has been thoroughly investigated over the last years. Although the fear of being touched by a spider is part of the clinical picture of spider phobia, findings on the impact of tactile fear cues are rare. This study uses virtual reality to selectively apply visual and tactile fear cues. Self-reported fear and the experience of presence in VR were measured in 20 phobic and 20 non-phobic participants. All participants were repeatedly exposed to visual cues, tactile cues, the combination of both and no fear relevant perceptual cues. Participants were exposed in each condition for five times in random order. Results show that tactile fear cues have the power to trigger fear independent of visual cues. Participants experienced highest levels of presence in the combined and the control condition. Presence may not only be seen in association with the emotional impact of specific cues in VR but also appears to depend on the comparability of a virtual environment to a real life situation.

  16. Effect of visual cues on the resolution of perceptual ambiguity in Parkinson's disease and normal aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Santos, Mirella; Cao, Bo; Mauro, Samantha A; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash; Neargarder, Sandy; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2015-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) and normal aging have been associated with changes in visual perception, including reliance on external cues to guide behavior. This raises the question of the extent to which these groups use visual cues when disambiguating information. Twenty-seven individuals with PD, 23 normal control adults (NC), and 20 younger adults (YA) were presented a Necker cube in which one face was highlighted by thickening the lines defining the face. The hypothesis was that the visual cues would help PD and NC to exert better control over bistable perception. There were three conditions, including passive viewing and two volitional-control conditions (hold one percept in front; and switch: speed up the alternation between the two). In the Hold condition, the cue was either consistent or inconsistent with task instructions. Mean dominance durations (time spent on each percept) under passive viewing were comparable in PD and NC, and shorter in YA. PD and YA increased dominance durations in the Hold cue-consistent condition relative to NC, meaning that appropriate cues helped PD but not NC hold one perceptual interpretation. By contrast, in the Switch condition, NC and YA decreased dominance durations relative to PD, meaning that the use of cues helped NC but not PD in expediting the switch between percepts. Provision of low-level cues has effects on volitional control in PD that are different from in normal aging, and only under task-specific conditions does the use of such cues facilitate the resolution of perceptual ambiguity.

  17. Time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiwen; Wei Weixing; He Yanhe; Zhao Yuanqing; Pan Liyiji; Li Xuemei; Shi Shaodui; Li Guangxin

    2010-01-01

    The time effectiveness of capillary effect improvement of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was studied. The ramie fabrics were processed in fulfilling with different gas (O 2 , N 2 , Ar) by different parameters (such as pressure,power and time) plasma. The capillary effect of the ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging was tested at different time. The results indicate that the capillary effect of ramie fabrics processed by RF glow discharging has been improved, the improvement of the capillary effect firstly decrease rapidly, then slowly, and become stable after 15 day, it indicate that improvement of the ramie fabrics capillary has good time effectiveness, and the plasma parameter for the best capillary effect improvement of ramie fabric is 100 W and 40 Pa processed 20 min by oxygen plasma. (authors)

  18. IMPROVED MOTOR-TIMING: EFFECTS OF SYNCHRONIZED METRO-NOME TRAINING ON GOLF SHOT ACCURACY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Rönnqvist

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of synchronized metronome training (SMT on motor timing and how this training might affect golf shot accuracy. Twenty-six experienced male golfers participated (mean age 27 years; mean golf handicap 12.6 in this study. Pre- and post-test investigations of golf shots made by three different clubs were conducted by use of a golf simulator. The golfers were randomized into two groups: a SMT group and a Control group. After the pre-test, the golfers in the SMT group completed a 4-week SMT program designed to improve their motor timing, the golfers in the Control group were merely training their golf-swings during the same time period. No differences between the two groups were found from the pre-test outcomes, either for motor timing scores or for golf shot accuracy. However, the post-test results after the 4-weeks SMT showed evident motor timing improvements. Additionally, significant improvements for golf shot accuracy were found for the SMT group and with less variability in their performance. No such improvements were found for the golfers in the Control group. As with previous studies that used a SMT program, this study's results provide further evidence that motor timing can be improved by SMT and that such timing improvement also improves golf accuracy

  19. Satisficing in split-second decision making is characterized by strategic cue discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hanna; Beck, Jeffrey M; Zhu, Pingping; Sommer, Marc A; Ferrari, Silvia; Egner, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Much of our real-life decision making is bounded by uncertain information, limitations in cognitive resources, and a lack of time to allocate to the decision process. It is thought that humans overcome these limitations through satisficing, fast but "good-enough" heuristic decision making that prioritizes some sources of information (cues) while ignoring others. However, the decision-making strategies we adopt under uncertainty and time pressure, for example during emergencies that demand split-second choices, are presently unknown. To characterize these decision strategies quantitatively, the present study examined how people solve a novel multicue probabilistic classification task under varying time pressure, by tracking shifts in decision strategies using variational Bayesian inference. We found that under low time pressure, participants correctly weighted and integrated all available cues to arrive at near-optimal decisions. With increasingly demanding, subsecond time pressures, however, participants systematically discounted a subset of the cue information by dropping the least informative cue(s) from their decision making process. Thus, the human cognitive apparatus copes with uncertainty and severe time pressure by adopting a "drop-the-worst" cue decision making strategy that minimizes cognitive time and effort investment while preserving the consideration of the most diagnostic cue information, thus maintaining "good-enough" accuracy. This advance in our understanding of satisficing strategies could form the basis of predicting human choices in high time pressure scenarios. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Endogenous cueing attenuates object substitution masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germeys, Filip; Pomianowska, I; De Graef, P; Zaenen, P; Verfaillie, K

    2010-07-01

    Object substitution masking (OSM) is a form of visual masking in which a briefly presented target surrounded by four small dots is masked by the continuing presence of the four dots after target offset. A major parameter in the prediction of OSM is the time required for attention to be directed to the target following its onset. Object substitution theory (Di Lollo et al. in J Exp Psychol Gen 129:481-507, 2000) predicts that the sooner attention can be focused at the target's location, the less masking will ensue. However, recently Luiga and Bachmann (Psychol Res 71:634-640, 2007) presented evidence that precueing of attention to the target location prior to target-plus-mask onset by means of a central (endogenous) arrow cue does not reduce OSM. When attention was cued exogenously, OSM was attenuated. Based on these results, Luiga and Bachmann argued that object substitution theory should be adapted by differentiating the ways of directing attention to the target location. The goal of the present study was to further examine the dissociation between the effects of endogenous and exogenous precueing on OSM. Contrary to Luiga and Bachmann, our results show that prior shifts of attention to the target location initiated by both exogenous and endogenous cues reduce OSM as predicted by object substitution theory and its computational model CMOS.

  1. Conditioned craving cues elicit an automatic approach tendency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Van den Bergh, O.; Beckers, T.

    2008-01-01

    In two experiments, we used a Pavlovian differential conditioning procedure to induce craving for chocolate. As a result of repeated pairing with chocolate intake, initially neutral cues came to elicit an automatic approach tendency in a speeded stimulus-response compatibility reaction time task.

  2. Nonspecific Verbal Cues Alleviate Forgetting by Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Kirstie; Hayne, Harlene

    2007-01-01

    Verbal reminders play a pervasive role in memory retrieval by human adults. In fact, relatively nonspecific verbal information (e.g. "Remember the last time we ate at that restaurant?") will often cue vivid recollections of a past event even when presented outside the original encoding context. Although research has shown that memory retrieval by…

  3. Motor Training: Comparison of Visual and Auditory Coded Proprioceptive Cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Jepson

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-perception of body posture and movement is achieved through multi-sensory integration, particularly the utilisation of vision, and proprioceptive information derived from muscles and joints. Disruption to these processes can occur following a neurological accident, such as stroke, leading to sensory and physical impairment. Rehabilitation can be helped through use of augmented visual and auditory biofeedback to stimulate neuro-plasticity, but the effective design and application of feedback, particularly in the auditory domain, is non-trivial. Simple auditory feedback was tested by comparing the stepping accuracy of normal subjects when given a visual spatial target (step length and an auditory temporal target (step duration. A baseline measurement of step length and duration was taken using optical motion capture. Subjects (n=20 took 20 ‘training’ steps (baseline ±25% using either an auditory target (950 Hz tone, bell-shaped gain envelope or visual target (spot marked on the floor and were then asked to replicate the target step (length or duration corresponding to training with all feedback removed. Visual cues (mean percentage error=11.5%; SD ± 7.0%; auditory cues (mean percentage error = 12.9%; SD ± 11.8%. Visual cues elicit a high degree of accuracy both in training and follow-up un-cued tasks; despite the novelty of the auditory cues present for subjects, the mean accuracy of subjects approached that for visual cues, and initial results suggest a limited amount of practice using auditory cues can improve performance.

  4. Benchmarking, benchmarks, or best practices? Applying quality improvement principles to decrease surgical turnaround time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, L

    1996-01-01

    The processes of benchmarking, benchmark data comparative analysis, and study of best practices are distinctly different. The study of best practices is explained with an example based on the Arthur Andersen & Co. 1992 "Study of Best Practices in Ambulatory Surgery". The results of a national best practices study in ambulatory surgery were used to provide our quality improvement team with the goal of improving the turnaround time between surgical cases. The team used a seven-step quality improvement problem-solving process to improve the surgical turnaround time. The national benchmark for turnaround times between surgical cases in 1992 was 13.5 minutes. The initial turnaround time at St. Joseph's Medical Center was 19.9 minutes. After the team implemented solutions, the time was reduced to an average of 16.3 minutes, an 18% improvement. Cost-benefit analysis showed a potential enhanced revenue of approximately $300,000, or a potential savings of $10,119. Applying quality improvement principles to benchmarking, benchmarks, or best practices can improve process performance. Understanding which form of benchmarking the institution wishes to embark on will help focus a team and use appropriate resources. Communicating with professional organizations that have experience in benchmarking will save time and money and help achieve the desired results.

  5. Retrieval-induced forgetting and interference between cues:Training a cue-outcome association attenuates retrieval by alternative cues

    OpenAIRE

    Ortega-Castro, Nerea; Vadillo Nistal, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Some researchers have attempted to determine whether situations in which a single cue is paired with several outcomes (A-B, A-C interference or interference between outcomes) involve the same learning and retrieval mechanisms as situations in which several cues are paired with a single outcome (A-B, C-B interference or interference between cues). Interestingly, current research on a related effect, which is known as retrieval-induced forgetting, can illuminate this debate. Most retrieval-indu...

  6. Understanding the role of contextual cues in supporting the formation of medication-taking habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Stawarz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maintaining high adherence is crucial to ensure that medications are effective (WHO, 2003. However, adherence rates are low (e.g. Haynes et al., 2002; Kardas, 2002; Osterberg & Blaschke, 2005. While some patients make a deliberate decision to alter or discontinue their treatment, others can be non-adherent unintentionally (WHO, 2003. Forgetfulness in particular is the main reason of unintentional non-adherence (Unni & Farris, 2011, and several technologies have been designed to support patients’ memory. At present, patients have access to a wide range of commercial adherence technologies, from simple smartphone apps to complex medication management systems. The topic is also popular among academic researchers, with many working on novel approaches to supporting patients’ memory (e.g. de Oliveira et al., 2010; Lee & Dey, 2014; Rodríguez et al., 2011. However, existing adherence technologies tend to provide timed alerts ("Please take your pill" and largely neglect people’s actual behaviour and the context within which they remember their medications. Contextual cues, e.g. routine events or meaningful objects, play an important role in supporting medication adherence, as they aid both prospective memory and habit formation; as a result, medication-taking becomes a part of a daily routine. Tasks linked to routine events, e.g. taking pills with breakfast, are easier to remember than tasks that need to take place at a specific time, such as taking pills at 7am (Park & Kidder, 1996. Moreover, research conducted with older adults shows that medication management is often guided by the physical environment and temporal rhythms of the day (Palen & Aaløkke, 2006, and that it is possible to improve adherence rates through tailoring remembering strategies and leaving visible cues in routinely visited places (Insel & Cole, 2005. Such contextual cues can also support the process of habit formation: as the behaviour is consistently repeated

  7. Consumer attention to product health cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund

    Purpose As part of a larger project aiming at improving healthy food choice among consumers, four studies were carried out to identify packaging cues that communicate product healthfulness. Methods Study 1 was an eye tracking experiment using a 5x3 group mixed design where the stimuli (five...... different dairy products) were varied within subjects and the viewing task (free viewing, product healthfulness evaluation, purchase likelihood evaluation) was varied between subjects. As a follow-up, three more studies were carried out using verbal response measures to assess perceived product...... healthfulness and purchase likelihood. Study 2 used a 3x2x2 group mixed design manipulating product images (control images, health-related images, exercise-related images), brand (control brand, health association brand), and color scheme (control color scheme, green health-association color scheme). Study 3...

  8. Incorporating geostrophic wind information for improved space–time short-term wind speed forecasting

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xinxin; Bowman, Kenneth P.; Genton, Marc G.

    2014-01-01

    pressure, temperature, and other meteorological variables, no improvement in forecasting accuracy was found by incorporating air pressure and temperature directly into an advanced space-time statistical forecasting model, the trigonometric direction diurnal

  9. People, clothing, music, and arousal as contextual retrieval cues in verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standing, Lionel G; Bobbitt, Kristin E; Boisvert, Kathryn L; Dayholos, Kathy N; Gagnon, Anne M

    2008-10-01

    Four experiments (N = 164) on context-dependent memory were performed to explore the effects on verbal memory of incidental cues during the test session which replicated specific features of the learning session. These features involved (1) bystanders, (2) the clothing of the experimenter, (3) background music, and (4) the arousal level of the subject. Social contextual cues (bystanders or experimenter clothing) improved verbal recall or recognition. However, recall decreased when the contextual cue was a different stimulus taken from the same conceptual category (piano music by Chopin) that was heard during learning. Memory was unaffected by congruent internal cues, produced by the same physiological arousal level (low, moderate, or high heart rate) during the learning and test sessions. However, recall increased with the level of arousal across the three congruent conditions. The results emphasize the effectiveness as retrieval cues of stimuli which are socially salient, concrete, and external.

  10. Time resolution improvement of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Ishii, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Torshabi, A. Esmaili

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of our study on the timing performance of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using the technique of digital signal processing. The coincidence signals between a CdTe detector (15x15x1 mm 3 ) and a fast liquid scintillator detector were digitized by a fast digital oscilloscope and analyzed. In the analysis, digital versions of the elements of timing circuits, including pulse shaper and time discriminator, were created and a digital implementation of the Amplitude and Rise-time Compensation (ARC) mode of timing was performed. Owing to a very fine adjustment of the parameters of timing measurement, a good time resolution of less than 9.9 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of 150 keV was achieved. In the next step, a new method of time pickoff for improvement of timing resolution without loss in the detection efficiency of CdTe detectors was examined. In the method, signals from a CdTe detector are grouped by their rise-times and different procedures of time pickoff are applied to the signals of each group. Then, the time pickoffs are synchronized by compensating the fixed time offset, caused by the different time pickoff procedures. This method leads to an improved time resolution of ∼7.2 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of as low as 150 keV. The methods presented in this work are computationally fast enough to be used for online processing of data in an actual PET system.

  11. Multiple cues add up in defining a figure on a ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devinck, Frédéric; Spillmann, Lothar

    2013-01-25

    We studied the contribution of multiple cues to figure-ground segregation. Convexity, symmetry, and top-down polarity (henceforth called wide base) were used as cues. Single-cue displays as well as ambiguous stimulus patterns containing two or three cues were presented. Error rate (defined by responses to uncued stimuli) and reaction time were used to quantify the figural strength of a given cue. In the first experiment, observers were asked to report which of two regions, left or right, appeared as foreground figure. Error rate did not benefit from adding additional cues if convexity was present, suggesting that responses were based on convexity as the predominant figural determinant. However, reaction time became shorter with additional cues even if convexity was present. For example, when symmetry and wide base were added, figure-ground segregation was facilitated. In a second experiment, stimulus patterns were exposed for 150ms to rule out eye movements. Results were similar to those found in the first experiment. Both experiments suggest that under the conditions of our experiment figure-ground segregation is perceived more readily, when several cues cooperate in defining the figure. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental cue saliency influences the vividness of a remote spatial memory in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Joëlle; de Vasconcelos, Anne Pereira; Cassel, Jean-Christophe

    2008-07-01

    The Morris water maze is frequently used to evaluate the acquisition and retrieval of spatial memories. Few experiments, however, have investigated the effects of environmental cue saliency on the strength or persistence of such memories after a short vs. long post-acquisition interval. Using a Morris water maze, we therefore tested in rats the effect of the saliency of distal cues on the vividness of a recent (5 days) vs. remote (25 days) memory. Rats trained in a cue-enriched vs. a cue-impoverished context showed a better overall level of performance during acquisition. Furthermore, the probe trials revealed that the rats trained and tested in the cue-impoverished context (1) spent less time in the target quadrant at the 25-day delay, and (2) swam shorter distances in the target area, with fewer crossings at both 5- and 25-day delays, as compared to their counterparts trained and tested in the cue-enriched context. Thus, the memory trace formed in the cue-enriched context shows better resistance to time, suggesting an implication of cue saliency in the vividness of a spatial memory.

  13. Improved Criteria on Delay-Dependent Stability for Discrete-Time Neural Networks with Interval Time-Varying Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Kwon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate the delay-dependent stability analysis for discrete-time neural networks with interval time-varying delays. Based on Lyapunov method, improved delay-dependent criteria for the stability of the networks are derived in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs by constructing a suitable Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and utilizing reciprocally convex approach. Also, a new activation condition which has not been considered in the literature is proposed and utilized for derivation of stability criteria. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. Getting more from visual working memory: Retro-cues enhance retrieval and protect from visual interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Alessandra S; Rerko, Laura; Oberauer, Klaus

    2016-06-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) has a limited capacity. This limitation can be mitigated by the use of focused attention: if attention is drawn to the relevant working memory content before test, performance improves (the so-called retro-cue benefit). This study tests 2 explanations of the retro-cue benefit: (a) Focused attention protects memory representations from interference by visual input at test, and (b) focusing attention enhances retrieval. Across 6 experiments using color recognition and color reproduction tasks, we varied the amount of color interference at test, and the delay between a retrieval cue (i.e., the retro-cue) and the memory test. Retro-cue benefits were larger when the memory test introduced interfering visual stimuli, showing that the retro-cue effect is in part because of protection from visual interference. However, when visual interference was held constant, retro-cue benefits were still obtained whenever the retro-cue enabled retrieval of an object from VWM but delayed response selection. Our results show that accessible information in VWM might be lost in the processes of testing memory because of visual interference and incomplete retrieval. This is not an inevitable state of affairs, though: Focused attention can be used to get the most out of VWM. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The Influence of Age-Related Cues on Health and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Laura M; Chung, Jaewoo; Langer, Ellen J

    2010-11-01

    Environmental cues that signal aging may directly and indirectly prime diminished capacity. Similarly, the absence of these cues may prime improved health. The authors investigated the effects of age cues on health and longevity in five very different settings. The findings include the following: First, women who think they look younger after having their hair colored/cut show a decrease in blood pressure and appear younger in photographs (in which their hair is cropped out) to independent raters. Second, clothing is an age-related cue. Uniforms eliminate these age-related cues: Those who wear work uniforms have lower morbidity than do those who earn the same amount of money and do not wear work uniforms. Third, baldness cues old age. Men who bald prematurely see an older self and therefore age faster: Prematurely bald men have an excess risk of getting prostate cancer and coronary heart disease than do men who do not prematurely bald. Fourth, women who bear children later in life are surrounded by younger age-related cues: Older mothers have a longer life expectancy than do women who bear children earlier in life. Last, large spousal age differences result in age-incongruent cues: Younger spouses live shorter lives and older spouses live longer lives than do controls. © The Author(s) 2010.

  16. The effects of transient attention on spatial resolution and the size of the attentional cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeshurun, Yaffa; Carrasco, Marisa

    2008-01-01

    It has been shown that transient attention enhances spatial resolution, but is the effect of transient attention on spatial resolution modulated by the size of the attentional cue? Would a gradual increase in the size of the cue lead to a gradual decrement in spatial resolution? To test these hypotheses, we used a texture segmentation task in which performance depends on spatial resolution, and systematically manipulated the size of the attentional cue: A bar of different lengths (Experiment 1) or a frame of different sizes (Experiments 2-3) indicated the target region in a texture segmentation display. Observers indicated whether a target patch region (oriented line elements in a background of an orthogonal orientation), appearing at a range of eccentricities, was present in the first or the second interval. We replicated the attentional enhancement of spatial resolution found with small cues; attention improved performance at peripheral locations but impaired performance at central locations. However, there was no evidence of gradual resolution decrement with large cues. Transient attention enhanced spatial resolution at the attended location when it was attracted to that location by a small cue but did not affect resolution when it was attracted by a large cue. These results indicate that transient attention cannot adapt its operation on spatial resolution on the basis of the size of the attentional cue.

  17. Combining instruction prefetching with partial cache locking to improve WCET in real-time systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ni

    Full Text Available Caches play an important role in embedded systems to bridge the performance gap between fast processor and slow memory. And prefetching mechanisms are proposed to further improve the cache performance. While in real-time systems, the application of caches complicates the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET analysis due to its unpredictable behavior. Modern embedded processors often equip locking mechanism to improve timing predictability of the instruction cache. However, locking the whole cache may degrade the cache performance and increase the WCET of the real-time application. In this paper, we proposed an instruction-prefetching combined partial cache locking mechanism, which combines an instruction prefetching mechanism (termed as BBIP with partial cache locking to improve the WCET estimates of real-time applications. BBIP is an instruction prefetching mechanism we have already proposed to improve the worst-case cache performance and in turn the worst-case execution time. The estimations on typical real-time applications show that the partial cache locking mechanism shows remarkable WCET improvement over static analysis and full cache locking.

  18. Combining instruction prefetching with partial cache locking to improve WCET in real-time systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Fan; Long, Xiang; Wan, Han; Gao, Xiaopeng

    2013-01-01

    Caches play an important role in embedded systems to bridge the performance gap between fast processor and slow memory. And prefetching mechanisms are proposed to further improve the cache performance. While in real-time systems, the application of caches complicates the Worst-Case Execution Time (WCET) analysis due to its unpredictable behavior. Modern embedded processors often equip locking mechanism to improve timing predictability of the instruction cache. However, locking the whole cache may degrade the cache performance and increase the WCET of the real-time application. In this paper, we proposed an instruction-prefetching combined partial cache locking mechanism, which combines an instruction prefetching mechanism (termed as BBIP) with partial cache locking to improve the WCET estimates of real-time applications. BBIP is an instruction prefetching mechanism we have already proposed to improve the worst-case cache performance and in turn the worst-case execution time. The estimations on typical real-time applications show that the partial cache locking mechanism shows remarkable WCET improvement over static analysis and full cache locking.

  19. More than a feeling: Emotional cues impact the access and experience of autobiographical memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Signy; Donahue, Julia

    2017-07-01

    Remembering is impacted by several factors of retrieval, including the emotional content of a memory cue. Here we tested how musical retrieval cues that differed on two dimensions of emotion-valence (positive and negative) and arousal (high and low)-impacted the following aspects of autobiographical memory recall: the response time to access a past personal event, the experience of remembering (ratings of memory vividness), the emotional content of a cued memory (ratings of event arousal and valence), and the type of event recalled (ratings of event energy, socialness, and uniqueness). We further explored how cue presentation affected autobiographical memory retrieval by administering cues of similar arousal and valence levels in a blocked fashion to one half of the tested participants, and randomly to the other half. We report three main findings. First, memories were accessed most quickly in response to musical cues that were highly arousing and positive in emotion. Second, we observed a relation between a cue and the elicited memory's emotional valence but not arousal; however, both the cue valence and arousal related to the nature of the recalled event. Specifically, high cue arousal led to lower memory vividness and uniqueness ratings, but cues with both high arousal and positive valence were associated with memories rated as more social and energetic. Finally, cue presentation impacted both how quickly and specifically memories were accessed and how cue valence affected the memory vividness ratings. The implications of these findings for views of how emotion directs the access to memories and the experience of remembering are discussed.

  20. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Stephen V; de Wit, Harriet

    2010-11-10

    Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers). Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  1. Beta-band oscillations during passive listening to metronome sounds reflect improved timing representation after short-term musical training in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Takako; Ross, Bernhard

    2017-10-01

    Sub-second time intervals in musical rhythms provide predictive cues about future events to performers and listeners through an internalized representation of timing. While the acuity of automatic, sub-second timing as well as cognitively controlled, supra-second timing declines with ageing, musical experts are less affected. This study investigated the influence of piano training on temporal processing abilities in older adults using behavioural and neuronal correlates. We hypothesized that neuroplastic changes in beta networks, caused by training in sensorimotor coordination with timing processing, can be assessed even in the absence of movement. Behavioural performance of internal timing stability was assessed with synchronization-continuation finger-tapping paradigms. Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded from older adults before and after one month of one-on-one training. For neural measures of automatic timing processing, we focused on beta oscillations (13-30 Hz) during passive listening to metronome beats. Periodic beta-band modulations in older adults before training were similar to previous findings in young listeners at a beat interval of 800 ms. After training, behavioural performance for continuation tapping was improved and accompanied by an increased range of beat-induced beta modulation, compared to participants who did not receive training. Beta changes were observed in the caudate, auditory, sensorimotor and premotor cortices, parietal lobe, cerebellum and medial prefrontal cortex, suggesting that increased resources are involved in timing processing and goal-oriented monitoring as well as reward-based sensorimotor learning. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Music during play-time: Using context conditioning as a tool to improve welfare in piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de F.H.; Boleij, H.; Baars, A.M.; Dudink, S.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, we investigated whether music can facilitate play behaviour in piglets after weaning, when that music had been presented preweaning as a contextual cue associated with access to a playroom. One group of piglets was given daily access to a playroom preweaning while music was

  3. Hand-gesture-based sterile interface for the operating room using contextual cues for the navigation of radiological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Mithun George; Wachs, Juan Pablo; Packer, Rebecca A

    2013-06-01

    This paper presents a method to improve the navigation and manipulation of radiological images through a sterile hand gesture recognition interface based on attentional contextual cues. Computer vision algorithms were developed to extract intention and attention cues from the surgeon's behavior and combine them with sensory data from a commodity depth camera. The developed interface was tested in a usability experiment to assess the effectiveness of the new interface. An image navigation and manipulation task was performed, and the gesture recognition accuracy, false positives and task completion times were computed to evaluate system performance. Experimental results show that gesture interaction and surgeon behavior analysis can be used to accurately navigate, manipulate and access MRI images, and therefore this modality could replace the use of keyboard and mice-based interfaces.

  4. Improving Elementary School Students' Understanding of Historical Time: Effects of Teaching with "Timewise"

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot-Reuvekamp, Marjan; Ros, Anje; van Boxtel, Carla

    2018-01-01

    The teaching of historical time is an important aspect in elementary school curricula. This study focuses on the effects of a curriculum intervention with "Timewise," a teaching approach developed to improve students' understanding of historical time using timelines as a basis with which students can develop their understanding of…

  5. External cues challenging the internal appetite control system-Overview and practical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilman, Els; van Kleef, Ellen; van Trijp, Hans

    2017-09-02

    Inadequate regulation of food intake plays an important role in the development of overweight and obesity, and is under the influence of both the internal appetite control system and external environmental cues. Especially in environments where food is overly available, external cues seem to override and/or undermine internal signals, which put severe challenges on the accurate regulation of food intake. By structuring these external cues around five different phases in the food consumption process this paper aims to provide an overview of the wide range of external cues that potentially facilitate or hamper internal signals and with that influence food intake. For each of the five phases of the food consumption process, meal initiation, meal planning, consumption phase, end of eating episode and time till next meal, the most relevant internal signals are discussed and it is explained how specific external cues exert their influence.

  6. Motivated Reasoning and Political Parties: Evidence for Increased Processing in the Face of Party Cues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Michael Bang; Skov, Martin; Serritzlew, Søren

    2013-01-01

    . As part of the latter processes, the presence of party cues would make individuals engage in effortful motivated reasoning to produce arguments for the correctness of their party’s position. Following psychological research, we use response latency to measure processing effort and, in support......Extant research in political science has demonstrated that citizens’ opinions on policies are influenced by their attachment to the party sponsoring them. At the same time, little evidence exists illuminating the psychological processes through which such party cues are filtered. From...... the psychological literature on source cues, we derive two possible hypotheses: (1) party cues activate heuristic processing aimed at minimizing the processing effort during opinion formation, and (2) party cues activate group motivational processes that compel citizens to support the position of their party...

  7. Retrieval of bilingual autobiographical memories: effects of cue language and cue imageability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Linda; Berntsen, Dorthe; Bohn, Ocke-Schwen

    2015-01-01

    An important issue in theories of bilingual autobiographical memory is whether linguistically encoded memories are represented in language-specific stores or in a common language-independent store. Previous research has found that autobiographical memory retrieval is facilitated when the language of the cue is the same as the language of encoding, consistent with language-specific memory stores. The present study examined whether this language congruency effect is influenced by cue imageability. Danish-English bilinguals retrieved autobiographical memories in response to Danish and English high- or low-imageability cues. Retrieval latencies were shorter to Danish than English cues and shorter to high- than low-imageability cues. Importantly, the cue language effect was stronger for low-than high-imageability cues. To examine the relationship between cue language and the language of internal retrieval, participants identified the language in which the memories were internally retrieved. More memories were retrieved when the cue language was the same as the internal language than when the cue was in the other language, and more memories were identified as being internally retrieved in Danish than English, regardless of the cue language. These results provide further evidence for language congruency effects in bilingual memory and suggest that this effect is influenced by cue imageability.

  8. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Cerri, C.; Vataga, E.; Prokoshin, F.; Tokar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  9. Qualitative insights into practice time management: does 'patient-centred time' in practice management offer a portal to improved access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, S; Adair, V; Coster, G; Hight, M; Gribben, B; Mitchell, E

    2002-12-01

    Different sets of literature suggest how aspects of practice time management can limit access to general practitioner (GP) care. Researchers have not organised this knowledge into a unified framework that can enhance understanding of barriers to, and opportunities for, improved access. To suggest a framework conceptualising how differences in professional and cultural understanding of practice time management in Auckland, New Zealand, influence access to GP care for children with chronic asthma. A qualitative study involving selective sampling, semi-structured interviews on barriers to access, and a general inductive approach. Twenty-nine key informants and ten mothers of children with chronic, moderate to severe asthma and poor access to GP care in Auckland. Development of a framework from themes describing barriers associated with, and needs for, practice time management. The themes were independently identified by two authors from transcribed interviews and confirmed through informant checking. Themes from key informant and patient interviews were triangulated with each other and with published literature. The framework distinguishes 'practice-centred time' from 'patient-centred time.' A predominance of 'practice-centred time' and an unmet opportunity for 'patient-centred time' are suggested by the persistence of five barriers to accessing GP care: limited hours of opening; traditional appointment systems; practice intolerance of missed appointments; long waiting times in the practice; and inadequate consultation lengths. None of the barriers is specific to asthmatic children. A unified framework was suggested for understanding how the organisation of practice work time can influence access to GP care by groups including asthmatic children.

  10. Qualitative insights into practice time management: does 'patient-centred time' in practice management offer a portal to improved access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buetow, S; Adair, V; Coster, G; Hight, M; Gribben, B; Mitchell, E

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different sets of literature suggest how aspects of practice time management can limit access to general practitioner (GP) care. Researchers have not organised this knowledge into a unified framework that can enhance understanding of barriers to, and opportunities for, improved access. AIM: To suggest a framework conceptualising how differences in professional and cultural understanding of practice time management in Auckland, New Zealand, influence access to GP care for children with chronic asthma. DESIGN OF STUDY: A qualitative study involving selective sampling, semi-structured interviews on barriers to access, and a general inductive approach. SETTING: Twenty-nine key informants and ten mothers of children with chronic, moderate to severe asthma and poor access to GP care in Auckland. METHOD: Development of a framework from themes describing barriers associated with, and needs for, practice time management. The themes were independently identified by two authors from transcribed interviews and confirmed through informant checking. Themes from key informant and patient interviews were triangulated with each other and with published literature. RESULTS: The framework distinguishes 'practice-centred time' from 'patient-centred time.' A predominance of 'practice-centred time' and an unmet opportunity for 'patient-centred time' are suggested by the persistence of five barriers to accessing GP care: limited hours of opening; traditional appointment systems; practice intolerance of missed appointments; long waiting times in the practice; and inadequate consultation lengths. None of the barriers is specific to asthmatic children. CONCLUSION: A unified framework was suggested for understanding how the organisation of practice work time can influence access to GP care by groups including asthmatic children. PMID:12528583

  11. Mechanoresponsive stem cells to target cancer metastases through biophysical cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Linan; Zhang, Shirley X; Liao, Wenbin; Farhoodi, Henry P; Wong, Chi W; Chen, Claire C; Ségaliny, Aude I; Chacko, Jenu V; Nguyen, Lily P; Lu, Mengrou; Polovin, George; Pone, Egest J; Downing, Timothy L; Lawson, Devon A; Digman, Michelle A; Zhao, Weian

    2017-07-26

    Despite decades of effort, little progress has been made to improve the treatment of cancer metastases. To leverage the central role of the mechanoenvironment in cancer metastasis, we present a mechanoresponsive cell system (MRCS) to selectively identify and treat cancer metastases by targeting the specific biophysical cues in the tumor niche in vivo. Our MRCS uses mechanosensitive promoter-driven mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based vectors, which selectively home to and target cancer metastases in response to specific mechanical cues to deliver therapeutics to effectively kill cancer cells, as demonstrated in a metastatic breast cancer mouse model. Our data suggest a strong correlation between collagen cross-linking and increased tissue stiffness at the metastatic sites, where our MRCS is specifically activated by the specific cancer-associated mechano-cues. MRCS has markedly reduced deleterious effects compared to MSCs constitutively expressing therapeutics. MRCS indicates that biophysical cues, specifically matrix stiffness, are appealing targets for cancer treatment due to their long persistence in the body (measured in years), making them refractory to the development of resistance to treatment. Our MRCS can serve as a platform for future diagnostics and therapies targeting aberrant tissue stiffness in conditions such as cancer and fibrotic diseases, and it should help to elucidate mechanobiology and reveal what cells "feel" in the microenvironment in vivo. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  12. Improvement of a real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruynseels Peggy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We describe an improvement of an earlier reported real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of enterovirus RNA, based on the 5' exonuclease digestion of a dual-labeled fluorogenic probe by Taq DNA polymerase. A different extraction method, real-time RT-PCR instrument and primer set were evaluated. Our data show that the optimized assay yields a higher sensitivity and reproducibility and resulted in a significant reduced hands-on time per sample.

  13. The cue is key : design for real-life remembering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, van den E.A.W.H.; Eggen, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to put the memory cue in the spotlight. We will show how memory cues are incorporated in the area of interaction design. The focus will be on external memory cues: cues that exist outside the human mind but have an internal effect on memory reconstruction. Examples of external cues

  14. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Lowen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be applied more quantitatively to rodent models. Here, changes in neuronal activation in response to cocaine-conditioned cues were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in juvenile rats that were made to over-express either D1 receptors or green fluorescent protein by viral-mediated transduction. Reduced activation was observed in the amygdala and dopamine cell body regions in the low cue-preferring/control juvenile rats in response to cocaine cues. In contrast, increased activation was observed in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and dopamine cell bodies in high cue-preferring/D1 juveniles. The increase in cue salience that is mediated by increased D1 receptor density, rather than excessive cocaine experience, appears to underlie the transition from aversion to reward in cue-induced neural response and may form the basis for habit-forming vulnerability.

  15. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Steven B; Rohan, Michael L; Gillis, Timothy E; Thompson, Britta S; Wellons, Clara B W; Andersen, Susan L

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be applied more quantitatively to rodent models. Here, changes in neuronal activation in response to cocaine-conditioned cues were observed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in juvenile rats that were made to over-express either D1 receptors or green fluorescent protein by viral-mediated transduction. Reduced activation was observed in the amygdala and dopamine cell body regions in the low cue-preferring/control juvenile rats in response to cocaine cues. In contrast, increased activation was observed in the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex, and dopamine cell bodies in high cue-preferring/D1 juveniles. The increase in cue salience that is mediated by increased D1 receptor density, rather than excessive cocaine experience, appears to underlie the transition from aversion to reward in cue-induced neural response and may form the basis for habit-forming vulnerability.

  16. Do current and former cigarette smokers have an attentional bias for e-cigarette cues?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochbuehler, Kirsten; Wileyto, E Paul; Tang, Kathy Z; Mercincavage, Melissa; Cappella, Joseph N; Strasser, Andrew A

    2018-03-01

    The similarity of e-cigarettes to tobacco cigarettes with regard to shape and usage raises the question of whether e-cigarette cues have the same incentive motivational properties as tobacco cigarette cues. The objective of the present study was to examine whether e-cigarette cues capture and hold smokers' and former smokers' attention and whether the attentional focus is associated with subsequent craving for tobacco cigarettes. It was also examined whether device type (cigalike or mod) moderated this relationship. Participants (46 current daily smokers, 38 former smokers, 48 non-smokers) were randomly assigned to a device type condition in which their eye-movements were assessed while completing a visual probe task. Craving was assessed before and after the task. Smokers, but not former or non-smokers, maintained their gaze longer on e-cigarette than on neutral pictures ( p = 0.004). No difference in dwell time was found between device type. None of the smoking status groups showed faster initial fixations or faster reaction times to e-cigarette compared with neutral cues. Baseline craving was associated with dwell time on e-cigarette cues ( p = 0.004). Longer dwell time on e-cigarette cues was associated with more favorable attitudes towards e-cigarettes. These findings indicate that e-cigarette cues may contribute to craving for tobacco cigarettes and suggest the potential regulation of e-cigarette marketing.

  17. Forecasting and analyzing high O3 time series in educational area through an improved chaotic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Nor Zila Abd; Adenan, Nur Hamiza; Noorani, Mohd Salmi Md

    2017-08-01

    Forecasting and analyzing the ozone (O3) concentration time series is important because the pollutant is harmful to health. This study is a pilot study for forecasting and analyzing the O3 time series in one of Malaysian educational area namely Shah Alam using chaotic approach. Through this approach, the observed hourly scalar time series is reconstructed into a multi-dimensional phase space, which is then used to forecast the future time series through the local linear approximation method. The main purpose is to forecast the high O3 concentrations. The original method performed poorly but the improved method addressed the weakness thereby enabling the high concentrations to be successfully forecast. The correlation coefficient between the observed and forecasted time series through the improved method is 0.9159 and both the mean absolute error and root mean squared error are low. Thus, the improved method is advantageous. The time series analysis by means of the phase space plot and Cao method identified the presence of low-dimensional chaotic dynamics in the observed O3 time series. Results showed that at least seven factors affect the studied O3 time series, which is consistent with the listed factors from the diurnal variations investigation and the sensitivity analysis from past studies. In conclusion, chaotic approach has been successfully forecast and analyzes the O3 time series in educational area of Shah Alam. These findings are expected to help stakeholders such as Ministry of Education and Department of Environment in having a better air pollution management.

  18. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margreet van Dishoeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time' (DNT. DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods: We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study. We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17% were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58 and sex distribution (p = 0.98 did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8. The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p Conclusion and Implications: The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific

  19. Lean six sigma methodologies improve clinical laboratory efficiency and reduce turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inal, Tamer C; Goruroglu Ozturk, Ozlem; Kibar, Filiz; Cetiner, Salih; Matyar, Selcuk; Daglioglu, Gulcin; Yaman, Akgun

    2018-01-01

    Organizing work flow is a major task of laboratory management. Recently, clinical laboratories have started to adopt methodologies such as Lean Six Sigma and some successful implementations have been reported. This study used Lean Six Sigma to simplify the laboratory work process and decrease the turnaround time by eliminating non-value-adding steps. The five-stage Six Sigma system known as define, measure, analyze, improve, and control (DMAIC) is used to identify and solve problems. The laboratory turnaround time for individual tests, total delay time in the sample reception area, and percentage of steps involving risks of medical errors and biological hazards in the overall process are measured. The pre-analytical process in the reception area was improved by eliminating 3 h and 22.5 min of non-value-adding work. Turnaround time also improved for stat samples from 68 to 59 min after applying Lean. Steps prone to medical errors and posing potential biological hazards to receptionists were reduced from 30% to 3%. Successful implementation of Lean Six Sigma significantly improved all of the selected performance metrics. This quality-improvement methodology has the potential to significantly improve clinical laboratories. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. "Are you done?" Child care providers' verbal communication at mealtimes that reinforce or hinder children's internal cues of hunger and satiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, Samantha A; Branen, Laurel J; Fletcher, Janice; Price, Elizabeth; Johnson, Susan L; Sigman-Grant, Madeleine

    2010-01-01

    To explore the verbal communication of child care providers regarding preschool children's internal and non-internal hunger and satiation cues. Video observation transcripts of Head Start staff (n=29) at licensed child care centers in Colorado, Idaho, and Nevada were analyzed for common themes. Adults' verbal communication with children at mealtimes emphasized non-internal cues: (1) cueing children to amounts without referencing children's internal cues; (2) meal termination time; (3) asking children if they wanted more without referencing their internal cues; (4) asking children if they were done without referencing their internal cues; (5) telling children to take, try, eat, or finish food; (6) praising children for eating; and (7) telling children about food being good for you. Adults demonstrated an overriding effort to get children to eat. Training needs to be developed that gives specifics on verbally cueing young children to their internal hunger and satiation cues. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Improved Real-time Denoising Method Based on Lifting Wavelet Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhaohua

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Signal denoising can not only enhance the signal to noise ratio (SNR but also reduce the effect of noise. In order to satisfy the requirements of real-time signal denoising, an improved semisoft shrinkage real-time denoising method based on lifting wavelet transform was proposed. The moving data window technology realizes the real-time wavelet denoising, which employs wavelet transform based on lifting scheme to reduce computational complexity. Also hyperbolic threshold function and recursive threshold computing can ensure the dynamic characteristics of the system, in addition, it can improve the real-time calculating efficiency as well. The simulation results show that the semisoft shrinkage real-time denoising method has quite a good performance in comparison to the traditional methods, namely soft-thresholding and hard-thresholding. Therefore, this method can solve more practical engineering problems.

  2. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  3. Cue Reliance in L2 Written Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Daniel; Kerz, Elma

    2014-01-01

    Second language learners reach expert levels in relative cue weighting only gradually. On the basis of ensemble machine learning models fit to naturalistic written productions of German advanced learners of English and expert writers, we set out to reverse engineer differences in the weighting of multiple cues in a clause linearization problem. We…

  4. Contextual Cueing Effects across the Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Edward C.; Conners, Frances A.; Roskos, Beverly; Klinger, Mark R.; Klinger, Laura Grofer

    2013-01-01

    The authors evaluated age-related variations in contextual cueing, which reflects the extent to which visuospatial regularities can facilitate search for a target. Previous research produced inconsistent results regarding contextual cueing effects in young children and in older adults, and no study has investigated the phenomenon across the life…

  5. Cues for haptic perception of compliance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.

    2009-01-01

    For the perception of the hardness of compliant materials, several cues are available. In this paper, the relative roles of force/displacement and surface deformation cues are investigated. We have measured discrimination thresholds with silicone rubber stimuli of differing thickness and compliance.

  6. Process improvement to enhance existing stroke team activity toward more timely thrombolytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2014-10-01

    Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients.

  7. Accuracy Improvement of Real-Time Location Tracking for Construction Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunsoo Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Extensive research has been conducted on the real-time locating system (RTLS for tracking construction components, including workers, equipment, and materials, in order to improve construction performance (e.g., productivity improvement or accident prevention. In order to prevent safety accidents and make more sustainable construction job sites, the higher accuracy of RTLS is required. To improve the accuracy of RTLS in construction projects, this paper presents a RTLS using radio frequency identification (RFID. For this goal, this paper develops a location tracking error mitigation algorithm and presents the concept of using assistant tags. The applicability and effectiveness of the developed RTLS are tested under eight different construction environments and the test results confirm the system’s strong potential for improving the accuracy of real-time location tracking in construction projects, thus enhancing construction performance.

  8. Improving Door-to-balloon Time by Decreasing Door-to-ECG time for Walk-in STEMI Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coyne, Christopher J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology guidelines recommend rapid door-to-electrocardiography (ECG times for patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI. Previous quality improvement research at our institution revealed that we were not meeting this benchmark for walk-in STEMI patients. The objective is to investigate whether simple, directed changes in the emergency department (ED triage process for potential cardiac patients could decrease door-to-ECG times and secondarily door-to-balloon times. Methods: We conducted an interventional study at a large, urban, public teaching hospital from April 2010 to June 2012. All patients who walked into the ED with a confirmed STEMI were enrolled in the study. The primary intervention involved creating a chief complaint-based “cardiac triage” designation that streamlined the evaluation of potential cardiac patients. A secondary intervention involved moving our ECG technician and ECG station to our initial triage area. The primary outcome measure was door-to-ECG time and the secondary outcome measure was door-to-balloon time. Results: We enrolled 91 walk-in STEMI patients prior to the intervention period and 141 patients after the invention. We observed statistically significant reductions in door-to-ECG time (43±93 to 30±72 minutes, median 23 to 14 minutes p<0.01, ECG-to-activation time (87±134 to 52±82 minutes, median 43 to 31 minutes p<0.01, and door-to-balloon time (134±146 to 84±40 minutes, median 85 -75 minutes p=0.03. Conclusion: By creating a chief complaint-based cardiac triage protocol and by streamlining ECG completion, walk-in STEMI patients are systematically processed through the ED. This is not only associated with a decrease in door-to-balloon time, but also a decrease in the variability of the time sensitive intervals of door-to-ECG and ECG-to-balloon time. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(1:184–189.

  9. Time-frequency analysis of time-varying modulated signals based on improved energy separation by iterative generalized demodulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhipeng; Chu, Fulei; Zuo, Ming J.

    2011-03-01

    Energy separation algorithm is good at tracking instantaneous changes in frequency and amplitude of modulated signals, but it is subject to the constraints of mono-component and narrow band. In most cases, time-varying modulated vibration signals of machinery consist of multiple components, and have so complicated instantaneous frequency trajectories on time-frequency plane that they overlap in frequency domain. For such signals, conventional filters fail to obtain mono-components of narrow band, and their rectangular decomposition of time-frequency plane may split instantaneous frequency trajectories thus resulting in information loss. Regarding the advantage of generalized demodulation method in decomposing multi-component signals into mono-components, an iterative generalized demodulation method is used as a preprocessing tool to separate signals into mono-components, so as to satisfy the requirements by energy separation algorithm. By this improvement, energy separation algorithm can be generalized to a broad range of signals, as long as the instantaneous frequency trajectories of signal components do not intersect on time-frequency plane. Due to the good adaptability of energy separation algorithm to instantaneous changes in signals and the mono-component decomposition nature of generalized demodulation, the derived time-frequency energy distribution has fine resolution and is free from cross term interferences. The good performance of the proposed time-frequency analysis is illustrated by analyses of a simulated signal and the on-site recorded nonstationary vibration signal of a hydroturbine rotor during a shut-down transient process, showing that it has potential to analyze time-varying modulated signals of multi-components.

  10. Kin-informative recognition cues in ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nehring, Volker; Evison, Sophie E F; Santorelli, Lorenzo A

    2011-01-01

    behaviour is thought to be rare in one of the classic examples of cooperation--social insect colonies--because the colony-level costs of individual selfishness select against cues that would allow workers to recognize their closest relatives. In accord with this, previous studies of wasps and ants have...... found little or no kin information in recognition cues. Here, we test the hypothesis that social insects do not have kin-informative recognition cues by investigating the recognition cues and relatedness of workers from four colonies of the ant Acromyrmex octospinosus. Contrary to the theoretical...... prediction, we show that the cuticular hydrocarbons of ant workers in all four colonies are informative enough to allow full-sisters to be distinguished from half-sisters with a high accuracy. These results contradict the hypothesis of non-heritable recognition cues and suggest that there is more potential...

  11. Multiscale Cues Drive Collective Cell Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Ki-Hwan; Kim, Peter; Wood, David K.; Kwon, Sunghoon; Provenzano, Paolo P.; Kim, Deok-Ho

    2016-07-01

    To investigate complex biophysical relationships driving directed cell migration, we developed a biomimetic platform that allows perturbation of microscale geometric constraints with concomitant nanoscale contact guidance architectures. This permits us to elucidate the influence, and parse out the relative contribution, of multiscale features, and define how these physical inputs are jointly processed with oncogenic signaling. We demonstrate that collective cell migration is profoundly enhanced by the addition of contract guidance cues when not otherwise constrained. However, while nanoscale cues promoted migration in all cases, microscale directed migration cues are dominant as the geometric constraint narrows, a behavior that is well explained by stochastic diffusion anisotropy modeling. Further, oncogene activation (i.e. mutant PIK3CA) resulted in profoundly increased migration where extracellular multiscale directed migration cues and intrinsic signaling synergistically conspire to greatly outperform normal cells or any extracellular guidance cues in isolation.

  12. Real-time shadows

    CERN Document Server

    Eisemann, Elmar; Assarsson, Ulf; Wimmer, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Important elements of games, movies, and other computer-generated content, shadows are crucial for enhancing realism and providing important visual cues. In recent years, there have been notable improvements in visual quality and speed, making high-quality realistic real-time shadows a reachable goal. Real-Time Shadows is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of real-time shadow techniques. It covers a large variety of different effects, including hard, soft, volumetric, and semi-transparent shadows.The book explains the basics as well as many advanced aspects related to the domain

  13. Lean-driven improvements slash wait times, drive up patient satisfaction scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Administrators at LifePoint Hospitals, based in Brentwood, TN, used lean manufacturing techniques to slash wait times by as much as 30 minutes and achieve double-digit increases in patient satisfaction scores in the EDs at three hospitals. In each case, front-line workers took the lead on identifying opportunities for improvement and redesigning the patient-flow process. As a result of the new efficiencies, patient volume is up by about 25% at all three hospitals. At each hospital, the improvement process began with Kaizen, a lean process that involves bringing personnel together to flow-chart the current system, identify problem areas, and redesign the process. Improvement teams found big opportunities for improvement at the front end of the flow process. Key to the approach was having a plan up front to deal with non-compliance. To sustain improvements, administrators gather and disseminate key metrics on a daily basis.

  14. Improved Thévenin equivalent methods for real-time voltage stability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    An improved Thévenin equivalent method for real-time voltage stability assessment that uses wide-area information from synchrophasors is proposed. The improvements are a better modeling of the limited synchronous generators, and a processing that anticipates the effect of field current limiters......, before the latter are activated. Several study cases using detailed dynamic simulations of the Nordic test system have been used to assess the performance of the proposed improvements. Their effectiveness is analyzed and, based on the results, their possible application in combination...

  15. Research on Monte Carlo improved quasi-static method for reactor space-time dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Qi; Wang Kan; Li Shirui; Yu Ganglin

    2013-01-01

    With large time steps, improved quasi-static (IQS) method can improve the calculation speed for reactor dynamic simulations. The Monte Carlo IQS method was proposed in this paper, combining the advantages of both the IQS method and MC method. Thus, the Monte Carlo IQS method is beneficial for solving space-time dynamics problems of new concept reactors. Based on the theory of IQS, Monte Carlo algorithms for calculating adjoint neutron flux, reactor kinetic parameters and shape function were designed and realized. A simple Monte Carlo IQS code and a corresponding diffusion IQS code were developed, which were used for verification of the Monte Carlo IQS method. (authors)

  16. "On" freezing in Parkinson's disease: resistance to visual cue walking devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kompoliti, K; Goetz, C G; Leurgans, S; Morrissey, M; Siegel, I M

    2000-03-01

    To measure "on" freezing during unassisted walking (UW) and test if two devices, a modified inverted stick (MIS) and a visual laser beam stick (LBS) improved walking speed and number of "on" freezing episodes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiple visual cues can overcome "off' freezing episodes and can be useful in improving gait function in parkinsonian patients. These devices have not been specifically tested in "on" freezing, which is unresponsive to pharmacologic manipulations. Patients with PD, motor fluctuations and freezing while "on," attempted walking on a 60-ft track with each of three walking conditions in a randomized order: UW, MIS, and LBS. Total time to complete a trial, number of freezes, and the ratio of walking time to the number of freezes were compared using Friedman's test. Twenty-eight patients with PD, mean age 67.81 years (standard deviation [SD] 7.54), mean disease duration 13.04 years (SD 7.49), and mean motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score "on" 32.59 (SD 10.93), participated in the study. There was a statistically significant correlation of time needed to complete a trial and number of freezes for all three conditions (Spearman correlations: UW 0.973, LBS 0.0.930, and MIS 0.842). The median number of freezes, median time to walk in each condition, and median walking time per freeze were not significantly different in pairwise comparisons of the three conditions (Friedman's test). Of the 28 subjects, six showed improvement with the MIS and six with the LBS in at least one outcome measure. Assisting devices, specifically based on visual cues, are not consistently beneficial in overcoming "on" freezing in most patients with PD. Because this is an otherwise untreatable clinical problem and because occasional subjects do respond, cautious trials of such devices under the supervision of a health professional should be conducted to identify those patients who might benefit from their long-term use.

  17. Evidence for cue-independent spatial representation in the human auditory cortex during active listening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Nathan C; McLaughlin, Susan A; Rinne, Teemu; Stecker, G Christopher

    2017-09-05

    Few auditory functions are as important or as universal as the capacity for auditory spatial awareness (e.g., sound localization). That ability relies on sensitivity to acoustical cues-particularly interaural time and level differences (ITD and ILD)-that correlate with sound-source locations. Under nonspatial listening conditions, cortical sensitivity to ITD and ILD takes the form of broad contralaterally dominated response functions. It is unknown, however, whether that sensitivity reflects representations of the specific physical cues or a higher-order representation of auditory space (i.e., integrated cue processing), nor is it known whether responses to spatial cues are modulated by active spatial listening. To investigate, sensitivity to parametrically varied ITD or ILD cues was measured using fMRI during spatial and nonspatial listening tasks. Task type varied across blocks where targets were presented in one of three dimensions: auditory location, pitch, or visual brightness. Task effects were localized primarily to lateral posterior superior temporal gyrus (pSTG) and modulated binaural-cue response functions differently in the two hemispheres. Active spatial listening (location tasks) enhanced both contralateral and ipsilateral responses in the right hemisphere but maintained or enhanced contralateral dominance in the left hemisphere. Two observations suggest integrated processing of ITD and ILD. First, overlapping regions in medial pSTG exhibited significant sensitivity to both cues. Second, successful classification of multivoxel patterns was observed for both cue types and-critically-for cross-cue classification. Together, these results suggest a higher-order representation of auditory space in the human auditory cortex that at least partly integrates the specific underlying cues.

  18. Targeting extinction and reconsolidation mechanisms to combat the impact of drug cues on addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Jane R; Olausson, Peter; Quinn, Jennifer J; Torregrossa, Mary M

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a progressive and compulsive disorder, where recurrent craving and relapse to drug-seeking occur even after long periods of abstinence. A major contributing factor to relapse is drug-associated cues. Here we review behavioral and pharmacological studies outlining novel methods of effective and persistent reductions in cue-induced relapse behavior in animal models. We focus on extinction and reconsolidation of cue-drug associations as the memory processes that are the most likely targets for interventions. Extinction involves the formation of new inhibitory memories rather than memory erasure; thus, it should be possible to facilitate the extinction of cue-drug memories to reduce relapse. We propose that context-dependency of extinction might be altered by mnemonic agents, thereby enhancing the efficacy of cue-exposure therapy as treatment strategy. In contrast, interfering with memory reconsolidation processes can disrupt the integrity or strength of specific cue-drug memories. Reconsolidation is argued to be a distinct process that occurs over a brief time period after memory is reactivated/retrieved - when the memory becomes labile and vulnerable to disruption. Reconsolidation is thought to be an independent, perhaps opposing, process to extinction and disruption of reconsolidation has recently been shown to directly affect subsequent cue-drug memory retrieval in an animal model of relapse. We hypothesize that a combined approach aimed at both enhancing the consolidation of cue-drug extinction and interfering with the reconsolidation of cue-drug memories will have a greater potential for persistently inhibiting cue-induced relapse than either treatment alone.

  19. Black Cigarette Smokers Report More Attention to Smoking Cues Than White Smokers: Implications for Smoking Cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Cendrine D; Pickworth, Wallace B; Heishman, Stephen J; Wetter, David W; Cinciripini, Paul M; Li, Yisheng; Rowell, Brigid; Waters, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Black cigarette smokers have lower rates of smoking cessation compared with Whites. However, the mechanisms underlying these differences are not clear. Many Blacks live in communities saturated by tobacco advertisements. These cue-rich environments may undermine cessation attempts by provoking smoking. Moreover, attentional bias to smoking cues (attention capture by smoking cues) has been linked to lower cessation outcomes. Cessation attempts among Blacks may be compromised by attentional bias to smoking cues and a cue-rich environment. Attention to smoking cues in Black and White smokers was examined in 2 studies. In both studies, assessments were completed during 2 laboratory visits: a nonabstinent session and an abstinent session. In study 1, nontreatment-seeking smokers (99 Whites, 104 Blacks) completed the Subjective Attentional Bias Questionnaire (SABQ; a self-report measure of attention to cues) and the Smoking Stroop task (a reaction time measure of attentional bias to smoking cues). In study 2, 110 White and 74 Black treatment-seeking smokers completed these assessments and attempted to quit. In study 1, Blacks reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .005). In study 2, Blacks also reported higher ratings than Whites on the SABQ (p = .003). In study 2, Blacks had lower biochemical-verified point prevalence abstinence than Whites, and the between-race difference in outcome was partially mediated by SABQ ratings. Blacks reported greater attention to smoking cues than Whites, possibly due to between-race differences in environments. Greater attention to smoking cues may undermine cessation attempts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Experience with speech sounds is not necessary for cue trading by budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Flaherty

    Full Text Available The influence of experience with human speech sounds on speech perception in budgerigars, vocal mimics whose speech exposure can be tightly controlled in a laboratory setting, was measured. Budgerigars were divided into groups that differed in auditory exposure and then tested on a cue-trading identification paradigm with synthetic speech. Phonetic cue trading is a perceptual phenomenon observed when changes on one cue dimension are offset by changes in another cue dimension while still maintaining the same phonetic percept. The current study examined whether budgerigars would trade the cues of voice onset time (VOT and the first formant onset frequency when identifying syllable initial stop consonants and if this would be influenced by exposure to speech sounds. There were a total of four different exposure groups: No speech exposure (completely isolated, Passive speech exposure (regular exposure to human speech, and two Speech-trained groups. After the exposure period, all budgerigars were tested for phonetic cue trading using operant conditioning procedures. Birds were trained to peck keys in response to different synthetic speech sounds that began with "d" or "t" and varied in VOT and frequency of the first formant at voicing onset. Once training performance criteria were met, budgerigars were presented with the entire intermediate series, including ambiguous sounds. Responses on these trials were used to determine which speech cues were used, if a trading relation between VOT and the onset frequency of the first formant was present, and whether speech exposure had an influence on perception. Cue trading was found in all birds and these results were largely similar to those of a group of humans. Results indicated that prior speech experience was not a requirement for cue trading by budgerigars. The results are consistent with theories that explain phonetic cue trading in terms of a rich auditory encoding of the speech signal.

  1. The effect of a preceding cue on the conflict solving mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Liat; Henik, Avishai

    2013-01-01

    In everyday life cues and signs are used in order to improve our performance and to modify and control our behavior. This study examines whether cues can improve the performance of the mental mechanism in charge of solving conflicts when the nature of the irrelevant task remains constant. In two experiments participants performed the Stroop task in which they were asked to name the color of a stimulus while ignoring its meaning. Half the trials were preceded by a conflict-cue containing information about an upcoming conflict. In addition, conflict trial proportions were manipulated. We found that only when the probability of conflict is low can cues alter the conflict solving mechanism. These findings are discussed in the context of the nature of the control mechanism and its tendency to minimize the cost of mental resources.

  2. The footprints of visual attention during search with 100% valid and 100% invalid cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, Miguel P; Pham, Binh T; Shimozaki, Steven S

    2004-06-01

    Human performance during visual search typically improves when spatial cues indicate the possible target locations. In many instances, the performance improvement is quantitatively predicted by a Bayesian or quasi-Bayesian observer in which visual attention simply selects the information at the cued locations without changing the quality of processing or sensitivity and ignores the information at the uncued locations. Aside from the general good agreement between the effect of the cue on model and human performance, there has been little independent confirmation that humans are effectively selecting the relevant information. In this study, we used the classification image technique to assess the effectiveness of spatial cues in the attentional selection of relevant locations and suppression of irrelevant locations indicated by spatial cues. Observers searched for a bright target among dimmer distractors that might appear (with 50% probability) in one of eight locations in visual white noise. The possible target location was indicated using a 100% valid box cue or seven 100% invalid box cues in which the only potential target locations was uncued. For both conditions, we found statistically significant perceptual templates shaped as differences of Gaussians at the relevant locations with no perceptual templates at the irrelevant locations. We did not find statistical significant differences between the shapes of the inferred perceptual templates for the 100% valid and 100% invalid cues conditions. The results confirm the idea that during search visual attention allows the observer to effectively select relevant information and ignore irrelevant information. The results for the 100% invalid cues condition suggests that the selection process is not drawn automatically to the cue but can be under the observers' voluntary control.

  3. Approximate distance oracles for planar graphs with improved query time-space tradeoff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulff-Nilsen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We consider approximate distance oracles for edge-weighted n-vertex undirected planar graphs. Given fixed ϵ > 0, we present a (1 + ϵ)-approximate distance oracle with O(n(log log n)2) space and O((loglogr?,)3) query time. This improves the previous best product of query time and space...... of the oracles of Thorup (FOCS 2001, J. ACM 2004) and Klein (SODA 2002) from O(nlogn) to O(n(loglogn)5)....

  4. Using lean principles to improve outpatient adult infusion clinic chemotherapy preparation turnaround times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamm, Matthew H; Eckel, Stephen; Daniels, Rowell; Amerine, Lindsey B

    2015-07-01

    The workflow and chemotherapy preparation turnaround times at an adult infusion clinic were evaluated to identify opportunities to optimize workflow and efficiency. A three-phase study using Lean Six Sigma methodology was conducted. In phase 1, chemotherapy turnaround times in the adult infusion clinic were examined one year after the interim goal of a 45-minute turnaround time was established. Phase 2 implemented various experiments including a five-day Kaizen event, using lean principles in an effort to decrease chemotherapy preparation turnaround times in a controlled setting. Phase 3 included the implementation of process-improvement strategies identified during the Kaizen event, coupled with a final refinement of operational processes. In phase 1, the mean turnaround time for all chemotherapy preparations decreased from 60 to 44 minutes, and a mean of 52 orders for adult outpatient chemotherapy infusions was received each day. After installing new processes, the mean turnaround time had improved to 37 minutes for each chemotherapy preparation in phase 2. In phase 3, the mean turnaround time decreased from 37 to 26 minutes. The overall mean turnaround time was reduced by 26 minutes, representing a 57% decrease in turnaround times in 19 months through the elimination of waste and the implementation of lean principles. This reduction was accomplished through increased efficiencies in the workplace, with no addition of human resources. Implementation of Lean Six Sigma principles improved workflow and efficiency at an adult infusion clinic and reduced the overall chemotherapy turnaround times from 60 to 26 minutes. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Learned Interval Time Facilitates Associate Memory Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Ven, Vincent; Kochs, Sarah; Smulders, Fren; De Weerd, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The extent to which time is represented in memory remains underinvestigated. We designed a time paired associate task (TPAT) in which participants implicitly learned cue-time-target associations between cue-target pairs and specific cue-target intervals. During subsequent memory testing, participants showed increased accuracy of identifying…

  6. Spatial midsession reversal learning in rats: Effects of egocentric Cue use and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayburn-Reeves, Rebecca M; Moore, Mary K; Smith, Thea E; Crafton, Daniel A; Marden, Kelly L

    2018-07-01

    The midsession reversal task has been used to investigate behavioral flexibility and cue use in non-human animals, with results indicating differences in the degree of control by environmental cues across species. For example, time-based control has been found in rats only when tested in a T-maze apparatus and under specific conditions in which position and orientation (i.e., egocentric) cues during the intertrial interval could not be used to aid performance. Other research in an operant setting has shown that rats often produce minimal errors around the reversal location, demonstrating response patterns similar to patterns exhibited by humans and primates in this task. The current study aimed to reduce, but not eliminate, the ability for rats to utilize egocentric cues by placing the response levers on the opposite wall of the chamber in relation to the pellet dispenser. Results showed that rats made minimal errors prior to the reversal, suggesting time-based cues were not controlling responses, and that they switched to the second correct stimulus within a few trials after the reversal event. Video recordings also revealed highly structured patterns of behavior by the majority of rats, which often differed depending on which response was reinforced. We interpret these findings as evidence that rats are adept at utilizing their own egocentric cues and that these cues, along with memory for the recent response-reinforcement contingencies, aid in maximizing reinforcement over the session. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Cross-modal cueing in audiovisual spatial attention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blurton, Steven Paul; Greenlee, Mark W.; Gondan, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    effects have been reported for endogenous visual cues while exogenous cues seem to be mostly ineffective. In three experiments, we investigated cueing effects on the processing of audiovisual signals. In Experiment 1 we used endogenous cues to investigate their effect on the detection of auditory, visual......, and audiovisual targets presented with onset asynchrony. Consistent cueing effects were found in all target conditions. In Experiment 2 we used exogenous cues and found cueing effects only for visual target detection, but not auditory target detection. In Experiment 3 we used predictive exogenous cues to examine...

  8. Improving perfusion quantification in arterial spin labeling for delayed arrival times by using optimized acquisition schemes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramme, Johanna; Diehl, Volker; Madai, Vince I.; Sobesky, Jan; Guenther, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The improvement in Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) perfusion quantification, especially for delayed bolus arrival times (BAT), with an acquisition redistribution scheme mitigating the T1 decay of the label in multi-TI ASL measurements is investigated. A multi inflow time (TI) 3D-GRASE sequence is presented which adapts the distribution of acquisitions accordingly, by keeping the scan time constant. The MR sequence increases the number of averages at long TIs and decreases their number at short TIs and thus compensating the T1 decay of the label. The improvement of perfusion quantification is evaluated in simulations as well as in-vivo in healthy volunteers and patients with prolonged BATs due to age or steno-occlusive disease. The improvement in perfusion quantification depends on BAT. At healthy BATs the differences are small, but become larger for longer BATs typically found in certain diseases. The relative error of perfusion is improved up to 30% at BATs > 1500 ms in comparison to the standard acquisition scheme. This adapted acquisition scheme improves the perfusion measurement in comparison to standard multi-TI ASL implementations. It provides relevant benefit in clinical conditions that cause prolonged BATs and is therefore of high clinical relevance for neuroimaging of steno-occlusive diseases.

  9. The effects of recruitment to direct predator cues on predator responses in meerkats

    OpenAIRE

    Zottl, M.; Lienert, R.; Clutton-Brock, T.; Millesi, E.; Manser, M B.

    2017-01-01

    Behavioral responses of animals to direct predator cues (DPCs; e.g., urine) are common and may improve their survival. We investigated wild meerkat (Suricata suricatta) responses to DPCs by taking an experimental approach. When meerkats encounter a DPC they often recruit group members by emitting a call type, which causes the group members to interrupt foraging and approach the caller. The aim of this study was to identify the qualities of olfactory predator cues, which affect the strength of...

  10. Performance Improvement of Real-Time System for Plasma Control in RFX-mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luchetta, A.; Manduchi, G.; Soppelsa, A.; Taliercio, C.

    2006-01-01

    The real-time system for plasma control has been used routinely in RFX-mod since commissioning (mid 2005). It is based on a modular hardware/software infrastructure, currently including 7 VME stations, capable of fulfilling the tight system requirements in terms of input/output channels (> 700 / > 250), real-time data flow (> 2 Mbyte/s), computation capability (> 1 GFLOP/s per station), and real-time constraints (application cycle times rd EPS Conf. on Plasma Physics, Rome Italy, June 19 - 23 2006]. The high flexibility of the system has stimulated the development of a large number of control schemes with progressively increasing requests in terms of computation complexity and real-time data flow, demanding, at the same time, strict control on cycle times and system latency. Even though careful optimisation of algorithm implementation and real-time data transmission have been performed, allowing to keep pace, so far, with the increased control requirements, future developments require to evolve the current technology, retaining the basic architecture and concepts. Two system enhancements are envisaged in the near future. The 500 MHz PowerPC-based Single Board Computer currently in use will be substituted with the 1 GHz version, whereas the real-time communication system will increase in bandwidth from 100 Mbit/s to 1 Gbit/s. These improvements will surely enhance the overall system performance, even if it is not possible to quantify a priori the exact performance boost, since other components may limit the performance in the new configuration. The paper reports in detail on the analysis of the bottlenecks of the current architecture. Based on measurements carried out in laboratory, it presents the results achieved with the proposed enhancements in terms of real-time data throughput, cycle times and latency. The paper analyses in detail the effects of the increased computing power on the components of the control system and of the improved bandwidth in real-time

  11. Effects of sensitive electrical stimulation based cueing in Parkinson's disease: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Sijobert

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effect of a sensitive cueing on Freezing of Gait (FOG and gait disorders in subjects suffering from Parkinson’s disease (PD. 13 participants with Parkinson’s disease were equipped with an electrical stimulator and a foot mounted inertial measurement unit (IMU. An IMU based algorithm triggered in real time an electrical stimulus applied on the arch of foot at heel off detection. Starting from standing, subjects were asked to walk at their preferred speed on a path comprising 5m straight, u-turn and walk around tasks. Cueing globally decreased the time to achieve the different tasks in all the subjects. In “freezer” subjects, the time to complete the entire path was reduced by 19%. FOG events occurrence was lowered by 12% compared to baseline before and after cueing. This preliminary work showed a positive global effect of an electrical stimulation based cueing on gait and FOG in PD.

  12. The right care, every time: improving adherence to evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnacles, Jane; Roueché, Alice; Lachman, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines are integral to reducing variation in paediatric care by ensuring that children receive the right care, every time. However, for reasons discussed in this paper, clinicians do not always follow evidence-based guidelines. Strategies to improve guideline usage tend to focus on dissemination and education. These approaches, however, do not address some of the more complex factors that influence whether a guideline is used in clinical practice. In this article, part of the Equipped Quality Improvement series, we outline the literature on barriers to guideline adherence and present practical solutions to address these barriers. Examples outlined include the use of care bundles, integrated care pathways and quality improvement collaboratives. A sophisticated information technology system can improve the use of evidence-based guidelines and provide organisations with valuable data for learning and improvement. Key to success is the support of an organisation that places reliability of service delivery as the way business is done. To do this requires leadership from clinicians in multidisciplinary teams and a system of continual improvement. By learning from successful approaches, we believe that all healthcare organisations can ensure the right care for each patient, every time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Improving automated disturbance maps using snow-covered landsat time series stacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk M. Stueve; Ian W. Housman; Patrick L. Zimmerman; Mark D. Nelson; Jeremy Webb; Charles H. Perry; Robert A. Chastain; Dale D. Gormanson; Chengquan Huang; Sean P. Healey; Warren B. Cohen

    2012-01-01

    Snow-covered winter Landsat time series stacks are used to develop a nonforest mask to enhance automated disturbance maps produced by the Vegetation Change Tracker (VCT). This method exploits the enhanced spectral separability between forested and nonforested areas that occurs with sufficient snow cover. This method resulted in significant improvements in Vegetation...

  14. Improving the Mathematics Preparation of Elementary Teachers, One Lesson at a Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Dawn; Hiebert, James

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a model for systematically improving the mathematics preparation of elementary teachers, one lesson at a time. We begin by identifying a serious obstacle for teacher educators: the absence of mechanisms for developing a shareable knowledge base for teacher preparation. We propose our model as a way to address this…

  15. Improving Instructional Leadership Behaviors of School Principals by Means of Implementing Time Management Training Sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yu

    2013-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 increases school accountability and requires educators to improve student academic outcomes using evidence-based practice. One factor that contributes to desirable school outcomes is principals' instructional leadership behaviors. Principals who allocate more time to instructional leadership behaviors are more…

  16. A Data Analytical Framework for Improving Real-Time, Decision Support Systems in Healthcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Inbal

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation we develop a framework that combines data mining, statistics and operations research methods for improving real-time decision support systems in healthcare. Our approach consists of three main concepts: data gathering and preprocessing, modeling, and deployment. We introduce the notion of offline and semi-offline modeling to…

  17. Improvements in real time {sup 222}Rn monitoring at Stromboli volcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavagno, A., E-mail: andrea.lavagno@polito.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Applicata e Tecnologia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Laiolo, M. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino (Italy); Gervino, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy); Cigolini, C.; Coppola, D.; Piscopo, D. [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Università di Torino (Italy); Marino, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Monitoring gas emissions from soil allow to get information on volcanic activity, hidden faults and hydrothermal dynamics. Radon activities at Stromboli were collected by means of multi-parametric real-time stations, that measure radon as well as environmental parameters. The last improvements on the detection system are presented and discussed.

  18. On timing response improvement of an NE213 scintillator attached to two PMTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, S.; Ghal-Eh, N.; Bayat, E.

    2013-01-01

    A 5 cm diameter by 6 cm height NE213 scintillator attached to two XP2282 PHOTONIS photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) exposed to 241 Americium–Berylium (Am–Be) neutron–gamma source has been used for timing response studies. The neutron–gamma discrimination (NGD) measurements based on a modified zero-crossing (ZC) method show that the discrimination quality, usually expressed in figure-of-merit (FoM) and peak-to-valley (P/V) values, has been improved. The timing response evaluated with Monte Carlo light transport code, PHOTRACK, also verifies this improvement. - Highlights: • An NE213 scintillator attached to two photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) has been proposed. • The neutron–gamma discrimination (NGD) quality factors have been obtained. • The results confirm that the NGD quality of the proposed assembly has been improved

  19. Improving Wait Times to Care for Individuals with Multimorbidities and Complex Conditions Using Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara Sampalli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Recognizing the significant impact of wait times for care for individuals with complex chronic conditions, we applied a LEAN methodology, namely – an adaptation of Value Stream Mapping (VSM to meet the needs of people with multiple chronic conditions and to improve wait times without additional resources or funding. Methods Over an 18-month time period, staff applied a patient-centric approach that included LEAN methodology of VSM to improve wait times to care. Our framework of evaluation was grounded in the needs and perspectives of patients and individuals waiting to receive care. Patient centric views were obtained through surveys such as Patient Assessment of Chronic Illness Care (PACIC and process engineering based questions. In addition, LEAN methodology, VSM was added to identify non-value added processes contributing to wait times. Results The care team successfully reduced wait times to 2 months in 2014 with no wait times for care anticipated in 2015. Increased patient engagement and satisfaction are also outcomes of this innovative initiative. In addition, successful transformations and implementation have resulted in resource efficiencies without increase in costs. Patients have shown significant improvements in functional health following Integrated Chronic Care Service (ICCS intervention. The methodology will be applied to other chronic disease management areas in Capital Health and the province. Conclusion Wait times to care in the management of multimoribidities and other complex conditions can add a significant burden not only on the affected individuals but also on the healthcare system. In this study, a novel and modified LEAN methodology has been applied to embed the voice of the patient in care delivery processes and to reduce wait times to care in the management of complex chronic conditions.

  20. Action experience changes attention to kinematic cues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney eFilippi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The current study used remote corneal reflection eye-tracking to examine the relationship between motor experience and action anticipation in 13-month-old infants. To measure online anticipation of actions infants watched videos where the actor’s hand provided kinematic information (in its orientation about the type of object that the actor was going to reach for. The actor’s hand orientation either matched the orientation of a rod (congruent cue or did not match the orientation of the rod (incongruent cue. To examine relations between motor experience and action anticipation, we used a 2 (reach first vs. observe first x 2 (congruent kinematic cue vs. incongruent kinematic cue between-subjects design. We show that 13-month-old infants in the observe first condition spontaneously generate rapid online visual predictions to congruent hand orientation cues and do not visually anticipate when presented incongruent cues. We further demonstrate that the speed that these infants generate predictions to congruent motor cues is correlated with their own ability to pre-shape their hands. Finally, we demonstrate that following reaching experience, infants generate rapid predictions to both congruent and incongruent hand shape cues—suggesting that short-term experience changes attention to kinematics.

  1. Time to symptom improvement using elimination diets in non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozinsky, Adriana Chebar; Meyer, Rosan; De Koker, Claire; Dziubak, Robert; Godwin, Heather; Reeve, Kate; Dominguez Ortega, Gloria; Shah, Neil

    2015-08-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased in recent decades, and there is paucity of data on time to symptom improvement using elimination diets in non-Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergies. We therefore aimed to assess the time required to improvement of symptoms using a symptom questionnaire for children with non-IgE-mediated food allergies on an elimination diet. A prospective observational study was performed on patients with non-IgE-mediated gastrointestinal food allergies on an elimination diet, who completed a questionnaire that includes nine evidence-based food allergic symptoms before and after the exclusion diet. The questionnaire measured symptoms individually from 0 (no symptom) to 5 (most severe) and collectively from 0 to 45. Children were only enrolled in the study if collectively symptoms improved with the dietary elimination within 4 or 8 weeks. Data from 131 patients were analysed including 90 boys with a median age of 21 months [IQR: 7 to 66]. Based on the symptom questionnaire, 129 patients (98.4%) improved after 4-week elimination diet and only two patients improved after 8 weeks. A statistically significant difference before and after commencing the elimination diet was seen in all nine recorded symptoms (all p < 0.001), and in the median of overall score (p < 0.001). This is the first study attempting to establish time to improve after commencing the diet elimination. Almost all children in this study improved within 4 weeks of following the elimination diet, under dietary supervision. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Self-regulation of the Peruvian food industry: health message cues in the context of food and beverage advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, P; Bernabé-Ortiz, A

    2018-06-01

    One strategy to prevent the onset of non-communicable diseases is to motivate healthy lifestyles through health media messages. In Peru, the food industry is currently implementing such strategy with health message cues, in the form of a small icon of a walking person or a healthy dish, appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements. Yet the extent of this practice is unknown. Thus, the objective of this study was three-fold: to identify (1) the food and beverage advertisements showing health cues, (2) the types of health cues, and (3) their length in time. Cross-sectional analysis of televised food and beverage advertisements that children and adolescents encounter on Peruvian television. Content analysis of the presence of a health cue, type of health cue (physical activity and healthy diets), and the length in time of the health cue appearing on televised food and beverage advertisements in Peru. Health cues appeared on over 70% of advertisements for sugary drinks and tended to promote healthy diets more so than physical activity. This study shows that the food industry is currently advertising their products along with health message cues, and children and adolescents are exposed to this practice. Thus, we call for further testing of the effect of these health cues on children's and adolescents' food preferences and behaviors. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The role of temporal delay and repeated prospective memory cue exposure on the deactivation of completed intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walser, Moritz; Plessow, Franziska; Goschke, Thomas; Fischer, Rico

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that completed prospective memory (PM) intentions entail aftereffects in terms of ongoing-task-performance decrements in trials containing repeated PM cues which previously served as PM cues triggering the intended action. Previous research reported that PM aftereffects decrease over time, thus revealing a specific time course of PM aftereffects. In the present study, we tested two accounts for this pattern, assuming either that the decline of aftereffects is related to the temporal distance to PM task completion or may be a result of the repeated exposure of repeated PM cues in the ongoing task. In three experiments, we manipulated both the temporal distance to PM task completion and the frequency of repeated PM cues and demonstrated that aftereffects of completed intentions declined with repeated exposure of formerly relevant PM cues. In addition, effects of repeated exposure were not only limited to the repetition of specific PM-cue exemplars but also generalized to other semantically related PM cues within the PM-cue category. Together, findings show that decreased aftereffects of completed intentions are not related to the temporal duration of the subsequent test block, but crucially depend on the repeated exposure of the previously relevant PM cues.

  4. Transport Time and Preoperating Room Hemostatic Interventions Are Important: Improving Outcomes After Severe Truncal Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, John B

    2018-03-01

    Experience in the ongoing wars in Iraq and Afghanistan confirm that faster transport combined with effective prehospital interventions improves the outcomes of patients suffering hemorrhagic shock. Outcomes of patients with hemorrhagic shock and extremity bleeding have improved with widespread use of tourniquets and early balanced transfusion therapy. Conversely, civilian patients suffering truncal bleeding and shock have the same mortality (46%) over the last 20 years. To understand how to decrease this substantial mortality, one must first critically evaluate all phases of care from point of injury to definitive hemorrhage control in the operating room. Limited literature review. The peak time to death after severe truncal injury is within 30 minutes of injury. However, when adding prehospital transport time, time spent in the emergency department, followed by the time in the operating room, it currently takes 2.1 hours to achieve definitive truncal hemorrhage control. This disparity in uncontrolled truncal bleeding and time to hemorrhage control needs to be reconciled. Prehospital and emergency department whole blood transfusion and temporary truncal hemorrhage control are now possible. The importance of rapid transport, early truncal hemorrhage control and whole blood transfusion is now widely recognized. Prehospital temporary truncal hemorrhage control and whole blood transfusion should offer the best possibility of improving patient outcomes after severe truncal injury.

  5. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D.; Greer, P. B.; Arm, J.; Keall, P.; Kim, T.

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  6. Compensatory effects of pointing and predictive cueing on age-related declines in visuospatial working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouwehand, Kim; van Gog, Tamara; Paas, Fred

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we investigated whether the visuospatial working memory performance of young and older adults would improve if they used a multimodal as compared with a unimodal encoding strategy, and whether or not visual cues would add to this effect. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with trials consisting of an array of squares and an array of circles. They were instructed to point at one type of figure (multimodal encoding strategy) and only to observe the other (unimodal encoding strategy). After each trial, an immediate location recognition test of one of the two arrays followed. In Experiment 2, the same task was used, but a cue was provided, either before or after the encoding phase, indicating which of the two arrays would be tested. Our results showed that a multimodal, as compared with a unimodal, encoding strategy improved visuospatial working memory performance in both young and older adults (Exp. 1), and that adding visual cues to the multimodal but not to the unimodal encoding strategy improved older adults' performance up to the level of young adults (Exp. 2). In both age groups, cueing after encoding led to higher performance in the multimodal than in the unimodal condition when the second array was tested. However, cueing before encoding led to higher performance in the multimodal than in the unimodal condition when the first array of the figure sequence was tested. These results suggest that pointing together with predictive cueing can have beneficial effects on visuospatial working memory, which is especially important for older adults.

  7. Ratio-based lengths of intervals to improve fuzzy time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huarng, Kunhuang; Yu, Tiffany Hui-Kuang

    2006-04-01

    The objective of this study is to explore ways of determining the useful lengths of intervals in fuzzy time series. It is suggested that ratios, instead of equal lengths of intervals, can more properly represent the intervals among observations. Ratio-based lengths of intervals are, therefore, proposed to improve fuzzy time series forecasting. Algebraic growth data, such as enrollments and the stock index, and exponential growth data, such as inventory demand, are chosen as the forecasting targets, before forecasting based on the various lengths of intervals is performed. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses are also carried out for various percentiles. The ratio-based lengths of intervals are found to outperform the effective lengths of intervals, as well as the arbitrary ones in regard to the different statistical measures. The empirical analysis suggests that the ratio-based lengths of intervals can also be used to improve fuzzy time series forecasting.

  8. Improving Efficiency Using Time-Driven Activity-Based Costing Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibor, Laura C; Schultz, Stacy R; Menaker, Ronald; Weber, Bradley D; Ness, Jay; Smith, Paula; Young, Phillip M

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to increase efficiency in MR enterography using a time-driven activity-based costing methodology. In February 2015, a multidisciplinary team was formed to identify the personnel, equipment, space, and supply costs of providing outpatient MR enterography. The team mapped the current state, completed observations, performed timings, and calculated costs associated with each element of the process. The team used Pareto charts to understand the highest cost and most time-consuming activities, brainstormed opportunities, and assessed impact. Plan-do-study-act cycles were developed to test the changes, and run charts were used to monitor progress. The process changes consisted of revising the workflow associated with the preparation and administration of glucagon, with completed implementation in November 2015. The time-driven activity-based costing methodology allowed the radiology department to develop a process to more accurately identify the costs of providing MR enterography. The primary process modification was reassigning responsibility for the administration of glucagon from nurses to technologists. After implementation, the improvements demonstrated success by reducing non-value-added steps and cost by 13%, staff time by 16%, and patient process time by 17%. The saved process time was used to augment existing examination time slots to more accurately accommodate the entire enterographic examination. Anecdotal comments were captured to validate improved staff satisfaction within the multidisciplinary team. This process provided a successful outcome to address daily workflow frustrations that could not previously be improved. A multidisciplinary team was necessary to achieve success, in addition to the use of a structured problem-solving approach. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A diffusion modelling approach to understanding contextual cueing effects in children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigard, Alexander; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Background Strong theoretical models suggest implicit learning deficits may exist among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Method We examine implicit contextual cueing (CC) effects among children with ADHD (n=72) and non-ADHD Controls (n=36). Results Using Ratcliff’s drift diffusion model, we found that among Controls, the CC effect is due to improvements in attentional guidance and to reductions in response threshold. Children with ADHD did not show a CC effect; although they were able to use implicitly acquired information to deploy attentional focus, they had more difficulty adjusting their response thresholds. Conclusions Improvements in attentional guidance and reductions in response threshold together underlie the CC effect. Results are consistent with neurocognitive models of ADHD that posit sub-cortical dysfunction but intact spatial attention, and encourage the use of alternative data analytic methods when dealing with reaction time data. PMID:24798140

  10. A diffusion modeling approach to understanding contextual cueing effects in children with ADHD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigard, Alexander; Huang-Pollock, Cynthia

    2014-12-01

    Strong theoretical models suggest implicit learning deficits may exist among children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). We examine implicit contextual cueing (CC) effects among children with ADHD (n = 72) and non-ADHD Controls (n = 36). Using Ratcliff's drift diffusion model, we found that among Controls, the CC effect is due to improvements in attentional guidance and to reductions in response threshold. Children with ADHD did not show a CC effect; although they were able to use implicitly acquired information to deploy attentional focus, they had more difficulty adjusting their response thresholds. Improvements in attentional guidance and reductions in response threshold together underlie the CC effect. Results are consistent with neurocognitive models of ADHD that posit subcortical dysfunction but intact spatial attention, and encourage the use of alternative data analytic methods when dealing with reaction time data. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry. © 2014 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  11. Discriminating individually considerate and authoritarian leaders by speech activity cues

    OpenAIRE

    Feese, Sebastian; Muaremi, Amir; Arnrich, Bert; Tröster, Gerhard; Meyer, Bertolt; Jonas, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Effective leadership can increase team performance, however up to now the influence of specific micro-level behavioral patterns on team performance is unclear. At the same time, current behavior observation methods in social psychology mostly rely on manual video annotations that impede research. In our work, we follow a sensor-based approach to automatically extract speech activity cues to discriminate individualized considerate from authoritarian leadership. On a subset of 35 selected...

  12. Acute acetaminophen (paracetamol) ingestion improves time to exhaustion during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Alexis R; Taylor, Lee; Harding, Christopher; Wright, Benjamin; Foster, Josh; Castle, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic and has previously been shown to improve exercise performance through a reduction in perceived pain. This study sought to establish whether its antipyretic action may also improve exercise capacity in the heat by moderating the increase in core temperature. On separate days, 11 recreationally active participants completed two experimental time-to-exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity) after ingesting a placebo control or an oral dose of acetaminophen in a randomized, double-blind design. Following acetaminophen ingestion, participants cycled for a significantly longer period of time (acetaminophen, 23 ± 15 min versus placebo, 19 ± 13 min; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval = 90-379 s), and this was accompanied by significantly lower core (-0.15°C), skin (-0.47°C) and body temperatures (0.19°C; P 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that an acute dose of acetaminophen can improve cycling capacity in hot conditions, and that this may be due to the observed reduction in core, skin and body temperature and the subjective perception of thermal comfort. These findings suggest that acetaminophen may reduce the thermoregulatory strain elicited from exercise, thus improving time to exhaustion.

  13. Improving GNSS time series for volcano monitoring: application to Canary Islands (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Cañada, Laura; Sevilla, Miguel J.; Pereda de Pablo, Jorge; Domínguez Cerdeña, Itahiza

    2017-04-01

    The number of permanent GNSS stations has increased significantly in recent years for different geodetic applications such as volcano monitoring, which require a high precision. Recently we have started to have coordinates time series long enough so that we can apply different analysis and filters that allow us to improve the GNSS coordinates results. Following this idea we have processed data from GNSS permanent stations used by the Spanish Instituto Geográfico Nacional (IGN) for volcano monitoring in Canary Islands to obtained time series by double difference processing method with Bernese v5.0 for the period 2007-2014. We have identified the characteristics of these time series and obtained models to estimate velocities with greater accuracy and more realistic uncertainties. In order to improve the results we have used two kinds of filters to improve the time series. The first, a spatial filter, has been computed using the series of residuals of all stations in the Canary Islands without an anomalous behaviour after removing a linear trend. This allows us to apply this filter to all sets of coordinates of the permanent stations reducing their dispersion. The second filter takes account of the temporal correlation in the coordinate time series for each station individually. A research about the evolution of the velocity depending on the series length has been carried out and it has demonstrated the need for using time series of at least four years. Therefore, in those stations with more than four years of data, we calculated the velocity and the characteristic parameters in order to have time series of residuals. This methodology has been applied to the GNSS data network in El Hierro (Canary Islands) during the 2011-2012 eruption and the subsequent magmatic intrusions (2012-2014). The results show that in the new series it is easier to detect anomalous behaviours in the coordinates, so they are most useful to detect crustal deformations in volcano monitoring.

  14. Improved measurement linearity and precision for AMCW time-of-flight range imaging cameras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Andrew D; Dorrington, Adrian A; Cree, Michael J; Carnegie, Dale A

    2010-08-10

    Time-of-flight range imaging systems utilizing the amplitude modulated continuous wave (AMCW) technique often suffer from measurement nonlinearity due to the presence of aliased harmonics within the amplitude modulation signals. Typically a calibration is performed to correct these errors. We demonstrate an alternative phase encoding approach that attenuates the harmonics during the sampling process, thereby improving measurement linearity in the raw measurements. This mitigates the need to measure the system's response or calibrate for environmental changes. In conjunction with improved linearity, we demonstrate that measurement precision can also be increased by reducing the duty cycle of the amplitude modulated illumination source (while maintaining overall illumination power).

  15. Watch out! Magnetoencephalographic evidence for early modulation of attention orienting by fearful gaze cueing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Lachat

    Full Text Available Others' gaze and emotional facial expression are important cues for the process of attention orienting. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG whether the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression may elicit a selectively early effect of attention orienting on the brain responses to targets. We used the direction of gaze of centrally presented fearful and happy faces as the spatial attention orienting cue in a Posner-like paradigm where the subjects had to detect a target checkerboard presented at gazed-at (valid trials or non gazed-at (invalid trials locations of the screen. We showed that the combination of averted gaze and fearful expression resulted in a very early attention orienting effect in the form of additional parietal activity between 55 and 70 ms for the valid versus invalid targets following fearful gaze cues. No such effect was obtained for the targets following happy gaze cues. This early cue-target validity effect selective of fearful gaze cues involved the left superior parietal region and the left lateral middle occipital region. These findings provide the first evidence for an effect of attention orienting induced by fearful gaze in the time range of C1. In doing so, they demonstrate the selective impact of combined gaze and fearful expression cues in the process of attention orienting.

  16. Augmenting the impact of technology adoption with financial incentive to improve radiology report signature times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P; Prevedello, Luciano M; Dufault, Allen; Pezeshk, Parham; Bransfield, Robert; Hanson, Richard; Doubilet, Peter M; Seltzer, Steven E; Khorasani, Ramin

    2010-03-01

    Radiology report signature time (ST) can be a substantial component of total report turnaround time. Poor turnaround time resulting from lengthy ST can adversely affect patient care. The combination of technology adoption with financial incentive was evaluated to determine if ST improvement can be augmented and sustained. This prospective study was performed at a 751-bed, urban, tertiary care adult teaching hospital. Test-site imaging volume approximated 48,000 examinations per month. The radiology department has 100 trainees and 124 attending radiologists serving multiple institutions. Over a study period of 4 years and 4 months, three interventions focused on radiologist signature performance were implemented: 1) a notification paging application that alerted radiologists when reports were ready for signature, 2) a picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)-integrated speech recognition report generation system, and 3) a departmental financial incentive to reward radiologists semiannually for ST performance. Signature time was compared before and after the interventions. Wilcoxon and linear regression statistical analyses were used to assess the significance of trends. Technology adoption (paging plus speech recognition) reduced median ST from >5 to 24 to 15 to 18 hours (P financial incentive further improved 80th-percentile ST to 4 to 8 hours (P Technology interventions coupled with financial incentive can result in synergistic and sustainable improvement in radiologist report-signing behavior. The addition of a financial incentive leads to better performance than that achievable through technology alone.

  17. Caffeinated nitric oxide-releasing lozenge improves cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Kim, H T; Solares, G J; Kim, K; Ding, Z; Ivy, J L

    2015-02-01

    Boosting nitric oxide production during exercise by various means has been found to improve exercise performance. We investigated the effects of a nitric oxide releasing lozenge with added caffeine (70 mg) on oxygen consumption during steady-state exercise and cycling time trial performance using a double-blinded randomized, crossover experimental design. 15 moderately trained cyclists (7 females and 8 males) were randomly assigned to ingest the caffeinated nitric oxide lozenge or placebo 5 min before exercise. Oxygen consumption and blood lactate were assessed at rest and at 50%, 65% and 75% maximal oxygen consumption. Exercise performance was assessed by time to complete a simulated 20.15 km cycling time-trial course. No significant treatment effects for oxygen consumption or blood lactate at rest or during steady-state exercise were observed. However, time-trial performance was improved by 2.1% (p<0.01) when participants consumed the nitric oxide lozenge (2,424±69 s) compared to placebo (2,476±78 s) and without a significant difference in rating of perceived exertion. These results suggest that acute supplementation with a caffeinated nitric oxide releasing lozenge may be a practical and effective means of improving aerobic exercise performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Cycle time improvement for plastic injection moulding process by sub groove modification in conformal cooling channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, K.; Wahab, M. S.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Shayfull, Z.; Raus, A. A.; Ahmed, Aqeel

    2017-09-01

    Mould designers have been struggling for the improvement of the cooling system performance, despite the fact that the cooling system complexity is physically limited by the fabrication capability of the conventional tooling methods. However, the growth of Solid Free Form Technology (SFF) allow the mould designer to develop more than just a regular conformal cooling channel. Numerous researchers demonstrate that conformal cooling channel was tremendously given significant result in the improvement of productivity and quality in the plastic injection moulding process. This paper presents the research work that applies the passive enhancement method in square shape cooling channel to enhance the efficiency of cooling performance by adding the sub groove to the cooling channel itself. Previous design that uses square shape cooling channel was improved by adding various numbers of sub groove to meet the best sub groove design that able reduced the cooling time. The effect of sub groove design on cooling time was investigated by Autodesk Modlflow Insight software. The simulation results showed that the various sub groove designs give different values to ejection time. The Design 7 showed the lowest value of ejection time with 24.3% increment. The addition of sub groove significantly increased a coolant velocity and a rate of heat transfer from molten plastic to coolant.

  19. Changes in cue reactivity and attentional bias following experimental cue exposure and response prevention: a laboratory study of the effects of D-cycloserine in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamboj, Sunjeev K; Massey-Chase, Rachel; Rodney, Lydia; Das, Ravi; Almahdi, Basil; Curran, H Valerie; Morgan, Celia J A

    2011-09-01

    The effects of D-cycloserine (DCS) in animal models of anxiety disorders and addiction indicate a role for N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in extinction learning. Exposure/response prevention treatments for anxiety disorders in humans are enhanced by DCS, suggesting a promising co-therapy regime, mediated by NMDA receptors. Exposure/response prevention may also be effective in problematic drinkers, and DCS might enhance habituation to cues in these individuals. Since heavy drinkers show ostensible conditioned responses to alcohol cues, habituation following exposure/response prevention should be evident in these drinkers, with DCS enhancing this effect. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of DCS on exposure/response prevention in heavy drinkers. In a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, heavy social drinkers recruited from the community received either DCS (125 mg; n = 19) or placebo (n = 17) 1 h prior to each of two sessions of exposure/response prevention. Cue reactivity and attentional bias were assessed during these two sessions and at a third follow-up session. Between-session drinking behaviour was recorded. Robust cue reactivity and attentional bias to alcohol cues was evident, as expected of heavy drinkers. Within- and between-session habituation of cue reactivity, as well as a reduction in attentional bias to alcohol cues over time was found. However, there was no evidence of greater habituation in the DCS group. Subtle stimulant effects (increased subjective contentedness and euphoria) which were unrelated to exposure/response prevention were found following DCS. DCS does not appear to enhance habituation of alcohol cue reactivity in heavy non-dependent drinkers. Its utility in enhancing treatments based on exposure/response prevention in dependent drinkers or drug users remains open.

  20. Effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on autobiographical memory specificity in dysphoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Noboru; Mochizuki, Satoshi

    2017-04-01

    Reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) is a characteristic memory bias observed in depression. To corroborate the capture hypothesis in the CaRFAX (capture and rumination, functional avoidance, executive capacity and control) model, we investigated the effects of self-relevant cues and cue valence on rAMS using an adapted Autobiographical Memory Test conducted with a nonclinical population. Hierarchical linear modelling indicated that the main effects of depression and self-relevant cues elicited rAMS. Moreover, the three-way interaction among valence, self-relevance, and depression scores was significant. A simple slope test revealed that dysphoric participants experienced rAMS in response to highly self-relevant positive cues and low self-relevant negative cues. These results partially supported the capture hypothesis in nonclinical dysphoria. It is important to consider cue valence in future studies examining the capture hypothesis.

  1. Acute and Chronic Effect of Acoustic and Visual Cues on Gait Training in Parkinson’s Disease: A Randomized, Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto De Icco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this randomized controlled study we analyse and compare the acute and chronic effects of visual and acoustic cues on gait performance in Parkinson’s Disease (PD. We enrolled 46 patients with idiopathic PD who were assigned to 3 different modalities of gait training: (1 use of acoustic cues, (2 use of visual cues, or (3 overground training without cues. All patients were tested with kinematic analysis of gait at baseline (T0, at the end of the 4-week rehabilitation programme (T1, and 3 months later (T2. Regarding the acute effect, acoustic cues increased stride length and stride duration, while visual cues reduced the number of strides and normalized the stride/stance distribution but also reduced gait speed. As regards the chronic effect of cues, we recorded an improvement in some gait parameters in all 3 groups of patients: all 3 types of training improved gait speed; visual cues also normalized the stance/swing ratio, acoustic cues reduced the number of strides and increased stride length, and overground training improved stride length. The changes were not retained at T2 in any of the experimental groups. Our findings support and characterize the usefulness of cueing strategies in the rehabilitation of gait in PD.

  2. Dwell time modulation restrictions do not necessarily improve treatment plan quality for prostate HDR brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balvert, Marleen; Gorissen, Bram L; Den Hertog, Dick; Hoffmann, Aswin L

    2015-01-01

    Inverse planning algorithms for dwell time optimisation in interstitial high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy may produce solutions with large dwell time variations within catheters, which may result in undesirable selective high-dose subvolumes. Extending the dwell time optimisation model with a dwell time modulation restriction (DTMR) that limits dwell time differences between neighboring dwell positions has been suggested to eliminate this problem. DTMRs may additionally reduce the sensitivity for uncertainties in dwell positions that inevitably result from catheter reconstruction errors and afterloader source positioning inaccuracies. This study quantifies the reduction of high-dose subvolumes and the robustness against these uncertainties by applying a DTMR to template-based prostate HDR brachytherapy implants. Three different DTMRs were consecutively applied to a linear dose-based penalty model (LD) and a dose-volume based model (LDV), both obtained from literature. The models were solved with DTMR levels ranging from no restriction to uniform dwell times within catheters in discrete steps. Uncertainties were simulated on clinical cases using in-house developed software, and dose-volume metrics were calculated in each simulation. For the assessment of high-dose subvolumes, the dose homogeneity index (DHI) and the contiguous dose volume histogram were analysed. Robustness was measured by the improvement of the lowest D 90% of the planning target volume (PTV) observed in the simulations. For (LD), a DTMR yields an increase in DHI of approximately 30% and reduces the size of the largest high-dose volume by 2–5 cc. However, this comes at a cost of a reduction in D 90% of the PTV of 10%, which often implies that it drops below the desired minimum of 100%. For (LDV), none of the DTMRs were able to improve high-dose volume measures. DTMRs were not capable of improving robustness of PTV D 90% against uncertainty in dwell positions for both models. (paper)

  3. Evaluating the effects of delivering integrated kinesthetic and tactile cues to individuals with unilateral hemiparetic stroke during overground walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Pyo, Sanghun; Oh, Min-Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Yoon, Jungwon

    2018-04-16

    Integration of kinesthetic and tactile cues for application to post-stroke gait rehabilitation is a novel concept which needs to be explored. The combined provision of haptic cues may result in collective improvement of gait parameters such as symmetry, balance and muscle activation patterns. Our proposed integrated cue system can offer a cost-effective and voluntary gait training experience for rehabilitation of subjects with unilateral hemiparetic stroke. Ten post-stroke ambulatory subjects participated in a 10 m walking trial while utilizing the haptic cues (either alone or integrated application), at their preferred and increased gait speeds. In the system a haptic cane device (HCD) provided kinesthetic perception and a vibrotactile feedback device (VFD) provided tactile cue on the paretic leg for gait modification. Balance, gait symmetry and muscle activity were analyzed to identify the benefits of utilizing the proposed system. When using kinesthetic cues, either alone or integrated with a tactile cue, an increase in the percentage of non-paretic peak activity in the paretic muscles was observed at the preferred gait speed (vastus medialis obliquus: p kinesthetic cue, at their preferred gait speed (p <  0.001, partial η 2  = 0.702). When combining haptic cues, the subjects walked at their preferred gait speed with increased temporal stance symmetry and paretic muscle activity affecting their balance. Similar improvements were observed at higher gait speeds. The efficacy of the proposed system is influenced by gait speed. Improvements were observed at a 20% increased gait speed, whereas, a plateau effect was observed at a 40% increased gait speed. These results imply that integration of haptic cues may benefit post-stroke gait rehabilitation by inducing simultaneous improvements in gait symmetry and muscle activity.

  4. Role of Speaker Cues in Attention Inference

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Joo Lee; Cynthia Breazeal; David DeSteno

    2017-01-01

    Current state-of-the-art approaches to emotion recognition primarily focus on modeling the nonverbal expressions of the sole individual without reference to contextual elements such as the co-presence of the partner. In this paper, we demonstrate that the accurate inference of listeners’ social-emotional state of attention depends on accounting for the nonverbal behaviors of their storytelling partner, namely their speaker cues. To gain a deeper understanding of the role of speaker cues in at...

  5. Using time-driven activity-based costing to identify value improvement opportunities in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert S; Witkowski, Mary; Abbott, Megan; Guzman, Alexis Barboza; Higgins, Laurence D; Meara, John G; Padden, Erin; Shah, Apurva S; Waters, Peter; Weidemeier, Marco; Wertheimer, Sam; Feeley, Thomas W

    2014-01-01

    As healthcare providers cope with pricing pressures and increased accountability for performance, they should be rededicating themselves to improving the value they deliver to their patients: better outcomes and lower costs. Time-driven activity-based costing offers the potential for clinicians to redesign their care processes toward that end. This costing approach, however, is new to healthcare and has not yet been systematically implemented and evaluated. This article describes early time-driven activity-based costing work at several leading healthcare organizations in the United States and Europe. It identifies the opportunities they found to improve value for patients and demonstrates how this costing method can serve as the foundation for new bundled payment reimbursement approaches.

  6. Health activism: the way forward to improve health in difficult times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laverack, Glenn

    2013-09-01

    Health activism is an action on behalf of a cause, action that goes beyond what is conventional or routine in society. It involves a challenge to the existing order whenever it is perceived to lead to a social injustice or inequality. Today social injustice is killing people on a grand scale and it is timely for health activism to be used as a way forward to improve health during difficult economic and political times. Health activism is essential because it can create the necessary conditions for people to take control over their own lives when others cannot or will not act on their behalf. Health promotion agencies and the practitioners that they employ, professional organisations and researchers can also play an important role. What is clear is that if greedy corporations and complacent governments are not challenged, we will continue to have limited success in improving health.

  7. Fault diagnosis for analog circuits utilizing time-frequency features and improved VVRKFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; He, Yigang; Luo, Qiwu; Zhang, Chaolong

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel scheme for analog circuit fault diagnosis utilizing features extracted from the time-frequency representations of signals and an improved vector-valued regularized kernel function approximation (VVRKFA). First, the cross-wavelet transform is employed to yield the energy-phase distribution of the fault signals over the time and frequency domain. Since the distribution is high-dimensional, a supervised dimensionality reduction technique—the bilateral 2D linear discriminant analysis—is applied to build a concise feature set from the distributions. Finally, VVRKFA is utilized to locate the fault. In order to improve the classification performance, the quantum-behaved particle swarm optimization technique is employed to gradually tune the learning parameter of the VVRKFA classifier. The experimental results for the analog circuit faults classification have demonstrated that the proposed diagnosis scheme has an advantage over other approaches.

  8. Just-in-Time Training: A Novel Approach to Quality Improvement Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Allison; Park, Nesha D; Smith, Denise; Tracy, Kelly; Reed, Danielle J W; Olsen, Steven L

    2015-01-01

    Just-in-time training (JITT) is accepted in medical education as a training method for newer concepts or seldom-performed procedures. Providing JITT to a large nursing staff may be an effective method to teach quality improvement (QI) initiatives. We sought to determine if JITT could increase knowledge of a specific nutrition QI initiative. Members of the nutrition QI team interviewed staff using the Frontline Contextual Inquiry to assess knowledge regarding the specific QI project. The inquiry was completed pre- and post-JITT. A JITT educational cart was created, which allowed trainers to bring the educational information to the bedside for a short, small group educational session. The results demonstrated a marked improvement in the knowledge of the frontline staff regarding our Vermont Oxford Network involvement and the specifics of the nutrition QI project. Just-in-time training can be a valuable and effective method to disseminate QI principles to a large audience of staff members.

  9. Time-dependent resilience assessment and improvement of urban infrastructure systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Min; Dueñas-Osorio, Leonardo

    2012-09-01

    This paper introduces an approach to assess and improve the time-dependent resilience of urban infrastructure systems, where resilience is defined as the systems' ability to resist various possible hazards, absorb the initial damage from hazards, and recover to normal operation one or multiple times during a time period T. For different values of T and its position relative to current time, there are three forms of resilience: previous resilience, current potential resilience, and future potential resilience. This paper mainly discusses the third form that takes into account the systems' future evolving processes. Taking the power transmission grid in Harris County, Texas, USA as an example, the time-dependent features of resilience and the effectiveness of some resilience-inspired strategies, including enhancement of situational awareness, management of consumer demand, and integration of distributed generators, are all simulated and discussed. Results show a nonlinear nature of resilience as a function of T, which may exhibit a transition from an increasing function to a decreasing function at either a threshold of post-blackout improvement rate, a threshold of load profile with consumer demand management, or a threshold number of integrated distributed generators. These results are further confirmed by studying a typical benchmark system such as the IEEE RTS-96. Such common trends indicate that some resilience strategies may enhance infrastructure system resilience in the short term, but if not managed well, they may compromise practical utility system resilience in the long run.

  10. Application of time-resolved glucose concentration photoacoustic signals based on an improved wavelet denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Liu, Guodong; Huang, Zhen

    2014-10-01

    Real-time monitoring of blood glucose concentration (BGC) is a great important procedure in controlling diabetes mellitus and preventing the complication for diabetic patients. Noninvasive measurement of BGC has already become a research hotspot because it can overcome the physical and psychological harm. Photoacoustic spectroscopy is a well-established, hybrid and alternative technique used to determine the BGC. According to the theory of photoacoustic technique, the blood is irradiated by plused laser with nano-second repeation time and micro-joule power, the photoacoustic singals contained the information of BGC are generated due to the thermal-elastic mechanism, then the BGC level can be interpreted from photoacoustic signal via the data analysis. But in practice, the time-resolved photoacoustic signals of BGC are polluted by the varities of noises, e.g., the interference of background sounds and multi-component of blood. The quality of photoacoustic signal of BGC directly impacts the precision of BGC measurement. So, an improved wavelet denoising method was proposed to eliminate the noises contained in BGC photoacoustic signals. To overcome the shortcoming of traditional wavelet threshold denoising, an improved dual-threshold wavelet function was proposed in this paper. Simulation experimental results illustrated that the denoising result of this improved wavelet method was better than that of traditional soft and hard threshold function. To varify the feasibility of this improved function, the actual photoacoustic BGC signals were test, the test reslut demonstrated that the signal-to-noises ratio(SNR) of the improved function increases about 40-80%, and its root-mean-square error (RMSE) decreases about 38.7-52.8%.

  11. Cocaine-conditioned odor cues without chronic exposure: Implications for the development of addiction vulnerability

    OpenAIRE

    Lowen, Steven B.; Rohan, Michael L.; Gillis, Timothy E.; Thompson, Britta S.; Wellons, Clara B.W.; Andersen, Susan L.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents are highly vulnerable to addiction and are four times more likely to become addicted at first exposure than at any other age. The dopamine D1 receptor, which is typically overexpressed in the normal adolescent prefrontal cortex, is involved in drug cue responses and is associated with relapse in animal models. In human drug addicts, imaging methods have detected increased activation in response to drug cues in reward- and habit-associated brain regions. These same methods can be a...

  12. Ethephon use and application timing of abscisic acid for improving color of 'Rubi' table grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of ethephon and of abscisic acid (ABA application timing on the color of 'Rubi' Table grape. Eight treatments were evaluated: control, without application; ethephon 500 mg L‑1 applied seven days after veraison (7 DAV; and two concentrations of ABA (200 and 400 mg L‑1 arranged with three application timings at 7 DAV, at 15 days before harvest (DBH, and at 7 DAV + 15 DBH. ABA does not modify physical‑chemical characteristics of the cluster and improves the color of grapes, especially when applied twice (7 DAV + 15 DBH at the concentration of 400 mg L‑1.

  13. New information technologies as a means of quality improvement of part-time students’ training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нестеренко В. В.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ways and means aimed at facilitating the quality of part-time students’ training at an institution of higher education are considered in the article. The principles the conditions facilitating quality increase of adult part-time students’ training are based on as well as criteria of their effectiveness assessment are described. The definition of the notion «distance learning» has been given. Tuition by correspondence as a special form of continuous education allowing the use of elements of distance educational technologies is examined. The role of informational technologies in correspondence form of education providing essential improvement of students’ training quality is described.

  14. Behavioral asymmetries in ticks - Lateralized questing of Ixodes ricinus to a mechatronic apparatus delivering host-borne cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni; Romano, Donato; Rocchigiani, Guido; Caselli, Alice; Mancianti, Francesca; Canale, Angelo; Stefanini, Cesare

    2018-02-01

    Ticks are considered among the most dangerous arthropod vectors of disease agents to both humans and animals worldwide. Lateralization contributes to biological fitness in many animals, conferring important functional advantages, therefore studying its role in tick perception would critically improve our knowledge about their host-seeking behavior. In this research, we evaluated if Ixodes ricinus (L.) (Ixodiidae) ticks have a preference in using the right or the left foreleg to climb on a host. We developed a mechatronic device moving a tuft of fox skin with fur as host-mimicking combination of cues. This engineered approach allows to display a realistic combination of both visual and olfactory host-borne stimuli, which is prolonged over the time and standardized for each replicate. In the first experiment, the mechatronic apparatus delivered host-borne cues frontally, to evaluate the leg preference during questing as response to a symmetrical stimulus. In the second experiment, host-borne cues were provided laterally, in an equal proportion to the left and to the right of the tick, to investigate if the host direction affected the questing behavior. In both experiments, the large majority of the tested ticks showed individual-level left-biased questing acts, if compared to the ticks showing right-biased ones. Furthermore, population-level left-biased questing responses were observed post-exposure to host-mimicking cues provided frontally or laterally to the tick. Overall, this is the first report on behavioral asymmetries in ticks of medical and veterinary importance. Moreover, the mechatronic apparatus developed in this research can be exploited to evaluate the impact of repellents on tick questing in highly reproducible standardized conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of an Improved Time Varying Loudness Model with the Inclusion of Binaural Loudness Summation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonneau, Jeremy

    As the perceived quality of a product is becoming more important in the manufacturing industry, more emphasis is being placed on accurately predicting the sound quality of everyday objects. This study was undertaken to improve upon current prediction techniques with regard to the psychoacoustic descriptor of loudness and an improved binaural summation technique. The feasibility of this project was first investigated through a loudness matching experiment involving thirty-one subjects and pure tones of constant sound pressure level. A dependence of binaural summation on frequency was observed which had previously not been a subject of investigation in the reviewed literature. A follow-up investigation was carried out with forty-eight volunteers and pure tones of constant sensation level. Contrary to existing theories in literature the resulting loudness matches revealed an amplitude versus frequency relationship which confirmed the perceived increase in loudness when a signal was presented to both ears simultaneously as opposed to one ear alone. The resulting trend strongly indicated that the higher the frequency of the presented signal, the greater the increase in observed binaural summation. The results from each investigation were summarized into a single binaural summation algorithm and inserted into an improved time-varying loudness model. Using experimental techniques, it was demonstrated that the updated binaural summation algorithm was a considerable improvement over the state of the art approach for predicting the perceived binaural loudness. The improved function retained the ease of use from the original model while additionally providing accurate estimates of diotic listening conditions from monaural WAV files. It was clearly demonstrated using a validation jury test that the revised time-varying loudness model was a significant improvement over the previously standardized approach.

  16. Improving recovery time following heart transplantation: the role of the multidisciplinary health care team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roussel MG

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Maureen G Roussel,1 Noreen Gorham,2 Lynn Wilson,2 Abeel A Mangi2 1Heart and Vascular Center, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA; 2Center for Advanced Heart Failure, Mechanical Circulatory Support and Cardiac Transplantation, Yale New Haven Heart and Vascular Institute, Yale-New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT, USA Background: The care of cardiac transplant patients is complex requiring a finely orchestrated endeavor to save a patient’s life. Given the chronic and complex nature of these patients, multiple disciplines are involved in their care. Recognizing difficulties with communication among team members and striving for improved efficiencies in our pretransplant listing process and in our inpatient care, our team was prompted to change the existing approach to patient care related to heart transplantation. Methods: Daily multidisciplinary rounds were instituted and the format of the weekly Multidisciplinary Review Committee (MDRC meetings was modified with the list of attendees broadened to include a larger interdisciplinary team. Additionally, the approach to patient care was analyzed for process improvement. Results: The quality improvements are improved communication and throughput, quantified in an 85% decrease in time to complete transplant evaluation, a 37% decrease in median length of stay posttransplantation, and a 33% reduction in the 30 day readmission rate. In addition, pre- and posttransplant caregivers now participate in MDRC in person or via an electronic meeting platform to support the continuum of care. Quality metrics were chosen and tracked via a transparent electronic platform allowing all involved to assess progress toward agreed upon goals. These were achieved in an 18 month time period following the recruitment of new leadership and invested team members working together as a multidisciplinary team to improve the quality of cardiac transplant care. Discussion: Implementation of daily multidisciplinary rounds and

  17. Improved result on stability analysis of discrete stochastic neural networks with time delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhengguang; Su Hongye; Chu Jian; Zhou Wuneng

    2009-01-01

    This Letter investigates the problem of exponential stability for discrete stochastic time-delay neural networks. By defining a novel Lyapunov functional, an improved delay-dependent exponential stability criterion is established in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach. Meanwhile, the computational complexity of the newly established stability condition is reduced because less variables are involved. Numerical example is given to illustrate the effectiveness and the benefits of the proposed method.

  18. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Banfi

    Full Text Available Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191 of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling. Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect. Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing, we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing. Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the

  19. Visuo-spatial cueing in children with differential reading and spelling profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfi, Chiara; Kemény, Ferenc; Gangl, Melanie; Schulte-Körne, Gerd; Moll, Kristina; Landerl, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Dyslexia has been claimed to be causally related to deficits in visuo-spatial attention. In particular, inefficient shifting of visual attention during spatial cueing paradigms is assumed to be associated with problems in graphemic parsing during sublexical reading. The current study investigated visuo-spatial attention performance in an exogenous cueing paradigm in a large sample (N = 191) of third and fourth graders with different reading and spelling profiles (controls, isolated reading deficit, isolated spelling deficit, combined deficit in reading and spelling). Once individual variability in reaction times was taken into account by means of z-transformation, a cueing deficit (i.e. no significant difference between valid and invalid trials) was found for children with combined deficits in reading and spelling. However, poor readers without spelling problems showed a cueing effect comparable to controls, but exhibited a particularly strong right-over-left advantage (position effect). Isolated poor spellers showed a significant cueing effect, but no position effect. While we replicated earlier findings of a reduced cueing effect among poor nonword readers (indicating deficits in sublexical processing), we also found a reduced cueing effect among children with particularly poor orthographic spelling (indicating deficits in lexical processing). Thus, earlier claims of a specific association with nonword reading could not be confirmed. Controlling for ADHD-symptoms reported in a parental questionnaire did not impact on the statistical analysis, indicating that cueing deficits are not caused by more general attentional limitations. Between 31 and 48% of participants in the three reading and/or spelling deficit groups as well as 32% of the control group showed reduced spatial cueing. These findings indicate a significant, but moderate association between certain aspects of visuo-spatial attention and subcomponents of written language processing, the causal status of

  20. Prelude to passion: limbic activation by "unseen" drug and sexual cues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rose Childress

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The human brain responds to recognizable signals for sex and for rewarding drugs of abuse by activation of limbic reward circuitry. Does the brain respond in similar way to such reward signals even when they are "unseen", i.e., presented in a way that prevents their conscious recognition? Can the brain response to "unseen" reward cues predict the future affective response to recognizable versions of such cues, revealing a link between affective/motivational processes inside and outside awareness?We exploited the fast temporal resolution of event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to test the brain response to "unseen" (backward-masked cocaine, sexual, aversive and neutral cues of 33 milliseconds duration in male cocaine patients (n = 22. Two days after scanning, the affective valence for visible versions of each cue type was determined using an affective bias (priming task. We demonstrate, for the first time, limbic brain activation by "unseen" drug and sexual cues of only 33 msec duration. Importantly, increased activity in an large interconnected ventral pallidum/amygdala cluster to the "unseen" cocaine cues strongly predicted future positive affect to visible versions of the same cues in subsequent off-magnet testing, pointing both to the functional significance of the rapid brain response, and to shared brain substrates for appetitive motivation within and outside awareness.These findings represent the first evidence that brain reward circuitry responds to drug and sexual cues presented outside awareness. The results underscore the sensitivity of the brain to "unseen" reward signals and may represent the brain's primordial signature for desire. The limbic brain response to reward cues outside awareness may represent a potential vulnerability in disorders (e.g., the addictions for whom poorly-controlled appetitive motivation is a central feature.

  1. The influence of imagery vividness on cognitive and perceptual cues in circular auditorily-induced vection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander eVäljamäe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of other congruent multisensory motion cues, sound contribution to illusions of self-motion (vection is relatively weak and often attributed to purely cognitive, top-down processes. The present study addressed the influence of cognitive and perceptual factors in the experience of circular, yaw auditorily-induced vection (AIV, focusing on participants’ imagery vividness scores. We used different rotating sound sources (acoustic landmark vs. movable types and their filtered versions that provided different binaural cues (interaural time or level differences, ITD vs. ILD when delivering via loudspeaker array. The significant differences in circular vection intensity showed that 1 AIV was stronger for rotating sound fields containing auditory landmarks as compared to movable sound objects; 2 ITD based acoustic cues were more instrumental than ILD based ones for horizontal AIV; and 3 individual differences in imagery vividness significantly influenced the effects of contextual and perceptual cues. While participants with high scores of kinesthetic and visual imagery were helped by vection ``rich cues, i.e. acoustic landmarks and ITD cues, the participants from the low-vivid imagery group did not benefit from these cues automatically. Only when specifically asked to use their imagination intentionally did these external cues start influencing vection sensation in similar way to high-vivid imagers. These findings are in line with the recent fMRI work which suggested that high-vivid imagers employ automatic, almost unconscious mechanisms in imagery generation, while low-vivid imagers rely on more schematic and conscious framework. Consequently, our results provide an additional insight into the interaction between perceptual and contextual cues when experiencing purely auditorily or multisensorily induced vection.

  2. Are olfactory cues involved in nest recognition in two social species of estrildid finches?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Tobias Krause

    Full Text Available Reliably recognizing their own nest provides parents with a necessary skill to invest time and resources efficiently in raising their offspring and thereby maximising their own reproductive success. Studies investigating nest recognition in adult birds have focused mainly on visual cues of the nest or the nest site and acoustic cues of the nestlings. To determine whether adult songbirds also use olfaction for nest recognition, we investigated the use of olfactory nest cues for two estrildid finch species, zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and Bengalese finches (Lonchura striata var. domestica during the nestling and fledgling phase of their offspring. We found similar behavioural responses to nest odours in both songbird species. Females preferred the odour of their own nest over a control and avoided the foreign conspecific nest scent over a control during the nestling phase of their offspring, but when given the own odour and the foreign conspecific odour simultaneously we did not find a preference for the own nest odour. Males of both species did not show any preferences at all. The behavioural reaction to any nest odour decreased after fledging of the offspring. Our results show that only females show a behavioural response to olfactory nest cues, indicating that the use of olfactory cues for nest recognition seems to be sex-specific and dependent on the developmental stage of the offspring. Although estrildid finches are known to use visual and acoustic cues for nest recognition, the similar behavioural pattern of both species indicates that at least females gain additional information by olfactory nest cues during the nestling phase of their offspring. Thus olfactory cues might be important in general, even in situations in which visual and acoustic cues are known to be sufficient.

  3. Stress, cues, and eating behavior. Using drug addiction paradigms to understand motivation for food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Monika Kardacz; Fischer, Sarah; MacKillop, James

    2015-09-01

    Eating patterns that lead to overconsumption of high fat, high sugar (HFHS) foods share similar features with addictive behaviors. Application of addiction paradigms, such as stress inductions, cue reactivity and behavioral economic assessments, to the study of motivation for HFHS food consumption may be a promising means of understanding food consumption. To date, few studies have investigated the interaction of stress and environmental cues on craving, and no study leveraged the state relative reinforcing value of foods (RRVfood) under varying conditions of affective states, the foci of the current study. This study used a mixed factorial design (Mood Induction: Neutral, Stress; Cues: Neutral, Food) with repeated measures on time (Baseline, Post-Mood Induction, Post-Cue Exposure). Participants (N = 133) were community adults who endorsed liking of HFHS snacks but denied eating pathology. The primary DVs were subjective craving and RRVfood. Negative and positive affect (NA, PA), the amount of food consumed, and latency to first bite were also examined. Participants in the Stress condition reported no change in craving or RRVfood. Exposure to food cues significantly increased participants' craving and RRVfood, but an interaction of stress and cues was not present. Participants did not differ on how many calories they consumed based on exposure to stress or food cues, but participants in the food cues condition had a shorter latency to the first bite of food. This study highlights the importance of environmental cues in food motivation. It also demonstrates the utility of using RRVfood to further characterize food motivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Improved Resolution Optical Time Stretch Imaging Based on High Efficiency In-Fiber Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guoqing; Yan, Zhijun; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Chao

    2018-01-12

    Most overlooked challenges in ultrafast optical time stretch imaging (OTSI) are sacrificed spatial resolution and higher optical loss. These challenges are originated from optical diffraction devices used in OTSI, which encode image into spectra of ultrashort optical pulses. Conventional free-space diffraction gratings, as widely used in existing OTSI systems, suffer from several inherent drawbacks: limited diffraction efficiency in a non-Littrow configuration due to inherent zeroth-order reflection, high coupling loss between free-space gratings and optical fibers, bulky footprint, and more importantly, sacrificed imaging resolution due to non-full-aperture illumination for individual wavelengths. Here we report resolution-improved and diffraction-efficient OTSI using in-fiber diffraction for the first time to our knowledge. The key to overcome the existing challenges is a 45° tilted fiber grating (TFG), which serves as a compact in-fiber diffraction device offering improved diffraction efficiency (up to 97%), inherent compatibility with optical fibers, and improved imaging resolution owning to almost full-aperture illumination for all illumination wavelengths. 50 million frames per second imaging of fast moving object at 46 m/s with improved imaging resolution has been demonstrated. This conceptually new in-fiber diffraction design opens the way towards cost-effective, compact and high-resolution OTSI systems for image-based high-throughput detection and measurement.

  5. NOAA's Strategy to Improve Operational Weather Prediction Outlooks at Subseasonal Time Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, T.; Toepfer, F.; Stajner, I.; DeWitt, D.

    2017-12-01

    NOAA is planning to extend operational global numerical weather prediction to sub-seasonal time range under the auspices of its Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) and Extended Range Outlook Programs. A unification of numerical prediction capabilities for weather and subseasonal to seasonal (S2S) timescales is underway at NOAA using the Finite Volume Cubed Sphere (FV3) dynamical core as the basis for the emerging unified system. This presentation will overview NOAA's strategic planning and current activities to improve prediction at S2S time-scales that are ongoing in response to the Weather Research and Forecasting Innovation Act of 2017, Section 201. Over the short-term, NOAA seeks to improve the operational capability through improvements to its ensemble forecast system to extend its range to 30 days using the new FV3 Global Forecast System model, and by using this system to provide reforecast and re-analyses. In parallel, work is ongoing to improve NOAA's operational product suite for 30 day outlooks for temperature, precipitation and extreme weather phenomena.

  6. Role of Speaker Cues in Attention Inference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Joo Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Current state-of-the-art approaches to emotion recognition primarily focus on modeling the nonverbal expressions of the sole individual without reference to contextual elements such as the co-presence of the partner. In this paper, we demonstrate that the accurate inference of listeners’ social-emotional state of attention depends on accounting for the nonverbal behaviors of their storytelling partner, namely their speaker cues. To gain a deeper understanding of the role of speaker cues in attention inference, we conduct investigations into real-world interactions of children (5–6 years old storytelling with their peers. Through in-depth analysis of human–human interaction data, we first identify nonverbal speaker cues (i.e., backchannel-inviting cues and listener responses (i.e., backchannel feedback. We then demonstrate how speaker cues can modify the interpretation of attention-related backchannels as well as serve as a means to regulate the responsiveness of listeners. We discuss the design implications of our findings toward our primary goal of developing attention recognition models for storytelling robots, and we argue that social robots can proactively use speaker cues to form more accurate inferences about the attentive state of their human partners.

  7. Spontaneous Hedonic Reactions to Social Media Cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Hartmann, Tilo; Eden, Allison; Veling, Harm

    2017-05-01

    Why is it so difficult to resist the desire to use social media? One possibility is that frequent social media users possess strong and spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues, which, in turn, makes it difficult to resist social media temptations. In two studies (total N = 200), we investigated less-frequent and frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media cues using the Affect Misattribution Procedure-an implicit measure of affective reactions. Results demonstrated that frequent social media users showed more favorable affective reactions in response to social media (vs. control) cues, whereas less-frequent social media users' affective reactions did not differ between social media and control cues (Studies 1 and 2). Moreover, the spontaneous hedonic reactions to social media (vs. control) cues were related to self-reported cravings to use social media and partially accounted for the link between social media use and social media cravings (Study 2). These findings suggest that frequent social media users' spontaneous hedonic reactions in response to social media cues might contribute to their difficulties in resisting desires to use social media.

  8. Improved long-term outcomes after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a comparison between two time periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Pablo E; Cleary, Sean P; Dhani, Neesha; Kim, Peter T W; Greig, Paul D; Leung, Kenneth; Moulton, Carol-Anne; Gallinger, Steven; Wei, Alice C

    2015-04-01

    Despite reduced perioperative mortality and routine use of adjuvant therapy following pancreatectomy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), improvement in long-term outcome has been difficult to ascertain. This study compares outcomes in patients undergoing resection for PDAC within a single, high-volume academic institution over two sequential time periods. Retrospective review of patients with resected PDAC, in two cohorts: period 1 (P1), 1991-2000; and period 2 (P2), 2001-2010. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed to determine prognostic factors associated with long-term survival. Survival was evaluated using Kaplan-Meier analyses. A total of 179 pancreatectomies were performed during P1 and 310 during P2. Perioperative mortality was 6.7 % (12/179) in P1 and 1.6 % (5/310) in P2 (p = 0.003). P2 had a greater number of lymph nodes resected (17 [0-50] vs. 7 [0-31]; p P2 (p P2 (p < 0.001). Factors associated with improved long-term survival remain comparable over time. Short- and long-term survival for patients with resected PDAC has improved over time due to decreased perioperative mortality and increased use of adjuvant therapy, although the proportion of 5-year survivors remains small.

  9. Real-Time Electronic Dashboard Technology and Its Use to Improve Pediatric Radiology Workflow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shailam, Randheer; Botwin, Ariel; Stout, Markus; Gee, Michael S

    The purpose of our study was to create a real-time electronic dashboard in the pediatric radiology reading room providing a visual display of updated information regarding scheduled and in-progress radiology examinations that could help radiologists to improve clinical workflow and efficiency. To accomplish this, a script was set up to automatically send real-time HL7 messages from the radiology information system (Epic Systems, Verona, WI) to an Iguana Interface engine, with relevant data regarding examinations stored in an SQL Server database for visual display on the dashboard. Implementation of an electronic dashboard in the reading room of a pediatric radiology academic practice has led to several improvements in clinical workflow, including decreasing the time interval for radiologist protocol entry for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging examinations as well as fewer telephone calls related to unprotocoled examinations. Other advantages include enhanced ability of radiologists to anticipate and attend to examinations requiring radiologist monitoring or scanning, as well as to work with technologists and operations managers to optimize scheduling in radiology resources. We foresee increased utilization of electronic dashboard technology in the future as a method to improve radiology workflow and quality of patient care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of engagement behavior in children during dyadic interactions using prosodic cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rahul; Bone, Daniel; Lee, Sungbok; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2016-05-01

    Child engagement is defined as the interaction of a child with his/her environment in a contextually appropriate manner. Engagement behavior in children is linked to socio-emotional and cognitive state assessment with enhanced engagement identified with improved skills. A vast majority of studies however rely solely, and often implicitly, on subjective perceptual measures of engagement. Access to automatic quantification could assist researchers/clinicians to objectively interpret engagement with respect to a target behavior or condition, and furthermore inform mechanisms for improving engagement in various settings. In this paper, we present an engagement prediction system based exclusively on vocal cues observed during structured interaction between a child and a psychologist involving several tasks. Specifically, we derive prosodic cues that capture engagement levels across the various tasks. Our experiments suggest that a child's engagement is reflected not only in the vocalizations, but also in the speech of the interacting psychologist. Moreover, we show that prosodic cues are informative of the engagement phenomena not only as characterized over the entire task (i.e., global cues), but also in short term patterns (i.e., local cues). We perform a classification experiment assigning the engagement of a child into three discrete levels achieving an unweighted average recall of 55.8% (chance is 33.3%). While the systems using global cues and local level cues are each statistically significant in predicting engagement, we obtain the best results after fusing these two components. We perform further analysis of the cues at local and global levels to achieve insights linking specific prosodic patterns to the engagement phenomenon. We observe that while the performance of our model varies with task setting and interacting psychologist, there exist universal prosodic patterns reflective of engagement.

  11. Contextual cueing effects despite spatially cued target locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schankin, Andrea; Schubö, Anna

    2010-07-01

    Reaction times (RT) to targets are faster in repeated displays relative to novel ones when the spatial arrangement of the distracting items predicts the target location (contextual cueing). It is assumed that visual-spatial attention is guided more efficiently to the target resulting in reduced RTs. In the present experiment, contextual cueing even occurred when the target location was previously peripherally cued. Electrophysiologically, repeated displays elicited an enhanced N2pc component in both conditions and resulted in an earlier onset of the stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential (s-LRP) in the cued condition and in an enhanced P3 in the uncued condition relative to novel displays. These results indicate that attentional guidance is less important than previously assumed but that other cognitive processes, such as attentional selection (N2pc) and response-related processes (s-LRP, P3) are facilitated by context familiarity.

  12. Improving Emergency Department radiology transportation time: a successful implementation of lean methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitti, Eveline A; El-Eid, Ghada R; Tamim, Hani; Saleh, Rana; Saliba, Miriam; Naffaa, Lena

    2017-09-05

    Emergency Department overcrowding has become a global problem and a growing safety and quality concern. Radiology and laboratory turnaround time, ED boarding and increased ED visits are some of the factors that contribute to ED overcrowding. Lean methods have been used in the ED to address multiple flow challenges from improving door-to-doctor time to reducing length of stay. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of using Lean management methods on improving Emergency Department transportation times for plain radiography. We performed a before and after study at an academic urban Emergency Department with 49,000 annual visits after implementing a Lean driven intervention. The primary outcome was mean radiology transportation turnaround time (TAT). Secondary outcomes included overall study turnaround time from order processing to preliminary report time as well as ED length of stay. All ED patients undergoing plain radiography 6 months pre-intervention were compared to all ED patients undergoing plain radiography 6 months post-intervention after a 1 month washout period. Post intervention there was a statistically significant decrease in the mean transportation TAT (mean ± SD: 9.87 min ± 15.05 versus 22.89 min ± 22.05, respectively, p-value <0.0001). In addition, it was found that 71.6% of patients in the post-intervention had transportation TAT ≤ 10 min, as compared to 32.3% in the pre-intervention period, p-value <0.0001, with narrower interquartile ranges in the post-intervention period. Similarly, the "study processing to preliminary report time" and the length of stay were lower in the post-intervention as compared to the pre-intervention, (52.50 min ± 35.43 versus 54.04 min ± 34.72, p-value = 0.02 and 3.65 h ± 5.17 versus 4.57 h ± 10.43, p < 0.0001, respectively), in spite of an increase in the time it took to elease a preliminary report in the post-intervention period. Using Lean change management

  13. Improvements in brain activation detection using time-resolved diffuse optical means

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montcel, Bruno; Chabrier, Renee; Poulet, Patrick

    2005-08-01

    An experimental method based on time-resolved absorbance difference is described. The absorbance difference is calculated over each temporal step of the optical signal with the time-resolved Beer-Lambert law. Finite element simulations show that each step corresponds to a different scanned zone and that cerebral contribution increases with the arrival time of photons. Experiments are conducted at 690 and 830 nm with a time-resolved system consisting of picosecond laser diodes, micro-channel plate photo-multiplier tube and photon counting modules. The hemodynamic response to a short finger tapping stimulus is measured over the motor cortex. Time-resolved absorbance difference maps show that variations in the optical signals are not localized in superficial regions of the head, which testify for their cerebral origin. Furthermore improvements in the detection of cerebral activation is achieved through the increase of variations in absorbance by a factor of almost 5 for time-resolved measurements as compared to non-time-resolved measurements.

  14. Caffeine Reduces Reaction Time and Improves Performance in Simulated-Contest of Taekwondo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Victor G. F.; Santos, Vander R. F.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Almeida, Jose W.; Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Kiss, Maria A. P. D. M.; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on reaction time during a specific taekwondo task and athletic performance during a simulated taekwondo contest. Ten taekwondo athletes ingested either 5 mg·kg−1 body mass caffeine or placebo and performed two combats (spaced apart by 20 min). The reaction-time test (five kicks “Bandal Tchagui”) was performed immediately prior to the first combat and immediately after the first and second combats. Caffeine improved reaction time (from 0.42 ± 0.05 to 0.37 ± 0.07 s) only prior to the first combat (P = 0.004). During the first combat, break times during the first two rounds were shorter in caffeine ingestion, followed by higher plasma lactate concentrations compared with placebo (P = 0.029 and 0.014, respectively). During the second combat, skipping-time was reduced, and relative attack times and attack/skipping ratio was increased following ingestion of caffeine during the first two rounds (all P Caffeine resulted in no change in combat intensity parameters between the first and second combat (all P > 0.05), but combat intensity was decreased following placebo (all P caffeine reduced reaction time in non-fatigued conditions and delayed fatigue during successive taekwondo combats. PMID:24518826

  15. Audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D; Keall, P; Kim, T; Greer, P B; Arm, J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that audiovisual (AV) biofeedback can improve image quality and reduce scan time for respiratory-gated 3D thoracic MRI. For five healthy human subjects respiratory motion guidance in MR scans was provided using an AV biofeedback system, utilizing real-time respiratory motion signals. To investigate the improvement of respiratory-gated 3D MR images between free breathing (FB) and AV biofeedback (AV), each subject underwent two imaging sessions. Respiratory-related motion artifacts and imaging time were qualitatively evaluated in addition to the reproducibility of external (abdominal) motion. In the results, 3D MR images in AV biofeedback showed more anatomic information such as a clear distinction of diaphragm, lung lobes and sharper organ boundaries. The scan time was reduced from 401±215 s in FB to 334±94 s in AV (p-value 0.36). The root mean square variation of the displacement and period of the abdominal motion was reduced from 0.4±0.22 cm and 2.8±2.5 s in FB to 0.1±0.15 cm and 0.9±1.3 s in AV (p-value of displacement <0.01 and p-value of period 0.12). This study demonstrated that audiovisual biofeedback improves image quality and reduces scan time for respiratory-gated 3D MRI. These results suggest that AV biofeedback has the potential to be a useful motion management tool in medical imaging and radiation therapy procedures.

  16. Control bandwidth improvements in GRAVITY fringe tracker by switching to a synchronous real time computer architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuter, Roberto; Dembet, Roderick; Lacour, Sylvestre; di Lieto, Nicola; Woillez, Julien; Eisenhauer, Frank; Fedou, Pierre; Phan Duc, Than

    2016-08-01

    The new VLTI (Very Large Telescope Interferometer) 1 instrument GRAVITY5, 22, 23 is equipped with a fringe tracker16 able to stabilize the K-band fringes on six baselines at the same time. It has been designed to achieve a performance for average seeing conditions of a residual OPD (Optical Path Difference) lower than 300 nm with objects brighter than K = 10. The control loop implementing the tracking is composed of a four stage real time computer system compromising: a sensor where the detector pixels are read in and the OPD and GD (Group Delay) are calculated; a controller receiving the computed sensor quantities and producing commands for the piezo actuators; a concentrator which combines both the OPD commands with the real time tip/tilt corrections offloading them to the piezo actuator; and finally a Kalman15 parameter estimator. This last stage is used to monitor current measurements over a window of few seconds and estimate new values for the main Kalman15 control loop parameters. The hardware and software implementation of this design runs asynchronously and communicates the four computers for data transfer via the Reflective Memory Network3. With the purpose of improving the performance of the GRAVITY5, 23 fringe tracking16, 22 control loop, a deviation from the standard asynchronous communication mechanism has been proposed and implemented. This new scheme operates the four independent real time computers involved in the tracking loop synchronously using the Reflective Memory Interrupts2 as the coordination signal. This synchronous mechanism had the effect of reducing the total pure delay of the loop from 3.5 [ms] to 2.0 [ms] which then translates on a better stabilization of the fringes as the bandwidth of the system is substantially improved. This paper will explain in detail the real time architecture of the fringe tracker in both is synchronous and synchronous implementation. The achieved improvements on reducing the delay via this mechanism will be

  17. Competitive Stem Cell Recruitment by Multiple Cytotactic Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Avital; Cheung, Yukkee; Paluch, Kamila; Chen, Mo; Kong, Kimi; Tan, Jiali; Dong, Ziming; Sia, Samuel K.; Mao, Jeremy J.

    2014-01-01

    A multitude of cytotactic cues direct cell migration in development, cancer metastasis and wound healing. However, our understanding of cell motility remains fragmented partially because current migration devices only allow the study of independent factors. We developed a cell motility assay that allows competitive recruitment of a given cell population simultaneously by gradients of multiple cytotactic cues, observable under real-time imaging. Well-defined uniform gradients of cytotactic cues can be independently generated and sustained in each channel. As a case study, bone marrow mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) were exposed to 15 cytokines that are commonly present in arthritis. Cytokines that induced robust recruitment of MSCs in multiple groups were selected to ‘compete’ in a final round to yield the most chemotactic factor(s) based on cell migration numbers, distances, migration indices and motility over time. The potency of a given cytokine in competition frequently differed from its individual action, substantiating the need to test multiple cytokines concurrently due to synergistic or antagonistic effects. This new device has the rare capacity to screen molecules that induce cell migration in cancer therapy, drug development and tissue regeneration. PMID:23364311

  18. Later school start time is associated with improved sleep and daytime functioning in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boergers, Julie; Gable, Christopher J; Owens, Judith A

    2014-01-01

    Chronic insufficient sleep is a growing concern among adolescents and is associated with a host of adverse health consequences. Early school start times may be an environmental contributor to this problem. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a delay in school start time on sleep patterns, sleepiness, mood, and health-related outcomes. Boarding students (n = 197, mean age = 15.6 yr) attending an independent high school completed the School Sleep Habits Survey before and after the school start time was experimentally delayed from 8:00 a.m. to 8:25 a.m. The delay in school start time was associated with a significant (29 min) increase in sleep duration on school nights. The percentage of students receiving 8 or more hours of sleep on a school night increased to more than double, from 18% to 44%. Students in 9th and 10th grade and those with lower baseline sleep amounts were more likely to report improvements in sleep duration after the schedule change. Daytime sleepiness, depressed mood, and caffeine use were all significantly reduced after the delay in school start time. Sleep duration reverted to baseline levels when the original (earlier) school start time was reinstituted. A modest (25 min) delay in school start time was associated with significant improvements in sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, mood, and caffeine use. These findings have important implications for public policy and add to research suggesting the health benefits of modifying school schedules to more closely align with adolescents' circadian rhythms and sleep needs.

  19. Sad facial cues inhibit temporal attention: evidence from an event-related potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianxian; Chen, Xiaoqiang; Tan, Bo; Zhao, Dandan; Jin, Zhenlan; Li, Ling

    2013-06-19

    We examined the influence of different emotional cues (happy or sad) on temporal attention (short or long interval) using behavioral as well as event-related potential recordings during a Stroop task. Emotional stimuli cued short and long time intervals, inducing 'sad-short', 'sad-long', 'happy-short', and 'happy-long' conditions. Following the intervals, participants performed a numeric Stroop task. Behavioral results showed the temporal attention effects in the sad-long, happy-long, and happy-short conditions, in which valid cues quickened the reaction times, but not in the sad-short condition. N2 event-related potential components showed sad cues to have decreased activity for short intervals compared with long intervals, whereas happy cues did not. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for different modulation of sad and happy facial cues on temporal attention. Furthermore, sad cues inhibit temporal attention, resulting in longer reaction time and decreased neural activity in the short interval by diverting more attentional resources.

  20. Working memory load and the retro-cue effect: A diffusion model account.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherdson, Peter; Oberauer, Klaus; Souza, Alessandra S

    2018-02-01

    Retro-cues (i.e., cues presented between the offset of a memory array and the onset of a probe) have consistently been found to enhance performance in working memory tasks, sometimes ameliorating the deleterious effects of increased memory load. However, the mechanism by which retro-cues exert their influence remains a matter of debate. To inform this debate, we applied a hierarchical diffusion model to data from 4 change detection experiments using single item, location-specific probes (i.e., a local recognition task) with either visual or verbal memory stimuli. Results showed that retro-cues enhanced the quality of information entering the decision process-especially for visual stimuli-and decreased the time spent on nondecisional processes. Further, cues interacted with memory load primarily on nondecision time, decreasing or abolishing load effects. To explain these findings, we propose an account whereby retro-cues act primarily to reduce the time taken to access the relevant representation in memory upon probe presentation, and in addition protect cued representations from visual interference. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Improving hospital discharge time: a successful implementation of Six Sigma methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Eid, Ghada R; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A

    2015-03-01

    Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific.

  2. Improved time series prediction with a new method for selection of model parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jade, A M; Jayaraman, V K; Kulkarni, B D

    2006-01-01

    A new method for model selection in prediction of time series is proposed. Apart from the conventional criterion of minimizing RMS error, the method also minimizes the error on the distribution of singularities, evaluated through the local Hoelder estimates and its probability density spectrum. Predictions of two simulated and one real time series have been done using kernel principal component regression (KPCR) and model parameters of KPCR have been selected employing the proposed as well as the conventional method. Results obtained demonstrate that the proposed method takes into account the sharp changes in a time series and improves the generalization capability of the KPCR model for better prediction of the unseen test data. (letter to the editor)

  3. Improved process control through real-time measurement of mineral content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turler, Daniel; Karaca, Murat; Davis, William B.; Giauque, Robert D.; Hopkins, Deborah

    2001-11-02

    In a highly collaborative research and development project with mining and university partners, sensors and data-analysis tools are being developed for rock-mass characterization and real-time measurement of mineral content. Determining mineralogy prior to mucking in an open-pit mine is important for routing the material to the appropriate processing stream. A possible alternative to lab assay of dust and cuttings obtained from drill holes is continuous on-line sampling and real-time x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. Results presented demonstrate that statistical analyses combined with XRF data can be employed to identify minerals and, possibly, different rock types. The objective is to create a detailed three-dimensional mineralogical map in real time that would improve downstream process efficiency.

  4. Enhancements to the timing of the OMEGA laser system to improve illumination uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Kosc, T. Z.; Kelly, J. H.; Hill, E. M.; Bahr, R. E.

    2016-09-01

    Two diagnostics have been developed to improve the uniformity on the OMEGA Laser System, which is used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The first diagnostic measures the phase of an optical modulator (used for the spectral dispersion technique employed on OMEGA to enhance spatial smoothing), which adds bandwidth to the optical pulse. Setting this phase precisely is required to reduce pointing errors. The second diagnostic ensures that the arrival times of all the beams are synchronized. The arrival of each of the 60 OMEGA beams is measured by placing a 1-mm diffusing sphere at target chamber center. By comparing the arrival time of each beam with respect to a reference pulse, the measured timing spread of the OMEGA Laser System is now 3.8 ps.

  5. An Eye Tracking Comparison of External Pointing Cues and Internal Continuous Cues in Learning with Complex Animations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucheix, Jean-Michel; Lowe, Richard K.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments used eye tracking to investigate a novel cueing approach for directing learner attention to low salience, high relevance aspects of a complex animation. In the first experiment, comprehension of a piano mechanism animation containing spreading-colour cues was compared with comprehension obtained with arrow cues or no cues. Eye…

  6. Second Generation Electronic Nicotine Delivery System Vape Pen Exposure Generalizes as a Smoking Cue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrea C; Smith, Lia J; McNamara, Patrick J; Cao, Dingcai

    2018-01-05

    Second generation electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS; also known as e-cigarettes, vaporizers or vape pens) are designed for a customized nicotine delivery experience and have less resemblance to regular cigarettes than first generation "cigalikes." The present study examined whether they generalize as a conditioned cue and evoke smoking urges or behavior in persons exposed to their use. Data were analyzed in N = 108 young adult smokers (≥5 cigarettes per week) randomized to either a traditional combustible cigarette smoking cue or a second generation ENDS vaping cue in a controlled laboratory setting. Cigarette and e-cigarette urge and desire were assessed pre- and post-cue exposure. Smoking behavior was also explored in a subsample undergoing a smoking latency phase after cue exposure (N = 26). The ENDS vape pen cue evoked both urge and desire for a regular cigarette to a similar extent as that produced by the combustible cigarette cue. Both cues produced similar time to initiate smoking during the smoking latency phase. The ENDS vape pen cue elicited smoking urge and desire regardless of ENDS use history, that is, across ENDS naїve, lifetime or current users. Inclusion of past ENDS or cigarette use as covariates did not significantly alter the results. These findings demonstrate that observation of vape pen ENDS use generalizes as a conditioned cue to produce smoking urge, desire, and behavior in young adult smokers. As the popularity of these devices may eventually overtake those of first generation ENDS cigalikes, exposure effects will be of increasing importance. This study shows that passive exposure to a second generation ENDS vape pen cue evoked smoking urge, desire, and behavior across a range of daily and non-daily young adult smokers. Smoking urge and desire increases after vape pen exposure were similar to those produced by exposure to a first generation ENDS cigalike and a combustible cigarette, a known potent cue. Given the increasing

  7. Improved Planning Time and Plan Quality Through Multicriteria Optimization for Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craft, David L.; Hong, Theodore S.; Shih, Helen A.; Bortfeld, Thomas R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To test whether multicriteria optimization (MCO) can reduce treatment planning time and improve plan quality in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). Methods and Materials: Ten IMRT patients (5 with glioblastoma and 5 with locally advanced pancreatic cancers) were logged during the standard treatment planning procedure currently in use at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Planning durations and other relevant planning information were recorded. In parallel, the patients were planned using an MCO planning system, and similar planning time data were collected. The patients were treated with the standard plan, but each MCO plan was also approved by the physicians. Plans were then blindly reviewed 3 weeks after planning by the treating physician. Results: In all cases, the treatment planning time was vastly shorter for the MCO planning (average MCO treatment planning time was 12 min; average standard planning time was 135 min). The physician involvement time in the planning process increased from an average of 4.8 min for the standard process to 8.6 min for the MCO process. In all cases, the MCO plan was blindly identified as the superior plan. Conclusions: This provides the first concrete evidence that MCO-based planning is superior in terms of both planning efficiency and dose distribution quality compared with the current trial and error–based IMRT planning approach.

  8. Time trends, improvements and national auditing of rectal cancer management over an 18-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodeda, K; Johansson, R; Zar, N; Birgisson, H; Dahlberg, M; Skullman, S; Lindmark, G; Glimelius, B; Påhlman, L; Martling, A

    2015-09-01

    The main aims were to explore time trends in the management and outcome of patients with rectal cancer in a national cohort and to evaluate the possible impact of national auditing on overall outcomes. A secondary aim was to provide population-based data for appraisal of external validity in selected patient series. Data from the Swedish ColoRectal Cancer Registry with virtually complete national coverage were utilized in this cohort study on 29 925 patients with rectal cancer diagnosed between 1995 and 2012. Of eligible patients, nine were excluded. During the study period, overall, relative and disease-free survival increased. Postoperative mortality after 30 and 90 days decreased to 1.7% and 2.9%. The 5-year local recurrence rate dropped to 5.0%. Resection margins improved, as did peri-operative blood loss despite more multivisceral resections being performed. Fewer patients underwent palliative resection and the proportion of non-operated patients increased. The proportions of temporary and permanent stoma formation increased. Preoperative radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy became more common as did multidisciplinary team conferences. Variability in rectal cancer management between healthcare regions diminished over time when new aspects of patient care were audited. There have been substantial changes over time in the management of patients with rectal cancer, reflected in improved outcome. Much indirect evidence indicates that auditing matters, but without a control group it is not possible to draw firm conclusions regarding the possible impact of a quality control registry on faster shifts in time trends, decreased variability and improvements. Registry data were made available for reference. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  9. Real-time patient survey data during routine clinical activities for rapid-cycle quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wofford, James Lucius; Campos, Claudia L; Jones, Robert E; Stevens, Sheila F

    2015-03-12

    Surveying patients is increasingly important for evaluating and improving health care delivery, but practical survey strategies during routine care activities have not been available. We examined the feasibility of conducting routine patient surveys in a primary care clinic using commercially available technology (Web-based survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, cloud-based management of survey data) to expedite and enhance several steps in data collection and management for rapid quality improvement cycles. We used a Web-based data management tool (survey creation, deployment on tablet computers, real-time data accumulation and display of survey results) to conduct four patient surveys during routine clinic sessions over a one-month period. Each survey consisted of three questions and focused on a specific patient care domain (dental care, waiting room experience, care access/continuity, Internet connectivity). Of the 727 available patients during clinic survey days, 316 patients (43.4%) attempted the survey, and 293 (40.3%) completed the survey. For the four 3-question surveys, the average time per survey was overall 40.4 seconds, with a range of 5.4 to 20.3 seconds for individual questions. Yes/No questions took less time than multiple choice questions (average 9.6 seconds versus 14.0). Average response time showed no clear pattern by order of questions or by proctor strategy, but monotonically increased with number of words in the question (30 words)-8.0, 11.8, 16.8, seconds, respectively. This technology-enabled data management system helped capture patient opinions, accelerate turnaround of survey data, with minimal impact on a busy primary care clinic. This new model of patient survey data management is feasible and sustainable in a busy office setting, supports and engages clinicians in the quality improvement process, and harmonizes with the vision of a learning health care system.

  10. Improved detection of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection using real-time PCR and indirect ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Ryan; Morgan, Eric R; Helm, Jenny; Robinson, Matthew; Shaw, Susan E

    2011-12-01

    This study reports the development of a real-time PCR assay and an indirect ELISA to improve on current detection of canine Angiostrongylus vasorum infection. A highly specific fluorescent probe-based, real-time PCR assay was developed to target the A. vasorum second internal transcribed spacer region and detected DNA in EDTA blood, lung tissue, broncho-alveolar larvage fluid, endotracheal mucus, pharyngeal swabs and faecal samples. PCR was fast (∼1 h), highly efficient when using EDTA blood samples, consistently detected a single molecule of parasite DNA and did not amplify DNA from other parasitic nematodes or definitive host species. An indirect ELISA was also developed using the soluble protein fraction from adult A. vasorum worms. Some cross-reactive antigen recognition was observed when tested against sera from dogs infected with Crenosoma vulpis (n = 8), Toxocara canis (n = 5) and Dirofilaria immitis (n = 5). This was largely overcome by setting the cut-off for a positive result at an appropriately high level. Field evaluation of the real-time PCR and ELISA was conducted by testing sera and EDTA blood from dogs with suspected A. vasorum infection (n = 148) and compared with the Baermann's larval migration test in faeces. Thirty-one dogs were positive by at least one test. Of these, 20 (65%) were detected by the Baermann method, 18 (58%) by blood PCR, 24 (77%) by ELISA and 28 (90%) by blood PCR and ELISA together. Combined testing using real-time PCR and ELISA therefore improved the detection rate of A. vasorum infection and holds promise for improved clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation.

  11. Impaired cue identification and intention retrieval underlie prospective memory deficits in patients with first-episode schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dengtang; Ji, Chengfeng; Zhuo, Kaiming; Song, Zhenhua; Wang, Yingchan; Mei, Li; Zhu, Dianming; Xiang, Qiong; Chen, Tianyi; Yang, Zhilei; Zhu, Guang; Wang, Ya; Cheung, Eric Fc; Xiang, Yu-Tao; Fan, Xiaoduo; Chan, Raymond Ck; Xu, Yifeng; Jiang, Kaida

    2017-03-01

    Schizophrenia is associated with impairment in prospective memory, the ability to remember to carry out an intended action in the future. It has been established that cue identification (detection of the cue event signaling that an intended action should be performed) and intention retrieval (retrieval of an intention from long-term memory following the recognition of a prospective cue) are two important processes underlying prospective memory. The purpose of this study was to examine prospective memory deficit and underlying cognitive processes in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. This study examined cue identification and intention retrieval components of event-based prospective memory using a dual-task paradigm in 30 patients with first-episode schizophrenia and 30 healthy controls. All participants were also administered a set of tests assessing working memory and retrospective memory. Both cue identification and intention retrieval were impaired in patients with first-episode schizophrenia compared with healthy controls ( ps cue identification (Cohen's d = 0.98) and a medium effect size for intention retrieval (Cohen's d = 0.62). After controlling for working memory and retrospective memory, the difference in cue identification between patients and healthy controls remained significant. However, the difference in intention retrieval between the two groups was no longer significant. In addition, there was a significant inverse relationship between cue identification and negative symptoms ( r = -0.446, p = 0.013) in the patient group. These findings suggest that both cue identification and intention retrieval in event-based prospective memory are impaired in patients with first-episode schizophrenia. Cue identification and intention retrieval could be potentially used as biomarkers for early detection and treatment prognosis of schizophrenia. In addition, addressing cue identification deficit through cognitive enhancement training may

  12. Optimizing residence time, temperature and speed to improve TMP pulp properties and reduce energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, M.; Xu, E.; Cort, B.; Boileau, I.; Waller, A.

    1997-04-01

    The concept of reducing energy consumption in pulp mills by increasing the disc speed of refining has been established using single disc and double disc refiners in both pilot plant and mill applications. The RTS study evaluated in this paper reviews the effect of high-speed single disc refining coupled with shortdwell-high pressure retention conditions. Coupling these variables permitted evaluation of an optimum residence time, temperature and speed (RTS) operational window. The objective of the RTS conditions to sufficiently soften the wood chips through high temperature such that the fibre is more receptive to initial defiberization at high intensity. The improved pulp from the primary refiner at high intensity could potentially demonstrate improvements in physical pulp properties at a reduced specific energy requirement. The spruce/fir RTS-TMP described here required significantly less specific energy and produced TMP with slightly improved strength properties and equivalent optical properties compared to conventional TMP pulp. Studies on the radiate pine furnish indicated that the physical pulp property/specific energy relationships could be adjusted by manipulating the residence time. 4 refs., 10 tabs., 10 figs.

  13. Contextual cueing impairment in patients with age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geringswald, Franziska; Herbik, Anne; Hoffmann, Michael B; Pollmann, Stefan

    2013-09-12

    Visual attention can be guided by past experience of regularities in our visual environment. In the contextual cueing paradigm, incidental learning of repeated distractor configurations speeds up search times compared to random search arrays. Concomitantly, fewer fixations and more direct scan paths indicate more efficient visual exploration in repeated search arrays. In previous work, we found that simulating a central scotoma in healthy observers eliminated this search facilitation. Here, we investigated contextual cueing in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) who suffer from impaired foveal vision. AMD patients performed visual search using only their more severely impaired eye (n = 13) as well as under binocular viewing (n = 16). Normal-sighted controls developed a significant contextual cueing effect. In comparison, patients showed only a small nonsignificant advantage for repeated displays when searching with their worse eye. When searching binocularly, they profited from contextual cues, but still less than controls. Number of fixations and scan pattern ratios showed a comparable pattern as search times. Moreover, contextual cueing was significantly correlated with acuity in monocular search. Thus, foveal vision loss may lead to impaired guidance of attention by contextual memory cues.

  14. Theta-frequency resonance at the cerebellum input stage improves spike-timing on the millisecond time-scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eGandolfi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The neuronal circuits of the brain are thought to use resonance and oscillations to improve communication over specific frequency bands (Llinas, 1988; Buzsaki, 2006. However, the properties and mechanism of these phenomena in brain circuits remain largely unknown. Here we show that, at the cerebellum input stage, the granular layer generates its maximum response at 5-7 Hz both in vivo following tactile sensory stimulation of the whisker pad and in acute slices following mossy fiber-bundle stimulation. The spatial analysis of granular layer activity performed using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD imaging revealed 5-7 Hz resonance covering large granular layer areas. In single granule cells, resonance appeared as a reorganization of output spike bursts on the millisecond time-scale, such that the first spike occurred earlier and with higher temporal precision and the probability of spike generation increased. Resonance was independent from circuit inhibition, as it persisted with little variation in the presence of the GABAA receptor blocker, gabazine. However, circuit inhibition reduced the resonance area more markedly at 7 Hz. Simulations with detailed computational models suggested that resonance depended on intrinsic granule cells ionic mechanisms: specifically, Kslow (M-like and KA currents acted as resonators and the persistent Na current and NMDA current acted as amplifiers. This form of resonance may play an important role for enhancing coherent spike emission from the granular layer when theta-frequency bursts are transmitted by the cerebral cortex and peripheral sensory structures during sensory-motor processing, cognition and learning.

  15. What Does a Cue Do? Comparing Phonological and Semantic Cues for Picture Naming in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteyard, Lotte; Bose, Arpita

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Impaired naming is one of the most common symptoms in aphasia, often treated with cued picture naming paradigms. It has been argued that semantic cues facilitate the reliable categorization of the picture, and phonological cues facilitate the retrieval of target phonology. To test these hypotheses, we compared the effectiveness of…

  16. Cue-reactors: individual differences in cue-induced craving after food or smoking abstinence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen V Mahler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pavlovian conditioning plays a critical role in both drug addiction and binge eating. Recent animal research suggests that certain individuals are highly sensitive to conditioned cues, whether they signal food or drugs. Are certain humans also more reactive to both food and drug cues? METHODS: We examined cue-induced craving for both cigarettes and food, in the same individuals (n = 15 adult smokers. Subjects viewed smoking-related or food-related images after abstaining from either smoking or eating. RESULTS: Certain individuals reported strong cue-induced craving after both smoking and food cues. That is, subjects who reported strong cue-induced craving for cigarettes also rated stronger cue-induced food craving. CONCLUSIONS: In humans, like in nonhumans, there may be a "cue-reactive" phenotype, consisting of individuals who are highly sensitive to conditioned stimuli. This finding extends recent reports from nonhuman studies. Further understanding this subgroup of smokers may allow clinicians to individually tailor therapies for smoking cessation.

  17. Improvement of the real-time processor in JT-60 data processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, S.; Kiyono, K.; Sato, M.; Kominato, T.; Sueoka, M.; Hosoyama, H.; Kawamata, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Real-time processor, RTP is a basic subsystem in the JT-60 data processing system and plays an important role in JT-60 feedback control for plasma experiment. During the experiment, RTP acquires various diagnostic signals, processes them into a form of physical values, and transfers them as sensor signals to the particle supply and heating control supervisor for feedback control via reflective memory synchronization with 1 ms clock signals. After the start of RTP operation in 1997, to meet the demand for advanced plasma experiment, RTP had been improved continuously such as by addition of diagnostic signals with faster digitizers, reducing time for data transfer utilizing reflective memory instead of CAMAC. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to maintain, manage, and improve the outdated RTP with limited system CPU capability. Currently, a prototype RTP system is being developed for the next real-time processing system, which is composed of clustered system utilizing VxWorks computer. The processes on the existing RTP system will be decentralized to the VxWorks computer to solve the issues of the existing RTP system. The prototype RTP system will start to operate in August 2008.

  18. Improved response time of flexible microelectromechanical sensors employing eco-friendly nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shicheng; Dan, Li; Meng, Lingju; Zheng, Wei; Elias, Anastasia; Wang, Xihua

    2017-11-09

    Flexible force/pressure sensors are of interest for academia and industry and have applications in wearable technologies. Most of such sensors on the market or reported in journal publications are based on the operation mechanism of probing capacitance or resistance changes of the materials under pressure. Recently, we reported the microelectromechanical (MEM) sensors based on a different mechanism: mechanical switches. Multiples of such MEM sensors can be integrated to achieve the same function of regular force/pressure sensors while having the advantages of ease of fabrication and long-term stability in operation. Herein, we report the dramatically improved response time (more than one order of magnitude) of these MEM sensors by employing eco-friendly nanomaterials-cellulose nanocrystals. For instance, the incorporation of polydimethysiloxane filled with cellulose nanocrystals shortened the response time of MEM sensors from sub-seconds to several milliseconds, leading to the detection of both diastolic and systolic pressures in the radial arterial blood pressure measurement. Comprehensive mechanical and electrical characterization of the materials and the devices reveal that greatly enhanced storage modulus and loss modulus play key roles in this improved response time. The demonstrated fast-response flexible sensors enabled continuous monitoring of heart rate and complex cardiovascular signals using pressure sensors for future wearable sensing platforms.

  19. Competitor presence reduces internal attentional focus and improves 16.1km cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Andy Sparks, S; Marchant, David C; Midgley, Adrian W; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2015-07-01

    Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycling time trial performance, using trained, competitive cyclists. Randomised cross-over design. Fifteen male cyclists completed four 16.1km cycling time trials on a cycle ergometer, performing two with a visual display of themselves as a simulated avatar (FAM and SELF), one with no visual display (DO), and one with themselves and an opponent as simulated avatars (COMP). Participants were informed the competitive avatar was a similar ability cyclist but it was actually a representation of their fastest previous performance. Increased performance times were evident during COMP (27.8±2.0min) compared to SELF (28.7±1.9min) and DO (28.4±2.3min). Greater power output, speed and heart rate were apparent during COMP trial than SELF (pperformance. Competitive cyclists performed significantly faster during a 16.1-km competitive trial than when performing maximally, without a competitor. The improvement in performance was elicited due to a greater external distraction, deterring perceived exertion. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Improving Spiking Dynamical Networks: Accurate Delays, Higher-Order Synapses, and Time Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Aaron R; Eliasmith, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Researchers building spiking neural networks face the challenge of improving the biological plausibility of their model networks while maintaining the ability to quantitatively characterize network behavior. In this work, we extend the theory behind the neural engineering framework (NEF), a method of building spiking dynamical networks, to permit the use of a broad class of synapse models while maintaining prescribed dynamics up to a given order. This theory improves our understanding of how low-level synaptic properties alter the accuracy of high-level computations in spiking dynamical networks. For completeness, we provide characterizations for both continuous-time (i.e., analog) and discrete-time (i.e., digital) simulations. We demonstrate the utility of these extensions by mapping an optimal delay line onto various spiking dynamical networks using higher-order models of the synapse. We show that these networks nonlinearly encode rolling windows of input history, using a scale invariant representation, with accuracy depending on the frequency content of the input signal. Finally, we reveal that these methods provide a novel explanation of time cell responses during a delay task, which have been observed throughout hippocampus, striatum, and cortex.

  1. The Improved Adaptive Silence Period Algorithm over Time-Variant Channels in the Cognitive Radio System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingbo Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of cognitive radio spectrum sensing, the adaptive silence period management mechanism (ASPM has improved the problem of the low time-resource utilization rate of the traditional silence period management mechanism (TSPM. However, in the case of the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, the ASPM algorithm will increase the probability of missed detection for the primary user (PU. Focusing on this problem, this paper proposes an improved adaptive silence period management (IA-SPM algorithm which can adaptively adjust the sensing parameters of the current period in combination with the feedback information from the data communication with the sensing results of the previous period. The feedback information in the channel is achieved with frequency resources rather than time resources in order to adapt to the parameter change in the time-varying channel. The Monte Carlo simulation results show that the detection probability of the IA-SPM is 10–15% higher than that of the ASPM under low SNR conditions.

  2. Time to improve and recover from depressive symptoms and interpersonal problems in a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Rodrigo T; Gonçalves, Miguel M; Fassnacht, Daniel; Machado, Paulo P P; Sousa, Inês

    2015-01-01

    Results from an earlier clinical trial comparing narrative therapy with cognitive-behavioural therapy (Lopes et al., 2013) suggested that narrative therapy is efficacious for depression. However, there were significant differences in symptom reduction on the Beck Depression Inventory-II, favouring cognitive-behavioural therapy, if dropouts were included in the analysis, suggesting that time to recovery or improvement would differ in both treatments. Contrarily, results showed that treatment assignment was not a predictor for differential effect. Using a survival analytic approach, it was found that four sessions were necessary for 50% improvement and 16 sessions for 50% recovery. Additionally, depressive symptoms changes occurred significantly faster than interpersonal changes, again regardless of treatment assignment. These results support previous findings of the dose-response literature and of the phase model of change, with the advantage of being specific to psychotherapy with depressive clients. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Action Video Games Improve Direction Discrimination of Parafoveal Translational Global Motion but Not Reaction Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavan, Andrea; Boyce, Matthew; Ghin, Filippo

    2016-10-01

    Playing action video games enhances visual motion perception. However, there is psychophysical evidence that action video games do not improve motion sensitivity for translational global moving patterns presented in fovea. This study investigates global motion perception in action video game players and compares their performance to that of non-action video game players and non-video game players. Stimuli were random dot kinematograms presented in the parafovea. Observers discriminated the motion direction of a target random dot kinematogram presented in one of the four visual quadrants. Action video game players showed lower motion coherence thresholds than the other groups. However, when the task was performed at threshold, we did not find differences between groups in terms of distributions of reaction times. These results suggest that action video games improve visual motion sensitivity in the near periphery of the visual field, rather than speed response. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Individual differences in food cue responsivity are associated with acute and repeated cocaine-induced vocalizations, but not cue-induced vocalizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripi, Jordan A; Dent, Micheal L; Meyer, Paul J

    2017-02-01

    Individuals prone to attribute incentive salience to food-associated stimuli ("cues") are also more sensitive to cues during drug seeking and drug taking. This may be due in part to a difference in sensitivity to the affective or other stimulus properties of the drug. In rats, these properties are associated with 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), in that they are elicited during putative positive affective and motivational states, including in response to drugs of abuse. We sought to determine whether individual differences in the tendency to attribute incentive salience to a food cue (as measured by approach) were associated with differences in cocaine-induced USVs. We also tested whether the food cue would elicit USVs and if this response was related to approach to the food cue. In experiment 1, rats underwent Pavlovian conditioned approach (PavCA) training where they learned to associate a cue (an illuminated lever) with the delivery of a food pellet into a food cup. Subjects were categorized based on their approach to the cue ("sign-trackers") or to the food cup ("goal-trackers"). Rats subsequently underwent nine testing days in which they were given saline or cocaine (10 mg/kg i.p) and placed into a locomotor chamber. In experiment 2, rats were first tested in the locomotor chambers for one saline-treated day followed by one cocaine-treated day and then trained in PavCA. USVs were recorded from a subset of individuals during the last day of PavCA to determine if the food cue would elicit USVs. Sign-trackers produced 5-24 times more cocaine-induced 50 kHz USVs compared to goal-trackers for all days of experiment 1, and this response sensitized with repeated cocaine, only in sign-trackers. Similarly in experiment 2, individuals that produced the most cocaine-induced USVs on a single exposure also showed the greatest tendency to sign-track during PavCA. Lastly, while sign-trackers produced more USVs during PavCA generally, the cue itself did not elicit

  5. Cue integration vs. exemplar-based reasoning in multi-attribute decisions from memory: A matter of cue representation

    OpenAIRE

    Arndt Broeder; Ben R. Newell; Christine Platzer

    2010-01-01

    Inferences about target variables can be achieved by deliberate integration of probabilistic cues or by retrieving similar cue-patterns (exemplars) from memory. In tasks with cue information presented in on-screen displays, rule-based strategies tend to dominate unless the abstraction of cue-target relations is unfeasible. This dominance has also been demonstrated --- surprisingly --- in experiments that demanded the retrieval of cue values from memory (M. Persson \\& J. Rieskamp, 2009). In th...

  6. Dimension Reduction of Multi-Spectral Satellite Image Time Series to Improve Deforestation Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Lu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, sequential tests for detecting structural changes in time series have been adapted for deforestation monitoring using satellite data. The input time series of such sequential tests is typically a vegetation index (e.g., NDVI, which uses two or three bands and ignores all other bands. Being limited to a vegetation index will not benefit from the richer spectral information provided by newly launched satellites and will bring two bottle-necks for deforestation monitoring. Firstly, it is hard to select a suitable vegetation index a priori. Secondly, a single vegetation index is typically affected by seasonal signals, noise and other natural dynamics, which decrease its power for deforestation detection. A novel multispectral time series change monitoring method that combines dimension reduction methods with a sequential hypothesis test is proposed to address these limitations. For each location, the proposed method automatically chooses a “suitable” index for deforestation monitoring. To demonstrate our approach, we implemented it in two study areas: a dry tropical forest in Bolivia (time series length: 444 with strong seasonality and a moist tropical forest in Brazil (time series length: 225 with almost no seasonality. Our method significantly improves accuracy in the presence of strong seasonality, in particular the temporal lag between disturbance and its detection.

  7. Uncovering gender discrimination cues in a realistic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupuis-Roy, Nicolas; Fortin, Isabelle; Fiset, Daniel; Gosselin, Frédéric

    2009-02-10

    Which face cues do we use for gender discrimination? Few studies have tried to answer this question and the few that have tried typically used only a small set of grayscale stimuli, often distorted and presented a large number of times. Here, we reassessed the importance of facial cues for gender discrimination in a more realistic setting. We applied Bubbles-a technique that minimizes bias toward specific facial features and does not necessitate the distortion of stimuli-to a set of 300 color photographs of Caucasian faces, each presented only once to 30 participants. Results show that the region of the eyes and the eyebrows-probably in the light-dark channel-is the most important facial cue for accurate gender discrimination; and that the mouth region is driving fast correct responses (but not fast incorrect responses)-the gender discrimination information in the mouth region is concentrated in the red-green color channel. Together, these results suggest that, when color is informative in the mouth region, humans use it and respond rapidly; and, when it's not informative, they have to rely on the more robust but more sluggish luminance information in the eye-eyebrow region.

  8. Attentional bias to betel quid cues: An eye tracking study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Chiu, Meng-Chun; Li, Shuo-Heng; Huang, Guo-Joe; Liu, Ling-Jun; Ho, Ming-Chou

    2016-09-01

    The World Health Organization regards betel quid as a human carcinogen, and DSM-IV and ICD-10 dependence symptoms may develop with heavy use. This study, conducted in central Taiwan, investigated whether betel quid chewers can exhibit overt orienting to selectively respond to the betel quid cues. Twenty-four male chewers' and 23 male nonchewers' eye movements to betel-quid-related pictures and matched pictures were assessed during a visual probe task. The eye movement index showed that betel quid chewers were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, t(23) = 3.70, p betel quid chewers' attentional bias. The results demonstrated that the betel quid chewers (but not the nonchewers) were more likely to initially direct their gaze to the betel quid cues, and spent more time and were more fixated on them. These findings suggested that when attention is directly measured through the eye tracking technique, this methodology may be more sensitive to detecting attentional biases in betel quid chewers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Impulsive reactions to food-cues predict subsequent food craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meule, Adrian; Lutz, Annika P C; Vögele, Claus; Kübler, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Low inhibitory control has been associated with overeating and addictive behaviors. Inhibitory control can modulate cue-elicited craving in social or alcohol-dependent drinkers, and trait impulsivity may also play a role in food-cue reactivity. The current study investigated food-cue affected response inhibition and its relationship to food craving using a stop-signal task with pictures of food and neutral stimuli. Participants responded slower to food pictures as compared to neutral pictures. Reaction times in response to food pictures positively predicted scores on the Food Cravings Questionnaire - State (FCQ-S) after the task and particularly scores on its hunger subscale. Lower inhibitory performance in response to food pictures predicted higher FCQ-S scores and particularly those related to a desire for food and lack of control over consumption. Task performance was unrelated to current dieting or other measures of habitual eating behaviors. Results support models on interactive effects of top-down inhibitory control processes and bottom-up hedonic signals in the self-regulation of eating behavior, such that low inhibitory control specifically in response to appetitive stimuli is associated with increased craving, which may ultimately result in overeating. © 2013.

  10. Brain response to prosodic boundary cues depends on boundary position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eHolzgrefe

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prosodic information is crucial for spoken language comprehension and especially for syntactic parsing, because prosodic cues guide the hearer’s syntactic analysis. The time course and mechanisms of this interplay of prosody and syntax are not yet well understood. In particular, there is an ongoing debate whether local prosodic cues are taken into account automatically or whether they are processed in relation to the global prosodic context in which they appear. The present study explores whether the perception of a prosodic boundary is affected by its position within an utterance. In an event-related potential (ERP study we tested if the brain response evoked by the prosodic boundary differs when the boundary occurs early in a list of three names connected by conjunctions (i.e., after the first name as compared to later in the utterance (i.e., after the second name. A closure positive shift (CPS — marking the processing of a prosodic phrase boundary — was elicited only for stimuli with a late boundary, but not for stimuli with an early boundary. This result is further evidence for an immediate integration of prosodic information into the parsing of an utterance. In addition, it shows that the processing of prosodic boundary cues depends on the previously processed information from the preceding prosodic context.

  11. Memory under pressure: secondary-task effects on contextual cueing of visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annac, Efsun; Manginelli, Angela A; Pollmann, Stefan; Shi, Zhuanghua; Müller, Hermann J; Geyer, Thomas

    2013-11-04

    Repeated display configurations improve visual search. Recently, the question has arisen whether this contextual cueing effect (Chun & Jiang, 1998) is itself mediated by attention