WorldWideScience

Sample records for timing charge detector

  1. Charge distribution and response time for a modulation-doped extrinsic infrared detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadek, Victor

    1987-01-01

    The electric charge distribution and response time of a modulation-doped extrinsic infrared detector are determined. First, it is demonstrated theoretically that the photoconductive layer is effectively depleted of ionized majority-impurity charges so that scattering is small and mobility is high for photogenerated carriers. Then, using parameters appropriate to an actual detector, the predicted response time is 10 to the -8th to about 10 to the -9th s, which is much faster than comparable conventional detectors. Thus, the modulation-doped detector design would be valuable for heterodyne applications.

  2. Real-time energy detector for relativistic charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piestrup, A.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of the research is to investigate the use of coherent transition radiation to measure the energy of ultra-relativistic charged particles. The research has possible applications for the detection and identification of these particles. It can also be used for beam diagnostics for both high-repetition-rate and single-pulse, high-current accelerators. The device is low cost and can operate in situ while causing little or no perturbation to the beam. Three such coherent radiators have been constructed and tested at two accelerators using electron beam energies ranging from 50 to 228 MeV. Soft x-ray emission (1 keV to 4 keV) was emitted in a circularly symmetrical annulus with half-angle divergence of 2.5 to 9.0 mr. By selecting foil thickness and spacing, it is possible to design radiators whose angle of emission varies radically over a range of charge-particle energies

  3. Charged corpuscular beam detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikawa, H; Nishikawa, Y

    1970-09-29

    The present invention relates to a charged particle beam detector which prevents transient phenomena disturbing the path and focusing of a charged particle beam travelling through a mounted axle. The present invention provides a charged particle beam detector capable of decreasing its reaction to the charge in energy of the charged particle beam even if the relative angle between the mounted axle and the scanner is unstable. The detector is characterized by mounting electrically conductive metal pieces of high melting point onto the face of a stepped, heat-resistant electric insulating material such that the pieces partially overlap each other and individually provide electric signals, whereby the detector is no longer affected by the beam. The thickness of the metal piece is selected so that an eddy current is not induced therein by an incident beam, thus the incident beam is not affected. The detector is capable of detecting a misaligned beam since the metal pieces partially overlap each other.

  4. High-speed charge-to-time converter ASIC for the Super-Kamiokande detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, H., E-mail: nishino@post.kek.j [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Awai, K.; Hayato, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Okumura, K.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Ishikawa, K.; Minegishi, A. [Iwatsu Test Instruments Corporation, Tokyo 168-8511 (Japan); Arai, Y. [The Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, KEK, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2009-11-11

    A new application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the high-speed charge-to-time converter (QTC) IWATSU CLC101, provides three channels, each consisting of preamplifier, discriminator, low-pass filter, and charge integration circuitry, optimized for the waveform of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). This ASIC detects PMT signals using individual built-in discriminators and drives output timing signals whose width represents the integrated charge of the PMT signal. Combined with external input circuits composed of passive elements, the QTC provides full analog signal processing for the detector's PMTs, ready for further processing by time-to-digital converters (TDCs). High-rate (>1MHz) signal processing is achieved by short-charge-conversion-time and baseline-restoration circuits. Wide-range charge measurements are enabled by offering three gain ranges while maintaining a short cycle time. QTC chip test results show good analog performance, with efficient detection for a single photoelectron signal, four orders of magnitude dynamic range (0.3mVapprox3V; 0.2approx2500pC), 1% charge linearity, 0.2 pC charge resolution, and 0.1 ns timing resolution. Test results on ambient temperature dependence, channel isolation, and rate dependence also meet specifications.

  5. High-speed charge-to-time converter ASIC for the Super-Kamiokande detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishino, H.; Awai, K.; Hayato, Y.; Nakayama, S.; Okumura, K.; Shiozawa, M.; Takeda, A.; Ishikawa, K.; Minegishi, A.; Arai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A new application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC), the high-speed charge-to-time converter (QTC) IWATSU CLC101, provides three channels, each consisting of preamplifier, discriminator, low-pass filter, and charge integration circuitry, optimized for the waveform of a photomultiplier tube (PMT). This ASIC detects PMT signals using individual built-in discriminators and drives output timing signals whose width represents the integrated charge of the PMT signal. Combined with external input circuits composed of passive elements, the QTC provides full analog signal processing for the detector's PMTs, ready for further processing by time-to-digital converters (TDCs). High-rate (>1MHz) signal processing is achieved by short-charge-conversion-time and baseline-restoration circuits. Wide-range charge measurements are enabled by offering three gain ranges while maintaining a short cycle time. QTC chip test results show good analog performance, with efficient detection for a single photoelectron signal, four orders of magnitude dynamic range (0.3mV∼3V; 0.2∼2500pC), 1% charge linearity, 0.2 pC charge resolution, and 0.1 ns timing resolution. Test results on ambient temperature dependence, channel isolation, and rate dependence also meet specifications.

  6. Comparison of charge collection in semiconductor detectors and timing resolution, using a sub-nanosecond transimpedance amplifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudge, A.

    1995-01-01

    A transimpedance amplifier, with a risetime of <600 ps and a noise of <1000 RMS electrons in a 500 MHz bandwidth, has been used for comparison of charge collection times in silicon, gallium arsenide and diamond detectors. The use of silicon detectors as trigger counters/hodoscopes is demonstrated, together with measured timing characteristics. (orig.)

  7. Comparison of charge collection in semiconductor detectors and timing resolution, using a sub-nanosecond transimpedance amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudge, A. [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-06-01

    A transimpedance amplifier, with a risetime of <600 ps and a noise of <1000 RMS electrons in a 500 MHz bandwidth, has been used for comparison of charge collection times in silicon, gallium arsenide and diamond detectors. The use of silicon detectors as trigger counters/hodoscopes is demonstrated, together with measured timing characteristics. (orig.).

  8. Correction of incomplete charge collection in CdTe detectors using the correlation with the rise time distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horovitz, Yossi.

    1994-01-01

    Experimentally and theoretically it was found that there is a correlation between tile pulse rise time and the amount of charge that is collected in the detector contacts. As the rise time becomes longer less charge is collected. In this thesis it has been proven that one can find from this correlation, with the aid of a mathematical function, the theoretical amount of charge that has to be collected in the contacts if no trapping took place. This mathematical function called the correction function, f(t), is dependent on the rise time and the material quality (the trap concentration). In order to find the correction function, a computer, simulation was written. This computer program simulates, based on a phenomenological theoretical model, the charge collection in the detector. This model depends on three parameters (for the holes and for the electrons) that characterized the charge collection quality of the detector. The parameters are: the mean free time to be trapped, the detrapping time and the transit time that depends on the electric field. By a comparison between the simulation output and experimental data, these parameters were found. The correction function was found to be linear with rise time. This conclusion is confirmed experimentally. In this work experiments have been carried out that measured the correlation between two parameters. These experiments measured, for each photon that interacts with the detector, the pulse rise time and the pulse amplitude. A computer program accepts these spectra and substitute each element in the correction function and corrects for the incomplete charge collection. It was found that the correction function does not depend on the energy of the radiation source and source-detector geometry but depends on the material quality. The application of the correction function to the two dimensional spectra gives a correction of tens of percents in charge collection and provides an improvement in the resolution and the peak

  9. Timing performances of diamond detectors with Charge Sensitive Amplifier readout

    CERN Document Server

    Berretti, M; Minafra, N

    2015-01-01

    Research on particle detector based on synthetic diamonds has always been limited by the cost, quality and availability of the sensitive material. Moreover, the read-out electronics requires particular care due to the small number of electron/hole pairs generated by the passage of a minimum ionizing particle. However, high radiation hardness, low leakage currents and high mobility of the electron/hole pairs make them an attractive solution for the time of flight measurements and the beam monitoring of new high energy physics experiments where the severe radiation environment is a limitation for most of the technologies commonly used in particle detection. In this work we report the results on the timing performance of a 4.5x4.5 mm$^{2}$ scCVD sensor read-out using a charge sensitive amplifier. Both sensors and amplifiers have been purchased from CIVIDEC Instrumentation. The measurement have been performed on minimum ionizing pions in two beam tests at the PSI and CERN-PS facilities with two different detec...

  10. A hybrid, broadband, low noise charge preamplifier for simultaneous high resolution energy and time information with large capacitance semiconductor detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goyot, M.

    1975-05-01

    A broadband and low noise charge preamplifier was developed in hybrid form, for a recoil spectrometer requiring large capacitance semiconductor detectors. This new hybrid and low cost preamplifier permits good timing information without compromising energy resolution. With a 500 pF external input capacity, it provides two simultaneous outputs: (i) the faster, current sensitive, with a rise time of 9 nsec and 2 mV/MeV on 50 ohms load, (ii) the lower, charge sensitive, with an energy resolution of 14 keV (FWHM Si) using a RC-CR ungated filter of 2 μsec and a FET input protection [fr

  11. Penetrating heavy ion charge and velocity discrimination with a TimePix-based Si detector (for space radiation applications)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsky, Lawrence S., E-mail: pinsky@uh.edu [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Empl, Anton [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Gutierrez, Andrea [University of Montreal, 2905 Chemin des services, Montreal, Que., H3T 1J4 (Canada); Jakubek, Jan [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2-Albertov (Czech Republic); Kitamura, Hisashi [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Miller, Jack [Space Sciences Laboratory, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Leroy, Claude [University of Montreal, 2905 Chemin des services, Montreal, Que., H3T 1J4 (Canada); Stoffle, Nicholas [University of Houston, 4800 Calhoun Blvd., Houston, TX 77204-5005 (United States); Pospisil, Stanislav [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, Horska 3a/22, CZ-12800 Prague 2-Albertov (Czech Republic); Uchihori, Yukio; Yasuda, Nakahiro [National Institute for Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan); Zeitlin, Cary [Southwest Research Institute, 6220 Culebra Rd., San Antonio, TX 78238-5166 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Exposures were made with Medipix2 TimePix-based Si detectors at the HIMAC facility in Japan to explore the potential for discrimination between tracks with differing charges and energies, but with very similar dE/dx values. Data were taken at 15 deg. increments for a number of different beams including 600 and 800 MeV/A Si, 180 MeV/A Ne and 100 MeV/A O. Data were also obtained for 400 MeV/A Si and 500 MeV/A Fe along with 290 and 180 MeV/A N. The TimePix chips have been calibrated to achieve the maximum resolution. Estimates for the angular resolution for these types of tracks are also possible from these data, which are essential in the development of a TimePix-based dosimetric device for use in a space radiation environment. One of the principal objectives of these data runs was to explore the resolution of TimePix-based Si detectors to discriminate between various ions with different energies and charges, but with similar dE/dx values in Si. Analysis of the images obtained shows the clear differences in the {delta}-ray halos for particles with similar dE/dx values but for differing charges and energies. These measurements are part of an ongoing program to explore the range of capabilities of the TimePix-based detector with respect to dosimetry uses in space.

  12. A new front-end ASIC for GEM detectors with time and charge measurement capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciriello, F.; Corsi, F.; De Robertis, G.; Felici, G.; Loddo, F.; Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G.; Ranieri, A.

    2016-07-01

    A 32 channel CMOS front-end ASIC has been designed to read out the GEM detectors intended to be used for beam monitoring in a new proton-therapy facility currently under construction. In order to improve the spatial resolution by exploiting charge centroid algorithms, the analog channels, based on the classic CSA+shaper architecture, are equipped with a peak detector (PD) which works as an analog memory during the read-out phase. The outputs of the PDs are multiplexed towards an integrated 8-bit subranging ADC. An accurate trigger signal marks the arrival of a valid event and is generated by fast-ORing the outputs of 32 voltage discriminators which compare the shaper outputs with a programmable threshold. The digital part of the ASIC manages the read-out of the channels, the A/D conversion and the configuration of the ASIC. A 100 Mbit/s LVDS serial link is used for data communication. The sensitivity of the analog channel is 15 mV/fC and the dynamic range is 80 fC. The simulated ENC is about 650 e- for a detector capacitance of 10 pF.

  13. A new front-end ASIC for GEM detectors with time and charge measurement capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciciriello, F., E-mail: fabio.ciciriello@poliba.it [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Corsi, F. [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); De Robertis, G. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Felici, G. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via E. Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Loddo, F. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Marzocca, C.; Matarrese, G. [DEI-Politecnico di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy); Ranieri, A. [INFN, Sezione di Bari, Via Orabona 4, I-70125 Bari (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    A 32 channel CMOS front-end ASIC has been designed to read out the GEM detectors intended to be used for beam monitoring in a new proton-therapy facility currently under construction. In order to improve the spatial resolution by exploiting charge centroid algorithms, the analog channels, based on the classic CSA+shaper architecture, are equipped with a peak detector (PD) which works as an analog memory during the read-out phase. The outputs of the PDs are multiplexed towards an integrated 8-bit subranging ADC. An accurate trigger signal marks the arrival of a valid event and is generated by fast-ORing the outputs of 32 voltage discriminators which compare the shaper outputs with a programmable threshold. The digital part of the ASIC manages the read-out of the channels, the A/D conversion and the configuration of the ASIC. A 100 Mbit/s LVDS serial link is used for data communication. The sensitivity of the analog channel is 15 mV/fC and the dynamic range is 80 fC. The simulated ENC is about 650 e{sup −} for a detector capacitance of 10 pF. © 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved.

  14. Charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    A device for detecting the emission of charged particles from a specimen is described. The specimen is placed within an accumulator means which statically accumulates any charged particles emitted from the specimen. The accumulator means is pivotally positioned between a first capacitor plate having a positive electrical charge and a second capacitor plate having a negative electrical charge. The accumulator means is attracted to one capacitor plate and repelled from the other capacitor plate by an amount proportional to the amount and intensity of charged particles emitted by the specimen. (auth)

  15. 'Zero-time' detectors using microchannel plates for charged particle detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The mass identification of the reaction products detected in heavy ion nuclear reactions is generally obtained by the time-of-flight method. This method requires a device giving first the 'start' signal (zero time at the passage of the particle) and then the stop 'signal'. The interest lying in 'zero-time' detectors using a secondary electron emission has been considerably increased with using microchannel electron multipliers. Nevertheless such a device was shown to induce either fluctuations in the distance of flight or the use of detectors of different type in the 'start' and 'stop' channels respectively. In both cases, it remains an ambiguity as the access to time resolution, in the channel including the electron multiplier, is not direct and the effect of the different parameters on this resolution are masked. To palliate this drawback and study the qualities of microchannel plate multipliers in time measurement field, some devices mechanically and electronically symmetric have been developed. The resolution measurement in time of flight is obtained for electrons generated by the same particle and emitted from either side of a thin film. The distances of flight of the electrons on each side of the film are same, and so are the accelerating potentials. The microchannel electron multipliers and the processing electronic units are the same in each channel [fr

  16. ALICE Time Of Flight Detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Alici, A

    2013-01-01

    Charged particles in the intermediate momentum range are identified in ALICE by the Time Of Flight (TOF) detector. The time measurement with the TOF, in conjunction with the momentum and track length measured by the tracking detector, is used to calculate the particle mass.

  17. Real time 2 dimensional detector for charged particle and soft X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, M.; Ito, M.; Endo, T.; Oba, K.

    1995-01-01

    The conventional instruments used in experiments for the soft X-ray region such as X-ray diffraction analysis are X-ray films or imaging plates. However, these instruments are not suitable for real time observation. In this paper, newly developed imaging devices will be presented, which have the capability to take X-ray images in real time with a high detection efficiency. Also, another capability, to take elementary particle tracking images, is described. (orig.)

  18. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-01-01

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig

  19. Simulating detectors dead time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustom, Ibrahim Farog Ibrahim

    2015-06-01

    Nuclear detectors are used in all aspects of nuclear measurements. All nuclear detectors are characterized by their dead time i.e. the time needed by a detector to recover from a previous incident. A detector dead time influences measurements taken by a detector and specially when measuring high decay rate (>) where is the detector dead time. Two models are usually used to correct for the dead time effect: the paralayzable and the non-paralayzable models. In the current work we use Monte Carlo simulation techniques to simulate radioactivity and the effect of dead time and the count rate of a detector with a dead time =5x10 - 5s assuming the non-paralayzable model. The simulation indicates that assuming a non -paralayzable model could be used to correct for decay rate measured by a detector. The reliability of the non-paralayzable model to correct the measured decay rate could be gauged using the Monte Carlo simulation. (Author)

  20. Simulation study of pixel detector charge digitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuyue; Nachman, Benjamin; Sciveres, Maurice; Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Team

    2017-01-01

    Reconstruction of tracks from nearly overlapping particles, called Tracking in Dense Environments (TIDE), is an increasingly important component of many physics analyses at the Large Hadron Collider as signatures involving highly boosted jets are investigated. TIDE makes use of the charge distribution inside a pixel cluster to resolve tracks that share one of more of their pixel detector hits. In practice, the pixel charge is discretized using the Time-over-Threshold (ToT) technique. More charge information is better for discrimination, but more challenging for designing and operating the detector. A model of the silicon pixels has been developed in order to study the impact of the precision of the digitized charge distribution on distinguishing multi-particle clusters. The output of the GEANT4-based simulation is used to train neutral networks that predict the multiplicity and location of particles depositing energy inside one cluster of pixels. By studying the multi-particle cluster identification efficiency and position resolution, we quantify the trade-off between the number of ToT bits and low-level tracking inputs. As both ATLAS and CMS are designing upgraded detectors, this work provides guidance for the pixel module designs to meet TIDE needs. Work funded by the China Scholarship Council and the Office of High Energy Physics of the U.S. Department of Energy under contract DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  1. Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons

    CERN Document Server

    Lecoq, P

    2011-01-01

    Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons in 'Charged Particle Detectors - Particle Detectors and Detector Systems', part of 'Landolt-Börnstein - Group I Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms: Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, Volume 21B1: Detectors for Particles and Radiation. Part 1: Principles and Methods'. This document is part of Part 1 'Principles and Methods' of Subvolume B 'Detectors for Particles and Radiation' of Volume 21 'Elementary Particles' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I 'Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It contains the Subsection '3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons' of Section '3.1 Charged Particle Detectors' of Chapter '3 Particle Detectors and Detector Systems' with the content: 3.1.1 Scintillation Detectors for Charged Particles and Photons 3.1.1.1 Basic detector principles and scintillator requirements 3.1.1.1.1 Interaction of ionizing radiation with scintillator material 3.1.1.1.2 Important scint...

  2. The charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehringer, T.; Hubbeling, L.; Weilhammer, P.; Kemmer, J.; Koetz, U.; Riebesell, M.; Belau, E.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.; Neugebauer, E.; Seebrunner, H.J.; Wylie, A.

    1983-02-01

    The charge collection in silicon detectors has been studied, by measuring the response to high-energy particles of a 20μm pitch strip detector as a function of applied voltage and magnetic field. The results are well described by a simple model. The model is used to predict the spatial resolution of silicon strip detectors and to propose a detector with optimized spatial resolution. (orig.)

  3. The charge collection in single side silicon microstrip detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Eremin, V V; Roe, S; Ruggiero, G; Weilhammer, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The transient current technique has been used to investigate signal formation in unirradiated silicon microstrip detectors, which are similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment at LHC. Nanosecond pulsed infrared and red lasers were used to induce the signals under study. Two peculiarities in the detector performance were observed: an unexpectedly slow rise to the signal induced in a given strip when signals are injected opposite to the strip, and a long duration of the induced signal in comparison with the calculated drift time of charge carriers through the detector thickness - with a significant fraction of the charge being induced after charge carrier arrival. These major effects and details of the detector response for different positions of charge injection are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem and compared with predictions arising from the more commonly studied phenomenon of signal formation in planar pad detectors.

  4. Modeling Charge Collection in Detector Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardage, Donna (Technical Monitor); Pickel, J. C.

    2003-01-01

    A detector array charge collection model has been developed for use as an engineering tool to aid in the design of optical sensor missions for operation in the space radiation environment. This model is an enhancement of the prototype array charge collection model that was developed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) program. The primary enhancements were accounting for drift-assisted diffusion by Monte Carlo modeling techniques and implementing the modeling approaches in a windows-based code. The modeling is concerned with integrated charge collection within discrete pixels in the focal plane array (FPA), with high fidelity spatial resolution. It is applicable to all detector geometries including monolithc charge coupled devices (CCDs), Active Pixel Sensors (APS) and hybrid FPA geometries based on a detector array bump-bonded to a readout integrated circuit (ROIC).

  5. Charge transport properties of CdMnTe radiation detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prokopovich D. A.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe radiation detectors have been described. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements and time resolved current transient measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100 %. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of tellurium inclusions within the detector bulk. Further, it has been shown that the role of tellurium inclusions in degrading charge collection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. The electron drift velocity was calculated from the rise time distribution of the preamplifier output pulses at each measured bias. From the dependence of drift velocity on applied electric field the electron mobility was found to be μn = (718 ± 55 cm2/Vs at room temperature.

  6. Charge collection properties of heavily irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Fretwurst, E.; Lindstroem, G.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2005-01-01

    Detectors processed on epitaxial silicon seem to be a viable solution for the extreme radiation levels in the innermost layers of tracking detectors at upgraded LHC (SLHC). A set of epitaxial pad detectors of 50 and 75μm thicknesses (ρ=50Ωcm) was irradiated with 24GeV/c protons and reactor neutrons up to equivalent fluences of 10 16 cm -2 . Charge collection for minimum ionizing electrons from a 90 Sr source was measured using a charge sensitive preamplifier and a 25ns shaping circuit. The dependence of collected charge on annealing time and operation temperature was studied. Results were used to predict the performance of fine pitch pixel detectors proposed for SLHC

  7. Charge collection properties of heavily irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramberger, G. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)]. E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si; Cindro, V. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Dolenc, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Fretwurst, E. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Lindstroem, G. [University of Hamburg, Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Mandic, I. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuz, M. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Zavrtanik, M. [Institute Jozef Stefan, Jamova 39, SI-1111 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2005-12-01

    Detectors processed on epitaxial silicon seem to be a viable solution for the extreme radiation levels in the innermost layers of tracking detectors at upgraded LHC (SLHC). A set of epitaxial pad detectors of 50 and 75{mu}m thicknesses ({rho}=50{omega}cm) was irradiated with 24GeV/c protons and reactor neutrons up to equivalent fluences of 10{sup 16}cm{sup -2}. Charge collection for minimum ionizing electrons from a {sup 90}Sr source was measured using a charge sensitive preamplifier and a 25ns shaping circuit. The dependence of collected charge on annealing time and operation temperature was studied. Results were used to predict the performance of fine pitch pixel detectors proposed for SLHC.

  8. Rise time spectroscopy in cadmium telluride detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scharager, Claude; Siffert, Paul; Carnet, Bernard; Le Meur, Roger.

    1980-11-01

    By a simultaneous analysis of rise time and pulse amplitude distributions of the signals issued from various cadmium telluride detectors, it is possible to obtain informations about surface and bulk trapping, field distribution within the detectors, as well as charge collection and transport properties. These investigations have been performed on both pure and chlorine doped and materials for various surfaces preparation conditions [fr

  9. Charge transport properties of CdMnTe radiation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim K.; Rafiel, R.; Boardman, M.; Reinhard, I.; Sarbutt, A.; Watt, G.; Watt, C.; Uxa, S.; Prokopovich, D.A.; Belas, E.; Bolotnikov, A.E.; James, R.B.

    2012-04-11

    Growth, fabrication and characterization of indium-doped cadmium manganese telluride (CdMnTe)radiation detectors have been described. Alpha-particle spectroscopy measurements and time resolved current transient measurements have yielded an average charge collection efficiency approaching 100 %. Spatially resolved charge collection efficiency maps have been produced for a range of detector bias voltages. Inhomogeneities in the charge transport of the CdMnTe crystals have been associated with chains of tellurium inclusions within the detector bulk. Further, it has been shown that the role of tellurium inclusions in degrading chargecollection is reduced with increasing values of bias voltage. The electron transit time was determined from time of flight measurements. From the dependence of drift velocity on applied electric field the electron mobility was found to be n = (718 55) cm2/Vs at room temperature.

  10. Subnanosecond timing with ion-implanted detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijken, H.A.; Klein, S.S.; Jacobs, W.; Teeuwen, L.J.H.G.W.; Voigt, M.J.A. de; Burger, P.

    1992-01-01

    The energy resolution of ion-implanted charged particle detectors may be improved by decreasing the thickness of the implanted detector window to minimize energy straggling. Because of the resistance of this layer, however, the timing depends on the position of entry. Two solutions to this conflict between energy resolution and time resolution are studied: evaporating a very thin aluminum layer on the detector window and fabricating a rectangular detector. Both solutions are shown to be successful with a total time resolution in the low subnanosecond region (<200 ps). (orig.)

  11. Charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraner, H.W.; Beuttenmuller, R.; Ludlam, T.; Hanson, A.L.; Jones, K.W.; Radeka, V.; Heijne, E.H.M.

    1982-11-01

    The use of position sensitive silicon detectors as very high resolution tracking devices in high energy physics experiments has been a subject of intense development over the past few years. Typical applications call for the detection of minimum ionizing particles with position measurement accuracy of 10 μm in each detector plane. The most straightforward detector geometry is that in which one of the collecting electrodes is subdivided into closely spaced strips, giving a high degree of segmentation in one coordinate. Each strip may be read out as a separate detection element, or, alternatively, resistive and/or capacitive coupling between adjacent strips may be exploited to interpolate the position via charge division measrurements. With readout techniques that couple several strips, the numer of readout channels can, in principle, be reduced by large factors without sacrificing the intrinsic position accuracy. The testing of individual strip properties and charge division between strips has been carried out with minimum ionizing particles or beams for the most part except in one case which used alphs particless scans. This paper describes the use of a highly collimated MeV proton beam for studies of the position sensing properties of representative one dimensional strip detectors

  12. Charge sharing in silicon pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; Seller, P; Prydderch, M L; O'Shea, V; Bates, R L; Smith, K M; Rahman, M

    2002-01-01

    We used a pixellated hybrid silicon X-ray detector to study the effect of the sharing of generated charge between neighbouring pixels over a range of incident X-ray energies, 13-36 keV. The system is a room temperature, energy resolving detector with a Gaussian FWHM of 265 eV at 5.9 keV. Each pixel is 300 mu m square, 300 mu m deep and is bump bonded to matching read out electronics. The modelling packages MEDICI and MCNP were used to model the complete X-ray interaction and the subsequent charge transport. Using this software a model is developed which reproduces well the experimental results. The simulations are then altered to explore smaller pixel sizes and different X-ray energies. Charge sharing was observed experimentally to be 2% at 13 keV rising to 4.5% at 36 keV, for an energy threshold of 4 keV. The models predict that up to 50% of charge may be lost to the neighbouring pixels, for an X-ray energy of 36 keV, when the pixel size is reduced to 55 mu m.

  13. Silicon charge detector for the CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.H.; Park, N.H.; Nam, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) payload had its first successful flight in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a Long Duration Balloon mission. Its aim is to explore the supernova acceleration limit of cosmic rays, the relativistic gas of protons, electrons and heavy nuclei arriving at Earth from outside of the solar system. The instrument is equipped with several systems to measure charge and energy spectra for Z=1-26 nuclei over the energy range 10 11 -10 15 eV. The Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) is a precision device to measure the charge of incident cosmic rays. The design, construction, integration and preliminary performance of the SCD are detailed in this paper

  14. Fast Timing for Collider Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Advancements in fast timing particle detectors have opened up new possibilities to design collider detectors that fully reconstruct and separate event vertices and individual particles in the time domain. The applications of these techniques are considered for the physics at HL-LHC.

  15. Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2010-04-15

    In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 {mu}m and 150 {mu}m are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} and 4 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -2} showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time {tau}{sub eff}. Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time {tau}{sub eff}(E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 {mu}m thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)

  16. Charge collection and space charge distribution in neutron-irradiated epitaxial silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poehlsen, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    In this work epitaxial n-type silicon diodes with a thickness of 100 μm and 150 μm are investigated. After neutron irradiation with fluences between 10 14 cm -2 and 4 x 10 15 cm -2 annealing studies were performed. CV-IV curves were taken and the depletion voltage was determined for different annealing times. All investigated diodes with neutron fluences greater than 2 x 10 14 cm -2 showed type inversion due to irradiation. Measurements with the transient current technique (TCT) using a pulsed laser were performed to investigate charge collection effects for temperatures of -40 C, -10 C and 20 C. The charge correction method was used to determine the effective trapping time τ eff . Inconsistencies of the results could be explained by assuming field dependent trapping times. A simulation of charge collection could be used to determine the field dependent trapping time τ eff (E) and the space charge distribution in the detector bulk. Assuming a linear field dependence of the trapping times and a linear space charge distribution the data could be described. Indications of charge multiplication were seen in the irradiated 100 μm thick diodes for all investigated fluences at voltages above 800 V. The space charge distribution extracted from TCT measurements was compared to the results of the CV measurements and showed good agreement. (orig.)

  17. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubb, John; Harbour, John; Pavey, Ian

    2011-01-01

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  18. Charged particle discrimination with silicon surface barrier detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coote, G.E.; Pithie, J.; Vickridge, I.C.

    1996-01-01

    The application for materials analysis of nuclear reactions that give rise to charged particles is a powerful surface analytical and concentration depth profiling technique. Spectra of charged particles, with energies in the range 0.1 to 15 MeV, emitted from materials irradiated with beams of light nuclei such as deuterons are measured with silicon surface barrier detectors. The spectra from multi-elemental materials typically encountered in materials research are usually composed of an overlapping superposition of proton, alpha, and other charged particle spectra. Interpretation of such complex spectra would be simplified if a means were available to electronically discriminate between the detector response to the different kinds of charged particle. We have investigated two methods of discriminating between different types of charged particles. The fast charge pulses from a surface barrier detector have different shapes, depending on the spatial distribution of energy deposition of the incident particle. Fast digitisation of the pulses, followed by digital signal processing provides one avenue for discrimination. A second approach is to use a thin transmission detector in front of a thick detector as a detector telescope. For a given incident energy, different types of charged particles will lose different amounts of energy in the thin detector, providing an alternative means of discrimination. We show that both approaches can provide significant simplification in the interpretation of charged particle spectra in practical situations, and suggest that silicon surface barrier detectors having graded electronic properties could provide improved discrimination compared to the current generation of detectors having homogeneous electronic properties. (author).12 refs., 2 tabs., 28 figs

  19. High energy particle detectors utilizing cryogenic charge storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coon, D; Engels, E Jr; Plants, D; Shepard, P F; Yang, Y [Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA); Sopira, M; Papania, R [Westinghouse Research and Development Labs., Monroeville, PA (USA)

    1984-09-15

    The mechanism of cryogenic charge storage as a method of particle detection is reviewed. A description of a simple multielement strip detector operated in this mode is given, and partial results on its operating characteristics presented.

  20. OPTICALLY BASED CHARGE INJECTION SYSTEM FOR IONIZATION DETECTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CHEN, H.; CITTERIO, M.; LANNI, F.; LEITE, M.A.L.; RADEKA, V.; RESCIA, S.; TAKAI, H.

    2001-01-01

    An optically coupled charge injection system for ionization based radiation detectors which allows a test charge to be injected without the creation of ground loops has been developed. An ionization like signal from an external source is brought into the detector through an optical fiber and injected into the electrodes by means of a photodiode. As an application example, crosstalk measurements on a liquid Argon electromagnetic calorimeter readout electrodes were performed

  1. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horacek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    A fast position-sensitive detector was designed for the angle- and energy-selective detection of signal electrons in the scanning low energy electron microscope (SLEEM), based on a thinned back-side directly electron-bombarded charged-coupled device (CCD) sensor (EBCCD). The principle of the SLEEM operation and the motivation for the development of the detector are explained. The electronics of the detector is described as well as the methods used for the measurement of the electron-bombarded gain and of the dark signal. The EBCCD gain of 565 for electron energy 5 keV and dynamic range 59 dB for short integration time up to 10 ms at room temperature were obtained. The energy dependence of EBCCD gain and the detection efficiency are presented for electron energy between 2 and 5 keV, and the integration time dependence of the output signals under dark conditions is given for integration time from 1 to 500 ms

  2. Planned studies of charge collection in non-uniformly irradiated Si and GaAs detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenfeld, A.; Reinhard, M.; Carolan, M.; Kaplan, G.; Lerch, M.; Alexiev, D.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this project is to study the time and amplitude characteristics of silicon ion-implanted detectors non-uniformly irradiated with fast neutrons in order to predict their radiation behaviour in the LHC and space. It is expected in such detectors increases of the charge deficit due to trapping by large scale traps and transient time increases due to the reduction of the mobility. The theoretical model will be modified to describe the charge kinetics in the electrical field of the detector created by a non uniform space charge distribution. Experimental confirmation techniques are needed to develop non uniform predictable damage of silicon detectors using fast neutron sources (accelerators, reactors) and to study peculiarities of the charge transport in different parts of the detector. In parallel to experimental research will be started the theoretical development of the charge transport model for non-uniform distribution of space charge in the depletion layer (Neff). The model will include the linear distribution of Neff(y) along the detector as well as the change of sign of Neff (conversion from n to p type of silicon) inside the detector

  3. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons with the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Barak, L; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    Several non-minimal Higgs scenarios, e.g. Two Higgs Doublet Models (2HDM), predict the existence of charged Higgs bosons. This talk describes searches for charged Higgs bosons produced in top quark decays, in association with a top quark, or decaying to a tau lepton and a neutrino using the Run I data collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  4. Interdefect charge exchange in silicon particle detectors at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    MacEvoy, B; Hall, G; Moscatelli, F; Passeri, D; Santocchia, A

    2002-01-01

    Silicon particle detectors in the next generation of experiments at the CERN Large Hadron Collider will be exposed to a very challenging radiation environment. The principal obstacle to long-term operation arises from changes in detector doping concentration (N/sub eff/), which lead to an increase in the bias required to deplete the detector and hence achieve efficient charge collection. We have previously presented a model of interdefect charge exchange between closely spaced centers in the dense terminal clusters formed by hadron irradiation. This manifestly non-Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism leads to a marked increase in carrier generation rate and negative space charge over the SRH prediction. There is currently much interest in the subject of cryogenic detector operation as a means of improving radiation hardness. Our motivation, however, is primarily to investigate our model further by testing its predictions over a range of temperatures. We present measurements of spectra from /sup 241/Am alpha par...

  5. Charge-coupled-device X-ray detector performance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautz, M. W.; Berman, G. E.; Doty, J. P.; Ricker, G. R.

    1987-01-01

    A model that predicts the performance characteristics of CCD detectors being developed for use in X-ray imaging is presented. The model accounts for the interactions of both X-rays and charged particles with the CCD and simulates the transport and loss of charge in the detector. Predicted performance parameters include detective and net quantum efficiencies, split-event probability, and a parameter characterizing the effective thickness presented by the detector to cosmic-ray protons. The predicted performance of two CCDs of different epitaxial layer thicknesses is compared. The model predicts that in each device incomplete recovery of the charge liberated by a photon of energy between 0.1 and 10 keV is very likely to be accompanied by charge splitting between adjacent pixels. The implications of the model predictions for CCD data processing algorithms are briefly discussed.

  6. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    2016-11-07

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, Micromega detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  7. Electric fields, weighting fields, signals and charge diffusion in detectors including resistive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riegler, W.

    2016-01-01

    In this report we discuss static and time dependent electric fields in detector geometries with an arbitrary number of parallel layers of a given permittivity and weak conductivity. We derive the Green's functions i.e. the field of a point charge, as well as the weighting fields for readout pads and readout strips in these geometries. The effect of 'bulk' resistivity on electric fields and signals is investigated. The spreading of charge on thin resistive layers is also discussed in detail, and the conditions for allowing the effect to be described by the diffusion equation is discussed. We apply the results to derive fields and induced signals in Resistive Plate Chambers, MICROMEGAS detectors including resistive layers for charge spreading and discharge protection as well as detectors using resistive charge division readout like the MicroCAT detector. We also discuss in detail how resistive layers affect signal shapes and increase crosstalk between readout electrodes.

  8. Measurements of charging-up processes in THGEM-based particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, M.; Correia, P. M. M.; Bressler, S.; Coimbra, A. E. C.; Shaked Renous, D.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Breskin, A.

    2018-03-01

    The time-dependent gain variation of detectors incorporating Thick Gas Electron Multipliers (THGEM) electrodes was studied in the context of charging-up processes of the electrode's insulating surfaces. An experimental study was performed to examine model-simulation results of the aforementioned phenomena, under various experimental conditions. The results indicate that in a stable detector's environment, the gain stabilization process is mainly affected by the charging-up of the detector's insulating surfaces caused by the avalanche charges. The charging-up is a transient effect, occurring during the detector's initial operation period; it does not affect its long-term operation. The experimental results are consistent with the outcome of model-simulations.

  9. Cryogenic germanium detectors for dark matter search: Surface events rejection by charge measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broniatowski, A.; Censier, B.; Juillard, A.; Berge, L.

    2006-01-01

    Test experiments have been performed on a Ge detector of the Edelweiss collaboration, combining time-resolved acquisition of the ionization signals with heat measurements. Pulse-shape analysis of the charge signals demonstrates the capability to reject surface events of poor charge collection with energies larger than 50 keV in ionization

  10. The TORCH time-of-flight detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harnew, N., E-mail: Neville.Harnew@physics.ox.ac.uk [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Brook, N. [University College London, Department of Physics & Astronomy, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Castillo García, L. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cussans, D. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Föhl, K.; Forty, R.; Frei, C. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gao, R. [University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, 1 Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gys, T.; Piedigrossi, D. [CERN, PH Department, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rademacker, J.; Ros Garcia, A.; Dijk, M. van [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-11

    The TORCH time-of-flight detector is being developed to provide particle identification between 2 and 10 GeV/c momentum over a flight distance of 10 m. TORCH is designed for large-area coverage, up to 30 m{sup 2}, and has a DIRC-like construction. The goal is to achieve a 15 ps time-of-flight resolution per incident particle by combining arrival times from multiple Cherenkov photons produced within quartz radiator plates of 10 mm thickness. A four-year R&D programme is underway with an industrial partner (Photek, UK) to produce 53×53 mm{sup 2} Micro-Channel Plate (MCP) detectors for the TORCH application. The MCP-PMT will provide a timing accuracy of 40 ps per photon and it will have a lifetime of up to at least 5 Ccm{sup −2} of integrated anode charge by utilizing an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) coating. The MCP will be read out using charge division with customised electronics incorporating the NINO chipset. Laboratory results on prototype MCPs are presented. The construction of a prototype TORCH module and its simulated performance are also described.

  11. Charge Collection Efficiency Simulations of Irradiated Silicon Strip Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Peltola, T.

    2014-01-01

    During the scheduled high luminosity upgrade of LHC, the world's largest particle physics accelerator at CERN, the position sensitive silicon detectors installed in the vertex and tracking part of the CMS experiment will face more intense radiation environment than the present system was designed for. Thus, to upgrade the tracker to required performance level, comprehensive measurements and simulations studies have already been carried out. Essential information of the performance of an irradiated silicon detector is obtained by monitoring its charge collection efficiency (CCE). From the evolution of CCE with fluence, it is possible to directly observe the effect of the radiation induced defects to the ability of the detector to collect charge carriers generated by traversing minimum ionizing particles (mip). In this paper the numerically simulated CCE and CCE loss between the strips of irradiated silicon strip detectors are presented. The simulations based on Synopsys Sentaurus TCAD framework were performed ...

  12. Charged particle detectors made from thin layers of amorphous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, J.R.

    1986-05-01

    A series of experiments was conducted to determine the feasibility of using hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) as solid state thin film charged particle detectors. 241 Am alphas were successfully detected with α-Si:H devices. The measurements and results of these experiments are presented. The problems encountered and changes in the fabrication of the detectors that may improve the performance are discussed

  13. Charge exchange reactions and the efficiency of solar neutrino detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, S.M.; Anantaraman, N.; Love, W.G.

    1994-01-01

    The efficiencies of solar neutrino detectors are often based in part on weak interaction strengths determined by (p,n) and other charge exchange reactions. Although the (p,n) determinations are surprisingly good, it is shown that they may be inaccurate for important Gamow-Teller transitions whose strengths are a small fraction of the sum rule limit. This emphasizes the importance of direct calibration with ν sources for detectors such as 127 I and 115 In where direct β-decay information cannot be obtained. It may also bear on recent attempts to compare charge exchange and beta decay in the mass-37 system

  14. Experimental Characterization of Space Charge in IZIP Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, T; /UC, Berkeley; Pyle, M.; /Stanford U.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Serfass, B.; /UC, Berkeley; Kamaev, O.; /Queen' s U., Kingston; Hertel, S.; Leman, S.W.; /MIT; Brink, P.; /SLAC; Cabrera, B.; /Stanford U.; Sadoulet, B.; /UC, Berkeley

    2012-06-12

    Interleaved ionization electrode geometries offer the possibility of efficient rejection of near-surface events. The CDMS collaboration has recently implemented this interleaved approach for the charge and phonon readout for our germanium detectors. During a recent engineering run, the detectors were found to lose ionization stability quickly. This paper summarizes studies done in order to determine the underlying cause of the instability, as well as possible running modes that maintain stability without unacceptable loss of livetime. Additionally, results are shown for the new version IZIP mask which attempts to improve the overall stability of the detectors.

  15. Space-Charge Effects in a Gas Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D.D.

    2010-12-03

    Discussion of space-charge effects in a photoluminescence cell that will be used as a nondisruptive total energy monitor at the LCLS facility is presented. Regimes where primary photoelectrons will be confined within the X-ray beam aperture are identified. Effects of the space-charge on the further evolution of the electron and ion populations are discussed. Parameters of the afterglow plasma are evaluated. Conditions under which the detector output will be proportional to the pulse energy are defined.

  16. Charge diffusion in CCD X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlov, George G.; Nousek, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Critical to the detection of X-rays by CCDs, is the detailed process of charge diffusion and drift within the device. We reexamine the prescriptions currently used in the modeling of X-ray CCD detectors to provide analytic expressions for the charge distribution over the CCD pixels which are suitable for use in numerical simulations of CCD response. Our treatment results in models which predict charge distributions which are more centrally peaked and have flatter wings than the Gaussian shapes predicted by previous work and adopted in current CCD modeling codes

  17. Charge-coupled device area detector for low energy electrons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáček, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 74, č. 7 (2003), s. 3379 - 3384 ISSN 0034-6748 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/00/P001 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2065902 Keywords : low energy electrons * charged-coupled device * detector Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 1.343, year: 2003

  18. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.A.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, Cora; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Smits, Sander M.; Timmermans, J.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few

  19. Event timing in high purity germanium coaxial detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-08-01

    The timing of gamma ray radiation in systems using high purity coaxial germanium detectors is analyzed and compared to that of systems using Ge(Li) detectors. The analysis takes into account the effect of the residual impurities on the electric field distribution, and hence on the rate of rise of the electrical pulses delivered to the timing module. Conditions under which the electric field distribution could lead to an improvement in timing performance, are identified. The results of the analysis confirm the experimental results published elsewhere and when compared with those for Ge(Li) detectors, which usually operate under conditions of charge carrier velocity saturation, confirm that high purity germanium detectors need not have inferior timing characteristics. A chart is given to provide a quantitative basis on which the trade off between the radius of the detector and its time resolution may be made

  20. Digitization errors using digital charge division positionsensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berliner, R.; Mildner, D.F.R.; Pringle, O.A.

    1981-01-01

    The data acquisition speed and electronic stability of a charge division position-sensitive detector may be improved by using digital signal processing with a table look-up high speed multiply to form the charge division quotient. This digitization process introduces a positional quantization difficulty which reduces the detector position sensitivity. The degree of the digitization error is dependent on the pulse height spectrum of the detector and on the resolution or dynamic range of the system analog-to-digital converters. The effects have been investigated analytically and by computer simulation. The optimum algorithm for position sensing determination using 8-bit digitization and arithmetic has a digitization error of less than 1%. (orig.)

  1. Charge transport in non-irradiated and irradiated silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Roy, P.; Casse, G.L.; Glaser, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Lemeilleur, F.

    1999-01-01

    A model describing the transport of the charge carriers generated in n-type silicon detectors by ionizing particles is presented. In order to reproduce the experimental current pulse responses induced by α and β particles in non-irradiated and irradiated detectors up to fluences (PHI) much beyond the n to p-type inversion, an n-type region 15 μm deep is introduced on the p + side of the diode. This model also gives mobilities which decrease linearly up to fluences of around 5x10 13 particles/cm 2 and beyond, converging to saturation values of about 1000 and 450 cm 2 /V s for electrons and holes, respectively. The charge carrier lifetime degradation with increased fluence, due to trapping, is responsible for a predicted charge collection deficit for β particles and for α particles which is found to agree with direct CCE measurements. (author)

  2. Coordinate-sensitive charged particle detector for spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidorenko V. P.

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors have designed, manufactured and tested a coordinate-sensitive detector for charged particle spectroscopy. The detector can be used in the devices for the elemental analysis of materials, providing simultaneous analysis of all the elemental composition with high sensitivity and precision. The designed device is based on an integrated circuit (IC and a microchannel plate (MCP electron multiplier. The IC is mounted on a ceramic substrate. Ions fall on the MCP mounted above the IC. Giving rise to a pulse which typically exceeds 106 electrons, each ion falls on the detector electrodes and these pulses are counted. In this research, a two stage stack of MCPs (Hamamatsu was used. The MCPs have a channel diameter of 12 μm on a 15 μm pitch. The results of tests carried out in a mass spectrometer are presented. The designed detector is small, light, and low-power.

  3. Charge collection characteristics of a super-thin diamond membrane detector measured with high-energy heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, N.; Makino, T.; Onoda, S.; Ohshima, T.; Kamiya, T.; Kada, W.; Skukan, N.; Grilj, V.; Jaksic, M.; Pomorski, M.

    2014-01-01

    A transmission particle detector based on a super-thin diamond membrane film which can also be used simultaneously as a vacuum window for ion beam extraction has been developed. Charge collection characteristics of a μ-thick diamond membrane detector for high-energy heavy ions including 75 MeV Ne, 150 MeV Ar, 322 MeV Kr, and 454 MeV Xe have been investigated for the first time. Charge collection signals under single particle flux from the thin part are stable and are well distinguishable from background signals. This behavior suggests that the diamond membrane detector could be used for counting single ions. On the other hand, charge collection efficiency is found to decrease with increasing of charge generated in the diamond membrane detector. This suggests that the pulse height defect, which has been previously reported for Si and SiC detectors, also occurs in the diamond membrane detector. (authors)

  4. Monolithic pixel detectors in a 0.13μm CMOS technology with sensor level continuous time charge amplification and shaping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratti, L.; Manghisoni, M.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.; Traversi, G.; Bettarini, S.; Calderini, G.; Cenci, R.; Giorgi, M.; Forti, F.; Morsani, F.; Rizzo, G.

    2006-01-01

    This work studies the feasibility of a new implementation of CMOS monolithic active pixel sensors (MAPS) for applications to charged particle tracking. As compared to standard three MOSFET MAPS, where the charge signal is readout by a source follower, the proposed front-end scheme relies upon a charge sensitive amplifier (CSA), embedded in the elementary pixel cell, to perform charge-to-voltage conversion. The area required for the integration of the front-end electronics is mostly provided by the collecting electrode, which consists of a deep n-type diffusion, available as a shielding frame for n-channel devices in deep submicron, triple well CMOS technologies. Based on the above concept, a chip, which includes several test structures differing in the sensitive element area, has been fabricated in a 0.13μm CMOS process. In this paper, the criteria underlying the design of the pixel level analog processor will be presented, together with some preliminary experimental results demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach

  5. Induced Charge Fluctuations in Semiconductor Detectors with a Cylindrical Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2018-01-01

    Now, compound semiconductors are very appealing for hard X-ray room-temperature detectors for medical and astrophysical applications. Despite the attractive properties of compound semiconductors, such as high atomic number, high density, wide band gap, low chemical reactivity and long-term stability, poor hole and electron mobility-lifetime products degrade the energy resolution of these detectors. The main objective of the present study is in development of a mathematical model of the process of the charge induction in a cylindrical geometry with accounting for the charge carrier trapping. The formulae for the moments of the distribution function of the induced charge and the formulae for the mean amplitude and the variance of the signal at the output of the semiconductor detector with a cylindrical geometry were derived. It was shown that the power series expansions of the detector amplitude and the variance in terms of the inverse bias voltage allow determining the Fano factor, electron mobility lifetime product, and the nonuniformity level of the trap density of the semiconductor material.

  6. Novel Front-end Electronics for Time Projection Chamber Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    García García, Eduardo José

    This work has been carried out in the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) and it was supported by the European Union as part of the research and development towards the European detector the (EUDET) project, specifically for the International Linear Collider (ILC). In particle physics there are several different categories of particle detectors. The presented design is focused on a particular kind of tracking detector called Time Projection Chamber (TPC). The TPC provides a three dimensional image of electrically charged particles crossing a gaseous volume. The thesis includes a study of the requirements for future TPC detectors summarizing the parameters that the front-end readout electronics must fulfill. In addition, these requirements are compared with respect to the readouts used in existing TPC detectors. It is concluded that none of the existing front-end readout designs fulfill the stringent requirements. The main requirements for future TPC detectors are high integration, an increased n...

  7. Time domain electromagnetic metal detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, P.

    1996-01-01

    This presentation focuses on illustrating by case histories the range of applications and limitations of time domain electromagnetic (TDEM) systems for buried metal detection. Advantages claimed for TDEM metal detectors are: independent of instrument response (Geonics EM61) to surrounding soil and rock type; simple anomaly shape; mitigation of interference by ambient electromagnetic noise; and responsive to both ferrous and non-ferrous metallic targets. The data in all case histories to be presented were acquired with the Geonics EM61 TDEM system. Case histories are a test bed site on Molokai, Hawaii; Fort Monroe, Virginia; and USDOE, Rocky Flats Plant. The present limitations of this technology are: discrimination capabilities in terms of type of ordnance, and depth of burial is limited, and ability of resolving targets with small metallic ambient needs to be improved

  8. Ionization detector, electrode configuration and single polarity charge detection method

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z.

    1998-07-07

    An ionization detector, an electrode configuration and a single polarity charge detection method each utilize a boundary electrode which symmetrically surrounds first and second central interlaced and symmetrical electrodes. All of the electrodes are held at a voltage potential of a first polarity type. The first central electrode is held at a higher potential than the second central or boundary electrodes. By forming the first and second central electrodes in a substantially interlaced and symmetrical pattern and forming the boundary electrode symmetrically about the first and second central electrodes, signals generated by charge carriers are substantially of equal strength with respect to both of the central electrodes. The only significant difference in measured signal strength occurs when the charge carriers move to within close proximity of the first central electrode and are received at the first central electrode. The measured signals are then subtracted and compared to quantitatively measure the magnitude of the charge. 10 figs.

  9. Charge-sensitive poly-silicon TFT amplifiers for a-Si:H pixel particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, G.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Hack, M.; Lewis, A.

    1992-04-01

    Prototype charge-sensitive poly-Si TFT amplifiers have been made for the amplification of signals (from an a-Si:H pixel diode used as an ionizing particle detector). They consist of a charge-sensitive gain stage, a voltage gain stage and a source follower output stage. The gain-bandwidth product of the amplifier is ∼ 300 MHz. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of 0.2 pF, it gives a charge-to-voltage gain of ∼ 0.02 mV/electrons with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec. An equivalent noise charge of the front-end TFT is ∼ 1000 electrons for a shaping time of 1 μsec

  10. The charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, V.

    1981-01-01

    The fast charged particle trigger of the CELLO-detector at the PETRA e + e - storage ring (DESY) is a fast software programmable hardware processor. It is using multiwire chamber signals as inputs and takes a decision on charged tracks coming from the interaction region in less than 1 μsec. The input signals are addressing Random Access Memory devices in which the mask schemes of all meaningful physical tracks are stored. The RAM output signals give information about the numbers and shapes of the valid masks found. This information is used for fast event acquisition and online data analysis done by a PDP 11 computer. (orig.)

  11. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector.

    CERN Document Server

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, $Q$, greater than that of the electron, $e$. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0~fb$^{-1}$ and 18.8~fb$^{-1}$ of proton-proton collision data collected at $\\sqrt{s}=7~$TeV and $\\sqrt{s}=8~$TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of-flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to $1e \\leq |Q| \\leq 8e$. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724~GeV are excluded for $|Q|=1e$, $2e$, $3e$, $4e$, $5e$, $6e$, $7e$, and $8e$, respectivel...

  12. Search for multiply charged Heavy Stable Charged Particles in data collected with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veeraraghavan, Venkatesh [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2013-10-30

    Several models of new physics yield particles that are massive, long-lived, and have an electric charge, Q, greater than that of the electron, e. A search for evidence of such particles was performed using 5.0 fb-1 and 18.8 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data collected at √s = 7 TeV and √s = 8 TeV, respectively, with the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider. The distinctive detector signatures of these particles are that they are slow-moving and highly ionizing. Ionization energy loss and time-of- flight measurements were made using the inner tracker and the muon system, respectively. The search is sensitive to 1e ≤ |Q| ≤ 8e. Data were found to be consistent with standard model expectations and upper limits on the production cross section of these particles were computed using a Drell-Yan-like production model. Masses below 517, 687, 752, 791, 798, 778, 753, and 724 GeV are excluded for |Q| = 1e, 2e, 3e, 4e, 5e, 6e, 7e, and 8e, respectively.

  13. The Cherenkov correlated timing detector: materials, geometry and timing constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronstein, D.; Bergfeld, T.; Horton, D.; Palmer, M.; Selen, M.; Thayer, G.; Boyer, V.; Honscheid, K.; Kichimi, H.; Sugaya, Y.; Yamaguchi, H.; Yoshimura, Y.; Kanda, S.; Olsen, S.; Ueno, K.; Tamura, N.; Yoshimura, K.; Lu, C.; Marlow, D.; Mindas, C.; Prebys, E.; Pomianowski, P.

    1996-01-01

    The key parameters of Cherenkov correlated timing (CCT) detectors are discussed. Measurements of radiator geometry, optical properties of radiator and coupling materials, and photon detector timing performance are presented. (orig.)

  14. Spectrometer based on the silicon semiconductor detectors for a study of the two charged particles correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumsztein, Z.W.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Szawlowski, M.

    1974-01-01

    The spectrometer based on the silicon semiconductor detectors for a study of the correlation between two charged particles is described. The results of the time resolution and particles identification measurements are presented. The tests were performed in the proton beam of the JINR synchrocyclotron. (author)

  15. Charge collection and charge pulse formation in highly irradiated silicon planar detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dezillie, B.; Li, Z.; Eremin, V.

    1998-06-01

    The interpretation of experimental data and predictions for future experiments for high-energy physics have been based on conventional methods like capacitance versus voltage (C-V) measurements. Experiments carried out on highly irradiated detectors show that the kinetics of the charge collection and the dependence of the charge pulse amplitude on the applied bias are deviated too far from those predicted by the conventional methods. The described results show that in highly irradiated detectors, at a bias lower than the real full depletion voltage (V fd ), the kinetics of the charge collection (Q) contains a fast and a slow component. At V = V fd *, which is the full depletion voltage traditionally determined by the extrapolation of the fast component amplitude of q versus bias to the maximum value or from the standard C-V measurements, the pulse has a slow component with significant amplitude. This slow component can only be eliminated by applying additional bias that amounts to the real full depletion voltage (V fd ) or more. The above mentioned regularities are explained in this paper in terms of a model of an irradiated detector with multiple regions. This model allows one to use C-V, in a modified way, as well as TChT (transient charge technique) measurements to determine the V fd for highly irradiated detectors

  16. Charge sharing and charge loss in a cadmium-zinc-telluride fine-pixel detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaskin, J.A.; Sharma, D.P.; Ramsey, B.D.

    2003-01-01

    Because of its high atomic number, room temperature operation, low noise, and high spatial resolution a cadmium-zinc-telluride multi-pixel detector is ideal for hard X-ray astrophysical observation. As part of on-going research at MSFC to develop multi-pixel CdZnTe detectors for this purpose, we have measured charge sharing and charge loss for a 4x4 (750 μm pitch), 1 mm thick pixel array and modeled these results using a Monte-Carlo simulation. This model was then used to predict the amount of charge sharing for a much finer pixel array (with a 300 μm pitch). Future work will enable us to compare the simulated results for the finer array to measured values

  17. A scintillation detector set measuring the charge particle energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dore, Chantal.

    1979-01-01

    The S143 experiment, at CERN in 1976, needed both the measurement and the identification of light nuclei, and especially the separation between 3 H and 3 He, over a large energy range. In the chosen solution, in addition to semiconductor detectors, some scintillation counters are used. The non-linearity of light versus energy of charged particles was complicated by the fact there was two different linear laws according to the charge of particles. To obtain good analogic signals over a dynamic range nearly equal to 200, the signals from several dynodes were used simultaneously. In the experimental setting up, each scintillator was put directly in contact with the corresponding photocathode. In spite of a special shielding, some perturbations due to the magnet placed close by required to bring important corrections to linear laws. Thanks to complementary informations from semiconductor counters, a full separation between charge 1 and charge 2 particles was possible. A suitable identification as guaranted among charge 1 particles, but only kinematic constraints gave the possibility to extract 4 He corresponding to the elastic scattering [fr

  18. A fast charge coupled device detector for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Gohil, P.; Kaplan, D.; Makariou, C.; Seraydarian, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    Charge exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy has become a standard diagnostic for Tokamaks. CER measurements have been used to determine spatially and temporally resolved ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal ion rotation speed, impurity density, and radial electric field. Knowledge of the spatial profile and temporal evolution of the electric field shear in the plasma edge is crucial to understanding the physics of the L to H transition. High speed CER measurements are also valuable for edge localized mode studies. Since the 0.52 ms minimum time resolution of our present system is barely adequate to study the time evolution of these phenomena, we have developed a new charge coupled device (CCD) detector system with about a factor of 2 better time resolution. In addition, our existing system detects sufficient photons to utilize the shortest time resolution only under exceptional conditions. The new CCD detector has a quantum efficiency of about 0.65, which is a factor of 7 better than our previous image intensifier-silicon photodiode detector systems. We have also equipped the new system with spectrometers of lower f/number. This combination should allow more routine operation at the minimum integration time, as well as improving data quality for measurements in the divertor-relevant region outside of the separatrix. Construction details, benchmark data, and initial Tokamak measurements for the new system will be presented. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Electric field distribution and the charge collection process in not-ideally compensated coaxial Ge(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymczyk, W.M.; Moszynski, M.

    1978-01-01

    The not-ideally compensated space charge of donors and acceptors in lithium-drifted coaxial Ge(Li) detectors can modify the electric field distribution in the detector depleted volume, and influence in this way the charge collection process. Observations of the capacity, the time of charge collection (transit time), and the relative efficiency characteristics vs. detector bias voltage, showed that in conventional pin + coaaxial structures an undercompensation near the inner p-type core was typical. It was found that such an undercompensation had negligible consequences from the charge collection point of view. However, one case was observed where the modification near the outer electrode was present. In that case the charge pulses with remarkably increased rise-times were observed, as compared to the predictions based on the assumption of the classical, E proportional to 1/r, electric field distribution. The pulses expected from not-ideally compensated detectors were calculated using the Variable Velocity Approximation. The pulses expected from and much better agreement with the observed pulses was obtained. The calculated and observed dependencies of the charge transit times vs. reciprocal of the detector bias voltage exhibited, in the absence of the outer-electrode modification, linear parts. Measurement of their slopes permitted to find experimentally the depletion layer width provided the charge carriers mobility value was known, or vice versa. (Auth.)

  20. Improved charge-coupled device detectors for high-speed, charge exchange spectroscopy studies on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Kaplan, D.H.; Robinson, J.I.; Solomon, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the key ion diagnostics on the DIII-D tokamak. It allows determination of ion temperature, poloidal and toroidal velocity, impurity density, and radial electric field E r throughout the plasma. For the 2003 experimental campaign, we replaced the intensified photodiode array detectors on the central portion of the DIII-D charge exchange spectroscopy system with advanced charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors mounted on faster (f/4.7) Czerny-Turner spectrometers equipped with toroidal mirrors. The CCD detectors are improved versions of the ones installed on our edge system in 1999. The combination improved the photoelectron signal level by about a factor of 20 and the signal to noise by a factor of 2-8, depending on the absolute signal level. The new cameras also allow shorter minimum integration times while archiving to PC memory: 0.552 ms for the slower, lower-read noise (15 e) readout mode and 0.274 ms in the faster, higher-read noise (30 e) mode

  1. Measurements of Charge Sharing Effects in Pixilated CZT/CdTe Detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, charge sharing and charge loss effects in pixilated CZT/CdTe detectors are investigated by measurements. We measured charge sharing effects function of the inter-pixel gap (with same pixel pitch), the photon energy and the detector bias voltage for a large numbers of CZT and Cd......Te pixel detector samples. The results are used for the development of the large area X-ray and Gamma ray detector for the Atmosphere-Space Interactions Monitor (ASIM) planned for the ISS ESA Columbus module. Charge sharing measurements on detector samples with identical size and pixel geometry...

  2. Fast-timing methods for semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.

    1982-03-01

    The basic parameters are discussed which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  3. Fast timing methods for semiconductor detectors. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spieler, H.

    1984-10-01

    This tutorial paper discusses the basic parameters which determine the accuracy of timing measurements and their effect in a practical application, specifically timing with thin-surface barrier detectors. The discussion focusses on properties of the detector, low-noise amplifiers, trigger circuits and time converters. New material presented in this paper includes bipolar transistor input stages with noise performance superior to currently available FETs, noiseless input terminations in sub-nanosecond preamplifiers and methods using transmission lines to couple the detector to remotely mounted preamplifiers. Trigger circuits are characterized in terms of effective rise time, equivalent input noise and residual jitter

  4. Compensation of the detector capacitance presented to charge-sensitive preamplifiers using the Miller effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Inyong, E-mail: iykwon@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Kang, Taehoon, E-mail: thnkang@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wells, Byron T., E-mail: wells@galtresearch.com [Galt LLC, Ypsilanti, MI (United States); D’Aries, Lawrence J., E-mail: lawrence.j.daries.civ@mail.mil [Picatinny Arsenal, Rockaway Township, NJ (United States); Hammig, Mark D., E-mail: hammig@umich.edu [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes an integrated circuit design for a modified charge-sensitive amplifier (CSA) that compensates for the effect of capacitance presented by nuclear radiation detectors and other sensors. For applications that require large area semiconductor detectors or for those semiconductor sensors derived from high permittivity materials such as PbSe, the detector capacitance can degrade the system gain and bandwidth of a front-end preamplifier, resulting in extended rise times and attenuated output voltage signals during pulse formation. In order to suppress the effect of sensor capacitance, we applied a bootstrap technique into a traditional CSA. The technique exploits the Miller effect by reducing the effective voltage difference between the two sides of a radiation detector which minimizes the capacitance presented to the differential common-source amplifier. This new configuration is successfully designed to produce effective gain even at high detector capacitance. The entire circuit, including a core CSA with feedback components and a bootstrap amplifier, are implemented in a 0.18 μm CMOS process with a 3.3 V supply voltage. - Highlights: • A modified CSA was implemented for detector capacitance compensation. • Increasing detector capacitance degrades gain and rise time. • A bootstrap amplifier exploiting the Miller effect is described. • It allows using large area radiation sensors for high radiation-interaction rates. • Intensive noise analyses show that SNR is much better with the technique.

  5. Charge dividing mechanism in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-01-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistances and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C)/sup 1/2), where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  6. Diffusion and drift of charges in semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meidinger, N.

    1991-01-01

    For this analysis, a fully depleteable pn-CCD (a novel, energy and local resolution semiconductor using the drift chamber principle) has been tested for verification at different temperatures, photon energies, and drift times, including theoretical calculations. Experimental results are in good agreement with calculated data, and deviations (≤11%) have been understood to an extent that proposals can be made for improving the accuracy. Charge splitting has been found to be reduced in the case of reduced charge collecting areas, i.e. for example at lower temperatures, or with shorter drift times. This effect is also reduced in the case of larger charge collecting areas (pixels). With the given topology of the cell structure, the charge splitting can be much more strongly suppressed as compared to other X-ray CCD design types. (orig.) [de

  7. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrita, H.

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  8. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Chefdeville, M. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y. [Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Hartjes, F. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)], E-mail: F.Hartjes@nikhef.nl; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands); Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M. [Twente University, Enschede (Netherlands); Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L. [NIKHEF, P.B. 41882, 1009DB Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-12-11

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10{sup 16} hadrons/cm{sup 2}. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO{sub 2}/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC{sub 4}H{sub 10} mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  9. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco Carballo, V. M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; van der Graaf, H.; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S. M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2. The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2/DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature.

  10. Charge amplitude distribution of the Gossip gaseous pixel detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Carballo, V.M.; Chefdeville, M.; Colas, P.; Giomataris, Y.; Graaf, H. van der; Gromov, V.; Hartjes, F.; Kluit, R.; Koffeman, E.; Salm, C.; Schmitz, J.; Smits, S.M.; Timmermans, J.; Visschers, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Gossip gaseous pixel detector is being developed for the detection of charged particles in extreme high radiation environments as foreseen close to the interaction point of the proposed super LHC. The detecting medium is a thin layer of gas. Because of the low density of this medium, only a few primary electron/ion pairs are created by the traversing particle. To get a detectable signal, the electrons drift towards a perforated metal foil (Micromegas) whereafter they are multiplied in a gas avalanche to provide a detectable signal. The gas avalanche occurs in the high field between the Micromegas and the pixel readout chip (ROC). Compared to a silicon pixel detector, Gossip features a low material budget and a low cooling power. An experiment using X-rays has indicated a possible high radiation tolerance exceeding 10 16 hadrons/cm 2 . The amplified charge signal has a broad amplitude distribution due to the limited statistics of the primary ionization and the statistical variation of the gas amplification. Therefore, some degree of inefficiency is inevitable. This study presents experimental results on the charge amplitude distribution for CO 2 /DME (dimethyl-ether) and Ar/iC 4 H 10 mixtures. The measured curves were fitted with the outcome of a theoretical model. In the model, the physical Landau distribution is approximated by a Poisson distribution that is convoluted with the variation of the gas gain and the electronic noise. The value for the fraction of pedestal events is used for a direct calculation of the cluster density. For some gases, the measured cluster density is considerably lower than given in literature

  11. Charge collection efficiency of irradiated silicon detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Dezillie, B.; Li, Z.; Collins, P.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Lourenco, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Pirollo, S.; Granata, V.; Pagano, S.; Chapuy, S.; Dimcovski, Z.; Grigoriev, E.; Bell, W.; Devine, S.R.H.; O'Shea, V.; Smith, K.; Berglund, P.; Boer, W. de; Hauler, F.; Heising, S.; Jungermann, L.; Casagrande, L.; Cindro, V.; Mikuz, M.; Zavartanik, M.; Via, C. da; Esposito, A.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Buontempo, S.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Pagano, S.; Ruggiero, G.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.

    2000-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of heavily irradiated silicon diode detectors was investigated at temperatures between 77 and 200 K. The CCE was found to depend on the radiation dose, bias voltage value and history, temperature, and bias current generated by light. The detector irradiated to the highest fluence 2x10 15 n/cm 2 yields a MIP signal of at least 15000 e - both at 250 V forward bias voltage, and at 250 V reverse bias voltage in the presence of a light-generated current. The 'Lazarus effect' was thus shown to extend to fluences at least ten times higher than was previously studied

  12. First results with the 4π charged particle detector INDRA at GANIL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dayras, R.

    1995-01-01

    After a three year construction period, the 4π charged particle detector INDRA took its first data at GANIL, during the spring of 1993. After a brief description of the detector characteristics, an overview of the ongoing scientific program is given. The general trend of the data are discussed. For the first time, the energy threshold for the full vaporization of a nuclear system into neutrons and Z=1 and 2 isotopes has been determined for the 36 Ar + 58 Ni reaction. For this system, this threshold is observed for an incident energy of about 50 A.MeV. (author). 18 refs., 6 figs

  13. Some recent developments in nuclear charged particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stelzer, H.

    1980-08-01

    The latest developments of large-area, position sensitive gas-filled ionization chambers are described. Multi-wire-proportional chambers as position-sensing and parallel-plate-avalanche counters as time-sensing detectors at low pressure (5 torr) have proven to be useful and reliable instruments in heavy ion physics. Gas (proportional) scintillation counters, used mainly for x-ray spectroscopy, have recently been applied as particle detectors. Finally, a brief description of a large plastic scintillator spectrometer, the Plastic Ball, is given and some of the first test and calibration data are shown

  14. Charge Spreading and Position Sensitivity in a Segmented Planar Germanium Detector (Preprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger, R. A; Gehrels, N; Johnson, W. N; Kurfess, J. D; Phlips, B. P; Tueller, J

    1998-01-01

    The size of the charge cloud collected in a segmented germanium detector is limited by the size of the initial cloud, uniformity of the electric field, and the diffusion of electrons and holes through the detector...

  15. Distribution of electric field and charge collection in silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    1995-01-01

    The distribution of electric field in silicon strip detectors is analyzed in the case of dull depletion as well as for partial depletion. Influence of inhomogeneous electric fields on the charge collection and performances of silicon strip detectors is discussed

  16. GaAs detectors with an ultra-thin Schottky contact for spectrometry of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chernykh, S.V., E-mail: chsv_84@mail.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Chernykh, A.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Didenko, S.I.; Baryshnikov, F.M. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Burtebayev, N. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Britvich, G.I. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Chubenko, A.P. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Guly, V.G.; Glybin, Yu.N. [LLC “SNIIP Plus”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Zholdybayev, T.K.; Burtebayeva, J.T.; Nassurlla, M. [Research Institute of Experimental and Theoretical Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Institute of Nuclear Physics, Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2017-02-11

    For the first time, samples of particle detectors based on high-purity GaAs epilayers with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} and an ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier were fabricated for use in the spectrometry of charged particles and their operating characteristics were studied. The obtained FWHM of 14.2 (for 25 mm{sup 2} detector) and 15.5 keV (for 80 mm{sup 2} detector) on the 5.499 MeV line of {sup 238}Pu is at the level of silicon spectrometric detectors. It was found that the main component that determines the energy resolution of the detector is a fluctuation in the number of collected electron–hole pairs. This allows us to state that the obtained energy resolution is close to the limit for VPE GaAs. - Highlights: • VPE GaAs particle detectors with an active area of 25 and 80 mm{sup 2} were fabricated. • 120 Å ultra-thin Pt Schottky barrier was used as a rectifying contact. • The obtained FWHM of 14.2 keV ({sup 238}Pu) is at the level of Si spectrometric detectors. • Various components of the total energy resolution were analyzed. • It was shown that obtained energy resolution is close to its limit for VPE GaAs.

  17. Time response measurements of LASL diagnostic detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocker, L.P.

    1970-07-01

    The measurement and data analysis techniques developed under the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's detector improvement program were used to characterize the time and frequency response of selected LASL Compton, fluor-photodiode (NPD), and fluor-photomultiplier (NPM) diagnostic detectors. Data acquisition procedures and analysis methods presently in use are summarized, and detector time and frequency data obtained using the EG and G/AEC electron linear accelerator fast pulse (approximately 50 psec FWHM) as the incident radiation driving function are presented. (U.S.)

  18. Charge collection in the Silicon Drift Detectors of the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alessandro, B; Batigne, G; Beolé, S; Biolcati, E; Cerello, P; Coli, S; Corrales Morales, Y; Crescio, E; De Remigis, P; Falchieri, D; Giraudo, G; Giubellino, P; Lea, R; Marzari Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Mazza, G; Ortona, G; Prino, F; Ramello, L; Rashevsky, A; Riccati, L; Rivetti, A; Senyukov, S; Siciliano, M; Sitta, M; Subieta, M; Toscano, L; Tosello, F

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study of charge collection efficiency has been performed on the Silicon Drift Detectors (SDD) of the ALICE experiment. Three different methods to study the collected charge as a function of the drift time have been implemented. The first approach consists in measuring the charge at different injection distances moving an infrared laser by means of micrometric step motors. The second method is based on the measurement of the charge injected by the laser at fixed drift distance and varying the drift field, thus changing the drift time. In the last method, the measurement of the charge deposited by atmospheric muons is used to study the charge collection efficiency as a function of the drift time. The three methods gave consistent results and indicated that no charge loss during the drift is observed for the sensor types used in 99% of the SDD modules mounted on the ALICE Inner Tracking System. The atmospheric muons have also been used to test the effect of the zero-suppression applied to reduce the d...

  19. Resistor-less charge sensitive amplifier for semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelczar, K., E-mail: krzysztof.pelczar@doctoral.uj.edu.pl; Panas, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    A new concept of a Charge Sensitive Amplifier without a high-value resistor in the feedback loop is presented. Basic spectroscopic parameters of the amplifier coupled to a coaxial High Purity Germanium detector (HPGe) are discussed. The amplifier signal input is realized with an n-channel J-FET transistor. The feedback capacitor is discharged continuously by the second, forward biased n-channel J-FET, driven by an RC low–pass filter. Both the analog—with a standard spectroscopy amplifier and a multi-channel analyzer—and the digital—by applying a Flash Analog to Digital Converter—signal readouts were tested. The achieved resolution in the analog and the digital readouts was 0.17% and 0.21%, respectively, at the Full Width at Half Maximum of the registered {sup 60}Co 1332.5 keV gamma line.

  20. Timing properties of a time-of-flight detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Takahide; Yuasa-Nakagawa, Keiko.

    1989-01-01

    The time resolution of a time-of-flight (T.O.F.) detector which consists of a channel plate detector (CPD) with a central hole and a surface barrier detector (SBD) was measured. A time resolution of 80 psec fwhm was obtained for 8.78 MeV alpha particles. The influence on fast timing of the SBD of alpha particles was carefully studied. The plasma delay time and time resolution of the SBD were found to strongly depend on the electric field strength and properties of the SBD. (author)

  1. Charge collection efficiency of GaAs detectors studied with low-energy heavy charged particles

    CERN Document Server

    Bates, R; Linhart, V; O'Shea, V; Pospísil, S; Raine, C; Smith, K; Sinor, M; Wilhelm, I

    1999-01-01

    Epitaxially grown GaAs layers have recently been produced with sufficient thickness and low enough free carrier concentration to permit their use as radiation detectors. Initial tests have shown that the epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor as the depletion behaviour follows the square root dependency on the applied bias. This article presents the results of measurements of the growth of the active depletion depth with increasing bias using low-energy protons and alpha particles as probes for various depths and their comparison to values extrapolated from capacitance measurements. From the proton and alpha particle spectroscopic measurements, an active depth of detector material that collects 100% of the charge generated inside it was determined. The consistency of these results with independent capacitance measurements supports the idea that the GaAs epi-material behaves as a classical semiconductor. (author)

  2. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20–25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30–60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p + implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO 2 interface charge densities ( Q f ) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p + implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Q f , that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  3. Simulation study of signal formation in position sensitive planar p-on-n silicon detectors after short range charge injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltola, T.; Eremin, V.; Verbitskaya, E.; Härkönen, J.

    2017-09-01

    Segmented silicon detectors (micropixel and microstrip) are the main type of detectors used in the inner trackers of Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments at CERN. Due to the high luminosity and eventual high fluence of energetic particles, detectors with fast response to fit the short shaping time of 20-25 ns and sufficient radiation hardness are required. Charge collection measurements carried out at the Ioffe Institute have shown a reversal of the pulse polarity in the detector response to short-range charge injection. Since the measured negative signal is about 30-60% of the peak positive signal, the effect strongly reduces the CCE even in non-irradiated detectors. For further investigation of the phenomenon the measurements have been reproduced by TCAD simulations. As for the measurements, the simulation study was applied for the p-on-n strip detectors similar in geometry to those developed for the ATLAS experiment and for the Ioffe Institute designed p-on-n strip detectors with each strip having a window in the metallization covering the p+ implant, allowing the generation of electron-hole pairs under the strip implant. Red laser scans across the strips and the interstrip gap with varying laser diameters and Si-SiO2 interface charge densities (Qf) were carried out. The results verify the experimentally observed negative response along the scan in the interstrip gap. When the laser spot is positioned on the strip p+ implant the negative response vanishes and the collected charge at the active strip increases respectively. The simulation results offer a further insight and understanding of the influence of the oxide charge density in the signal formation. The main result of the study is that a threshold value of Qf, that enables negligible losses of collected charges, is defined. The observed effects and details of the detector response for different charge injection positions are discussed in the context of Ramo's theorem.

  4. Dead time of dual detector tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    A theory of the dead time for the dual detector nuclear tool with the analogue signal transmission is given in the paper. At least two different times exist in such tools: the dead time of detectors (for final computation they assumed identical to each other) and the dead time of the signal transmission set-up. A method of two radioactive sources is proposed to measure these two different dead times. When the times used for measuring every countrate needed in the dead time determination algorithm are taken into account, the statistical accuracy of the dead time determination can be obtained. These estimations are performed by the computer simulation method. Two codes have been designed: DEADT2D (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors) and DEADT2DS (DEAD Time for 2 Detectors with Statistics). The first code calculates the dead time based on the recorded countrates only, the second is doing a 'simulation job' and provides information on the statistical distribution of the observed dead times. The theory and the numerical solutions were checked both by the simulation calculations and by the experiments performed with the ODSN-102 tool (the experiments were performed by T. Zorski). (Author)

  5. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene Layers in Gas Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Thuiner, P.; Jackman, R.B.; Müller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.A.; van Stenis, M.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical, electrical and optical properties. For the first time graphene layers suspended on copper meshes were installed into a gas detector equipped with a gaseous electron multiplier. Measurements of low energy electron and ion transfer through graphene were conducted. In this paper we describe the sample preparation for suspended graphene layers, the testing procedures and we discuss the preliminary results followed by a prospect of further applications.

  6. Charged particle spectroscopy with solid state nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunyadi, I.; Somogyi, G.

    1984-01-01

    Some of earlier and recent methods for differentiation of charged particles according to their energy, based on the use of polymeric etch-track detectors (CN, CA, PC and CR-39) are outlined. The principle of three track methods suitable for nuclear spectroscopy is discussed. These are based on the analysis of the diameter, surface size and shape of etch-track 'cones' produced by charged particles in polymers, after using shorter or longer chemical etching processes. Examples are presented from the results of the last decade in ATOMKI, Debrecen, Hungary, concerning the application of nuclear track spectroscopy to different low-energy nuclear reaction studies, angular distribution and excitation function measurements. These involve the study of (d,α) reaction on sup(14)N, sup(19)F and sup(27)Al nuclei, (sup(3)He,α) reactions on sup(15)N, (p,α) reaction on sup(27)Al and the process sup(12)C(sup(12)C, sup(8)Be)sup(16)O. (author)

  7. Effects of Te inclusions on charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Yaxu; Rong, Caicai; Xu, Yadong; Shen, Hao; Zha, Gangqiang; Wang, Ning; Lv, Haoyan; Li, Xinyi; Wei, Dengke; Jie, Wanqi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • This work reveals the behaviors of Te inclusion in affecting charge-carrier transport properties in CdZnTe detectors for the first time and analysis the mechanism therein. • The results show that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from the Hecht rule. • This phenomenon is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. • A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high-density localized defects, say Te inclusions, on the charge collection efficiency. • We believe that this research has wide appeal to analyze the macroscopic defects and their influence on charge transport properties in semiconductor radiation detectors. - Abstract: The influence of tellurium (Te) inclusions on the charge collection efficiency in cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe or CZT) detectors has been investigated using ion beam induced charge (IBIC) technique. Combining the analysis of infrared transmittance image, most of the low charge collection areas in the IBIC images prove the existence of Te inclusions. To further clarify the role of Te inclusions on charge transport properties, bias dependent local IBIC scan was performed on Te inclusion related regions from 20 V to 500 V. The result shows that charge collection efficiencies in Te inclusion degraded regions experience fast ascent under low biases and slow descent at high applied biases, which deviates from Hecht rule. This behavior is attributed to the competitive influence of two mechanisms under different biases, namely charge carrier trapping due to uniformly distributed point defects and Te inclusion induced transient charge loss. A modified Hecht equation is further proposed to explain the effects of high

  8. The GOTTHARD charge integrating readout detector: design and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mozzanica, A; Bergamaschi, A; Dinapoli, R; Greiffenberg, D; Henrich, B; Johnson, I; Valeria, R; Schmitt, B; Xintian, S; Graafsma, H; Lohmann, M

    2012-01-01

    A charge integrating readout ASIC (Application Specific Integrated Circuit) for silicon strip sensors has been developed at PSI in collaboration with DESY. The goal of the project is to provide a charge integrating readout system able to cope with the pulsed beam of XFEL machines and at the same time to retain the high dynamic range and single photon resolution performances typical for photon counting systems. The ASIC, designed in IBM 130 nm CMOS technology, takes advantage of its three gain stages with automatic stage selection to achieve a dynamic range of 10000 12 keV photons and a noise better than 300 e.n.c.. The 4 analog outputs of the ASIC are optimized for speed, allowing frame rates higher than 1 MHz, without compromises on linearity and noise performances. This work presents the design features of the ASIC, and reports the characterization results of the chip itself.

  9. A study of CR-39 plastic charged-particle detector replacement by consumer imaging sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaud-Ramos, K. O.; Freeman, M. S.; Wei, W.; Guardincerri, E.; Bacon, J. D.; Cowan, J.; Durham, J. M.; Huang, D.; Gao, J.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Morley, D. J.; Morris, C. L.; Poulson, D. C.; Wang, Zhehui, E-mail: zwang@lanl.gov [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Consumer imaging sensors (CIS) are examined for real-time charged-particle detection and CR-39 plastic detector replacement. Removing cover glass from CIS is hard if not impossible, in particular for the latest inexpensive webcam models. We show that $10-class CIS are sensitive to MeV and higher energy protons and α-particles by using a {sup 90}Sr β-source with its cover glass in place. Indirect, real-time, high-resolution detection is also feasible when combining CIS with a ZnS:Ag phosphor screen and optics. Noise reduction in CIS is nevertheless important for the indirect approach.

  10. The ATLAS High-Granularity Timing Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Sacerdoti, Sabrina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    In the high luminosity phase of the LHC, scheduled to start in 2026, the instantaneous luminosity will be increased to up to $\\mathcal{L} = 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1}$. As a consequence, the detectors will be faced with challenging conditions, in particular the increase of pile-up: an average of 200 interactions per bunch crossing are expected, corresponding to an average interaction density of 1.8 collisions/mm. The reconstruction performance will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region of the ATLAS detector, especially for jets and transverse missing energy. The addition of timing information in forward objects through the High-Granularity Timing Detector will help to recover the performance of these regions to levels similar to the ones expected in the central region of the detector. It will also provide a bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurement. This talk will be focused on the developments surrounding the LGAD sensors and front-end electronics, which are aimed to achieve a low time res...

  11. Validity of spherical approximations of initial charge cloud shape in silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Cheng; Danielsson, Mats; Bornefalk, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Spherical approximation has been used extensively in low-energy X-ray imaging to represent the initial charge cloud produced by photon interactions in silicon detectors, mainly because of its simplicity. However, for high-energy X-rays, where the initial charge distribution is as important as the diffusion process, the spherical approximation will not result in a realistic detector response. In this paper, we present a bubble-line model that simulates the initial charge cloud in silicon detectors for photons in the energy range of medical imaging. An initial charge cloud can be generated by sampling the center of gravity and the track size from statistical distributions derived from Monte Carlo generated tracks and by distributing a certain proportion of photon energy into a bubble (68%) and a line portion uniformly. The simulations of detector response demonstrate that the new model simulates the detector response accurately and corresponds well to Monte Carlo simulation.

  12. Fast timing readout for silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jhingan, A.; Saneesh, N.; Kumar, M.

    2016-01-01

    The development and performance of a 16 channel hybrid fast timing amplifier (FTA), for extracting timing information from silicon strip detectors (SSD), is described. The FTA will be used in a time of flight (TOF) measurement, in which one SSD is used to obtain the ion velocity (A) as well as the energy information of a scattered particle. The TOF information with a thin transmission SSD, acting as ΔE detector (Z) in a detector telescope, will provide a unique detection system for the identification of reaction products in the slowed down beam campaign of low energy branch (LEB) at NUSTAR-FAIR. Such a system will also provide large solid angle coverage with ~ 100% detection efficiency, and adequate segmentation for angular information. A good timing resolution (≤ 100 ps) enables to have shorter flight paths, thus a closely packed 4π array should be feasible. Preamplifiers for energy readout in SSD are easily available. A major constraint with SSDs is the missing high density multichannel preamplifiers which can provide both fast timing as well as energy. Provision of both timing and energy processing, generally makes circuit bulky, with higher power consumption, which may not be suitable in SSD arrays. In case of DSSSD, the problem was overcome by using timing from one side and energy from the other side. A custom designed 16 channel FTA has been developed for DSSSD design W from Micron Semiconductors, UK

  13. Charge collection characterization of a 3D silicon radiation detector by using 3D simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliopuska, J; Orava, R

    2007-01-01

    In 3D detectors, the electrodes are processed within the bulk of the sensor material. Therefore, the signal charge is collected independently of the wafer thickness and the collection process is faster due to shorter distances between the charge collection electrodes as compared to a planar detector structure. In this paper, 3D simulations are used to assess the performance of a 3D detector structure in terms of charge sharing, efficiency and speed of charge collection, surface charge, location of the primary interaction and the bias voltage. The measured current pulse is proposed to be delayed due to the resistance–capacitance (RC) product induced by the variation of the serial resistance of the pixel electrode depending on the depth of the primary interaction. Extensive simulations are carried out to characterize the 3D detector structures and to verify the proposed explanation for the delay of the current pulse. A method for testing the hypothesis experimentally is suggested.

  14. Charge collection efficiency in a semiconductor radiation detector with a non-constant electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, K.S.; Lund, J.C.; Olschner, F.

    1990-01-01

    The development of improved semiconductor radiation detectors would be facilitated by a quantitative model that predicts the performance of these detectors as a function of material characteristics and device operating parameters. An accurate prediction of the pulse height spectrum from a radiation detector can be made if both the noise and the charge collection properties of the detector are understood. The noise characteristics of semiconductor radiation detectors have been extensively studied. The effect of noise can be closely simulated by convoluting the noise-free pulse height spectrum with a Gaussian function. Distortion of semiconductor detector's pulse height spectrum from charge collection effects is more complex than the effects of noise and is more difficult to predict. To compute these distortions it is necessary to know how the charge collection efficiency η varies as a function of position within the detector x. These effects are shown. This problem has been previously solved for planar detectors with a constant electric field, for the case of spherical detectors, and for coaxial detectors. In this paper the authors describe a more general solution to the charge collection problem which includes the case of a non-constant electric field in a planar geometry

  15. Discrimination of Charged Particles in a Neutral Beam Line by Using a Solid Scintillation Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, Jong-Kwan; Ko, Jewou; Liu, Dong [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    In the past several decades, many studies have been conducted to search for non-baryonic dark matter, such as weakly interactive massive particles (WIMPs). In the search for WIMPs, charged particles incident on the detector are background particles because WIMPs are neutral. Charged particles originate from various sources, such as cosmic rays and laboratory materials surrounding the main detector. Therefore, a veto that discriminates charged particles can improve the particle detection efficiency of the entire experiment for detecting WIMPs. Here, we investigate in the thickness range of 1 mm to 5 mm, the optimal thickness of a polystyrene scintillator as a charged particle veto detector. We found that 3-mm-thick polystyrene provides the best performance to veto charged particles and the charged-particle background in the search for the WIMP signal. Furthermore, we fabricated 3-mm-thick and 5-mm-thick polystyrene charged particle veto detectors that will be used in an underground laboratory in the search for WIMP dark matter. After exposing those detectors are the actual beam line, we compared the rate of charged particles measured using those detectors and the rate simulated through a Monte Carlo simulation.

  16. Neutron detection performance of silicon carbide and diamond detectors with incomplete charge collection properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodgson, M., E-mail: michael.hodgson@becq.co.uk [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Lohstroh, A.; Sellin, P. [Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Thomas, D. [NPL, Teddington TW11 0LW (United Kingdom)

    2017-03-01

    The benefits of neutron detection and spectroscopy with carbon based, wide band gap, semiconductor detectors have previously been discussed within the literature. However, at the time of writing there are still limitations with these detectors related to availability, cost, size and perceived quality. This study demonstrates that lower quality materials—indicated by lower charge collection efficiency (CCE), poor resolution and polarisation effect—available at wafer scale and lower cost, can fulfil requirements for fast neutron detection and spectroscopy for fluxes over several orders of magnitude, where only coarse energy discrimination is required. In this study, a single crystal diamond detector (D-SC, with 100% CCE), a polycrystalline diamond (D-PC, with ≈4% CCE) and semi-insulating silicon carbide (SiC-SI, with ≈35% CCE) have been compared for alpha and fast neutron performance. All detectors demonstrated alpha induced polarisation effects in the form of a change of both energy peak position and count rate with irradiation time. Despite these operational issues the ability to detect fast neutrons and distinguish neutron energies was observed. This performance was demonstrated over a wide dynamic range (500–40,000 neutrons/s), with neutron induced polarisation being demonstrated in D-PC and SiC-SI at high fluxes.

  17. Equilibrium charge fluctuations of a charge detector and its effect on a nearby quantum dot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Tijerina, David; Vernek, Edson; Ulloa, Sergio

    2014-03-01

    We study the Kondo state of a spin-1/2 quantum dot (QD), in close proximity to a quantum point contact (QPC) charge detector near the conductance regime of the 0.7 anomaly. The electrostatic coupling between the QD and QPC introduces a remote gate on the QD level, which varies with the QPC gate voltage. Furthermore, models for the 0.7 anomaly [Y. Meir et al., PRL 89,196802(2002)] suggest that the QPC lodges a Kondo-screened level with charge-correlated hybridization, which may be also affected by capacitive coupling to the QD, giving rise to a competition between the two Kondo ground states. We model the QD-QPC system as two capacitively-coupled Kondo impurities, and explore the zero-bias transport of both the QD and the QPC for different local gate voltages and coupling strengths, using the numerical renormalization group and variational methods. We find that the capacitive coupling produces a remote gating effect, non-monotonic in the gate voltages, which reduces the gate voltage window for Kondo screening in either impurity, and which can also drive a quantum phase transition out of the Kondo regime. Our study is carried out for intermediate coupling strengths, and as such is highly relevant to experiments; particularly, to recent studies of decoherence effects on QDs. Supported by MWN/CIAM and NSF PIRE.

  18. A fast CCD detector for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Gohil, P.

    1996-05-01

    Charge Exchange Recombination (CER) spectroscopy has become a standard diagnostic for tokamaks. CER measurements have been used to determine spatially and temporally resolved ion temperature, toroidal and poloidal ion rotation speed, impurity density and radial electric field. Knowledge of the spatial profile and temporal evolution of the electric field shear in the plasma edge is crucial to understanding the physics of the L to H transition. High speed CER measurements are also valuable for Edge Localized Mode (ELM) studies. Since the 0.52 ms minimum time resolution of our present system is barely adequate to study the time evolution of these phenomena, we have developed a new CCD detector system with about a factor of two better time resolution. In addition, our existing system detects sufficient photons to utilize the shortest time resolution only under exceptional conditions. The new CCD detector has a quantum efficiency of about 0.65, which is a factor of 7 better than our previous image intensifier-silicon photodiode detector systems. We have also equipped the new system with spectrometers of lower f/number. This combination should allow more routine operation at the minimum integration time, as well as improving data quality for measurements in the divertor-relevant region outside of the separatrix. Construction details, benchmark data and initial tokamak measurements for the new system will be presented

  19. Fast reconstruction of trajectories of charged muons recorded by the MUCH detector in the CBM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ablyazimov, T.O.; Ivanov, V.V.

    2017-01-01

    The CBM experiment is currently being developed in GSI (Darmstadt, Germany) at the FAIR accelerator complex by an international collaboration including JINR. One of the main goals of the experiment is a research of charmonium production process in nucleus-nucleus collisions at high energies. The registration of such decays as J/ψ → μ"+μ"− is planned to be carried out in real time. The current paper presents an algorithm suitable for fast reconstruction of trajectories of charged muons from J/ψ decays recorded by the MUCH detector. [ru

  20. Lower bounds on scintillation detector timing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinthorne, N.H.; Rogers, W.L.; Hero, A.O. III.; Petrick, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    Fundamental method-independent limits on the timing performance of scintillation detectors are useful for identifying regimes in which either present timing methods are nearly optimal or where a considerable performance gain might be realized using better pulse processing techniques. Several types of lower bounds on mean-squared timing error (MSE) performance have been developed and applied to scintillation detectors. The simple Cramer-Rao (CR) bound can be useful in determining the limiting MSE for scintillators having a relatively high rate of photon problction such as BaF 2 and NaI(Tl); however, it tends to overestimate the achievalbe performance for scintillators with lower rates such as BGO. For this reason, alternative bounds have been developed using rate-distortion theory or by assuming that the conversion of energy to scintillation light must pass through excited states which have exponential lifetime densities. The bounds are functions of the mean scintillation pulse shape, the scintillation intensity, and photodetector characteristics; they are simple to evaluate and can be used to conveniently assess the limiting timing performance of scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  1. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-04-17

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN{sub ch}/d{eta}) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of {radical}(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of {radical}(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  2. Measurement of the charged-particle multiplicity in proton-proton collisions with the ALICE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete

    2009-01-01

    This thesis has introduced the theoretical framework to describe multiple-particle production. The functioning of two event generators, Pythia and Phojet, as well as theoretical descriptions of the charged-particle multiplicity have been discussed. A summary of pseudorapidity-density (dN ch /dη) and multiplicity-distribution measurements of charged particles has been presented. Existing results have been shown in an energy range of √(s) = 6GeV to 1.8TeV from bubble chamber experiments and detectors at the ISR, Sp anti pS, and Tevatron. The validity of the introduced models was reviewed and the behavior as function of √(s) was discussed. Analysis procedures for two basic measurements with ALICE, the pseudorapidity density and the multiplicity distribution of charged particles, have been developed. The former allows corrections on a bin-by-bin basis, while the latter requires unfolding of the measured distribution. The procedures have been developed for two independent subdetectors of ALICE, the Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) and the Time-Projection Chamber (TPC). This allows the comparison of the analysis result in the overlapping regions as an independent cross-check of the measured distribution. Their implementation successfully reproduces different assumed spectra. The procedures have been extensively tested on simulated data using two different event generators, Pythia and Phojet. A comprehensive list of systematic uncertainties was evaluated. Some of these uncertainties still require measured data to verify or extract their magnitude. (orig.)

  3. Charged particle multiplicities in pp interactions at \\sqrt{s} = 2.36$ TeV measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    In December 2009 data at the centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s) = 2.36 TeV were recorded with the ATLAS detector. This was the first time the LHC had been operated at this beam energy and stable beam conditions were not declared. Therefore, to ensure detector safety, the silicon strip detector was in standby mode with reduced sensor bias voltage, which makes track reconstruction more difficult. Two complementary methods were developed to measure the charged particle multiplicity distributions and, in particular, estimate the track reconstruction efficiency under these challenging conditions. The first uses the full Inner Detector information and corrects the efficiency from the simulation using a data-driven technique. The second uses tracks reconstructed from pixel detector information only. The charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity are measured for events with at least one charged particle in the kinematic range |eta| 500 MeV. The average charged particle m...

  4. 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD) for charged particle detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignetti, M. M.; Calmon, F.; Pittet, P.; Pares, G.; Cellier, R.; Quiquerez, L.; Chaves de Albuquerque, T.; Bechetoille, E.; Testa, E.; Lopez, J.-P.; Dauvergne, D.; Savoy-Navarro, A.

    2018-02-01

    Single-Photon Avalanche Diodes (SPADs) are p-n junctions operated in Geiger Mode by applying a reverse bias above the breakdown voltage. SPADs have the advantage of featuring single photon sensitivity with timing resolution in the picoseconds range. Nevertheless, their relatively high Dark Count Rate (DCR) is a major issue for charged particle detection, especially when it is much higher than the incoming particle rate. To tackle this issue, we have developed a 3D Silicon Coincidence Avalanche Detector (3D-SiCAD). This novel device implements two vertically aligned SPADs featuring on-chip electronics for the detection of coincident avalanche events occurring on both SPADs. Such a coincidence detection mode allows an efficient discrimination of events related to an incoming charged particle (producing a quasi-simultaneous activation of both SPADs) from dark counts occurring independently on each SPAD. A 3D-SiCAD detector prototype has been fabricated in CMOS technology adopting a 3D flip-chip integration technique, and the main results of its characterization are reported in this work. The particle detection efficiency and noise rejection capability for this novel device have been evaluated by means of a β- strontium-90 radioactive source. Moreover the impact of the main operating parameters (i.e. the hold-off time, the coincidence window duration, the SPAD excess bias voltage) over the particle detection efficiency has been studied. Measurements have been performed with different β- particles rates and show that a 3D-SiCAD device outperforms single SPAD detectors: the former is indeed capable to detect particle rates much lower than the individual DCR observed in a single SPAD-based detectors (i.e. 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes lower).

  5. Charge conjugation and internal space time symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavsic, M.; Recami, E.

    1982-01-01

    The relativistic framework in which fundamental particles are regarded as extended objects is adopted. Then it is shown than the geometrical operation which reflects the internal space time particle is equivalent to the operation C which inverts the sign of all its additive charges

  6. Timing of gamma rays in coaxial germanium detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-01-01

    A study is reported on the timing uncertainty in gamma ray coaxial germanium detector systems. The work deals with the zero cross over method which is widely used to reduce the dependence of the instant of timing on the radiation energy absorbed and on the position within the detector at which absorption takes place. It is found that the amplitude risetime compensated (ARC) method gives, under normal conditions, the best resolution at a specific energy. For higher energies, the resolution improves and there is no shift of the mean instant of timing. The method is therefore well suited for wide energy coverage. The parameters involved in implementing an ARC system for optimum performance at a specific energy are identified in terms of the preamplifier noise level and risetime. A trade off can be made between the resolutions at high and at low energies. The time resolution attained is given by means of a series of charts which use normalized dimensionless variables for ready application to any given case. Lithium compensated Ge detectors which normally operate under conditions of velocity saturation of the charge carriers by applying sufficient bias voltage create an electric field in excess of 1 kV/cm throughout the depleted region. High purity Ge detectors where velocity saturation may not be reached within certain parts of the depleted region are studied. Special attention is given to the probability of pulses being incorrectly timed because of their slow rise or small magnitude. Such incorrect timing is energy-dependent and results in a noticeable distortion of the timing spectrum that relates to a wide energy range. Limitations on system parameters to keep the probability of incorrect timing below a specified fraction are given

  7. TORCH—a Cherenkov based time-of-flight detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dijk, M.W.U. van, E-mail: m.vandijk@bristol.ac.uk [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Brook, N.H. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Castillo García, L. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Laboratory for High Energy Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Cowie, E.N.; Cussans, D. [H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); D' Ambrosio, C. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Fopma, J. [Denys Wilkinson Laboratory, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Forty, R.; Frei, C. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Gao, R. [Denys Wilkinson Laboratory, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Gys, T. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Harnew, N.; Keri, T. [Denys Wilkinson Laboratory, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Piedigrossi, D. [European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN), CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2014-12-01

    TORCH is an innovative high-precision time-of-flight system to provide particle identification in the difficult intermediate momentum region up to 10 GeV/c. It is also suitable for large-area applications. The detector provides a time-of-flight measurement from the imaging of Cherenkov photons emitted in a 1 cm thick quartz radiator. The photons propagate by total internal reflection to the edge of the quartz plate and are then focused onto an array of photon detectors at the periphery. A time-of-flight resolution of about 10–15 ps per incident charged particle needs to be achieved to allow a three sigma kaon-pion separation up to 10 GeV/c momentum for the TORCH located 9.5 m from the interaction point. Given ∼30 detected photons per incident charged particle, this requires measuring the time-of-arrival of individual photons to about 70 ps. This paper will describe the design of a TORCH prototype involving a number of ground-breaking and challenging techniques.

  8. A charged aerosol detector/chemiluminescent nitrogen detector/liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry system for regular and fragment compound analysis in drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yutao; Hascall, Daniel; Li, Delia; Pease, Joseph H

    2015-09-11

    In this paper, we introduce a high throughput LCMS/UV/CAD/CLND system that improves upon previously reported systems by increasing both the quantitation accuracy and the range of compounds amenable to testing, in particular, low molecular weight "fragment" compounds. This system consists of a charged aerosol detector (CAD) and chemiluminescent nitrogen detector (CLND) added to a LCMS/UV system. Our results show that the addition of CAD and CLND to LCMS/UV is more reliable for concentration determination for a wider range of compounds than either detector alone. Our setup also allows for the parallel analysis of each sample by all four detectors and so does not significantly increase run time per sample. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development of large area si detectors based on planar technology for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanchang; Sun Liang; Huang Xiaojian; Liu Yang; Chen Guozhu

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the processing method of large area Si detectors fabricated by planar technology for charged particles. In order to decrease the detectors leakage current, the surface passivation technique was used. The paper gives the measurement results of the leakage current of 300μm thick, 20mm diameter detectors and 500μm thick, 40mm diameter detectors respectively. The spectra of the detectors for 241 Am 5.486MeV α particles are also provided at room temperature. (authors)

  10. Space charge in ionization detectors and the NA48 electromagnetic calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palestini, S.; Barr, G.D.; Biino, C.; Calafiura, P.; Ceccucci, A.; Cerri, C.; Chollet, J.C.; Cirilli, M.; Cogan, J.; Costantini, F.; Crepe, S.; Cundy, D.; Fantechi, R.; Fayard, L.; Fischer, G.; Formica, A.; Frabetti, P.L.; Funk, W.; Gianoli, A.; Giudici, S.; Gonidec, A.; Gorini, B.; Govi, G.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Kekelidze, V.; Kubischta, W.; Luitz, S.; Mannelli, I.; Martini, M.; Mikulec, I.; Norton, A.; Ocariz, J.; Schinzel, D.; Sozzi, M.; Tatishvili, G.; Tkatchev, A.; Unal, G.; Velasco, M.; Vossnack, O.; Wahl, H.

    1999-01-01

    The subject of space charge due to positive ions slowly moving in parallel plate ionization chambers is considered. A model for the degradation of the detector response is developed, with particular emphasis on electromagnetic calorimeters.The topics discussed include: (a) the stationary; (b) the time dependent cases; (c) the limit of very large space charge; (d) the electric field dependence of the electron drift velocity; (e) the effect of longitudinal development of showers; (f) the behaviour of the average reductions of response; (g) the non-uniformity of response for different positions of the shower axis inside the cell defined by the electrodes. The NA48 calorimeter is used as application and for comparison of results

  11. A new computational method for simulation of charge transport in semiconductor radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holban, I.

    1993-01-01

    An effective computational method for simulation of charge transport in semiconductor radiation detectors is the purpose of the present work. Basic equations for analysis include (1) Poisson's equations, (2) continuity equation for electrons and holes, (3) rate equations for deep levels, (4) current equation for electrons and holes and (5) boundary conditions. The system of equations is discretized and equidistant space and time grids is brought. The nonlinearity of the problem is overcome by using Newton-Raphson iteration scheme. Instead of solving a nonlinear boundary problem we resolve a linear matrix equation. Our computation procedure becomes very efficient using a sparse matrix. The computed program allows to calculate the charge collection efficiency and transient response for arbitrary electric fields when trapping and detrapping effects are present. The earlier literature results are reproduced. (Author)

  12. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sexton W, Frederick; Walsh S, David; Doyle L, Barney; Dodd E, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a -.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients

  13. Time resolved ion beam induced charge collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEXTON,FREDERICK W.; WALSH,DAVID S.; DOYLE,BARNEY L.; DODD,PAUL E.

    2000-04-01

    Under this effort, a new method for studying the single event upset (SEU) in microelectronics has been developed and demonstrated. Called TRIBICC, for Time Resolved Ion Beam Induced Charge Collection, this technique measures the transient charge-collection waveform from a single heavy-ion strike with a {minus}.03db bandwidth of 5 GHz. Bandwidth can be expanded up to 15 GHz (with 5 ps sampling windows) by using an FFT-based off-line waveform renormalization technique developed at Sandia. The theoretical time resolution of the digitized waveform is 24 ps with data re-normalization and 70 ps without re-normalization. To preserve the high bandwidth from IC to the digitizing oscilloscope, individual test structures are assembled in custom high-frequency fixtures. A leading-edge digitized waveform is stored with the corresponding ion beam position at each point in a two-dimensional raster scan. The resulting data cube contains a spatial charge distribution map of up to 4,096 traces of charge (Q) collected as a function of time. These two dimensional traces of Q(t) can cover a period as short as 5 ns with up to 1,024 points per trace. This tool overcomes limitations observed in previous multi-shot techniques due to the displacement damage effects of multiple ion strikes that changed the signal of interest during its measurement. This system is the first demonstration of a single-ion transient measurement capability coupled with spatial mapping of fast transients.

  14. A prototype silicon detector system for space cosmic-ray charge measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Fan, Rui-Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Dong, Yi-Fa; Gong, Ke; Liang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Ya-Qing; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2014-06-01

    A readout electronics system used for space cosmic-ray charge measurement for multi-channel silicon detectors is introduced in this paper, including performance measurements. A 64-channel charge sensitive ASIC (VA140) from the IDEAS company is used. With its features of low power consumption, low noise, large dynamic range, and high integration, it can be used in future particle detecting experiments based on silicon detectors.

  15. Charge loss between contacts of CdZnTe pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotnikov, A.E.; Cook, W.R.; Harrison, F.A.; Wong, A.-S.; Schindler, S.M.; Eichelberger, A.C.

    1999-01-01

    The surface of Cd 1-x Zn x Te (CZT) material has high resistivity but is not a perfect dielectric. Even a small surface conductivity can affect the electric field distribution, and therefore, the charge collection efficiency of a CZT pixel detector. The paper describes studies of this phenomenon for several contact configurations made on a single CZT detector. We have determined the maximum inter-contact separation at which the surface inter-pixel charge loss can be neglected. (author)

  16. Study of charge transport in silicon detectors: Non-irradiated and irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, C.; Roy, P.; Casse, G.; Glaser, M.; Grigoriev, E.; Lemeilleur, F.

    1999-01-01

    The electrical characteristics of silicon detectors (standard planar float zone and MESA detectors) as a function of the particle fluence can be extracted by the application of a model describing the transport of charge carriers generated in the detectors by ionizing particles. The current pulse response induced by α and β particles in non-irradiated detectors and detectors irradiated up to fluences PHI ∼ 3 · 10 14 particles/cm 2 is reproduced via this model: i) by adding a small n-type region 15 μm deep on the p + side for the detectors at fluences beyond the n to p-type inversion and ii) for the MESA detectors, by considering one additional dead layer of 14 μm (observed experimentally) on each side of the detector, and introducing a second (delayed) component to the current pulse response. For both types of detectors, the model gives mobilities decreasing linearily up to fluences of about 5·10 13 particles/cm 2 and converging, beyond, to saturation values of about 1050 cm 2 /Vs and 450 cm 2 /Vs for electrons and holes, respectively. At a fluence PHI ∼ 10 14 particles/cm 2 (corresponding to about ten years of operation at the CERN-LHC), charge collection deficits of about 14% for β particles, 25% for α particles incident on the front and 35% for α particles incident on the back of the detector are found for both type of detectors

  17. Fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agakishiev, G.; Man'yakov, P.K.; Drees, A.

    1997-01-01

    The simple and fast detector of charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collision studies is performed. The multiplicity detector has been designed for the first level trigger of the CERES/NA45 experiment to study Pb-Au collisions at CERN SPS energies. The detector has allowed a realization of the 40 ns trigger for selection of events with definite impact parameter. The construction, operation characteristics, method of calibration, and testing results are described in detail

  18. Coordinate determination of high energy charged particles by silicon strip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anokhin, I.E.; Zinets, O.S.

    2002-01-01

    The coordinate determination accuracy of minimum ionizing and short-range particles by silicon strip detectors has been considered. The charge collection on neighboring strips of the detector is studied and the influence of diffusion and the electric field distribution on the accuracy of the coordinate determination is analyzed. It has been shown that coordinates of both minimum ionizing and short-range particles can be determined with accuracy to a few microns using silicon strip detectors. 11 refs.; 8 figs

  19. Development of a charged particle detector array in Pelletron-LINAC facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, Bency; Inkar, A.L.; Saxena, A.; Vind, R.P.; Gupta, Y.K.; Biswas, D.C.; Nayak, B.K.; Thomas, R.G.; Danu, L.S.; Choudhury, R.K.; Kailas, S.; Topkar, A.; Venkatramanan, S.; Kumar, Manish; Sunilkumar, S.

    2010-01-01

    A charged particle detector array consisting of 50 Si-CsI detector telescopes for study of heavy-ion reactions is under construction in BARC-TIFR Pelletron-LINAC facility. Developmental work carried out for the detector modules, front-end and pulse shape discrimination electronics, scattering chamber and other mechanical parts are summarized. Some new ideas developed during the course of work are pointed out. (author)

  20. A multiple sampling time projection ionization chamber for nuclear fragment tracking and charge measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, G.; Bieser, F.; Brady, F.P.; Chance, J.C.; Christie, W.F.; Gilkes, M.; Lindenstruth, V.; Lynen, U.; Mueller, W.F.J.; Romero, J.L.; Sann, H.; Tull, C.E.; Warren, P.

    1997-01-01

    A detector has been developed for the tracking and charge measurement of the projectile fragment nuclei produced in relativistic nuclear collisions. This device, MUSIC II, is a second generation Multiple Sampling Ionization Chamber (MUSIC), and employs the principles of ionization and time projection chambers. It provides unique charge determination for charges Z≥6, and excellent track position measurement. MUSIC II has been used most recently with the EOS (equation of state) TPC and other EOS collaboration detectors. Earlier it was used with other systems in experiments at the Heavy Ion Superconducting Spectrometer (HISS) facility at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the ALADIN spectrometer at GSI. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of the collection charge of a detector type LEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhahbi, Anis

    2010-01-01

    Several discoveries were made with gaseous detectors, mainly Multi Wires Proportional Chambers M WPC i nvented by G. Charpak. This kind of detector is the ancestor of many detectors used at CERN today, which were used to examine the ultimate constituents of matter and can also be adapted for medical imaging. This work has been included in research and development of a detection plane of Micro Pattern Gaseous Detectors (MPGD) named Large Electron Multiplier (LEM) for better detection by acting on the dimensions of gap and diameter of holes. In this work simulation programs have been conducted to study the configuration of the electric field in the detector, more precisely in the amplification zone to optimize the detector dimensions. The transport properties of electrons inside the detector have been studied in different mixtures of gases (CF4, P10, Xenon-CF4 ...). A prototype was available in the Neuchatel University S witzerland t o study the gain and the energy resolution by detecting low energy radiation ( 55 Fe source with 5.9 keV of energy).

  2. Nuclear track detectors for charged particles and neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasino, L.

    2006-01-01

    It was with great emotion that I accepted to be a guest speaker to this memorial section dedicated to my old-time friend, Prof. Radomir Ilic. In addition to being one of the most outstanding scientists in the field of nuclear tracks, Prof. Radomir Ilic has been always highly acclaimed by the scientific community for his enthusiasm, his warm friendship, and his great vitality. Through his successful editorial activities, Prof. Ilic has proved to be very able to address the field of nuclear tracks to very wide audiences with special regards to young students. It was here in Portoroz, that Prof. Radomir Ilic was our host as the organiser of the 21st International Conference on Nuclear Tracks in Solids. All the participants have great memories of this very successful international conference. For all these reasons, the 2006 edition of the International Conference on Nuclear Energy for new Europe, with its wide audience and its venue at Portoroz, can be considered as one of the most appropriate forum for the memorial lecture of Prof. Radomir Ilic. The present paper will be dealing with the solid state nuclear track detectors-SSNTDs and their successful applications for the measurements of cosmic-ray-neutrons and terrestrial radioactivity, namely radon. (author)

  3. Seven channel gated charge to time converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stubbs, R J; Waddoup, W D [Durham Univ. (UK)

    1977-11-01

    By using a hybrid integrated circuit seven independent gated charge to time converters have been constructed in a single width NIM module. Gate widths from < approximately 10 ns to approximately 300 ns are possible with a resolution of 0.25 pC, linearity is better than +-1 pC over 2.5 decades of input signal height. Together with a multichannel scaling system described in the following paper one has a very powerful multichannel gated ADC system.

  4. Search for charged Higgs Bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Casado, Maria Pilar; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Present searches on charged Higgs in ATLAS are presented. Data taken at 13 TeV during 2015 and 2016 is used to obtain exclusion limits in a parameter space between 200 and 2000 GeV of charged Higgs mass.

  5. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbitskaya, Elena; Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei; Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R.; Egorov, Nicolai; Härkönen, Jaakko

    2015-10-01

    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×1016 p/cm2. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment.

  6. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, Nicoletta

    2011-01-01

    The atmospheric muon charge ratio, defined as the number of positive over negative charged muons, is an interesting quantity for the study of high energy hadronic interactions in atmosphere and the nature of the primary cosmic rays. The measurement of the charge ratio in the TeV muon energy range allows to study the hadronic interactions in kinematic regions not yet explored at accelerators. The OPERA experiment is a hybrid electronic detector/emulsion apparatus, located in the undergroun...

  7. Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tosi, C.; Bruzzi, M.; Macchiolo, A.; Scaringella, M.; Petterson, M.K.; Sadrozinski, H.F.-W.; Betancourt, C.; Manna, N.; Creanza, D.; Boscardin, M.; Piemonte, C.; Zorzi, N.; Borrello, L.; Messineo, A.

    2007-01-01

    The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1x10 15 cm -2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

  8. A novel transparent charged particle detector for the CPET upgrade at TITAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascar, D.; Kootte, B.; Barquest, B. R.; Chowdhury, U.; Gallant, A. T.; Good, M.; Klawitter, R.; Leistenschneider, E.; Andreoiu, C.; Dilling, J.; Even, J.; Gwinner, G.; Kwiatkowski, A. A.; Leach, K. G.

    2017-10-01

    The detection of an electron bunch exiting a strong magnetic field can prove challenging due to the small mass of the electron. If placed too far from a solenoid's entrance, a detector outside the magnetic field will be too small to reliably intersect with the exiting electron beam because the light electrons will follow the diverging magnetic field outside the solenoid. The TITAN group at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada, has made use of advances in the practice and precision of photochemical machining (PCM) to create a new kind of charge collecting detector called the "mesh detector." The TITAN mesh detector was used to solve the problem of trapped electron detection in the new Cooler PEnning Trap (CPET) currently under development at TITAN. This thin array of wires etched out of a copper plate is a novel, low profile, charge agnostic detector that can be made effectively transparent or opaque at the user's discretion.

  9. A new detector array for charged particle spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Cowin, R L; Chappell, S P G; Clarke, N M; Freer, M; Fulton, B R; Cunningham, R A; Curtis, N; Dillon, G; Lilley, J; Jones, C D; Lee, P; Rae, W D M

    1999-01-01

    A compact and highly segmented detector array consisting of 44 gas-silicon-caesium iodide, position sensitive, particle identification detector telescopes and up to 10 position-sensitive, silicon strip detectors has been constructed for the study of light-ion-heavy-ion reactions including cluster break-up in the energy range 5-15 MeV/nucleon. The detectors are housed in a purpose built vacuum chamber. The telescopes are placed in fixed positions, covering the forward hemisphere from 3 to 30 deg. in the laboratory with the target placed at 535 mm from the front of the telescopes or 6-52 deg. with the target placed at 215 mm. The strip detectors are placed in any of 30 fixed positions in the forward hemisphere. For 85 MeV sup 1 sup 2 C ions the telescope energy resolution (gas plus silicon) is 345 keV with an angular resolution of 0.03 deg. . Using the gas-silicon section ions with Z up to 21 can be identified. For ions that pass through the silicon isotopic identification is achieved using the silicon-CsI comb...

  10. First results on the charge collection properties of segmented detectors made with p-type bulk silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Allport, P.P.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Greenall, A.; Hanlon, M.; Jackson, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Radiation damage of n-type bulk detectors introduces stable defects acting as effective p-type doping and leads to the change of the conductivity type of the silicon substrate (type inversion) after a fluence of a few times 10 13 protons cm -2 . The diode junction after inversion migrates from the original side to the back plane of the detector. The migration of the junction can be prevented using silicon detectors with p-type substrates. Furthermore, the use of n-side readout gives higher charge collection efficiency for segmented devices operated below the full depletion voltage. Large area (∼6.4x6.4 cm 2 ) capacitively coupled 80 μm pitch detectors using polysilicon bias resistors have been fabricated on p-type substrates (n-in-p diode structure). These detectors have been irradiated with 24 GeV/c protons to an integrated fluence of 3x10 14 cm -2 and kept for 7 days at 25 deg. C to reach the broad minimum of the annealing curve. Results are presented on the comparison of their charge collection properties with detectors using p-strip read-out after corresponding dose and annealing

  11. High energy charged particle registration in CR-39 polycarbonated detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Wahab, M.S.; El Enany, N.; El Fiki, S.; Eissa, H.M.; El-Adl, E.H.; El-Feky, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    Track etch rate characteristics of CR-39 plastic detector exposed to 28 Si ions of 670 MeV energy have been investigated. Experimental results were obtained in terms of frequency distribution of the track diameter, track density and bulk etching rate. A dependence of the mean track diameter on energy was found. The application of the radiation effect of heavy ions on CR-39 in the field of radiation detection and dosimetry are discussed. Results indicated that it is possible to produce etchable tracks of 28 Si in this energy range in CR-39. We also report the etching characteristics of these tracks in the CR-39 detector. (orig.) [de

  12. The cluster charge identification in the GEM detector for fusion plasma imaging by soft X-ray diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarski, T., E-mail: tomasz.czarski@ifpilm.pl; Chernyshova, M.; Malinowski, K. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Hery 23, 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Pozniak, K. T.; Kasprowicz, G.; Kolasinski, P.; Krawczyk, R.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W. [Warsaw University of Technology, Nowowiejska 15/19, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2016-11-15

    The measurement system based on gas electron multiplier detector is developed for soft X-ray diagnostics of tokamak plasmas. The multi-channel setup is designed for estimation of the energy and the position distribution of an X-ray source. The focal measuring issue is the charge cluster identification by its value and position estimation. The fast and accurate mode of the serial data acquisition is applied for the dynamic plasma diagnostics. The charge clusters are counted in the space determined by 2D position, charge value, and time intervals. Radiation source characteristics are presented by histograms for a selected range of position, time intervals, and cluster charge values corresponding to the energy spectra.

  13. Real-Time Accumulative Computation Motion Detectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saturnino Maldonado-Bascón

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The neurally inspired accumulative computation (AC method and its application to motion detection have been introduced in the past years. This paper revisits the fact that many researchers have explored the relationship between neural networks and finite state machines. Indeed, finite state machines constitute the best characterized computational model, whereas artificial neural networks have become a very successful tool for modeling and problem solving. The article shows how to reach real-time performance after using a model described as a finite state machine. This paper introduces two steps towards that direction: (a A simplification of the general AC method is performed by formally transforming it into a finite state machine. (b A hardware implementation in FPGA of such a designed AC module, as well as an 8-AC motion detector, providing promising performance results. We also offer two case studies of the use of AC motion detectors in surveillance applications, namely infrared-based people segmentation and color-based people tracking, respectively.

  14. Ion beam induced charge and cathodoluminescence imaging of response uniformity of CVD diamond radiation detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Sellin, P J; Galbiati, A; Maghrabi, M; Townsend, P D

    2002-01-01

    The uniformity of response of CVD diamond radiation detectors produced from high quality diamond film, with crystallite dimensions of >100 mu m, has been studied using ion beam induced charge imaging. A micron-resolution scanning alpha particle beam was used to produce maps of pulse height response across the device. The detectors were fabricated with a single-sided coplanar electrode geometry to maximise their sensitivity to the surface region of the diamond film where the diamond crystallites are highly ordered. High resolution ion beam induced charge images of single crystallites were acquired that demonstrate variations in intra-crystallite charge transport and the termination of charge transport at the crystallite boundaries. Cathodoluminescence imaging of the same crystallites shows an inverse correlation between the density of radiative centres and regions of good charge transport.

  15. Precision timing detectors with cadmium-telluride sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornheim, A.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Xie, S.; Zhang, Z.

    2017-09-01

    Precision timing detectors for high energy physics experiments with temporal resolutions of a few 10 ps are of pivotal importance to master the challenges posed by the highest energy particle accelerators such as the LHC. Calorimetric timing measurements have been a focus of recent research, enabled by exploiting the temporal coherence of electromagnetic showers. Scintillating crystals with high light yield as well as silicon sensors are viable sensitive materials for sampling calorimeters. Silicon sensors have very high efficiency for charged particles. However, their sensitivity to photons, which comprise a large fraction of the electromagnetic shower, is limited. To enhance the efficiency of detecting photons, materials with higher atomic numbers than silicon are preferable. In this paper we present test beam measurements with a Cadmium-Telluride (CdTe) sensor as the active element of a secondary emission calorimeter with focus on the timing performance of the detector. A Schottky type CdTe sensor with an active area of 1cm2 and a thickness of 1 mm is used in an arrangement with tungsten and lead absorbers. Measurements are performed with electron beams in the energy range from 2 GeV to 200 GeV. A timing resolution of 20 ps is achieved under the best conditions.

  16. Fundamental limits of scintillation detector timing precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Choong, Woon-Seng; Moses, William W

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review the primary factors that affect the timing precision of a scintillation detector. Monte Carlo calculations were performed to explore the dependence of the timing precision on the number of photoelectrons, the scintillator decay and rise times, the depth of interaction uncertainty, the time dispersion of the optical photons (modeled as an exponential decay), the photodetector rise time and transit time jitter, the leading-edge trigger level, and electronic noise. The Monte Carlo code was used to estimate the practical limits on the timing precision for an energy deposition of 511 keV in 3 mm × 3 mm × 30 mm Lu 2 SiO 5 :Ce and LaBr 3 :Ce crystals. The calculated timing precisions are consistent with the best experimental literature values. We then calculated the timing precision for 820 cases that sampled scintillator rise times from 0 to 1.0 ns, photon dispersion times from 0 to 0.2 ns, photodetector time jitters from 0 to 0.5 ns fwhm, and A from 10 to 10 000 photoelectrons per ns decay time. Since the timing precision R was found to depend on A −1/2  more than any other factor, we tabulated the parameter B, where R = BA −1/2 . An empirical analytical formula was found that fit the tabulated values of B with an rms deviation of 2.2% of the value of B. The theoretical lower bound of the timing precision was calculated for the example of 0.5 ns rise time, 0.1 ns photon dispersion, and 0.2 ns fwhm photodetector time jitter. The lower bound was at most 15% lower than leading-edge timing discrimination for A from 10 to 10 000 photoelectrons ns −1 . A timing precision of 8 ps fwhm should be possible for an energy deposition of 511 keV using currently available photodetectors if a theoretically possible scintillator were developed that could produce 10 000 photoelectrons ns −1 . (paper)

  17. Charge Transfer Properties Through Graphene for Applications in Gaseous Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Franchino, S.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Jackman, R.B.; Muller, H.; Nguyen, T.T.; de Oliveira, R.; Oliveri, E.; Pfeiffer, D.; Resnati, F.; Ropelewski, L.; Smith, J.; van Stenis, M.; Streli, C.; Thuiner, P.; Veenhof, R.

    2016-07-11

    Graphene is a single layer of carbon atoms arranged in a honeycomb lattice with remarkable mechanical and electrical properties. Regarded as the thinnest and narrowest conductive mesh, it has drastically different transmission behaviours when bombarded with electrons and ions in vacuum. This property, if confirmed in gas, may be a definitive solution for the ion back-flow problem in gaseous detectors. In order to ascertain this aspect, graphene layers of dimensions of about 2x2cm$^2$, grown on a copper substrate, are transferred onto a flat metal surface with holes, so that the graphene layer is freely suspended. The graphene and the support are installed into a gaseous detector equipped with a triple Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM), and the transparency properties to electrons and ions are studied in gas as a function of the electric fields. The techniques to produce the graphene samples are described, and we report on preliminary tests of graphene-coated GEMs.

  18. Effects of detector-source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermis, E E; Celiktas, C

    2012-12-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. (133)Ba and (207)Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecka, Iwona; Panas, Andrzej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecki, Maciej; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the technology of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE). The developed technology enables the fabrication of both planar and epiplanar p+-ν-n+ detector structures with an active area of up to 50 cm2. The starting material for epiplanar structures are silicon wafers with a high-resistivity n-type epitaxial layer ( ν layer - ρ < 3 kΩcm) deposited on a highly doped n+-type substrate (ρ< 0,02Ωcm) developed and fabricated at the Institute of Electronic Materials Technology. Active layer thickness of the epiplanar detectors (νlayer) may range from 10 μm to 150 μm. Imported silicon with min. 5 kΩcm resistivity is used to fabricate planar detectors. Active layer thickness of the planar detectors (ν) layer) may range from 200 μm to 1 mm. This technology enables the fabrication of both discrete and multi-junction detectors (monolithic detector arrays), such as single-sided strip detectors (epiplanar and planar) and double-sided strip detectors (planar). Examples of process diagrams for fabrication of the epiplanar and planar detectors are presented in the paper, and selected technological processes are discussed.

  20. Investigation of charge multiplication in single crystalline CVD diamond particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muškinja, M.; Cindro, V.; Gorišek, A. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kagan, H. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Kramberger, G., E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mandić, I. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Mikuž, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Faculty of Physics and Mathematics, University of Ljubljana (Slovenia); Phan, S.; Smith, D.S. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University (United States); Zavrtanik, M. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2017-01-01

    A special metallization pattern was created on a single crystalline diamond detector aimed at creating high enough electric field for impact ionization in the detector material. Electric field line focusing through electrode design and very high bias voltages were used to obtain high electric fields. Previous measurements and theoretical calculations indicated that drifting charge multiplication by impact ionization could take place. A large increase of induced charge was observed for the smallest dot electrode which points to charge multiplication while for the large dot and pad detector structure no such effect was observed. The evolution of induced currents was also monitored with the transient current technique. Induced current pulses with duration of order 1 μs were measured. The multiplication gain was found to depend on the particle rate.

  1. Evidence for plasma effect on charge collection efficiency in proton irradiated GaAs detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Nava, F; Canali, C; Vittone, E; Polesello, P; Biggeri, U; Leroy, C

    1999-01-01

    The radiation damage in 100 mu m thick Schottky diodes made on semi-insulating undoped GaAs materials, were studied using alpha-, beta-, proton- and gamma-spectroscopy as well as I-V measurements. The results have been analysed within the framework of the Hecht model to investigate the influence of the plasma produced by short-range strongly ionising particles on the detector performance after 24 GeV proton irradiation. It has been found that with the mean free drift lengths for electrons and holes determined from alpha-spectra in overdepleted detectors, the charge collection efficiency for beta-particles, cce subbeta, is well predicted in the unirradiated detectors, while in the most irradiated ones, the cce subbeta is underestimated by more than 40%. The observed disagreement can be explained by assuming that the charge carrier recombination in the plasma region of such detectors, becomes significant.

  2. New a-Si:H photo-detectors for long-term charge storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.; Cho, G.; Drewery, J.S.; Hong, W.S.; Jing, T.; Kaplan, S.N.; Mireshghi, A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Wildermuth, D.

    1993-04-01

    Using the high light absorption properties of amorphous silicon, we developed a new device configuration that can detect photons and store the induced charges for relatively long time. This device, coupled to a scintillator such as CsI(Tl) in an array form, could be used as a scintillation camera, or for long-term photo-detection such as radionuclide labeled chromatography. The detector has a simple sandwich structure consisting of a scintillator followed by a top metal layer, p-i-n layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H), a second metal layer, a thin insulating layer and a bottom metal layer. The electron-hole pairs generated in the i-layer by the interaction with the incident light will be separated by the imposed electric field and be stored in the central metal-insulator interface. Readout will be done by switching the external bias to ground after the storage time, which depends on the needs for the specific application. Prototype devices were fabricated and tested. The performances of the devices were analyzed in connection with the storage time and the background signal produced by the thermally generated charges

  3. Forward-backward correlations and charged-particle azimuthal distributions in $pp$ interactions using the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuler, Georges; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    Using inelastic proton-proton interactions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and 7 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC, measurements have been made of the correlations between forward and backward charged-particle multiplicities and, for the first time, between forward and backward charged-particle summed transverse momentum. In addition, jet-like structure in the events is studied by means of azimuthal distributions of charged particles relative to the charged particle with highest transverse momentum in a selected kinematic region of the event. The results are compared with predictions from tunes of the PYTHIA and HERWIG++ Monte Carlo generators, which in most cases are found to provide a reasonable description of the data.

  4. Performance of the Charge Injectors of the ALICE Silicon Drift Detectors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kushpil, Svetlana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 37 (2012), s. 970-975 ISSN 1875-3892. [TIPP 2011 - Technology and Instrumentation in Particle Physics 2011. Chicago, 09.06.2011-14.06.2011] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA08015 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : semiconductor detector * silicon drift detector * MOS charge injector Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875389212017920

  5. Charge correlation measurements of double-sided direct-coupled silicon mirostrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.L.; Kuehler, J.F.; Kalbfleisch, G.R.; Kaplan, D.H.; Skubic, P.; Lucas, A.D.; Wilburn, C.D.

    1991-01-01

    Charge correlation measurements of several Micron 38 mm by 58 mm by 300 micron thick double-sided DC-coupled microstripe detectors have been made. They have been bench tested with a Sr-90 source, with the detectors operated at -22C. The correlation of the charges collected from both the diode ('holes') and the ohmic ('electrons') stripes are equal within a signal to noise resolution of 20:1 (i.e., 1,200 electrons noise) using common-mode subtracted double-correlated sampling with the Berkeley SVXD readout chip

  6. Charge loss between contacts of CdZnTe pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bolotnikov, A E; Harrison, F A; Wong, A S; Schindler, S M; Eichelberger, A C

    1999-01-01

    The surface of Cd sub 1 sub - sub x Zn sub x Te (CZT) material has high resistivity but is not a perfect dielectric. Even a small surface conductivity can affect the electric field distribution, and therefore, the charge collection efficiency of a CZT pixel detector. The paper describes studies of this phenomenon for several contact configurations made on a single CZT detector. We have determined the maximum inter-contact separation at which the surface inter-pixel charge loss can be neglected. (author)

  7. The 8{pi} miniball charged-particle detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, G C; Galindo-Uribarri, A; Andrews, H R; Bray, N C; Lori, J D; Radford, D C; Smith, L V; Tapp, G A; Ward, D [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Nuclear Labs.; Drake, T E [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Waddington, J C [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1992-08-01

    A modular miniature array of 24 CsI(Tl) crystals (0.5 cm) thick coupled to large area photodiodes has been constructed to operate inside the 8{pi} spectrometer. The array was designed to have good resolution, high efficiency, and adequate granularity for detecting light charged particles emitted in coincidence with the gamma rays from the decay of high-spin states populated in heavy-ion fusion-evaporation reactions. 17 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  8. Simulation of the dielectric charging-up effect in a GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfonsi, M.; Croci, G.; Duarte Pinto, S.; Rocco, E.; Ropelewski, L.; Sauli, F.; Veenhof, R.; Villa, M.

    2012-01-01

    The charging up effect is well-known in detectors containing dielectric materials and it is due to electrons and ions liberated in an avalanche and collected on the dielectric surfaces. In particular in Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM) based detectors, charges can be captured by the Kapton that separates top and bottom electrodes. The collection of a substantial number of charges on the dielectric surfaces induces a modification of the field inside the GEM holes that implies important consequences on some fundamental parameters such as the electron transparency and the effective gain. The correct simulation of this effect opens new ways to the detailed study of the processes that happens in a GEM-based detector and gives the possibility to optimise the GEM geometry in order to avoid it. This paper compares results of the measurements and the simulations, with and without the introduction of the charging-up effect, of the GEM electron transparency in the case of a single GEM detector. The introduction of the charging up effect in the simulation resulted to be crucial in order to get the proper agreement with the measurements. The measurements and simulations of the GEM effective gain will be the subject of a future work.

  9. Highly charged ion based time-of-flight emission microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Barnes, Alan V.; Magee, Ed; Newman, Mike; Schenkel, Thomas; McDonald, Joseph W.; Schneider, Dieter H.

    2000-01-01

    An emission microscope using highly charged ions as the excitation source has been designed, constructed, and operated. A novel ''acorn'' objective lens has been used to simultaneously image electron and secondary ion emission. A resistive anode-position sensitive detector is used to determine the x-y position and time of arrival of the secondary events at the microscope image plane. Contrast in the image can be based on the intensity of the electron emission and/or the presence of particular secondary ions. Spatial resolution of better than 1 μm and mass resolution m/Δm of better than 400 were demonstrated. Background rejection from uncorrelated events of greater than an order of magnitude is also achieved. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics

  10. The simulation of charge sharing in semiconductor X-ray pixel detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mathieson, K; O'Shea, V; Passmore, M S; Rahman, M; Smith, K M; Watt, J; Whitehill, C

    2002-01-01

    Two simulation packages were used to model the sharing of charge, due to the scattering and diffusion of carriers, between adjacent pixel elements in semiconductors X-ray detectors. The X-ray interaction and the consequent multiple scattering was modelled with the aid of the Monte Carlo package, MCNP. The resultant deposited charge distribution was then used to create the charge cloud profile in the finite element semiconductor simulation code MEDICI. The analysis of the current pulses induced on pixel electrodes for varying photon energies was performed for a GaAs pixel detector. For a pixel pitch of 25 mu m, the charge lost to a neighbouring pixel was observed to be constant, at 0.6%, through the energies simulated. Ultimately, a fundamental limit on the pixel element size for imaging and spectroscopic devices may be set due to these key physical principles.

  11. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauri, N.; Sioli, M.

    2012-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio R μ =N μ + /N μ − in the TeV energy region. R μ is shown as a function of the “vertical surface energy” E μ cosθ. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  12. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Agafonova, N.; Aoki, S.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Autiero, D.; Badertscher, A.; Bagulya, A.; Bertolin, A.; Besnier, M.; Bick, D.; Boyarkin, V.; Bozza, C.; Brugiere, T.; Brugnera, R.; Brunetti, G.; Buontempo, S.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Chernyavsky, M.; Chiarella, V.; Chon-Sen, N.; Chukanov, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Amato, G.; Dal Corso, F.; D'Ambrosio, N.; De Lellis, G.; Declais, Y.; De Serio, M.; Di Capua, F.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Di Giovanni, A.; Di Marco, N.; Dmitrievski, S.; Dracos, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Dusini, S.; Ebert, J.; Egorov, O.; Enikeev, R.; Ereditato, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Favier, J.; Felici, G.; Ferber, T.; Fini, R.; Frekers, D.; Fukuda, T.; Fukushima, C.; Galkin, V.I.; Garfagnini, A.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Goellnitz, C.; Goldberg, J.; Golubkov, D.; Goncharova, L.; Gornushkin, Y.; Grella, G.; Grianti, F.; Guler, M.; Gustavino, C.; Hagner, C.; Hamada, K.; Hara, T.; Hierholzer, M.; Hoshino, K.; Ieva, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Jollet, C.; Juget, F.; Kazuyama, M.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, M.; Klicek, B.; Knuesel, J.; Kodama, K.; Komatsu, M.; Kose, U.; Kreslo, I.; Kubota, H.; Lazzaro, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Ljubicic, A.; Longhin, A.; Lutter, G.; Malgin, A.; Mandrioli, G.; Marotta, A.; Marteau, J.; Matsuo, T.; Matveev, V.; Mauri, N.; Medinaceli, E.; Meisel, F.; Meregaglia, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Mikado, S.; Miyamoto, S.; Monacelli, P.; Morishima, K.; Moser, U.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nikitina, V.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Ogawa, S.; Olchevski, A.; Oldorf, C.; Orlova, G.; Osedlo, V.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pastore, A.; Patrizii, L.; Pennacchio, E.; Pessard, H.; Pilipenko, V.; Pistillo, C.; Policastro, G.; Polukhina, N.; Pozzato, M.; Pretzl, K.; Publichenko, P.; Pupilli, F.; Rescigno, R.; Roganova, T.; Rokujo, H.; Romano, G.; Rosa, G.; Rostovtseva, I.; Rubbia, A.; Russo, A.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Sato, O.; Sato, Y.; Schembri, A.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Schroeder, H.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Sheshukov, A.; Shibuya, H.; Simone, S.; Sioli, M.; Sirignano, C.; Sirri, G.; Song, J.S.; Spinetti, M.; Stanco, L.; Starkov, N.; Stipcevic, M.; Strauss, T.; Strolin, P.; Takahashi, S.; Tenti, M.; Terranova, F.; Tezuka, I.; Tioukov, V.; Tolun, P.; Tran, T.; Tufanli, S.; Vilain, P.; Vladimirov, M.; Votano, L.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Wilquet, G.; Wonsak, B.; Yakushev, V.; Yoon, C.S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Zaitsev, Y.; Zemskova, S.; Zghiche, A.; Zimmermann, R.

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the charge ratio dependence on the primary composition. The measured charge ratio values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the "vertical surface energy". A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  13. On the definition of timing parameters of a superconducting detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasilevich, A.F.; Fannibo, A.K.

    1978-01-01

    By means of experimental simulation of particle passage through the superconductor intended for radiation detection, the problem of calculation of heat propagation in the superconductor from the particle track is solved. As a superconductor detector the thin wire of NbTi alloy of 10 μm diameter and 4-5 mm length is used. The particle passage through the superconductor is simulated by an instantaneous heat source which arises in a sample at lighting by short light flash the superconductor surface. The ruby laser serves as a light source. Light pulse duration is 100 ns. Light energy is absorbed in a layer of 10 -5 cm thickness at the 10 -3 cm wire diameter. Heat propagation from superconductor surface leads to the sample resistance change. Experimental and calculation dependences of detector resistance time change are given. It has been found that detector resistance change occurs with a certain delay relative to the light pulse initiation. The duration of this delay and the signal form withim 10% remain unchanged at the variation of light flash intensity by four orders which indicates a weak dependence of temperature conductivity coefficient on temperature. The coefficient determining the superconductor heat propagation time has been calculated on the experimental data base. The calculation agrees well with the experiment at the temperature conductivity coefficient value being 0.25 cm 2 /s. The knowledge of this value allows calculation of the thermal effect caused by the charged particle passage through the NbTi base superconductor. The results of calculation of temperature increase in NbTi at critical temperature during the 5.3 MeV α particle passage through the superconductor are presented [ru

  14. Development of Charge Sensitive Preamplifier and Readout Integrate Circuit Board for High Resolution Detector using ASIC Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, J. Y.; Kim, J. H.; Park, J. M.; Yang, J. Y.; Kim, K. Y.; Kim, Y. S. [RadTek Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    - Design of discrete type charge sensitive amplifier for high resolution semi-conductor sensor - Design and develop the test board for the performance of charge sensitive amplifier with sensor - Performance of electrical test for the sensor and charge sensitive amplifier - Development of prototype 8 x 8 array type detector module - Noise equivalent charge test for the charge sensitive amplifier - Design and development of Micro SMD discrete type amplifier applying ASIC procedure - Development of Hybrid type charge sensitive amplifier including shape

  15. Evaluation of charge coupled devices as alpha particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pace, R.; Haskard, M.; Watts, S.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Solanky, M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability of the Charge Coupled Device (CCD) to provide spectroscopic and flux information for highly ionising radiation has been investigated. CCDs and related imaging chips are becoming increasingly affordable. In addition advances in technology are producing smaller and better devices. Since imaging chips are based on some variation of the pn-diode structure it is expected and known that they are sensitive to ionising radiation as well as light. Indeed specially designed CCDs are able to be used to image X-rays. This paper reports on the response of CCDs to alpha particles. (author)

  16. Cherenkov angle and charge reconstruction with the RICH detector of the AMS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Barão, F; Borges, J; Gonçalves, P; Pimenta, M; Pérez, I

    2003-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer experiment to be installed on the International Space Station will be equipped with a proximity focusing Ring Imaging Cherenkov (RICH) detector, for measurements of particle electric charge and velocity. In this note, two possible methods for reconstructing the Cherenkov angle and the electric charge with the RICH are discussed. A Likelihood method for the Cherenkov angle reconstruction was applied leading to a velocity determination for protons with a resolution of around 0.1%. The existence of a large fraction of background photons which can vary from event to event implied a charge reconstruction method based on an overall efficiency estimation on an event-by-event basis.

  17. Investigation of the charge collection for strongly irradiated silicon strip detectors of the CMS ECAL Preshower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bloch, Ph.; Peisert, A.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, A.E.; Hou, S.; Lin, W.T.; Cheremukhin, A.E.; Golutvin, I.A.; Urkinbaev, A.R.; Zamyatin, N.I.; Loukas, D.

    2001-01-01

    Strongly irradiated (2.3·10 14 n/cm 2 ) silicon strip detectors of different size, thickness and different design options were tested in a muon beam at CERN in 1999. A charge collection efficiency in excess of 85% and a signal-to-noise ratio of about 6 are obtained in all cases at high enough bias voltage. Details of the charge collection in the interstrip and the guard ring region and cross-talk between strips were also studied. We find that the charge collection efficiency and the cross-talk between strips depend on the interstrip distance

  18. Charge collection and absorption-limited x-ray sensitivity of pixellated x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabir, M. Zahangir; Kasap, S.O.

    2004-01-01

    The charge collection and absorption-limited x-ray sensitivity of a direct conversion pixellated x-ray detector operating in the presence of deep trapping of charge carriers is calculated using the Shockley-Ramo theorem and the weighting potential of the individual pixel. The sensitivity of a pixellated x-ray detector is analyzed in terms of normalized parameters; (a) the normalized x-ray absorption depth (absorption depth/photoconductor thickness), (b) normalized pixel width (pixel size/thickness), and (c) normalized carrier schubwegs (schubweg/thickness). The charge collection and absorption-limited sensitivity of pixellated x-ray detectors mainly depends on the transport properties (mobility and lifetime) of the charges that move towards the pixel electrodes and the extent of dependence increases with decreasing normalized pixel width. The x-ray sensitivity of smaller pixels may be higher or lower than that of larger pixels depending on the rate of electron and hole trapping and the bias polarity. The sensitivity of pixellated detectors can be improved by ensuring that the carrier with the higher mobility-lifetime product is drifted towards the pixel electrodes

  19. Annealing effects on the charged particles registration characteristic of the CR-39 traces solid detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, M.M.

    1989-10-01

    CR-39 trace solid detectors samples, previously exposed to alpha particles and fission fragments from a Cf-252 source, were submitted to a annealing treatment to study his effects on the characteristics of charged particle traces registration. (L.C.J.A.)

  20. Fading of CaSO4 thermoluminescent detectors after exposure to charged particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pachnerová Brabcová, Kateřina; Štěpán, Václav; Kubančák, Ján; Davídková, Marie; Ambrožová, Iva

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 12 (2017), s. 569-572 ISSN 1350-4487 R&D Projects: GA ČR GJ15-16622Y Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : thermoluminescent detectors * CaSO4:Dy * fading * charged particles Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nuclear physics Impact factor: 1.442, year: 2016

  1. Systematics of Charged Particle Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions with the PHOBOS Detector at Rhic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Peter A.; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Betts, R. R.; Bindel, R.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Corbo, J.; Decowski, M. P.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Henderson, C.; Hicks, D.; Hofman, D.; Hollis, R. S.; Hołyński, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Khan, N.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Rafelski, M.; Rbeiz, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rosenberg, L.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stodulski, M.; Sukhanov, A.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.

    2002-03-01

    The multiplicity of charged particles produced in Au+Au collisions as a function of energy, centrality, rapidity and azimuthal angle has been measured with the PHOBOS detector at RHIC. These results contribute to our understanding of the initial state of heavy ion collisions and provide a means to compare basic features of particle production in nuclear collisions with more elementary systems.

  2. Charge collection in Si detectors irradiated in situ at superfluid helium temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, Elena, E-mail: elena.verbitskaya@cern.ch [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Eremin, Vladimir; Zabrodskii, Andrei [Ioffe Institute, 26 Politekhnicheskaya str., St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Dehning, Bernd; Kurfürst, Christoph; Sapinski, Mariusz; Bartosik, Marcin R. [CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Egorov, Nicolai [Research Institute of Material Science and Technology, 4 Passage 4806, Moscow, Zelenograd 124460 (Russian Federation); Härkönen, Jaakko [Helsinki Institute of Physics, P.O.Box 64 (Gustaf Hallströmin katu 2) FI-00014 University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2015-10-01

    Silicon and diamond detectors operated in a superfluid helium bath are currently being considered for the upgrade of the LHC beam loss monitoring system. The detectors would be installed in immediate proximity of the superconducting coils of the triplet magnets. We present here the results of the in situ irradiation test for silicon detectors using 23 GeV protons while keeping the detectors at a temperature of 1.9 K. Red laser (630 nm) Transient Current Technique and DC current measurements were used to study the pulse response and collected charge for silicon detectors irradiated to a maximum radiation fluence of 1×10{sup 16} p/cm{sup 2}. The dependence between collected charge and irradiation fluence was parameterized using the Hecht equation and assumption of a uniform electric field distribution. The collected charge was found to degrade with particle fluence for both bias polarities. We observed that the main factor responsible for this degradation was related to trapping of holes on the donor-type radiation-induced defects. In contrast to expectations, along with formation of donors, acceptor-type defects (electron traps) are introduced into the silicon bulk. This suggests that the current models describing charge collection in irradiated silicon detectors require an extension for taking into account trapping at low temperatures with a contribution of shallow levels. New in situ irradiation tests are needed and planned now to extend statistics of the results and gain a deeper insight into the physics of low temperature detector operation in harsh radiation environment. - Highlights: • Si detectors irradiated in situ at 1.9 K by 23 GeV protons are further studied. • Trapping parameters are derived from the fits of collected charge vs. fluence data. • Acceptor-type defects are likely to be induced along with donor-type ones. • Trapping of holes has a dominating effect on the collected charge degradation. • New tests are planned to gain deeper insight

  3. Improved charge collection of the buried p-i-n a-Si:H radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujieda, I.; Cho, G.; Conti, M.; Drewery, J.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Street, R.A.

    1989-09-01

    Charge collection in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) radiation detectors is improved for high LET particle detection by adding thin intrinsic layers to the usual p-i-n structure. This buried p-i-n structure enables us to apply higher bias and the electric field is enhanced. When irradiated by 5.8 MeV α particles, the 5.7 μm thick buried p-i-n detector with bias 300V gives a signal size of 60,000 electrons, compared to about 20,000 electrons with the simple p-i-n detectors. The improved charge collection in the new structure is discussed. The capability of tailoring the field profile by doping a-Si:H opens a way to some interesting device structures. 17 refs., 7 figs

  4. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z; O` Connor, D J [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1994-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  5. A time of flight detector for high energy heavy particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Z.; O`Connor, D.J. [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    As a commonly used method to measure the energy of a particle with known mass, the flight time of the particle travelling over a certain distance is measured. A detector based on this principle is called a time-of-flight (TOF) detector which has attracted interests constantly during the last 15 years. For high energy heavy particle energy detection, TOF detector is an appropriated choice and such a system, developed recently, is described in this paper. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  6. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-09-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  7. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; García, M. Fernández; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.; Stricker, M.; Vila, I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n"+"+–p"+–p structure, where the doping profile of the p"+ layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  8. Recent technological developments on LGAD and iLGAD detectors for tracking and timing applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Fadeyev, V. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Fernández-Martínez, P. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); García, M. Fernández [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain); Flores, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Galloway, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Gallrapp, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Hidalgo, S. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Liang, Z. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Merlos, A. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Moll, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectrónica, IMB-CNM-CSIC, Barcelona (Spain); Sadrozinski, H. [Santa Cruz Institute of Particle Physics SCIPP, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Stricker, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Vila, I. [Instituto de Física de Cantabria IFCA-CSIC-UC, Santander (Spain)

    2016-09-21

    This paper reports the latest technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n{sup ++}–p{sup +}–p structure, where the doping profile of the p{sup +} layer is optimized to achieve high field and high impact ionization at the junction. The LGAD structures are optimized for applications such as tracking or timing detectors for high energy physics experiments or medical applications where time resolution lower than 30 ps is required. Detailed TCAD device simulations together with the electrical and charge collection measurements are presented through this work.

  9. Performance of silicon pad detectors after mixed irradiations with neutrons and fast charged hadrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramberger, G. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: Gregor.Kramberger@ijs.si; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M. [Jozef Stefan Institute, Department of Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2009-10-11

    A large set of silicon pad detectors produced on MCz and FZ wafer of p- and n-type was irradiated in two steps, first by fast charged hadrons followed by reactor neutrons. In this way the irradiations resemble the real irradiation fields at LHC. After irradiations controlled annealing started in steps during which the evolution of full depletion voltage, leakage current and charge collection efficiency was monitored. The damage introduced by different irradiation particles was found to be additive. The most striking consequence of that is a decrease of the full depletion voltage for n-type MCz detectors after additional neutron irradiation. This confirms that effective donors introduced by charged hadron irradiation are compensated by acceptors from neutron irradiation.

  10. Performance of silicon pad detectors after mixed irradiations with neutrons and fast charged hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramberger, G.; Cindro, V.; Dolenc, I.; Mandic, I.; Mikuz, M.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2009-01-01

    A large set of silicon pad detectors produced on MCz and FZ wafer of p- and n-type was irradiated in two steps, first by fast charged hadrons followed by reactor neutrons. In this way the irradiations resemble the real irradiation fields at LHC. After irradiations controlled annealing started in steps during which the evolution of full depletion voltage, leakage current and charge collection efficiency was monitored. The damage introduced by different irradiation particles was found to be additive. The most striking consequence of that is a decrease of the full depletion voltage for n-type MCz detectors after additional neutron irradiation. This confirms that effective donors introduced by charged hadron irradiation are compensated by acceptors from neutron irradiation.

  11. A Search for Charged Massive Long-Lived Particles Using the D0 Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Y.

    2009-01-01

    A search for charged massive stable particles has been performed with the D0 detector using 1.1 fb -1 of data. The speed of the particle has been calculated based on the time-of-flight and position information in the muon system. The present research is limited to direct pair-production of the charged massive long-lived particles. We do not consider CMSPs that result from the cascade decays of heavier particles. In this analysis, the exact values of the model parameters of the entire supersymmetric particle mass spectrum, relevant for cascade decays, are not important. We found no evidence of the signal. 95% CL cross-section upper limits have been set on the pair-productions of the stable scaler tau lepton, the gaugino-like charginos, and the higgsino-like charginos. The upper cross section limits vary from 0.31 pb to 0.04 pb, for stau masses in the range between 60 GeV and 300 GeV. We use the nominal value of the theoretical cross section to set limits on the mass of the pair produced charginos. We exclude the pair-produced stable gaugino-like charginos with mass below 206 GeV, and higgsino-like charginos below 171 GeV, respectively. Although the present sensitivity is insufficient to test the model of the pair produced stable staus, we do set cross section limits which can be applied to the pair production of any charged massive stable particle candidates with similar kinematics. These are the most restrictive limits to the present on the cross sections for CMSPs and the first published from the Tevatron Collider Run II. The manuscript has been published by Physical Review Letters in April 2009 and is available at arXiv as.

  12. Design of a versatile detector for the detection of charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron interaction with the matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez P, J.J.

    1991-01-01

    The Fostron detector detects charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays with a reasonable discrimination power. Because the typical detectors for neutrons present a great uncertainty in the detection, this work was focused mainly to the neutron detection in presence of gamma radiation. Also there are mentioned the advantages and disadvantages of the Fostron detector

  13. Effect of trapping of charge carriers on the resolution of Ge(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venturini, Luzia

    1979-01-01

    In this work a measurement is described of the variation of the resolution of a Ge(Li) detector as a function of the position of irradiation of a collimated gamma-ray beam. Also the variation of the resolution has been measured as a function of the applied detector voltage, using a collimated and a non-collimated gamma-ray beam. The measurement indicate that in the process of charge collection loss of holes predominates and the best resolution is obtained in the middle of the compensated region. It has been verified that, in the case of a collimated gamma beam the detector resolution improves with increasing detector bias up to at least 5100 Volts. For a non-collimated gamma beam, however, the resolution reaches a constant value at about 4400 Volts. The dependence of resolution on the position of irradiation can be accounted for by introducing a local ionization factor different from the usual position independent Fano factor. (author)

  14. Degradation of charge sharing after neutron irradiation in strip silicon detectors with different geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casse, G.; Dervan, P.; Forshaw, D.; Greenall, A.; Huse, T.; Tsurin, I.; Wormald, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the CERN/RD50 collaboration is the improvement of the radiation tolerance of semiconductor detectors for future experiments at high-luminosity colliders. In the RD50 framework, evidence of enhanced signal charge in severely irradiated silicon detectors (diodes, segmented planar and 3D devices) was found. The underlying mechanism was labelled charge multiplication. This has been one of the most exciting results from the research activity of RD50 because it could allow for a greatly extended radiation tolerance, if the mechanism is to be found controllable and tuneable. The charge multiplication mechanism is governed by impact ionisation from electrons drifting in high electric field. The electric field profile is influenced by the geometry of the implanted electrodes. In order to investigate the influence of the diode implantation geometry on charge multiplication, the RD50 collaboration has commissioned the production of miniature microstrip silicon sensors with various choices of strip pitch and strip width over pitch (w/p) ratios. Moreover, some of the sensors were produced interleaving readout strips with dummy intermediate ones in order to modify the electric field profile. These geometrical solutions can influence both charge multiplication and charge sharing between adjacent strips. The initial results of this study are here presented

  15. Application of CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier in triple-GEM detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai Yongfang; Li Jin; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Deng Zhi; Li Yulan; Liu Yinong; Li Yuanjing

    2006-01-01

    Among the various micro-pattern gas detectors (MPGD) that are available, the gas electron multiplier (GEM) detector is an attractive gas detector that has been used in particle physics experiments. However the GEM detector usually needs thousands of preamplifier units for its large number of micro-pattern readout strips or pads, which leads to considerable difficulties and complexities for front end electronics (FEE). Nowadays, by making use of complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS)-based application specific integrated circuit (ASIC), it is feasible to integrate hundreds of preamplifier units and other signal process circuits in a small-sized chip, which can be bound to the readout strips or pads of a micro-pattern particle detector (MPPD). Therefore, CMOS ASIC may provide an ideal solution to the readout problem of MPPD. In this article, a triple GEM detector is constructed and one of its readout strips is connected to a CMOS charge-sensitive preamplifier chip. The chip was exposed to an 55 Fe source of 5.9 kev X-ray, and the amplitude spectrum of the chip was tested, and it was found that the energy resolution was approximately 27%, which indicates that the chip can be used in triple GEM detectors. (authors)

  16. Identification of charged particles by etching the solid state nuclear track detectors in successive intervals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randhawa, G.S.; Virk, H.S.

    1997-01-01

    The suitability of the method of charged particle identification by etching the samples in successive intervals developed by Grabez et al. has been checked in CR-39 exposed to heavy ions 238 U, 208 Pb, 197 Au and 132 Xe in the interval 11.0 to 17.0 MeV/u. A similar study has been made on soda glass detectors irradiated by 238 U, 132 Xe, 56 Fe and 48 Ti ions having energy 4.0 to 6.0 MeV/u. It is concluded that this method of particle identification can be used successfully in CR-39 and soda glass detectors. (author)

  17. A prediction of the neutron and charged particle backgrounds in the L detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.M.; Kinnison, W.W.; Wilson, W.B.

    1990-01-01

    Monte Carlo calculations have been made of the neutron flux and activation in the forward and barrel calorimeters in the L* detector and of the neutron flux in the central detector volume. In addition estimates of the charged particle and neutron background rates in the vicinity of the muon chambers has been determined. The Los Alamos National Laboratory code system LAHET and CINDER, 90 along with ISAJET and GEANT were used in these studies. The results indicate that neutron fluences as low as 2 x 10 12 per SSC year can be achieved in the central volume. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  18. Measurement of the atmospheric muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agafonova, N.; Boyarkin, V.; Enikeev, R.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryasny, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Yakushev, V.; Anokhina, A.; Galkin, V.I.; Nikitina, V.; Osedlo, V.; Publichenko, P.; Roganova, T.; Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Rokujo, H.; Ariga, A.; Ariga, T.; Ereditato, A.; Juget, F.; Knuesel, J.; Kreslo, I.; Lutter, G.; Meisel, F.; Moser, U.; Pistillo, C.; Pretzl, K.; Vuilleumier, J.L.; Autiero, D.; Brugiere, T.; Cazes, A.; Chaussard, L.; Declais, Y.; Marteau, J.; Pennacchio, E.; Tran, T.; Badertscher, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Rubbia, A.; Strauss, T.; Bagulya, A.; Chernyavsky, M.; Goncharova, L.; Orlova, G.; Polukhina, N.; Starkov, N.; Vladimirov, M.; Bertolin, A.; Dal Corso, F.; Dusini, S.; Besnier, M.; Duchesneau, D.; Favier, J.; Pessard, H.; Zghiche, A.; Bick, D.; Ebert, J.; Ferber, T.; Goellnitz, C.; Hagner, C.; Lenkeit, J.; Oldorf, C.; Schmidt Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Bozza, C.; D'Amato, G.; Grella, G.; Policastro, G.; Rescigno, R.; Romano, G.; Sirignano, C.; Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Kose, U.; Brunetti, G.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mauri, N.; Pozzato, M.; Sioli, M.; Tenti, M.; Buontempo, S.; Chukanov, A.; Di Capua, F.; Marotta, A.; Migliozzi, P.; Scotto Lavina, L.; Tioukov, V.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Grianti, F.; Paniccia, M.; Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Terranova, F.; Votano, L.; Chon-Sen, N.; Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A.; Cozzi, M.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Di Giovanni, A.; Esposito, L.S.; Gustavino, C.; De Lellis, G.; Russo, A.; Strolin, P.; De Serio, M.; Fini, R.; Ieva, M.; Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Di Marco, N.; Monacelli, P.; Park, B.D.; Park, I.G.; Pupilli, F.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Naumov, D.; Olchevski, A.; Sheshukov, A.; Zemskova, S.; Egorov, O.; Golubkov, D.; Rostovtseva, I.; Zaitsev, Y.; Frekers, D.; Pilipenko, V.; Fukuda, T.; Hamada, K.; Hoshino, K.; Kazuyama, M.; Komatsu, M.; Kubota, H.; Miyamoto, S.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Nonoyama, Y.; Sato, O.; Takahashi, S.; Yoshioka, T.; Yoshida, J.; Fukushima, C.; Kimura, M.; Matsuo, T.; Mikado, S.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H.; Goldberg, J.; Guler, M.; Tolun, P.; Tufanli, S.; Hierholzer, M.; Jakovcic, K.; Klicek, B.; Ljubicic, A.; Stipcevic, M.; Kim, S.H.; Song, J.S.; Yoon, C.S.; Kodama, K.; Longhin, A.; Stanco, L.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S.; Rosa, G.; Schembri, A.; Sato, Y.; Tezuka, I.; Schroeder, H.; Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G.

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the atmospheric muon charge ratio R μ =N μ + /N μ - in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 atmospheric muons corresponding to 113.4 days of lifetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the R μ dependence on the primary composition. The measured R μ values were corrected taking into account the charge-misidentification errors. Data have also been grouped in five bins of the ''vertical surface energy'' E μ cos θ. A fit to a simplified model of muon production in the atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum. (orig.)

  19. X-Ray Beam Studies of Charge Sharing in Small Pixel, Spectroscopic, CdZnTe Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwork, Christopher; Kitou, Dimitris; Chaudhuri, Sandeep; Sellin, Paul J.; Seller, Paul; Veale, Matthew C.; Tartoni, Nicola; Veeramani, Perumal

    2012-08-01

    Recent advances in the growth of CdZnTe material have allowed the development of small pixel, spectroscopic, X-ray imaging detectors. These detectors have applications in a diverse range of fields such as medical, security and industrial sectors. As the size of the pixels decreases relative to the detector thickness, the probability that charge is shared between multiple pixels increases due to the non zero width of the charge clouds drifting through the detector. These charge sharing events will result in a degradation of the spectroscopic performance of detectors and must be considered when analyzing the detector response. In this paper charge sharing and charge loss in a 250 μm pitch CdZnTe pixel detector has been investigated using a mono-chromatic X-ray beam at the Diamond Light Source, U.K. Using a 20 μm beam diameter the detector response has been mapped for X-ray energies both above (40 keV) and below (26 keV) the material K-shell absorption energies to study charge sharing and the role of fluorescence X-rays in these events.

  20. Calculating and optimizing inter-electrode capacitances of charge division microchannel plate detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, Yan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Bo, E-mail: chenb@ciomp.ac.cn [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Zhang, Hong-Ji; Wang, Hai-Feng; He, Ling-Ping [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); Jin, Fang-Yuan [Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130033 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2016-04-01

    Based on the principle of charge division microchannel plate detectors, the inter-electrode capacitances of charge division anodes which are related to electronic noise of the charge sensitive amplifier and crosstalk effect of the anode are presented. Under all the requirements of charge division microchannel plate detectors such as the imaging linearity and spatial resolution, decreasing the inter-electrode capacitances is one way to improve the imaging performance. In this paper, we illustrate the simulation process of calculating the inter-electrode capacitances. Moreover, a Wedge and Strip (WSZ) anode is fabricated with the picosecond laser micromachining process. Comparing the simulated capacitances and measured capacitances, the three-dimensional finite element method is proved to be valid. Furthermore, by adjusting the design parameters of the anode, the effects of the substrate permittivity, insulation width and the size of pitch on the inter-electrode capacitances have been analysed. The structure of the charge division anode has been optimized based on the simulation data.

  1. Incomplete charge collection in an HPGe double-sided strip detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayward, Jason; Wehe, David

    2008-01-01

    For gamma-ray detection, high-purity germanium (HPGe) has long been the standard for energy resolution, and double-sided strip detectors (DSSDs) offer the possibility of sub-millimeter position resolution. Our HPGe DSSD is 81 mm in diameter, 11-mm thick, and has 3-mm strip pitch with a gap width of 500 μm. In this work, we focus on characterizing just the interactions that occur between collecting strips. Simulation and measurement results for our HPGe DSSD show that the gap between strips is the most position-sensitive region. But, spectra collected from events that occur in and near the gaps are complicated by: (1) incomplete charge-carrier collection, or charge loss; (2) signal variance introduced by charge-carrier cloud size, orientation, and lateral spreading; and (3) the difficulty of distinguishing single interactions from multiple close interactions. Using tightly, collimated beams of monoenergetic gamma rays, the measured energy spectra at the gap center show that incomplete charge collection is significant in our detector at 356 and 662 keV, resulting in degradation of the photopeak efficiency. Additionally, close interactions are identifiable in the spectra. Thus, close interactions must be identified on an event-by-event basis in order to precisely identify gap interaction position or make charge-loss corrections at these energies. Furthermore, spectral differences are observed between anode and cathode gaps, and a possible reason for this asymmetry is proposed

  2. Time delay and the dyon charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, B.

    1983-01-01

    The scattering of fermions from a magnetic monopole is analyzed in a theory with CP nonconservation. The dyon charge that arises can be understood as a Friedel sum rule from the theory of alloys, as the data for a Riemann-Hilbert problem in the theory of integral equations, and as a consequence of specifying Wigner's R matrix at the monopole core

  3. Charged Particle Identification using the Liquid Xenon Calorimeter of the CMD-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Akhmetshin, R R; Anisenkov, A V; Aulchenko, V M; Banzarov, V Sh; Bashtovoy, N S; Bondar, A E; Bragin, A V; Eidelman, S I; Epifanov, D A; Epshteyn, L B; Erofeev, A L; Fedotovich, G V; Gayazov, S E; Grebenuk, A A; Gribanov, S S; Grigoriev, D N; Ignatov, F V; Ivanov, V L; Karpov, S V; Kazanin, V F; Korobov, A A; Kovalenko, O A; Kozyrev, A N; Kozyrev, E A; Krokovny, P P; Kuzmenko, A E; Kuzmin, A S; Logashenko, I B; Lukin, P A; Mikhailov, K Yu; Okhapkin, V S; Pestov, Yu N; Popov, A S; Razuvaev, G P; Ruban, A A; Ryskulov, N M; Ryzhenenkov, A E; Shebalin, V E; Shemyakin, D N; Shwartz, B A; Sibidanov, A L; Solodov, E P; Talyshev, A A; Titov, V M; Vorobiov, A I; Yudin, Yu V

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a currently being developed procedure of the charged particle identification for CMD-3 detector, installed at the VEPP-2000 collider. The procedure is based on the application of the boosted decision trees classification method, and uses as input variables, among others, the specific energy losses of charged particle in the layers of the liquid Xenon calorimeter. The efficiency of the procedure is demonstrated by an example of the extraction of events of e+e- to K+K- process in the center of mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  4. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    OpenAIRE

    Mauri, N; Siol, M

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also sho...

  5. The noise analysis and optimum filtering techniques for a two-dimensional position sensitive orthogonal strip gamma ray detector employing resistive charge division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, M.S.; Muller, D.W.

    1976-01-01

    The analysis of an orthogonal strip, two-dimensional position sensitive high purity germanium gamma ray detector is discussed. Position sensitivity is obtained by connecting each electrode strip on the detector to a resistor network. Charge, entering the network, divides in relation to the resistance between its entry point and the virtual earth points of the charge sensitive preamplifiers located at the end of each resistor network. The difference of the voltage pulses at the output of each preamplifier is proportional to the position at which the charge entered the resistor network and the sum of the pulse is proportional to the energy of the detected gamma ray. The analysis and spatial noise resolution is presented for this type of position sensitive detector. The results of the analysis show that the position resolution is proportional to the square root of the filter amplifier's output pulse time constant and that for energy measurement the resolution is maximized at the filter amplifier's noise corner time constant. The design of the electronic noise filtering system for the prototype gamma ray camera was based on the mathematical energy and spatial resolution equations. For the spatial channel a Gaussian trapezoidal filtering system was developed. Gaussian filtering was used for the energy channel. The detector noise model was verified by taking rms noise measurements of the filtered energy and spatial pulses from resistive readout charge dividing detectors. These measurements were within 10% of theory. (Auth.)

  6. Study of Charge Diffusion in a Silicon Detector Using an Energy Sensitive Pixel Readout Chip

    CERN Document Server

    Schioppa, E. J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Visser, J.; Koffeman, E.; Heijne, E.; Engel, K. J.; Uher, J.

    2015-01-01

    A 300 μm thick thin p-on-n silicon sensor was connected to an energy sensitive pixel readout ASIC and exposed to a beam of highly energetic charged particles. By exploiting the spectral information and the fine segmentation of the detector, we were able to measure the evolution of the transverse profile of the charge carriers cloud in the sensor as a function of the drift distance from the point of generation. The result does not rely on model assumptions or electric field calculations. The data are also used to validate numerical simulations and to predict the detector spectral response to an X-ray fluorescence spectrum for applications in X-ray imaging.

  7. Novel time-dependent alignment of the ATLAS Inner Detector in the LHC Run 2

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00386283; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    ATLAS is a multipurpose experiment at the LHC proton-proton collider. Its physics goals require an unbiased and high resolution measurement of the charged particle kinematic parameters. These critically depend on the layout and performance of the tracking system and the quality of the alignment of its components. For the LHC Run 2, the system has been upgraded with the installation of a new pixel layer, the Insertable B-layer (IBL). ATLAS Inner Detector alignment framework has been adapted and upgraded to correct very short time scale movements of the sub-detectors. In particular, a mechanical distortion of the IBL staves up to 20 μm and a vertical displacement of the Pixel detector of ~6 μm have been observed during data-taking. The techniques used to correct for these effects and to match the required Inner Detector performance will be presented.

  8. Trajectory bending and energy spreading of charged ions in time-of-flight telescopes used for ion beam analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, Mikko; Sajavaara, Timo

    2014-01-01

    Carbon foil time pick-up detectors are widely used in pairs in ion beam applications as time-of-flight detectors. These detectors are suitable for a wide energy range and for all ions but at the lowest energies the tandem effect limits the achievable time of flight and therefore the energy resolution. Tandem effect occurs when an ion passes the first carbon foil of the timing detector and its charge state is changed. As the carbon foil of the first timing detector has often a non-zero voltage the ion can accelerate or decelerate before and after the timing detector. The combination of different charge state properties before and after the carbon foil now induces spread to the measured times of flight. We have simulated different time pick-up detector orientations, voltages, ions and ion energies to examine the tandem effect in detail and found out that the individual timing detector orientation and the average ion charge state have a very small influence to the magnitude of the tandem effect. On the other hand, the width of the charge state distribution for particular ion and energy in the first carbon foil, and the carbon foil voltage contributes linearly to the magnitude of the tandem effect. In the simulations low energy light ion trajectories were observed to bend in the electric fields of the first timing gate, and the magnitude of this bending was studied. It was found out that 50–150 keV proton trajectories can even bend outside the second timing gate

  9. Understanding sensitization behavior of lead selenide photoconductive detectors by charge separation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Lihua; Qiu, Jijun; Weng, Binbin; Chang, Caleb; Yuan, Zijian; Shi, Zhisheng

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a charge separation model in this work to explain the mechanism of enhanced photoconductivity of polycrystalline lead salt photoconductors. Our results show that this model could clarify the heuristic fabrication processes of such lead salt detectors that were not well understood and often considered mysterious for nearly a century. The improved lifetime and performance of the device, e.g., responsivity, are attributed to the spatial separation of holes and electrons, hence less possibility of carrier recombination. This model shows that in addition to crystal quality the size of crystallites, the depth of outer conversion layer, and doping concentration could all affect detector performance. The simulation results agree well with experimental results and thus offer a very useful tool for further improvement of lead salt detectors. The model was developed with lead salt family of photoconductors in mind, but may well be applicable to a wider class of semiconducting films

  10. Charged-particle induced radiation damage of a HPGe gamma-ray detector during spaceflight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Larry G. [Computer Sciences Corporation, Science Programs, Lanham, MD 20706 (United States); Starr, Richard [The Catholic University of America, Department of Physics, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Brueckner, Johannes [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Boynton, William V. [University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Bailey, S.H. [University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Trombka, J.I. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 691, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    1999-02-11

    The Mars Observer spacecraft was launched on September 26, 1992 with a planned arrival at Mars after an 11-month cruise. Among the scientific instruments carried on the spacecraft was a Gamma-Ray Spectrometer (GRS) experiment to measure the composition of Mars. The GRS used a passively cooled high-purity germanium detector for measurements in the 0.2-10 MeV region. The sensor was a closed-end co-axial detector, 5.5 cm diameter by 5.5 cm long, and had an efficiency along its axis of 28% at 1332 keV relative to a standard NaI(Tl) detector. The sensor was surrounded by a thin (0.5 cm) plastic charged-particle shield. This was the first planetary mission to use a cooled Ge detector. It was expected that the long duration in space of three years would cause an increase in the energy resolution of the detector due to radiation damage and could affect the expected science return of the GRS. Shortly before arrival, on August 21, 1993, contact was lost with the spacecraft following the pressurization of the propellent tank for the orbital-insertion rocket motor. During much of the cruise to Mars, the GRS was actively collecting background data. The instrument provided over 1200 h of data collection during periods of both quiescent sun and solar flares. From the charged particle interactions in the shield, the total number of cosmic ray hits on the detector could be determined. The average cosmic ray flux at the MO GRS was about 2.5 cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The estimated fluence of charged particles during cruise was about 10{sup 8} particles cm{sup -2} with 31% of these occurring during a single solar proton event of approximately 10 days duration. During cruise, the detector energy resolution determined from a background gamma-ray at 1312 keV degraded from 2.4 keV full-width at half-maximum shortly after launch to 6.4 keV 11 months later. This result agrees well with measurements from ground-based accelerator irradiations (at 1.5 GeV) on a similar size detector.

  11. A Light Universal Detector for the Study of Correlations between Photons and Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    The WA93 experiment combines two essential means of quark matter diagnosis: \\item a)~~~~the measurement of photon production rates relative to charged particles or $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s \\item b)~~~~the measurement of transverse momenta of charged and neutral particles and their correlations. \\end{enumerate} \\\\ \\\\ The experimental setup consists of highly segmented lead glass arrays (3780~modules) at a distance of 9~m from the target covering the range 2~$<$~y~$<$~3. The detector allows to reconstruct the transverse momentum of $ \\pi ^0 ^{a}pos $s and $ \\eta ^{a}pos $s. A preshower detector which can be operated in a hadron-blind mode complements the photon measurement in the range 3~$<$~y~$<$~5.5. The detector yields the number of photons and,~-~to a limited extend~-, information on the total electromagnetic transverse energy. Charged particle tracking is achieved by a set of newly developed multistep avalanche chambers read out by CCD cameras downstream of the GOLIATH vertex magnet. Bose-Einstein c...

  12. R&D on a new type of micropattern gaseous detector: The Fast Timing Micropattern detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, M. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Abbrescia, M. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Akl, M. Abi [Texas A& M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); Aboamer, O. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egyptian Network of High Energy Physics, ASRT-ENHEP, Cairo (Egypt); Acosta, D. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Ahmad, A. [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ahmed, W. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Aleksandrov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria); Altieri, P. [INFN Bari and University of Bari, Bari (Italy); Asawatangtrakuldee, C. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Aspell, P. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Assran, Y. [Academy of Scientific Research and Technology, Egyptian Network of High Energy Physics, ASRT-ENHEP, Cairo (Egypt); Awan, I. [National Center for Physics, Quaid-i-Azam University Campus, Islamabad (Pakistan); Bally, S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Ban, Y. [Peking University, Beijing (China); Banerjee, S. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kolkata (India); Barashko, V. [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States); Barria, P. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Bencze, G. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Wigner Research Centre for Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary); and others

    2017-02-11

    This contribution introduces a new type of Micropattern Gaseous Detector, the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, utilizing fully Resistive WELL structures. The structure of the prototype will be described in detail and the results of the characterization study performed with an X-ray gun will be presented, together with the first results on time resolution based on data collected with muon/pion test beams.

  13. A Time-of-Flight System for Low Energy Charged Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Micheal; Sadwick, Krystalyn; Fletcher, Kurt; Padalino, Stephen

    2013-10-01

    A time-of-flight system has been developed to measure the energy of charged particles in the keV range. Positively charged ions passing through very thin carbon films mounted on grids generate secondary electrons. These electrons are accelerated by a -2000 V grid bias towards a grounded channeltron electron multiplier (CEM) which amplifies the signal. Two CEM detector assemblies are mounted 23.1 cm apart along the path of the ions. An ion generates a start signal by passing through the first CEM and a stop signal by passing through the second. The start and stop signals generate a time-of-flight spectrum via conventional electronics. Higher energy alpha particles from radioactive sources have been used to test the system. This time-of-flight system will be deployed to measure the energies of 15 to 30 keV ions produced by a duoplasmatron ion source that is used to characterize ICF detectors.

  14. CHANTI: a fast and efficient charged particle veto detector for the NA62 experiment at cern

    CERN Document Server

    Mirra, Marco

    This work has been performed into the frame of the NA62 experiment at CERN that aims at measuring the Branching-Ratio of the ultra-rare kaon decay K+→π+ nu nubar with 10% uncertainty - using an unseparated kaon beam of 75GeV/c - in order to test the Standard Model (SM), to look for physics beyond SM and to measure the |Vtd| element of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) flavor mixing matrix. Backgrounds, which are up to 10^10 times higher than the signal, will be suppressed by an accurate measurement of the momentum of the K+ (with a silicon beam tracker named GigaTracker) and the π+ (with a straw tracker) and by a complex system of particle identification and veto detectors. A critical background can be induced by inelastic interactions of the hadron beam with the GigaTracker. Pions produced in these interactions, emitted at low angle, can reach the straw tracker and mimic a kaon decay in the fiducial region, if no other track is detected. In order to suppress this background a CHarged track ANTIcounter ...

  15. Fluctuations in induced charge introduced by Te inclusions within CdZnTe radiation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bale, Derek S.

    2010-01-01

    Recently, homogenization theory based on a multiple-scale perturbation of the electron transport equation has been used to derive a mathematical framework for modeling the excess charge lost to Te inclusions within radiation detectors based on semi-insulating cadmium zinc telluride (CdZnTe). In that theory, the heterogeneous material is mathematically replaced by a homogenized CdZnTe crystal whose effective electron attenuation length incorporates the additional uniform electron trapping caused by the inclusions. In this paper, the homogenization theory is extended to incorporate fluctuations in the induced charge (i.e., charge collection nonuniformities) introduced by the random position and size distributions of a noncorrelated population of small (i.e, <20 μm) Te inclusions. Analysis of the effective parameters derived within the homogenized framework is used to develop a probability distribution of effective electron attenuation lengths, and therefore effective mobility-lifetime products, as a function of both the position and size distribution of Te inclusions. Example distributions are detailed for the case of an exponential size distribution at various number densities. Further, it is demonstrated that the inclusion-induced material nonuniformities derived in this paper can be numerically sampled efficiently, making them applicable to Monte Carlo device simulation of realistic CdZnTe detectors. Simulated charge induction maps and pulse-height spectra are presented and compared to recently published measurements.

  16. Measurement of the cosmic ray muon charge ratio with the OPERA detector

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, N

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA detector at the Gran Sasso underground laboratory (LNGS) was used to measure the cosmic ray muon charge ratio Rμ = Nμ+/Nμ− in the TeV energy region. We analyzed 403069 cosmic ray muons corresponding to 113.4 days of livetime during the 2008 CNGS run. We computed separately the muon charge ratio for single and for multiple muon events in order to select different energy regions of the primary cosmic ray spectrum and to test the Rμ dependence on the primary composition. Rμ is also shown as a function of the Òvertical surface energyÓ Eμ cos !. A Þt to a simpliÞed model of muon pro- duction in atmosphere allowed the determination of the pion and kaon charge ratios weighted by the cosmic ray energy spectrum.

  17. A New Approach for Evaluating Charge Transport Properties of Semiconductor Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyung O; Kim, Jong Kyung; Kim, Soon Young; Ha, Jang Ho

    2009-01-01

    The semiconductor detectors (e.g., CdTe, CdZnTe, and HgI 2 ) have been widely used for radiation detection and medical imaging because of its various outstanding features such as excellent energy resolution, wide bandgap energy, room temperature operation, and so on. Unfortunately, the performance of these detectors is mainly limited by the charge transport properties of semiconductor, especially the mobility-lifetime products (i.e., (μτ) e and ((μτ) h ). Hence, the analysis on the mobility-lifetime products is very important for evaluating correct characteristics of semiconductor detectors. A commonly used method to analyze the mobilitylifetime products is based on their responses to α particle. However, the α particle method cannot evaluate the ((μτ)h product in many cases, because a semiconductor detector operating at positive bias voltages often yields the energy spectrum without the peaks. This method is also known to be very sensitive to the experimental conditions as well as surface conditions of the detector. In this study, a new approach with gamma-ray instead of α particle was carried out to solve the determination difficulty of the ((μτ) h product with common method. The special relation between the two mobility-lifetime products, which we call the 'Nural equation', was also developed to simply obtain each parameter based on Hecht equation

  18. Design and calibration of a fast-time resolution charge exchange analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scime, E.; Hokin, S.

    1992-04-01

    A five channel, fast time resolution, scanning charge exchange analyzer has been developed for the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). The analyzer consists of an iron vacuum vessel, a gas stripping cell, an electrostatic bending field, and five continuous electron multiplier detectors. The incident neutral flux and operation of the detectors in current mode limits the time resolution of the analyzer to 10 μs. The analyzer was absolutely calibrated over the energy range of interest (500--2000 eV) with an H + beam, so that the charge exchange power loss could also be measured. The analyzer can be swiveled on a shot-to-shot basis for measurements of T i (r), where 0.3 < r/a < 0.7. The mechanical design was driven by the need for a low cost, expandable ion temperature diagnostic

  19. Measurement of the Muon Neutrino Inclusive Charged Current Cross Section on Iron using the MINOS Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loiacono, Laura Jean [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2010-05-01

    The Neutrinos at the Main Injector (NuMI) facility at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL) produces an intense muon neutrino beam used by the Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search (MINOS), a neutrino oscillation experiment, and the Main INjector ExpeRiment v-A, (MINERv A), a neutrino interaction experiment. Absolute neutrino cross sections are determined via σv = N vv , where the numerator is the measured number of neutrino interactions in the MINOS Detector and the denominator is the flux of incident neutrinos. Many past neutrino experiments have measured relative cross sections due to a lack of precise measurements of the incident neutrino flux, normalizing to better established reaction processes, such as quasielastic neutrino-nucleon scattering. But recent measurements of neutrino interactions on nuclear targets have brought to light questions about our understanding of nuclear effects in neutrino interactions. In this thesis the vμ inclusive charged current cross section on iron is measured using the MINOS Detector. The MINOS detector consists of alternating planes of steel and scintillator. The MINOS detector is optimized to measure muons produced in charged current vμ interactions. Along with muons, these interactions produce hadronic showers. The neutrino energy is measured from the total energy the particles deposit in the detector. The incident neutrino flux is measured using the muons produced alongside the neutrinos in meson decay. Three ionization chamber monitors located in the downstream portion of the NuMI beamline are used to measure the muon flux and thereby infer the neutrino flux by relation to the underlying pion and kaon meson flux. This thesis describes the muon flux instrumentation in the NuMI beam, its operation over the two year duration of this measurement, and the techniques used to derive the neutrino flux.

  20. Status of timing with plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moszynski, M.; Bengtson, B.

    1979-01-01

    Timing properties of scintillators and photomultipliers as well as theoretical and experimental studies of time resolution of scintillation counters are reviewed. Predictions of the theory of the scintillation pulse generation processes are compared with the data on the light pulse shape from small samples, in which the light pulse shape depends only on the composition of the scintillator. For larger samples the influence of the light collection process and the self-absorption process on the light pulse shape are discussed. The data on rise times, fwhm's, decay times and light yield of several commercial scintillators used in timing are collected. The next part of the paper deals with the properties of photomultipliers. The sources of time uncertainties in photomultipliers as a spread of the initial velocity of photoelectrons, emission of photoelectrons under different angles and from different points at the photocathode, the time spread and the gain dispersion introduced by electron photomultiplier are reviewed. The experimental data on the time jitter, single electron response and photoelectron yield of some fast photomultipliers are collected. As the time resolution of the timing systems with scintillation counters depends also on time pick-off units, a short presentation of the timing methods is given. The discussion of timing theories is followed by a review of experimental studies of the time resolution of scintillation counters. The paper is ended by an analysis of prospects on further progress of the subnanosecond timing with scintillation counters. (Auth.)

  1. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  2. Development and tests of MCP based timing and multiplicity detector for MIPs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feofilov, G.; Kondratev, V.; Stolyarov, O.; Tulina, T.; Valiev, F.; Vinogradov, L.

    2017-01-01

    We present summary of technological developments and tests of the MCP based large area detector aimed at precise timing and charged particles multiplicity measurements. Results obtained in course of these developments of isochronous (simultaneity) precise signal readout, passive summation of 1 ns signals, fast (1 GHz) front-end electronics, miniature vacuum systems, etc. could be potentially interesting for a number of future applications in different fields.

  3. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Kedar Mohan

    real HiZIP device operated at Queen's Test Facility produced an exposure limited 90% upper limit of about 1 in 100 events for surface event leakage. The data used in these studies contain true nuclear recoil events from cosmogenic and ambient neutrons. This background was not subtracted in the calculation of the upper limits stated above and hence they are highly conservative. A surface event source was produced by depositing lead-210 from radon exposure onto a copper plate. This source was then used to take data for a surface event discrimination study of the HiZIP detector operated at Queen's Test Facility. A study of the contribution of the noise from capacitive crosstalk between charge sensors in a HiZIP detector configuration was investigated, confirming the expectation that no significant drop in performance is to be expected due to this effect.

  4. Characterisation of Silicon Timing Detectors for the RD50 Collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Immig, David Maximilian

    2017-01-01

    Increasing pile-up and irradiation following with the high luminosity upgrade of the LHC, demands the development of improved semiconductor detectors. The former problem can be reduced by more precise time information, which can be obtained using a future detector based on the low gain avalanche diode (LGAD). LGADs are studied by the RD50-Collaboration, which studies the characteristics of semiconductor devices to improve these for future requirements of high energy physics. This reports is engaged with the process to characterise semiconductor detectors, specially LGADs, with capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements as well as transient current techniques of un- and irradiated semiconductor devices.

  5. Towards time-of-flight PET with a semiconductor detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariño-Estrada, Gerard; Mitchell, Gregory S.; Kwon, Sun Il; Du, Junwei; Kim, Hadong; Cirignano, Leonard J.; Shah, Kanai S.; Cherry, Simon R.

    2018-02-01

    The feasibility of using Cerenkov light, generated by energetic electrons following 511 keV photon interactions in the semiconductor TlBr, to obtain fast timing information for positron emission tomography (PET) was evaluated. Due to its high refractive index, TlBr is a relatively good Cerenkov radiator and with its wide bandgap, has good optical transparency across most of the visible spectrum. Coupling an SiPM photodetector to a slab of TlBr (TlBr-SiPM) yielded a coincidence timing resolution of 620 ps FWHM between the TlBr-SiPM detector and a LFS reference detector. This value improved to 430 ps FWHM by applying a high pulse amplitude cut based on the TlBr-SiPM and reference detector signal amplitudes. These results are the best ever achieved with a semiconductor PET detector and already approach the performance required for time-of-flight. As TlBr has higher stopping power and better energy resolution than the conventional scintillation detectors currently used in PET scanners, a hybrid TlBr-SiPM detector with fast timing capability becomes an interesting option for further development.

  6. Compact time-zero detector for heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissenberger, E.; Kast, W.; Goennenwein, F.

    1979-01-01

    A time-zero detector for flight-time measurements with heavy ions is described. The ions traverse a thin foil and the secondary electrons splashed from the foil are detected in a channel plate multiplier. A timing signal is derived from the multiplier pulse. The novel features of the detector are its simplicity and compactness of design. The time resolution achieved for the full energy and mass span of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of 252 Cf used as a heavy ion source is 115 ps (fwhm). (Auth.)

  7. Tests and calibration of NIF neutron time of flight detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Z A; Glebov, V Yu; Cruz, M; Duffy, T; Stoeckl, C; Roberts, S; Sangster, T C; Tommasini, R; Throop, A; Moran, M; Dauffy, L; Horsefield, C

    2008-10-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostic will measure neutron yield and ion temperature in all NIF campaigns in DD, DT, and THD(*) implosions. The NIF NTOF diagnostic is designed to measure neutron yield from 1x10(9) to 2x10(19). The NTOF consists of several detectors of varying sensitivity located on the NIF at about 5 and 20 m from the target. Production, testing, and calibration of the NIF NTOF detectors have begun at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). Operational tests of the NTOF detectors were performed on several facilities including the OMEGA laser at LLE and the Titan laser at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Neutron calibrations were carried out on the OMEGA laser. Results of the NTOF detector tests and calibration will be presented.

  8. Charged particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.L.; Fedotovich, G.V.; Anisenkov, A.V.; Grebenuk, A.A.; Mikhailov, K.Yu.; Kozyrev, A.A.; Shebalin, V.E.; Ruban, A.A.; Bashtovoy, N.S.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a procedure of particle identification with the liquid Xenon calorimeter of the CMD-3 detector currently being developed. The procedure uses the boosted decision tree classification method with specific energy losses of charged particles in the liquid Xenon calorimeter as input variables. The efficiency of the procedure is illustrated by an example of the measurement of the cross section of the process e + e − → K + K − in the center-of-mass energy range from 1.8 to 2.0 GeV.

  9. A main amplifier circuit and data acquisition system for charged particle detector array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Rui; Ge Yucheng

    2011-01-01

    The charged particle detector array has huge amounts of signal and needs high counting rate. To meet the requirements, a main amplifier and analog-to-digital conversion circuit based on high-speed op-amp chips and ADC chip was designed. A 51-MCU was used to control the circuit of ADC and the USB communication chip. The signals were digitized and uploaded by the MCU-ADC-USB circuit. The whole system has a compact hardware structure and a reasonable controlling software, which meet the design requirements. (authors)

  10. Charged particle production in p+Pb collisions measured by the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00287239; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    Per-event charged particle spectra and nuclear modification factors are measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC in p+Pb interactions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 5.02 TeV. Results are presented as a function of transverse momentum and in different intervals of collision centrality, which is characterised in p+Pb collisions by the total transverse energy measured over the pseudorapidity interval 3.2 < |η| < 4.9 in the direction of the lead beam. Three different calculations of the number of nucleons participating in p+Pb collisions have been performed, assuming the Glauber model and its Glauber-Gribov Colour Fluctuation extensions.

  11. Reduction of digital errors of digital charge division type position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uritani, A.; Yoshimura, K.; Takenaka, Y.; Mori, C.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that ''digital errors'', i.e. differential non-linearity, appear in a position profile of radiation interactions when the profile is obtained with a digital charge-division-type position-sensitive detector. Two methods are presented to reduce the digital errors. They are the methods using logarithmic amplifiers and a weighting function. The validities of these two methods have been evaluated mainly by computer simulation. These methods can considerably reduce the digital errors. The best results are obtained when both methods are applied. ((orig.))

  12. Measurement of the azimuthal ordering of charged hadrons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdesselam, Abdelouahab; Abdinov, Ovsat; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Aderholz, Michael; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Akiyama, Kunihiro; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Aliyev, Magsud; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral, Pedro; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amorós, Gabriel; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Andrieux, Marie-Laure; Anduaga, Xabier; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Archambault, John-Paul; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Astvatsatourov, Anatoli; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Ay, Cano; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Bachy, Gerard; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barashkou, Andrei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beare, Brian; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Behera, Prafulla; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Ben Ami, Sagi; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Benchouk, Chafik; Bendel, Markus; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertinelli, Francesco; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Böser, Sebastian; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bona, Marcella; Bondarenko, Valery; Bondioli, Mario; Boonekamp, Maarten; Boorman, Gary; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borroni, Sara; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Botterill, David; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozhko, Nikolay; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Braem, André; Branchini, Paolo; Brandenburg, George; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Breton, Dominique; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Brodbeck, Timothy; Brodet, Eyal; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchanan, Norman; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butin, François; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cambiaghi, Mario; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Caramarcu, Costin; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Cataneo, Fernando; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cauz, Diego; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Cevenini, Francesco; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Tingyang; Chen, Xin; Cheng, Shaochen; Cheplakov, Alexander; Chepurnov, Vladimir; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciba, Krzysztof; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciobotaru, Matei Dan; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Clifft, Roger; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coe, Paul; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Michele; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conventi, Francesco; Cook, James; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Coura Torres, Rodrigo; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crupi, Roberto; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Silva, Paulo Vitor; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dannheim, Dominik; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Daum, Cornelis; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Dawson, John; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Castro Faria Salgado, Pedro; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lotto, Barbara; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dean, Simon; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Dehchar, Mohamed; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delruelle, Nicolas; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diblen, Faruk; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donega, Mauro; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dosil, Mireia; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Dowell, John; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Drasal, Zbynek; Drees, Jürgen; Dressnandt, Nandor; Drevermann, Hans; Driouichi, Chafik; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebenstein, William; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Ehrich, Thies; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Eppig, Andrew; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Woiciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Ferland, Jonathan; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrer, Maria Lorenza; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filippas, Anastasios; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fischer, Peter; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fokitis, Manolis; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Forbush, David Alan; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Foster, Joe; Fournier, Daniel; Foussat, Arnaud; Fowler, Andrew; Fowler, Ken; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gapienko, Vladimir; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Garvey, John; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaumer, Olivier; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gayde, Jean-Christophe; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gilbert, Laura; Gilewsky, Valentin; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Göttfert, Tobias; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golovnia, Serguei; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonidec, Allain; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gorokhov, Serguei; Goryachev, Vladimir; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Groh, Manfred; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guarino, Victor; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guida, Angelo; Guindon, Stefan; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Ambreesh; Gusakov, Yury; Gushchin, Vladimir; Gutierrez, Andrea; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Hongguang; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Karl; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Hatch, Mark; Hauff, Dieter; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawes, Brian; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Hazen, Eric; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Henry-Couannier, Frédéric; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Hershenhorn, Alon David; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Daniel; Hill, John; Hill, Norman; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Homma, Yasuhiro; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horazdovsky, Tomas; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Houlden, Michael; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howarth, James; Howell, David; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hruska, Ivan; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Huang, Guang Shun; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Hughes-Jones, Richard; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurst, Peter; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Ichimiya, Ryo; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Yuri; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Imbault, Didier; Imori, Masatoshi; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishikawa, Akimasa; Ishino, Masaya; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jankowski, Ernest; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jelen, Kazimierz; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jenni, Peter; Jeremie, Andrea; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Ge; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Lars; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tegid; Jones, Tim; Jonsson, Ove; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joseph, John; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabachenko, Vasily; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kaiser, Steffen; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karagoz, Muge; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karr, Kristo; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Kennedy, John; Kenney, Christopher John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Kholodenko, Anatoli; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Nikolai; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Min Suk; Kim, Peter; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kirsch, Lawrence; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiver, Andrey; Kladiva, Eduard; Klaiber-Lodewigs, Jonas; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knobloch, Juergen; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kokott, Thomas; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollar, Daniel; Kollefrath, Michael; Kolya, Scott; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kootz, Andreas; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Koreshev, Victor; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotamäki, Miikka Juhani; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, James; Kraus, Jana; Kreisel, Arik; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruth, Andre; Kubota, Takashi; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kundu, Nikhil; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Landsman, Hagar; Lane, Jenna; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larionov, Anatoly; Larner, Aimee; Lasseur, Christian; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Lazarev, Alexandre; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; Lebel, Céline; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Leger, Annie; LeGeyt, Benjamin; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Leltchouk, Mikhail; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lesser, Jonas; Lester, Christopher; Leung Fook Cheong, Annabelle; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levitski, Mikhail; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Lifshitz, Ronen; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipinsky, Lukas; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Shengli; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Loken, James; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lutz, Gerhard; Lynn, David; Lys, Jeremy; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Macana Goia, Jorge Andres; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahalalel, Yair; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjavidze, Ioseb; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Manz, Andreas; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marin, Alexandru; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Robin; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Andrew; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Franck Francois; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Philippe; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mathes, Markus; Matricon, Pierre; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maugain, Jean-Marie; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; May, Edward; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mazzoni, Enrico; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; McGlone, Helen; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McLaren, Robert Andrew; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Menot, Claude; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Meyer, W Thomas; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Miralles Verge, Lluis; Misiejuk, Andrzej; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitrofanov, Gennady; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Miyazaki, Kazuki; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mockett, Paul; Moed, Shulamit; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Mohrdieck-Möck, Susanne; Moisseev, Artemy; Moles-Valls, Regina; Molina-Perez, Jorge; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montesano, Simone; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morii, Masahiro; Morin, Jerome; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morozov, Sergey; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mudrinic, Mihajlo; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Muir, Alex; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nation, Nigel; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nebot, Eduardo; Nechaeva, Polina; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Silke; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicolas, Ludovic; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Niinikoski, Tapio; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolaev, Kirill; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nishiyama, Tomonori; Nisius, Richard; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nordberg, Markus; Nordkvist, Bjoern; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nyman, Tommi; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Ohshita, Hidetoshi; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okada, Shogo; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olcese, Marco; Olchevski, Alexander; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Omachi, Chihiro; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panes, Boris; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Panuskova, Monika; Paolone, Vittorio; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Peng, Haiping; Pengo, Ruggero; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Persembe, Seda; Perus, Antoine; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Ping, Jialun; Pinto, Belmiro; Pirotte, Olivier; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskach, Anatoly; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Poghosyan, Tatevik; Pohl, Martin; Polci, Francesco; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomarede, Daniel Marc; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Posch, Christoph; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Pribyl, Lukas; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Price, Michael John; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Qian, Zuxuan; Qin, Zhonghua; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radics, Balint; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Ratoff, Peter; Rauscher, Felix; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reichold, Armin; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Reljic, Dusan; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Renkel, Peter; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richards, Alexander; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robinson, Mary; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Rodriguez, Diego; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rojo, Victoria; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romanov, Victor; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruggieri, Federico; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumiantsev, Viktor; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Runge, Kay; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rust, Dave; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Ryadovikov, Vasily; Ryan, Patrick; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Rzaeva, Sevda; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sandvoss, Stephan; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Says, Louis-Pierre; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scallon, Olivia; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schlereth, James; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schöning, André; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schuh, Silvia; Schuler, Georges; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Jan; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Segura, Ester; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sevior, Martin; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaver, Leif; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shichi, Hideharu; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simmons, Brinick; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Skvorodnev, Nikolai; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Sloper, John erik; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snuverink, Jochem; Snyder, Scott; Soares, Mara; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spila, Federico; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahl, Thorsten; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Stavropoulos, Georgios; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stevenson, Kyle; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Sugimoto, Takuya; Suhr, Chad; Suita, Koichi; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Sushkov, Serge; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Sviridov, Yuri; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Szeless, Balazs; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanaka, Yoshito; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tappern, Geoffrey; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Thadome, Jocelyn; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thioye, Moustapha; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tique Aires Viegas, Florbela De Jes; Tisserant, Sylvain; Toczek, Barbara; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokunaga, Kaoru; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tong, Guoliang; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Trinh, Thi Nguyet; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trivedi, Arjun; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Underwood, David; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valente, Paolo; Valentinetti, Sara; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; van der Graaf, Harry; van der Kraaij, Erik; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Kesteren, Zdenko; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vandoni, Giovanna; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Varela Rodriguez, Fernando; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Vellidis, Constantine; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vlasov, Nikolai; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Loeben, Joerg; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobiev, Alexander; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walbersloh, Jorg; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Joshua C; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Marc; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wen, Mei; Wenaus, Torre; Wendler, Shanti; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; Whitaker, Scott; White, Andrew; White, Martin; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Catherine; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wunstorf, Renate; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xie, Yigang; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Xu, Guofa; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaets, Vassilli; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zarzhitsky, Pavel; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeller, Michael; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zheng, Shuchen; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; Zolnierowski, Yves; Zsenei, Andras; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement of the ordering of charged hadrons in the azimuthal angle relative to the beam axis in high-energy proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A spectral analysis of correlations between longitudinal and transverse components of the momentum of the charged hadrons, driven by the search for phenomena related to the structure of the QCD field, is performed. Data were recorded with the ATLAS detector at centre-of-mass energies of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 900 GeV and $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. The correlations measured in a phase space region dominated by low-pT particles are not well described by conventional models of hadron production. The measured spectra show features consistent with the fragmentation of a QCD string represented by a helix-like ordered gluon chain.

  13. LHCb: A fast triple-GEM detector for high-rate charged-particle triggering

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    - GEM: Principle of Operation - Time Performances - Detector Prototypes and Test Setup - Gas Mixtures - Fields Optimisation - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2 (70/30) - Vgem Optimisation Ar/CO2/CF4 (60/20/20) - Time Distributions - Future Tests and Developments

  14. Advanced Photon Counting Imaging Detectors with 100ps Timing for Astronomical and Space Sensing Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, O.; Vallerga, J.; Welsh, B.; Rabin, M.; Bloch, J.

    In recent years EAG has implemented a variety of high-resolution, large format, photon-counting MCP detectors in space instrumentation for satellite FUSE, GALEX, IMAGE, SOHO, HST-COS, rocket, and shuttle payloads. Our scheme of choice has been delay line readouts encoding photon event position centroids, by determination of the difference in arrival time of the event charge at the two ends of a distributed resistive-capacitive (RC) delay line. Our most commonly used delay line configuration is the cross delay line (XDL). In its simplest form the delay-line encoding electronics consists of a fast amplifier for each end of the delay line, followed by time-to-digital converters (TDC's). We have achieved resolutions of Pulsar with a telescope as small as 1m. Although microchannel plate delay line detectors meet many of the imaging and timing demands of various applications, they have limitations. The relatively high gain (107) reduces lifetime and local counting rate, and the fixed delay (10's of ns) makes multiple simultaneous event recording problematic. To overcome these limitations we have begun development of cross strip readout anodes for microchannel plate detectors. The cross strip (XS) anode is a coarse (~0.5 mm) multi-layer metal and ceramic pattern of crossed fingers on an alumina substrate. The charge cloud is matched to the anode period so that it is collected on several neighboring fingers to ensure an accurate event charge centroid can be determined. Each finger of the anode is connected to a low noise charge sensitive amplifier and followed by subsequent A/D conversion of individual strip charge values and a hardware centroid determination of better than 1/100 of a strip are possible. Recently we have commissioned a full 32 x 32 mm XS open face laboratory detector and demonstrated excellent resolution (Los Alamos National Laboratory, NASA and NSF we are developing high rate (>107 Hz) XS encoding electronics that will encode temporally simultaneous

  15. A new timing detector for the CT-PPS project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arcidiacono, R. [INFN – Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy)

    2017-02-11

    The CT-PPS detector will be installed close to the beam line on both sides of CMS, 200 m downstream the interaction point. This detector will measure forward scattered protons, allowing detailed studies of diffractive hadron physics and Central Exclusive Production. The main components of the CT-PPS detector are a silicon tracking system and a timing system. In this contribution we present the proposal of an innovative solution for the timing system, based on Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are a novel concept of silicon detectors potentially able to obtain the necessary time resolution (∼20 ps on the proton arrival time). The use of UFSD has also other attractive features as its material budget is small and the pixel geometries can be tailored to the precise physics distribution of protons. UFSD prototypes for CT-PPS have been designed by CNM (Barcelona) and FBK (Trento): we will present the status of the sensor productions and of the low-noise front-end electronics currently under development and test.

  16. Effects of detector–source distance and detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of general purpose plastic scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ermis, E.E.; Celiktas, C.

    2012-01-01

    Effects of source-detector distance and the detector bias voltage variations on time resolution of a general purpose plastic scintillation detector such as BC400 were investigated. 133 Ba and 207 Bi calibration sources with and without collimator were used in the present work. Optimum source-detector distance and bias voltage values were determined for the best time resolution by using leading edge timing method. Effect of the collimator usage on time resolution was also investigated. - Highlights: ► Effect of the source-detector distance on time spectra was investigated. ► Effect of the detector bias voltage variations on time spectra was examined. ► Optimum detector–source distance was determined for the best time resolution. ► Optimum detector bias voltage was determined for the best time resolution. ► 133 Ba and 207 Bi radioisotopes were used.

  17. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10 6 neutrino events and 1.60 x 10 5 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section

  18. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 106 neutrino events and 1.60 x 105 antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  19. Time-of-flight positron emission tomography and associated detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vacher, J.; Allemand, R.; Campagnolo, R.

    1983-04-01

    An analysis of the timing capabilities of the detectors (scintillators and photomultipliers) in time-of-flight positron emission tomography is presented. The advantages of BaF 2 compared with CsF for the futur tomographs are evaluated [fr

  20. Time-of-flight detector with KBr working medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvanov, A.N.; Gavalyan, V.G.; Lorikyan, M.P.

    1983-01-01

    A detector of controlled secondary electron emission as a 3-electrode focusing electrostatic system of the photomultiplier input chamber having a microchannel electron plate herringbone assembly with the total gain of approXimately 10 7 is described. A controlled secondary emission emitter based on MgO or KBr is installed as a cathode. The detector is designed for time-of-flight spectrometers. The time resolution is < or approximately equal to 0.5 ns. The time-of-flight system realized on the base of such two detectors has 100% detection efficiency and it is ''transparent'' for an identified particle. Its characteristics for α particle, deuteron and proton detection are estimated

  1. Development of a β-delayed charged particle detector for studying novae and x-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Moshe; Budner, Tamas; Cortesi, Marco; Harris, Madison; Janasik, Molly; Perez-Loureiro, David; Pollaco, Emmanuel; Roosa, Michael; Tiwari, Pranjal; Wrede, Chris; Yurkon, John

    2017-09-01

    Classical novae and type I x-ray bursts are energetic and common thermonuclear astrophysical explosions. However, our ability to understand these events is limited by the lack of comprehensive nuclear data on proton-rich nuclei. Specifically, constraining the 30P(p , γ) 31S and 15O(α , γ) 19N e reaction rates has been found to be crucial to the understanding of nucleosynthesis and energy generation in these events. As direct measurements of these reactions are not technically feasible at the present time, a gas-filled detector of β-delayed charged particles has been designed and built to measure the 31Cl(βp) 30P and 20Mg(βpα) 15O decay sequences at NSCL, providing an indirect probe of resonances in the radiative capture reactions above. The detector is coupled with the Segmented Germanium Array (SeGA) to enable coincidence γ detection, as an additional probe of interaction details and for normalization purposes. The first phase of the detector functions as a proton calorimeter and it is currently being tested and optimized. We will describe the technical status of Phase I, including the concept, simulations, design, assembly, and first offline measurements using radioactive sources. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. PHY-1102511 and DOE Award No. DE-SC0016052.

  2. A 65 nm CMOS analog processor with zero dead time for future pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaioni, L., E-mail: luigi.gaioni@unibg.it [Università di Bergamo, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Braga, D.; Christian, D.C.; Deptuch, G.; Fahim, F. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia IL (United States); Nodari, B. [Università di Bergamo, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, APC/IN2P3, Paris (France); Ratti, L. [Università di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Re, V. [Università di Bergamo, I-24044 Dalmine (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pavia, I-27100 Pavia (Italy); Zimmerman, T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia IL (United States)

    2017-02-11

    Next generation pixel chips at the High-Luminosity (HL) LHC will be exposed to extremely high levels of radiation and particle rates. In the so-called Phase II upgrade, ATLAS and CMS will need a completely new tracker detector, complying with the very demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity (up to 5×10{sup 34} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} in the next decade). This work is concerned with the design of a synchronous analog processor with zero dead time developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, conceived for pixel detectors at the HL-LHC experiment upgrades. It includes a low noise, fast charge sensitive amplifier featuring a detector leakage compensation circuit, and a compact, single ended comparator that guarantees very good performance in terms of channel-to-channel dispersion of threshold without needing any pixel-level trimming. A flash ADC is exploited for digital conversion immediately after the charge amplifier. A thorough discussion on the design of the charge amplifier and the comparator is provided along with an exhaustive set of simulation results.

  3. Measurement of the Rise-Time in a Single Sided Ladder Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerber, C.E.

    1997-01-01

    In this note we report on the measurement of the preamplifier output rise time for a SVXII chip mounted on a D0 single sided ladder. The measurements were performed on the ladder 001-883-L, using the laser test stand of Lab D. The rise time was measured for different values of the response (or bandwidth) of the preamplifier. As a bigger bandwidth results in longer rise times and therefore in less noise, the largest possible bandwidth consistent with the time between bunch crossings should be chosen to operate the detectors. The rise time is defined as the time elapsed between 10% and 90% of the charge is collected. It is also interesting to measure the time for full charge collection and the percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. The results are shown in table 1, for bandwidths between 2 and 63 (binary numbers). The uncertainty on the time measurement is considered to be ∼ 10 ns. Figure 1 schematically defines the four quantities measured: rise time, time of full charge collection, and percentage of charge collected in 132 ns and 396 ns. Figures 2 to 8 are the actual measurements for bandwidths of 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32 and 63. Figure 9 is a second measurement for BW=24, used as a consistency check of the system and the time measurement performed on the plots. The data indicate that the single sided ladders can be operated at BW=63 for 396 ns and BW=12 for 132 ns, achieving full charge collection. This will result in smaller noise than originally anticipated.

  4. Beam test of a dual layer silicon charge detector (SCD) for the CREAM experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, N.H.; Ahn, H.S.; Ganel, O.; Han, J.H.; Jeon, J.A.; Kim, C.H.; Kim, K.C.; Lutz, L.; Lee, M.H.; Malinin, A.; Nam, S.; Park, I.H.; Park, J.H.; Seo, E.S.; Walpole, P.; Wu, J.; Yang, J.; Yoo, J.H.; Yoon, Y.S.; Zinn, S.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM) balloon-borne experiment is designed for direct measurement of high-energy cosmic rays. The experimental goal is to measure single-element fluxes of all cosmic-ray nuclei from hydrogen to iron with energies up to the 'knee', or spectral index change near 10 15 eV, observed in the all-particle spectrum. The dual layer Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed to provide precise charge measurements. Each SCD layer has an active area of 77.9cmx79.5cm and consists of 156 silicon sensors mounted on 24 ladders. Each sensor contains a 4 x 4 array of single-sided DC type silicon pixels with an active area of 2.1cm 2 . The detector was flown on the second CREAM flight (December 2005-January 2006) and recovered successfully. The SCD was refurbished for the third CREAM flight and tested with high-energy electron and hadron beams at CERN. This paper reports on the performance of the SCD during the beam test

  5. Charge dividing mechanism on resistive electrode in position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radeka, V.; Rehak, P.

    1978-10-01

    A complete charge-division mechanism, including both the diffusion and the electromagnetic wave propagation on resistive electrodes, is presented. The charge injected into such a transmission line divides between the two ends according to the ratio of resistancies and independently of the value of the line resistance, of the propagation mechanism and of the distribution of inductance and capacitance along the line. The shortest charge division time is achieved for Rl = 2π (L/C) 1 / 2 , where R, L, C are resistance, inductance and capacitance per unit length and l is the length of the line

  6. Electric Car Users’ Time of Charging Problem under Peak Load Pricing When Delay in Charging Time Involves Uncertain Cost

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fetene, Gebeyehu Manie

    The problem of peak load arises when demand fluctuates over time while the pro- duction technology is not flexible (or making it flexible is economically inefficient) and/or when a product is non-storable (or storage cost is huge). Peak load is a com- mon problem in consumption of public utilities......, on the one hand, observed cost saving benefit of postponing the time of charging to off-peak lower fee of charging and, on the other hand, the cost of delay in departure time for planned trips and uncertain cost of late charging associated with likelihood occur- rence of unanticipated trip before the car...... of electricity. The electric vehicle (EV) users choice of time of charging problem under PLP is different from that of general households using energy for house appliances since there is uncertain cost to the former as- sociated with likelihood occurrence of unanticipated trips such as visiting hospital...

  7. Diamond detector time resolution for large angle tracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodini, G., E-mail: chiodini@le.infn.it [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Fiore, G.; Perrino, R. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Pinto, C.; Spagnolo, S. [INFN - Sezione di Lecce (Italy); Dip. di Matematica e Fisica “Ennio De Giorgi”, Uni. del Salento (Italy)

    2015-10-01

    The applications which have stimulated greater interest in diamond sensors are related to detectors close to particle beams, therefore in an environment with high radiation level (beam monitor, luminosity measurement, detection of primary and secondary-interaction vertices). Our aims is to extend the studies performed so far by developing the technical advances needed to prove the competitiveness of this technology in terms of time resolution, with respect to more usual ones, which does not guarantee the required tolerance to a high level of radiation doses. In virtue of these goals, measurements of diamond detector time resolution with tracks incident at different angles are discussed. In particular, preliminary testbeam results obtained with 5 GeV electrons and polycrystalline diamond strip detectors are shown.

  8. Detectors and Concepts for sub-100 ps timing with gaseous detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez-Diaz, D.

    2017-01-01

    We give a short compendium of the main ongoing detectors and concepts capable of performing accurate sub-100 ps timing at high particle fluxes and on large areas, through technologies based on gaseous media. We briefly discuss the state-of-the-art, technological limitations and prospects, and a new bizarre idea.

  9. Charge-sensitive and shaping amplifier microassemblies for dosimetry and spectrometry on CZT-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perevertaylo, V.L.; Zaitsevsky, I.L.; Tarasenko, L.I.; Perevertaylo, A.V.; Shkirenko, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    Developments of new spectrometric channel electronics on the basis of microassemblies, which allowed to reduce the noise and increase of signal-to-noise ratio, lowering power consumption and dimensions. The complete line of front-end electronics for CZT detectors implemented as micro-assemblies is described, the design concept, operation details and application features of charge sensitive amplifier and shaping amplifier microassemblies are discussed, and the results obtained when registering low energy X-ray spectra are shown. It has a high energy resolution δE at the level of the leading companies. For direct detection with silicon p-i-n-diode new electronic channel can resolve 241 Am peaks up to 8 keV with a resolution of about 2 keV at room temperature. New electronics is universal and can be used with different semiconductor detectors - Si, CdZnTe, Scintillator-photodiode, as shown in the spectra. Low power consumption and reduced dimensions allows the using in portable equipment. Manufacturability of micro assembly opens up the possibility for mass production and low cost opens up the possibility to supply them with detectors as S tart kit f or the construction of radiometric and spectrometric devices

  10. CCD [charge-coupled device] sensors in synchrotron x-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I.S.; Kraimer, M.R.; Westbrook, E.M.; Zaluzec, N.J.

    1987-01-01

    The intense photon flux from advanced synchrotron light sources, such as the 7-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, require integrating-type detectors. Charge-coupled devices (CCDs) are well suited as synchrotron x-ray detectors. When irradiated indirectly via a phosphor followed by reducing optics, diffraction patterns of 100 cm 2 can be imaged on a 2 cm 2 CCD. With a conversion efficiency of ∼1 CCD electron/x-ray photon, a peak saturation capacity of >10 6 x rays can be obtained. A programmable CCD controller operating at a clock frequency of 20 MHz has been developed. The readout rate is 5 x 10 6 pixels/s and the shift rate in the parallel registers is 10 6 lines/s. The test detector was evaluated in two experiments. In protein crystallography diffraction patterns have been obtained from a lysozyme crystal using a conventional rotating anode x-ray generator. Based on these results we expect to obtain at a synchrotron diffraction images at the rate of ∼1 frame/s or a complete 3-dimensional data set from a single crystal in ∼2 min. 16 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs

  11. Current signal of silicon detectors facing charged particles and heavy ions; Reponse en courant des detecteurs silicium aux particules chargees et aux ions lourds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H

    2005-07-01

    This work consisted in collecting and studying for the first time the shapes of current signals obtained from charged particles or heavy ions produced by silicon detectors. The document is divided into two main parts. The first consisted in reducing the experimental data obtained with charged particles as well as with heavy ions. These experiments were performed at the Orsay Tandem and at GANIL using LISE. These two experiments enabled us to create a data base formed of current signals with various shapes and various times of collection. The second part consisted in carrying out a simulation of the current signals obtained from the various ions. To obtain this simulation we propose a new model describing the formation of the signal. We used the data base of the signals obtained in experiments in order to constrain the three parameters of our model. In this model, the charge carriers created are regarded as dipoles and their density is related to the dielectric polarization in the silicon detector. This phenomenon induces an increase in permittivity throughout the range of the incident ion and consequently the electric field between the electrodes of the detector is decreased inside the trace. We coupled with this phenomenon a dissociation and extraction mode of the charge carriers so that they can be moved in the electric field. (author)

  12. HPGe detectors timing using pulse shape analysis techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespi, F.C.L.; Vandone, V.; Brambilla, S.; Camera, F.; Million, B.; Riboldi, S.; Wieland, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this work the Pulse Shape Analysis has been used to improve the time resolution of High Purity Germanium (HPGe) detectors. A set of time aligned signals was acquired in a coincidence measurement using a coaxial HPGe and a cerium-doped lanthanum chloride (LaCl 3 :Ce) scintillation detector. The analysis using a Constant Fraction Discriminator (CFD) time output versus the HPGe signal shape shows that time resolution ranges from 2 to 12 ns depending on the slope in the initial part of the signal. An optimization procedure of the CFD parameters gives the same final time resolution (8 ns) as the one achieved after a correction of the CFD output based on the current pulse maximum position. Finally, an algorithm based on Pulse Shape Analysis was applied to the experimental data and a time resolution between 3 and 4 ns was obtained, corresponding to a 50% improvement as compared with that given by standard CFDs.

  13. Cascaded systems analysis of charge sharing in cadmium telluride photon-counting x-ray detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Jesse; Cunningham, Ian A

    2018-05-01

    Single-photon-counting (SPC) and spectroscopic x-ray detectors are under development in academic and industry laboratories for medical imaging applications. The spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors is an important design criterion. The purpose of this article was to extend the cascaded systems approach to include a description of the spatial resolution of SPC and spectroscopic x-ray imaging detectors. A cascaded systems approach was used to model reabsorption of characteristic x rays, Coulomb repulsion, and diffusion in SPC and spectroscopic x-ray detectors. In addition to reabsorption, diffusion, and Coulomb repulsion, the model accounted for x-ray conversion to electron-hole (e-h) pairs, integration of e-h pairs in detector elements, electronic noise, and energy thresholding. The probability density function (PDF) describing the number of e-h pairs was propagated through each stage of the model and was used to derive new theoretical expressions for the large-area gain and modulation transfer function (MTF) of CdTe SPC x-ray detectors, and the energy bin sensitivity functions and MTFs of CdTe spectroscopic detectors. Theoretical predictions were compared with the results of MATLAB-based Monte Carlo (MC) simulations and published data. Comparisons were also made with the MTF of energy-integrating systems. Under general radiographic conditions, reabsorption, diffusion, and Coulomb repulsion together artificially inflate count rates by 20% to 50%. For thicker converters (e.g. 1000 μm) and larger detector elements (e.g. 500 μm pixel pitch) these processes result in modest inflation (i.e. ∼10%) in apparent count rates. Our theoretical and MC analyses predict that SPC MTFs will be degraded relative to those of energy-integrating systems for fluoroscopic, general radiographic, and CT imaging conditions. In most cases, this degradation is modest (i.e., ∼10% at the Nyquist frequency). However, for thicker converters, the SPC MTF can be degraded

  14. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-02-12

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  15. Analysis of the charge collection process in solid state X-ray detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimmel, Nils

    2009-01-01

    Physics with X-rays spans from observing large scales in X-ray astronomy down to small scales in material structure analyses with synchrotron radiation. Both fields of research require imaging detectors featuring spectroscopic resolution for X-rays in an energy range of 0.1 keV to 20.0 keV. Originally driven by the need for an imaging spectrometer on ESA's X-ray astronomy satellite mission XMM-Newton, X-ray pnCCDs were developed at the semiconductor laboratory of the Max-Planck-Institute. The pnCCD is a pixel array detector made of silicon. It is sensitive over a wide band from near infrared- over optical- and UV-radiation up to X-rays. This thesis describes the dynamics of signal electrons from the moment after their generation until their collection in the potential minima of the pixel structure. Experimentally, a pinhole array was used to scan the pnCCD surface with high spatial resolution. Numerical simulations were used as a tool for the modeling of the electrical conditions inside the pnCCD. The results predicted by the simulations were compared with the measurements. Both, experiment and simulation, helped to establish a model for the signal charge dynamics in the energy range from 0.7 keV to 5.5 keV. More generally, the presented work has enhanced the understanding of the detector system on the basis of a physical model. The developed experimental and theoretical methods can be applied to any type of array detector which is based on the full depletion of a semiconductor substrate material. (orig.)

  16. Time dispersion in large plastic scintillation neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De, A.; Dasgupta, S.S.; Sen, D.

    1993-01-01

    Time dispersion (TD) has been computed for large neutron detectors using plastic scintillators. It has been shown that TD seen by the PM tube does not necessarily increase with incident neutron energy, a result not fully in agreement with the usual finding

  17. Charged-particle multiplicities in pp interactions measured with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, G.; Abdallah, J.; Abdelalim, A.A.; Abdesselam, A.; Abdinov, O.; Abi, B.; Abolins, M.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Acerbi, E.; Acharya, B.S.; Ackers, M.; Adams, D.L.; Addy, T.N.; Adelman, J.; Aderholz, M.; Adomeit, S.; Adragna, P.; Adye, T.; Aefsky, S.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J.A.; Aharrouche, M.; Ahlen, S.P.; Ahles, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahsan, M.; Aielli, G.; Akdogan, T.; Akesson, T.P.A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A.V.; Alam, M.S.; Alam, M.A.; Albrand, S.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I.N.; Aleppo, M.; Alessandria, F.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexandre, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Aliyev, M.; Allport, P.P.; Allwood-Spiers, S.E.; Almond, J.; Aloisio, A.; Alon, R.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, J.; Alviggi, M.G.; Amako, K.; Amaral, P.; Amelung, C.; Ammosov, V.V.; Amorim, A.; Amoros, G.; Amram, N.; Anastopoulos, C.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C.F.; Anderson, K.J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Andrieux, M-L.; Anduaga, X.S.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonaki, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonelli, S.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoun, S.; Aperio Bella, L.; Apolle, R.; Arabidze, G.; Aracena, I.; Arai, Y.; Arce, A.T.H.; Archambault, J.P.; Arfaoui, S.; Arguin, J-F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A.J.; Arms, K.E.; Armstrong, S.R.; Arnaez, O.; Arnault, C.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Arutinov, D.; Asai, S.; Silva, J.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Ask, S.; Asman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astbury, A.; Astvatsatourov, A.; Atoian, G.; Aubert, B.; Auerbach, B.; Auge, E.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Austin, N.; Avramidou, R.; Axen, D.; Ay, C.; Azuelos, G.; Azuma, Y.; Baak, M.A.; Baccaglioni, G.; Bacci, C.; Bach, A.M.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Bachy, G.; Backes, M.; Badescu, E.; Bagnaia, P.; Bahinipati, S.; Bai, Y.; Bailey, D.C.; Bain, T.; Baines, J.T.; Baker, O.K.; Baker, S.; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, P.; Banerjee, Sw.; Banfi, D.; Bangert, A.; Bansal, V.; Bansil, H.S.; Barak, L.; Baranov, S.P.; Barashkou, A.; Barbaro Galtieri, A.; Barber, T.; Barberio, E.L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Bardin, D.Y.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnett, B.M.; Barnett, R.M.; Baroncelli, A.; Barr, A.J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimaraes da Costa, J.; Barrillon, P.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A.E.; Bartsch, D.; Bates, R.L.; Batkova, L.; Batley, J.R.; Battaglia, A.; Battistin, M.; Battistoni, G.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H.S.; Beare, B.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P.H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H.P.; Beckingham, M.; Becks, K.H.; Beddall, A.J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V.A.; Bee, C.; Begel, M.; Behar Harpaz, S.; Behera, P.K.; Beimforde, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, P.J.; Bell, W.H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellina, F.; Bellomo, G.; Bellomo, M.; Belloni, A.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Ben Ami, S.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Benchouk, C.; Bendel, M.; Benedict, B.H.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benjamin, D.P.; Benoit, M.; Bensinger, J.R.; Benslama, K.; Bentvelsen, S.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Berglund, E.; Beringer, J.; Bernardet, K.; Bernat, P.; Bernhard, R.; Bernius, C.; Berry, T.; Bertin, A.; Bertinelli, F.; Bertolucci, F.; Besana, M.I.; Besson, N.; Bethke, S.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R.M.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biesiada, J.; Biglietti, M.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biscarat, C.; Bitenc, U.; Black, K.M.; Blair, R.E.; Blanchard, J.B.; Blanchot, G.; Blocker, C.; Blocki, J.; Blondel, A.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G.J.; Bobrovnikov, V.B.; Bocci, A.; Bock, R.; Boddy, C.R.; Boehler, M.; Boek, J.; Boelaert, N.; Boser, S.; Bogaerts, J.A.; Bogdanchikov, A.; Bogouch, A.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boonekamp, M.; Boorman, G.; Booth, C.N.; Booth, P.; Booth, J.R.A.; Bordoni, S.; Borer, C.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borjanovic, I.; Borroni, S.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boterenbrood, H.; Botterill, D.; Bouchami, J.; Boudreau, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E.V.; Boulahouache, C.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I.R.; Bozhko, N.I.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Braem, A.; Brambilla, E.; Branchini, P.; Brandenburg, G.W.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J.E.; Braun, H.M.; Brelier, B.; Bremer, J.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Breton, D.; Brett, N.D.; Bright-Thomas, P.G.; Britton, D.; Brochu, F.M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brodbeck, T.J.; Brodet, E.; Broggi, F.; Bromberg, C.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, W.K.; Brown, G.; Brubaker, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P.A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Brunet, S.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Buanes, T.; Bucci, F.; Buchanan, J.; Buchanan, N.J.; Buchholz, P.; Buckingham, R.M.; Buckley, A.G.; Buda, S.I.; Budagov, I.A.; Budick, B.; Buscher, V.; Bugge, L.; Buira-Clark, D.; Buis, E.J.; Bulekov, O.; Bunse, M.; Buran, T.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgess, T.; Burke, S.; Busato, E.; Bussey, P.; Buszello, C.P.; Butin, F.; Butler, B.; Butler, J.M.; Buttar, C.M.; Butterworth, J.M.; Buttinger, W.; Byatt, T.; Cabrera Urban, S.; Caccia, M.; Caforio, D.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Calkins, R.; Caloba, L.P.; Caloi, R.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camard, A.; Camarri, P.; Cambiaghi, M.; Cameron, D.; Cammin, J.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Canale, V.; Canelli, F.; Canepa, A.; Cantero, J.; Capasso, L.; Capeans Garrido, M.D.M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capriotti, D.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Caramarcu, C.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, B.; Caron, S.; Carpentieri, C.; Carrillo Montoya, G.D.; Carron Montero, S.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M.P.; Cascella, M.; Caso, C.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N.F.; Cataldi, G.; Cataneo, F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J.R.; Cattai, A.; Cattani, G.; Caughron, S.; Cavallari, A.; Cavalleri, P.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Cazzato, A.; Ceradini, F.; Cerna, C.; Cerqueira, A.S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cetin, S.A.; Cevenini, F.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J.D.; Chapman, J.W.; Chareyre, E.; Charlton, D.G.; Chavda, V.; Cheatham, S.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S.V.; Chelkov, G.A.; Chen, H.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, T.; Chen, X.; Cheng, S.; Cheplakov, A.; Chepurnov, V.F.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Cheung, S.L.; Chevalier, L.; Chevallier, F.; Chiefari, G.; Chikovani, L.; Childers, J.T.; Chilingarov, A.; Chiodini, G.; Chizhov, M.V.; Choudalakis, G.; Chouridou, S.; Christidi, I.A.; Christov, A.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M.L.; Chudoba, J.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A.K.; Ciftci, R.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Ciobotaru, M.D.; Ciocca, C.; Ciocio, A.; Cirilli, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, P.J.; Cleland, W.; Clemens, J.C.; Clement, B.; Clement, C.; Clifft, R.W.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coe, P.; Cogan, J.G.; Coggeshall, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cojocaru, C.D.; Colas, J.; Colijn, A.P.; Collard, C.; Collins, N.J.; Collins-Tooth, C.; Collot, J.; Colon, G.; Coluccia, R.; Comune, G.; Conde Muino, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Conidi, M.C.; Consonni, M.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conventi, F.; Cook, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B.D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A.M.; Cooper-Smith, N.J.; Copic, K.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Correard, S.; Corriveau, F.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M.J.; Costanzo, D.; Costin, T.; Cote, D.; Coura Torres, R.; Courneyea, L.; Cowan, G.; Cowden, C.; Cox, B.E.; Cranmer, K.; Cristinziani, M.; Crosetti, G.; Crupi, R.; Crepe-Renaudin, S.; Cuenca Almenar, C.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cuneo, S.; Curatolo, M.; Curtis, C.J.; Cwetanski, P.; Czirr, H.; Czyczula, Z.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; D'Orazio, A.; Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A.; Da Silva, P.V.M.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dahlhoff, A.; Dai, T.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dallison, S.J.; Dam, M.; Dameri, M.; Damiani, D.S.; Danielsson, H.O.; Dankers, R.; Dannheim, D.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darlea, G.L.; Daum, C.; Dauvergne, J.P.; Davey, W.; Davidek, T.; Davidson, N.; Davidson, R.; Davies, M.; Davison, A.R.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Dawson, J.W.; Daya, R.K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; de Graat, J.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; De La Taille, C.; De Lotto, B.; De Mora, L.; De Nooij, L.; De Oliveira Branco, M.; De Pedis, D.; de Saintignon, P.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Dean, S.; Dedes, G.; Dedovich, D.V.; Degenhardt, J.; Dehchar, M.; Deile, M.; Del Papa, C.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delpierre, P.; Delruelle, N.; Delsart, P.A.; Deluca, C.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demirkoz, B.; Deng, J.; Denisov, S.P.; Dennis, C.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J.E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Devetak, E.; Deviveiros, P.O.; Dewhurst, A.; DeWilde, B.; Dhaliwal, S.; Dhullipudi, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Luise, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Diaz, M.A.; Diblen, F.; Diehl, E.B.; Dietl, H.; Dietrich, J.; Dietzsch, T.A.; Diglio, S.; Dindar Yagci, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Dionisi, C.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djilkibaev, R.; Djobava, T.; do Vale, M.A.B.; Do Valle Wemans, A.; Doan, T.K.O.; Dobbs, M.; Dobinson, R.; Dobos, D.; Dobson, E.; Dobson, M.; Dodd, J.; Dogan, O.B.; Doglioni, C.; Doherty, T.; Doi, Y.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolenc, I.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B.A.; Dohmae, T.; Donadelli, M.; Donega, M.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dos Anjos, A.; Dosil, M.; Dotti, A.; Dova, M.T.; Dowell, J.D.; Doxiadis, A.D.; Doyle, A.T.; Drasal, Z.; Drees, J.; Dressnandt, N.; Drevermann, H.; Driouichi, C.; Dris, M.; Drohan, J.G.; Dubbert, J.; Dubbs, T.; Dube, S.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Dudarev, A.; Dudziak, F.; Duhrssen, M.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Duflot, L.; Dufour, M-A.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Duxfield, R.; Dwuznik, M.; Dydak, F.; Dzahini, D.; Duren, M.; Ebke, J.; Eckert, S.; Eckweiler, S.; Edmonds, K.; Edwards, C.A.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Ehrich, T.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Ellis, K.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Ely, R.; Emeliyanov, D.; Engelmann, R.; Engl, A.; Epp, B.; Eppig, A.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Eriksson, D.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Ernwein, J.; Errede, D.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Escobar, C.; Espinal Curull, X.; Esposito, B.; Etienne, F.; Etienvre, A.I.; Etzion, E.; Evangelakou, D.; Evans, H.; Fabbri, L.; Fabre, C.; Facius, K.; Fakhrutdinov, R.M.; Falciano, S.; Falou, A.C.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farley, J.; Farooque, T.; Farrington, S.M.; Farthouat, P.; Fasching, D.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Fatholahzadeh, B.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Fazio, S.; Febbraro, R.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O.L.; Fedorko, I.; Fedorko, W.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Feligioni, L.; Fellmann, D.; Felzmann, C.U.; Feng, C.; Feng, E.J.; Fenyuk, A.B.; Ferencei, J.; Ferguson, D.; Ferland, J.; Fernandes, B.; Fernando, W.; Ferrag, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrara, V.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrer, M.L.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipcic, A.; Filippas, A.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Fiolhais, M.C.N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, G.; Fischer, P.; Fisher, M.J.; Fisher, S.M.; Flammer, J.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleckner, J.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Flick, T.; Flores Castillo, L.R.; Flowerdew, M.J.; Fohlisch, F.; Fokitis, M.; Fonseca Martin, T.; Forbush, D.A.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fortin, D.; Foster, J.M.; Fournier, D.; Foussat, A.; Fowler, A.J.; Fowler, K.; Fox, H.; Francavilla, P.; Franchino, S.; Francis, D.; Frank, T.; Franklin, M.; Franz, S.; Fraternali, M.; Fratina, S.; French, S.T.; Froeschl, R.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J.A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gadfort, T.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Gallas, E.J.; Gallas, M.V.; Gallo, V.; Gallop, B.J.; Gallus, P.; Galyaev, E.; Gan, K.K.; Gao, Y.S.; Gapienko, V.A.; Gaponenko, A.; Garberson, F.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Garcia, C.; Garcia Navarro, J.E.; Gardner, R.W.; Garelli, N.; Garitaonandia, H.; Garonne, V.; Garvey, J.; Gatti, C.; Gaudio, G.; Gaumer, O.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gavrilenko, I.L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gayde, J-C.; Gazis, E.N.; Ge, P.; Gee, C.N.P.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gellerstedt, K.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M.H.; Gentile, S.; Georgatos, F.; George, S.; Gerlach, P.; Gershon, A.; Geweniger, C.; Ghazlane, H.; Ghez, P.; Ghodbane, N.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giakoumopoulou, V.; Giangiobbe, V.; Gianotti, F.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, A.; Gibson, S.M.; Gieraltowski, G.F.; Gilbert, L.M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gildemeister, O.; Gilewsky, V.; Gillberg, D.; Gillman, A.R.; Gingrich, D.M.; Ginzburg, J.; Giokaris, N.; Giordano, R.; Giorgi, F.M.; Giovannini, P.; Giraud, P.F.; Giugni, D.; Giusti, P.; Gjelsten, B.K.; Gladilin, L.K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glazov, A.; Glitza, K.W.; Glonti, G.L.; Godfrey, J.; Godlewski, J.; Goebel, M.; Gopfert, T.; Goeringer, C.; Gossling, C.; Gottfert, T.; Goldfarb, S.; Goldin, D.; Golling, T.; Gollub, N.P.; Golovnia, S.N.; Gomes, A.; Gomez Fajardo, L.S.; Goncalo, R.; Gonella, L.; Gong, C.; Gonidec, A.; Gonzalez, S.; Gonzalez de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Silva, M.L.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goodson, J.J.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P.A.; Gordon, H.A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorfine, G.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorisek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Gorokhov, S.A.; Gorski, B.T.; Goryachev, V.N.; Gosdzik, B.; Gosselink, M.; Gostkin, M.I.; Gouanere, M.; Gough Eschrich, I.; Gouighri, M.; Goujdami, D.; Goulette, M.P.; Goussiou, A.G.; Goy, C.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grabski, V.; Grafstrom, P.; Grah, C.; Grahn, K-J.; Grancagnolo, F.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Grau, N.; Gray, H.M.; Gray, J.A.; Graziani, E.; Grebenyuk, O.G.; Greenfield, D.; Greenshaw, T.; Greenwood, Z.D.; Gregor, I.M.; Grenier, P.; Griesmayer, E.; Griffiths, J.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grillo, A.A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, P.L.Y.; Grishkevich, Y.V.; Grivaz, J.F.; Grognuz, J.; Groh, M.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Groth-Jensen, J.; Gruwe, M.; Grybel, K.; Guarino, V.J.; Guicheney, C.; Guida, A.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Guler, H.; Gunther, J.; Guo, B.; Guo, J.; Gupta, A.; Gusakov, Y.; Gushchin, V.N.; Gutierrez, A.; Gutierrez, P.; Guttman, N.; Gutzwiller, O.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C.B.; Haas, A.; Haas, S.; Haber, C.; Hackenburg, R.; Hadavand, H.K.; Hadley, D.R.; Haefner, P.; Hahn, F.; Haider, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haller, J.; Hamacher, K.; Hamilton, A.; Hamilton, S.; Han, H.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hance, M.; Handel, C.; Hanke, P.; Hansen, C.J.; Hansen, J.R.; Hansen, J.B.; Hansen, J.D.; Hansen, P.H.; Hansson, P.; Hara, K.; Hare, G.A.; Harenberg, T.; Harper, D.; Harrington, R.D.; Harris, O.M.; Harrison, K.; Hart, J.C.; Hartert, J.; Hartjes, F.; Haruyama, T.; Harvey, A.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hassani, S.; Hatch, M.; Hauff, D.; Haug, S.; Hauschild, M.; Hauser, R.; Havranek, M.; Hawes, B.M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.J.; Hawkins, D.; Hayakawa, T.; Hayden, D; Hayward, H.S.; Haywood, S.J.; Hazen, E.; He, M.; Head, S.J.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heinemann, B.; Heisterkamp, S.; Helary, L.; Heldmann, M.; Heller, M.; Hellman, S.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henke, M.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A.M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Henry-Couannier, F.; Hensel, C.; Henss, T.; Hernandez Jimenez, Y.; Herrberg, R.; Hershenhorn, A.D.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hessey, N.P.; Hidvegi, A.; Higon-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, D.; Hill, J.C.; Hill, N.; Hiller, K.H.; Hillert, S.; Hillier, S.J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hirose, M.; Hirsch, F.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M.C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M.R.; Hoffman, J.; Hoffmann, D.; Hohlfeld, M.; Holder, M.; Holmes, A.; Holmgren, S.O.; Holy, T.; Holzbauer, J.L.; Homer, R.J.; Homma, Y.; Horazdovsky, T.; Horn, C.; Horner, S.; Horton, K.; Hostachy, J-Y.; Hott, T.; Hou, S.; Houlden, M.A.; Hoummada, A.; Howarth, J.; Howell, D.F.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hruska, I.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hsu, P.J.; Hsu, S.C.; Huang, G.S.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T.B.; Hughes, E.W.; Hughes, G.; Hughes-Jones, R.E.; Huhtinen, M.; Hurst, P.; Hurwitz, M.; Husemann, U.; Huseynov, N.; Huston, J.; Huth, J.; Iacobucci, G.; Iakovidis, G.; Ibbotson, M.; Ibragimov, I.; Ichimiya, R.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Idzik, M.; Iengo, P.; Igonkina, O.; Ikegami, Y.; Ikeno, M.; Ilchenko, Y.; Iliadis, D.; Imbault, D.; Imhaeuser, M.; Imori, M.; Ince, T.; Inigo-Golfin, J.; Ioannou, P.; Iodice, M.; Ionescu, G.; Irles Quiles, A.; Ishii, K.; Ishikawa, A.; Ishino, M.; Ishmukhametov, R.; Isobe, T.; Issever, C.; Istin, S.; Itoh, Y.; Ivashin, A.V.; Iwanski, W.; Iwasaki, H.; Izen, J.M.; Izzo, V.; Jackson, B.; Jackson, J.N.; Jackson, P.; Jaekel, M.R.; Jain, V.; Jakobs, K.; Jakobsen, S.; Jakubek, J.; Jana, D.K.; Jankowski, E.; Jansen, E.; Jantsch, A.; Janus, M.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Jelen, K.; Jen-La Plante, I.; Jenni, P.; Jeremie, A.; Jez, P.; Jezequel, S.; Ji, H.; Ji, W.; Jia, J.; Jiang, Y.; Jimenez Belenguer, M.; Jin, G.; Jin, S.; Jinnouchi, O.; Joergensen, M.D.; Joffe, D.; Johansen, L.G.; Johansen, M.; Johansson, K.E.; Johansson, P.; Johnert, S.; Johns, K.A.; Jon-And, K.; Jones, G.; Jones, R.W.L.; Jones, T.W.; Jones, T.J.; Jonsson, O.; Joo, K.K.; Joram, C.; Jorge, P.M.; Joseph, J.; Ju, X.; Juranek, V.; Jussel, P.; Kabachenko, V.V.; Kabana, S.; Kaci, M.; Kaczmarska, A.; Kadlecik, P.; Kado, M.; Kagan, H.; Kagan, M.; Kaiser, S.; Kajomovitz, E.; Kalinin, S.; Kalinovskaya, L.V.; Kama, S.; Kanaya, N.; Kaneda, M.; Kanno, T.; Kantserov, V.A.; Kanzaki, J.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A.; Kaplon, J.; Kar, D.; Karagoz, M.; Karnevskiy, M.; Karr, K.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Karyukhin, A.N.; Kashif, L.; Kasmi, A.; Kass, R.D.; Kastanas, A.; Kataoka, M.; Kataoka, Y.; Katsoufis, E.; Katzy, J.; Kaushik, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kawamura, G.; Kayl, M.S.; Kazanin, V.A.; Kazarinov, M.Y.; Kazi, S.I.; Keates, J.R.; Keeler, R.; Kehoe, R.; Keil, M.; Kekelidze, G.D.; Kelly, M.; Kennedy, J.; Kenney, C.J.; Kenyon, M.; Kepka, O.; Kerschen, N.; Kersevan, B.P.; Kersten, S.; Kessoku, K.; Ketterer, C.; Khakzad, M.; Khalil-zada, F.; Khandanyan, H.; Khanov, A.; Kharchenko, D.; Khodinov, A.; Kholodenko, A.G.; Khomich, A.; Khoo, T.J.; Khoriauli, G.; Khovanskiy, N.; Khovanskiy, V.; Khramov, E.; Khubua, J.; Kilvington, G.; Kim, H.; Kim, M.S.; Kim, P.C.; Kim, S.H.; Kimura, N.; Kind, O.; King, B.T.; King, M.; King, R.S.B.; Kirk, J.; Kirsch, G.P.; Kirsch, L.E.; Kiryunin, A.E.; Kisielewska, D.; Kittelmann, T.; Kiver, A.M.; Kiyamura, H.; Kladiva, E.; Klaiber-Lodewigs, J.; Klein, M.; Klein, U.; Kleinknecht, K.; Klemetti, M.; Klier, A.; Klimentov, A.; Klingenberg, R.; Klinkby, E.B.; Klioutchnikova, T.; Klok, P.F.; Klous, S.; Kluge, E.E.; Kluge, T.; Kluit, P.; Kluth, S.; Kneringer, E.; Knobloch, J.; Knue, A.; Ko, B.R.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Koblitz, B.; Kocian, M.; Kocnar, A.; Kodys, P.; Koneke, K.; Konig, A.C.; Koenig, S.; Konig, S.; Kopke, L.; Koetsveld, F.; Koevesarki, P.; Koffas, T.; Koffeman, E.; Kohn, F.; Kohout, Z.; Kohriki, T.; Koi, T.; Kokott, T.; Kolachev, G.M.; Kolanoski, H.; Kolesnikov, V.; Koletsou, I.; Koll, J.; Kollar, D.; Kollefrath, M.; Kolya, S.D.; Komar, A.A.; Komaragiri, J.R.; Kondo, T.; Kono, T.; Kononov, A.I.; Konoplich, R.; Konstantinidis, N.; Kootz, A.; Koperny, S.; Kopikov, S.V.; Korcyl, K.; Kordas, K.; Koreshev, V.; Korn, A.; Korol, A.; Korolkov, I.; Korolkova, E.V.; Korotkov, V.A.; Kortner, O.; Kortner, S.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kotamaki, M.J.; Kotov, S.; Kotov, V.M.; Kourkoumelis, C.; Koutsman, A.; Kowalewski, R.; Kowalski, T.Z.; Kozanecki, W.; Kozhin, A.S.; Kral, V.; Kramarenko, V.A.; Kramberger, G.; Krasel, O.; Krasny, M.W.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Kraus, J.; Kreisel, A.; Krejci, F.; Kretzschmar, J.; Krieger, N.; Krieger, P.; Kroeninger, K.; Kroha, H.; Kroll, J.; Kroseberg, J.; Krstic, J.; Kruchonak, U.; Kruger, H.; Krumshteyn, Z.V.; Kruth, A.; Kubota, T.; Kuehn, S.; Kugel, A.; Kuhl, T.; Kuhn, D.; Kukhtin, V.; Kulchitsky, Y.; Kuleshov, S.; Kummer, C.; Kuna, M.; Kundu, N.; Kunkle, J.; Kupco, A.; Kurashige, H.; Kurata, M.; Kurochkin, Y.A.; Kus, V.; Kuykendall, W.; Kuze, M.; Kuzhir, P.; Kvasnicka, O.; Kwee, R.; La Rosa, A.; La Rotonda, L.; Labarga, L.; Labbe, J.; Lacasta, C.; Lacava, F.; Lacker, H.; Lacour, D.; Lacuesta, V.R.; Ladygin, E.; Lafaye, R.; Laforge, B.; Lagouri, T.; Lai, S.; Laisne, E.; Lamanna, M.; Lampen, C.L.; Lampl, W.; Lancon, E.; Landgraf, U.; Landon, M.P.J.; Landsman, H.; Lane, J.L.; Lange, C.; Lankford, A.J.; Lanni, F.; Lantzsch, K.; Lapin, V.V.; Laplace, S.; Lapoire, C.; Laporte, J.F.; Lari, T.; Larionov, A.V.; Larner, A.; Lasseur, C.; Lassnig, M.; Lau, W.; Laurelli, P.; Lavorato, A.; Lavrijsen, W.; Laycock, P.; Lazarev, A.B.; Lazzaro, A.; Le Dortz, O.; Le Guirriec, E.; Le Maner, C.; Le Menedeu, E.; Leahu, M.; Lebedev, A.; Lebel, C.; LeCompte, T.; Ledroit-Guillon, F.; Lee, H.; Lee, J.S.H.; Lee, S.C.; Lee JR, L.; Lefebvre, M.; Legendre, M.; Leger, A.; LeGeyt, B.C.; Legger, F.; Leggett, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Lehmann Miotto, G.; Lehto, M.; Lei, X.; Leite, M.A.L.; Leitner, R.; Lellouch, D.; Lellouch, J.; Leltchouk, M.; Lendermann, V.; Leney, K.J.C.; Lenz, T.; Lenzen, G.; Lenzi, B.; Leonhardt, K.; Leontsinis, S.; Leroy, C.; Lessard, J-R.; Lesser, J.; Lester, C.G.; Leung Fook Cheong, A.; Leveque, J.; Levin, D.; Levinson, L.J.; Levitski, M.S.; Lewandowska, M.; Leyton, M.; Li, B.; Li, H.; Li, S.; Li, X.; Liang, Z.; Liang, Z.; Liberti, B.; Lichard, P.; Lichtnecker, M.; Lie, K.; Liebig, W.; Lifshitz, R.; Lilley, J.N.; Limosani, A.; Limper, M.; Lin, S.C.; Linde, F.; Linnemann, J.T.; Lipeles, E.; Lipinsky, L.; Lipniacka, A.; Liss, T.M.; Lister, A.; Litke, A.M.; Liu, C.; Liu, D.; Liu, H.; Liu, J.B.; Liu, M.; Liu, S.; Liu, Y.; Livan, M.; Livermore, S.S.A.; Lleres, A.; Lloyd, S.L.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loch, P.; Lockman, W.S.; Lockwitz, S.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Loebinger, F.K.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C.W.; Lohse, T.; Lohwasser, K.; Lokajicek, M.; Loken, J.; Lombardo, V.P.; Long, R.E.; Lopes, L.; Lopez Mateos, D.; Losada, M.; Loscutoff, P.; Lo Sterzo, F.; Losty, M.J.; Lou, X.; Lounis, A.; Loureiro, K.F.; Love, J.; Love, P.A.; Lowe, A.J.; Lu, F.; Lu, J.; Lu, L.; Lubatti, H.J.; Luci, C.; Lucotte, A.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, D.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Luehring, F.; Luijckx, G.; Lumb, D.; Luminari, L.; Lund, E.; Lund-Jensen, B.; Lundberg, B.; Lundberg, J.; Lundquist, J.; Lungwitz, M.; Lupi, A.; Lutz, G.; Lynn, D.; Lys, J.; Lytken, E.; Ma, H.; Ma, L.L.; Maass en, M.; Macana Goia, J.A.; Maccarrone, G.; Macchiolo, A.; Macek, B.; Machado Miguens, J.; Macina, D.; Mackeprang, R.; Madaras, R.J.; Mader, W.F.; Maenner, R.; Maeno, T.; Mattig, P.; Mattig, S.; Magalhaes Martins, P.J.; Magnoni, L.; Magradze, E.; Magrath, C.A.; Mahalalel, Y.; Mahboubi, K.; Mahout, G.; Maiani, C.; Maidantchik, C.; Maio, A.; Majewski, S.; Makida, Y.; Makovec, N.; Mal, P.; Malecki, Pa.; Malecki, P.; Maleev, V.P.; Malek, F.; Mallik, U.; Malon, D.; Maltezos, S.; Malyshev, V.; Malyukov, S.; Mameghani, R.; Mamuzic, J.; Manabe, A.; Mandelli, L.; Mandic, I.; Mandrysch, R.; Maneira, J.; Mangeard, P.S.; Manjavidze, I.D.; Mann, A.; Manning, P.M.; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A.; Mansoulie, B.; Manz, A.; Mapelli, A.; Mapelli, L.; March, L.; Marchand, J.F.; Marchese, F.; Marchesotti, M.; Marchiori, G.; Marcisovsky, M.; Marin, A.; Marino, C.P.; Marroquim, F.; Marshall, R.; Marshall, Z.; Martens, F.K.; Marti-Garcia, S.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, B.; Martin, B.; Martin, F.F.; Martin, J.P.; Martin, Ph.; Martin, T.A.; Martin dit Latour, B.; Martinez, M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V.; Martyniuk, A.C.; Marx, M.; Marzano, F.; Marzin, A.; Masetti, L.; Mashimo, T.; Mashinistov, R.; Masik, J.; Maslennikov, A.L.; Mass, M.; Massa, I.; Massaro, G.; Massol, N.; Mastroberardino, A.; Masubuchi, T.; Mathes, M.; Matricon, P.; Matsumoto, H.; Matsunaga, H.; Matsushita, T.; Mattravers, C.; Maugain, J.M.; Maxfield, S.J.; May, E.N.; Mayne, A.; Mazini, R.; Mazur, M.; Mazzanti, M.; Mazzoni, E.; Mc Kee, S.P.; McCarn, A.; McCarthy, R.L.; McCarthy, T.G.; McCubbin, N.A.; McFarlane, K.W.; Mcfayden, J.A.; McGlone, H.; Mchedlidze, G.; McLaren, R.A.; Mclaughlan, T.; McMahon, S.J.; McMahon, T.R.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meade, A.; Mechnich, J.; Mechtel, M.; Medinnis, M.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Meguro, T.; Mehdiyev, R.; Mehlhase, S.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meinhardt, J.; Meirose, B.; Melachrinos, C.; Mellado Garcia, B.R.; Mendoza Navas, L.; Meng, Z.; Mengarelli, A.; Menke, S.; Menot, C.; Meoni, E.; Merkl, D.; Mermod, P.; Merola, L.; Meroni, C.; Merritt, F.S.; Messina, A.; Metcalfe, J.; Mete, A.S.; Meuser, S.; Meyer, C.; Meyer, J-P.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, J.; Meyer, T.C.; Meyer, W.T.; Miao, J.; Michal, S.; Micu, L.; Middleton, R.P.; Miele, P.; Migas, S.; Mijovic, L.; Mikenberg, G.; Mikestikova, M.; Mikulec, B.; Mikuz, M.; Miller, D.W.; Miller, R.J.; Mills, W.J.; Mills, C.; Milov, A.; Milstead, D.A.; Milstein, D.; Minaenko, A.A.; Minano, M.; Minashvili, I.A.; Mincer, A.I.; Mindur, B.; Mineev, M.; Ming, Y.; Mir, L.M.; Mirabelli, G.; Miralles Verge, L.; Misiejuk, A.; Mitra, A.; Mitrevski, J.; Mitrofanov, G.Y.; Mitsou, V.A.; Mitsui, S.; Miyagawa, P.S.; Miyazaki, K.; Mjornmark, J.U.; Moa, T.; Mockett, P.; Moed, S.; Moeller, V.; Monig, K.; Moser, N.; Mohapatra, S.; Mohn, B.; Mohr, W.; Mohrdieck-Mock, S.; Moisseev, A.M.; Moles-Valls, R.; Molina-Perez, J.; Moneta, L.; Monk, J.; Monnier, E.; Montesano, S.; Monticelli, F.; Monzani, S.; Moore, R.W.; Moorhead, G.F.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Morais, A.; Morange, N.; Morel, J.; Morello, G.; Moreno, D.; Moreno Llacer, M.; Morettini, P.; Morii, M.; Morin, J.; Morita, Y.; Morley, A.K.; Mornacchi, G.; Morone, M-C.; Morris, J.D.; Moser, H.G.; Mosidze, M.; Moss, J.; Mount, R.; Mountricha, E.; Mouraviev, S.V.; Moyse, E.J.W.; Mudrinic, M.; Mueller, F.; Mueller, J.; Mueller, K.; Muller, T.A.; Muenstermann, D.; Muijs, A.; Muir, A.; Munwes, Y.; Murakami, K.; Murray, W.J.; Mussche, I.; Musto, E.; Myagkov, A.G.; Myska, M.; Nadal, J.; Nagai, K.; Nagano, K.; Nagasaka, Y.; Nairz, A.M.; Nakahama, Y.; Nakamura, K.; Nakano, I.; Nanava, G.; Napier, A.; Nash, M.; Nasteva, I.; Nation, N.R.; Nattermann, T.; Naumann, T.; Navarro, G.; Neal, H.A.; Nebot, E.; Nechaeva, P.; Negri, A.; Negri, G.; Nektarijevic, S.; Nelson, A.; Nelson, S.; Nelson, T.K.; Nemecek, S.; Nemethy, P.; Nepomuceno, A.A.; Nessi, M.; Nesterov, S.Y.; Neubauer, M.S.; Neusiedl, A.; Neves, R.M.; Nevski, P.; Newman, P.R.; Nickerson, R.B.; Nicolaidou, R.; Nicolas, L.; Nicquevert, B.; Niedercorn, F.; Nielsen, J.; Niinikoski, T.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikolaenko, V.; Nikolaev, K.; Nikolic-Audit, I.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Nilsen, H.; Nilsson, P.; Ninomiya, Y.; Nisati, A.; Nishiyama, T.; Nisius, R.; Nodulman, L.; Nomachi, M.; Nomidis, I.; Nomoto, H.; Nordberg, M.; Nordkvist, B.; Norniella Francisco, O.; Norton, P.R.; Novakova, J.; Nozaki, M.; Nozicka, M.; Nugent, I.M.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Nunes Hanninger, G.; Nunnemann, T.; Nurse, E.; Nyman, T.; O'Brien, B.J.; O'Neale, S.W.; O'Neil, D.C.; O'Shea, V.; Oakham, F.G.; Oberlack, H.; Ocariz, J.; Ochi, A.; Oda, S.; Odaka, S.; Odier, J.; Odino, G.A.; Ogren, H.; Oh, A.; Oh, S.H.; Ohm, C.C.; Ohshima, T.; Ohshita, H.; Ohska, T.K.; Ohsugi, T.; Okada, S.; Okawa, H.; Okumura, Y.; Okuyama, T.; Olcese, M.; Olchevski, A.G.; Oliveira, M.; Oliveira Damazio, D.; Oliver Garcia, E.; Olivito, D.; Olszewski, A.; Olszowska, J.; Omachi, C.; Onofre, A.; Onyisi, P.U.E.; Oram, C.J.; Ordonez, G.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orellana, F.; Oren, Y.; Orestano, D.; Orlov, I.; Oropeza Barrera, C.; Orr, R.S.; Ortega, E.O.; Osculati, B.; Ospanov, R.; Osuna, C.; Otero y Garzon, G.; Ottersbach, J.P; Ouchrif, M.; Ould-Saada, F.; Ouraou, A.; Ouyang, Q.; Owen, M.; Owen, S.; Oyarzun, A.; Oye, O.K.; Ozcan, V.E.; Ozturk, N.; Pacheco Pages, A.; Padilla Aranda, C.; Paganis, E.; Paige, F.; Pajchel, K.; Palestini, S.; Pallin, D.; Palma, A.; Palmer, J.D.; Pan, Y.B.; Panagiotopoulou, E.; Panes, B.; Panikashvili, N.; Panitkin, S.; Pantea, D.; Panuskova, M.; Paolone, V.; Paoloni, A.; Papadelis, A.; Papadopoulou, Th.D.; Paramonov, A.; Park, S.J.; Park, W.; Parker, M.A.; Parodi, F.; Parsons, J.A.; Parzefall, U.; Pasqualucci, E.; Passeri, A.; Pastore, F.; Pastore, Fr.; Pasztor, G.; Pataraia, S.; Patel, N.; Pater, J.R.; Patricelli, S.; Pauly, T.; Pecsy, M.; Pedraza Morales, M.I.; Peleganchuk, S.V.; Peng, H.; Pengo, R.; Penson, A.; Penwell, J.; Perantoni, M.; Perez, K.; Perez Cavalcanti, T.; Perez Codina, E.; Perez Garcia-Estan, M.T.; Perez Reale, V.; Peric, I.; Perini, L.; Pernegger, H.; Perrino, R.; Perrodo, P.; Persembe, S.; Perus, P.; Peshekhonov, V.D.; Peters, O.; Petersen, B.A.; Petersen, J.; Petersen, T.C.; Petit, E.; Petridis, A.; Petridou, C.; Petrolo, E.; Petrucci, F.; Petschull, D.; Petteni, M.; Pezoa, R.; Phan, A.; Phillips, A.W.; Phillips, P.W.; Piacquadio, G.; Piccaro, E.; Piccinini, M.; Pickford, A.; Piegaia, R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pilkington, A.D.; Pina, J.; Pinamonti, M.; Pinfold, J.L.; Ping, J.; Pinto, B.; Pirotte, O.; Pizio, C.; Placakyte, R.; Plamondon, M.; Plano, W.G.; Pleier, M.A.; Pleskach, A.V.; Poblaguev, A.; Poddar, S.; Podlyski, F.; Poggioli, L.; Poghosyan, T.; Pohl, M.; Polci, F.; Polesello, G.; Policicchio, A.; Polini, A.; Poll, J.; Polychronakos, V.; Pomarede, D.M.; Pomeroy, D.; Pommes, K.; Pontecorvo, L.; Pope, B.G.; Popeneciu, G.A.; Popovic, D.S.; Poppleton, A.; Portell Bueso, X.; Porter, R.; Posch, C.; Pospelov, G.E.; Pospisil, S.; Potrap, I.N.; Potter, C.J.; Potter, C.T.; Poulard, G.; Poveda, J.; Prabhu, R.; Pralavorio, P.; Prasad, S.; Pravahan, R.; Prell, S.; Pretzl, K.; Pribyl, L.; Price, D.; Price, L.E.; Price, M.J.; Prichard, P.M.; Prieur, D.; Primavera, M.; Prokofiev, K.; Prokoshin, F.; Protopopescu, S.; Proudfoot, J.; Prudent, X.; Przysiezniak, H.; Psoroulas, S.; Ptacek, E.; Purdham, J.; Purohit, M.; Puzo, P.; Pylypchenko, Y.; Qian, J.; Qian, Z.; Qin, Z.; Quadt, A.; Quarrie, D.R.; Quayle, W.B.; Quinonez, F.; Raas, M.; Radescu, V.; Radics, B.; Rador, T.; Ragusa, F.; Rahal, G.; Rahimi, A.M.; Rajagopalan, S.; Rajek, S.; Rammensee, M.; Rammes, M.; Ramstedt, M.; Randrianarivony, K.; Ratoff, P.N.; Rauscher, F.; Rauter, E.; Raymond, M.; Read, A.L.; Rebuzzi, D.M.; Redelbach, A.; Redlinger, G.; Reece, R.; Reeves, K.; Reichold, A.; Reinherz-Aronis, E.; Reinsch, A.; Reisinger, I.; Reljic, D.; Rembser, C.; Ren, Z.L.; Renaud, A.; Renkel, P.; Rensch, B.; Rescigno, M.; Resconi, S.; Resende, B.; Reznicek, P.; Rezvani, R.; Richards, A.; Richter, R.; Richter-Was, E.; Ridel, M.; Rieke, S.; Rijpstra, M.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rimoldi, A.; Rinaldi, L.; Rios, R.R.; Riu, I.; Rivoltella, G.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rizvi, E.; Robertson, S.H.; Robichaud-Veronneau, A.; Robinson, D.; Robinson, J.E.M.; Robinson, M.; Robson, A.; Rocha de Lima, J.G.; Roda, C.; Roda Dos Santos, D.; Rodier, S.; Rodriguez, D.; Rodriguez Garcia, Y.; Roe, A.; Roe, S.; Rohne, O.; Rojo, V.; Rolli, S.; Romaniouk, A.; Romanov, V.M.; Romeo, G.; Romero Maltrana, D.; Roos, L.; Ros, E.; Rosati, S.; Rose, M.; Rosenbaum, G.A.; Rosenberg, E.I.; Rosendahl, P.L.; Rosselet, L.; Rossetti, V.; Rossi, E.; Rossi, L.P.; Rossi, L.; Rotaru, M.; Roth, I.; Rothberg, J.; Rottlander, I.; Rousseau, D.; Royon, C.R.; Rozanov, A.; Rozen, Y.; Ruan, X.; Rubinskiy, I.; Ruckert, B.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rud, V.I.; Rudolph, G.; Ruhr, F.; Ruiz-Martinez, A.; Rulikowska-Zarebska, E.; Rumiantsev, V.; Rumyantsev, L.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakovich, N.A.; Rust, D.R.; Rutherfoord, J.P.; Ruwiedel, C.; Ruzicka, P.; Ryabov, Y.F.; Ryadovikov, V.; Ryan, P.; Rybar, M.; Rybkin, G.; Ryder, N.C.; Rzaeva, S.; Saavedra, A.F.; Sadeh, I.; Sadrozinski, H.F-W.; Sadykov, R.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Sakamoto, H.; Salamanna, G.; Salamon, A.; Saleem, M.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvachua Ferrando, B.M.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Samset, B.H.; Sandaker, H.; Sander, H.G.; Sanders, M.P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandhu, P.; Sandoval, T.; Sandstroem, R.; Sandvoss, S.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sansoni, A.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Saraiva, J.G.; Sarangi, T.; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E.; Sarri, F.; Sartisohn, G.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, T.; Sasao, N.; Satsounkevitch, I.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Savard, P.; Savinov, V.; Savva, P.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, D.H.; Says, L.P.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scallon, O.; Scannicchio, D.A.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schafer, U.; Schaetzel, S.; Schaffer, A.C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R.D.; Schamov, A.G.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V.A.; Scheirich, D.; Scherzer, M.I.; Schiavi, C.; Schieck, J.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schlereth, J.L.; Schmidt, E.; Schmidt, M.P.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitz, M.; Schoning, A.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schram, M.; Schreiner, A.; Schroeder, C.; Schroer, N.; Schuh, S.; Schuler, G.; Schultes, J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, J.W.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B.A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwierz, R.; Schwindling, J.; Scott, W.G.; Searcy, J.; Sedykh, E.; Segura, E.; Seidel, S.C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J.M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Seliverstov, D.M.; Sellden, B.; Sellers, G.; Seman, M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sevior, M.E.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L.Y.; Shank, J.T.; Shao, Q.T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P.B.; Shaver, L.; Shaw, C.; Shaw, K.; Sherman, D.; Sherwood, P.; Shibata, A.; Shimizu, S.; Shimojima, M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Shochet, M.J.; Short, D.; Shupe, M.A.; Sicho, P.; Sidoti, A.; Siebel, A.; Siegert, F.; Siegrist, J.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silbert, O.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, D.; Silverstein, S.B.; Simak, V.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simmons, B.; Simonyan, M.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N.B.; Sipica, V.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Sivoklokov, S.Yu.; Sjolin, J.; Sjursen, T.B.; Skinnari, L.A.; Skovpen, K.; Skubic, P.; Skvorodnev, N.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Sliwa, K.; Sloan, T.J.; Sloper, J.; Smakhtin, V.; Smirnov, S.Yu.; Smirnova, L.N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, B.C.; Smith, D.; Smith, K.M.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A.A.; Snow, S.W.; Snow, J.; Snuverink, J.; Snyder, S.; Soares, M.; Sobie, R.; Sodomka, J.; Soffer, A.; Solans, C.A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldevila, U.; Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Solodkov, A.A.; Solovyanov, O.V.; Sondericker, J.; Soni, N.; Sopko, V.; Sopko, B.; Sorbi, M.; Sosebee, M.; Soukharev, A.; Spagnolo, S.; Spano, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spila, F.; Spiriti, E.; Spiwoks, R.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; Spurlock, B.; St. Denis, R.D.; Stahl, T.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stanecka, E.; Stanek, R.W.; Stanescu, C.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E.A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staude, A.; Stavina, P.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steele, G.; Steinbach, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stekl, I.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H.J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stevenson, K.; Stewart, G.A.; Stockmanns, T.; Stockton, M.C.; Stoerig, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stonjek, S.; Strachota, P.; Stradling, A.R.; Straessner, A.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strang, M.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Strohmer, R.; Strom, D.M.; Strong, J.A.; Stroynowski, R.; Strube, J.; Stugu, B.; Stumer, I.; Stupak, J.; Sturm, P.; Soh, D.A.; Su, D.; Subramania, S.; Sugaya, Y.; Sugimoto, T.; Suhr, C.; Suita, K.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V.V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J.E.; Suruliz, K.; Sushkov, S.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M.R.; Suzuki, Y.; Sviridov, Yu.M.; Swedish, S.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Szeless, B.; Sanchez, J.; Ta, D.; Tackmann, K.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taga, A.; Taiblum, N.; Takahashi, Y.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A.; Tamsett, M.C.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Tani, K.; Tannoury, N.; Tappern, G.P.; Tapprogge, S.; Tardif, D.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G.F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tassi, E.; Tatarkhanov, M.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, F.E.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, G.N.; Taylor, W.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K.K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P.K.; Tennenbaum-Katan, Y.D.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terwort, M.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R.J.; Tevlin, C.M.; Thadome, J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thioye, M.; Thoma, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Thompson, E.N.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, P.D.; Thompson, A.S.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R.P.; Tic, T.; Tikhomirov, V.O.; Tikhonov, Y.A.; Timmermans, C.J.W.P.; Tipton, P.; Tique Aires Viegas, F.J.; Tisserant, S.; Tobias, J.; Toczek, B.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Toggerson, B.; Tojo, J.; Tokar, S.; Tokunaga, K.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Tonazzo, A.; Tong, G.; Tonoyan, A.; Topfel, C.; Topilin, N.D.; Torchiani, I.; Torrence, E.; Torro Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D.R.; Traynor, D.; Trefzger, T.; Treis, J.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I.M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Trinh, T.N.; Tripiana, M.F.; Triplett, N.; Trischuk, W.; Trivedi, A.; Trocme, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J.C-L.; Tsiakiris, M.; Tsiareshka, P.V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E.G.; Tsukerman, I.I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsung, J.W.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tua, A.; Tuggle, J.M.; Turala, M.; Turecek, D.; Turk Cakir, I.; Turlay, E.; Tuts, P.M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Typaldos, D.; Tyrvainen, H.; Tzanakos, G.; Uchida, K.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Uhrmacher, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Underwood, D.G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Unno, Y.; Urbaniec, D.; Urkovsky, E.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Uslenghi, M.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Vahsen, S.; Valderanis, C.; Valenta, J.; Valente, P.; Valentinetti, S.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J.A.; van der Graaf, H.; van der Kraaij, E.; van der Poel, E.; van der Ster, D.; Van Eijk, B.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; van Kesteren, Z.; van Vulpen, I.; Vandelli, W.; Vandoni, G.; Vaniachine, A.; Vankov, P.; Vannucci, F.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E.W.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K.E.; Vassilakopoulos, V.I.; Vazeille, F.; Vegni, G.; Veillet, J.J.; Vellidis, C.; Veloso, F.; Veness, R.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Ventura, S.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J.C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M.C.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Viehhauser, G.H.A.; Viel, S.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M.G.; Vinek, E.; Vinogradov, V.B.; Virchaux, M.; Viret, S.; Virzi, J.; Vitale, A.; Vitells, O.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vlasak, M.; Vlasov, N.; Vogel, A.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, M.; Volpini, G.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Loeben, J.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobiev, A.P.; Vorwerk, V.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Voss, T.T.; Vossebeld, J.H.; Vovenko, A.S.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vu Anh, T.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Wagner, W.; Wagner, P.; Wahlen, H.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walbersloh, J.; Walch, S.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wall, R.; Waller, P.; Wang, C.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.C.; Wang, R.; Wang, S.M.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.P.; Warsinsky, M.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, M.F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, A.T.; Waugh, B.M.; Weber, J.; Weber, M.; Weber, M.S.; Weber, P.; Weidberg, A.R.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Wellenstein, H.; Wells, P.S.; Wen, M.; Wenaus, T.; Wendler, S.; Weng, Z.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Werth, M.; Wessels, M.; Whalen, K.; Wheeler-Ellis, S.J.; Whitaker, S.P.; White, A.; White, M.J.; White, S.; Whitehead, S.R.; Whiteson, D.; Whittington, D.; Wicek, F.; Wicke, D.; Wickens, F.J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik, L.A.M.; Wildauer, A.; Wildt, M.A.; Wilhelm, I.; Wilkens, H.G.; Will, J.Z.; Williams, E.; Williams, H.H.; Willis, W.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, J.A.; Wilson, M.G.; Wilson, A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winkelmann, S.; Winklmeier, F.; Wittgen, M.; Wolter, M.W.; Wolters, H.; Wooden, G.; Wosiek, B.K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M.J.; Wraight, K.; Wright, C.; Wrona, B.; Wu, S.L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wulf, E.; Wunstorf, R.; Wynne, B.M.; Xaplanteris, L.; Xella, S.; Xie, S.; Xie, Y.; Xu, C.; Xu, D.; Xu, G.; Yabsley, B.; Yamada, M.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamamura, T.; Yamaoka, J.; Yamazaki, T.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, U.K.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Y.; Yang, Z.; Yanush, S.; Yao, W-M.; Yao, Y.; Yasu, Y.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yilmaz, M.; Yoosoofmiya, R.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Young, C.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D.; Yu, J.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Zaets, V.G.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A.M.; Zajacova, Z.; Zalite, Yo.K.; Zanello, L.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zaytsev, A.; Zdrazil, M.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeller, M.; Zema, P.F.; Zemla, A.; Zendler, C.; Zenin, A.V.; Zenin, O.; Zenis, T.; Zenonos, Z.; Zenz, S.; Zerwas, D.; Zevi della Porta, G.; Zhan, Z.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, L.; Zhao, T.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zheng, S.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, N.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, C.G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhuravlov, V.; Zieminska, D.; Zilka, B.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Ziolkowski, M.; Zitoun, R.; Zivkovic, L.; Zmouchko, V.V.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; Zolnierowski, Y.; Zsenei, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zutshi, V.; Zwalinski, L.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements are presented from proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of sqrt(s) = 0.9, 2.36 and 7 TeV recorded with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Events were collected using a single-arm minimum-bias trigger. The charged-particle multiplicity, its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity and the relationship between the mean transverse momentum and charged-particle multiplicity are measured. Measurements in different regions of phase-space are shown, providing diffraction-reduced measurements as well as more inclusive ones. The observed distributions are corrected to well-defined phase-space regions, using model-independent corrections. The results are compared to each other and to various Monte Carlo models, including a new AMBT1 PYTHIA 6 tune. In all the kinematic regions considered, the particle multiplicities are higher than predicted by the Monte Carlo models. The central charged-particle multiplicity per event and unit of pseudorapidity, for tracks with pT >100 MeV, is...

  18. Search for new heavy, charged gauge bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00346988; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Fassouliotis, Dimitris; Alexopoulos, Theodoros

    2016-02-14

    The subject of this thesis is the search for new charged bosons beyond the predictions of the Standard Model. The existence of new heavy charged vector bosons is investigated in events containing a muon and neutrino pair. Neutrinos are observed indirectly via the presence of high missing transverse energy. We analyze data from proton-proton collisions at center of mass energy of 8 TeV, collected by the ATLAS detector during the operation of the Large Hadron Collider in the years 2011-2012, corresponding to an overall luminosity of20.3 fb-1.Two main new-physics scenarios are investigated: The first new-physics scenario that is considered in this thesis is the Sequential Standard Model (SSM). This model proposes the existence of additional heavy gauge bosons, of which the charged ones are commonly denoted as W′. The W′ has the same couplings to fermions as the Standard Model W boson and a width that increases linearly with the W′ mass.The second new-physics scenario that is considered proposes the existen...

  19. 3D detectors with high space and time resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, A.

    2018-01-01

    For future high luminosity LHC experiments it will be important to develop new detector systems with increased space and time resolution and also better radiation hardness in order to operate in high luminosity environment. A possible technology which could give such performances is 3D silicon detectors. This work explores the possibility of a pixel geometry by designing and simulating different solutions, using Sentaurus Tecnology Computer Aided Design (TCAD) as design and simulation tool, and analysing their performances. A key factor during the selection was the generated electric field and the carrier velocity inside the active area of the pixel.

  20. A time - zero detector based on thin film plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovici, M.; Simion, V.; Pagano, A.; Urso, S.; Geraci, E.

    1998-01-01

    Thin film scintillator used as a fast time-zero detector exhibits some advantages: fast response, small energy loss of transmitted particles, insensitivity to radiation damage, high efficiency and high counting rate capability. In order to increase the efficiency of the light collection, the scintillating plastic foil is housed in a reflecting body having an ellipsoidal geometry. A concave ellipsoidal mirror has the property that the geometrical foci are optically conjugate points and consequently, all optical path lengths from one focus to the other via a single reflection are equal. With the thin scintillator foil situated at one focal point and the PM's photocathode at the other one, an excellent light collection can be obtained. The principle of detector and the main components are presented. For our purposes we constructed the detector in two variants: glass mirror and polished aluminium mirror. The semi-axes of the ellipsoidal profile are: a 49.8 mm, b = 34.2 mm for the glass mirror and a = 35 mm, b = 26.5 mm for the aluminium mirror, respectively. The diameter of the beam access hole on the both mirrors is 12 mm. The detectors are foreseen to be used at 4π detecting system CHIMERA for experiments with heavy ion beams at intermediate energies delivered by Superconducting Cyclotron from LNS - Catania. Presently, the performance of these detectors are tested using alpha radioactive sources and in-beam measurements. (authors)

  1. Short locking time and low jitter phase-locked loop based on slope charge pump control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Zhongjie; Liu Youbao; Wu Longsheng; Wang Xihu; Tang Wei

    2010-01-01

    A novel structure of a phase-locked loop (PLL) characterized by a short locking time and low jitter is presented, which is realized by generating a linear slope charge pump current dependent on monitoring the output of the phase frequency detector (PFD) to implement adaptive bandwidth control. This improved PLL is created by utilizing a fast start-up circuit and a slope current control on a conventional charge pump PLL. First, the fast start-up circuit is enabled to achieve fast pre-charging to the loop filter. Then, when the output pulse of the PFD is larger than a minimum value, the charge pump current is increased linearly by the slope current control to ensure a shorter locking time and a lower jitter. Additionally, temperature variation is attenuated with the temperature compensation in the charge pump current design. The proposed PLL has been fabricated in a kind of DSP chip based on a 0.35 μm CMOS process. Comparing the characteristics with the classical PLL, the proposed PLL shows that it can reduce the locking time by 60% with a low peak-to-peak jitter of 0.3% at a wide operation temperature range. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Diogene: A 4π detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1981-01-01

    'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber, designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions. This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, then I recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams. (orig.)

  3. Diogene: a 4π detector, based on a time projection chamber, for studying central collisions of relativistic heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosset, J.

    1980-10-01

    'Diogene' is the name we have chosen for a 4π solid angle detector, based on a Time Projection Chamber (TPC), designed to perform exclusive measurements of charged particles emitted in central collisions or relativistic heavy ions This detector is being developed by a collaboration between physicists from Saclay, Strasbourg and Clermont-Ferrand, to be installed at the Saturne Synchrotron in Saclay. I shall first give the motivations for our choice of a TPC rather than any other kind of detector, than recall the principle of such a detector, before describing it with more detail and describing its present status and forsean capabilities, including some discussion about the possible extension of such a detector towards higher energies and/or heavier beams

  4. Multiplicity counting from fission detector signals with time delay effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, L.; Pázsit, I.; Pál, L.

    2018-03-01

    In recent work, we have developed the theory of using the first three auto- and joint central moments of the currents of up to three fission chambers to extract the singles, doubles and triples count rates of traditional multiplicity counting (Pázsit and Pál, 2016; Pázsit et al., 2016). The objective is to elaborate a method for determining the fissile mass, neutron multiplication, and (α, n) neutron emission rate of an unknown assembly of fissile material from the statistics of the fission chamber signals, analogous to the traditional multiplicity counting methods with detectors in the pulse mode. Such a method would be an alternative to He-3 detector systems, which would be free from the dead time problems that would be encountered in high counting rate applications, for example the assay of spent nuclear fuel. A significant restriction of our previous work was that all neutrons born in a source event (spontaneous fission) were assumed to be detected simultaneously, which is not fulfilled in reality. In the present work, this restriction is eliminated, by assuming an independent, identically distributed random time delay for all neutrons arising from one source event. Expressions are derived for the same auto- and joint central moments of the detector current(s) as in the previous case, expressed with the singles, doubles, and triples (S, D and T) count rates. It is shown that if the time-dispersion of neutron detections is of the same order of magnitude as the detector pulse width, as they typically are in measurements of fast neutrons, the multiplicity rates can still be extracted from the moments of the detector current, although with more involved calibration factors. The presented formulae, and hence also the performance of the proposed method, are tested by both analytical models of the time delay as well as with numerical simulations. Methods are suggested also for the modification of the method for large time delay effects (for thermalised neutrons).

  5. Estimation of optimum time interval for neutron- γ discrimination by simplified digital charge collection method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Harleen; Singh, Sarabjeet

    2014-01-01

    The discrimination of mixed radiation field is of prime importance due to its application in neutron detection which leads to radiation safety, nuclear material detection etc. The liquid scintillators are one of the most important radiation detectors because the relative decay rate of neutron pulse is slower as compared to gamma radiation in these detectors. There are techniques like zero crossing and charge comparison which are very popular and implemented using analogue electronics. In the recent years due to availability of fast ADC and FPGA, digital methods for discrimination of mixed field radiations have been investigated. Some of the digital time domain techniques developed are pulse gradient analysis (PGA), simplified digital charge collection method (SDCC), digital zero crossing method. The performance of these methods depends on the appropriate selection of gate time for which the pulse is processed. In this paper, the SDCC method is investigated for a neutron-gamma mixed field. The main focus of the study is to get the knowledge of optimum gate time which is very important in neutron gamma discrimination analysis in a mixed radiation field. The comparison with charge collection (CC) method is also investigated

  6. Performance of 20:1 multiplexer for large area charge readouts in directional dark matter TPC detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeribe, A. C.; Robinson, M.; Robinson, N.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Yuriev, L.

    2018-02-01

    More target mass is required in current TPC based directional dark matter detectors for improved detector sensitivity. This can be achieved by scaling up the detector volumes, but this results in the need for more analogue signal channels. A possible solution to reducing the overall cost of the charge readout electronics is to multiplex the signal readout channels. Here, we present a multiplexer system in expanded mode based on LMH6574 chips produced by Texas Instruments, originally designed for video processing. The setup has a capability of reducing the number of readouts in such TPC detectors by a factor of 20. Results indicate that the important charge distribution asymmetry along an ionization track is retained after multiplexed signals are demultiplexed.

  7. High spatial and time resolutions with gas ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pouthas, J.

    2001-09-01

    This document presents the principles and the characteristics of the gaseous ionisation detectors used in position and timing measurements. The first two parts recall the main notions (electron and ion motions, gaseous amplification, signal formation) and their applications to the proportional counter and the wire chamber. The explanation of the signal formation makes use of the Ramo theorem. The third part is devoted to the different types of wire chambers: drift or cathode strip chambers, TPC (time projection chamber). Some aspects on construction and ageing are also presented. Part 4 is on the detectors in which the multiplication is performed by a 'Parallel Plate' system (PPAC, Pestov counter). Special attention is paid to the RPCs (Resistive Plate Chambers) and their timing resolutions. Part 5 concentrates on 'Micro-pattern detectors' which use different kinds of microstructure for gaseous amplification. The new detectors MICROMEGAS, CAT (compteur a trous) and GEM (gas electron multiplier) and some of their applications are presented. The last part is a bibliography including some comments on the documents. (author)

  8. Design of the TORCH detector: A Cherenkov based Time-of-Flight system for particle identification

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2078663; Rademacker, Jonas

    The LHCb detector at the LHC collider has been very successfully operated over the past years, providing new and profound insights into the Standard Model, in particular through study of $b$-hadrons to achieve a better understanding of CP violation. One of the key components of LHCb is its particle identification system, comprised of two RICH detectors, which allow for high precision separation of particle species over a large momentum range. In order to retain and improve the performance of the particle identification system in light of the LHCb upgrade, the TORCH detector has been proposed to supplement the RICH system at low momentum (2-10 GeV/c). The TORCH detector provides (charged) particle identification through precision timing of particles passing through it. Assuming a known momentum from the tracking, it is possible to derive the species of a particle from the time of flight from its primary vertex. This measurement is achieved by timing and combining photons generated in a solid radiator. The geom...

  9. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waugh, C. J., E-mail: cjwaugh@mit.edu; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  10. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waugh, C J; Rosenberg, M J; Zylstra, A B; Frenje, J A; Séguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Yu; Sangster, T C; Stoeckl, C

    2015-05-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule.

  11. A method for in situ absolute DD yield calibration of neutron time-of-flight detectors on OMEGA using CR-39-based proton detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, C. J.; Zylstra, A. B.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron time of flight (nTOF) detectors are used routinely to measure the absolute DD neutron yield at OMEGA. To check the DD yield calibration of these detectors, originally calibrated using indium activation systems, which in turn were cross-calibrated to NOVA nTOF detectors in the early 1990s, a direct in situ calibration method using CR-39 range filter proton detectors has been successfully developed. By measuring DD neutron and proton yields from a series of exploding pusher implosions at OMEGA, a yield calibration coefficient of 1.09 ± 0.02 (relative to the previous coefficient) was determined for the 3m nTOF detector. In addition, comparison of these and other shots indicates that significant reduction in charged particle flux anisotropies is achieved when bang time occurs significantly (on the order of 500 ps) after the trailing edge of the laser pulse. This is an important observation as the main source of the yield calibration error is due to particle anisotropies caused by field effects. The results indicate that the CR-39-nTOF in situ calibration method can serve as a valuable technique for calibrating and reducing the uncertainty in the DD absolute yield calibration of nTOF detector systems on OMEGA, the National Ignition Facility, and laser megajoule

  12. Charge Gain, Voltage Gain, and Node Capacitance of the SAPHIRA Detector Pixel by Pixel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastrana, Izabella M.; Hall, Donald N. B.; Baker, Ian M.; Jacobson, Shane M.; Goebel, Sean B.

    2018-01-01

    The University of Hawai`i Institute for Astronomy has partnered with Leonardo (formerly Selex) in the development of HgCdTe linear mode avalanche photodiode (L-APD) SAPHIRA detectors. The SAPHIRA (Selex Avalanche Photodiode High-speed Infra-Red Array) is ideally suited for photon-starved astronomical observations, particularly near infrared (NIR) adaptive optics (AO) wave-front sensing. I have measured the stability, and linearity with current, of a 1.7-um (10% spectral bandpass) infrared light emitting diode (IR LED) used to illuminate the SAPHIRA and have then utilized this source to determine the charge gain (in e-/ADU), voltage gain (in uV/ADU), and node capacitance (in fF) for each pixel of the 320x256@24um SAPHIRA. These have previously only been averages over some sub-array. Determined from the ratio of the temporal averaged signal level to variance under constant 1.7-um LED illumination, I present the charge gain pixel-by-pixel in a 64x64 sub-array at the center of the active area of the SAPHIRA (analyzed separately as four 32x32 sub-arrays) to be about 1.6 e-/ADU (σ=0.5 e-/ADU). Additionally, the standard technique of varying the pixel reset voltage (PRV) in 10 mV increments and recording output frames for the same 64x64 subarray found the voltage gain per pixel to be about 11.7 uV/ADU (σ=0.2 uV/ADU). Finally, node capacitance was found to be approximately 23 fF (σ=6 fF) utilizing the aforementioned charge and voltage gain measurements. I further discuss the linearity measurements of the 1.7-um LED used in the charge gain characterization procedure.

  13. The time-of-flight detector of the DIRAC experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adeva, B.; Gallas, M.V.; Gomez, F.; Lopez-Agueera, A.; Nunez-Pardo, T.; Plo, M.; Rodriguez, A.M.; Rodriguez, X.M.; Saborido, J.J.; Santamarina, C.; Tobar, M.J.; Vazquez, P.

    2002-01-01

    The construction and performance of a large area time-of-flight detector for the DIRAC experiment at CERN is reported. With an average time resolution of 123 ps per counter at rates up to 1 MHz, it allows excellent separation of pπ - from π + π - pairs up to 4.6 GeV/c momentum, as well as of Coulomb-correlated pion pairs from accidentals. The optimization of scintillator material, photomultiplier performance and readout electronics is described

  14. Zero cross over timing with coaxial Ge(Li) detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Ibiary, M.Y.

    1979-07-01

    The performance of zero cross over timing systems of the constant fraction or amplitude rise time compensated type using coaxial Ge(Li) detectors is analyzed with special attention to conditions that compromise their energy-independence advantage. The outcome is verified against existing experimental results, and the parameters that lead to minimum disperson, as well as the value of the dispersion to be expected, are given by a series of charts

  15. An x-ray detector for time-resolved studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodricks, B.; Brizard, C.; Clarke, R.; Lowe, W.

    1992-01-01

    The development of ultrahigh-brightness x-ray sources makes time-resolved x-ray studies more and more feasible. Improvements in x-ray optics components are also critical for obtaining the appropriate beam for a particular type of experiment. Moreover, fast parallel detectors will be essential in order to exploit the combination of high intensity x-ray sources and novel optics for time-resolved experiments. A CCD detector with a time resolution of microseconds has been developed at the Advanced Photon Source (APS). This detector is fully programmable using CAMAC electronics and a Micro Vax computer. The techniques of time-resolved x-ray studies, which include scattering, microradiography, microtomography, stroboscopy, etc., can be applied to a range of phenomena (including rapid thermal annealing, surface ordering, crystallization, and the kinetics of phase transition) in order to understand these time-dependent microscopic processes. Some of these applications will be illustrated by recent results performed at synchrotrons. New powerful x-ray sources now under construction offer the opportunity to apply innovative approaches in time-resolved work

  16. The effect of charge collection recovery in silicon p-n junction detectors irradiated by different particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbitskaya, E.; Abreu, M.; Anbinderis, P.; Anbinderis, T.; D'Ambrosio, N.; Boer, W. de; Borchi, E.; Borer, K.; Bruzzi, M.; Buontempo, S.; Casagrande, L.; Chen, W.; Cindro, V.; Dezillie, B.; Dierlamm, A.; Eremin, V.; Gaubas, E.; Gorbatenko, V.; Granata, V.; Grigoriev, E.; Grohmann, S.; Hauler, F.; Heijne, E.; Heising, S.; Hempel, O.; Herzog, R.; Haerkoenen, J.; Ilyashenko, I.; Janos, S.; Jungermann, L.; Kalesinskas, V.; Kapturauskas, J.; Laiho, R.; Li, Z.; Mandic, I.; De Masi, Rita; Menichelli, D.; Mikuz, M.; Militaru, O.; Niinikoski, T.O.; O'Shea, V.; Pagano, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Paul, S.; Perea Solano, B.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Pirollo, S.; Pretzl, K.; Rato Mendes, P.; Ruggiero, G.; Smith, K.; Sonderegger, P.; Sousa, P.; Tuominen, E.; Vaitkus, J.; Da Via, C.; Wobst, E.; Zavrtanik, M.

    2003-01-01

    The recovery of the charge collection efficiency (CCE) at low temperatures, the so-called 'Lazarus effect', was studied in Si detectors irradiated by fast reactor neutrons, by protons of medium and high energy, by pions and by gamma-rays. The experimental results show that the Lazarus effect is observed: (a) after all types of irradiation; (b) before and after space charge sign inversion; (c) only in detectors that are biased at voltages resulting in partial depletion at room temperature. The experimental temperature dependence of the CCE for proton-irradiated detectors shows non-monotonic behaviour with a maximum at a temperature defined as the CCE recovery temperature. The model of the effect for proton-irradiated detectors agrees well with that developed earlier for detectors irradiated by neutrons. The same midgap acceptor-type and donor-type levels are responsible for the Lazarus effect in detectors irradiated by neutrons and by protons. A new, abnormal 'zigzag'-shaped temperature dependence of the CCE was observed for detectors irradiated by all particles (neutrons, protons and pions) and by an ultra-high dose of γ-rays, when operating at low bias voltages. This effect is explained in the framework of the double-peak electric field distribution model for heavily irradiated detectors. The redistribution of the space charge region depth between the depleted regions adjacent to p + and n + contacts is responsible for the 'zigzag'- shaped curves. It is shown that the CCE recovery temperature increases with reverse bias in all detectors, regardless of the type of radiation

  17. Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khachatryan, Vardan [Yerevan Physics Inst. (Armenia); et al.

    2010-08-01

    We present a measurement of the ratio of positive to negative muon fluxes from cosmic ray interactions in the atmosphere, using data collected by the CMS detector both at ground level and in the underground experimental cavern at the CERN LHC. Muons were detected in the momentum range from 5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 \\pm 0.0032(stat.) \\pm 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

  18. Position dependence of charge collection in prototype sensors for the CMS pixel detector

    CERN Document Server

    Rohe, Tilman; Chiochia, Vincenzo; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Cucciarelli, Susanna; Dorokhov, Andrei; Konecki, Marcin; Prokofiev, Kirill; Regenfus, Christian; Sanders, David A; Son Seung Hee; Speer, Thomas; Swartz, Morris

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on the sensor R&D activity for the CMS pixel detector. Devices featuring several design and technology options have been irradiated up to a proton fluence1 of 1 multiplied by 10**1**5 n //e//q/cm**2 at the CERN PS. Afterward, they were bump bonded to unirradiated readout chips and tested using high energy pions in the H2 beam line of the CERN SPS. The readout chip allows a nonzero suppressed full analogue readout and therefore a good characterization of the sensors in terms of noise and charge collection properties. The position dependence of signal is presented and the differences between the two sensor options are discussed. 20 Refs.

  19. Mechanism of track formation by charged particles in inorganic and organic solid-state track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doerschel, B.; Pretzsch, G.; Streubel, G.

    1979-01-01

    Knowledge of the individual phases of track formation mechanism is necessary in some applications of solid-state track detectors. The generation of latent tracks is described by energy transfer processes of the charged particles along their paths using several different models. Etchability of the latent tracks is discussed on the basis of some distinct criteria taking into account different fractions of energy release by the primary and secondary particles during track generation. If these etchability criteria for latent tracks are fulfilled, visual particle tracks can be produced by a chemical etching process. Etch pit formation depends on the etching conditions. The geometrical parameters of the etching pits are given on the basis of known etching rates. Evaluation of individual particle tracks or determination of track density yields results depending on both the properties of the particles and the etching conditions. Determination of particle energy and particle fluence is discussed as an example. (author)

  20. Charge collection efficiency recovery in heavily irradiated silicon detectors operated at cryogenic temperatures

    CERN Document Server

    Da Vià, C; Berglund, P; Borchi, E; Borer, K; Bruzzi, Mara; Buontempo, S; Casagrande, L; Chapuy, S; Cindro, V; Dimcovski, Zlatomir; D'Ambrosio, N; de Boer, Wim; Dezillie, B; Esposito, A P; Granat, V; Grigoriev, E; Heijne, Erik H M; Heising, S; Janos, S; Koivuniemi, J H; Konotov, I; Li, Z; Lourenço, C; Mikuz, M; Niinikoski, T O; Pagano, S; Palmieri, V G; Paul, S; Pirollo, S; Pretzl, Klaus P; Ropotar, I; Ruggiero, G; Salmi, J; Seppä, H; Suni, I; Smith, K; Sonderegger, P; Valtonen, M J; Zavrtanik, M

    1998-01-01

    The charge collection efficiency (CCE) of high resistivity silicon detectors, previously neutron irradiated up to 2*10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/, was measured at different cryogenic temperatures and different bias voltages. In order to $9 study reverse annealing (RA) effects, a few samples were heated to 80 degrees C and kept at room temperature for several months after irradiation. For comparison other samples (NRA) where kept at -10 C after irradiation. The RA and $9 NRA samples, measured at 250 V forward and reverse bias voltage, present a common temperature threshold at 150 K. Below 120 K the CCE is constant and ranges between 55and 65 0.000000or the RA and NRA sample respectively. Similar CCE $9 was measured for a device processed with low resistivity contacts (OHMIC), opening the prospect for a consistent reduction of the cost of large area particle tracking. (7 refs).

  1. 'Stutter timing' for charge decay time measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chubb, John [Infostatic, 2 Monica Drive, Pittville, Cheltenham, GL50 4NQ (United Kingdom); Harbour, John [Hawthorne Technical Design, The Hawthornes, Startley, Chippenham, SN15 5HG,UK (United Kingdom); Pavey, Ian, E-mail: jchubb@infostatic.co.uk [Chilworth Technology Ltd, Beta House, Southampton Science Park, Southampton, SO16 7NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-23

    The paper describes the approach of 'stutter timing' that has been developed to improve the accuracy of measuring charge decay times in the presence of noise in compact and portable charge decay test instrumentation. The approach involves starting and stopping the timing clock as the noisy signal rises above and falls below the target threshold voltage level.

  2. Design and properties of silicon charged-particle detectors developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Bar, Jan; Budzyński, Tadeusz; CieŻ, Michal; Grabiec, Piotr; Kozłowski, Roman; Kulawik, Jan; Panas, Andrzej; Sarnecki, Jerzy; Słysz, Wojciech; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Wegrzecka, Iwona; Wielunski, Marek; Witek, Krzysztof; Yakushev, Alexander; Zaborowski, Michał

    2013-07-01

    The paper discusses the design of charged-particle detectors commissioned and developed at the Institute of Electron Technology (ITE) in collaboration with foreign partners, used in international research on transactinide elements and to build personal radiation protection devices in Germany. Properties of these detectors and the results obtained using the devices are also presented. The design of the following epiplanar detector structures is discussed: ♢ 64-element chromatographic arrays for the COMPACT (Cryo On-line Multidetector for Physics And Chemistry of Transactinides) detection system used at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt (GSI) for research on Hassium, Copernicium and Flerovium, as well as elements 119 and 120, ♢ 2-element flow detectors for the COLD (Cryo On-Line Detector) system used for research on Copernicium and Flerovium at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, ♢ detectors for a radon exposimeter and sensors for a neutron dosimeter developed at the Institut für Strahlenschutz, Helmholtz Zentrum München. The design of planar detectors - single-sided and double-sided strip detectors for the Focal Plane Detector Box used at GSI for research on Flerovium and elements 119 and 120 is also discussed.

  3. Aligning PEV Charging Times with Electricity Supply and Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, Cabell [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-05

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are a growing source of electricity consumption that could either exacerbate supply shortages or smooth electricity demand curves. Extensive research has explored how vehicle-grid integration (VGI) can be optimized by controlling PEV charging timing or providing vehicle-to-grid (V2G) services, such as storing energy in vehicle batteries and returning it to the grid at peak times. While much of this research has modeled charging, implementation in the real world requires a cost-effective solution that accounts for consumer behavior. To function across different contexts, several types of charging administrators and methods of control are necessary to minimize costs in the VGI context.

  4. Two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode as a charged particle detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, K.; Zadro, M.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional position sensitive silicon photodiode has been tested for measurement of position and energy of charged particles. Position nonlinearity and resolution, as well as energy resolution and ballistic deficit were measured for 5.486 MeV α-particles. The results obtained for different pulse shaping time constants are presented

  5. Improving the spatial resolution in CZT detectors using charge sharing effect and transient signal analysis: Simulation study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Xiaoqing; Cheng, Zeng [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); Deen, M. Jamal, E-mail: jamal@mcmaster.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); Peng, Hao, E-mail: penghao@mcmaster.ca [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University (Canada); Department of Medical Physics, McMaster University, Ontario L8S 4K1, Hamilton (Canada)

    2016-02-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) semiconductor detectors are capable of providing superior energy resolution and three-dimensional position information of gamma ray interactions in a large variety of fields, including nuclear physics, gamma-ray imaging and nuclear medicine. Some dedicated Positron Emission Tomography (PET) systems, for example, for breast cancer detection, require higher contrast recovery and more accurate event location compared with a whole-body PET system. The spatial resolution is currently limited by electrode pitch in CZT detectors. A straightforward approach to increase the spatial resolution is by decreasing the detector electrode pitch, but this leads to higher fabrication cost and a larger number of readout channels. In addition, inter-electrode charge spreading can negate any improvement in spatial resolution. In this work, we studied the feasibility of achieving sub-pitch spatial resolution in CZT detectors using two methods: charge sharing effect and transient signal analysis. We noted that their valid ranges of usage were complementary. The dependences of their corresponding valid ranges on electrode design, depth-of-interaction (DOI), voltage bias and signal triggering threshold were investigated. The implementation of these two methods in both pixelated and cross-strip configuration of CZT detectors were discussed. Our results show that the valid range of charge sharing effect increases as a function of DOI, but decreases with increasing gap width and bias voltage. For a CZT detector of 5 mm thickness, 100 µm gap and biased at 400 V, the valid range of charge sharing effect was found to be about 112.3 µm around the gap center. This result complements the valid range of the transient signal analysis within one electrode pitch. For a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ~17 and preliminary measurements, the sub-pitch spatial resolution is expected to be ~30 µm and ~250 µm for the charge sharing and transient signal analysis methods

  6. Fast rise time IR detectors for lepton colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drago, A.; Bini, S.; Guidi, M. Cestelli; Marcelli, A.; Pace, E.

    2016-01-01

    Diagnostics is a fundamental issue for accelerators whose demands are continuously increasing. In particular bunch-by-bunch diagnostics is a key challenge for the latest generation of lepton colliders and storage rings. The Frascati Φ-factory, DAΦNE, colliding at 1.02 GeV in the centre of mass, hosts in the main rings few synchrotron radiation beamlines and two of them collect the synchrotron radiation infrared emission: SINBAD from the electron ring and 3+L from the positron ring. At DAΦNE each bucket is 2.7 ns long and particles are gathered in bunches emitting pulsed IR radiation, whose intensity in the long wavelength regime is directly proportional to the accumulated particles. Compact uncooled photoconductive HgCdTe detectors have been tested in both beamlines using dedicated optical layouts. Actually, the fast rise time of HgCdTe semiconductors give us the chance to test bunch-by-bunch devices for both longitudinal and transverse diagnostics. For the longitudinal case, single pixel detectors have been used, while for the transverse diagnostics, multi-pixel array detectors, with special custom design, are under test. This contribution will briefly describe the status of the research on fast IR detectors at DAΦNE, the results obtained and possible foreseen developments.

  7. The Bonus Detector: A Radial Time Projection Chamber for tracking Spectator Protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard Fenker

    2004-01-01

    A GEM-based Radial Time Projection Chamber is being developed as a spectator-proton tracker for an experiment at Jefferson Lab. The purpose of the experiment is the study of the structure of nearly free neutrons. Interactions on such neutrons can be identified by the presence of a backward-moving proton in the final state of a beam-deuterium collision. The detector must be of very low mass in order to provide sensitivity to the slowest possible protons. The ionization electron trail left by the protons will drift radially outward to an amplification structure composed of curved GEMs, and the resulting charge will be collected on pads on the outer layer of the detector. Unique design challenges are imposed by the cylindrical geometry and the low mass requirement. The status of the project and results of prototype tests are presented

  8. Long time diffusion in suspensions of interacting charged colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepper, I.M. de; Cohen, E.G.D.; Pusey, P.N.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.

    1989-01-01

    A new expression is given for the long time diffusion coefficient DL(k) of charged interacting colloidal spheres in suspension, as a function of the wavenumber k, near k = km, where the static structure factor has a maximum. The expression is based on a physical analogy between a mode description

  9. Heavy ion beam test results of the silicon charge detector for the CREAM cosmic ray balloon mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.H.; Ahn, H.S.; Bok, J.B.; Ganel, O.; Hahn, J.H.; Han, W.; Hyun, H.J.; Kim, H.J.; Kim, M.Y.; Kim, Y.J.; Lee, J.K.; Lee, M.H.; Lutz, L.; Min, K.W.; Malinine, A.; Nam, S.W.; Nam, W.; Park, H.; Park, N.H.; Seo, E.S.; Seon, K.I.; Sone, J.H.; Yang, J.; Zinn, S.Y.

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra to help understand the source and acceleration mechanisms of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The payload is planned to launch in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a balloon mission. A Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed and constructed for the CREAM experiment to provide precision charge measurements of incident cosmic rays with a resolution of 0.2 charge unit or better. The SCD was exposed to heavy ion beams at CERN's H2 beam line in November 2003. The results reported here show the SCD performs as designed

  10. Heavy ion beam test results of the silicon charge detector for the CREAM cosmic ray balloon mission

    CERN Document Server

    Park, I H; Bok, J B; Ganel, O; Hahn, J H; Han, W; Hyun, H J; Kim, H J; Kim, M Y; Kim, Y J; Lee, J K; Lutz, L; Malinine, A; Min, K W; Nam, S W; Nam, W; Park, H; Park, N H; Seo, E S; Seon, K I; Sone, J H; Yang, J; Zinn, S Y

    2004-01-01

    The Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment is designed to measure cosmic ray elemental spectra to help understand the source and acceleration mechanisms of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The payload is planned to launch in December 2004 from McMurdo Station, Antarctica as a balloon mission. A Silicon Charge Detector (SCD) was designed and constructed for the CREAM experiment to provide precision charge measurements of incident cosmic rays with a resolution of 0.2 charge unit or better. The SCD was exposed to heavy ion beams at CERN's H2 beam line in November 2003. The results reported here show the SCD performs as designed.

  11. Late time CMB anisotropies constrain mini-charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, C.; Redondo, J.; Ringwald, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Jaeckel, J. [Univ. of Durham, Inst. for Particle Physics Phenomenology (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Observations of the temperature anisotropies induced as light from the CMB passes through large scale structures in the late universe are a sensitive probe of the interactions of photons in such environments. In extensions of the Standard Model which give rise to mini-charged particles, photons propagating through transverse magnetic fields can be lost to pair production of such particles. Such a decrement in the photon flux would occur as photons from the CMB traverse the magnetic fields of galaxy clusters. Therefore late time CMB anisotropies can be used to constrain the properties of mini- charged particles. We outline how this test is constructed, and present new constraints on mini-charged particles from observations of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect in the Coma cluster. (orig.)

  12. Design of a versatile detector for the detection of charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays. Neutron interaction with the matter; Diseno de un detector versatil para la deteccion de particulas cargadas, neutrones y rayos gamma. Interaccion neutronica con la materia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez P, J J [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    1991-07-01

    The Fostron detector detects charged particles, neutrons and gamma rays with a reasonable discrimination power. Because the typical detectors for neutrons present a great uncertainty in the detection, this work was focused mainly to the neutron detection in presence of gamma radiation. Also there are mentioned the advantages and disadvantages of the Fostron detector.

  13. Evaluation of the charge-sharing effects on spot intensity in XRD setup using photon-counting pixel detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, H.-E.; Mattsson, C.G.; Norlin, B.; Froejdh, C.; Bethke, K.; Vries, R. de

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we examine how charge loss due to charge sharing in photon-counting pixels detectors affects the recording of spot intensity in an X-ray diffraction (XRD) setup. In the photon-counting configuration, the charge from photons that are absorbed at the boarder of a pixel will be shared between two pixels. If the threshold is high enough, these photons will not be counted whereas if it is low enough, they will be counted twice. In an XRD setup, the intensity and position of various spots should be recorded. Thus, the intensity measure will be affected by the setting of the threshold. In this study, we used a system level Monte Carlo simulator to evaluate the variations in the intensity signals for different threshold settings and spot sizes. The simulated setup included an 8keV mono-chromatic source (providing a Gaussian shaped spot) and the MEDIPIX2 photon-counting pixel detector (55 μm x 55 μm pixel size with 300μm silicon) at various detector biases. Our study shows that the charge-sharing distortion can be compensated by numerical post processing and that high resolution in both charge distribution and position can be achieved

  14. Hexagonal pixel detector with time encoded binary readout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoedlmoser, H.; Varner, G.; Cooney, M.

    2009-01-01

    The University of Hawaii is developing continuous acquisition pixel (CAP) detectors for vertexing applications in lepton colliding experiments such as SuperBelle or ILC. In parallel to the investigation of different technology options such as MAPS or SOI, both analog and binary readout concepts have been tested. First results with a binary readout scheme in which the hit information is time encoded by means of a signal shifting mechanism have recently been published. This paper explains the hit reconstruction for such a binary detector with an emphasis on fake hit reconstruction probabilities in order to evaluate the rate capability in a high background environment such as the planned SuperB factory at KEK. The results show that the binary concept is at least comparable to any analog readout strategy if not better in terms of occupancy. Furthermore, we present a completely new binary readout strategy in which the pixel cells are arranged in a hexagonal grid allowing the use of three independent output directions to reduce reconstruction ambiguities. The new concept uses the same signal shifting mechanism for time encoding, however, in dedicated transfer lines on the periphery of the detector, which enables higher shifting frequencies. Detailed Monte Carlo simulations of full size pixel matrices including hit and BG generation, signal generation, and data reconstruction show that by means of multiple signal transfer lines on the periphery the pixel can be made smaller (higher resolution), the number of output channels and the data volume per triggered event can be reduced dramatically, fake hit reconstruction is lowered to a minimum and the resulting effective occupancies are less than 10 -4 . A prototype detector has been designed in the AMS 0.35μm Opto process and is currently under fabrication.

  15. Search for light charged Higgs bosons in hadronic {tau} final states with the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrich, Thies

    2010-07-07

    Charged Higgs bosons are predicted in theories with a non-minimal Higgs sector like the Minimal Supersymmetric Extension of the Standard Model (MSSM). At the LHC, light charged Higgs Bosons might be produced in on-shell top quark decays t{yields} H{sup +}b, if m{sub H{sup {+-}}}detector for charged Higgs boson searches in t anti t events. Leptons from the decay chain of the second top quark allow for efficient triggering. A search strategy is developed and estimates of signal significances and exclusion limits in the MSSM m{sub h}-max scenario are presented based on Monte Carlo simulations. For an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}, the discovery of charged Higgs bosons is possible for tan{beta}>32. Exclusion limits are given for values of tan{beta}>17, significantly improving the current best limits from the Tevatron. The most important systematic uncertainties were found to be the errors on the jet energy scale and the missing transverse energy, resulting in a total systematic uncertainty of 40% on the signal. To reduce the systematic uncertainty for the most important Standard Model background, t anti t production, emphasis is put on estimating this background using data instead of Monte Carlo simulations. The t anti t background consists of two contributions, one with a correctly identified {tau}-jet in the final state, which is irreducible, and one where the hadronic {tau} decay is faked by a light parton jet. For each background a method has been developed to estimate its contribution with minimal use of Monte Carlo simulations. In this way, the systematic uncertainty on the background can be significantly reduced. (orig.)

  16. GPS Time Synchronization in School-Network Cosmic Ray Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berns, H.-G.; Burnett, T. H.; Gran, R.; Wilkes, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    The QuarkNet DAQ card for school-network cosmic ray detectors provides a low-cost alternative to using standard particle and nuclear physics fast pulse electronics modules. The board, which can be produced at a cost of less than $500.00 (USD), produces trigger time and pulse edge time data for 2- to 4-fold coincidence levels via a universal RS232 serial port interface, usable with any PC. Individual detector stations, each consisting of four scintillation counter modules, front-end electronics, and a GPS receiver, produce a stream of data in form of ASCII text strings in identifiable set of formats for different functions. The card includes a low-cost GPS receiver module, which permits time-stamping event triggers to about 50 nanosecond accuracy in UTC between widely separated sites. The technique used for obtaining precise GPS time employs the 1PPS signal, which is not normally available to users of the commercial GPS module. We had the stock model slightly custom-modified to access this signal. The method for deriving time values was adapted from methods developed for the K2K long-baseline neutrino experiment. Performance of the low-cost GPS module used is compared to that of a more expensive unit with known quality.

  17. Search for a charged Higgs boson with the ATLAS detector: from theory to experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weydert, C.

    2011-09-01

    This thesis is intended as a bridge between the two highly specialized domains of phenomenology and experimental particle physics. The first part describes in detail a higher order cross section calculation and implementation into a Monte Carlo event generator. We present the calculation of the next-to-leading order (NLO) quantum chromodynamic corrections for charged Higgs boson production in association with a top quark at the LHC, using the Catani-Seymour dipole subtraction method. Building an independent NLO code enabled us to cross-check the implemented version of MCANLO, and a few studies have been made which focus on different contributions to the theoretical uncertainty attached to the NLO calculation. The actual implementation was performed for another NLO event generator, POWHEG. Considering the small production cross section of charged Higgs production associated with a top quark, an analysis of this channel using the 35 pb -1 of data collected with the ATLAS detector in 2010 from the proton-proton collisions of the LHC, makes no sense, and we switch to a very similar SM channel, namely Wt production. In the second part, we set-up a dedicated analysis for semileptonic Wt and focus on the evaluation of the PDF (parton distribution functions) systematic uncertainty, following the PDF4LHC recommendation. The electroweak single top production cross section at the Tevatron is so low that it has not been observed until today, so we are able to set the world's first limit on its production cross section and include the most important systematic uncertainties in our analysis. (author)

  18. Development of a pixel sensor with fine space-time resolution based on SOI technology for the ILC vertex detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Shun, E-mail: s-ono@champ.hep.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Togawa, Manabu; Tsuji, Ryoji; Mori, Teppei [Osaka University, 1-1 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka (Japan); Yamada, Miho; Arai, Yasuo; Tsuboyama, Toru; Hanagaki, Kazunori [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies, High Energy Accelerator Research Org. (KEK), 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba (Japan)

    2017-02-11

    We have been developing a new monolithic pixel sensor with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) technology for the International Linear Collider (ILC) vertex detector system. The SOI monolithic pixel detector is realized using standard CMOS circuits fabricated on a fully depleted sensor layer. The new SOI sensor SOFIST can store both the position and timing information of charged particles in each 20×20 μm{sup 2} pixel. The position resolution is further improved by the position weighted with the charges spread to multiple pixels. The pixel also records the hit timing with an embedded time-stamp circuit. The sensor chip has column-parallel analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) circuits and zero-suppression logic for high-speed data readout. We are designing and evaluating some prototype sensor chips for optimizing and minimizing the pixel circuit.

  19. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Agapopoulou, Christina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 30 pico-seconds per readout cell in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision verti...

  20. Hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to-time interval conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basiladze, S.G.; Dotsenko, Yu.Yu.; Man' yakov, P.K.; Fedorchenko, S.N. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR))

    The hybrid integrated circuit for charge-to time interval conversion with nanosecond input fast response is described. The circuit can be used in energy measuring channels, time-to-digital converters and in the modified variant in amplitude-to-digital converters. The converter described consists of a buffer amplifier, a linear transmission circuit, a direct current source and a unit of time interval separation. The buffer amplifier represents a current follower providing low input and high output resistances by the current feedback. It is concluded that the described converter excelled the QT100B circuit analogous to it in a number of parameters especially, in thermostability.

  1. Timing and position response of a block detector for fast neutron time-of-flight imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubach, M.A., E-mail: mlaubach@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hayward, J.P., E-mail: jhayward@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Rd., Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Zhang, X., E-mail: xzhang39@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Cates, J.W., E-mail: jcates7@vols.utk.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Our research effort seeks to improve the spatial and timing performance of a block detector made of a pixilated plastic scintillator (EJ-200), first demonstrated as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Advanced Portable Neutron Imaging System. Improvement of the position and time response is necessary to achieve better resolution and contrast in the images of shielded special nuclear material. Time-of-flight is used to differentiate between gamma and different sources of neutrons (e.g., transmission and fission neutrons). Factors limiting the timing and position performance of the neutron detector have been revealed through simulations and measurements. Simulations have suggested that the degradation in the ability to resolve pixels in the neutron detector is due to those interactions occurring near the light guide. The energy deposition within the neutron detector is shown to affect position performance and imaging efficiency. This examination details how energy cuts improve the position performance and degrade the imaging efficiency. Measurements have shown the neutron detector to have a timing resolution of σ=238 ps. The majority of this timing uncertainty is from the depth-of-interaction (DOI) of the neutron which is confirmed by simulations and analytical calculations.

  2. Precise 3D track reconstruction algorithm for the ICARUS T600 liquid argon time projection chamber detector

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M

    2013-01-01

    Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach of three-dimensional reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of real data tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  3. Precise 3D Track Reconstruction Algorithm for the ICARUS T600 Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC detectors offer charged particle imaging capability with remarkable spatial resolution. Precise event reconstruction procedures are critical in order to fully exploit the potential of this technology. In this paper we present a new, general approach to 3D reconstruction for the LAr TPC with a practical application to the track reconstruction. The efficiency of the method is evaluated on a sample of simulated tracks. We present also the application of the method to the analysis of stopping particle tracks collected during the ICARUS T600 detector operation with the CNGS neutrino beam.

  4. Design and Test of a 65nm CMOS Front-End with Zero Dead Time for Next Generation Pixel Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaioni, L. [INFN, Pavia; Braga, D. [Fermilab; Christian, D. [Fermilab; Deptuch, G. [Fermilab; Fahim. F., Fahim. F. [Fermilab; Nodari, B. [Lyon, IPN; Ratti, L. [INFN, Pavia; Re, V. [INFN, Pavia; Zimmerman, T. [Fermilab

    2017-09-01

    This work is concerned with the experimental characterization of a synchronous analog processor with zero dead time developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, conceived for pixel detectors at the HL-LHC experiment upgrades. It includes a low noise, fast charge sensitive amplifier with detector leakage compensation circuit, and a compact, single ended comparator able to correctly process hits belonging to two consecutive bunch crossing periods. A 2-bit Flash ADC is exploited for digital conversion immediately after the preamplifier. A description of the circuits integrated in the front-end processor and the initial characterization results are provided

  5. Detectors for selective registration of charged particles and gamma-quanta

    CERN Document Server

    Ryzhikov, V; Katrunov, K

    2002-01-01

    A new design is proposed and described of a combined detector (CD) for simultaneous detection of charged particles and gamma-quanta. The CD comprises a single crystalline plate of ZnSe(Te) placed onto the output window of a scintillating transparent light transducer made of CsI(Ti) and Al sub 2 O sub 3 (Ti) in the shape of truncated pyramid. The CsI(Ti) light transducer is used to create an additional channel for detection of gamma-radiation,as well as for protecting the photodiode from the penetrating radiation.It is shown that introduction of such light transducer does not worsen the energy characteristics of ZnSe(Te). Separate detection of alpha- and gamma-radiation has been achieved under simultaneous excitation by sup 2 sup 3 sup 9 Pu (ZnSe(Te), R sub a =6%) and sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am (CsI(Tl), R subgamma = 20 %). The use of selective optical filters allows separation of the peaks of total absorption (p.t.a.) in the case of their superposition.

  6. Charge Transport Phenomena in Detectors of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundqvist, Kyle

    2008-03-01

    The Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) seeks to detect putative weakly-interacting massive particles (WIMPS), which could explain the dark matter problem in cosmology and particle physics. By simultaneously measuring the number of charge carriers and the energy in athermal phonons created by particle interactions in intrinsic Ge and Si crystals at a temperature of 40 mK, a signature response for each event is produced. This response, combined with phonon pulse-shape information, allows CDMS to actively discriminate candidate WIMP interactions with nuclei apart from electromagnetic radioactive background which interacts with electrons. The challenges associated with these techniques are unique. Carrier drift-fields are maintained at only a few V/cm, else drift-emitted Luke-Neganov phonons would dominate the phonons of the original interaction. Under such conditions, carrier scattering is dominated by zero-point fluctuations of the lattice ions. It has been an open question how well the 8 Kelvin data prominent in the literature depicts this case. We compare the simulated transport properties of electrons and holes in Ge at 40 mK and at 8 K, and apply this understanding to our detectors.

  7. The Time-of-Flight Detector for the ALICE experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, M C S

    2002-01-01

    The Multigap Resistive Plate Chamber (MRPC) will be used to build a large Time-of-Flight detector for the ALICEexperiment. It will cover an area of 150 m2 consisting of 160,000 channels of 3.5 x 2.5 cm2 read-out pads. We present the results of the last 2 years of R&D during which we investigated problems associated with scaling up from single cells of 3 x 3 cm2 to strips with active area of 7 × 120 cm2 read out with 96 pads.

  8. Pulse shape discrimination with silicon detectors using charge and current-sensitive preamplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrita, H.; Rauly, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Borderie, B.; Chabot, M.; Edelbruck, P.; Lavergne, L.; Le Bris, J.; Le Neindre, N.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Scarpaci, J.A.; Barbey, S.; Becheva, E.; Bzyl, F.R.; D' Esesquelles, P.; Galichet, E.; Lalu, G.; Martinet, G.; Pierre, S. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 91 - Orsay (France); Legou, Th.; Tillier, J.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Carniol, B.; Cussol, D.; Etasse, D.; Grevy, S.; Lopez, O.; Tamain, B.; Vient, E. [Caen Univ., LPC, IN2P3-CNRS, ENSI, 14 - Caen (France); Galichet, E. [Conservatoire National des Arts et Metier, 75 - Paris (France); Guinet, D.; Lautesse, Ph. [Villeurbanne Univ., Institut de Physique Nucleaire, IN2P3-CNRS, 69 (France); Lanzalone, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, (Italy); Politi, G. [Catania Univ., INFN, Sezione di Catania and Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia (Italy); Rosato, E. [Napoli, Univ., Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche e Sezione INFN (Italy)

    2003-07-01

    For the first time shapes of current pulses from light charged particles and carbon ions are presented. Capabilities for pulse shape discrimination techniques are demonstrated. In this work, charge and current-sensitive preamplifier prototypes for nuclear structure and dynamics experiments have been developed and tested with the aim of improving PSD (pulse shape discrimination) method by studying in detail current signal shapes from particles and ions over a large energy range. Note that current signal shapes have been recently used in atomic cluster studies to identify partitions of carbon cluster fragmentation. The paper is organized as follows. Section 2 is devoted to characterization of preamplifiers. In section 3, results of on beam tests will be presented, discussed and compared to a simple simulation.

  9. Study of charged hadron multiplicities in charged-current neutrino-lead interactions in the OPERA detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agafonova, N.; Malgin, A.; Matveev, V.; Ryazhskaya, O.; Shakirianova, I. [INR - Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aleksandrov, A.; Buontempo, S.; Consiglio, L.; Tioukov, V.; Voevodina, E. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Anokhina, A.; Dzhatdoev, T.; Podgrudkov, D.; Roganova, T. [Lomonosov Moscow State University, SINP MSU - Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Aoki, S.; Hara, T.; Mizutani, F.; Ozaki, K.; Shibayama, E.; Takahashi, S. [Kobe University, Kobe (Japan); Ariga, A.; Ereditato, A.; Kreslo, I.; Vuilleumier, J.L. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Ariga, T. [University of Bern, Laboratory for High Energy Physics (LHEP), Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Kyushu University, Faculty of Arts and Science, Fukuoka (Japan); Bertolin, A.; Dusini, S.; Kose, U.; Longhin, A.; Pupilli, F.; Stanco, L. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Bodnarchuk, I.; Chukanov, A.; Dmitrievski, S.; Gornushkin, Y.; Sotnikov, A.; Vasina, S. [JINR - Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Bozza, C.; Grella, G.; Stellacci, S.M. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Salerno (Italy); ' ' Gruppo Collegato' ' INFN, Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Brugnera, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Laudisio, F.; Medinaceli, E.; Roda, M.; Sirignano, C. [INFN Sezione di Padova, Padua (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Padova, Padua (Italy); Buonaura, A.; De Lellis, G.; Di Crescenzo, A.; Galati, G.; Hosseini, B.; Lauria, A.; Montesi, M.C.; Strolin, P. [INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Federico II di Napoli, Naples (Italy); Chernyavskiy, M.; Gorbunov, S.; Okateva, N.; Shchedrina, T.; Starkov, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); D' Ambrosio, N.; Di Marco, N.; Schembri, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); De Serio, M.; Muciaccia, M.T.; Paparella, L.; Pastore, A.; Simone, S. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Bari, Bari (Italy); INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Amo Sanchez, P. del; Duchesneau, D.; Pessard, H. [LAPP, Universite Savoie Mont Blanc, CNRS/IN2P3, Annecy-le-Vieux (France); Di Ferdinando, D.; Mandrioli, G.; Patrizii, L.; Sirri, G.; Tenti, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dracos, M.; Jollet, C.; Meregaglia, A. [IPHC, Universite de Strasbourg, CNRS/IN2P3, Strasbourg (France); Ebert, J.; Hagner, C.; Hollnagel, A.; Wonsak, B. [Hamburg University, Hamburg (Germany); Fini, R.A. [INFN Sezione di Bari, Bari (Italy); Fornari, F.; Mauri, N.; Pasqualini, L.; Pozzato, M. [INFN Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Fukuda, T.; Hayakawa, T.; Ishiguro, K.; Kitagawa, N.; Komatsu, M.; Miyanishi, M.; Morishima, K.; Naganawa, N.; Naka, T.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, T.; Niwa, K.; Rokujo, H.; Sato, O.; Shiraishi, T. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan); Gentile, V. [Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Goldberg, J. [Technion, Department of Physics, Haifa (Israel); Guler, A.M.; Kamiscioglu, M. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Gustavino, C.; Loverre, P.; Monacelli, P.; Rosa, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Jakovcic, K.; Ljubicic, A.; Malenica, M. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kamiscioglu, C. [METU - Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey); Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey); Kim, S.H.; Park, B.D.; Yoon, C.S. [Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Klicek, B.; Stipcevic, M. [Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials and Sensing Devices, Ruder Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Kodama, K. [Aichi University of Education, Kariya, Aichi (Japan); Matsuo, T.; Ogawa, S.; Shibuya, H. [Toho University, Funabashi (Japan); Mikado, S. [Nihon University, Narashino, Chiba (Japan); Paoloni, A.; Spinetti, M.; Votano, L. [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Rome (Italy); Polukhina, N. [LPI - Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physical Institute Moscow, Moscow (Russian Federation); Terranova, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Vilain, P.; Wilquet, G. [IIHE, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium)

    2018-01-15

    The OPERA experiment was designed to search for ν{sub μ} → ν{sub τ} oscillations in appearance mode through the direct observation of tau neutrinos in the CNGS neutrino beam. In this paper, we report a study of the multiplicity of charged particles produced in charged-current neutrino interactions in lead. We present charged hadron average multiplicities, their dispersion and investigate the KNO scaling in different kinematical regions. The results are presented in detail in the form of tables that can be used in the validation of Monte Carlo generators of neutrino-lead interactions. (orig.)

  10. Variable valve timing in a homogenous charge compression ignition engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Faletti, James J.; Funke, Steven J.; Maloney, Ronald P.

    2004-08-03

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogenous charge compression ignition engines, in which fuel is injected when the cylinder piston is relatively close to the bottom dead center position for its compression stroke. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder during the compression stroke to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. The present invention utilizes internal exhaust gas recirculation and/or compression ratio control to control the timing of ignition events and combustion duration in homogeneous charge compression ignition engines. Thus, at least one electro-hydraulic assist actuator is provided that is capable of mechanically engaging at least one cam actuated intake and/or exhaust valve.

  11. Simulation and real-time analysis of pulse shapes from segmented HPGe-detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlarb, Michael Christian

    2009-11-17

    The capabilities of future HPGe arrays consisting of highly segmented detectors, like AGATA will depend heavily on the performance of {gamma}-ray tracking. The most crucial component in the whole concept is the pulse shape analysis (PSA). The working principle of PSA is to compare the experimental signal shape with signals available from a basis set with known interaction locations. The efficiency of the tracking algorithm hinges on the ability of the PSA to reconstruct the interaction locations accurately, especially for multiple {gamma}-interactions. Given the size of the arrays the PSA algorithm must be run in a real-time environment. A prerequisite to a successful PSA is an accurate knowledge of the detectors response. Making a full coincidence scan of a single AGATA detector, however takes between two and three months, which is too long to produce an experimental signal basis for all detector elements. A straight forward possibility is to use a precise simulation of the detector and to provide a basis of simulated signals. For this purpose the Java Agata Signal Simulation (JASS) was developed in the course of this thesis. The geometry of the detector is given with numerical precision and models describing the anisotropic mobilities of the charge carriers in germanium were taken from the literature. The pulse shapes of the transient and net-charge signals are calculated using weighting potentials on a finite grid. Special care was taken that the interpolation routine not only reproduces the weighting potentials precisely in the highly varying areas of the segment boundaries but also that its performance is independent of the location within the detector. Finally data from a coincidence scan and a pencil beam experiment were used to verify JASS. The experimental signals are reproduced accurately by the simulation. Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) reconstructs the positions of the individual interactions and the corresponding energy deposits within the detector. This

  12. Simulation and real-time analysis of pulse shapes from segmented HPGe-detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlarb, Michael Christian

    2009-01-01

    The capabilities of future HPGe arrays consisting of highly segmented detectors, like AGATA will depend heavily on the performance of γ-ray tracking. The most crucial component in the whole concept is the pulse shape analysis (PSA). The working principle of PSA is to compare the experimental signal shape with signals available from a basis set with known interaction locations. The efficiency of the tracking algorithm hinges on the ability of the PSA to reconstruct the interaction locations accurately, especially for multiple γ-interactions. Given the size of the arrays the PSA algorithm must be run in a real-time environment. A prerequisite to a successful PSA is an accurate knowledge of the detectors response. Making a full coincidence scan of a single AGATA detector, however takes between two and three months, which is too long to produce an experimental signal basis for all detector elements. A straight forward possibility is to use a precise simulation of the detector and to provide a basis of simulated signals. For this purpose the Java Agata Signal Simulation (JASS) was developed in the course of this thesis. The geometry of the detector is given with numerical precision and models describing the anisotropic mobilities of the charge carriers in germanium were taken from the literature. The pulse shapes of the transient and net-charge signals are calculated using weighting potentials on a finite grid. Special care was taken that the interpolation routine not only reproduces the weighting potentials precisely in the highly varying areas of the segment boundaries but also that its performance is independent of the location within the detector. Finally data from a coincidence scan and a pencil beam experiment were used to verify JASS. The experimental signals are reproduced accurately by the simulation. Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA) reconstructs the positions of the individual interactions and the corresponding energy deposits within the detector. This is

  13. Large-scale digitizer system (LSD) for charge and time digitization in high-energy physics experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Althaus, R.F.; Kirsten, F.A.; Lee, K.L.; Olson, S.R.; Wagner, L.J.; Wolverton, J.M.

    1976-10-01

    A large-scale digitizer (LSD) system for acquiring charge and time-of-arrival particle data from high-energy-physics experiments has been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The objective in this development was to significantly reduce the cost of instrumenting large-detector arrays which, for the 4π-geometry of colliding-beam experiments, are proposed with an order of magnitude increase in channel count over previous detectors. In order to achieve the desired economy (approximately $65 per channel), a system was designed in which a number of control signals for conversion, for digitization, and for readout are shared in common by all the channels in each 128-channel bin. The overall-system concept and the distribution of control signals that are critical to the 10-bit charge resolution and to the 12-bit time resolution are described. Also described is the bit-serial transfer scheme, chosen for its low component and cabling costs

  14. The importance of the time scale in radiation detection exemplified by comparing conventional and avalache semiconductor detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tove, P A; Cho, Z H; Huth, G C [California Univ., Los Angeles (USA). Lab. of Nuclear Medicine and Radiation Biology

    1976-02-01

    The profound importance of the time scale of a radiation detection process is discussed in an analysis of limitations in energy resolution and timing, with emphasis on semiconductor detectors used for X-ray detection. The basic event detection time involves stopping of the particle and creating a distribution of free electrons and holes containing all desired information (energy, time position) about the particle or quantum, in a time approximately equal to 10/sup -12/s. The process of extracting this information usually involves a much longer time because the signal is generated in the relatively slow process of charge collection, and further prolongation may be caused by signal processing required to depress noise for improving energy resolution. This is a common situation for conventional semiconductor detectors with external amplifiers where time constants of 10/sup -5/-10/sup -4/s may be optimum, primarily because of amplifier noise. A different situation applies to the avalanche detector where internal amplification helps in suppressing noise without expanding the time scale of detections, resulting in an optimum time of 10/sup -9/-10/sup -8/s. These two cases are illustrated by plotting energy resolution vs. time constant, for different magnitudes of the parallel and series type noise sources. The effects of the inherent energy spread due to statistips and spatial inhomogeneities are also discussed to illustrate the potential of these two approaches for energy and time determination. Two constructional approaches for avalanche detectors are briefly compared.

  15. Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousef, Hazem

    2011-01-01

    A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)

  16. Energy dependent charge spread function in a dedicated synchrotron beam pnCCD detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yousef, Hazem

    2011-05-20

    A scan on the pixel edges is the method which is used to resolve the electron cloud size in the pixel array of the pnCCD detector. The EDR synchrotron radiation in BESSY is the source of the X-ray photons which are used in the scans. The radius of the electron cloud as a function of the impinging photon energy is analyzed. The angle of incidence of the X-ray beam is employed in the measurements. The measurements are validated by the numerical simulation models. The inclined X-ray track leads to distribute the electron clouds in a certain number of pixels according to the incident angle of the X-ray beam. The pixels detect different electron clouds according to their generation position in the detector bulk. A collimated X-ray beam of 12.14 keV is used in the measurements with 30 and 40 entrance angles. It is shown that the two factors that leads to expand the electron clouds namely the diffusion and the mutual electrostatic repulsion can be separated from the measured electron clouds. It is noticed as well that the influence of the mutual electrostatic repulsion dominates the cloud expansion over the diffusion process in the collection time of the detector. The perpendicular X-ray track leads to determine the average radius of the electron cloud per photon energy. The results show that the size of the electron clouds (RMS) in the energy range of [5.0-21.6] keV is smaller than the pixel size. (orig.)

  17. A novel transition radiation detector utilizing superconducting microspheres for measuring the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Luke C.L.; Chen, C.P.; Huang, C.Y.; Lee, S.C.; Waysand, G.; Perrier, P.; Limagne, D.; Jeudy, V.; Girard, T.

    2000-01-01

    A novel transition radiation detector (TRD) utilizing superheated superconducting microspheres of tin of 22-26, 27-32 and 32-38 μm in diameter, respectively, has been constructed which is capable of measuring accurately the energy of relativistic high-energy charged particles. The test has been conducted in a high-energy electron beam facility at the CERN PS in the energy range of 1-10 GeV showing an energy dependence of the TR X-ray photon produced and hence the value γ=E/mc 2 of the charged particle

  18. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, J. [Fermilab; Cease, H. [Fermilab; Jaskierny, W. F. [Fermilab; Markley, D. [Fermilab; Pahlka, R. B. [Fermilab; Balakishiyeva, D. [Florida U.; Saab, T. [Florida U.; Filipenko, M. [Erlangen - Nuremberg U., ECAP

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  19. Static and time-resolved 10-1000 keV x-ray imaging detector options for NIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.; Bell, P.M.; McDonald, J.W.; Park, H.-S.; Weber, F.; Moody, J.D.; Lowry, M.E.; Stewart, R.E.

    2004-01-01

    High energy (>10 keV) x-ray self-emission imaging and radiography will be essential components of many NIF high energy density physics experiments. In preparation for such experiments, we have evaluated the pros and cons of various static [x-ray film, bare charge-coupled device (CCD), and scintillator + CCD] and time-resolved (streaked and gated) 10-1000 keV detectors

  20. Unipolar time-differential charge sensing in non-dispersive amorphous solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldan, A. H.; Rowlands, J. A.; Tousignant, O.; Karim, K. S.

    2013-01-01

    The use of high resistivity amorphous solids as photodetectors, especially amorphous selenium, is currently of great interest because they are readily produced over large area at substantially lower cost compared to grown crystalline solids. However, amorphous solids have been ruled out as viable radiation detection media for high frame-rate applications, such as single-photon-counting imaging, because of low carrier mobilities, transit-time-limited photoresponse, and consequently, poor time resolution. To circumvent the problem of poor charge transport in amorphous solids, we propose unipolar time-differential charge sensing by establishing a strong near-field effect using an electrostatic shield within the material. For the first time, we have fabricated a true Frisch grid inside a solid-state detector by evaporating amorphous selenium over photolithographically prepared multi-well substrates. The fabricated devices are characterized with optical, x-ray, and gamma-ray impulse-like excitations. Results prove the proposed unipolar time-differential property and show that time resolution in non-dispersive amorphous solids can be improved substantially to reach the theoretical limit set by spatial spreading of the collected Gaussian carrier cloud.

  1. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Eric, E-mail: eberg@ucdavis.edu; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of California, Davis, One Shields Avenue, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Kapusta, Maciej [Molecular Imaging, Siemens Healthcare, Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals.

  2. A combined time-of-flight and depth-of-interaction detector for total-body positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Eric; Roncali, Emilie; Du, Junwei; Cherry, Simon R.; Kapusta, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In support of a project to build a total-body PET scanner with an axial field-of-view of 2 m, the authors are developing simple, cost-effective block detectors with combined time-of-flight (TOF) and depth-of-interaction (DOI) capabilities. Methods: This work focuses on investigating the potential of phosphor-coated crystals with conventional PMT-based block detector readout to provide DOI information while preserving timing resolution. The authors explored a variety of phosphor-coating configurations with single crystals and crystal arrays. Several pulse shape discrimination techniques were investigated, including decay time, delayed charge integration (DCI), and average signal shapes. Results: Pulse shape discrimination based on DCI provided the lowest DOI positioning error: 2 mm DOI positioning error was obtained with single phosphor-coated crystals while 3–3.5 mm DOI error was measured with the block detector module. Minimal timing resolution degradation was observed with single phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals, and a timing resolution of 442 ps was obtained with phosphor-coated crystals in the block detector compared to 404 ps without phosphor coating. Flood maps showed a slight degradation in crystal resolvability with phosphor-coated crystals; however, all crystals could be resolved. Energy resolution was degraded by 3%–7% with phosphor-coated crystals compared to uncoated crystals. Conclusions: These results demonstrate the feasibility of obtaining TOF–DOI capabilities with simple block detector readout using phosphor-coated crystals

  3. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive coating. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4-10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as far applications like medical imaging.

  4. A novel fast timing micropattern gaseous detector: FTM

    CERN Document Server

    De Oliveira, Rui; Maggi, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    In recent years important progress in micropattern gaseous detectors has been achieved in the use of resistive material to build compact spark-protected devices. The novel idea presented here consists of the polarisation of WELL structures using only resistive electrodes. This allows a new device to be built with an architecture based on a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure. The signals from each multiplication stage can be read out from any external readout boards through the capacitive couplings. Each layer provides a signal with a gain of 10^4 - 10^5. The main advantage of this new device is the dramatic improvement of the timing provided by the competition of the ionisation processes in the different drift regions, which can be exploited for fast timing at the high luminosity accelerators (e.g. HL-LHC upgrade) as well as applications outside particle physics.

  5. MEDEA: A multi element detector array for gamma ray and light charged particle detection at the LNS-Catania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migneco, E.; Agodi, C.; Alba, R.; Coniglione, R.; Del Zoppo, A.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maiolino, C.; Piattelli, P.; Raia, G.; Sapienza, P.; Bellia, G.

    1992-01-01

    A 4π highly granular Multi Element Detector Array (MEDEA) for γ-rays and light charged particles is described. Its basic configuration consists of 180 barium fluoride scintillator crystals, arranged in the shape of a ball, plus a forward angle wall of 120 phoswich detectors. The inner radius of the ball (22 cm) and the distance of the wall from the target (55 cm) allow the placement of other detectors in the inner volume. The whole detection system operates under vacuum inside a large scattering chamber. Dedicated electronics has been designed and realized. It includes a powerful hardware second level trigger and preanalysis system, which allows on-line event selection, and a modular VME-bus based data acquisition system. In-beam performances of the system are also described. (orig.)

  6. Fault injection as a test method for an FPGA in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector

    CERN Document Server

    Roed, K; Richter, M; Fehlker, D; Helstrup, H; Alme, J; Ullaland, K

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how fault injection has been implemented as a test method for an FPGA in an existing hardware configuration setup. As this FPGA is in charge of data readout for a large tracking detector, the reliability of this FPGA is of high importance. Due to the complexity of the readout electronics, irradiation testing is technically difficult at this stage of the system commissioning. The work presented in this paper is therefore motivated by introducing fault injection as an alternative method to characterize failures caused by SEUs. It is a method to study the effect that a configuration upset may have on the operation of the FPGA. The target platform consists of two independent modules for data acquisition and detector control functionality. Fault injection to test the response of the data acquisition module is made possible by implementing the solution as part of the detector control functionality. Correct implementation is validated by a simple shift register design. Our results demonstrate th...

  7. Activity on improving performance of time-of-flight detector at CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzione, A.; Cerri, C.; Vataga, E.; Prokoshin, F.; Tokar, S.

    2002-01-01

    The paper describes activity on improving the time resolution of the Time-of-Flight detector at CDF. The main goal of the detector is the identification of kaons and pions for b-quark (B-meson) flavour tagging. Construction of the detector has been described as well as proposals on detector design changes to improve its time resolution. Monte Carlo simulation of the detector response to MIP was performed. The results of the simulation showed that the proposed modifications (at least with currently available materials) bring modest or no improvement of the detector time resolution. An automated set-up was assembled to test and check out the changes in the electronic readout system of the detector. Sophisticated software has been developed for this set-up to provide control of the system as well as processing and presentation of data from the detector. This software can perform various tests using different implementations of the hardware set-up

  8. Study of the detective quantum efficiency for the kinestatic charge detector as a megavoltage imaging device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samant, Sanjiv S.; Gopal, Arun; DiBianca, Frank A.

    2003-06-01

    Megavoltage x-ray imaging suffers from relatively poor contrast and spatial resolution compared to diagnostic kilovoltage x-ray imaging due to the dominant Compton scattering in the former. Recently available amorphous silicon/selenium based flat-panel imagers overcome many of the limitations of poor contrast and spatial resolution that affect conventional video based electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). An alternative technology is presented here: kinestatic charge detection (KCD). The KCD uses a slot photon beam, high-pressure gas (xenon, 100 atm) and a multi-ion rectangular chamber in scanning mode. An electric field is used to regulate the cation drift velocity. By matching the scanning speed with that of the cation drift, the cations remain static in the object frame of reference, allowing temporal integration of the signal. KCD imaging is characterized by reduced scatter and a high signal-to-noise ratio. Measurements and Monte Carlo simulations of modulation transfer function (MTF), noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of a prototype small field of view KCD detector (384 channels, 0.5 mm spacing) were carried out. Measurements yield DQE[0]=0.19 and DQE[0.5cy/mm]=0.01. KCD imaging is compared to film and commercial EPID systems using phantoms, with the KCD requiring an extremely low dose (0.1 cGy) per image. A proposed cylindrical chamber design with a higher ion-collection depth is expected to further improve image quality (DQE[0]>0.25).

  9. Charge collection efficiency and resolution of an irradiated double-sided silicon microstrip detector operated at cryogenic temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borer, K.; Janos, S.; Palmieri, V.G.; Buytaert, J.; Chabaud, V.; Chochula, P.; Collins, P.; Dijkstra, H.; Niinikoski, T.O.; Lourenco, C.; Parkes, C.; Saladino, S.; Ruf, T.; Granata, V.; Pagano, S.; Vitobello, F.; Bell, W.; Bartalini, P.; Dormond, O.; Frei, R.; Casagrande, L.; Bowcock, T.; Barnett, I.B.M.; Da Via, C.; Konorov, I.; Paul, S.; Schmitt, L.; Ruggiero, G.; Stavitski, I.; Esposito, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents results on the measurement of the cluster shapes, resolution and charge collection efficiency of a double-sided silicon microstrip detector after irradiation with 24 GeV protons to a fluence of 3.5x10 14 p/cm 2 and operated at cryogenic temperatures. An empirical model is presented which describes the expected cluster shapes as a function of depletion depth, and is shown to agree with the data. It is observed that the clusters on the p-side broaden if the detector is under-depleted, leading to a degradation of resolution and efficiency. The model is used to make predictions for detector types envisaged for the LHC experiments. The results also show that at cryogenic temperature the charge collection efficiency varies depending on the operating conditions of the detector and can reach values of 100% at unexpectedly low bias voltage. By analysing the cluster shapes it is shown that these variations are due to changes in depletion depth. This phenomenon, known as the 'Lazarus effect', can be related to similar recent observations on diode behaviour

  10. Some design considerations for a large solid angle charged plus neutrals detector for e+e/sup /minus// storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, T.; Nelson, J.

    1974-08-01

    We describe here the relations between various design parameters, costs, resolutions, geometry, etc., that we have found useful in thinking about charged and neutral particle detectors for SPEAR and PEP. A great many alternatives exist for the various components of these detectors: solenoid vs. Helmholtz coils for the magnet, normal versus superconducting magnets, active converters versus passive converters for the gammas, different gamma detection methods, different return yoke configurations, etc. We have thought most about a system based upon a solenoid magnet with drift chambers inside for charged particle detection and lead glass outside for gamma detection. Consequently most of the formulae and figures in this paper are oriented toward that configuration. A great many other configurations have been discussed as possibilities for PEP detectors. Since the constraints ($, manpower, electrical power) and the physics of interest at PEP are still unknown we consider the present configuration to be only one of many possibilities. Each of the possible configurations needs to be carefully studied to understand its limitations and to optimize the design within those limitations. In that spirit we present here some of the tools needed for understanding the design of a solenoidal detector. 18 figs

  11. CCD[charge-coupled device]-based synchrotron x-ray detector for protein crystallography: Performance projected from an experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, M.G.; Naday, I.; Sherman, I.S.; Kraimer, M.R.; Westbrook, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    The intense x radiation from a synchrotron source could, with a suitable detector, provide a complete set of diffraction images from a protein crystal before the crystal is damaged by radiation (2 to 3 min). An area detector consisting of a 40 mm dia. x-ray fluorescing phosphor, coupled with an image intensifier and lens to a CCD image sensor, was developed to determine the effectiveness of such a detector in protein crystallography. The detector was used in an experiment with a rotating anode x-ray generator. Diffraction patterns from a lysozyme crystal obtained with this detector are compared to those obtained with film. The two images appear to be virtually identical. The flux of 10 4 x-ray photons/s was observed on the detector at the rotating anode generator. At the 6-GeV synchrotron being designed at Argonne, the flux on an 80 x 80 mm 2 detector is expected to be >10 9 photons/s. The projected design of such a synchrotron detector shows that a diffraction-peak count >10 6 could be obtained in ∼0.5 s. With an additional ∼0.5 s readout time of a 512 x 512 pixel CCD, the data acquisition time per frame would be ∼1 s so that ninety 1 0 diffraction images could be obtained, with approximately 1% precision, in less than 3 min

  12. Beam test results of a 16 ps timing system based on ultra-fast silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cartiglia, N., E-mail: cartiglia@to.infn.it [INFN, Torino (Italy); Staiano, A.; Sola, V. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Arcidiacono, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università del Piemonte Orientale (Italy); Cirio, R.; Cenna, F.; Ferrero, M.; Monaco, V.; Mulargia, R.; Obertino, M.; Ravera, F.; Sacchi, R. [INFN, Torino (Italy); Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Bellora, A.; Durando, S. [Università di Torino, Torino (Italy); Mandurrino, M. [Politecnico di Torino, Torino (Italy); Minafra, N. [University of Kansas, KS (United States); Fadeyev, V.; Freeman, P.; Galloway, Z.; Gkougkousis, E. [SCIPP, University of California Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); and others

    2017-04-01

    In this paper we report on the timing resolution obtained in a beam test with pions of 180 GeV/c momentum at CERN for the first production of 45 µm thick Ultra-Fast Silicon Detectors (UFSD). UFSD are based on the Low-Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) design, employing n-on-p silicon sensors with internal charge multiplication due to the presence of a thin, low-resistivity diffusion layer below the junction. The UFSD used in this test had a pad area of 1.7 mm{sup 2}. The gain was measured to vary between 5 and 70 depending on the sensor bias voltage. The experimental setup included three UFSD and a fast trigger consisting of a quartz bar readout by a SiPM. The timing resolution was determined by doing Gaussian fits to the time-of-flight of the particles between one or more UFSD and the trigger counter. For a single UFSD the resolution was measured to be 34 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 27 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V. For the combination of 3 UFSD the timing resolution was 20 ps for a bias voltage of 200 V, and 16 ps for a bias voltage of 230 V.

  13. A free-running, time-based readout method for particle detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerres, A; Ritman, J; Stockmanns, T; Bugalho, R; Francesco, A Di; Gastón, C; Gonçalves, F; Rolo, M D; Silva, J C da; Silva, R; Varela, J; Veckalns, V; Mazza, G; Mignone, M; Pietro, V Di; Riccardi, A; Rivetti, A; Wheadon, R

    2014-01-01

    For the EndoTOFPET-US experiment, the TOFPET ASIC has been developed as a front-end chip to read out data from silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) [1]. It introduces a time of flight information into the measurement of a PET scanner and hence reduces radiation exposure of the patient [2]. The chip is designed to work with a high event rate up to 100 kHz and a time resolution of 50 ps LSB. Using two threshold levels, it can measure the leading edge of the event pulse precisely while successfully suppressing dark counts from the SiPM. This also enables a time over threshold determination, leading to a charge measurement of the signal's pulse. The same, time-based concept is chosen for the PASTA chip used in the PANDA experiment. This high-energy particle detector contains sub-systems for specific measurement goals. The innermost of these is the Micro Vertex Detector, a silicon-based tracking system. The PASTA chip's approach is much like the TOFPET ASIC with some differences. The most significant ones are a changed amplifying part for different input signals as well as protection for radiation effects of the high-radiation environment. Apart from that, the simple and general concept combined with a small area and low power consumption support the choice for using this approach

  14. A free-running, time-based readout method for particle detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goerres, A.; Bugalho, R.; Di Francesco, A.; Gastón, C.; Gonçalves, F.; Mazza, G.; Mignone, M.; Di Pietro, V.; Riccardi, A.; Ritman, J.; Rivetti, A.; Rolo, M. D.; da Silva, J. C.; Silva, R.; Stockmanns, T.; Varela, J.; Veckalns, V.; Wheadon, R.

    2014-03-01

    For the EndoTOFPET-US experiment, the TOFPET ASIC has been developed as a front-end chip to read out data from silicon photomultipliers (SiPM) [1]. It introduces a time of flight information into the measurement of a PET scanner and hence reduces radiation exposure of the patient [2]. The chip is designed to work with a high event rate up to 100 kHz and a time resolution of 50 ps LSB. Using two threshold levels, it can measure the leading edge of the event pulse precisely while successfully suppressing dark counts from the SiPM. This also enables a time over threshold determination, leading to a charge measurement of the signal's pulse. The same, time-based concept is chosen for the PASTA chip used in the PANDA experiment. This high-energy particle detector contains sub-systems for specific measurement goals. The innermost of these is the Micro Vertex Detector, a silicon-based tracking system. The PASTA chip's approach is much like the TOFPET ASIC with some differences. The most significant ones are a changed amplifying part for different input signals as well as protection for radiation effects of the high-radiation environment. Apart from that, the simple and general concept combined with a small area and low power consumption support the choice for using this approach.

  15. Status of the measurement of KS → πeν branching ratio and lepton charge asymmetry with the KLOE detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamińska Daria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the current status of the analysis of about 1.7 billion KS KL pair events collected at DAΦNE with the KLOE detector to determine the branching ratio of KS → πeν decay and the lepton charge asymmetry. This sample is ∼ 4 times larger in statistics than the one used in the previous most precise result, from KLOE as well, allowing us to improve the accuracy on the measurement and related tests of CPT symmetry and ∆S = ∆Q rule.

  16. Exploratory study of a novel low occupancy vertex detector architecture based on high precision timing for high luminosity particle colliders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orel, Peter, E-mail: porel@hawaii.edu; Varner, Gary S.; Niknejadi, Pardis

    2017-06-11

    Vertex detectors provide space–time coordinates for the traversing charged particle decay products closest to the interaction point. Resolving these increasingly intense particle fluences at high luminosity particle colliders, such as SuperKEKB, is an ever growing challenge. This results in a non-negligible occupancy of the vertex detector using existing low material budget techniques. Consequently, new approaches are being studied that meet the vertexing requirements while lowering the occupancy. In this paper, we introduce a novel vertex detector architecture. Its design relies on an asynchronous digital pixel matrix in combination with a readout based on high precision time-of-flight measurement. Denoted the Timing Vertex Detector (TVD), it consists of a binary pixel array, a transmission line for signal collection, and a readout ASIC. The TVD aims to have a spatial resolution comparable to the existing Belle2 vertex detector. At the same time it offers a reduced occupancy by a factor of ten while decreasing the channel count by almost three orders of magnitude. Consequently, reducing the event size from about 1 MB/event to about 5.9 kB/event.

  17. Timing, Trigger and Control Systems for LHC Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    \\\\ \\\\At the LHC, precise bunch-crossing clock and machine orbit signals must be broadcast over distances of several km from the Prevessin Control Room to the four experiment areas and other destinations. At the LHC experiments themselves, quite extensive distribution systems are also required for the transmission of timing, trigger and control (TTC) signals to large numbers of front-end electronics controllers from a single location in the vicinity of the central trigger processor. The systems must control the detector synchronization and deliver the necessary fast signals and messages that are phased with the LHC clock, orbit or bunch structure. These include the bunch-crossing clock, level-1 trigger decisions, bunch and event numbers, as well as test signals and broadcast commands. A common solution to this TTC system requirement is expected to result in important economies of scale and permit a rationalization of the development, operational and support efforts required. LHC Common Project RD12 is developi...

  18. Large, real time detectors for solar neutrinos and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the present status of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) development for the real time detection of magnetic monopoles of any speed and of low energy solar neutrinos down to the pp region (indium project). Basic properties of SSG and progress made in the recent years are briefly reviewed. Possible ways for further improvement are discussed. The performances reached in ultrasonic grain production at ∼ 100 μm size, as well as in conventional read-out electronics, look particularly promising for a large scale monopole experiment. Alternative approaches are briefly dealt with: induction loops for magnetic monopoles; scintillators, semiconductors or superconducting tunnel junctions for a solar neutrino detector based on an indium target

  19. Fast broad-band photon detector based on quantum well devices and charge-integrating electronics for non-invasive FEL monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, M., E-mail: matias.antonelli@elettra.eu; Cautero, G.; Sergo, R.; Castellaro, C.; Menk, R. H. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A., Trieste (Italy); Ganbold, T. [School in Nanotechnology, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy); Biasiol, G. [IOM CNR, Laboratorio TASC, Trieste (Italy)

    2016-07-27

    The recent evolution of free-electron lasers has not been matched by the development of adequate beam-monitoring instrumentation. However, for both experimental and diagnostics purposes, it is crucial to keep such photon beams under control, avoiding at the same time the absorption of the beam and the possible destruction of the detector. These requirements can be fulfilled by utilizing fast and non-invasive photon detectors operated in situ, upstream from the experimental station. From this perspective, sensors based on Quantum Well (QW) devices can be the key to detecting ultra-short light pulses. In fact, owing to their high electron mobility, InGaAs/InAlAs QW devices operated at room temperature exhibit sub-nanosecond response times. Their direct, low-energy band gap renders them capable of detecting photons ranging from visible to X-ray. Furthermore, the 2D electron gas forming inside the QW is responsible for a charge amplification mechanism, which increases the charge collection efficiency of these devices. In order to acquire the signals produced by these QW sensors, a novel readout electronics has been developed. It is based on a high-speed charge integrator, which allows short, low-intensity current pulses to be read within a 50-ns window. The integrated signal is acquired through an ADC and the entire process can be performed at a 10-MHz repetition rate. This work provides a detailed description of the development of the QW detectors and the acquisition electronics, as well as reporting the main experimental results, which show how these tools are well suited for the realization of fast, broad-band beam monitors.

  20. Physics of scintillation detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novotny, R.

    1991-01-01

    The general concept of a radiation detector is based on three fundamental principles: sensitivity of the device to the radiation of interest which requires a large cross-section in the detector material, detector response function to the physical properties of the radiation. As an example, a scintillation detector for charged particles should allow to identify the charge of the particle, its kinetic energy and the time of impact combined with optimum resolutions. Optimum conversion of the detector response (like luminescence of a scintillator) into electronical signals for further processing. The following article will concentrate on the various aspects of the first two listed principles as far as they appear to be relevant for photon and charged particle detection using organic and inorganic scintillation detectors. (orig.)

  1. Ion space-charge effects in multi-GEM detectors: challenges and possible solutions for future applications

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2079251; Streli, Christina

    Gaseous Electron Multiplier (GEM) detectors are well known both for stable operation under irradiation with high particle fluxes and high achievable effective gains. The aim of this thesis is two-fold: to investigate the limits of GEM detector operation due to space-charge effects, and to develop a means to reduce the magnitude of the observed effects and thus extend those limitations. The first part of the thesis presents a comprehensive study of the intrinsic limits of triple-GEM detectors under exposure to very high fluxes of soft X-rays or operation at very large effective gains. The behaviour of the effective gain, ion back-flow and the pulse-height spectra is explained in terms of the movement and accumulation of positive ions throughout the detector volume, resulting in distortions of the transfer and amplification fields. Numerical computations, and measurements on double-stage and single-stage detectors confirm the model describing the observed effects. Discussions on ways to extend the limits of gas...

  2. High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R.M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G.J.; Miller, K.; Olson, H.; Ramsey, P.

    1993-05-01

    Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm 2 -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems

  3. A new timing model for calculating the intrinsic timing resolution of a scintillator detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Yiping

    2007-01-01

    The coincidence timing resolution is a critical parameter which to a large extent determines the system performance of positron emission tomography (PET). This is particularly true for time-of-flight (TOF) PET that requires an excellent coincidence timing resolution (<<1 ns) in order to significantly improve the image quality. The intrinsic timing resolution is conventionally calculated with a single-exponential timing model that includes two parameters of a scintillator detector: scintillation decay time and total photoelectron yield from the photon-electron conversion. However, this calculation has led to significant errors when the coincidence timing resolution reaches 1 ns or less. In this paper, a bi-exponential timing model is derived and evaluated. The new timing model includes an additional parameter of a scintillator detector: scintillation rise time. The effect of rise time on the timing resolution has been investigated analytically, and the results reveal that the rise time can significantly change the timing resolution of fast scintillators that have short decay time constants. Compared with measured data, the calculations have shown that the new timing model significantly improves the accuracy in the calculation of timing resolutions

  4. Characterization of Si detectors, search for vertex and potentiality of detecting a light charged Higgs boson in the CMS experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estre, N.

    2004-01-01

    The CMS (compact muon solenoid) detector that will be set on the future LHC (large hadron collider) accelerator will enable us to continue our search for the Higgs boson as well as to look for any hint for a new physics beyond the standard model. CMS is composed of an efficient muon detector, an electromagnetic calorimeter and of a tracker with high spatial resolution, this tracker is the topic of this thesis. The tracker will allow an accurate reconstruction of charged-particles trajectories and the reconstruction of the primary interaction vertex. The tracker's technology is based on micro-strip Si detectors, tests performed with the SPS particle beam show that these detectors have an impact reconstruction efficiency greater than 98% and a piling-up rate limited to 6%. The spatial resolution concerning particle trajectories is about 45 μm for an interval of 183 μm between 2 strips. The simulation for the search for a light charged Higgs boson show that an excess of τν τ + bb-bar + qq-bar' events is possible to be observed for any value of tan(β) up to M A = 122 GeV/c 2 during the first year of operation and up to 136 GeV/c 2 afterwards. With the assumption that this event excess is due to the decay of charged Higgs bosons we can state that the assessment of its mass will be possible till m H = 150 GeV/c 2 with an accuracy of 15 GeV/c 2 . (A.C.)

  5. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-12-07

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  6. Time-resolved and position-resolved X-ray spectrometry with a pixelated detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sievers, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the work presented here was to measure X-ray spectra with a pixelated detector. Due to effects in the sensor the spectrum cannot be measured directly and has to be calculated by a deconvolution of the measured data. In the scope of this work the deconvolution of the measured spectra could be enhanced considerably by - amongst other things - the introduction of the Bayesian deconvolution method. Those improvements opened the possibilities for further measurements. For the measurements the detectors of the Medipix family have been used. They are nowadays used for a wide range of applications and scientific research. Their main advantage is the very high position resolution gained by a pixel pitch of 55 μm and a high number of 65536 pixels. The Timepix detector has, in particular, two special possibilities of measurement: the ToA mode and the ToT mode. In ToA mode the arrival time of an impinging photon is measured and in ToT mode the amount of deposited charge is measured. The most common method of operation is counting the number of impinging photons that release a charge higher than a preset threshold in each pixel. As this released charge is proportional to the energy deposition of the impinging photon, one can perform energy-sensitive measurements. To perform the deconvolution of the measured energy distribution there is a need of an energy response matrix describing the detector response on radiation. For some detectors it is possible to obtain an analytic model of the response functions. Due to the high discrepancy between the impinging spectrum and the measured spectrum in case of detectors of the Medipix family, there is so far no analytic model. Thus, the detector response has to be simulated. As I could improve the precision of the measurement quite extensively, I also intended to tune the simulation with more accurate and appropriate models to gain the same level of accuracy. The results of measurement and simulation have then been compared and

  7. A characterization of persistence at short times in the WFC3/IR detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gennaro, M.; Bajaj, V.; Long, K.

    2018-05-01

    Persistence in the WFC3/IR detector appears to decay as a power law as a function of time elapsed since the end of a stimulus. In this report we study departures from the power law at times shorter than a few hundreds seconds after the stimulus. In order to have better short-time cadence, we use the Multiaccum (.ima) files, which trace the accumulated charge in the pixels as function of time, rather than the final pipeline products (.flt files), which instead report the electron rate estimated via a linear fit to the accumulated charge vs. time relation. We note that at short times after the stimulus, the absolute change in persistence is the strongest, thus a linear fit to the accumulated signal (the .flt values) can be a poor representation of the strongly varying persistence signal. The already observed power-law decay of the persistence signal, still holds at shorter times, with typical values of the power law index, gamma in [-0.8,-1] for stimuli that saturate the WFC3 pixels. To a good degree of approximation, a single power law is a good fit to the persistence signal decay from 100 to 5000 seconds. We also detect a tapering-off in the power-law decay at increasingly shorter times. This change in behavior is of the order of Delta Gamma 0.02 - 0.05 when comparing power-law fits performed to the persistence signal from 0 up to 250 seconds and from 0 up to 4000 seconds after the stimulus, indicating that persistence decays slightly more rapidly as time progresses. Our results may suggest that for even shorter times, not probed by our study, the WFC3 persistence signal might deviate from a single power-law model.

  8. Ultrafast time measurements by time-correlated single photon counting coupled with superconducting single photon detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shcheslavskiy, V., E-mail: vis@becker-hickl.de; Becker, W. [Becker & Hickl GmbH, Nahmitzer Damm 30, 12277 Berlin (Germany); Morozov, P.; Divochiy, A. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Smirnov, K. [Scontel, Rossolimo St., 5/22-1, Moscow 119021 (Russian Federation); Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1/1 M. Pirogovskaya St., Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 20 Myasnitskaya St., Moscow 101000 (Russian Federation)

    2016-05-15

    Time resolution is one of the main characteristics of the single photon detectors besides quantum efficiency and dark count rate. We demonstrate here an ultrafast time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) setup consisting of a newly developed single photon counting board SPC-150NX and a superconducting NbN single photon detector with a sensitive area of 7 × 7 μm. The combination delivers a record instrument response function with a full width at half maximum of 17.8 ps and system quantum efficiency ∼15% at wavelength of 1560 nm. A calculation of the root mean square value of the timing jitter for channels with counts more than 1% of the peak value yielded about 7.6 ps. The setup has also good timing stability of the detector–TCSPC board.

  9. A precision timing discriminator for high density detector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turko, B.T.; Smith, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Most high resolution time measurement techniques require discriminators that accurately make the time arrival of events regardless of their intensity. Constant fraction discriminators or zero-crossing discriminators are generally used. In this paper, the authors describe a zero-crossing discriminator that accurately determines the peak of a quasi-Gaussian waveform by differentiating it and detecting the resulting zero-crossing. Basically, it consists of a fast voltage comparator and tow integrating networks: an RC section and an LR section used in a way that keeps the input impedance purely resistive. A time walk of 100 ps in an amplitude range exceeding 100:1 has been achieved for wave-forms from 1.5 ns to 15 ns FWHM. An arming level discriminator is added to eliminate triggering by noise. Easily implemented in either monolithic or hybrid technology, the circuit is suitable for large multichannel detector systems where size and power dissipation are crucial. Circuit diagrams and typical measured data are also presented

  10. Chaos in Time-Dependent Space-Charge Potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Betzel, Gregory T; Sideris, Ioannis V

    2005-01-01

    We consider a spherically symmetric, homologously breathing, space-charge-dominated beam bunch in the spirit of the particle-core model. The question we ask is: How does the time dependence influence the population of chaotic orbits? The static beam has zero chaotic orbits; the equation of particle motion is integrable up to quadrature. This is generally not true once the bunch is set into oscillation. We quantify the population of chaotic orbits as a function of space charge and oscillation amplitude (mismatch). We also apply a newly developed measure of chaos, one that distinguishes between regular, sticky, and wildly chaotic orbits, to characterize the phase space in detail. We then introduce colored noise into the system and show how its presence modifies the dynamics. One finding is that, despite the presence of a sizeable population of chaotic orbits, halo formation in the homologously breathing beam is much less prevalent than in an envelope-matched counterpart wherein an internal collective mode is ex...

  11. The effect of solvent relaxation time constants on free energy gap law for ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailova, Valentina A; Malykhin, Roman E; Ivanov, Anatoly I

    2018-05-16

    To elucidate the regularities inherent in the kinetics of ultrafast charge recombination following photoinduced charge separation in donor-acceptor dyads in solutions, the simulations of the kinetics have been performed within the stochastic multichannel point-transition model. Increasing the solvent relaxation time scales has been shown to strongly vary the dependence of the charge recombination rate constant on the free energy gap. In slow relaxing solvents the non-equilibrium charge recombination occurring in parallel with solvent relaxation is very effective so that the charge recombination terminates at the non-equilibrium stage. This results in a crucial difference between the free energy gap laws for the ultrafast charge recombination and the thermal charge transfer. For the thermal reactions the well-known Marcus bell-shaped dependence of the rate constant on the free energy gap is realized while for the ultrafast charge recombination only a descending branch is predicted in the whole area of the free energy gap exceeding 0.2 eV. From the available experimental data on the population kinetics of the second and first excited states for a series of Zn-porphyrin-imide dyads in toluene and tetrahydrofuran solutions, an effective rate constant of the charge recombination into the first excited state has been calculated. The obtained rate constant being very high is nearly invariable in the area of the charge recombination free energy gap from 0.2 to 0.6 eV that supports the theoretical prediction.

  12. Recent Technological Developments on LGAD and iLGAD Detectors for Tracking and Timing Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pellegrini, G.; Baselga, M.; Carulla, M.; Fadeyev, V.; Fernández-Martínez, P.; Fernandez-Garcia, M.; Flores, D.; Galloway, Z.; Gallrapp, C.; Hidalgo, S.; Liang, Z.; Merlos, A.; Moll, M.; Quirion, D.; Sadrozinski, H.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the last technological development on the Low Gain Avalanche Detector (LGAD) and introduces a new architecture of these detectors called inverse-LGAD (iLGAD). Both approaches are based on the standard Avalanche Photo Diodes (APD) concept, commonly used in optical and X-ray detection applications, including an internal multiplication of the charge generated by radiation. The multiplication is inherent to the basic n++-p+-p structure, where the doping profile of the p+ layer ...

  13. Rise time of voltage pulses in NbN superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnov, K. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow Institute of Electronics and Mathematics, 34 Tallinskaya St., 109028 Moscow (Russian Federation); Divochiy, A. V.; Karpova, U. V.; Morozov, P. V. [CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Vakhtomin, Yu. B.; Seleznev, V. A. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); CJSC “Superconducting Nanotechnology” (Scontel), 5/22-1 Rossolimo St., 119021 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sidorova, M. V. [Moscow State Pedagogical University, 1 Malaya Pirogovskaya St., 119435 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zotova, A. N.; Vodolazov, D. Yu. [Institute for Physics of Microstructure, Russian Academy of Sciences, GSP-105, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod, 23 Gagarin Avenue, 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-01

    We have found experimentally that the rise time of voltage pulse in NbN superconducting single photon detectors increases nonlinearly with increasing the length of the detector L. The effect is connected with dependence of resistance of the detector R{sub n}, which appears after photon absorption, on its kinetic inductance L{sub k} and, hence, on the length of the detector. This conclusion is confirmed by our calculations in the framework of two temperature model.

  14. Performance of a position sensitive Si(Li) x-ray detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of stored and trapped highly-charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G; Braeuning, H; Hess, S; Maertin, R; Spillmann, U; Stoehlker, Th

    2010-01-01

    We report on a novel two-dimensional position sensitive Si(Li) detector dedicated to Compton polarimetry of x-ray radiation arising from highly-charged ions. The performance of the detector system was evaluated in ion-atom collision experiments at the ESR storage ringe at GSI, Darmstadt. Based on the data obtained, the polarimeter efficiency is estimated in this work.

  15. Long-term and transient time variation of cosmic ray fluxes detected in Argentina by CARPET cosmic ray detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mendonça, R. R. S.; Raulin, J.-P.; Bertoni, F. C. P.; Echer, E.; Makhmutov, V. S.; Fernandez, G.

    2011-07-01

    We present results obtained at El Leoncito (CASLEO, San Juan, Argentina) with the CARPET charged particles detector installed in April 2006. The observed modulation of the cosmic ray flux is discussed as a function of its time variability and it is related to longer solar activity variations and to shorter variations during solar and geomagnetic transient activity. Short period (few minutes, few hours) cosmic ray modulation events are observed during rain time (precipitation) and significant variations of the atmospheric electric field. Complementary observations of the atmospheric electric field indicate that its time variations play an important role in the detected cosmic ray event.

  16. Charged particle suppression in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions measured with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Balek, Petr; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    The measurement of charge particle production in heavy ion collisions, when compared with pp data, provides insight into the properties of the hot and dense quark-gluon plasma. The ATLAS detector at the LHC recorded 0.49 nb$^{−1}$ of Pb+Pb collisions and 4.2 pb$^{−1}$ of pp collisions, both at the center-of-mass energy $\\sqrt{s}=\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.02$ TeV. Recently, ATLAS also recorded 3 $\\mu$b$^{−1}$ of Xe+Xe collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5.44$ TeV, which offers a new opportunity to study the system size dependence of the parton energy loss. The large acceptance of the ATLAS detector allows measurements of charged hadron spectra in a wide range of both pseudorapidity and transverse momentum, differentially in collision centrality. The charged hadron spectra measured in Pb+Pb and Xe+Xe collisions are compared to the analogous spectra measured in pp collisions, and the resulting nuclear modification factors $R_{AA}$ are studied.

  17. Search for Charged Higgs Bosons with the ATLAS Detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Czodrowski, Patrick

    2013-07-30

    The discovery of a charged Higgs boson, $H^+$, would be an unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this thesis a search for the $H^+$, with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN based on data taken in 2011, are described. A re-analysis of the charged Higgs boson search, utilising the ratio-method, was performed, which greatly enhanced the sensitivity compared to the traditional direct search approach. Light charged Higgs bosons, with a mass lower than the top quark mass, can be produced in top quark decays. Due to the large production cross-section of top quark pairs the light charged Higgs bosons are accessible with early LHC data, in contrast to charged Higgs bosons heavier than the top quark mass. For light charged Higgs bosons the decay via $H^\\pm \\to \\tau^\\pm \

  18. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detectors: Material parameters; radiation hardness; charge collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, S.

    1991-01-01

    Properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon p-i-n diodes relevant to radiation detection applications were studied. The interest in using this material for radiation detection applications in physics and medicine was motivated by its high radiation hardness and the fact that it can be deposited over large area at relatively low cost. Thick, fully depleted a-Si:H diodes are required for sufficient energy deposition by a charged particle and better signal to noise ratio. A sizeable electric field is essential for charge collection in a -Si:H diodes. The large density of ionized defects that exist in the i layer when the diode is under DC bias causes the electric field to be uniform. Material parameters, namely carrier mobility and lifetime and the ionized defect density in thick a-Si:H p-i-n diodes were studied by the transient photoconductivity method. The increase in diode leakage current with reverse bias over the operating bias was consistent with the Poole-Frenkel effect, involving excitation of carriers from neutral defects. The diode noise over the operating voltage range was completely explained in terms of the shot noise component for CR-(RC) 4 (pseudo-Gaussian) shaping at 3 μs shaping time and the noise component at 0 V bias (delta and thermal noise) added in quadrature. Irradiation with 1 Mev neutrons produced no significant degradation in leakage current and noise at fluences exceeding 4 x 10 14 cm -2 . Irradiation with 1.4 Mev proton fluence of 1 x 10 14 cm -2 decreased carrier lifetime by a factor of ∼4. Degradation in leakage current and noise became significant at proton fluence of ∼10 13 cm -2

  19. Timing performances and edge effects of detectors worked from 6-in. silicon slices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiello, S.; Anzalone, A.; Cardella, G.; Cavallaro, Sl.; De Filippo, E.; Di Pietro, A.; Femino, S.; Geraci, M.; Giustolisi, F.; Guazzoni, P.; Iacono Manno, M.; Lanzalone, G.; Lanzano, G.; Lo Nigro, S.; Musumarra, A.; Pagano, A.; Papa, M.; Pirrone, S.; Politi, G.; Porto, F.; Rizzo, F.; Sambataro, S.; Sperduto, M.L.; Sutera, C.; Zetta, L.

    1997-01-01

    Prototypes of new passivated implanted planar silicon detectors, obtained for the first time from 6 in. silicon slices, have been tested. The time and energy resolutions have been studied as a function of the type and energy of the detected particles, in order to test the performances of these detectors for time of flight measurements in the Chimera project. Some problems arising from edge effects observed in double-pad detectors have been solved by using a guard ring. (orig.)

  20. Soudan 2 detector as a time-projection calorimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.W.M.; Alner, J.; Ambats, I.

    1986-01-01

    The Soudan 2 Nucleon Decay Detector uses Hytrel plastic tubes to cause ionization electrons to drift up to 50 cm prior to gas multiplication and collection. The drift tubes are embedded in a matrix of thin steel sheets. Readout is accomplished by flash digitizers in a system with distributed intelligence. This design is usable as a general-purpose calorimeter in which 3 spatial coordinates and pulse height are measured at all points where ionization occurs. Several 4.3 ton modules of this detector have now been studied in detail. We will present information about the detector performance and its dependence on manufacturing tolerances

  1. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huizenga, J., E-mail: j.huizenga@tudelft.nl [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Seifert, S. [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Schreuder, F. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Dam, H.T. van [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands); Dendooven, P.; Loehner, H.; Vinke, R. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Schaart, D.R. [Delft University of Technology, Radiation Detection and Medical Imaging, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2012-12-11

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a 'slow' energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 3 mm Multiplication-Sign 5 mm LaBr{sub 3}:Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  2. A fast preamplifier concept for SiPM-based time-of-flight PET detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huizenga, J.; Seifert, S.; Schreuder, F.; Dam, H.T. van; Dendooven, P.; Löhner, H.; Vinke, R.; Schaart, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs) offer high gain and fast response to light, making them interesting for fast timing applications such as time-of-flight (TOF) PET. To fully exploit the potential of these photosensors, dedicated preamplifiers that do not deteriorate the rise time and signal-to-noise ratio are crucial. Challenges include the high sensor capacitance, typically >300 pF for a 3 mm×3 mm SiPM sensor, as well as oscillation issues. Here we present a preamplifier concept based on low noise, high speed transistors, designed for optimum timing performance. The input stage consists of a transimpedance common-base amplifier with a very low input impedance even at high frequencies, which assures a good linearity and avoids that the high detector capacitance affects the amplifier bandwidth. The amplifier has a fast timing output as well as a ‘slow’ energy output optimized for determining the total charge content of the pulse. The rise time of the amplifier is about 300 ps. The measured coincidence resolving time (CRT) for 511 keV photon pairs using the amplifiers in combination with 3 mm×3 mm SiPMs (Hamamatsu MPPC-S10362-33-050C) coupled to 3 mm×3 mm×5 mm LaBr 3 :Ce and LYSO:Ce crystals equals 95 ps FWHM and 138 ps FWHM, respectively.

  3. Charge collection performance of a segmented planar high-purity germanium detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.J. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: R.Cooper@liverpool.ac.uk; Boston, A.J.; Boston, H.C.; Cresswell, J.R.; Grint, A.N.; Harkness, L.J.; Nolan, P.J.; Oxley, D.C.; Scraggs, D.P. [Department of Physics, The University of Liverpool, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool Merseyside L69 7ZE (United Kingdom); Lazarus, I.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington, Cheshire WA4 4AD (United Kingdom); Dobson, J. [Rosemere Cancer Centre, Royal Preston Hospital, Preston PR2 9HT (United Kingdom)

    2008-10-01

    High-precision scans of a segmented planar high-purity germanium (HPGe) detector have been performed with a range of finely collimated gamma ray beams allowing the response as a function of gamma ray interaction position to be quantified. This has allowed the development of parametric pulse shape analysis (PSA) techniques and algorithms for the correction of imperfections in performance. In this paper we report on the performance of this detector, designed for use in a positron emission tomography (PET) development system.

  4. A modified detector concept for SuperCDMS: The HiZIP and its charge performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, Kedar Mohan [Queen' s U.

    2013-01-01

    SuperCDMS (Super Cryogenic Dark Matter Search) is a leading direct dark mat-ter search experiment which uses solid state detectors (Ge crystals) at milliKelvintemperatures to look for nuclear recoils caused by dark matter interactions in the de-tector. `Weakly Interacting Massive Particles' (WIMPs) are the most favoured darkmatter candidate particles. SuperCDMS, like many other direct dark matter searchexperiments, primarily looks for WIMPs. The measurement of both the ionizationand the lattice vibration (phonon) signals from an interaction in the detector allow itto discriminate against electron recoils which are the main source of background forWIMP detection.SuperCDMS currently operates about 9 kg of Ge detectors at the Soudan under-ground lab in northern Minnesota. In its next phase, SuperCDMS SNOLAB plansto use 100-200 kg of target mass (Ge) which would allow it to probe more of theinteresting and and as of yet unexplored parameter space for WIMPs predicted bytheoretical models. The SuperCDMS Queen's Test Facility is a detector test facilitywhich is intended to serve as detector testing and detector research and developmentpurposes for the SuperCDMS experiment.A modifed detector called the HiZIP (Half-iZIP), which is reduced in complex-ity in comparison to the currently used iZIP (interleaved Z-sensitive Ionization and Phonon mediated) detectors, is studied in this thesis. The HiZIP detector designalso serves to discriminate against background from multiple scatter events occurringclose to the surfaces in a single detector. Studies carried out to compare the surfaceevent leakage in the HiZIP detector using limited information from iZIP data takenat SuperCDMS test facility at UC Berkley produce a highly conservative upper limitof 5 out of 10,000 events at 90% condence level. This upper limit is the best amongmany different HiZIP congurations that were investigated and is comparable to theupper limit calculated for an HiZIP detector in the same way

  5. Charge migration contribution to the sensitive layer of a silicon detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, N.; Seidman, A.; Rancoita, P.G.

    1984-01-01

    The charge migration from the field-free region has been investigated, by comparing the expected peak position (which takes into account the depleted layer only) of the energy-loss of relativistic electrons with the measured one. The measurement sensitive layer was found to be systematically larger than the depleted one. This effect is accounted for the charge migration to diffusion

  6. R and D on a New Technology of Micro-pattern Gaseous Detectors Fast Timing Micro-pattern Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Salva Diblen, Sinem

    2016-01-01

    After the upgrades of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) planned for the second and the third Long Shutdown (LS), the LHC luminosity will approach very high values. Such conditions will affect the performance of the CMS muon system, especially in the very forward region, due to the harsh expected background environment and high pile-up conditions. The CMS collaboration considers upgrading the muon forward region to take advantage of the pixel tracking coverage extension a new detector, ME0 station, possibly behind the new forward calorimeter. New resistive micro-pattern gaseous detectors that are able to handle the very demanding spatial, time resolution and rate capability, are being considered. In this contribution we introduce a new type of MPGD technology the Fast Timing Micro-pattern (FTM) detector, utilizing a fully resistive WELL structure. It consists of a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure, yielding a significant improvement in timing p...

  7. Dead time of different neutron detectors associated with a pulsed electronics with current collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacconnet, Eugene; Duchene, Jean; Duquesne, Henry; Schmitt, Andre

    1968-01-01

    After having outlined that the development of fast neutron reactor physics, notably kinetics, requires highly efficient neutron detectors and pulse measurement chains able to cope with high counting rates, the authors report the measurement of dead time of various neutron detectors which are used in the experimental study of fast neutron reactors. They present the SAITB 1 electronic measurement set, its components, its general characteristics, the protected connection between the detector and the electronics. They present and report the experiment: generalities about detector location and measurements, studied detectors (fission chambers, boron counters), and report the exploitation of the obtained results (principle, data, high-threshold counting gain) [fr

  8. Testing a new NIF neutron time-of-flight detector with a bibenzyl scintillator on OMEGA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glebov, V Yu; Forrest, C; Knauer, J P; Pruyne, A; Romanofsky, M; Sangster, T C; Shoup, M J; Stoeckl, C; Caggiano, J A; Carman, M L; Clancy, T J; Hatarik, R; McNaney, J; Zaitseva, N P

    2012-10-01

    A new neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) detector with a bibenzyl crystal as a scintillator has been designed and manufactured for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This detector will replace a nTOF20-Spec detector with an oxygenated xylene scintillator currently operational on the NIF to improve the areal-density measurements. In addition to areal density, the bibenzyl detector will measure the D-D and D-T neutron yield and the ion temperature of indirect- and direct-drive-implosion experiments. The design of the bibenzyl detector and results of tests on the OMEGA Laser System are presented.

  9. A position-sensitive start detector for time-of-flight measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezoe, Hiroshi; Shikazono, Naomoto; Isoyama, Goro.

    1978-08-01

    A position-sensitive start detector for a time-of-flight measurement is described. In this detector microchannel plates were used to obtain time and position signals simultaneously. A time resolution of 121 psec FWHM and a position resolution of 0.28 mm FWHM were obtained for α-particles from an 241 Am source. (auth.)

  10. Charge asymmetry measurements in t anti t production at 8 TeV using the ATLAS detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naranjo, Roger [DESY, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The charge asymmetry in t anti t production is a precision test for Standard Model predictions. It arises from interferences between next-to-leading order processes. This measurement offers a good discriminant for new physics models where the asymmetry could behave differently. We present measurements of the t anti t charge asymmetry in the dilepton channel in a fiducial region and for the full phase-space. The inclusive measurement is performed, as well as differential measurements with respect to mass, transverse momentum and the boost of the t anti t system. These studies are done using data with an integrated luminosity of 20 fb{sup -1} in pp collisions at 8 TeV, collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC.

  11. Charge resolution of a Hungarian brand CR-39(MA-ND) detector exposed to a 84Kr beam of energy 0.45A GeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, D.P.; Basu, B.; Pal, P.; Mukherjee, S.C.; Ganguly, A.K.; Hunyady, I.

    1990-01-01

    The Hungarian brand CR-39(MA-ND) plastic has been irradiated with a 84 Kr ion beam of energy 0.45A GeV and etched for four different etching times, viz. 4, 6, 8 and 12 h. The estimated charge resolution of a CR-39(MA-ND) detector for registering the nuclei 32 ≤ Z ≤ 36 was found to be 0.18e which is close to our previous observation of the response with a CR-39(DOP) Pershore made plate exposed to a 1.88A GeV 56 Fe beam at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. It was found that the estimated etch rate ratio V T /V G is independent of etching time. The cone length and minor axis of the etch pits has been found to increase with etching time. (orig.)

  12. Characterization of Sphinx1 ASIC X-ray detector using photon counting and charge integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, A.; Arques, M.; Moro, J.-L.; Accensi, M.; Stanchina, S.; Dupont, B.; Rohr, P.; Sicard, G.; Tchagaspanian, M.; Verger, L.

    2018-01-01

    Sphinx1 is a novel pixel architecture adapted for X-ray imaging, it detects radiation by photon counting and charge integration. In photon counting mode, each photon is compensated by one or more counter-charges typically consisting of 100 electrons (e-) each. The number of counter-charges required gives a measure of the incoming photon energy, thus allowing spectrometric detection. Pixels can also detect radiation by integrating the charges deposited by all incoming photons during one image frame and converting this analog value into a digital response with a 100 electrons least significant bit (LSB), based on the counter-charge concept. A proof of concept test chip measuring 5 mm × 5 mm, with 200 μm × 200 μm pixels has been produced and characterized. This paper provides details on the architecture and the counter-charge design; it also describes the two modes of operation: photon counting and charge integration. The first performance measurements for this test chip are presented. Noise was found to be ~80 e-rms in photon counting mode with a power consumption of only 0.9 μW/pixel for the static analog part and 0.3 μW/pixel for the static digital part.

  13. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-07-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  14. Hard X-ray polarimetry with position sensitve germanium detectors. Studies of the recombination transitions into highly charged ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashenov, Stanislav

    2005-01-01

    In this work a first study of the photon polarization for the process of radiative recombination has been performed. This was done at the ESR storage ring at GSI for uranium ions colliding with N2 at various collision energies. For this measurement a high purity Ge Pixel Detector with a 4 x 4 segmentation matrix was applied. The investigation was performed at the Gas-jet target of the ESR. The detector was placed at 60 and 90 observation angles. The sensitivity of the Compton scattering effect to the linear polarization of the X-Ray radiation was employed for the polarization measurement. Detailed investigations of the scattering and geometrical effects inside the detector were performed in order to develop a method to interpret the experimental data and extract the degree of the linear polarization in the hard X-Ray regime with a high precision. A special emphasis was given to the geometry of the detector and it's influence on the measured pixel-to-pixel Compton scattering intensities. The developed method enabled to achieve a precision of the order of 10% with the Pixel Detector which is dominated by the statistical uncertainties. The obtained results show a good agreement with the theoretical values derived from the exact relativistic calculations. For the case of the linear polarization of the K-REC photons, the measured data con rm the theoretical prediction that strong depolarization effects occur for high projectile charges in the forward hemisphere. The latter is in disagreement with the nonrelativistic theory which predicts a 100 % polarization regardless of the emission angle. (orig.)

  15. On the background estimation by time slides in a network of gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Was, Michal; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Robinet, Florent; Vavoulidis, Miltiadis

    2010-01-01

    Time shifting the outputs of gravitational wave detectors operating in coincidence is a convenient way to estimate the background in a search for short-duration signals. However, this procedure is limited as increasing indefinitely the number of time shifts does not provide better estimates. We show that the false alarm rate estimation error saturates with the number of time shifts. In particular, for detectors with very different trigger rates, this error saturates at a large value. Explicit computations are done for two detectors, and for three detectors where the detection statistic relies on the logical 'OR' of the coincidences of the three couples in the network.

  16. On the background estimation by time slides in a network of gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Was, Michal; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Robinet, Florent; Vavoulidis, Miltiadis, E-mail: mwas@lal.in2p3.f [LAL, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France)

    2010-01-07

    Time shifting the outputs of gravitational wave detectors operating in coincidence is a convenient way to estimate the background in a search for short-duration signals. However, this procedure is limited as increasing indefinitely the number of time shifts does not provide better estimates. We show that the false alarm rate estimation error saturates with the number of time shifts. In particular, for detectors with very different trigger rates, this error saturates at a large value. Explicit computations are done for two detectors, and for three detectors where the detection statistic relies on the logical 'OR' of the coincidences of the three couples in the network.

  17. Detector dead-time effects and paralyzability in high-speed quantum key distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, Daniel J; Bienfang, Joshua C; Nakassis, Anastase; Xu Hai; Clark, Charles W

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum key distribution (QKD) have given rise to systems that operate at transmission periods significantly shorter than the dead times of their component single-photon detectors. As systems continue to increase in transmission rate, security concerns associated with detector dead times can limit the production rate of sifted bits. We present a model of high-speed QKD in this limit that identifies an optimum transmission rate for a system with given link loss and detector response characteristics

  18. Detector applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pehl, R.H.

    1977-10-01

    Semiconductor detectors are now applied to a very wide range of problems. The combination of relatively low cost, excellent energy resolution, and simultaneous broad energy-spectrum analysis is uniquely suited to many applications in both basic and applied physics. Alternative techniques, such as magnetic spectrometers for charged-particle spectroscopy, while offering better energy resolution, are bulky, expensive, and usually far more difficult to use. Furthermore, they do not directly provide the broad energy-spectrum measurements easily accomplished using semiconductor detectors. Scintillation detectors, which are approximately equivalent to semiconductor detectors in convenience and cost, exhibit 10 to 100 times worse energy resolution. However, their high efficiency and large potential size recommend their use in some measurements

  19. Charged projectile spectrometry using solid-state nuclear track detector of the PM-355 type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinowska Aneta

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available To use effectively any radiation detector in high-temperature plasma experiments, it must have a lot of benefits and fulfill a number of requirements. The most important are: a high energy resolution, linearity over a wide range of recorded particle energy, high detection efficiency for these particles, a long lifetime and resistance to harsh conditions existing in plasma experiments and so on. Solid-state nuclear track detectors have been used in our laboratory in plasma experiments for many years, but recently we have made an attempt to use these detectors in spectroscopic measurements performed on some plasma facilities. This paper presents a method that we used to elaborate etched track diameters to evaluate the incident projectile energy magnitude. The method is based on the data obtained from a semiautomatic track scanning system that selects tracks according to two parameters, track diameter and its mean gray level.

  20. Search for neutral and charged BSM Higgs bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00376986; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Several theories beyond the Standard Model, like the EWS or 2HDM models, predict the existence of high mass neutral or charged Higgs particles. In this presentation the latest ATLAS results on searches for these particles will be discussed.

  1. Charge-coupled devices as positron sensitive detectors of x-radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, G.S.; Zazhivikhin, V.V.; Zajtsev, V.I.; Mishevskij, V.O.

    1996-01-01

    Results of theoretical and experimental studies on the sensitivity and spatial resolution of devices with a charge link (CLD) within the X-radiation energy range are described. The areas of the device application are considered

  2. Search for neutral and charged BSM Higgs Bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    {A}lvarez Piqueras, Dami{a}n; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Several theories beyond the Standard Model, like the EWS or 2HDM models, predict the existence of high mass neutral or charged Higgs particles. In this presentation the latest ATLAS results on searches for these particles will be discussed.

  3. Behaviour of scintillometers with charge particles; Respuesta de detectores de centelleo a particulas cargadas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigon, M A; Montes, J; Granados, C E; Gutierrez, R

    1959-07-01

    The behaviour of a scintillation plastic and an anthracene crystal for protons and deuterons with energies within 0,2 and 1,7 MeV. has been studied. The beam of monoenergetic particles falls directly on the detector in study in optic contact with a photomultiplicator. The impulse get in an amplifier which sends then to a scale a sting as a monitor and to an analyzer of 100 canals. The spectrum for each energy of incidental beam is obtained taking the maximum of the spectrum as the most probable value of amplitude of the detector reply, and this is represented apposite to the energy. (Author) 6 refs.

  4. Track etch and thermo luminescent detectors response to high energy charged particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spurný, František; Jadrníčková, Iva

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 43, Supp. 1 (2008), S169-S173 ISSN 1350-4487. [International Conference on Solids /23./. Beijing, 11.09.2006-15.09.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/04/0795 Grant - others:Evropské společenství(XE) ILSRA - 2004 - 248 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : track etch detector * thermoluminescent detectors * LET spectrometry Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.267, year: 2008

  5. System tests of the LHCb RICH detectors in a charged particle beam

    CERN Document Server

    Skottowe, Hugh

    2009-01-01

    The RICH detectors of the LHCb experiment will provide efficient particle identification over the momentum range 1-100 GeV=c. Results are presented from a beam test of the LHCb RICH system using final production pixel Hybrid Photon Detectors, the final readout electronics and an adapted version of LHCb RICH reconstruction software. Measurements of the photon yields and Cherenkov angle resolutions for both nitrogen and C4F10 radiators agree well with full simulations. The quality of the data and the results obtained demonstrate that all aspects meet the stringent physics requirements of the experiment are now ready for first data.

  6. Calibration by precise charge injection of a sub-detector of CMS; Calibration par injection de charge du calorimetre electromagnetique de CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yong-Wook Baek

    2001-01-26

    This thesis was carried out within the framework of the international collaboration which has the responsibility of the experience CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) on LHC, at CERN. The physics of the fundamental particles which will be explored by this experiment is described within the standard model. The configuration of sub-detector of CMS is briefly described, with a particular weight on the read-out chain of the electromagnetic calorimeter. The work carried out to calibrate this chain by a precise charge injection at the input of preamplifiers is described. The 4 integrated circuits CTRL, TPLS, DAC, and injector which will constitute the components of this chain of calibration are described. The circuit of injection, which is the main circuit in this project, was imagined and developed at the laboratory in DMILL technology. This injector generates a signal which has a form identical to the signal of the detector. The measurements on the linearity of the injectors are presented. In order to know its behavior under real conditions (flow of neutrons {approx} 2 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2}/10 years) where this circuit is installed in detector CMS, we submitted the prototypes of injector to irradiation and the results are summarized. The research and development on this circuit produced an integrated circuit hardened to irradiations, whose variation of slope is lower than 0.25% for an integrated of 2 x 10{sup 13} neutrons/cm{sup 2} and indestructible under 10{sup 15} neutrons/cm{sup 2}. This circuit has satisfactory qualities to be assembled on the electronic card which will treat the data of calorimeter ECAL of CMS. (author)

  7. Real-time numerical processing for HPGE detectors signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eric Barat; Thomas Dautremer; Laurent Laribiere; Jean Christophe Trama

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Concerning the gamma spectrometry, technology progresses in the processor field makes very conceivable and attractive executing complex real-time digital process. Only some simplified and rigid treatments can be find in the market up to now. Indeed, the historical solution used for 50 years consists of performing a so-called 'cusp' filtering and disturbing the optimal shape in order to shrink and/or truncate it. This tuning largely determined by the input count rate (ICR) the user expects to measure is then a compromise between the resolution and the throughput. Because it is not possible to tune it for each pulse, that is a kind of 'leveling down' which is made: the energy of each pulse is not as well estimated as it could be. The new approach proposed here avoids totally this restricting hand tuning. The innovation lies in the modelling of the shot-noise signal as a Jump Markov Linear System. The jump is the occurrence of a pulse in the signal. From this model, we developed an algorithm which makes possible the on-line estimation of the energies without having to temporally enlarge the pulses as the cusp filter does. The algorithm first determines whether there is a pulse or not at each time, then conditionally to this information, it performs an optimal Kalman smoother. Thanks to this global optimization, this allows us to dramatically increase the compromise throughput versus resolution, gaining an important factor on a commercial device concerning the admissible ICR (more than 1 million counts per second admissible). A huge advantage of the absence of hand tuning is that the system accepts fluctuating ICR. To validate the concept we built a real time demonstrator. First, our equipment is composed of an electronic stage which prepared the signal coming from the preamplifier of the detector and optimized the signal-to-noise ratio. Then the signal is sampled at 10 MHz and the powerful of two Pentium running at 3 GHz is enough to

  8. Amplitude and rise time compensated timing optimized for large semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozyczkowski, J.J.; Bialkowski, J.

    1976-01-01

    The ARC timing described has excellent timing properties even when using a wide range e.g. from 10 keV to over 1 MeV. The detector signal from a preamplifier is accepted directly by the unit as a timing filter amplifier with a sensitivity of 1 mV is incorporated. The adjustable rise time rejection feature makes it possible to achieve a good prompt time spectrum with symmetrical exponential shape down to less than 1/100 of the peak value. A complete block diagram of the unit is given together with results of extensive tests of its performance. For example the time spectrum for (1330+-20) keV of 60 Co taken with a 43 cm 3 Ge(Li) detector has the following parameters: fwhm = 2.2ns, fwtm = 4.4 ns and fw (0.01) m = 7.6 ns and for (50 +- 10) keV of 22 Na the following was obtained: fwhm = 10.8 ns, fwtm = 21.6 ns and fw (0.01) m = 34.6 ns. In another experiment with two fast plastic scintillations (NE 102A) and using a 20% dynamic energy range the following was measured: fwhm = 280 ps, fwtm = 470 ps and fw (0.01) m = 70ps. (Auth.)

  9. Time-based MRPC detector response simulations for the CBM time-of-flight system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Christian; Herrmann, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut und Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Ruprecht-Karls-Universitaet Heidelberg (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The design goal of the future Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment is to measure rare probes of dense strongly interacting matter with an unprecedented accuracy. Target interaction rates of up to 10 MHz need to be processed by the detector. The time-of-flight (TOF) wall of CBM which should provide hadron identification at particle fluxes of up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} is composed of high-resolution timing multi-gap resistive plate chambers (MRPCs). Due to the self-triggered digitization and readout scheme of CBM comprising online event reconstruction preparatory Monte Carlo (MC) transport and response simulations including the MRPC array need to be carried out in a time-based fashion. While in an event-based simulation mode interference between MC tracks in a detector volume owing to rate effects or electronics dead time is confined to a single event, time-based response simulations need to take into account track pile-up and interference across events. A proposed time-based digitizer class for CBM-TOF within the CbmRoot software framework is presented.

  10. Delayed charge recovery discrimination of passivated surface alpha events in P-type point-contact detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszko, J.; Majorana Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    The Majorana Demonstrator searches for neutrinoless double-beta decay of 76Ge using arrays of high-purity germanium detectors. If observed, this process would demonstrate that lepton number is not a conserved quantity in nature, with implications for grand-unification and for explaining the predominance of matter over antimatter in the universe. A problematic background in such large granular detector arrays is posed by alpha particles. In the Majorana Demonstrator, events have been observed that are consistent with energy-degraded alphas originating on the passivated surface, leading to a potential background contribution in the region-of-interest for neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, it is also observed that when energy deposition occurs very close to the passivated surface, charges drift through the bulk onto that surface, and then drift along it with greatly reduced mobility. This leads to both a reduced prompt signal and a measurable change in slope of the tail of a recorded pulse. In this contribution we discuss the characteristics of these events and the development of a filter that can identify the occurrence of this delayed charge recovery, allowing for the efficient rejection of passivated surface alpha events in analysis.

  11. Ionization detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steele, D.S.

    1987-01-01

    An ionization detector having an array of detectors has, for example, grounding pads positioned in the spaces between some detectors (data detectors) and other detectors (reference detectors). The grounding pads are kept at zero electric potential, i.e. grounded. The grounding serves to drain away electrons and thereby prevent an unwanted accumulation of charge in the spaces, and cause the electric field lines to be more perpendicular to the detectors in regions near the grounding pads. Alternatively, no empty space is provided there being additional, grounded, detectors provided between the data and reference detectors. (author)

  12. Study of a prototype module of a precision time-of-flight detector for particle identification at low momentum

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00388630

    In this thesis, Time Of internally Reflected Cherenkov light detector (TORCH), proposed for the LHCb Upgrade to perform three-sigma separation between kaon and pion up to 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$, was studied. TORCH is designed to add significant particle identification capability to the existing LHCb system based on two gas Ring Imaging Cherenkov detectors. TORCH would be placed at $\\sim$ 10 m from the interaction point, where the flight time difference between a primary pion and kaon is 37.5 ps. TORCH will give a pion-kaon separation of three sigma at 10$\\ \\rm{GeV}/\\textit{c}$ from the flight time using the Cherenkov photons generated by the charged particle in a 1 cm-thick quartz plate. In order to calculate accurately the flight time in a busy LHCb environment, Cherenkov angle and photon detection time information, as well as the momentum information from the tracking detector are included in the analysis. For the required TORCH performance, the flight time difference must be measured with a resolution o...

  13. Nanosecond-level time synchronization of autonomous radio detector stations for extensive air showers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aab, A.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahn, E. J.; Al Samarai, I.; Albuquerque, I. F. M.; Allekotte, I.; Messina, S.; Scholten, O.; van den Berg, A.M.

    To exploit the full potential of radio measurements of cosmic-ray air showers at MHz frequencies, a detector timing synchronization within 1 ns is needed. Large distributed radio detector arrays such as the Auger Engineering Radio Array (AERA) rely on timing via the Global Positioning System (GPS)

  14. arXiv Performance of the ALICE Time-Of-Flight detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00531272

    The ALICE Time-Of-Flight (TOF) detector at LHC is based on the Multigap Resistive Plate Chambers (MRPCs). The TOF performance during LHC Run 2 is here reported. Particular attention is given to the improved time resolution reached by TOF detector of $56$ ps, with the consequently improved particle identification capabilities.

  15. Charge Division Readout of a Two-Dimensional Germanium Strip Detector

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kroeger, R. A; Inderhees, S. E; Johnson, W. N; Kinzer, R. L; Kurfess, J. D; Gehrels, N

    1993-01-01

    .... The four data channels are stored as an event list for subsequent processing. We form a response map over the detector surface in order to locate the position of each interaction with the spatial resolution of the strip pitch, in our case 9 mm...

  16. Inclusive charged hadrons production in pp collisions with the ALICE-HMPID detector at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Barile, Francesco

    The goal of this thesis is the study of the particles identification provided by a small acceptance detector: the High Momentum Particle IDentification detector. Installed during September 2006 and located at about 5 m from the primary vertex, it can contribute to several ALICE physics items using the Cherenkov radiation. This thesis is made of 5 chapters. An overview of the Heavy Ion collisions, the Quark Gluon Plasma, and the main points of the ALICE physics program are described in the first chapter. Some recent results on particles production and hadron ratios are also presented. Chapter 2 is dedicated to the LHC machine, to the ALICE apparatus and to the High Momentum Particle Detector. The layout, the principle of operation and some recent performance results of this RICH detector will be described. Chapter 3 is dedicated to the evaluation of the HMPID PID efficiency. This study exploit the unique possibility to extract the efficiency directly from data using the V$^{0}$ ’s decay. Also, it provides a ...

  17. Characterization of a glass GEM for sealed detectors application and reduction of charging-up effects

    CERN Document Server

    Erdal, Eran

    2014-01-01

    Apart from high energy physics experiments, there has been a great effort in recent years to incorporate MPGDs in many other applications i.e. medical treatments and imaging and home land security. However, MPGDs (as most gaseous detectors) are normally operated under a constant flushing of the gas. Their use thus turns them expensive since they rely on a constant gas supply and a suitable infrastructure, but most important is the loss of their portability. These reasons have pushed the community to search for other solutions, aiming for the development of sealed detectors. The demands for such is to be made out of low outgassing rate materials and possibly the use of only noble gas to avoid aging due to chemical activity of the ionized gas of the avalanche. The default material for GEM detectors - Polyimide (Kapton), is not suitable for a sealed detector because of its high outgassing rate, thus calling for new solutions. Moreover, GEMs, being essentially made out of an insulating material, pose a problem in...

  18. Charge collection and depth sensing investigation on CZT drift strip detectors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuvvetli, Irfan; Budtz-Jørgensen, Carl; Caroli, E.

    2010-01-01

    CZT drift strip detectors with Planar Transverse Field (PTF) configuration are suitable for high energy astrophysics instrumentation, where high efficiency, high energy and position resolution are required from the sensors. We report on experimental investigations on the DTU Space developed CZT d...

  19. Merger of the DIAMANT Light Charge Particle Detector into the AFRODITE Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray, S.H.T.; Mullins, S.M.; Bark, R.A.; Gueorguieva, E.; Lawrie, J.J.; Pilcher, J.V.; Sharpey-Schafer, J.F.; Gal, J.; Kalinka, G.; Krasznahorkay, A.; Molnar, L.; Nyako, B. M.; Timar, J.; Zolnai, L.; Hlatshwayo, T.; Juhasz, K.; Komati, F.S.; Malwela, T.; Ntshangase, S.; Shirinda, O.

    2005-01-01

    The Chessboard section of the DIAMANT CsI detector array has been merged into the AFRODITE γ-ray spectrometer acquisition system. The details of the data acquisition merging is explained together with how consistency is maintained and ensured between the two distinct systems

  20. Energy resolution and charge identification efficiency of muons in INO ICAL detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, S.P.; Mohanty, A.K.; Datar, V.M.; Meghna, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    The motivation for the design of the Iron Calorimeter (ICAL) detector at the India based Neutrino Observatory (INO) is to make precise measurements of neutrino (ν) parameters using atmospheric νs. It is crucial to know the energy and direction of incoming νs

  1. Feasibility study on longitudinal phase-space measurements at GSI UNILAC using charged-particle detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milosic, Timo

    2014-04-14

    Accelerator facilities require access to many beam parameters during operation. The field of beam instrumentation serves this crucial role in commissioning, setup and optimisation of the facility. An important information is contained in the phase-space distribution of the accelerated particles. In case of GSI (Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung) those are ions from protons to uranium. If established methods to access certain beam parameters do not exist, new approaches have to emerge. This is the case for the presented measurement setup which has been designed and realised by Forck et al. to support commissioning of the GSI high-current injector. It is aiming at an experimental method to access the longitudinal phase-space distribution at low energies of 1.4 AMeV. Established methods for higher energies and based on the measurement of the electric field distribution are not feasible at non-relativistic velocities. The presented method is based on a time-of-flight (TOF) measurement between two particle detectors. A modification allows, alternatively, the direct measurement of the kinetic energy using a mono-crystalline (MC) diamond detector. Currently, besides others, the focus of the optimisation of the injector is put on the longitudinal phase-space distribution. It allows for a systematic optimisation of the matching into the accelerator cavities and, thus, an improved transmission as well as lower emittance values. The new accelerator facility FAIR (Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research), a large-scale upgrade at GSI, requires an improved beam quality at the existing injector. In this work the experimental setup is investigated for its feasibility to measure the longitudinal phase-space distribution. To this end, the phase and momentum of the single ions along the beam axis have to be determined with high precision. Finally, the longitudinal phase-space distribution is identified with the measured ensemble. The setup is presented in detail

  2. Time resolution in scintillator based detectors for positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gundacker, S.

    2014-01-01

    In the domain of medical photon detectors L(Y)SO scintillators are used for positron emission tomography (PET). The interest for time of flight (TOF) in PET is increasing since measurements have shown that new crystals like L(Y)SO coupled to state of the art photodetectors, e.g. silicon photomultipliers (SiPM), can reach coincidence time resolutions (CTRs) of far below 500ps FWHM. To achieve these goals it is important to study the processe in the whole detection chain, i.e. the high energy particle or gamma interaction in the crystal, the scintillation process itself, the light propagation in the crystal with the light transfer to the photodetector, and the electronic readout. In this thesis time resolution measurements for a PET like system are performed in a coincidence setup utilizing the ultra fast amplifier discriminator NINO. We found that the time-over-threshold energy information provided by NINO shows a degradation in energy resolution for higher SiPM bias voltages. This is a consequence of the increasing dark count rate (DCR) of the SiPM with higher bias voltages together with the exponential decay of the signal. To overcome this problem and to operate the SiPM at its optimum voltage in terms of timing we developed a new electronic board that employs NINO only as a low noise leading edge discriminator together with an analog amplifier which delivers the energy information. With this new electronic board we indeed improved the measured CTR by about 15%. To study the limits of time resolution in more depth we measured the CTR with 2x2x3mm3 LSO:Ce codoped 0.4%Ca crystals coupled to commercially available SiPMs (Hamamatsu S10931-50P MPPC) and achieved a CTR of 108±5ps FWHM at an energy of 511keV. We determined the influence of the data acquisition system and the electronics on the CTR to be 27±2ps FWHM and thus negligible. To quantitatively understand the measured values, we developed a Monte Carlo simulation tool in MATLAB that incorporates the timing

  3. Handling missing data for the identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector: A comparison between different imputation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riggi, S., E-mail: sriggi@oact.inaf.it [INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania (Italy); Riggi, D. [Keras Strategy - Milano (Italy); Riggi, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia - Università di Catania (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Catania (Italy)

    2015-04-21

    Identification of charged particles in a multilayer detector by the energy loss technique may also be achieved by the use of a neural network. The performance of the network becomes worse when a large fraction of information is missing, for instance due to detector inefficiencies. Algorithms which provide a way to impute missing information have been developed over the past years. Among the various approaches, we focused on normal mixtures’ models in comparison with standard mean imputation and multiple imputation methods. Further, to account for the intrinsic asymmetry of the energy loss data, we considered skew-normal mixture models and provided a closed form implementation in the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm framework to handle missing patterns. The method has been applied to a test case where the energy losses of pions, kaons and protons in a six-layers’ Silicon detector are considered as input neurons to a neural network. Results are given in terms of reconstruction efficiency and purity of the various species in different momentum bins.

  4. Predicting Charging Time of Battery Electric Vehicles Based on Regression and Time-Series Methods: A Case Study of Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Bi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Battery electric vehicles (BEVs reduce energy consumption and air pollution as compared with conventional vehicles. However, the limited driving range and potential long charging time of BEVs create new problems. Accurate charging time prediction of BEVs helps drivers determine travel plans and alleviate their range anxiety during trips. This study proposed a combined model for charging time prediction based on regression and time-series methods according to the actual data from BEVs operating in Beijing, China. After data analysis, a regression model was established by considering the charged amount for charging time prediction. Furthermore, a time-series method was adopted to calibrate the regression model, which significantly improved the fitting accuracy of the model. The parameters of the model were determined by using the actual data. Verification results confirmed the accuracy of the model and showed that the model errors were small. The proposed model can accurately depict the charging time characteristics of BEVs in Beijing.

  5. Chemical vapour deposition diamond. Charge carrier movement at low temperatures and use in time-critical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, Hendrik

    2013-09-01

    Diamond, a wide band gap semiconductor with exceptional electrical properties, has found its way in diverse fields of application reaching from the usage as a sensor material for beam loss monitors at particle accelerator facilities, over laser windows, to UV light sensors in space applications, e.g. for space weather forecasting. Though often used at room temperature, little is known about the charge transport in diamond towards liquid helium temperatures. In this work the method of the transient current technique is employed at temperatures between room temperature and 2 K. The temperature and electric field strength dependence of the pulse shape, the charge carrier transit time, the drift velocity, the saturation velocity, and the low-field mobility is measured in detector-grade scCVD diamond. Furthermore, the usability of diamond in time-critical applications is tested, and the main results are presented.

  6. Investigation of time-of-flight lifetime measurement methods of charged π mesons at the Phasotron of JINR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evtukhovich, P.G.; Kallies, W.; Kononenko, G.A.; Samojlov, V.N.; Sapogov, A.S.

    2003-01-01

    The methods of time-of-flight lifetime measurement of charged π mesons that have been realized at the Phasotron of the Laboratory of Nuclear Problems (LNP) of JINR are described. The distinguishing feature of the given methods consists in the use of the following technique: 1) time-of-flight investigation of particle beam composition for relatively long flight path (base); 2) an optimal choice (for the given base) of beam geometry under investigation; 3) monitoring of π-meson momentum along the whole explored trajectory; 4) the use of high resolution scintillation detectors. This technique together with correct mathematical calculations provided a possibility of controlling the influence of main systematic factors on the precision of the data obtained. These methods allow one to compute an amount of sampling that requisites a given precision based on preliminary evaluations of random and systematic errors of charged π-mesons measured lifetime

  7. Chemical Vapour Deposition Diamond - Charge Carrier Movement at Low Temperatures and Use in Time-Critical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jansen, Hendrik; Pernegger, Heinz

    Diamond, a wide band gap semiconductor with exceptional electrical properties, has found its way in diverse fields of application reaching from the usage as a sensor material for beam loss monitors at particle accelerator facilities, to laser windows, to UV light sensors in space applications, e.g. for space weather forecasting. Though often used at room temperature, little is known about the charge transport in diamond towards liquid helium temperatures. In this work the method of the transient current technique is employed at temperatures between room temperature and 2 K. The temperature and electric field strength dependence of the pulse shape, the charge carrier transit time, the drift velocity, the saturation velocity, and the low-field mobility is measured in detector-grade scCVD diamond. Furthermore, the usability of diamond in time-critical applications is tested, and the main results are presented.

  8. A direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchione, T.; Denes, P.; Jobe, R. K.; Johnson, I. J.; Joseph, J. M.; Li, R. K.; Perazzo, A.; Shen, X.; Wang, X. J.; Weathersby, S. P.; Yang, J.; Zhang, D.

    2017-03-01

    The introduction of direct electron detectors enabled the structural biology revolution of cryogenic electron microscopy. Direct electron detectors are now expected to have a similarly dramatic impact on time-resolved MeV electron microscopy, particularly by enabling both spatial and temporal jitter correction. Here we report on the commissioning of a direct electron detector for time-resolved MeV electron microscopy. The direct electron detector demonstrated MeV single electron sensitivity and is capable of recording megapixel images at 180 Hz. The detector has a 15-bit dynamic range, better than 30-μmμm spatial resolution and less than 20 analogue-to-digital converter count RMS pixel noise. The unique capabilities of the direct electron detector and the data analysis required to take advantage of these capabilities are presented. The technical challenges associated with generating and processing large amounts of data are also discussed.

  9. Theoretical analysis of the effect of charge-sharing on the Detective Quantum Efficiency of single-photon counting segmented silicon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchal, J [Diamond Light Source Ltd, Harwell Science and Innovation Campus, Didcot, Oxfordshire OX11 0DE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: julien.marchal@diamond.ac.uk

    2010-01-15

    A detector cascaded model is proposed to describe charge-sharing effect in single-photon counting segmented silicon detectors. Linear system theory is applied to this cascaded model in order to derive detector performance parameters such as large-area gain, presampling Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), Noise Power Spectrum (NPS) and Detective Quantum Efficiency (DQE) as a function of energy detection threshold. This theory is used to model one-dimensional detectors (i.e. strip detectors) where X-ray-generated charge can be shared between two sampling elements, but the concepts developed in this article can be generalized to two-dimensional arrays of detecting elements (i.e. pixels detectors). The zero-frequency DQE derived from this model is consistent with expressions reported in the literature using a different method. The ability of this model to simulate the effect of charge sharing on image quality in the spatial frequency domain is demonstrated by applying it to a hypothetical one-dimensional single-photon counting detector illuminated with a typical mammography spectrum.

  10. Distributed Coordination of Electric Vehicle Charging in a Community Microgrid Considering Real-Time Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Chendan; Schaltz, Erik; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2016-01-01

    The predictable increasing adoption of EV by residential users imposes the necessity of Electric Vehicle charging coordination, in order to charge effectively while minimizing the impact on the grid. In this paper, a two-stage distributed coordination algorithm for electric vehicle charging...... management in a community microgrid is proposed. Each local EV charging controller is taken as an agent, which can manage the charging to achieve the optimization of the whole community by communicating in a sparse network. The proposed algorithm aims at optimizing real-time, which manages the charging...

  11. The TDCpix readout ASIC: A 75 ps resolution timing front-end for the NA62 Gigatracker hybrid pixel detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kluge, A., E-mail: alexander.kluge@cern.ch; Aglieri Rinella, G.; Bonacini, S.; Jarron, P.; Kaplon, J.; Morel, M.; Noy, M.; Perktold, L.; Poltorak, K.

    2013-12-21

    The TDCpix is a novel pixel readout ASIC for the NA62 Gigatracker detector. NA62 is a new experiment being installed at the CERN Super Proton Synchrotron. Its Gigatracker detector shall provide on-beam tracking and time stamping of individual particles with a time resolution of 150 ps rms. It will consist of three tracking stations, each with one hybrid pixel sensor. The peak flow of particles crossing the detector modules reaches 1.27 MHz/mm{sup 2} for a total rate of about 0.75 GHz. Ten TDCpix chips will be bump-bonded to every silicon pixel sensor. Each chip shall perform time stamping of 100 M particle hits per second with a detection efficiency above 99% and a timing accuracy better than 200 ps rms for an overall three-station-setup time resolution of better than 150 ps. The TDCpix chip has been designed in a 130 nm CMOS technology. It will feature 45×40 square pixels of 300×300μm{sup 2} and a complex End of Column peripheral region including an array of TDCs based on DLLs, four high speed serializers, a low-jitter PLL, readout and control circuits. This contribution will describe the complete design of the final TDCpix ASIC. It will discuss design choices, the challenges faced and some of the lessons learned. Furthermore, experimental results from the testing of circuit prototypes will be presented. These demonstrate the achievement of key performance figures such as a time resolution of the processing chain of 75 ps rms with a laser sent to the center of the pixel and the capability of time stamping charged particles with an overall resolution below 200 ps rms. -- Highlights: • Feasibility demonstration of a silicon pixel detector with sub-ns time tagging capability. • Demonstrator detector assembly with a time resolution of 75 ps RMS with laser charge injection; 170 ps RMS with particle beam. • Design of trigger-less TDCpix ASIC with 1800 pixels, 720 TDC channels and 4 3.2 Gbit/s serializers.

  12. SiPM photosensors and fast timing readout for the Barrel Time-of-Flight detector in bar PANDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, K.

    2018-03-01

    The Barrel Time-of-Flight detector system will be installed in the upcoming bar PANDA experiment at FAIR in Germany. The detector has a barrel shape of phi=0.5 m and 1.8 m long, covering about 5 m2, which corresponds to the laboratory polar angle coverage of 22oPANDA Barrel Time-of-Flight detector are presented. The test shows that the current design fulfils satisfactorily the required timing performance (σt~ 56 ps) and the timing performance depends little on the hit position on the surface.

  13. Time delays between core power production and external detector response from Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentine, T.E.; Mihalczo, J.T.

    1996-01-01

    One primary concern for design of safety systems for reactors is the time response of external detectors to changes in the core. This paper describes a way to estimate the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response using Monte Carlo calculations and suggests a technique to measure the time delay. The Monte Carlo code KENO-NR was used to determine the time delay between the core power production and the external detector response for a conceptual design of the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) reactor. The Monte Carlo estimated time delay was determined to be about 10 ms for this conceptual design of the ANS reactor

  14. A High Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-2 Upgrade of the ATLAS Calorimeter

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Sebastian; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L ≃ 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2} s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction and trigger performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters for pile-up mitigation at Level-0 (L0) trigger level and in the offline reconstruction. This device cover the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4.2. Four layers of Silicon sensors, possibly interleaved with Tungsten, are foreseen to provide precision timing information for charged and neutral particles with a time resolution of the order of 30 pico-seconds per readout cell in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision verti...

  15. The ATLAS Pixel detector and its use in a Search for Metastable Heavy Charged Particles

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00399154

    The discovery of the Higgs boson, the missing piece in the Standard Model puzzle, at the electroweak scale in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS experiments, closed an important season of particle physics and a search lasted 50 years. Even though the discovery of the Higgs boson is a great achievement, the Standard Model is incomplete, since it does not include the gravitational field and can not explain some experimental measurements such as the dark matter observed in galaxy studies and the matter and anti-matter asymmetry observed in the universe. The experiments at LHC have the exciting goal to give answers to the SM open questions and make available the hint or the evidence that may allow to proceed beyond it. An introduction on the Standard Model and the LHC is provided in Chapter 1 where the ATLAS detector is also described. ATLAS is the largest of the detectors placed along the LHC ring and is able to detect products from pp and heavy ion collisions. The detector has a cylindrical geometry around the interac...

  16. Time structure of ns duration bunches with single crystal diamond detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duenas, J.A., E-mail: jose.duenas@dfa.uhu.es [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Ausset, P. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Berjillos, R. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Gardes, D.; Junquera, T.; Lavergne, L. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Martel, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Martinet, G.; Rauly, E.; Said, A. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Sanchez Benitez, A.M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias Experimentales, Campus de El Carmen, 21071 Huelva (Spain); Semsoun, A.; Waast, B. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Universite Paris-Sub 11, CNRS/IN2P3, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France)

    2011-06-11

    A single crystal diamond detector (SC-DD) has been used to obtain the time structure of bunches with lengths between 4 and 88 ns. This was achieved by setting an electronic chain based on a time-to-amplitude converter (TAC), which used the output of the diamond detector as the start of the time interval, and the accelerator RF as the stop. Moreover, the SC-DD not only provided the time information, but also the energy of the beam.

  17. Noise and signal processing in a microstrip detector with a time variant readout system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cattaneo, P.W.

    1995-01-01

    This paper treats the noise and signal processing by a time variant filter in a microstrip detector. In particular, the noise sources in the detector-electronics chain and the signal losses that cause a substantial decrease of the original signal are thoroughly analyzed. This work has been motivated by the analysis of the data of the microstrip detectors designed for the ALEPH minivertex detector. Hence, even if the discussion will be kept as general as possible, concrete examples will be presented referring to the specific ALEPH design. (orig.)

  18. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beierholm, Anders Ravnsborg; Behrens, C. F.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2015-01-01

    based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors......-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response, which confirmed that correction factors for ionization chambers in high temporal and spatial dose gradients are dominated...

  19. A Time-Walk Correction Method for PET Detectors Based on Leading Edge Discriminators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Junwei; Schmall, Jeffrey P; Judenhofer, Martin S; Di, Kun; Yang, Yongfeng; Cherry, Simon R

    2017-09-01

    The leading edge timing pick-off technique is the simplest timing extraction method for PET detectors. Due to the inherent time-walk of the leading edge technique, corrections should be made to improve timing resolution, especially for time-of-flight PET. Time-walk correction can be done by utilizing the relationship between the threshold crossing time and the event energy on an event by event basis. In this paper, a time-walk correction method is proposed and evaluated using timing information from two identical detectors both using leading edge discriminators. This differs from other techniques that use an external dedicated reference detector, such as a fast PMT-based detector using constant fraction techniques to pick-off timing information. In our proposed method, one detector was used as reference detector to correct the time-walk of the other detector. Time-walk in the reference detector was minimized by using events within a small energy window (508.5 - 513.5 keV). To validate this method, a coincidence detector pair was assembled using two SensL MicroFB SiPMs and two 2.5 mm × 2.5 mm × 20 mm polished LYSO crystals. Coincidence timing resolutions using different time pick-off techniques were obtained at a bias voltage of 27.5 V and a fixed temperature of 20 °C. The coincidence timing resolution without time-walk correction were 389.0 ± 12.0 ps (425 -650 keV energy window) and 670.2 ± 16.2 ps (250-750 keV energy window). The timing resolution with time-walk correction improved to 367.3 ± 0.5 ps (425 - 650 keV) and 413.7 ± 0.9 ps (250 - 750 keV). For comparison, timing resolutions were 442.8 ± 12.8 ps (425 - 650 keV) and 476.0 ± 13.0 ps (250 - 750 keV) using constant fraction techniques, and 367.3 ± 0.4 ps (425 - 650 keV) and 413.4 ± 0.9 ps (250 - 750 keV) using a reference detector based on the constant fraction technique. These results show that the proposed leading edge based time-walk correction method works well. Timing resolution obtained

  20. KPiX, An Array of Self Triggered Charge Sensitive Cells Generating Digital Time and Amplitude Information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freytag, D.

    2008-01-01

    The Silicon Detector proposed for the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires electronic read-out that can be tightly coupled to the silicon detectors envisioned for the tracker and the electromagnetic calorimeter. The KPiX is a 1024-channel read-out chip that bump-bonds to the detector and communicates through a few digital signals, power, and detector bias. The KPiX front-end is a low-noise dual-range charge-amplifier with a dynamic range of 17 bit, achieved by autonomous switching of the feedback capacitor. The device takes advantage of the ILC duty cycle of 1 ms trains at 5 Hz rate by lowering the supply current after the data acquisition cycle for an average power consumption of <20 (micro)W/channel. During the 1 ms train, up to four events exceeding a programmable threshold can be stored, the amplitude as a voltage on a capacitor for subsequent digitization, the event time in digital format. The chip can be configured for other than ILC applications

  1. Gas Time-of-Flight Cherenkov Detector with Radiofrequency Phototube for FP420

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margaryan, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the gas Cherenkov detector with radiofrequency phototube is considered as a fast-timing detector for FP420 project. The detector serves for precise Time-of-Flight measurements of forward going protons, capable of accurate vertex reconstruction and background rejection at high luminosities. The proposed technique is a high resolution (∼ 5 ps FWHM for a single proton), high rate (∼ MHz) and highly stable (less than 1 ps) timing technique capable to detect up to several tens events in a short (∼ 1 ns) time interval. (author)

  2. Elsevier R&D on a new type of micropattern gaseous detector: The Fast Timing Micropattern detector

    CERN Document Server

    Abbaneo, D; Abbrescia, M; Abi Akl, M; Aboamer, O; Acosta, D; Ahmad, A; Ahmed, W; Aleksandrov, A; Altieri, P; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Aspell, P; Assran, Y; Awan, I; Bally, S; Ban, Y; Banerjee, S; Barashko, V; Barria, P; Bencze, G; Beni, N; Benussi, L; Bhopatkar, V; Bianco, S; Bos, J; Bouhali, O; Braghieri, A; Braibant, S; Buontempo, S; Calabria, C; Caponero, M; Caputo, C; Cassese, F; Castaneda, A; Cauwenbergh, S; Cavallo, F R; Celik, A; Choi, M; Choi, S; Christiansen, J; Cimmino, A; Colafranceschi, S; Colaleo, A; Conde Garcia, A; Czellar, S; Dabrowski, M M; De Lentdecker, G; Oliveira, R De; De Robertis, G; Dildick, S; Dorney, B; Endroczi, G; Errico, F; Fallavollita, F; Fenyvesi, A; Ferry, S; Furic, I; Giacomelli, P; Gilmore, J; Golovtsov, V; Guiducci, L; Guilloux, F; Gutierrez, A; Hadjiiska, R M; Hauser, J; Hoepfner, K; Hohlmann, M; Hoorani, H; Iaydjiev, P; Jeng, Y G; Kamon, T; Karchin, P; Korytov, A; Krutelyov, S; Kumar, A; Kim, H; Lee, J; Lenzi, T; Litov, L; Loddo, F; Madorsky, A; Maerschalk, T; Maggi, M; Magnani, A; Mal, P K; Mandal, K; Marchioro, A; Marinov, A; Majumdar, N; Merlin, J A; Mitselmakher, G; Mohanty, A K; Mohapatra, A; Molnar, J; Muhammad, S; Mukhopadhyay, S; Naimuddin, M; Nuzzo, S; Oliveri, E; Pant, L M; Paolucci, P; Park, I; Passeggio, G; Pavlov, B; Philipps, B; Piccolo, D; Postema, H; Puig Baranac, A; Radi, A; Radogna, R; Raffone, G; Ranieri, A; Rashevski, G; Ressegotti, M; Riccardi, C; Rodozov, M; Rodrigues, A; Ropelewski, L; RoyChowdhury, S; Ryu, G; Ryu, M S; Safonov, A; Salva, S; Saviano, G; Sharma, A; Sharma, A; Sharma, R; Shah, A H; Shopova, M; Sturdy, J; Sultanov, G; Swain, S K; Szillasi, Z; Talvitie, J; Tatarinov, A; Tuuva, T; Tytgat, M; Vai, I; Van Stenis, M; Venditti, R; Verhagen, E; Verwilligen, P; Vitulo, P; Volkov, S; Vorobyev, A; Wang, D; Wang, M; Yang, U; Yang, Y; Yonamine, R; Zaganidis, N; Zenoni, F; Zhang, A

    2017-01-01

    Micropattern gaseous detectors (MPGD) underwent significant upgrades in recent years, introducing resistive materials to build compact spark-protected devices. Exploiting this technology further, various features such as space and time resolution, rate capability, sensitive area, operational stability and radiation hardness can be improved. This contribution introduces a new type of MPGD, namely the Fast Timing Micropattern (FTM) detector, utilizing a fully resistive WELL structure. It consists of a stack of several coupled layers where drift and WELL multiplication stages alternate in the structure, yielding a significant improvement in timing properties due to competing ionization processes in the different drift regions. Two FTM prototypes have been developed so far. The first one is uWELL-like, where multiplication takes place in the holes of a kapton foil covered on both sides with resistive material. The second one has a resistive Micromegas-like structure, with multiplication developing in a region del...

  3. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  4. Sub-nanosecond time-of-flight for segmented silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, R.T. de; Alexander, A.; Brown, K.; Floyd, B.; Gosser, Z.Q.; Hudan, S.; Poehlman, J.; Rudolph, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Development of a multichannel time-of-flight system for readout of a segmented, ion-passivated, ion-implanted silicon detector is described. This system provides sub-nanosecond resolution (δt∼370ps) even for low energy α particles which deposit E≤7.687MeV in the detector.

  5. The PHOBOS detector at RHIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Barton, D. S.; Basilev, S.; Baum, R.; Betts, R. R.; Białas, A.; Bindel, R.; Bogucki, W.; Budzanowski, A.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Ceglia, M.; Chang, Y.-H.; Chen, A. E.; Coghen, T.; Connor, C.; Czyż, W.; Dabrowski, B.; Decowski, M. P.; Despet, M.; Fita, P.; Fitch, J.; Friedl, M.; Gałuszka, K.; Ganz, R.; Garcia, E.; George, N.; Godlewski, J.; Gomes, C.; Griesmayer, E.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halik, J.; Halliwell, C.; Haridas, P.; Hayes, A.; Heintzelman, G. A.; Henderson, C.; Hollis, R.; Hołyński, R.; Hofman, D.; Holzman, B.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J.; Katzy, J.; Kita, W.; Kotuła, J.; Kraner, H.; Kucewicz, W.; Kulinich, P.; Law, C.; Lemler, M.; Ligocki, J.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; McLeod, D.; Michałowski, J.; Mignerey, A.; Mülmenstädt, J.; Neal, M.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Patel, M.; Pernegger, H.; Plesko, M.; Reed, C.; Remsberg, L. P.; Reuter, M.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Ross, D.; Rosenberg, L.; Ryan, J.; Sanzgiri, A.; Sarin, P.; Sawicki, P.; Scaduto, J.; Shea, J.; Sinacore, J.; Skulski, W.; Steadman, S. G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Steinberg, P.; Straczek, A.; Stodulski, M.; Strek, M.; Stopa, Z.; Sukhanov, A.; Surowiecka, K.; Tang, J.-L.; Teng, R.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wadsworth, B.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Woźniak, K.; Wuosmaa, A. H.; Wysłouch, B.; Zalewski, K.; Żychowski, P.; Phobos Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    This manuscript contains a detailed description of the PHOBOS experiment as it is configured for the Year 2001 running period. It is capable of detecting charged particles over the full solid angle using a multiplicity detector and measuring identified charged particles near mid-rapidity in two spectrometer arms with opposite magnetic fields. Both of these components utilize silicon pad detectors for charged particle detection. The minimization of material between the collision vertex and the first layers of silicon detectors allows for the detection of charged particles with very low transverse momenta, which is a unique feature of the PHOBOS experiment. Additional detectors include a time-of-flight wall which extends the particle identification range for one spectrometer arm, as well as sets of scintillator paddle and Cherenkov detector arrays for event triggering and centrality selection.

  6. Radiation hardness and precision timing study of silicon detectors for the CMS High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Currás, Esteban, E-mail: ecurrasr@cern.ch [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Fernández, Marcos [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Gallrapp, Christian [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Gray, Lindsey [Fermilab, Wilson Street and Kirk Road, Batavia, IL 60510-5011, Illinois (United States); Mannelli, Marcello [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Meridiani, Paolo [Istituto Nazionale Di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Moll, Michael [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Nourbakhsh, Shervin [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Scharf, Christian [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Silva, Pedro [CERN, Organisation europnne pour la recherche nucleaire, CH-1211 Genéve 23 (Switzerland); Steinbrueck, Georg [Hamburg University, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Fatis, Tommaso Tabarelli de [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare – Sezione di Milano-Bicocca Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy); Vila, Iván [Instituto de Física de Cantabria (CSIC-UC), Avda. los Castros s/n, E-39005 Santander (Spain)

    2017-02-11

    The high luminosity upgraded LHC or Phase-II is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity by a factor of 10 beyond the LHC's design value, expecting to deliver 250 fb{sup −1} per year for a further 10 years of operation. Under these conditions the performance degradation due to integrated radiation dose will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade the forward calorimeters. The replacement is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGC) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter with layers of silicon detectors interleaved. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with sizes of less that ∼1.0 cm{sup 2} and an active thickness between 100 and 300 μm depending on the position, respectively, the expected radiation levels. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb{sup −1}, the electromagnetic calorimetry will sustain integrated doses of 1.5 MGy (150 Mrads) and neutron fluences up to 10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2}. A radiation tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300, 200, and 100 μm n-on-p and p-on-n silicon pads irradiated to fluences up to 1.6×10{sup 16} neq/cm{sup 2} is presented. The properties of these diodes studied before and after irradiation were leakage current, capacitance, charge collection efficiency, annealing effects and timing capability. The results of these measurements validate these sensors as candidates for the HGC system.

  7. Measurement of the charge ratio of atmospheric muons with the CMS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2070976

    2010-01-01

    5 GeV/c to 1 TeV/c. The surface flux ratio is measured to be 1.2766 $\\pm$ 0.0032 (stat.) $\\pm$ 0.0032 (syst.), independent of the muon momentum, below 100 GeV/c. This is the most precise measurement to date. At higher momenta the data are consistent with an increase of the charge ratio, in agreement with cosmic-ray shower models and compatible with previous measurements by deep-underground experiments.

  8. Characterisation of Medipix3 Silicon Detectors in a Charged-Particle Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Akiba, K.; Aoude, R.Tourinho; van Beuzekom, M.; Buytaert, J.; Collins, P.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dumps, R.; Gallas, A.; Hombach, C.; Hynds, D.; John, M.; Leflat, A.; Li, Y.; Pérez-Trigo, E.; Plackett, R.; Reid, M.M.; Rodríguez Pérez, P.; Schindler, H.; Tsopelas, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Velthuis, J.J.; Wysokiński, M.

    2016-01-21

    While designed primarily for X-ray imaging applications, the Medipix3 ASIC can also be used for charged-particle tracking. In this work, results from a beam test at the CERN SPS with irradiated and non-irradiated sensors are presented and shown to be in agreement with simulation, demonstrating the suitability of the Medipix3 ASIC as a tool for characterising pixel sensors.

  9. Position readout by charge division in large two-dimensional detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberi, J.L.

    1976-10-01

    The improvement in readout spatial resolution for charge division systems with subdivided readout electrodes has been analyzed. This readout forms the position and sum signals by a linear, unambiguous analogue summation technique. It is shown that the readout resolution is a function of only electrode capacitance and shaping parameters. The line width improves as 1/N/sup 1 / 2 /, where N is the number of electrode subdivisions

  10. Study of die-away time for a slab type passive neutron detector system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhar, S.; Gubbi, G.K.; Dange, S.P.; Ali, M.Y.; Tomar, B.S.; Basu, T.K.; Anand, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A slab type passive neutron detector coincidence counting system has been fabricated to estimate the plutonium content in nuclear materials. The present work focuses on the measurement of the die-away time of the system. The results obtained by carrying out neutron counting experiments, using the slab detector and a PC-based data acquisition system, are compared to the die-away time estimated by using Monte Carlo N-particle Transport (MCNP) code for the detector configuration. These results are presented along with the parameters and method for measuring the die-away time both experimentally and theoretically. Results of this validity check are in good agreement

  11. Search for charged Higgs bosons with the ATLAS detector at the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czodrowski, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of a charged Higgs boson, H + , would be an unambiguous evidence for physics beyond the Standard Model. In this thesis a search for the H + , with the ATLAS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN based on data taken in 2011, are described. A re-analysis of the charged Higgs boson search, utilising the ratio-method, was performed, which greatly enhanced the sensitivity compared to the traditional direct search approach. Light charged Higgs bosons, with a mass lower than the top quark mass, can be produced in top quark decays. Due to the large production cross-section of top quark pairs the light charged Higgs bosons are accessible with early LHC data, in contrast to charged Higgs bosons heavier than the top quark mass. For light charged Higgs bosons the decay via H ± →τ ± ν is predominant in most theories and scenarios, in the most parts of their phase space. Therefore the τ identification and the τ mis-identification probabilities play an important role in the charged Higgs boson search. A tag-and-probe selection of Z → ee events was developed in order to asses the mis-identification probability of electrons as hadronically decaying τ leptons, utilising the very first data taken in 2010. The results of this analysis on the one hand provided scale factors crucial for all analyses utilising the electron veto algorithms of the τ identification. On the other hand a data-driven estimation technique for backgrounds stemming from electrons mis-identified as hadronically decaying τ leptons, dedicated for the charged Higgs boson search, was developed and successfully implemented, based upon the results of the tag-and-probe mis-identification results. Trigger studies for the charged Higgs boson search aiming at the highest feasible signal efficiencies with the utilised combination of τ trigger and missing transverse energy trigger, during the 2012 data taking at a centre of mass energy of 8 TeV, were performed. Novel trigger items

  12. Development of a fast pixel array detector for use in microsecond time-resolved x-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barna, S.L.; Gruner, S.M.; Shepherd, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    A large-area pixel x-ray detector is being developed to collect eight successive frames of wide dynamic range two-dimensional images at 200kHz rates. Such a detector, in conjunction with a synchrotron radiation x-ray source, will enable time-resolved x-ray studies of proteins and other materials on time scales which have previously been inaccessible. The detector will consist of an array of fully-depleted 150 micron square diodes connected to a CMOS integrated electronics layer with solder bump-bonding. During each framing period, the current resulting from the x-rays stopped in the diodes is integrated in the electronics layer, and then stored in one of eight storage capacitors underneath the pixel. After the last frame, the capacitors are read out at standard data transmission rates. The detector has been designed for a well-depth of at least 10,000 x-rays (at 20keV), and a noise level of one x-ray. Ultimately, the authors intend to construct a detector with over one million pixels (1024 by 1024). They present the results of their development effort and various features of the design. The electronics design is discussed, with special attention to the performance requirements. The choice and design of the detective diodes, as they relate to x-ray stopping power and charge collection, are presented. An analysis of various methods of bump bonding is also presented. Finally, the authors discuss the possible need for a radiation-blocking layer, to be placed between the electronics and the detective layer, and various methods they have pursued in the construction of such a layer

  13. Calculation of bulk charge and electric field profiles in one-open-face coaxial γ-detectors using experimental C-U characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirnas, I.G.; Litovchenko, P.G.; Petrosyan, E.E.; Pashchuk, N.N.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental C-U characteristics of one-open-face coaxial detectors are employed in deriving an analytic expression that describes the distributions of ionized impurity bulk charge e(N a - N d ) and electric field E(r) for arbitrary variations of N a - N d in the detector volume. As an example, e(N a - N d ) = f(r) and E(r) are calculated for a Ge(Li)-detector whose experimental C-U characteristics is approximated by a power law with exponent two. (author)

  14. A timing detector with pulsed high-voltage power supply for mass measurements at CSRe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Tu, X.L.; Wang, M.; Zhang, Y.H.; Xu, H.S.; Litvinov, Yu. A.; Blaum, K.

    2014-01-01

    Accuracy of nuclear mass measurements in storage rings depends critically on the accuracy with which the revolution times of stored ions can be obtained. In such experiments, micro-channel plates (MCP) are used as timing detectors. Due to large phase space of injected secondary beams, a large number of ions cannot be stored in the ring and is lost within the first few revolutions. However, these ions interact with the detector and can saturate the MCP and thus deteriorate its performance. In order to eliminate such effects, a fast, pulsed high-voltage power supply (PHVPS) has been employed which keeps the detector switched-off during the first few revolutions. The new detector setup was taken into operation at the Experimental Cooler-Storage-Ring CSRe in Lanzhou and resulted in a significant improvement of the detector amplitude and efficiency characteristics

  15. Time resolution improvement of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakhostin, M.; Ishii, K.; Kikuchi, Y.; Matsuyama, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Torshabi, A. Esmaili

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of our study on the timing performance of Schottky CdTe PET detectors using the technique of digital signal processing. The coincidence signals between a CdTe detector (15x15x1 mm 3 ) and a fast liquid scintillator detector were digitized by a fast digital oscilloscope and analyzed. In the analysis, digital versions of the elements of timing circuits, including pulse shaper and time discriminator, were created and a digital implementation of the Amplitude and Rise-time Compensation (ARC) mode of timing was performed. Owing to a very fine adjustment of the parameters of timing measurement, a good time resolution of less than 9.9 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of 150 keV was achieved. In the next step, a new method of time pickoff for improvement of timing resolution without loss in the detection efficiency of CdTe detectors was examined. In the method, signals from a CdTe detector are grouped by their rise-times and different procedures of time pickoff are applied to the signals of each group. Then, the time pickoffs are synchronized by compensating the fixed time offset, caused by the different time pickoff procedures. This method leads to an improved time resolution of ∼7.2 ns (FWHM) at an energy threshold of as low as 150 keV. The methods presented in this work are computationally fast enough to be used for online processing of data in an actual PET system.

  16. Charged anisotropic star on paraboloidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dr2 − r2 ( dθ2 + sin2 θdφ2). ,. (1) with the energy–momentum tensor for anisotropic charged fluid,. Tij = diag. ( ρ + E2, pr − E2, pt + E2, pt + E2). ,. (2) where ρ is the energy density, pr is the radial pressure, pt is the tangential pressure and. E is the electric field intensity. These quantities are measured relative to the comoving.

  17. A High-Granularity Timing Detector for the Phase-II upgrade of the ATLAS Detector System

    CERN Document Server

    Agapopoulou, Christina; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The expected increase of the particle flux at the high luminosity phase of the LHC with instantaneous luminosities up to L = 7.5 × 10^{34} cm^{−2}s^{−1} will have a severe impact on pile-up. The pile-up is expected to increase on average to 200 interactions per bunch crossing. The reconstruction performance for especially jets and transverse missing energy will be severely degraded in the end-cap and forward region of the ATLAS detector. A High Granularity Timing Detector (HGTD) is proposed in front of the liquid Argon end-cap calorimeters of ATLAS for pile-up mitigation in the offline reconstruction. An additional use of the detector as a luminometer is proposed. This device covers the pseudo-rapidity range of 2.4 to about 4. Four layers of Silicon sensors are foreseen to provide precision timing information with a time resolution of the order of 30 picoseconds per minimum ionizing particle in order to assign the energy deposits in the calorimeter to different proton-proton collision vertices. Each read...

  18. Studying the potential of point detectors in time-resolved dose verification of dynamic radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beierholm, A.R.; Behrens, C.F.; Andersen, C.E.

    2015-01-01

    Modern megavoltage x-ray radiotherapy with high spatial and temporal dose gradients puts high demands on the entire delivery system, including not just the linear accelerator and the multi-leaf collimator, but also algorithms used for optimization and dose calculations, and detectors used for quality assurance and dose verification. In this context, traceable in-phantom dosimetry using a well-characterized point detector is often an important supplement to 2D-based quality assurance methods based on radiochromic film or detector arrays. In this study, an in-house developed dosimetry system based on fiber-coupled plastic scintillator detectors was evaluated and compared with a Farmer-type ionization chamber and a small-volume ionization chamber. An important feature of scintillator detectors is that the sensitive volume of the detector can easily be scaled, and five scintillator detectors of different scintillator length were thus employed to quantify volume averaging effects by direct measurement. The dosimetric evaluation comprised several complex-shape static fields as well as simplified dynamic deliveries using RapidArc, a volumetric-modulated arc therapy modality often used at the participating clinic. The static field experiments showed that the smallest scintillator detectors were in the best agreement with dose calculations, while needing the smallest volume averaging corrections. Concerning total dose measured during RapidArc, all detectors agreed with dose calculations within 1.1 ± 0.7% when positioned in regions of high homogenous dose. Larger differences were observed for high dose gradient and organ at risk locations, were differences between measured and calculated dose were as large as 8.0 ± 5.5%. The smallest differences were generally seen for the small-volume ionization chamber and the smallest scintillators. The time-resolved RapidArc dose profiles revealed volume-dependent discrepancies between scintillator and ionization chamber response

  19. Application of charge coupled devices as spatially-resolved detectors for X-ray spectrograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attelan-Langlet, S; Etlicher, B [Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France); Mishenskij, V O; Papazyan, Yu V; Smirnov, V P; Volkov, G S; Zajtsev, V I [Inst. for Thermonuclear and Innovation Investigations, Troitsk (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    An X-ray crystal spectrograph which contains a CCD linear array as the position-sensitive detector is described. Radiation detection is performed directly onto CCD. The spectrograph has a limit of sensitivity at about 2 J/(A.ster), spectral resolution about 1000 and dynamic range 100-120. The device operates on-line with IBM-PC based control system. Software provides all data acquisition and treatment. Output spectra are presented in absolute units. The device was used during composite Z-pinch experiments at pulse-power installations ``Angara-5-1`` (TRINITI, Troitsk, Russia) and ``GAEL`` (Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France). Currently the spectrograph is included in the set of diagnostics of the ``Angara-5-1`` facility. Some of the spectra obtained are presented and discussed. (author). 4 figs., 9 refs.

  20. Search for new heavy charged gauge bosons with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2143669

    Particle physics deals with the most fundamental level at which nature can be understood. Experiments in high energy conditions allow for precise study and measurements of the structure and dynamics of matter. In particle colliders, such as the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN unprecedented center-of-mass energies can be achieved in proton-proton collisions. By recording the products of these collisions, the processes that occurred can be reconstructed. The ATLAS detector allows for detection and storage of vast numbers of collision events, and offers precise measurements of properties of the particles produced in these events. Using this approach, the Standard Model (SM) can be tested. This theoretical framework consists of a mathematical description of particle physics and allows for precise calculations and predictions. Even though the SM has proven to be highly successful, it does not explain everything observed in nature. Extensions of the SM can remedy this incompleteness. Using the same colliders, s...

  1. Response of CR39 detector to 5 A GeV Si14+ ions and measurement of total charge changing cross-section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Renu; Kumar, Ashavani

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, response of CR39 track etch detector was obtained by cone-height measurement technique. CR39 track etch detector was used to identify the incident charged particles and their fragments by the measurements of cone-height of tracks using an optical microscope DM6000 M and automated image analyzer system installed with Leica QWin Plus software. The CR39 detector was calibrated and the response points were fitted with a linear relation and all the points are within the limits of the experimental errors. The charge resolution of the detector was calculated to be 0.2e. The response function is obtained and fitted with a linear relation which is good throughout Z/β=6.1–14.1. The experimental value of the total charge changing cross-section of 5 A GeV Si 14+ ion beam in polyethylene and CR39 combined target is σ tot =(734±128) mb. The total charge changing cross-section is compared with the experimental results of others based on cone base-area measurement technique and also fitted by the Bradt–Peters geometrical cross-section. - Highlights: • Charge resolution of 0.2e was obtained by cone-height measurement. • Consistency in manual measurements of cone-heights is presented. • Response of CR39 detector was obtained and fitted with first degree polynomial. • Total charge changing cross-section of 5 A GeV Si 14+ ions in CH