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Sample records for times pl enhancement

  1. Popular sayings that address time and PLE/PL2 teaching/learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danúsia Torres-dos-Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of fixed expressions contributes to a significant demand of L2/SL teaching, the lexicon acquisition. The binomial language/culture gained a clear shape in the context of L2/SL teaching, so as to require the teacher to reflect constantly on the topics that outline the linguistic and cultural identity of the target language. Based on the assumption that time and culture are inseparable, the PFL/PL2 (Portuguese as a Foreign/ Second Language teacher has to be prepared to address the Brazilian concept of time. Relying on the notion of time language (HALL, 1996, this study seeks to identify aspects of the Brazilian temporal language. As fixed expressions have different types, it is often difficult to maintain theoretical boundaries among them. Considering Silva's definition of proverb (1999:14-15, some Brazilian popular sayings concerning time were selected. It was found that popular wisdom has at least two types of expressions that refer to time: those related to the concepts of clock time and the ones linked to the concepts of event time (LEVINE, 1997. It is intended therefore that this study may assist the PFL/PL2 teacher in addressing this issue.

  2. Enhanced PL and EL properties of Alq3/nano-TiO2 with the modification of 8-vinyl POSS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Xie, Bing; Xia, Kai; Zhao, Chunmao; Li, Yingchun; Hu, Shengliang

    2018-04-01

    In this study, tris (8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum/nano-titanium dioxide (Alq3/nano-TiO2) composites were synthesized using a simply in-situ process with 8-vinyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) as a modifier. The as-prepared Alq3/nano-TiO2 composites were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and ultraviolet visible (UV-vis) absorption spectra. The effect of modification on luminescence properties for the samples was studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectra, electroluminescence (EL) spectra and time-resolved luminescence decay curves. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) with the corresponded emitting layer structure were investigated. The results show that the amphiphilicity of the 8-vinyl POSS leads to well-dispersion state of the nano-TiO2 in the Alq3. Adding a proper weight percentage of 8-vinyl POSS is beneficial for the PL and EL properties enhancement of the composites. OLED using the Alq3/nano-TiO2 with 1 wt% 8-vinyl POSS emitting layer has the low turn-on voltage (4.7 V at 1 cd/m2), high maximum luminance (7463 cd/m2 at 8.75 V), and high luminous efficiency (1.13 cd/A at 100 mA/cm2). Adding 1 wt% 8-vinyl POSS in Alq3/nano-TiO2 can increase the EL intensity by a factor of 37.1 at 8 V. These values are better than those for OLEDs using the Alq3 emitting layer. The increase in luminance and current efficiency stability can be attributed to the energy transfer process between the Alq3 and the nano-TiO2, and the suppression of the self-quenching by caged 8-vinyl POSS molecules.

  3. 3PL, 4PL and insourcing logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Vivaldini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Logistics services have evolved and changed over time, especially in the hiring of them according to the concepts of 3PL (third party logistics, 4PL (fourth party logistics or insourcing logistics. 3PL service is a consolidated business, 4PL is an option for outsourcing logistics and has already been adopted by some organizations, and insourcing logistics suggests the return of these activities being internalized by companies, which is still a relatively unexplored subject in logistics literature. Analyzing these themes in the literature, this study updates the view on them and proposes a conceptual framework that classifies the different models of logistics services, showing the different options that can be adopted to help the company decide how to run their logistics services.

  4. From photoluminescence to thermal emission: Thermally-enhanced PL (TEPL) for efficient PV (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manor, Assaf; Kruger, Nimrod; Martin, Leopoldo L.; Rotschild, Carmel

    2016-09-01

    The Shockley-Queisser efficiency limit of 40% for single-junction photovoltaic (PV) cells is mainly caused by the heat dissipation accompanying the process of electro-chemical potential generation. Concepts such as solar thermo-photovoltaics (STPV) aim to harvest this heat loss by the use of a primary absorber which acts as a mediator between the sun and the PV, spectrally shaping the light impinging on the cell. However, this approach is challenging to realize due to the high operating temperatures of above 2000K required in order to generate high thermal emission fluxes. After over thirty years of STPV research, the record conversion efficiency for STPV device stands at 3.2% for 1285K operating temperature. In contrast, we recently demonstrated how thermally-enhanced photoluminescence (TEPL) is an optical heat-pump, in which photoluminescence is thermally blue-shifted upon heating while the number of emitted photons is conserved. This process generates energetic photon-rates which are comparable to thermal emission in significantly reduced temperatures, opening the way for a TEPL based energy converter. In such a device, a photoluminescent low bandgap absorber replaces the STPV thermal absorber. The thermalization heat induces a temperature rise and a blue-shifted emission, which is efficiently harvested by a higher bandgap PV. We show that such an approach can yield ideal efficiencies of 70% at 1140K, and realistic efficiencies of almost 50% at moderate concentration levels. As an experimental proof-of-concept, we demonstrate 1.4% efficient TEPL energy conversion of an Nd3+ system coupled to a GaAs cell, at 600K.

  5. Use of TIME: Time perspective intervention of motivation enhancement.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; Van der Veen, I.; Schuitema, J.; Kostić, A.; Chadee, D.

    2017-01-01

    Considering the association between time perspective and motivated learning, the authors draw on time perspective theory in the development of an intervention to increase adolescent students’ motivation for school: TIME (Time perspective Intervention of Motivation Enhancement). Four studies centered

  6. Stationary and time resolved PL spectroscopy for analysis of ultrafst photoreactions in MALDI and solar cell samples; Stationaere und zeitaufgeloeste Photolumineszenz-Spektroskopie zur Analyse ultraschneller Photoreaktionen in MALDI- und Solarzellenproben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyer, Theo

    2009-02-12

    Stationary and time resolved measurements of photoluminescence (PL) were performed to analyse ultrafast photoreactions in solid MALDI (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization) and solar cell samples. The investigation of pure cinnamic acid samples resulted in a first-time observation of a PL signature which is controlled by a photodimerisation on a ps- and fs-time scale. Other matrix compounds showed clear evidence of ultrafast photoinduced crystal reactions as well. In analyte/matrix mixtures consisting of angiotensin II and alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or sinapinic acid, an additional effective PL quenching of matrix monomers was identified. This clearly indicates the existence of a further ultrafast photoreaction which strongly competes with the photodimerisation. The additional reaction is assumed to be a photoisomerisation of matrix monomers and to occur in the immediate vicinity of the analyte molecules. PL measurements on solar cell samples were performed with a P3HT/PCBM-mixture. The results show that within 150 fs about 50% of the P3HT-excitations relax via spontaneous charge transfer to PCBM molecules in this mixture.

  7. Timepiece: Extending and Enhancing Learning Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lorin W., Ed.; Walberg, Herbert J., Ed.

    This publication offers suggestions for making more productive use of time, a scarce and valued educational resource. The chapter authors, authorities on the use of educational time, write about how to extend and enhance learning time within and outside schools. In "Productive Use of Time," Herbert Walberg describes how learning time can be…

  8. Enhanced Time Out: An Improved Communication Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Patricia E

    2017-06-01

    An enhanced time out is an improved communication process initiated to prevent such surgical errors as wrong-site, wrong-procedure, or wrong-patient surgery. The enhanced time out at my facility mandates participation from all members of the surgical team and requires designated members to respond to specified time out elements on the surgical safety checklist. The enhanced time out incorporated at my facility expands upon the safety measures from the World Health Organization's surgical safety checklist and ensures that all personnel involved in a surgical intervention perform a final check of relevant information. Initiating the enhanced time out at my facility was intended to improve communication and teamwork among surgical team members and provide a highly reliable safety process to prevent wrong-site, wrong-procedure, and wrong-patient surgery. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2004-01-01

    While it's good to have a book with all the answers--like your trusty copy of Oracle PL/SQL Programming-- how often do you need all the answers? More likely, you just need a reminder, a quick answer to a problem you're up against. For these times, nothing's handier than the new edition of the Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference by PL/SQL experts Stephen Feuerstein, Bill Pribyl, and Chip Dawes. Newly updated for Oracle10g, this little book is always at the ready for the quick problem solving you need. The 3rd edition of this popular mini-reference boils down the most vital information fr

  10. Soil burial method for plastic degradation performed by Pseudomonas PL-01, Bacillus PL-01, and indigenous bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovitri, Maya; Nafi'ah, Risyatun; Antika, Titi Rindi; Alami, Nur Hidayatul; Kuswytasari, N. D.; Zulaikha, Enny

    2017-06-01

    Lately, plastic bag is becoming the most important pollutant for environment since it is difficult to be naturally degraded due to it consists of long hydrocarbon polymer chains. Our previous study indicated that our pure isolate Pseudomonas PL-01 and Bacillus PL-01 could degrade about 10% plastic bag. This present study was aimed to find out whether Pseudomonas PL01 and Bacillus PL01 put a positive effect to indigenous bacteria from marginal area in doing plastic degradation with a soil burial method. Beach sand was used as a representative marginal area, and mangrove sediment was used as a comparison. Plastics were submerged into unsterile beach sand with 10% of Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 containing liquid minimal salt medium (MSM) separately, while other plastics were submerged into unsterile mangrove sediments. After 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks, their biofilm formation on their plastic surfaces and plastic degradation were measured. Results indicated that those 2 isolates put positive influent on biofilm formation and plastic degradation for indigenous beach sand bacteria. Bacillus PL-01 put higher influent than Pseudomonas PL-01. Plastic transparent was preferable degraded than black and white plastic bag `kresek'. But anyhow, indigenous mangrove soil bacteria showed the best performance in biofilm formation and plastic degradation, even without Pseudomonas PL-01 or Bacillus PL-01 addition. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) analysis complemented the results; there were attenuated peaks with decreasing peaks transmittances. This FTIR peaks indicated chemical functional group changes happened among the plastic compounds after 16 weeks incubation time.

  11. Oracle PL/SQL Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven

    2009-01-01

    This book is the definitive reference on PL/SQL, considered throughout the database community to be the best Oracle programming book available. Like its predecessors, this fifth edition of Oracle PL/SQL Programming covers language fundamentals, advanced coding techniques, and best practices for using Oracle's powerful procedural language. Thoroughly updated for Oracle Database 11g Release 2, this edition reveals new PL/SQL features and provides extensive code samples, ranging from simple examples to complex and complete applications, in the book and on the companion website. This indispensab

  12. Retrospective 70 y-spatial analysis of repeated vine mortality patterns using ancient aerial time series, Pléiades images and multi-source spatial and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, E.; Leclercq, L.; Gilliot, J. M.; Chaignon, B.

    2017-06-01

    For any wine estate, there is a need to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones ('terroirs') so as to manage grape production, which depends on vine biological condition. Until now, the studies performing digital zoning of terroirs have relied on recent spatial data and scant attention has been paid to ancient geoinformation likely to retrace past biological condition of vines and especially occurrence of vine mortality. Is vine mortality characterized by recurrent and specific patterns and if so, are these patterns related to terroir units and/or past landuse? This study aimed at performing a historical and spatial tracing of vine mortality patterns using a long time-series of aerial survey images (1947-2010), in combination with recent data: soil apparent electrical conductivity EM38 measurements, very high resolution Pléiades satellite images, and a detailed field survey. Within a 6 ha-estate in the Southern Rhone Valley, landuse and planting history were retraced and the map of missing vines frequency was constructed from the whole time series including a 2015-Pléiades panchromatic band. Within-field terroir units were obtained from a support vector machine classifier computed on the spectral bands and NDVI of Pléiades images, EM38 data and morphometric data. Repeated spatial patterns of missing vines were highlighted throughout several plantings, uprootings, and vine replacements, and appeared to match some within-field terroir units, being explained by their specific soil characteristics, vine/soil management choices and the past landuse of the 1940s. Missing vines frequency was spatially correlated with topsoil CaCO3 content, and negatively correlated with topsoil iron, clay, total N, organic C contents and NDVI. A retrospective spatio-temporal assessment of terroir therefore brings a renewed focus on some key parameters for maintaining a sustainable grape production.

  13. Oracle PL/SQL programming

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Considered the best Oracle PL/SQL programming guide by the Oracle community, this definitive guide is precisely what you need to make the most of Oracle’s powerful procedural language. The sixth edition describes the features and capabilities of PL/SQL up through Oracle Database 12c Release 1. Hundreds of thousands of PL/SQL developers have benefited from this book over the last twenty years; this edition continues that tradition. With extensive code examples and a lively sense of humor, this book explains language fundamentals, explores advanced coding techniques, and offers best practices to help you solve real-world problems. * Get PL/SQL programs up and running quickly, with clear instructions for executing, tracing, testing, debugging, and managing code * Understand new 12.1 features, including the ACCESSIBLE_BY clause, WITH FUNCTION and UDF pragma, BEQUEATH CURRENT_USER for views, and new conditional compilation directives * Take advantage of extensive code samples, from easy-to-follow examples to reu...

  14. Oracle PL/SQL Language Pocket Reference

    CERN Document Server

    Feuerstein, Steven; Dawes, Chip

    2007-01-01

    The fourth edition of this popular pocket guide provides quick-reference information that will help you use Oracle's PL/SQL language, including the newest Oracle Database 11g features. A companion to Steven Feuerstein and Bill Pribyl's bestselling Oracle PL/SQL Programming, this concise guide boils down the most vital PL/SQL information into an accessible summary

  15. Retrospective farm scale spatial analysis of viticultural terroir fertility using a 70 y-aerial photograph time series, soil survey and very high resolution Pléiades and EM38 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Leclercq, Léa; Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Chaignon, Benoît

    2016-04-01

    In order to elaborate adequate and sustainable practices while better controlling harvest composition at farm scale, the detailed spatial assessment of terroir units is needed. Although such assessment is made in the present time, it reflects vine behaviour and soil quality according to cumulated past choices in vineyard management. in addition to demarcate homogeneous within-vineyard zones, there is a need, in cases where the winegrower starts up its activities, to retrace the behaviour of these zones in the past, so as to consolidate the diagnosis of vine fertility, and determine further adoption of new soil and vineyard management practices that are likely to favour a long-term preservation of quality production together with soil ecosystem functions. In this study we aimed at performing such historical and spatial tracing using a long term time-series of aerial survey images, in combination with a set of very high resolution data: resistivity EM38 measurements and very high resolution Pléiades satellite images. This study was conducted over a 6 ha-farm mainly planted with rainfed black Grenache and Syrah varieties in the Southern Rhone Valley. In a previous study carried out at regional scale, soil landscape and potential terroir units had been characterized. A new field survey carried out in January 2015 considered a total of 98 topsoil sampling sites in addition to 14 soil pits, the horizons of which were described and sampled. Physico-chemical analyses were made for all soil samples, and for those horizons having the highest root development, additional analytical parameters such as copper, active lime and mineral nutrients contents were determined. Along with soil parameters, soil surface condition, vine biological parameters including vigour, presence of diseases, stock-unearthing were collected. A total of 25 aerial photographs in digitized format from the French National Institute of Geographic and Forest Information (IGN) were examined over the 1947

  16. Enhanced timing channel for spectroscopy amplifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ianakiev, K; Grigorov, N [Inst. for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    1996-12-31

    Purpose of this paper is to analyze noise and timing performance of some methods of filtering in the fast channel. Implementation of RLC-filter into a semi-Gaussian amplifier allows to obtain the time resolution of 420 ns. 5 refs.

  17. Rationale for utilizing 3PL in supply chain management: A shippers' economic perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koichiro Tezuka

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we first propose a conceptual framework for evaluating 3PL (third-party logistics utilization in SCM (supply chain management, in which it is assumed that shippers may enjoy advantages derived from four contributory sources of 3PL specialization: scale, know-how, searching ability, and IT skills. It is also supposed that shippers may particularly benefit from 3PL when facing uncertain business environments. We also apply principal–agent relationships to shippers and 3PL providers. Further, we see enhancing “agency efficiency” as important to obtaining the benefits of 3PL utilization. We also look at the role of 3PL provider selection, the “hold-up” problem under incomplete contracts, and asset ownership. After that we briefly discuss the utilization of 3PL and environmental concerns. These are the main points that we consider related to 3PL utilization. The main contribution of this study is to identify discussion points from models and theories, such as contract theory, that relate to the utilization of 3PL in SCM.

  18. Autistic Traits and Enhanced Perceptual Representation of Pitch and Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mary E.; Griffiths, Timothy D.; Grube, Manon

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced basic perceptual discrimination has been reported for pitch in individuals with autism spectrum conditions. We test whether there is a correlational pattern of enhancement across the broader autism phenotype and whether this correlation occurs for the discrimination of pitch, time and loudness. Scores on the Autism-Spectrum Quotient…

  19. Plástica mitral Mitral repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo M Braile

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados 101 pacientes submetidos a plástica da valva mitral em seis anos, com seguimento de 100%. Entre eles, 36 eram do sexo masculino e 65 do sexo feminino, com idade variando de dois a 62 anos (M = 28 ± 16,4. Desses, 57 (56,4% foram submetidos apenas a abordagem valvar mitral. Os demais foram submetidos a procedimentos associados, como plástica tricúspide (9,9%, revascularização do miocárdio (4,0%, entre outros. Não foi registrado óbito imediato. O índice de mortalidade tardia foi de 2% (AVC hemorrágico após cinco anos e septicemia, no primeiro ano. As complicações não fatais foram representadas pela endocardite evidenciada em dois pacientes (2%, sendo tratados e curados, e um paciente com reestenose mitral pós-plástica por reagudização da doença reumática. O estudo atuarial revelou um índice de 79,0 ± 17,7% de sobrevida, um total de 76,3 ± 17,8% de pacientes livres de complicações, 80,0 ± 17,9% de reoperações, 100,0% livres de tromboembolismo. Os resultados ecodoplercardiográficos registraram que 89% dos pacientes evoluíram com ausência de insuficiência. Dos 11% restantes, 7,4% apresentram insuficiência mitral discreta, 2,4% moderada e 2% importante. De acordo com a classificação da NYHA, os pacientes das classes III (83,8% e IV (16,2% passaram para as classes I (33,3%, II (60,6%, III (4,1% e IV (2%. Os autores concluem que o anel de pericárdio flexível conforma-se perfeitamente com o anel valvar, não produz hemólise e se endoteliza completamente a médio prazo.A hundred-and-one patients were studied in six years, with 100% of follow-up. Among them, 36 were male and 65 female, with an age range of two to 62 years (mean 28 ± 16.4%. Fifty seven of them (56.4% underwent just a mitral surgery, the others and other associated procedures, as tricuspid plastic (9.9%, coronary artery revascularization (4.0%, among others. Hospital mortality was not registered. The late mortality rate was 2% for AVC

  20. Annealing time dependent up-conversion luminescence enhancement in magnesium–tellurite glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amjad, Raja J., E-mail: rajajunaid25@gmail.com [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, QAC, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Sahar, M.R.; Ghoshal, S.K.; Dousti, M.R. [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Riaz, S. [Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, QAC, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan); Samavati, A.R.; Arifin, R. [Advanced Optical Material Research Group, Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor bahru 81310 (Malaysia); Naseem, S. [Centre for Solid State Physics, University of the Punjab, QAC, Lahore 54590 (Pakistan)

    2013-04-15

    Silver nanoparticles (NPs) embedded Er{sup 3+} ions doped magnesium–tellurite glasses are prepared using melt quenching technique. Heat treatment with different time intervals above the glass transition temperature is applied in order to reduce the silver ions (Ag{sup +}) to silver NPs (Ag{sup o}). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM), differential thermal analyses (DTA), UV–vis-NIR absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy are used to examine annealing time dependent structural and optical properties. The characteristics temperatures such as glass transition temperature (T{sub g}), crystallization temperature (T{sub c}) and melting temperature (T{sub m}) obtained from DTA for an as prepared sample are 322 °C, 450 °C and 580 °C, respectively. TEM image clearly shows the homogeneous distribution of silver NPs with an average diameter ∼12 nm. The observed localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) band is evidenced at 534 nm. Furthermore, the infrared to visible frequency up-conversion (UC) emission under 786 nm excitation exhibits three emission bands centered at 532 nm, 554 nm and 634 nm corresponding to {sup 2}H{sub 11/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2}, {sup 4}S{sub 3/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} and {sup 4}F{sub 9/2}→{sup 4}I{sub 15/2} transitions of Er{sup 3+}, respectively. Intensity of all the bands is found to enhance by increasing the annealing time up to 24 h. However, further increase in the annealing time duration (∼40 h) reduces the intensity. Enhancement in the luminescence intensity is understood in terms of the local field effect of the silver NPs whereas the quenching is attributed to the energy transfer from Er{sup 3+} ions to silver NPs. -- Highlights: ► Er{sup 3+}-doped silver NPs embedded magnesium–tellurite glasses are prepared. ► TEM confirms the successful precipitation of spherical NPs by heat treatment (HT). ► Luminescence is enhanced due to the growth of NPs after HT up to 24 h. ► With HT>24 h (40 h

  1. Enhanced MRI in patients with facial palsy; Study of time-related enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagida, Masahiro; Kato, Tsutomu; Ushiro, Koichi; Kitajiri, Masanori; Yamashita, Toshio; Kumazawa, Tadami; Tanaka, Yoshimasa (Kansai Medical School, Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1991-03-01

    We performed Gd-DTPA-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations at several stages in 40 patients with peripheral facial nerve palsy (Bell's palsy and Ramsay-Hunt syndrome). In 38 of the 40 patients, one and more enhanced region could be seen in certain portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone on the affected side, whereas no enhanced regions were seen on the intact side. Correlations between the timing of the MRI examination and the location of the enhanced regions were analysed. In all 6 patients examined by MRI within 5 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, enhanced regions were present in the meatal portion. In 3 of the 8 patients (38%) examined by MRI 6 to 10 days after the onset of facial palsy, enhanced areas were seen in both the meatal and labyrinthine portions. In 8 of the 9 patients (89%) tested 11 to 20 days after the onset of palsy, the vertical portion was enhanced. In the 12 patients examined by MRI 21 to 40 days after the onset of facial nerve palsy, the meatal portion was not enhanced while the labyrinthine portion, the horizontal portion and the vertical portion were enhanced in 5 (42%), 8 (67%) and 11 (92%), respectively. Enhancement in the vertical portion was observed in all 5 patients examined more than 41 days after the onset of facial palsy. These results suggest that the central portion of the facial nerve in the temporal bone tends to be enhanced in the early stage of facial nerve palsy, while the peripheral portion is enhanced in the late stage. These changes of Gd-DTPA enhanced regions in the facial nerve may suggest dromic degeneration of the facial nerve in peripheral facial nerve palsy. (author).

  2. Real-time multiplexed digital cavity-enhanced spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyson, Toby K.; Dagdigian, Paul J.; Pavey, Karl D.; Fitzgerald, Nicholas J.; Spence, Thomas G.; Moore, David S.; Harb, Charles C.

    2015-01-01

    Cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is a sensitive optical absorption technique but one where the practical applications have been limited to studying small wavelength ranges. In addition, this Letter shows that wideband operation can be achieved by combining techniques usually reserved for the communications community with that of cavity-enhanced spectroscopy, producing a multiplexed real-time cavity-enhanced spectrometer. We use multiple collinear laser sources operating asynchronously and simultaneously while being detected on a single photodetector. This is synonymous with radio frequency (RF) cellular systems in which signals are detected on a single antenna but decoded uniquely. Here, we demonstrate results with spectra of methyl salicylate and show parts-per-billion per root hertz sensitivity measured in real-time

  3. Experimental evidence of enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraik, Abhijit; Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied and verified experimentally the enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading Chua's circuits. The experiments have been carried out in a one dimensional array of Chua's circuits (2 to 8) coupled unidirectionally, such that each one acts as a master for the next one. By doing so, it has been observed that the anticipation time increases with an increase in the array size. Moreover, the numerical simulations of an array of eighty Chua's circuits verify the experimental observations.

  4. International P/L Insurance Output, Input, and Productivity Comparisons

    OpenAIRE

    Mary A. Weiss

    1991-01-01

    This research provides (bilateral) divisia and multilateral divisia indexes of output, input, and productivity for the property-liability (P-L) insurance industry for the following countries: United States, West Germany, Switzerland, France, and Japan. The time period studied is 1975 to 1987. The results indicate that considerable diversity exists among different countries, with Japan showing the weakest productivity growth. The United States and West Germany are associated overall with high ...

  5. Experimental evidence of enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraik, Abhijit; Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied and verified experimentally the enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading Chua's circuits. The experiments have been carried out in a one dimensional array of Chua's circuits (2 to 8) coupled unidirectionally, such that each one acts as a master for the next one. By doing so, it has been observed that the anticipation time increases with an increase in the array size. Moreover, the numerical simulations of an array of eighty Chua's circuits verify the experimental observations.

  6. Time variation of fluorescence lifetime in enhanced cyan fluorescence protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Soonhyouk; Kim, Soo Yong; Park, Kyoungsook; Jeong, Jinyoung; Chung, Bong Hyun; Kim, Sok Won

    2010-01-01

    The lifetime variations of enhanced cyan fluorescence protein (ECFP) in relatively short integration time bins were studied via time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) measurement. We observed that minimum photon counts are necessary for the lifetime estimation to achieve a certain range of variance. The conditions to decrease the variance of lifetime were investigated and the channel width of the measurement of TCSPC data was found to be another important factor for the variance of lifetime. Though the lifetime of ECFP is best fit by a double exponential, a mono exponential fit for the same integration time is more stable. The results may be useful in the analysis of photophysical dynamics for ensemble molecules in short measurement time windows.

  7. Enhancing outpatient clinics management software by reducing patients’ waiting time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Almomani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA gives great attention to improving the quality of services provided by health care sectors including outpatient clinics. One of the main drawbacks in outpatient clinics is long waiting time for patients—which affects the level of patient satisfaction and the quality of services. This article addresses this problem by studying the Outpatient Management Software (OMS and proposing solutions to reduce waiting times. Many hospitals around the world apply solutions to overcome the problem of long waiting times in outpatient clinics such as hospitals in the USA, China, Sri Lanka, and Taiwan. These clinics have succeeded in reducing wait times by 15%, 78%, 60% and 50%, respectively. Such solutions depend mainly on adding more human resources or changing some business or management policies. The solutions presented in this article reduce waiting times by enhancing the software used to manage outpatient clinics services. Both quantitative and qualitative methods have been used to understand current OMS and examine level of patient’s satisfaction. Five main problems that may cause high or unmeasured waiting time have been identified: appointment type, ticket numbering, doctor late arrival, early arriving patient and patients’ distribution list. These problems have been mapped to the corresponding OMS components. Solutions to the above problems have been introduced and evaluated analytically or by simulation experiments. Evaluation of the results shows a reduction in patient waiting time. When late doctor arrival issues are solved, this can reduce the clinic service time by up to 20%. However, solutions for early arriving patients reduces 53.3% of vital time, 20% of the clinic time and overall 30.3% of the total waiting time. Finally, well patient-distribution lists make improvements by 54.2%. Improvements introduced to the patients’ waiting time will consequently affect patients’ satisfaction and improve

  8. Bystander cells enhance NK cytotoxic efficiency by reducing search time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Zhao, Renping; Schwarz, Karsten; Mangeat, Matthieu; Schwarz, Eva C; Hamed, Mohamed; Bogeski, Ivan; Helms, Volkhard; Rieger, Heiko; Qu, Bin

    2017-03-13

    Natural killer (NK) cells play a central role during innate immune responses by eliminating pathogen-infected or tumorigenic cells. In the microenvironment, NK cells encounter not only target cells but also other cell types including non-target bystander cells. The impact of bystander cells on NK killing efficiency is, however, still elusive. In this study we show that the presence of bystander cells, such as P815, monocytes or HUVEC, enhances NK killing efficiency. With bystander cells present, the velocity and persistence of NK cells were increased, whereas the degranulation of lytic granules remained unchanged. Bystander cell-derived H 2 O 2 was found to mediate the acceleration of NK cell migration. Using mathematical diffusion models, we confirm that local acceleration of NK cells in the vicinity of bystander cells reduces their search time to locate target cells. In addition, we found that integrin β chains (β1, β2 and β7) on NK cells are required for bystander-enhanced NK migration persistence. In conclusion, we show that acceleration of NK cell migration in the vicinity of H 2 O 2 -producing bystander cells reduces target cell search time and enhances NK killing efficiency.

  9. Bounds and enhancements for negative scattering time delays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muga, J.G.; Egusquiza, I.L.; Damborenea, J.A.; Delgado, F.

    2002-01-01

    The time of passage of the transmitted wave packet in a tunneling collision of a quantum particle with a square potential barrier becomes independent of the barrier width in a range of barrier thickness. This is the Hartman effect, which has been frequently associated with 'superluminality'. A fundamental limitation on the effect is set by nonrelativistic 'causality conditions'. We demonstrate first that the causality conditions impose more restrictive bounds on the negative time delays (time advancements) when no bound states are present. These restrictive bounds are in agreement with a naive, and generally false, causality argument based on the positivity of the 'extrapolated phase time', one of the quantities proposed to characterize the duration of the barrier's traversal. Nevertheless, square wells may in fact lead to much larger advancements than square barriers. We point out that close to the thresholds of new bound states, the time advancement increases considerably, while, at the same time, the transmission probability is large, which facilitates the possible observation of the enhanced time advancement

  10. Enhanced round robin CPU scheduling with burst time based time quantum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indusree, J. R.; Prabadevi, B.

    2017-11-01

    Process scheduling is a very important functionality of Operating system. The main-known process-scheduling algorithms are First Come First Serve (FCFS) algorithm, Round Robin (RR) algorithm, Priority scheduling algorithm and Shortest Job First (SJF) algorithm. Compared to its peers, Round Robin (RR) algorithm has the advantage that it gives fair share of CPU to the processes which are already in the ready-queue. The effectiveness of the RR algorithm greatly depends on chosen time quantum value. Through this research paper, we are proposing an enhanced algorithm called Enhanced Round Robin with Burst-time based Time Quantum (ERRBTQ) process scheduling algorithm which calculates time quantum as per the burst-time of processes already in ready queue. The experimental results and analysis of ERRBTQ algorithm clearly indicates the improved performance when compared with conventional RR and its variants.

  11. Mocking in Oracle PL/SQL

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Testing is not very popular in database development, so there are none common approaches how to test software written in database. Surprisingly one of the oldest DB still lacks of appropriate testing approach for its PL/SQL programs. SQLDeveloper's built-in test "framework" is far from excellence, especially it does not cover mocking which is inherent part of testing for any bigger system being developed. This talk will briefly introduce Edition-Based Redefinition by Oracle to be used for mocking.

  12. Real-time movie image enhancement in NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, M.; Mansfield, P.

    1986-01-01

    Clinical NMR motion picture (movie) images can now be produced routinely in real-time by ultra-high-speed echo-planar imaging (EPI). The single-shot image quality depends on both pixel resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (S/N), both factors being intertradeable. If image S/N is sacrificed rather than resolution, it is shown that S/N may be greatly enhanced subsequently without vitiating spatial resolution or foregoing real motional effects when the object motion is periodic. This is achieved by a Fourier filtering process. Experimental results are presented which demonstrate the technique for a normal functioning heart. (author)

  13. Recurrence Density Enhanced Complex Networks for Nonlinear Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diego G. De B.; Reis, Barbara M. Da F.; Zou, Yong; Quiles, Marcos G.; Macau, Elbert E. N.

    We introduce a new method, which is entitled Recurrence Density Enhanced Complex Network (RDE-CN), to properly analyze nonlinear time series. Our method first transforms a recurrence plot into a figure of a reduced number of points yet preserving the main and fundamental recurrence properties of the original plot. This resulting figure is then reinterpreted as a complex network, which is further characterized by network statistical measures. We illustrate the computational power of RDE-CN approach by time series by both the logistic map and experimental fluid flows, which show that our method distinguishes different dynamics sufficiently well as the traditional recurrence analysis. Therefore, the proposed methodology characterizes the recurrence matrix adequately, while using a reduced set of points from the original recurrence plots.

  14. An enhanced Ada run-time system for real-time embedded processors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, J. T.

    1991-01-01

    An enhanced Ada run-time system has been developed to support real-time embedded processor applications. The primary focus of this development effort has been on the tasking system and the memory management facilities of the run-time system. The tasking system has been extended to support efficient and precise periodic task execution as required for control applications. Event-driven task execution providing a means of task-asynchronous control and communication among Ada tasks is supported in this system. Inter-task control is even provided among tasks distributed on separate physical processors. The memory management system has been enhanced to provide object allocation and protected access support for memory shared between disjoint processors, each of which is executing a distinct Ada program.

  15. PlGF gene knockdown in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akrami, Hassan; Soheili, Zahra-Soheila; Sadeghizadeh, Majid; Ahmadieh, Hamid; Rezaeikanavi, Mozhgan; Samiei, Shahram; Khalooghi, Keynoush

    2011-04-01

    To evaluate the knockdown of placental growth factor (PlGF) gene expression in human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells and its effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis and angiogenic potential of RPE cells. Human RPE cells were isolated by dispase I solution and cultured in DMEM/F12 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (FCS). A small interfering RNA (siRNA) corresponding to PlGF mRNA and a scrambled siRNA (scRNA) were introduced into the cells. Cell proliferation and cell death were examined by ELISA. PlGF mRNA and protein were quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot. The levels of gene expression for human retinal pigment epithelium-specific protein 65 kDa (RPE65), cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein (CRALBP) and tyrosinase were examined by real-time PCR. The angiogenic activity of RPE cell-derived conditioned media was assayed by a tube formation assay using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At a final siRNA concentration of 20 pmol/ml, the transfection efficiency was about 80%. The amount of PlGF transcripts was reduced to 10% after 36 h of incubation, and the amount of PlGF protein in culture supernatant was significantly decreased. Suppression of PlGF gene had no effect on RPE cell proliferation and survival, and there were no notable changes in the transcript levels of RPE65, CRALBP or tyrosinase for the cultures treated by siRNA cognate to PlGF. Vascular tube formation was efficiently reduced in HUVECs. Our findings present PlGF as a key modulator of angiogenic potential in RPE cells of the human retina.

  16. Strong Photoluminescence Enhancement of Silicon Oxycarbide through Defect Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Ford

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The following study focuses on the photoluminescence (PL enhancement of chemically synthesized silicon oxycarbide (SiCxOy thin films and nanowires through defect engineering via post-deposition passivation treatments. SiCxOy materials were deposited via thermal chemical vapor deposition (TCVD, and exhibit strong white light emission at room-temperature. Post-deposition passivation treatments were carried out using oxygen, nitrogen, and forming gas (FG, 5% H2, 95% N2 ambients, modifying the observed white light emission. The observed white luminescence was found to be inversely related to the carbonyl (C=O bond density present in the films. The peak-to-peak PL was enhanced ~18 and ~17 times for, respectively, the two SiCxOy matrices, oxygen-rich and carbon-rich SiCxOy, via post-deposition passivations. Through a combinational and systematic Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and PL study, it was revealed that proper tailoring of the passivations reduces the carbonyl bond density by a factor of ~2.2, corresponding to a PL enhancement of ~50 times. Furthermore, the temperature-dependent and temperature-dependent time resolved PL (TDPL and TD-TRPL behaviors of the nitrogen and forming gas passivated SiCxOy thin films were investigated to acquire further insight into the ramifications of the passivation on the carbonyl/dangling bond density and PL yield.

  17. Plínio Marcos: uma biografia

    OpenAIRE

    Contiero, Lucinéia [UNESP

    2007-01-01

    Esta é uma biografia de Plínio Marcos, dramaturgo santista nascido em 1935. Tem um pouco de biografia intelectual, um pouco de biografia crítica. Mas é sobretudo a vida de um homem de teatro. O trabalho se abre com uma discussão teórica, em face da qual procuro situar essa abordagem de uma vida. Como toda biografia, prevaleceu aqui o interesse pela disposição cronológica dos fatos, com paradas para tratar de certos aspectos importantes, a vida de jornalista, a peças de maior sucesso. No prime...

  18. Podnikatelský plán

    OpenAIRE

    Seidlová, Anežka

    2014-01-01

    Cílem této bakalářské práce je vytvořit podnikatelský plán na zřízení a provoz dámského fitness centra ve Vsetíně. Práce se zaměřuje na problematiku spojenou s nedostatečným množstvím nabízených služeb pro ženy v daném místě. Při zpracování této práce budou využity SWOT a SLEP analýzy. V závěru práce posoudím, zda je tento podnikatelský plán realizovatelný. The aim of this thesis is to create a business plan for the establishment and operation of women's fitness center in Vsetin. The work ...

  19. Enhancements and Evolution of the Real Time Mission Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M.; Blakeslee, R.; Hardin, D.; Hall, J.; He, Y.; Regner, K.

    2008-12-01

    satellite overpass intersections. The resultant flight plan is then generated in KML and quickly posted to the Google Earth-based RTMM for planning discussions, as well as comparisons to real time flight tracks in progress. A description of the system architecture, components, and applications along with reviews and animations of RTMM during the field campaigns, plus planned enhancements and future opportunities will be presented.

  20. de las artes plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Las innovaciones que se producen día con día en los campos científico, tecnológico, ambiental, social, entre otros, afectan de manera significativa la educación y en consecuencia la labor que desempeñan los docentes. En este marco se le reconoce a la educación su función de orientar e impulsar políticas que respondan a las necesidades e intereses de quienes conforman el contexto social. El presente artículo pretende que quien imparte lecciones en el área de las Artes Plásticas comprenda que, como facilitador de los procesos de enseñanza y aprendizaje, debe fundamentar su práctica docente en referentes teóricos que les permitan a sus estudiantes trascender su análisis teórico y crítico, y llegar a propuestas concretas, realizables y transferibles a otros contextos. No debe nunca considerarse dueño absoluto de la verdad y del conocimiento. Debe eso sí tomar en consideración, de acuerdo con su formación y experiencia en esta área, referentes teóricos como el constructivismo, el holismo, la teoría de las inteligencias múltiples, la aplicación de la pedagogía, la psicología, la epistemología y la didáctica, que entrelazados con los contenidos propios del área de las Artes Plásticas, le permitan organizar un trabajo de aula reflexivo, que ofrezca la posibilidad de generar aprendizajes importantes. Por consiguiente, le corresponde al profesor de Artes Plásticas estudiar e investigar en forma rigurosa los fundamentos mencionados, así como practicar de manera constante técnicas artísticas variadas, pues le facilitan al estudiante el desarrollo de sus habilidades para aprender, para asimilar información eficiente y oportuna, para tomar decisiones, solucionar problemas e incrementar su creatividad

  1. Podnikatelský plán

    OpenAIRE

    Štefančík, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Práce se zabývá podstatnými skutečnostmi, které mají vliv na založení internetového obchodu se skate doplňky v ČR. Zmiňuje legislativní, technologické, marktetingové, finanční a jiné aspekty. Praktická část používá zjištěné poznatky k navržení podoby hypotetického internetového obchodu se skate doplňky Skate stuff, s.r.o. a je tak podnikatelským plánem pro potřeby případného začínajícího podnikatele.

  2. PL-PatchSurfer: a novel molecular local surface-based method for exploring protein-ligand interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bingjie; Zhu, Xiaolei; Monroe, Lyman; Bures, Mark G; Kihara, Daisuke

    2014-08-27

    Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer). PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD). We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  3. Design And Ground Testing For The Expert PL4/PL5 'Natural And Roughness Induced Transition'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutti, Davie; Chazot, Olivier; Donelli, Raffaele; de Rosa, Donato

    2011-05-01

    Unpredicted boundary layer transition can impact dramatically the stability of the vehicle, its aerodynamic coefficients and reduce the efficiency of the thermal protection system. In this frame, ESA started the EXPERT (European eXPErimental Reentry Testbed) program to pro- vide and perform in-flight experiments in order to obtain aerothermodynamic data for the validation of numerical models and of ground-to-flight extrapolation methodologies. Considering the boundary layer transition investigation, the EXPERT vehicle is equipped with two specific payloads, PL4 and PL5, concerning respectively the study of the natural and roughness induced transition. The paper is a survey on the design process of these two in-flight experiments and it covers the major analyses and findings encountered during the development of the payloads. A large amount of transition criteria have been investigated and used to estimate either the dangerousness of the height of the distributed roughness, arising due to nose erosion, or the effectiveness of height of the isolated roughness element forcing the boundary layer transition. Supporting the PL4 design, linear stability computations and CFD analyses have been performed by CIRA on the EXPERT flight vehicle to determine the amplification factor of the boundary layer instabilities at different point of the re-entry trajectory. Ground test experiments regarding the PL5 are carried on in the Mach 6 VKI H3 Hypersonic Wind Tunnel with a Reynolds numbers ranging from 18E6/m to 26E6/m. Infrared measurements (Stanton number) and flow visualization are used on a 1/16 scaled model of the EXPERT vehicle and a flat plate to validate the Potter and Whitfield criterion as a suitable methodology for ground-to-flight extrapolation and the payload design.

  4. Platelet lysate enhances synovial fluid multipotential stromal cells functions: Implications for therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altaie, Ala; Baboolal, Thomas G; Wall, Owen; Jones, Elena; McGonagle, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    Although intra-articular injection of platelet products is increasingly used for joint regenerative approaches, there are few data on their biological effects on joint-resident multipotential stromal cells (MSCs), which are directly exposed to the effects of these therapeutic strategies. Therefore, this study investigated the effect of platelet lysate (PL) on synovial fluid-derived MSCs (SF-MSCs), which in vivo have direct access to sites of cartilage injury. SF-MSCs were obtained during knee arthroscopic procedures (N = 7). Colony forming unit-fibroblast (CFU-F), flow-cytometric phenotyping, carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester-based immunomodulation for T-cell and trilineage differentiation assays were performed using PL and compared with standard conditions. PL-enhanced SF-MSC (PL-MSC) proliferation as CFU-F colonies was 1.4-fold larger, and growing cultures had shorter population-doubling times. PL-MSCs and fetal calf serum (FCS)-MSCs had the same immunophenotype and similar immunomodulation activities. In chondrogenic and osteogenic differentiation assays, PL-MSCs produced 10% more sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) and 45% less Ca ++ compared with FCS-MSCs, respectively. Replacing chondrogenic medium transforming growth factor-β3 with 20% or 50% PL further increased sGAG production of PL-MSCs by 69% and 95%, respectively, compared with complete chondrogenic medium. Also, Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium high glucose (HG-DMEM) plus 50% PL induced more chondrogenesis compared with HG-DMEM plus 10% FCS and was comparable to complete chondrogenic medium. This is the first study to assess SF-MSC responses to PL and provides biological support to the hypothesis that PL may be capable of modulating multiple functional aspects of joint resident MSCs with direct access to injured cartilage. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Product Lines for Service Oriented Applications - PL for SOA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice H. ter Beek

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available PL for SOA proposes, formally, a software engineering methodology, development techniques and support tools for the provision of service product lines. We propose rigorous modeling techniques for the specification and verification of formal notations and languages for service computing with inclinations of variability. Through these cutting-edge technologies, increased levels of flexibility and adaptivity can be achieved. This will involve developing semantics of variability over behavioural models of services. Such tools will assist organizations to plan, optimize and control the quality of software service provision, both at design and at run time by making it possible to develop flexible and cost-effective software systems that support high levels of reuse. We tackle this challenge from two levels. We use feature modeling from product line engineering and, from a services point of view, the orchestration language Orc. We introduce the Smart Grid as the service product line to apply the techniques to.

  6. Enhanced Interrupt Response Time in the nMPRA based on Embedded Real Time Microcontrollers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAITAN, N. C.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In any real-time operating system, task switching and scheduling, interrupts, synchronization and communication between processes, represent major problems. The implementation of these mechanisms through software generates significant delays for many applications. The nMPRA (Multi Pipeline Register Architecture architecture is designed for the implementation of real-time embedded microcontrollers. It supports the competitive execution of n tasks, enabling very fast switching between them, with a usual delay of one machine cycle and a maximum of 3 machine cycles, for the memory-related work instructions. This is because each task has its own PC (Program Counter, set of pipeline registers and a general registers file. The nMPRA is provided with an advanced distributed interrupt controller that implements the concept of "interrupts as threads". This allows the attachment of one or more interrupts to the same task. In this context, the original contribution of this article is to presents the solutions for improving the response time to interrupts when a task has attached a large number of interrupts. The proposed solutions enhance the original architecture for interrupts logic in order to transfer control, to the interrupt handler as soon as possible, and to create an interrupt prioritization at task level.

  7. Experience in the design, implementation and use of PL-11, a programming language for the PDP-11

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, R D

    1976-01-01

    PL-11 is a programming language for the PDP-11 family of computers designed and implemented as part of the OMEGA Project at CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research). Its purpose is to provide an effective tool for both physicists and systems programmers to use in building real time data acquisition systems that are online to high-energy physics experiments. It is a fairly typical member of the PL-class of programming languages which are based on the initial design of PL360. (44 refs).

  8. Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

    1996-12-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ≈ 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in SiB clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

  9. Pearl extract enhances the migratory ability of fibroblasts in a wound healing model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi-Chen; Chen, Chi-Ruei; Young, Tai-Horng

    2013-03-01

    For 2000 years, traditional Chinese medicine has been used as a remedy for general health improvement, including the fight against aging. Pearl powder has recently been used as a health food that has antioxidant, antiaging, antiradioactive, and tonic activities for cells; it is also applied to cure aphthous ulcer, gastric ulcer, and duodenal ulcer on clinical therapy. In addition, the mother of pearl, nacre, could enhance the cell adhesion and tissue regeneration of skin fibroblasts. Fibroblast is regarded as indispensable in the processes of wound healing. Therefore, the effect of pearl extract (PL) on fibroblasts is investigated in this study. PL is produced by a room temperature super extraction system (Taiwan patent no. I271 220). DMEM medium containing PL (300 μg/mL) was used to examine the effect of migration-promoting potential on human fibroblast cell line or human primary fibroblast cells in a wound healing model in vitro. Medium containing PL (300 μg/mL) demonstrated that the migratory cell numbers of fibroblasts were three times more than that without PL, and mRNA expression of collagen type III was higher than in collagen type I in fibroblasts. It revealed a migration-promoting potential of human fibroblasts in a wound healing model in vitro. The present study found that the migration-promoting effect in PL, which could be a supplement in cell culture. These data suggest PL could be useful for enhancing the wound healing of fibroblasts.

  10. de artes plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Castro Bonilla

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El texto que a continuación presento, surge de una investigación en la que participan docentes que imparten lecciones en instituciones del sistema educativo y se preocupan por renovar sus prácticas pedagógicas con el propósito de que sus estudiantes ¬-niños y adolescentes-apliquen los aprendizajes mediante nuevas formas de expresión artística. En el artículo se menciona la metodología que aplica esa investigación, la cual se organiza mediante “fases” que facilitan espacios reflexivos que permiten valorar el trabajo docente mediante el enfoque cualitativo que promueve la investigación-acción en el aula. También se hace referencia a la fundamentación de una práctica pedagógica que le permite al profesor y a sus estudiantes, la posibilidad de asignar nuevos significados al trabajo que se realiza dentro y fuera del contexto escolar. Finalmente, se ofrecen algunas propuestas metodológicas que se dirigen de manera especial a quienes imparten lecciones de artes plásticas en la educación secundaria, aunque se pueden adecuar a otras poblaciones estudiantiles, mediante la planificación de proyectos que tiendan a mejorar las experiencias artísticas de quienes participan en los procesos de aprendizaje. Se espera que el texto facilite la organización de investigaciones que favorezcan la innovación en el aula.

  11. Enhancing photon squeezing one leviton at a time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, D.; Ronetti, F.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Sassetti, M.; Martin, T.

    2018-04-01

    A mesoscopic device in the simple tunnel junction or quantum point contact geometry emits microwaves with remarkable quantum properties, when subjected to a sinusoidal drive in the GHz range. In particular, single and two-photon squeezing as well as entanglement in the frequency domain have been reported. By revising the photoassisted noise analysis developed in the framework of electron quantum optics, we present a detailed comparison between the cosine drive case and other experimentally relevant periodic voltages such as rectangular and Lorentzian pulses. We show that the latter drive is the best candidate in order to enhance quantum features and purity of the outgoing single and two-photon states, a noteworthy result in a quantum information perspective.

  12. Espacio plástico y significación

    OpenAIRE

    González Ochoa, César

    2010-01-01

    El concepto central de este trabajo es el espacio plástico. La noción familiar es la de artes plásticas, entendidas como aquellas que representan conceptos, emociones o situaciones por medio de formas y volúmenes; es decir, a través de elementos que se perciben por los sentidos. Cada época produce sus propios modos de representar el espacio, que no es una simple reproducción sino una producción; el espacio producido de esta manera es el espacio plástico, resultado de las conductas humanas de ...

  13. Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison

    2017-01-01

    With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization

  14. Enhancing Time Synchronization Support in Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares Bruscato, Leandro; Heimfarth, Tales; Pignaton de Freitas, Edison

    2017-12-20

    With the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technology becoming reality, a number of applications are being proposed. Several of these applications are highly dependent on wireless sensor networks (WSN) to acquire data from the surrounding environment. In order to be really useful for most of applications, the acquired data must be coherent in terms of the time in which they are acquired, which implies that the entire sensor network presents a certain level of time synchronization. Moreover, to efficiently exchange and forward data, many communication protocols used in WSN rely also on time synchronization among the sensor nodes. Observing the importance in complying with this need for time synchronization, this work focuses on the second synchronization problem, proposing, implementing and testing a time synchronization service for low-power WSN using low frequency real-time clocks in each node. To implement this service, three algorithms based on different strategies are proposed: one based on an auto-correction approach, the second based on a prediction mechanism, while the third uses an analytical correction mechanism. Their goal is the same, i.e., to make the clocks of the sensor nodes converge as quickly as possible and then to keep them most similar as possible. This goal comes along with the requirement to keep low energy consumption. Differently from other works in the literature, the proposal here is independent of any specific protocol, i.e., it may be adapted to be used in different protocols. Moreover, it explores the minimum number of synchronization messages by means of a smart clock update strategy, allowing the trade-off between the desired level of synchronization and the associated energy consumption. Experimental results, which includes data acquired from simulations and testbed deployments, provide evidence of the success in meeting this goal, as well as providing means to compare these three approaches considering the best synchronization

  15. Au-controlled enhancement of photoluminescence of NiS nanostructures synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linganiso, Ella Cebisa; Mwakikunga, Bonex Wakufwa; Mhlanga, Sabelo Dalton; Coville, Neil John

    2014-01-01

    Nickel sulphide (NiS) nanostructures decorated with gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized via a microwave-assisted hydrothermal technique. Binary phase NiS (α and β) crystalline nanostructures, bare, and decorated with Au NPs were obtained and confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. TEM analysis revealed that the NiS nanostructures were of various shapes. A quantum confinement effect was confirmed by the blue shift PL emissions and high optical energy band gap observed for the as-synthesized sample. A threefold light emission enhancement due to Au NP coatings was obtained when Au metal NP decoration concentrations was varied from 1% to 10%. These enhancements were attributed to the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) excitation of the surface decorated metal NPs which results in an increased rate of spontaneous emission. The PL enhancement factor was observed to vary at different NiS emissions as well as with the size of the Au NPs. The effect of metal NP decoration on the PL emission of NiS is to the best of our knowledge, presented for the first time. - Highlights: • Binary phase NiS decorated with gold nanoparticles. • Quantum confinement effect confirmed by PL analysis. • PL enhancement depending more on particle size distribution. • Effect of gold on NiS PL is to the best of our knowledge reported for the first time

  16. Potential impact of enhanced practice efficiency on endoscopy waiting times.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harewood, G C

    2009-06-01

    With the growing demand on endoscopy services, optimising practice efficiency has assumed increasing importance. Prior research has identified practice changes, which increase the efficiency in endoscopy. In this study, the potential impact of these practice changes on the current and projected future endoscopy waiting times at our institution was assessed.

  17. Once upon a time.... Storytelling to enhance teaching and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lordly, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    The impact of storytelling in the classroom was examined, as was what motivates individuals to engage in storytelling. A storytelling methodology was introduced in an undergraduate nutrition course as an opportunity to enhance the teaching and learning environment. A 28-item, multi-part, self-administered survey was then distributed to the class (n=17). Survey responses (n=15, 88% response) indicate that educators' and students' storytelling can positively influence the learning environment. This occurs through the creation of a greater focus on personalized information, glimpses of real-life experience, a connection with a topic as participants recognize similarities in their own personal experience and knowledge, and connections between different topics and through the emphasis on key concepts. Stories initiate useful conversations about unexplored struggles within practice, such as the emotional dimension(s) of an issue or what it means to be professional. Students are motivated to participate in storytelling through an external focus on others (i.e., helping others to learn) and an internal focus on self (i.e., seeking a connection with others to promote social dialogue). Several challenges related to the use of storytelling in the classroom emerged. Storytelling develops ways of knowing and dialoguing about issues, which has the potential to influence how students will approach their professional practice.

  18. D Model Visualization Enhancements in Real-Time Game Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlo, A.; Sánchez Belenguer, C.; Vendrell Vidal, E.; Fantini, F.; Aliperta, A.

    2013-02-01

    This paper describes two procedures used to disseminate tangible cultural heritage through real-time 3D simulations providing accurate-scientific representations. The main idea is to create simple geometries (with low-poly count) and apply two different texture maps to them: a normal map and a displacement map. There are two ways to achieve models that fit with normal or displacement maps: with the former (normal maps), the number of polygons in the reality-based model may be dramatically reduced by decimation algorithms and then normals may be calculated by rendering them to texture solutions (baking). With the latter, a LOD model is needed; its topology has to be quad-dominant for it to be converted to a good quality subdivision surface (with consistent tangency and curvature all over). The subdivision surface is constructed using methodologies for the construction of assets borrowed from character animation: these techniques have been recently implemented in many entertainment applications known as "retopology". The normal map is used as usual, in order to shade the surface of the model in a realistic way. The displacement map is used to finish, in real-time, the flat faces of the object, by adding the geometric detail missing in the low-poly models. The accuracy of the resulting geometry is progressively refined based on the distance from the viewing point, so the result is like a continuous level of detail, the only difference being that there is no need to create different 3D models for one and the same object. All geometric detail is calculated in real-time according to the displacement map. This approach can be used in Unity, a real-time 3D engine originally designed for developing computer games. It provides a powerful rendering engine, fully integrated with a complete set of intuitive tools and rapid workflows that allow users to easily create interactive 3D contents. With the release of Unity 4.0, new rendering features have been added, including Direct

  19. PlGF repairs myocardial ischemia through mechanisms of angiogenesis, cardioprotection and recruitment of myo-angiogenic competent marrow progenitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroto Iwasaki

    Full Text Available Despite preclinical success in regenerating and revascularizing the infarcted heart using angiogenic growth factors or bone marrow (BM cells, recent clinical trials have revealed less benefit from these therapies than expected.We explored the therapeutic potential of myocardial gene therapy of placental growth factor (PlGF, a VEGF-related angiogenic growth factor, with progenitor-mobilizing activity.Myocardial PlGF gene therapy improves cardiac performance after myocardial infarction, by inducing cardiac repair and reparative myoangiogenesis, via upregulation of paracrine anti-apoptotic and angiogenic factors. In addition, PlGF therapy stimulated Sca-1(+/Lin(- (SL BM progenitor proliferation, enhanced their mobilization into peripheral blood, and promoted their recruitment into the peri-infarct borders. Moreover, PlGF enhanced endothelial progenitor colony formation of BM-derived SL cells, and induced a phenotypic switch of BM-SL cells, recruited in the infarct, to the endothelial, smooth muscle and cardiomyocyte lineage.Such pleiotropic effects of PlGF on cardiac repair and regeneration offer novel opportunities in the treatment of ischemic heart disease.

  20. Novel precooling strategy enhances time trial cycling in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Megan L R; Garvican, Laura A; Jeacocke, Nikki A; Laursen, Paul B; Abbiss, Chris R; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M

    2011-01-01

    To develop and investigate the efficacy of a new precooling strategy combining external and internal techniques on the performance of a cycling time trial (TT) in a hot and humid environment. Eleven well-trained male cyclists undertook three trials of a laboratory-based cycling TT simulating the course characteristics of the Beijing Olympic Games event in a controlled hot and humid environment (32°C-35°C at 50%-60% relative humidity). The trials, separated by 3-7 d, were undertaken in a randomized crossover design and consisted of the following: 1) CON-no treatment apart from the ad libitum consumption of cold water (4°C), 2) STD COOL-whole-body immersion in cold (10°C) water for 10 min followed by wearing a cooling jacket, or 3) NEW COOL-combination of consumption of 14 g of ice slurry ("slushie") per kilogram body mass made from a commercial sports drink while applying iced towels. There was an observable effect on rectal temperature (T(rec)) before the commencement of the TT after both precooling techniques (STD COOL < NEW COOL < CON, P < 0.05), but pacing of the TT resulted in similar T(rec), HR, and RPE throughout the cycling protocol in all trials. NEW COOL was associated with a 3.0% increase in power (approximately 8 W) and a 1.3% improvement in performance time (approximately 1:06 min) compared with the CON trial, with the true likely effects ranging from a trivial to a large benefit. The effect of the STD COOL trial compared with the CON trial was "unclear." This new precooling strategy represents a practical and effective technique that could be used by athletes in preparation for endurance events undertaken in hot and humid conditions.

  1. PlA polymorphism and platelet reactivity following clopidogrel loading dose in patients undergoing coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angiolillo, Dominick J; Fernandez-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernardo, Esther; Alfonso, Fernando; Sabaté, Manel; Fernández, Cristina; Stranieri, Chiara; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Pignatti, Pier Franco; Macaya, Carlos

    2004-01-01

    The PlA polymorphism (Leu33Pro) of the platelet glycoprotein (GP) IIIa gene has been suggested to play an important role in coronary thrombosis. In vitro studies have shown differences for this polymorphism in platelet sensitivity towards antiplatelet drugs (aspirin and abciximab), suggesting a pharmacogenetic modulation. The aim of the study was to assess the modulatory effect of the PlA polymorphism on clopidogrel-induced antiplatelet effects in 38 patients undergoing coronary stent implantation receiving a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose. Platelet reactivity was assessed as GPIIb/IIIa activation and P-selectin expression in platelets stimulated with 2 micromol/l adenosine diphosphate using whole blood flow cytometry. The distribution of the homozygous PlA1/A1 and heterozygous PlA1/A2 genotypes were 74 and 26%, respectively. PlA2 carriers had a higher degree of GPIIb/IIIa activation (P = 0.05) and P-selectin expression (P = 0.02) during the overall study time course and a lower antiplatelet effect to a 300 mg clopidogrel loading-dose up to 24 h following intervention (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the Pl polymorphism of the GPIIIa gene modulates platelet reactivity towards clopidogrel front loading in patients undergoing coronary stenting. This suggests the need for individualized antithrombotic regimens to optimally inhibit platelet reactivity. Copyright 2004 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins

  2. The optimization of scan timing for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Chang, Yong Min; Ryeom, Hun Kyu; Lee, Sang Kwon; Kim, Yong Sun; Kang, Duk Sik; Tirman, Philip J.

    2000-01-01

    To determine the optimal scan timing for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography and to evaluate a new timing method based on the arteriovenous circulation time. Eighty-nine contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiographic examinations were performed mainly in the extremities. A 1.5T scanner with a 3-D turbo-FLASH sequence was used, and during each study, two consecutive arterial phases and one venous phase were acquired. Scan delay time was calculated from the time-intensity curve by the traditional (n = 48) and/or the new (n = 41) method. This latter was based on arteriovenous circulation time rather than peak arterial enhancement time, as used in the traditional method. The numbers of first-phase images showing a properly enhanced arterial phase were compared between the two methods. Mean scan delay time was 5.4 sec longer with the new method than with the traditional. Properly enhanced first-phase images were found in 65% of cases (31/48) using the traditional timing method, and 95% (39/41) using the new method. When cases in which there was mismatch between the target vessel and the Time-intensity curve acquisition site are excluded, erroneous acquisition occurred in seven cases with the traditional method, but in none with the new method. The calculation of scan delay time on the basis of arteriovenous circulation time provides better timing for arterial phase acquisition than the traditional method

  3. Localized surface plasmon resonance enhanced photoluminescence of CdSe QDs in PMMA matrix on silver colloids with different shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Liu; Xu Xiaoliang; Shi Chaoshu; Ming Hai

    2010-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) enhanced photoluminescences (PL) from CdSe quantum dots (QDs) on worm-like or quasi-spherical silver colloids have been investigated. The shape of silver colloid film is controlled by annealing temperature (200 o C∼350 o C). Strong PL enhancements of CdSe QDs on both as-grown and annealed silver colloid films are observed. The results show that the PL enhancement factor of CdSe QDs on worm-like silver colloid film reaches as high as 15-fold. Moreover, the enhancement factor is 5 times larger than that obtained from the quasi-spherical silver colloids. The superiority of worm-like silver nanostructure on LSPR enhanced photoluminescence is attributed to its larger size, hot spots and multiple dipole resonance modes coupling, which are induced by aggregation effect.

  4. PL-PatchSurfer: A Novel Molecular Local Surface-Based Method for Exploring Protein-Ligand Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingjie Hu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Structure-based computational methods have been widely used in exploring protein-ligand interactions, including predicting the binding ligands of a given protein based on their structural complementarity. Compared to other protein and ligand representations, the advantages of a surface representation include reduced sensitivity to subtle changes in the pocket and ligand conformation and fast search speed. Here we developed a novel method named PL-PatchSurfer (Protein-Ligand PatchSurfer. PL-PatchSurfer represents the protein binding pocket and the ligand molecular surface as a combination of segmented surface patches. Each patch is characterized by its geometrical shape and the electrostatic potential, which are represented using the 3D Zernike descriptor (3DZD. We first tested PL-PatchSurfer on binding ligand prediction and found it outperformed the pocket-similarity based ligand prediction program. We then optimized the search algorithm of PL-PatchSurfer using the PDBbind dataset. Finally, we explored the utility of applying PL-PatchSurfer to a larger and more diverse dataset and showed that PL-PatchSurfer was able to provide a high early enrichment for most of the targets. To the best of our knowledge, PL-PatchSurfer is the first surface patch-based method that treats ligand complementarity at protein binding sites. We believe that using a surface patch approach to better understand protein-ligand interactions has the potential to significantly enhance the design of new ligands for a wide array of drug-targets.

  5. Efecto de las épocas de lluvia y sequía sobre la absorción de potasio y fósforo en plantaciones de plátano Effect of the times of rains and drought on the absorption of potassium and phosphorus in plantains plantations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. Barrera V

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de las épocas de lluvia y sequía sobre la absorción de potasio y fósforo en plantaciones de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds se evaluó en cuatro unidades geomorfológicas de suelo en el municipio de Moñitos (Córdoba utilizando un muestreo al azar estratificado. Los parámetros analizados fueron; contenido de fósforo, potasio y calcio en el suelo y en la planta, pH y materia orgánica del suelo. El valor del pH para los suelos se distribuyó desde moderadamente ácido a neutro y el contenido de la materia orgánica fue medio, se encontraron altos contenidos de calcio en el suelo, que a pesar de ser nutriente secundario para las plantas, regula la absorción de otros nutrimentos principales como el potasio, pero fue fundamental para la absorción de potasio y fósforo en las dos épocas de muestreo. El contenido de potasio en la planta (mineralización vía húmeda fue alto en ambas épocas (>4%, pero fue mayor en la época de lluvia, mientras que el fósforo se mantuvo en rangos de normalidad (The effect of the times of rains and drought, on the absorption of potassium and phosphorus in plantains plantations (Musa AAB Simmonds, were evaluated in four geomorphológics soils units in the municipality of Moñitos (Còrdoba, using a stratified sampling at random. The analyzed parameters were, contained of phosphorus, potassium and calcium in the soils and the plant, pH and organic matter of the soils. The value of pH for soils was distributed from acid neutral moderately and the content of the organic matter was average, were contained calcium stops in the ground, that in spite of being secondary nutrient for the plants, regulates the absorption of other main nutrients like potassium, but was fundamental for the absorption of potassium and phosphorus at the two times of sampling. The potassium content in the plant (mineralización via humid was high at both times (4%, being greater at the time of rains, whereas the phosphorus stayed in

  6. Time course of epidural scar enhancement with Gd-DTPA in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaser, S.I.; Ross, J.S.; Berridge, M.; Emery, S.; Bolesta, M.J.; Modic, M.T.; Masaryk, T.J.; Bohlman, H.

    1988-01-01

    In eight beagles following laminectomies, dynamic contrast enhancement of posterior epidural scar was assessed sequentially over 4 months by means of FLASH sequence (20/10/50) following Gd-DTPA. A consistent pattern of enhancement was apparent in all dogs. Maximum enhancement occurred after 1 month (80%-130%), with peak enhancement at 7-10 minutes. There was decreased enhancement each succeeding month with a similar time to peak. Time curves were obtained for blood, muscle, and scar following injection of 40 μCi Gd-153 DTPA and correlated well with in vivo MR image intensities. Histology showed granulation tissue early following surgery, which matured to scar by 4 months. These findings are in contrast to reports of enhancement of anterior scar in humans irrespective of age. The difference may be secondary to location in that posterior scar does not receive the trauma and stress acting on anterior scar associated with a degenerative disk

  7. Synthesis, strong room-temperature PL and photocatalytic activity of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Validzic, Ivana Lj., E-mail: validzic@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Savic, Tatjana D.; Krsmanovic, Radenka M.; Jovanovic, Dragana J.; Novakovic, Mirjana M.; Popovic, Maja C.; Comor, Mirjana I. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2012-05-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel low temperature method for the synthesis of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PL showed strong UV band peaked at 3.30 eV and a visible band at 2.71 and 2.53 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variations of the two PL bands were observed for different excitation wavelengths. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Band-gap energies of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were found to be 3.62 and 3.21 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic behaviour of ZnO is dependent on the formation of ZnWO{sub 4} phase. - Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO)/zinc tungstate (ZnWO{sub 4}) rod-like nanoparticles with diameters in the range of 6-11 nm and length of about 30 nm were synthesized by a low temperature soft solution method at 95 Degree-Sign C in the presence of non-ionic copolymer surfactant. It was found that their crystallinity was enhanced with the increase of heating time from 1 h up to 120 h. The photoluminescence (PL) measurements showed very strong, narrow UV band peaked at 3.30 eV and a broad visible band peaking at 2.71 eV with a shoulder at about 2.53 eV, for {lambda}{sub exc} < 300 nm. Quite large variations in the intensities of the two PL bands were observed for different excitation wavelengths. The intensity of the main visible band decreases with decreasing excitation energy and disappears when samples are excited {lambda} = 320 nm (E{sub exc} = 3.875 eV). We found that observed optical properties originate from ZnO phase. UV band gap PL had high intensity for all applied excitations, probably induced by ZnWO{sub 4} phase presence on the surface. In addition, two values were found for direct band-gap energy of ZnO/ZnWO{sub 4} rod-like nanoparticles 3.62 and 3.21 eV, determined from reflectance spectrum. The photocatalytic behaviour of ZnO is strongly dependent on the formation of ZnWO{sub 4} phase, of the obtained rod-like nanoparticles.

  8. Time-resolved photoluminescence of Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum wells grown on Si substrate: Effects of rapid thermal annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woscholski, R., E-mail: ronja.woscholski@physik.uni-marburg.de; Shakfa, M.K.; Gies, S.; Wiemer, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Zimprich, M.; Reinhard, S.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Heimbrodt, W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.

    2016-08-31

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties and carrier dynamics in Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates. TR-PL measurements reveal an enhancement in the PL efficiency when the RTA temperature is increased up to 925 °C. Then, the PL intensity dramatically decreases with the annealing temperature. This behavior is explained by the variation of the disorder degree in the studied structures. The analysis of the low-temperature emission-energy-dependent PL decay time enables us to characterize the disorder in the Ga(NAsP) MQWHs. The theoretically extracted energy-scales of disorder confirm the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates • Impact of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties and carrier dynamics • Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied. • PL transients became continuously faster with increasing annealing temperature. • Enhancement in the PL efficiency with increasing annealing temperature up to 925 °C.

  9. Time-resolved photoluminescence of Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum wells grown on Si substrate: Effects of rapid thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woscholski, R.; Shakfa, M.K.; Gies, S.; Wiemer, M.; Rahimi-Iman, A.; Zimprich, M.; Reinhard, S.; Jandieri, K.; Baranovskii, S.D.; Heimbrodt, W.; Volz, K.; Stolz, W.; Koch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved photoluminescence (TR-PL) spectroscopy has been used to study the impact of rapid thermal annealing (RTA) on the optical properties and carrier dynamics in Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates. TR-PL measurements reveal an enhancement in the PL efficiency when the RTA temperature is increased up to 925 °C. Then, the PL intensity dramatically decreases with the annealing temperature. This behavior is explained by the variation of the disorder degree in the studied structures. The analysis of the low-temperature emission-energy-dependent PL decay time enables us to characterize the disorder in the Ga(NAsP) MQWHs. The theoretically extracted energy-scales of disorder confirm the experimental observations. - Highlights: • Ga(NAsP) multiple quantum well heterostructures (MQWHs) grown on silicon substrates • Impact of rapid thermal annealing on the optical properties and carrier dynamics • Time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy was applied. • PL transients became continuously faster with increasing annealing temperature. • Enhancement in the PL efficiency with increasing annealing temperature up to 925 °C

  10. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in detecting hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Xue; Li, Ye-Kuo; Li, Ting; Wang, Sha-Sha; Yuan, Gui-Zhong; Zhou, Qun-Fang; Zheng, Hai-Rong; Yan, Fei

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma. Eighteen healthy New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 3 groups. Blunt renal trauma was performed on each group by using minitype striker. Ultrasonography, color Doppler flow imaging, and contrast-enhanced 2-dimensional and real-time 3-dimensional ultrasound were applied before and after the strike. The time to shock and blood pressure were subjected to statistical analysis. Then, a comparative study of ultrasound and pathology was carried out. All the struck kidneys were traumatic. In the ultrasonography, free fluid was found under the renal capsule. In the color Doppler flow imaging, active hemorrhage was not identified. In 2-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound, active hemorrhage of the damaged kidney was characterized. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound showed a real-time and stereoscopic ongoing bleeding of the injured kidney. The wider the hemorrhage area in 4-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound was, the faster the blood pressure decreased. Real-time 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced ultrasound is a promising noninvasive tool for stereoscopically and vividly detecting ongoing hemorrhage of blunt renal trauma in real time. © 2013.

  11. PL-MOD: a computer code for modular fault tree analysis and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, J.; Wolf, L.

    1978-01-01

    The computer code PL-MOD has been developed to implement the modular methodology to fault tree analysis. In the modular approach, fault tree structures are characterized by recursively relating the top tree event to all basic event inputs through a set of equations, each defining an independent modular event for the tree. The advantages of tree modularization lie in that it is a more compact representation than the minimal cut-set description and in that it is well suited for fault tree quantification because of its recursive form. In its present version, PL-MOD modularizes fault trees and evaluates top and intermediate event failure probabilities, as well as basic component and modular event importance measures, in a very efficient way. Thus, its execution time for the modularization and quantification of a PWR High Pressure Injection System reduced fault tree was 25 times faster than that necessary to generate its equivalent minimal cut-set description using the computer code MOCUS

  12. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr, E-mail: volkh@ifm.liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof [Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linkoeping University, 58183 Linkoeping (Sweden); Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa); Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Walter Sisulu University, Mthatha Campus, Private Bag XI 5117 (South Africa); Reinhardt Botha, Johannes [Department of Physics, P.O Box 77000, Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University, Port Elizabeth 6031 (South Africa)

    2012-05-15

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D{sup 0}X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420-550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  13. Comparative PL study of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by APMOCVD and CBD techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khranovskyy, Volodymyr; Yakimova, Rositza; Karlsson, Fredrik; Syed, Abdul S.; Holtz, Per-Olof; Nigussa Urgessa, Zelalem; Samuel Oluwafemi, Oluwatobi; Reinhardt Botha, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    The photoluminescence properties of individual ZnO nanorods, grown by atmospheric pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCV) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) are investigated by means of temperature dependent micro-PL. It was found that the low temperature PL spectra are driven by neutral donor bound exciton emission D 0 X, peaked at 3.359 and 3.363 eV for APMOCVD and CBD ZnO nanorods, respectively. The temperature increase causes a red energy shift of the peaks and enhancement of the free excitonic emission (FX). The FX was found to dominate after 150 K for both samples. It was observed that while APMOCVD ZnO nanorods possess a constant low signal of visible deep level emission with temperature, the ZnO nanorods grown by CBD revealed the thermal activation of deep level emission (DLE) after 130 K. The resulting room temperature DLE was a wide band located at 420–550 nm. The PL properties of individual ZnO nanorods can be of importance for their forthcoming application in future optoelectronics and photonics.

  14. Time-of-flight depth image enhancement using variable integration time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun Kwon; Choi, Ouk; Kang, Byongmin; Kim, James Dokyoon; Kim, Chang-Yeong

    2013-03-01

    Time-of-Flight (ToF) cameras are used for a variety of applications because it delivers depth information at a high frame rate. These cameras, however, suffer from challenging problems such as noise and motion artifacts. To increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), the camera should calculate a distance based on a large amount of infra-red light, which needs to be integrated over a long time. On the other hand, the integration time should be short enough to suppress motion artifacts. We propose a ToF depth imaging method to combine advantages of short and long integration times exploiting an imaging fusion scheme proposed for color imaging. To calibrate depth differences due to the change of integration times, a depth transfer function is estimated by analyzing the joint histogram of depths in the two images of different integration times. The depth images are then transformed into wavelet domains and fused into a depth image with suppressed noise and low motion artifacts. To evaluate the proposed method, we captured a moving bar of a metronome with different integration times. The experiment shows the proposed method could effectively remove the motion artifacts while preserving high SNR comparable to the depth images acquired during long integration time.

  15. EDITORIAL: Plágio e ineditismo dos artigos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castro Amoras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available EDITORIAL: Plágio e ineditismo dos artigos A partir deste ano de 2016, a revista Estação Científica (UNIFAP passou a adotar, como instrumento auxiliar da seleção dos artigos que serão publicados, a checagem de plágio nos conteúdos dos trabalhos que recebemos. Consta no site da revista a informação de que todos os trabalhos passarão por verificação de plágio, e desta forma alerta-se que sejam apresentados à Estação Científica (UNIFAP apenas os trabalhos que tenham autenticidade de autoria.

  16. Marketingový plán pro BT SERVIS

    OpenAIRE

    Bilíková, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Předmětem diplomové práce je sestavení marketingového plánu pro společnost BT servis, která plánuje otevřít novou pobočku v Jihomoravském kraji. V první části jsou představena teoretická východiska, která se vztahují ke zkoumané problematice. Následuje analýza současného stavu podniku a jeho okolí. Získané informace jsou vyhodnoceny a poté je sestaven marketingový plán na období jednoho roku. The scope of this diploma thesis is the creation of a marketing strategy for the BT servis company...

  17. Contrast medium-enhanced MRI findings and changes over time in stage I tuberculous meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oztoprak, I. [Department of Radiology Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)], E-mail: oztoprak@cumhuriyet.edu.tr; Guemues, C.; Oztoprak, B. [Department of Radiology Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, 58140 Sivas (Turkey); Engin, A. [Department of Infectious Diseases, Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine, Sivas (Turkey)

    2007-12-15

    Aim: To demonstrate the detailed imaging characteristics of early tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and changes over time on standard gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, spin-echo MRI images of 26 patients with early TBM were evaluated retrospectively. Meningeal enhancement characteristics were categorized according to distribution and pattern as diffuse, focal, linear, nodular, and mixed. Results: We found that 35% of patients had diffuse meningeal enhancement and 65% of cases had focal meningeal enhancement. There was a predilection for focal meningeal enhancement in basal pial areas, the interpeduncular fossa being the most common. In six patients with diffuse meningeal enhancement admitted to hospital relatively early after the onset of symptoms, the type of meningeal enhancement later changed to the focal form. Conclusion: Reactive diffuse meningeal enhancement occurs in the early period of TBM on contrast medium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images, but later becomes limited to basal areas.

  18. Contrast medium-enhanced MRI findings and changes over time in stage I tuberculous meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztoprak, I.; Guemues, C.; Oztoprak, B.; Engin, A.

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To demonstrate the detailed imaging characteristics of early tuberculous meningitis (TBM) and changes over time on standard gadolinium-enhanced, T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Materials and methods: Contrast-enhanced, T1-weighted, spin-echo MRI images of 26 patients with early TBM were evaluated retrospectively. Meningeal enhancement characteristics were categorized according to distribution and pattern as diffuse, focal, linear, nodular, and mixed. Results: We found that 35% of patients had diffuse meningeal enhancement and 65% of cases had focal meningeal enhancement. There was a predilection for focal meningeal enhancement in basal pial areas, the interpeduncular fossa being the most common. In six patients with diffuse meningeal enhancement admitted to hospital relatively early after the onset of symptoms, the type of meningeal enhancement later changed to the focal form. Conclusion: Reactive diffuse meningeal enhancement occurs in the early period of TBM on contrast medium-enhanced T1-weighted MR images, but later becomes limited to basal areas

  19. Postoperative enhancement on breast MRI: Time course and pattern of changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Mary C; Sharda, Radhika G

    2018-04-23

    Expected postoperative enhancement on breast MRI can appear similar to enhancement seen in recurrent or residual malignancy. Our aim was to assess the time course and patterns of enhancement at the surgical site, thereby helping to distinguish between benign and malignant postoperative enhancement. In 200 MRI scans performed in 153 patients after breast conservation treatment, 43 after surgical excision of atypia, and 4 patients after benign excisional biopsy were categorized by postoperative time interval. We defined 4 patterns of morphologic enhancement on MRI: cavity wall/seroma (Pattern I); thin linear (Pattern II); mass (Pattern III); and fat necrosis (Pattern IV). Of 200 MRI scans, 66 (33%) demonstrated enhancement at the surgical site. Enhancement typically decreased through the postoperative follow-up period. Enhancement was observed in 41% (28/68) of cases beyond the 18-month interval but was uncommon after 5 years. Pattern III enhancement was the morphologic pattern seen most commonly with malignancy (5/19 cases, 26%). When associated with delayed washout kinetics, it was even more strongly predictive of malignancy (4/5 cases, 80%). In patients with a history of excisional biopsy and no prior radiation treatment, the percentage of MRI scans showing enhancement was significantly lower than (21% vs 49% with P-value .0027) in patients who had undergone radiation. Enhancement at the surgical site occurred in one-third of cases up to 5 years after surgery, particularly in patients who underwent both radiation and surgery. Mass enhancement, particularly in conjunction with delayed washout kinetics, is most predictive of malignancy and should prompt biopsy or re-excision. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. An Internet of Things based framework to enhance just-in-time manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Yuchun; Chen, Mu

    2017-01-01

    Just-in-time manufacturing is a main manufacturing strategy used to enhance manufacturers’ competitiveness through inventory and lead time reduction. Implementing just-in-time manufacturing has a number of challenges, for example, effective, frequent and real-time information sharing and communication between different functional departments, responsive action for adjusting the production plan against the continually changing manufacturing situation. Internet of Things technology has the pote...

  1. Education's "Three Mile Island": PL 94-142.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, McCay

    1981-01-01

    PL 94-142 is viewed as educationally and psychologically destructive to disabled students. It is also described as financially devastating to local school districts since it mandates that: (1) Cost cannot be considered a factor in developing educational programs for handicapped children; and (2) The most money be spent on children least likely to…

  2. Amenazas toxicológicas del plástico

    Science.gov (United States)

    El plástico representa el 80 de la basura marina que se origina de desperdicios terrestres. La presencia de estos desechos pásticos tiene un impacto negativo en el medioambiente, el turismo, la industria de la pesca y la navegación.

  3. Effect of the times of rains and drought on the absorption of potassium and phosphorus in plantains plantations Efecto de las épocas de lluvia y sequía sobre la absorción de potasio y fósforo en plantaciones de plátano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos Andrea

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the times of rains and drought, on the absorption of potassium and phosphorus in plantains plantations (Musa AAB Simmonds, were evaluated in four geomorphológics soils units in the municipality of Moñitos (Còrdoba, using a stratified sampling at random. The analyzed parameters were, contained of phosphorus, potassium and calcium in the soils and the plant, pH and organic matter of the soils. The value of pH for soils was distributed from acid neutral moderately and the content of the organic matter was average, were contained calcium stops in the ground, that in spite of being secondary nutrient for the plants, regulates the absorption of other main nutrients like potassium, but was fundamental for the absorption of potassium and phosphorus at the two times of sampling. The potassium content in the plant (mineralización via humid was high at both times (4%, being greater at the time of rains, whereas the phosphorus stayed in normality ranks (<1% for both times.El efecto de las épocas de lluvia y sequía sobre la absorción de potasio y fósforo en plantaciones de plátano (Musa AAB Simmonds se evaluó en cuatro unidades geomorfológicas de suelo en el municipio de Moñitos (Córdoba utilizando un muestreo al azar estratificado. Los parámetros analizados fueron; contenido de fósforo, potasio y calcio en el suelo y en la planta, pH y materia orgánica del suelo. El valor del pH para los suelos se distribuyó desde moderadamente ácido a neutro y el contenido de la materia orgánica fue medio, se encontraron altos contenidos de calcio en el suelo, que a pesar de ser nutriente secundario para las plantas, regula la absorción de otros nutrimentos principales como el potasio, pero fue fundamental para la absorción de potasio y fósforo en las dos épocas de

  4. Room acoustic enhancement in a small hall with very low natural reverberation time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian

    1996-01-01

    natural combinations of room acoustic properties. Consequently, the natural reverberation time in a newly opened 350 seat multipurpose hall in Denmark was designed as low as 0.7 sec. Two different reverberation enhancement systems were considered and tested in the hall. The objective and subjective...... testing results are reported and compared with previous results obtained in another small hall supplied with a similar enhancement system. The results concerning 'realism' are also compared with acoustic properties found in 'natural' halls of different sizes and reverberation times.......In small multipurpose halls to be equipped with electronic reverberation enhancement systems, selecting a very low natural reverberation time is advantageous for several reasons. It will 1) reduce the risk of feedback, 2) increase the possible range of room acoustic variation and 3) allow for more...

  5. PL-1 program system for generalized Patterson superpositions. [PL1GEN, SYMPL1, and ALSPL1, in PL/1 for IBM 360/65 computer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbard, C.R.; Babich, M.W.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1977-01-01

    A new system of three programs written in PL/1 can calculate symmetry and Patterson superposition maps for triclinic, monoclinic, and orthorhombic space groups as well as any space group reducible to one of these three. These programs are based on a system of FORTRAN programs developed at Ames Laboratory, but are more general and have expanded utility, especially with regard to large unit cells. The program PLIGEN calculates a direct access data set, SYMPL1 calculates a direct access symmetry map, and ALSPL1 calculates a superposition map using one or multiple superpositions. A detailed description of the use of these programs including symbolic program listings is included. 2 tables.

  6. Room temperature PL efficiency of InGaN/GaN quantum well structures with prelayers as a function of number of quantum wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, George M.; Hammersley, Simon; Davies, Matthew J.; Dawson, Philip; Kappers, Menno J.; Massabuau, Fabien C.P.; Oliver, Rachel A.; Humphreys, Colin J.

    2016-01-01

    We report on the effects of varying the number of quantum wells (QWs) in an InGaN/GaN multiple QW (MQW) structure containing a 23 nm thick In0.05Ga0.95N prelayer doped with Si. The calculated conduction and valence bands for the structures show an increasing total electric field across the QWs with increasing number of QWs. This is due to the reduced strength of the surface polarisation field, which opposes the built-in field across the QWs, as its range is increased over thicker samples. Low temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements show a red shifted QW emission peak energy, which is attributed to the enhanced quantum confined Stark effect with increasing total field strength across the QWs. Low temperature PL time decay measurements and room temperature internal quantum efficiency (IQE) measurements show decreasing radiative recombination rates and decreasing IQE, respectively, with increasing number of QWs. These are attributed to the increased spatial separation of the electron and hole wavefunctions, consistent with the calculated band profiles. It is also shown that, for samples with fewer QWs, the reduction of the total field across the QWs makes the radiative recombination rate sufficiently fast that it is competitive with the efficiency losses associated with the thermal escape of carriers. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Phys. Status Solidi C published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. Population growth enhances the mean fixation time of neutral mutations and the persistence of neutral variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, D

    2012-06-01

    A fundamental result of population genetics states that a new mutation, at an unlinked neutral locus in a randomly mating diploid population, has a mean time of fixation of ∼4N(e) generations, where N(e) is the effective population size. This result is based on an assumption of fixed population size, which does not universally hold in natural populations. Here, we analyze such neutral fixations in populations of changing size within the framework of the diffusion approximation. General expressions are derived for the mean and variance of the fixation time in changing populations. Some explicit results are given for two cases: (i) the effective population size undergoes a sudden change, representing a sudden population expansion or a sudden bottleneck; (ii) the effective population changes linearly for a limited period of time and then remains constant. Additionally, a lower bound for the mean time of fixation is obtained for an effective population size that increases with time, and this is applied to exponentially growing populations. The results obtained in this work show, among other things, that for populations that increase in size, the mean time of fixation can be enhanced, sometimes substantially so, over 4N(e,0) generations, where N(e,0) is the effective population size at the time the mutation arises. Such an enhancement is associated with (i) an increased probability of neutral polymorphism in a population and (ii) an enhanced persistence of high-frequency neutral variation, which is the variation most likely to be observed.

  8. Multichannel Signal Enhancement using Non-Causal, Time-Domain Filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll; Benesty, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    In the vast amount of time-domain filtering methods for speech enhancement, the filters are designed to be causal. Recently, however, it was shown that the noise reduction and signal distortion capabilities of such single-channel filters can be improved by allowing the filters to be non-causal. W......In the vast amount of time-domain filtering methods for speech enhancement, the filters are designed to be causal. Recently, however, it was shown that the noise reduction and signal distortion capabilities of such single-channel filters can be improved by allowing the filters to be non......-causal, multichannel filters for enhancement based on an orthogonal decomposition is proposed. The evaluation shows that there is a potential gain in noise reduction and signal distortion by introducing non-causality. Moreover, experiments on real-life speech show that we can improve the perceptual quality....

  9. Fabrication and PL of Al-doped gallium nitride nanowires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shaomin

    2006-01-01

    Mass Al-doped GaN nanowires with an average diameter of about 50 nm and lengths up to several millimeters are fabricated by a CVD approach. The as-fabricated products have a single crystal phase and grow along the direction. The growth of Al-doped GaN nanowires is suggested for quasi-vapor-solid mechanism (QVSM). In particular, for as large-scale GaN nanowires, a novel strong ultraviolet PL spectrum (from 3.3 to 3.7 eV) appears with a doping Al where the Al-doped GaN nanowires are found to be responsible for the different characteristics; the PL mechanism is explained in detail

  10. Enhancing Student Motivation: A Longitudinal Intervention Study Based on Future Time Perspective Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuitema, Jaap; Peetsma, Thea; van der Veen, Ineke

    2014-01-01

    The authors investigated the effects of an intervention developed to enhance student motivation in the first years of secondary education. The intervention, based on future time perspective (FTP) theory, has been found to be effective in prevocational secondary education (T. T. D. Peetsma & I. Van der Veen, 2008, 2009). The authors extend the…

  11. Dziennikarze obywatelscy czy sprzedawcy rozrywki? Rzecz o Demotywatorach.pl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Barczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Web site called Demotywatory.pl was established in 2008. It is a response to popular in the USA Motivators. Nowadays thousands of Internet users visit this Web site every day. Currently we have to redefine the basic categories: the text, the sender, the recipient. „Demot” is a specific message (interesting picture and intelligent buzzword Anyone can become a virtual publicist and say about important issues. This article tries to answer on the title question.

  12. Comparative Analysis of EPA/DHA-PL Forage and Liposomes in Orotic Acid-Induced Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Rats and Their Related Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mengru; Zhang, Tiantian; Han, Xiuqing; Tang, Qingjuan; Yanagita, Teruyoshi; Xu, Jie; Xue, Changhu; Wang, Yuming

    2018-02-14

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become one predictive factor of death from various illnesses. The present study was to comparatively investigate the effects of eicosapentaenoic acid-enriched and docosahexaenoic acid-enriched phospholipids forage (EPA-PL and DHA-PL) and liposomes (lipo-EPA and lipo-DHA) on NAFLD and demonstrate the possible protective mechanisms involved. The additive doses of EPA-PL and DHA-PL in all treatment groups were 1% of total diets, respectively. The results showed that Lipo-EPA could significantly improve hepatic function by down-regulating orotic acid-induced serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels by 55.6% and 34.2%, respectively (p DHA could also significantly suppress hepatic lipid accumulation mainly by enhancement of hepatic lipolysis and cholesterol efflux. Furthermore, DHA-PL played a certain role in inhibiting hepatic lipogenesis and accelerating cholesterol efflux. The results obtained in this work might contribute to the understanding of the biological activities of EPA/DHA-PL and liposomes and further investigation on its potential application values for food supplements.

  13. Ab initio quantum-enhanced optical phase estimation using real-time feedback control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berni, Adriano; Gehring, Tobias; Nielsen, Bo Melholt

    2015-01-01

    of a quantum-enhanced and fully deterministic ab initio phase estimation protocol based on real-time feedback control. Using robust squeezed states of light combined with a real-time Bayesian adaptive estimation algorithm, we demonstrate deterministic phase estimation with a precision beyond the quantum shot...... noise limit. The demonstrated protocol opens up new opportunities for quantum microscopy, quantum metrology and quantum information processing....

  14. Interlinked Dual-Time Feedback Loops can Enhance Robustness to Stochasticity and Persistence of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A.; Byrne, John H.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple interlinked positive feedback loops shape the stimulus responses of various biochemical systems, such as the cell cycle or intracellular Ca2+ release. Recent studies with simplified models have identified two advantages of coupling fast and slow feedback loops. This dual-time structure enables a fast response while enhancing resistances of responses and bistability to stimulus noise. We now find that: 1) the dual-time structure similarly confers resistance to internal noise due to mo...

  15. Storm-time ionization enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dmitriev

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ion density enhancements at the topside low-latitude ionosphere during a Bastille storm on 15–16 July 2000 and Halloween storms on 29–31 October 2003 were studied using data from ROCSAT-1/IPEI experiment. Prominent ion density enhancements demonstrate similar temporal dynamics both in the sunlit and in the nightside hemispheres. The ion density increases dramatically (up to two orders of magnitude during the main phase of the geomagnetic storms and reaches peak values at the storm maximum. The density enhancements are mostly localized in the region of a South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA, which is characterized by very intense fluxes of energetic particles. The dynamics of near-Earth radiation was studied using SAMPEX/LEICA data on >0.6 MeV electrons and >0.8 MeV protons at around 600 km altitude. During the magnetic storms the energetic particle fluxes in the SAA region and in its vicinity increase more than three orders of magnitude. The location of increased fluxes overlaps well with the regions of ion density enhancements. Two mechanisms were considered to be responsible for the generation of storm-time ion density enhancements: prompt penetration of the interplanetary electric field and abundant ionization of the ionosphere by enhanced precipitation of energetic particles from the radiation belt.

  16. Organic SIMS: the influence of time on the ion yield enhancement by silver and gold deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriaensen, L.; Vangaever, F.; Gijbels, R.

    2004-06-01

    A series of organic dyes and pharmaceuticals was used to study the secondary ion yield enhancement by metal deposition. The molecules were dissolved in methanol and spincasted on silicon substrates. Subsequently, silver or gold was evaporated on the samples to produce a very thin coating. The coated samples, when measured with TOF-SIMS, showed a considerable increase in characteristic secondary ion intensity. Gold-evaporated samples appear to exhibit the highest signal enhancement. These observations apply to organic samples in general, an advantage that allows to use the technique of metal deposition on real-world samples. However, the observed signal increase does not occur at any given moment. The time between metal deposition on the sample surface and the measuring of the sample with TOF-SIMS appears to have an important influence on the enhancement of the secondary ion intensities. In consideration of these observations several experiments were carried out, in which the spincasted samples were measured at different times after sample preparation, i.e., after gold or silver was deposited on the sample surface. The results show that, depending on the sample and the metal deposited, the secondary ion signals reach their maximum at different times. Further study will be necessary to detect the mechanism responsible for the observed enhancement effect.

  17. Science fiction and human enhancement: radical life-extension in the movie 'In Time' (2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roduit, Johann A R; Eichinger, Tobias; Glannon, Walter

    2018-03-20

    The ethics of human enhancement has been a hotly debated topic in the last 15 years. In this debate, some advocate examining science fiction stories to elucidate the ethical issues regarding the current phenomenon of human enhancement. Stories from science fiction seem well suited to analyze biomedical advances, providing some possible case studies. Of particular interest is the work of screenwriter Andrew Niccol (Gattaca, S1m0ne, In Time, and Good Kill), which often focuses on ethical questions raised by the use of new technologies. Examining the movie In Time (2011), the aim of this paper is to show how science fiction can contribute to the ethical debate of human enhancement. In Time provides an interesting case study to explore what could be some of the consequences of radical life-extension technologies. In this paper, we will show how arguments regarding radical life-extension portrayed in this particular movie differ from what is found in the scientific literature. We will see how In Time gives flesh to arguments defending or rejecting radical life-extension. It articulates feelings of unease, alienation and boredom associated with this possibility. Finally, this article will conclude that science fiction movies in general, and In Time in particular, are a valuable resource for a broad and comprehensive debate about our coming future.

  18. Time-reversal acoustics and ultrasound-assisted convection-enhanced drug delivery to the brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olbricht, William; Sistla, Manjari; Ghandi, Gaurav; Lewis, George; Sarvazyan, Armen

    2013-08-01

    Time-reversal acoustics is an effective way of focusing ultrasound deep inside heterogeneous media such as biological tissues. Convection-enhanced delivery is a method of delivering drugs into the brain by infusing them directly into the brain interstitium. These two technologies are combined in a focusing system that uses a "smart needle" to simultaneously infuse fluid into the brain and provide the necessary feedback for focusing ultrasound using time-reversal acoustics. The effects of time-reversal acoustics-focused ultrasound on the spatial distribution of infused low- and high-molecular weight tracer molecules are examined in live, anesthetized rats. Results show that exposing the rat brain to focused ultrasound significantly increases the penetration of infused compounds into the brain. The addition of stabilized microbubbles enhances the effect of ultrasound exposure.

  19. Molecular dynamics based enhanced sampling of collective variables with very large time steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pei-Yang; Tuckerman, Mark E.

    2018-01-01

    Enhanced sampling techniques that target a set of collective variables and that use molecular dynamics as the driving engine have seen widespread application in the computational molecular sciences as a means to explore the free-energy landscapes of complex systems. The use of molecular dynamics as the fundamental driver of the sampling requires the introduction of a time step whose magnitude is limited by the fastest motions in a system. While standard multiple time-stepping methods allow larger time steps to be employed for the slower and computationally more expensive forces, the maximum achievable increase in time step is limited by resonance phenomena, which inextricably couple fast and slow motions. Recently, we introduced deterministic and stochastic resonance-free multiple time step algorithms for molecular dynamics that solve this resonance problem and allow ten- to twenty-fold gains in the large time step compared to standard multiple time step algorithms [P. Minary et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 150201 (2004); B. Leimkuhler et al., Mol. Phys. 111, 3579-3594 (2013)]. These methods are based on the imposition of isokinetic constraints that couple the physical system to Nosé-Hoover chains or Nosé-Hoover Langevin schemes. In this paper, we show how to adapt these methods for collective variable-based enhanced sampling techniques, specifically adiabatic free-energy dynamics/temperature-accelerated molecular dynamics, unified free-energy dynamics, and by extension, metadynamics, thus allowing simulations employing these methods to employ similarly very large time steps. The combination of resonance-free multiple time step integrators with free-energy-based enhanced sampling significantly improves the efficiency of conformational exploration.

  20. Rationale for utilizing 3PL in supply chain management: A shippers' economic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Koichiro Tezuka

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we first propose a conceptual framework for evaluating 3PL (third-party logistics) utilization in SCM (supply chain management), in which it is assumed that shippers may enjoy advantages derived from four contributory sources of 3PL specialization: scale, know-how, searching ability, and IT skills. It is also supposed that shippers may particularly benefit from 3PL when facing uncertain business environments. We also apply principal–agent relationships to shippers and 3PL provid...

  1. Real-time observations of mechanical stimulus-induced enhancements of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xu; Liu Xiaoli; Sun Jialun; He Shuojie; Lee, Imshik; Pak, Hyuk Kyu

    2008-01-01

    Osteoblast, playing a key role in the pathophysiology of osteoporosis, is one of the mechanical stress sensitive cells. The effects of mechanical load-induced changes of mechanical properties in osteoblast cells were studied at real-time. Osteoblasts obtained from young Wister rats were exposed to mechanical loads in different frequencies and resting intervals generated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe tip and simultaneously measured the changes of the mechanical properties by AFM. The enhancement of the mechanical properties was observed and quantified by the increment of the apparent Young's modulus, E * . The observed mechanical property depended on the frequency of applied tapping loads. For the resting interval is 50 s, the mechanical load-induced enhancement of E * -values disappears. It seems that the enhanced mechanical property was recover able under no additional mechanical stimulus

  2. [Intra-uterine growth restriction impact on maternal serum concentration of PlGF (placental growth factor): A case control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margossian, A; Boisson-Gaudin, C; Subtil, F; Rudigoz, R-C; Dubernard, G; Allias, F; Huissoud, C

    2016-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a pro-angiogenic factor mainly assessed in preeclampsia in which its blood concentration is decreased. The aim of this study was to dose the blood concentration of PlGF in women with fetal intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR) without associated preeclampsia at the time of diagnosis. Case/control study: IUGR was defined by a fetal biometry with abnormal uterine and/or umbilical doppler (n=23). This group was compared to a control group of fetuses (n=25) matched for gestational age at blood sampling for the dosage of maternal seric PlGF. Women with preeclampsia were not included. The plasma PlGF concentration was 11pg/mL (IQR [11-42,8]) in the IUGR group vs 287pg/mL [135-439] in the control group (P<0.001) and this difference was available after adjustment for gestational age at the time of blood sampling (P<0.001). PlGF sensitivity and specificity for discrimination were respectively 87% (CI 95% [66-97]) and 88% (CI 95% [69-97]). Maternal serum PlGF concentrations were very low in IUGR group compared with those of the control group. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  3. Enhancing time resolution by stabilized inverse filter and Q estimated on instantaneous spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Corrales, Álvaro; Cabrera, Francisco; Montes, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Physical phenomena, such as attenuation of high frequency components and velocity dispersion, deteriorate seismic images. To enhance seismic resolution, Q filtering is usually applied, where the accurate estimation of Q is the core of this approach. The Matching Pursuit (MP) approach is an instantaneous spectral analysis method that overcomes windowing problems caused by decomposing a seismic trace, providing a frequency spectrum for each time sample of the trace. By changing variables, the s...

  4. Temporal contrast enhancement and parametric imaging for the visualisation of time patterns in dynamic scintigraphic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deconinck, F.; Bossuyt, A.; Lepoudre, R.

    1982-01-01

    Image contrast, photon noise and sampling frequency limit the visual extraction of relevant temporal information in scintigraphic image series. When the Unitation is mainly due to low temporal contrast, temporal contrast enhancement will strongly improve the perceptibility of time patterns in the series. When the limitation is due to photon noise and limited temporal sampling, parametric imaging by means of the Hadamard transform can visualise temporal patterns. (WU)

  5. Naukaoklimacie.pl: Between Science Blog and Mythbuster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, S. P.; Popkiewicz, M.; Kardaś, A.; Bielewicz, A.

    2015-12-01

    "Naukaoklimacie" is a Polish fellow of a well known portal SkepticalScience.com. The name is a quibble. This cluster of two Polish words can be translated into English as "Climate Science" or "Science about Climate". Naukaoklimacie.pl and the associate Facebook page is an ongoing, over two years old project, aimed at providing Polish-speaking community fundamentals of climate science. Itgives insight into the recent climate science achievements, rebutts climate misinformation and busts climate myths. During two years of activity we published over 250 texts, our Facebook page has over 4k fans and results in 4-12 thousands post reach week-to-week, the mainpage articles are quoted in press and used as reading texts for students. Unlike in many countries, in Poland there is a real problem in finding a trustworthy information on climate change and science behind it. Neither universities, nor governmental agencies present climate science to Polish society. Naukaoklimacie.pl fills this gap in an unique way. Editorial group of the portal consists of two atmospheric scientists, a physicist and the professional journalist and is supported by a scientific council, consisting of 14 active scientists specializing in various aspects of climate, atmosphere, biodiversity, atmospheric chemistry e.t.c.. All the texts published in the webpage are consulted with scientists - specialists in the subject of the text, usually from the scientific council, sometimes by the external specialists. All the texts provide links to the original scientific publications. Naukaoklimacie.pl is not only an internet activity. We meet people on Festivals of Science, Science Open Days. We exist also in the mainstream media the editors and the scientific councils were interviewed by press and TV.

  6. Unexpected storm-time nightside plasmaspheric density enhancement at low L shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, X.; Bortnik, J.; Denton, R. E.; Yue, C.

    2017-12-01

    We have developed a three-dimensional dynamic electron density (DEN3D) model in the inner magnetosphere using a neural network approach. The DEN3D model can provide spatiotemporal distribution of the electron density at any location and time that spacecraft observations are not available. Given DEN3D's good performance in predicting the structure and dynamic evolution of the plasma density, the salient features of the DEN3D model can be used to gain further insight into the physics. For instance, the DEN3D models can be used to find unusual phenomena that are difficult to detect in observations or simulations. We report, for the first time, an unexpected plasmaspheric density increase at low L shell regions on the nightside during the main phase of a moderate storm during 12-16 October 2004, as opposed to the expected density decrease due to storm-time plasmaspheric erosion. The unexpected density increase is first discovered in the modeled electron density distribution using the DEN3D model, and then validated using in-situ density measurements obtained from the IMAGE satellite. The density increase was likely caused by increased earthward transverse field plasma transport due to enhanced nightside ExB drift, which coincided with enhanced solar wind electric field and substorm activity. This is consistent with the results of physics-based simulation SAMI3 model which show earthward enhanced plasma transport and electron density increase at low L shells during storm main phase.

  7. Cálculo de engranajes plásticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Moya Rodríguez

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos tiempos los materiales plásticos han tenido una proliferación en todos los campos de la Industria Mecánica, debido esencialmente a su bajo costo y a las mejoras de las propiedades mecánicas que se han ido logrando. En el caso particular de las transmisiones por engranajes existe una gran cantidad de estos materiales que pueden ser usados y de hecho se utilizan para la fabricación de ruedas dentadas de características muy disímiles. En la literatura científica existe muy poca información disponible sobre las fallas de engranajes plásticos, métodos de cálculo a resistencia y posibles materiales a emplear con sus respectivas propiedades mecánicas. Inclusive este tema no se aborda en los currículos de estudio tradicionales en Ibero-América. Queda mucho por discutir aun acerca del empleo de las correcciones del dentado en estas ruedas dentadas plásticas. En el presente trabajo se hace un análisis de los materiales, características, estudio de las fallas principales, métodos de cálculo y ejemplos de aplicación de los engranajes plásticos.Recently the use of plastic materials has been growing up due to their low cost and the improvements achieved on their mechanical properties. In the particular case of gear transmissions there are great quantities of polymers that can be used for gears. Plastic gears are powerful means of cutting drive cost, weight, noise, and wear. Plastic gears also open new opportunities for smaller and more efficient transmissions. Scientific literature about plastic gears failures, designing methods and materials is insufficient. Most engineering reference books are desicated to steel gears but there are remarkably silent about plastic gears. Design methods for plastic gears and gear trains must be modernized, because much of the information available is derived from research in metal gears. Main failures of plastic gears, calculation methods and the use of modification profiles among other

  8. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Gigi, Einat; Kéri, Szabolcs

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks). These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  9. Falling out of time: enhanced memory for scenes presented at behaviorally irrelevant points in time in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Levy-Gigi

    Full Text Available Spontaneous encoding of the visual environment depends on the behavioral relevance of the task performed simultaneously. If participants identify target letters or auditory tones while viewing a series of briefly presented natural and urban scenes, they demonstrate effective scene recognition only when a target, but not a behaviorally irrelevant distractor, appears together with the scene. Here, we show that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, who witnessed the red sludge disaster in Hungary, show the opposite pattern of performance: enhanced recognition of scenes presented together with distractors and deficient recognition of scenes presented with targets. The recognition of trauma-related and neutral scenes was not different in individuals with PTSD. We found a positive correlation between memory for scenes presented with auditory distractors and re-experiencing symptoms (memory intrusions and flashbacks. These results suggest that abnormal encoding of visual scenes at behaviorally irrelevant events might be associated with intrusive experiences by disrupting the flow of time.

  10. Quantum-Enhanced Sensing Based on Time Reversal of Nonlinear Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnemann, D; Strobel, H; Muessel, W; Schulz, J; Lewis-Swan, R J; Kheruntsyan, K V; Oberthaler, M K

    2016-07-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a nonlinear detection scheme exploiting time-reversal dynamics that disentangles continuous variable entangled states for feasible readout. Spin-exchange dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates is used as the nonlinear mechanism which not only generates entangled states but can also be time reversed by controlled phase imprinting. For demonstration of a quantum-enhanced measurement we construct an active atom SU(1,1) interferometer, where entangled state preparation and nonlinear readout both consist of parametric amplification. This scheme is capable of exhausting the quantum resource by detecting solely mean atom numbers. Controlled nonlinear transformations widen the spectrum of useful entangled states for applied quantum technologies.

  11. Optimal contant time injection policy for enhanced oil recovery and characterization of optimal viscous profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2011-11-01

    We numerically investigate the optimal viscous profile in constant time injection policy of enhanced oil recovery. In particular, we investigate the effect of a combination of interfacial and layer instabilities in three-layer porous media flow on the overall growth of instabilities and thereby characterize the optimal viscous profile. Results based on monotonic and non-monotonic viscous profiles will be presented. Time permitting. we will also present results on multi-layer porous media flows for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids and compare the results. The support of Qatar National Fund under a QNRF Grant is acknowledged.

  12. All-Digital Time-Domain CMOS Smart Temperature Sensor with On-Chip Linearity Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Chao-Lieh; Lin, Yi

    2016-01-30

    This paper proposes the first all-digital on-chip linearity enhancement technique for improving the accuracy of the time-domain complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) smart temperature sensor. To facilitate on-chip application and intellectual property reuse, an all-digital time-domain smart temperature sensor was implemented using 90 nm Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs). Although the inverter-based temperature sensor has a smaller circuit area and lower complexity, two-point calibration must be used to achieve an acceptable inaccuracy. With the help of a calibration circuit, the influence of process variations was reduced greatly for one-point calibration support, reducing the test costs and time. However, the sensor response still exhibited a large curvature, which substantially affected the accuracy of the sensor. Thus, an on-chip linearity-enhanced circuit is proposed to linearize the curve and achieve a new linearity-enhanced output. The sensor was implemented on eight different Xilinx FPGA using 118 slices per sensor in each FPGA to demonstrate the benefits of the linearization. Compared with the unlinearized version, the maximal inaccuracy of the linearized version decreased from 5 °C to 2.5 °C after one-point calibration in a range of -20 °C to 100 °C. The sensor consumed 95 μW using 1 kSa/s. The proposed linearity enhancement technique significantly improves temperature sensing accuracy, avoiding costly curvature compensation while it is fully synthesizable for future Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) system.

  13. Femtosecond Time-Resolved Resonance-Enhanced CARS of Gaseous Iodine at Room Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Ping; Fan Rong-Wei; Xia Yuan-Qin; Yu Xin; Chen De-Ying; Yao Yong

    2011-01-01

    Time-resolved resonance-enhanced coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) is applied to investigate molecular dynamics in gaseous iodine. 40 fs laser pulses are applied to create and monitor the high vibrational states of iodine at room temperature (corresponding to a vapor pressure as low as about 35 Pa) by femtosecond time-resolved CARS. Depending on the time delay between the probe pulse and the pump/Stokes pulse pairs, the high vibrational states both on the electronically ground states and the excited states can be detected as oscillations in the CARS transient signal. It is proved that the femtosecond time-resolved CARS technique is a promising candidate for investigating the molecular dynamics of a low concentration system and can be applied to environmental and atmospheric monitoring measurements. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  14. The TIME Questionnaire: A tool for eliciting personhood and enhancing dignity in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jingyan Linda; Chochinov, Harvey; Thompson, Genevieve; McClement, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of the TIME (This Is ME) Questionnaire in eliciting personhood and enhancing dignity; specifically investigating the residents' and health care providers' perspectives in the nursing home setting. Residents (n = 41) from six nursing homes in a Canadian urban center completed both the TIME Questionnaire and a feedback response questionnaire; health care providers (n = 22) offered feedback both through a questionnaire or participation in a focus group. 100% of the residents indicated the summary was accurate. 94% stated that they wanted to receive a copy of the summary, 92% indicated they would recommend the questionnaire to others, 72% wanted a copy of the summary to be placed into their medical chart. Overall HCPs' agreed that they have learned something new from TIME, and that TIME influenced their attitude, care, respect, empathy/compassion, sense of connectedness, as well as personal satisfaction in providing care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Enhancing sequential time perception and storytelling ability of deaf and hard of hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, Sara; Eden, Sigal

    2011-01-01

    A 3-month intervention was conducted to enhance the sequential time perception and storytelling ability of young children with hearing loss. The children were trained to arrange pictorial episodes of temporal scripts and tell the stories they created. Participants (N = 34, aged 4-7 years) were divided into 2 groups based on whether their spoken-language gap was more or less than 1 year compared to age norms. They completed A. Kaufman and N. Kaufman's (1983) picture series subtest and Guralnik's (1982) storytelling test at pretest and posttest. Measures demonstrated significant improvement in sequential time and storytelling achievement postintervention. Three of the examined demographic variables revealed correlations: Participants with genetic etiology showed greater improvement in time sequencing and storytelling than participants with unknown etiology; early onset of treatment correlated with better achievement in time sequencing; cochlear implant users showed greater storytelling improvement than hearing aid users.

  16. Access of energetic particles to storm time ring current through enhanced radial diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, L.R.; Schulz, M.

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic storms are distinguishable from other periods of geomagnetic activity by the injection of trapped electrons and ions to the 2 approx-lt L approx-lt 4 region. It has been proposed previously that this injection results from an inward displacement of the preexisting trapped-particle population by enhanced storm time electric fields. However, high-energy (approx-gt 40 keV) ring-current particles have drift periods that are typically shorter than the time of the main-phase development, and so the direct radial transport of these particles is restricted. The authors propose here that the transport of approx-gt 40 keV particles into the storm time ring current can result from enhanced stochastic radial transport driven by fluctuating electric fields during a storm's main phase. They estimate the effects of such electric fields by applying radial-diffusion theory, assuming a preexisting trapped-particle population as the initial conditions, and they demonstrate the feasibility of explaining observed flux increases of approx-gt 40-keV particles at L approx-lt 4 by enhanced radial diffusion. It is necessary that new particles be injected near the outer boundary of the trapping region so as to maintain the fluxes there as an outer boundary condition, and they estimate that the approx-gt 40-keV portion of the storm time ring current at L ∼ 3 consists of about 50% preexisting and about 50% new particles. They thus find that formation of the storm time ring current may be explainable via a combination of direct radial transport at energies approx-lt 40 keV and diffusive radial transport at higher energies

  17. Renal contrast-enhanced MR angiography: timing errors and accurate depiction of renal artery origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Maria A; Morgan, Robert

    2008-10-01

    To investigate bolus timing artifacts that impair depiction of renal arteries at contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and to determine the effect of contrast agent infusion rates on artifact generation. Renal contrast-enhanced MR angiography was simulated for a variety of infusion schemes, assuming both correct and incorrect timing between data acquisition and contrast agent injection. In addition, the ethics committee approved the retrospective evaluation of clinical breath-hold renal contrast-enhanced MR angiographic studies obtained with automated detection of contrast agent arrival. Twenty-two studies were evaluated for their ability to depict the origin of renal arteries in patent vessels and for any signs of timing errors. Simulations showed that a completely artifactual stenosis or an artifactual overestimation of an existing stenosis at the renal artery origin can be caused by timing errors of the order of 5 seconds in examinations performed with contrast agent infusion rates compatible with or higher than those of hand injections. Lower infusion rates make the studies more likely to accurately depict the origin of the renal arteries. In approximately one-third of all clinical examinations, different contrast agent uptake rates were detected on the left and right sides of the body, and thus allowed us to confirm that it is often impossible to optimize depiction of both renal arteries. In three renal arteries, a signal void was found at the origin in a patent vessel, and delayed contrast agent arrival was confirmed. Computer simulations and clinical examinations showed that timing errors impair the accurate depiction of renal artery origins. (c) RSNA, 2008.

  18. Predicting stimulation-dependent enhancer-promoter interactions from ChIP-Seq time course data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Dzida

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a machine learning approach to predict stimulation-dependent enhancer-promoter interactions using evidence from changes in genomic protein occupancy over time. The occupancy of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα, RNA polymerase (Pol II and histone marks H2AZ and H3K4me3 were measured over time using ChIP-Seq experiments in MCF7 cells stimulated with estrogen. A Bayesian classifier was developed which uses the correlation of temporal binding patterns at enhancers and promoters and genomic proximity as features to predict interactions. This method was trained using experimentally determined interactions from the same system and was shown to achieve much higher precision than predictions based on the genomic proximity of nearest ERα binding. We use the method to identify a genome-wide confident set of ERα target genes and their regulatory enhancers genome-wide. Validation with publicly available GRO-Seq data demonstrates that our predicted targets are much more likely to show early nascent transcription than predictions based on genomic ERα binding proximity alone.

  19. Neurofeedback using real-time near-infrared spectroscopy enhances motor imagery related cortical activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahito Mihara

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that motor imagery and motor execution share common neural networks. Accordingly, mental practices in the form of motor imagery have been implemented in rehabilitation regimes of stroke patients with favorable results. Because direct monitoring of motor imagery is difficult, feedback of cortical activities related to motor imagery (neurofeedback could help to enhance efficacy of mental practice with motor imagery. To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a real-time neurofeedback system mediated by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS, two separate experiments were performed. Experiment 1 was used in five subjects to evaluate whether real-time cortical oxygenated hemoglobin signal feedback during a motor execution task correlated with reference hemoglobin signals computed off-line. Results demonstrated that the NIRS-mediated neurofeedback system reliably detected oxygenated hemoglobin signal changes in real-time. In Experiment 2, 21 subjects performed motor imagery of finger movements with feedback from relevant cortical signals and irrelevant sham signals. Real neurofeedback induced significantly greater activation of the contralateral premotor cortex and greater self-assessment scores for kinesthetic motor imagery compared with sham feedback. These findings suggested the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a NIRS-mediated real-time neurofeedback system on performance of kinesthetic motor imagery. However, these results warrant further clinical trials to determine whether this system could enhance the effects of mental practice in stroke patients.

  20. Audio-visual speech timing sensitivity is enhanced in cluttered conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warrick Roseboom

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Events encoded in separate sensory modalities, such as audition and vision, can seem to be synchronous across a relatively broad range of physical timing differences. This may suggest that the precision of audio-visual timing judgments is inherently poor. Here we show that this is not necessarily true. We contrast timing sensitivity for isolated streams of audio and visual speech, and for streams of audio and visual speech accompanied by additional, temporally offset, visual speech streams. We find that the precision with which synchronous streams of audio and visual speech are identified is enhanced by the presence of additional streams of asynchronous visual speech. Our data suggest that timing perception is shaped by selective grouping processes, which can result in enhanced precision in temporally cluttered environments. The imprecision suggested by previous studies might therefore be a consequence of examining isolated pairs of audio and visual events. We argue that when an isolated pair of cross-modal events is presented, they tend to group perceptually and to seem synchronous as a consequence. We have revealed greater precision by providing multiple visual signals, possibly allowing a single auditory speech stream to group selectively with the most synchronous visual candidate. The grouping processes we have identified might be important in daily life, such as when we attempt to follow a conversation in a crowded room.

  1. Clustering of financial time series with application to index and enhanced index tracking portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Christian; Cincotti, Silvano

    2005-09-01

    A stochastic-optimization technique based on time series cluster analysis is described for index tracking and enhanced index tracking problems. Our methodology solves the problem in two steps, i.e., by first selecting a subset of stocks and then setting the weight of each stock as a result of an optimization process (asset allocation). Present formulation takes into account constraints on the number of stocks and on the fraction of capital invested in each of them, whilst not including transaction costs. Computational results based on clustering selection are compared to those of random techniques and show the importance of clustering in noise reduction and robust forecasting applications, in particular for enhanced index tracking.

  2. Security-enhanced chaos communication with time-delay signature suppression and phase encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chenpeng; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Yunxin; Wang, Chao; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2016-08-15

    A security-enhanced chaos communication scheme with time delay signature (TDS) suppression and phase-encrypted feedback light is proposed, in virtue of dual-loop feedback with independent high-speed phase modulation. We numerically investigate the property of TDS suppression in the intensity and phase space and quantitatively discuss security of the proposed system by calculating the bit error rate of eavesdroppers who try to crack the system by directly filtering the detected signal or by using a similar semiconductor laser to synchronize the link signal and extract the data. The results show that TDS embedded in the chaotic carrier can be well suppressed by properly setting the modulation frequency, which can keep the time delay a secret from the eavesdropper. Moreover, because the feedback light is encrypted, without the accurate time delay and key, the eavesdropper cannot reconstruct the symmetric operation conditions and decode the correct data.

  3. Enhancements to the timing of the OMEGA laser system to improve illumination uniformity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, W. R.; Katz, J.; Kosc, T. Z.; Kelly, J. H.; Hill, E. M.; Bahr, R. E.

    2016-09-01

    Two diagnostics have been developed to improve the uniformity on the OMEGA Laser System, which is used for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. The first diagnostic measures the phase of an optical modulator (used for the spectral dispersion technique employed on OMEGA to enhance spatial smoothing), which adds bandwidth to the optical pulse. Setting this phase precisely is required to reduce pointing errors. The second diagnostic ensures that the arrival times of all the beams are synchronized. The arrival of each of the 60 OMEGA beams is measured by placing a 1-mm diffusing sphere at target chamber center. By comparing the arrival time of each beam with respect to a reference pulse, the measured timing spread of the OMEGA Laser System is now 3.8 ps.

  4. Enhanced least squares Monte Carlo method for real-time decision optimizations for evolving natural hazards

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anders, Annett; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    The present paper aims at enhancing a solution approach proposed by Anders & Nishijima (2011) to real-time decision problems in civil engineering. The approach takes basis in the Least Squares Monte Carlo method (LSM) originally proposed by Longstaff & Schwartz (2001) for computing American option...... prices. In Anders & Nishijima (2011) the LSM is adapted for a real-time operational decision problem; however it is found that further improvement is required in regard to the computational efficiency, in order to facilitate it for practice. This is the focus in the present paper. The idea behind...... the improvement of the computational efficiency is to “best utilize” the least squares method; i.e. least squares method is applied for estimating the expected utility for terminal decisions, conditional on realizations of underlying random phenomena at respective times in a parametric way. The implementation...

  5. A Systematic Cycle Time Reduction Procedure for Enhancing the Competitiveness and Sustainability of a Semiconductor Manufacturer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toly Chen

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cycle time reduction plays an important role in improving the competitiveness and sustainability of a semiconductor manufacturer. However, in the past, cycle time reduction was usually unplanned owing to the lack of a systematic and quantitative procedure. To tackle this problem, a systematic procedure was established in this study for planning cycle time reduction actions to enhance the competitiveness and sustainability of a semiconductor manufacturer. First, some controllable factors that are influential to the job cycle time are identified. Subsequently, the relationship between the controllable factors and the job cycle time is fitted with a back propagation network. Based on this relationship, actions to shorten the job cycle time can be planned. The feasibility and effectiveness of an action have to be assessed before it can be taken in practice. An example containing the real data of hundreds of jobs has been used to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology. In addition, the financial benefits of the cycle time reduction action were analyzed, which provided the evidence that the proposed methodology enabled the sustainable development of the semiconductor manufacturer, since capital adequacy is very important in the semiconductor manufacturing industry.

  6. Process improvement to enhance existing stroke team activity toward more timely thrombolytic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Han-Jin; Lee, Kyung Yul; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae-Jin; Jung, Yo Han; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2014-10-01

    Process improvement (PI) is an approach for enhancing the existing quality improvement process by making changes while keeping the existing process. We have shown that implementation of a stroke code program using a computerized physician order entry system is effective in reducing the in-hospital time delay to thrombolysis in acute stroke patients. We investigated whether implementation of this PI could further reduce the time delays by continuous improvement of the existing process. After determining a key indicator [time interval from emergency department (ED) arrival to intravenous (IV) thrombolysis] and conducting data analysis, the target time from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was set at 40 min. The key indicator was monitored continuously at a weekly stroke conference. The possible reasons for the delay were determined in cases for which IV thrombolysis was not administered within the target time and, where possible, the problems were corrected. The time intervals from ED arrival to the various evaluation steps and treatment before and after implementation of the PI were compared. The median time interval from ED arrival to IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients was significantly reduced after implementation of the PI (from 63.5 to 45 min, p=0.001). The variation in the time interval was also reduced. A reduction in the evaluation time intervals was achieved after the PI [from 23 to 17 min for computed tomography scanning (p=0.003) and from 35 to 29 min for complete blood counts (p=0.006)]. PI is effective for continuous improvement of the existing process by reducing the time delays between ED arrival and IV thrombolysis in acute stroke patients.

  7. Enhancement of Online Robotics Learning Using Real-Time 3D Visualization Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Chiou; Yongjin (james) Kwon; Tzu-Liang (bill) Tseng; Robin Kizirian; Yueh-Ting Yang

    2010-01-01

    This paper discusses a real-time e-Lab Learning system based on the integration of 3D visualization technology with a remote robotic laboratory. With the emergence and development of the Internet field, online learning is proving to play a significant role in the upcoming era. In an effort to enhance Internet-based learning of robotics and keep up with the rapid progression of technology, a 3- Dimensional scheme of viewing the robotic laboratory has been introduced in addition to the remote c...

  8. Contrast-enhanced helical CT of the pancreas. Optimal timing of imaging for pancreatic tumor evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koide, Kazuki; Sekiguchi, Ryuzo

    2001-01-01

    We performed three-phase helical CT in patients suspected pancreatic tumors and investigated the optimal timing of imaging for evaluation of the pancreatic mass. The pancreatic-phase was superior in detecting pancreatic tumors, including islet cell tumors that may show strong enhancement. However, portal vein-phase imaging was also superior in 16.7% of our patients. Taking into account examination for hepatic metastasis, helical CT of any pancreatic tumor should include images obtained in the pancreatic and portal vein phases. (author)

  9. Gadodiamide injection for enhancement of MRI in the CNS. Applications, dose, field and time dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakeson, P

    1996-10-01

    Gadodiamide injection was comparable to Gd-DTPA with regard to both safety and diagnostic efficiency in the central nervous system. The contrast effect of Gd contrast agents is higher at 1.5 T than at 0.3 T both in phantoms and patients with a maximum ratio (signal lesion/signal grey matter) more than 50% higher at 1.5 T. To achieve high contrast effect, heavily T1-weighted images are important. Prolonging the TR from 400 ms to 600 ms reduced the ratio by 15-45% depending on concentration. The effective time window for imaging of BBB (Blood-Brain Barrier) damage is between 2-5 and 25-30 minutes after injection and several scans can be performed without loss of enhancement. To provide maximum detectability of BBB damage in patients, higher doses of Gd contrast media should be useful, especially at low field strengths, as the doses used clinically today do not utilize the maximum contrast effect. High-dose (0.3 mmol/kg b.w.) contrast enhanced MRI (0.3 T) with Gadodiamide injection allowed detection of significantly more and smaller metastases (i.e. BBB damage) than standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg b.w.) High dose contrast-enhanced MRI (0.3 T) did not increase the diagnostic information for the evaluation of patients with failed back surgery syndrome compared to standard dose MRI. 55 refs, 9 figs, 10 tabs.

  10. Gadodiamide injection for enhancement of MRI in the CNS. Applications, dose, field and time dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aakeson, P.

    1996-01-01

    Gadodiamide injection was comparable to Gd-DTPA with regard to both safety and diagnostic efficiency in the central nervous system. The contrast effect of Gd contrast agents is higher at 1.5 T than at 0.3 T both in phantoms and patients with a maximum ratio (signal lesion/signal grey matter) more than 50% higher at 1.5 T. To achieve high contrast effect, heavily T1-weighted images are important. Prolonging the TR from 400 ms to 600 ms reduced the ratio by 15-45% depending on concentration. The effective time window for imaging of BBB (Blood-Brain Barrier) damage is between 2-5 and 25-30 minutes after injection and several scans can be performed without loss of enhancement. To provide maximum detectability of BBB damage in patients, higher doses of Gd contrast media should be useful, especially at low field strengths, as the doses used clinically today do not utilize the maximum contrast effect. High-dose (0.3 mmol/kg b.w.) contrast enhanced MRI (0.3 T) with Gadodiamide injection allowed detection of significantly more and smaller metastases (i.e. BBB damage) than standard dose (0.1 mmol/kg b.w.) High dose contrast-enhanced MRI (0.3 T) did not increase the diagnostic information for the evaluation of patients with failed back surgery syndrome compared to standard dose MRI. 55 refs, 9 figs, 10 tabs

  11. Tracer kinetic model-driven registration for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI time-series data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaccorsi, Giovanni A; O'Connor, James P B; Caunce, Angela; Roberts, Caleb; Cheung, Sue; Watson, Yvonne; Davies, Karen; Hope, Lynn; Jackson, Alan; Jayson, Gordon C; Parker, Geoffrey J M

    2007-11-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) time series data are subject to unavoidable physiological motion during acquisition (e.g., due to breathing) and this motion causes significant errors when fitting tracer kinetic models to the data, particularly with voxel-by-voxel fitting approaches. Motion correction is problematic, as contrast enhancement introduces new features into postcontrast images and conventional registration similarity measures cannot fully account for the increased image information content. A methodology is presented for tracer kinetic model-driven registration that addresses these problems by explicitly including a model of contrast enhancement in the registration process. The iterative registration procedure is focused on a tumor volume of interest (VOI), employing a three-dimensional (3D) translational transformation that follows only tumor motion. The implementation accurately removes motion corruption in a DCE-MRI software phantom and it is able to reduce model fitting errors and improve localization in 3D parameter maps in patient data sets that were selected for significant motion problems. Sufficient improvement was observed in the modeling results to salvage clinical trial DCE-MRI data sets that would otherwise have to be rejected due to motion corruption. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound in diagnosing of focal spleen lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaoling; Yu Jie; Liang Ping; Liu Fangyi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the features of focal spleen lesions (FSLs) on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Materials and methods: CEUS with a blot injection of SonoVue was performed in 48 patients with 75 FSLs (median diameter 2.6 cm) and their perfusion characteristics were analyzed by using contrast pulse sequences (CPS) technique. Results: Among 19 malignant lesions (10 metastases, 7 lymphoma, 1 hemangiosarcoma, 1 epithelioid hemangioendothelioma) and 56 benign lesion (23 hemangiomas, 14 cysts, 8 infarctions, 4 splenic ruptures, 3 tuberculosis, 2 abscess, 1 pseudoaneurysm, 1 lymphangioma), 25 benign lesions were demonstrated nonenhancement. For malignancy, 50.0% (5/10) metastases and 57.1% (4/7) lymphomas were showed hypoenhancement in the arterial phase, and 18 (94.7%) of malignant lesions were hypo-enhancement in the parenchymal phase. Among 31 benign lesions with enhancement, 27 (87.1%) were showed isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the arterial phase and 22 (71.0%) lesions were isoenhancement or hyperenhancement in the parenchymal phase. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of diagnosis for FSLs were 91.1%, 95.0% and 92.0% for CEUS and 75.0%, 84.2% and 77.3% respectively, for the conventional baseline ultrasound (BUS). Conclusion: Real-time CEUS can provide valuable information for the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of FSLs.

  13. Comparison of vessel enhancement algorithms applied to time-of-flight MRA images for cerebrovascular segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phellan, Renzo; Forkert, Nils D

    2017-11-01

    Vessel enhancement algorithms are often used as a preprocessing step for vessel segmentation in medical images to improve the overall segmentation accuracy. Each algorithm uses different characteristics to enhance vessels, such that the most suitable algorithm may vary for different applications. This paper presents a comparative analysis of the accuracy gains in vessel segmentation generated by the use of nine vessel enhancement algorithms: Multiscale vesselness using the formulas described by Erdt (MSE), Frangi (MSF), and Sato (MSS), optimally oriented flux (OOF), ranking orientations responses path operator (RORPO), the regularized Perona-Malik approach (RPM), vessel enhanced diffusion (VED), hybrid diffusion with continuous switch (HDCS), and the white top hat algorithm (WTH). The filters were evaluated and compared based on time-of-flight MRA datasets and corresponding manual segmentations from 5 healthy subjects and 10 patients with an arteriovenous malformation. Additionally, five synthetic angiographic datasets with corresponding ground truth segmentation were generated with three different noise levels (low, medium, and high) and also used for comparison. The parameters for each algorithm and subsequent segmentation were optimized using leave-one-out cross evaluation. The Dice coefficient, Matthews correlation coefficient, area under the ROC curve, number of connected components, and true positives were used for comparison. The results of this study suggest that vessel enhancement algorithms do not always lead to more accurate segmentation results compared to segmenting nonenhanced images directly. Multiscale vesselness algorithms, such as MSE, MSF, and MSS proved to be robust to noise, while diffusion-based filters, such as RPM, VED, and HDCS ranked in the top of the list in scenarios with medium or no noise. Filters that assume tubular-shapes, such as MSE, MSF, MSS, OOF, RORPO, and VED show a decrease in accuracy when considering patients with an AVM

  14. Bird functional diversity decreases with time since disturbance: Does patchy prescribed fire enhance ecosystem function?.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitters, Holly; Di Stefano, Julian; Christie, Fiona; Swan, Matthew; York, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Animal species diversity is often associated with time since disturbance, but the effects of disturbances such as fire on functional diversity are unknown. Functional diversity measures the range, abundance, and distribution of trait values in a community, and links changes in species composition with the consequences for ecosystem function. Improved understanding of the relationship between time since fire (TSF) and functional diversity is critical given that the frequency of both prescribed fire and wildfire is expected to increase. To address this knowledge gap, we examined responses of avian functional diversity to TSF and two direct measures of environmental heterogeneity, plant diversity, and structural heterogeneity. We surveyed birds across a 70-year chronosequence spanning four vegetation types in southeast Australia. Six bird functional traits were used to derive four functional diversity indices (richness, evenness, divergence, and dispersion) and the effects of TSF, plant diversity and structural heterogeneity on species richness and the functional diversity indices were examined using mixed models. We used a regression tree method to identify traits associated with species more common in young vegetation. Functional richness and dispersion were negatively associated with TSF in all vegetation types, suggesting that recent prescribed fire generates heterogeneous vegetation and provides greater opportunities for resource partitioning. Species richness was not significantly associated with TSF, and is probably an unreliable surrogate for functional diversity in fire-prone systems. A positive, relationship between functional evenness and structural heterogeneity was comnon to all vegetation types, suggesting that fine-scale (tens of meters) structural variation can enhance ecosystem function. Species more common in young vegetation were primarily linked by their specialist diets, indicating that ecosystem services such as seed dispersal and insect control

  15. Performance enhancement of various real-time image processing techniques via speculative execution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Mohamed F.; Sinha, Purnendu; Marlowe, Thomas J.; Stoyenko, Alexander D.

    1996-03-01

    In real-time image processing, an application must satisfy a set of timing constraints while ensuring the semantic correctness of the system. Because of the natural structure of digital data, pure data and task parallelism have been used extensively in real-time image processing to accelerate the handling time of image data. These types of parallelism are based on splitting the execution load performed by a single processor across multiple nodes. However, execution of all parallel threads is mandatory for correctness of the algorithm. On the other hand, speculative execution is an optimistic execution of part(s) of the program based on assumptions on program control flow or variable values. Rollback may be required if the assumptions turn out to be invalid. Speculative execution can enhance average, and sometimes worst-case, execution time. In this paper, we target various image processing techniques to investigate applicability of speculative execution. We identify opportunities for safe and profitable speculative execution in image compression, edge detection, morphological filters, and blob recognition.

  16. Manufacturing Enhancement through Reduction of Cycle Time using Different Lean Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganthini Rekha, R.; Periyasamy, P.; Nallusamy, S.

    2017-08-01

    In recent manufacturing system the most important parameters in production line are work in process, TAKT time and line balancing. In this article lean tools and techniques were implemented to reduce the cycle time. The aim is to enhance the productivity of the water pump pipe by identifying the bottleneck stations and non value added activities. From the initial time study the bottleneck processes were identified and then necessary expanding processes were also identified for the bottleneck process. Subsequently the improvement actions have been established and implemented using different lean tools like value stream mapping, 5S and line balancing. The current state value stream mapping was developed to describe the existing status and to identify various problem areas. 5S was used to implement the steps to reduce the process cycle time and unnecessary movements of man and material. The improvement activities were implemented with required suggested and the future state value stream mapping was developed. From the results it was concluded that the total cycle time was reduced about 290.41 seconds and the customer demand has been increased about 760 units.

  17. DE-Sync: A Doppler-Enhanced Time Synchronization for Mobile Underwater Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Feng; Wang, Qi; Nie, DongHu; Qiao, Gang

    2018-05-25

    Time synchronization is the foundation of cooperative work among nodes of underwater sensor networks; it takes a critical role in the research and application of underwater sensor networks. Although numerous time synchronization protocols have been proposed for terrestrial wireless sensor networks, they cannot be directly applied to underwater sensor networks. This is because most of them typically assume that the propagation delay among sensor nodes is negligible, which is not the case in underwater sensor networks. Time synchronization is mainly affected by a long propagation delay among sensor nodes due to the low propagation speed of acoustic signals. Furthermore, sensor nodes in underwater tend to experience some degree of mobility due to wind or ocean current, or some other nodes are on self-propelled vehicles, such as autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, we propose a Doppler-enhanced time synchronization scheme for mobile underwater sensor networks, called DE-Sync. Our new scheme considers the effect of the clock skew during the process of estimating the Doppler scale factor and directly substitutes the Doppler scale factor into linear regression to achieve the estimation of the clock skew and offset. Simulation results show that DE-Sync outperforms existing time synchronization protocols in both accuracy and energy efficiency.

  18. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: application to an enhanced geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Carbajal, M.; Linde, N.; Peacock, J.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, T.; Thiel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved. We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  19. Enhancements to NASA's Land Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, K.; Davies, D. K.; Schmaltz, J. E.; Boller, R. A.; Mauoka, E.; Ye, G.; Vermote, E.; Harrison, S.; Rinsland, P. L.; Protack, S.; Durbin, P. B.; Justice, C. O.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Land, Atmosphere Near real-time Capability for EOS (LANCE) supports application users interested in monitoring a wide variety of natural and man-made phenomena. Near Real-Time (NRT) data and imagery from the AIRS, AMSR2, MISR, MLS, MODIS, OMI and VIIRS instruments are available much quicker than routine processing allows. Most data products are available within 3 hours from satellite observation. NRT imagery are generally available 3-5 hours after observation. This article describes LANCE and enhancements made to LANCE over the last year. These enhancements include: the addition of MISR L1 Georeferenced Radiance and L2 Cloud Motion Vector products, AMSR2 Unified L2B Half-Orbit 25 km EASE-Grid Surface Soil Moisture products and VIIRS VIIRS Day/Night Band, Land Surface Reflectance and Corrected Surface reflectance products. In addition, the selection of LANCE NRT imagery that can be interactively viewed through Worldview and the Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) has been expanded. LANCE is also working to ingest and process data from OMPS.

  20. Enhancing the accuracy of subcutaneous glucose sensors: a real-time deconvolution-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Stefania; Facchinetti, Andrea; Sparacino, Giovanni; Nicolao, Giuseppe De; Cobelli, Claudio

    2012-06-01

    Minimally invasive continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors can greatly help diabetes management. Most of these sensors consist of a needle electrode, placed in the subcutaneous tissue, which measures an electrical current exploiting the glucose-oxidase principle. This current is then transformed to glucose levels after calibrating the sensor on the basis of one, or more, self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) samples. In this study, we design and test a real-time signal-enhancement module that, cascaded to the CGM device, improves the quality of its output by a proper postprocessing of the CGM signal. In fact, CGM sensors measure glucose in the interstitium rather than in the blood compartment. We show that this distortion can be compensated by means of a regularized deconvolution procedure relying on a linear regression model that can be updated whenever a pair of suitably sampled SMBG references is collected. Tests performed both on simulated and real data demonstrate a significant accuracy improvement of the CGM signal. Simulation studies also demonstrate the robustness of the method against departures from nominal conditions, such as temporal misplacement of the SMBG samples and uncertainty in the blood-to-interstitium glucose kinetic model. Thanks to its online capabilities, the proposed signal-enhancement algorithm can be used to improve the performance of CGM-based real-time systems such as the hypo/hyper glycemic alert generators or the artificial pancreas.

  1. Real-time implementations of acoustic signal enhancement techniques for aerial based surveillance and rescue applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Antonio L. L.; Shao, Zhili; Holthe, Aleksander; Sandli, Mathias F.

    2017-05-01

    The introduction of the System-on-Chip (SoC) technology has brought exciting new opportunities for the development of smart low cost embedded systems spanning a wide range of applications. Currently available SoC devices are capable of performing high speed digital signal processing tasks in software while featuring relatively low development costs and reduced time-to-market. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) are an application example that has shown tremendous potential in an increasing number of scenarios, ranging from leisure to surveillance as well as in search and rescue missions. Video capturing from UAV platforms is a relatively straightforward task that requires almost no preprocessing. However, that does not apply to audio signals, especially in cases where the data is to be used to support real-time decision making. In fact, the enormous amount of acoustic interference from the surroundings, including the noise from the UAVs propellers, becomes a huge problem. This paper discusses a real-time implementation of the NLMS adaptive filtering algorithm applied to enhancing acoustic signals captured from UAV platforms. The model relies on a combination of acoustic sensors and a computational inexpensive algorithm running on a digital signal processor. Given its simplicity, this solution can be incorporated into the main processing system of an UAV using the SoC technology, and run concurrently with other required tasks, such as flight control and communications. Simulations and real-time DSP-based implementations have shown significant signal enhancement results by efficiently mitigating the interference from the noise generated by the UAVs propellers as well as from other external noise sources.

  2. A new time-adaptive discrete bionic wavelet transform for enhancing speech from adverse noise environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniswamy, Sumithra; Duraisamy, Prakash; Alam, Mohammad Showkat; Yuan, Xiaohui

    2012-04-01

    Automatic speech processing systems are widely used in everyday life such as mobile communication, speech and speaker recognition, and for assisting the hearing impaired. In speech communication systems, the quality and intelligibility of speech is of utmost importance for ease and accuracy of information exchange. To obtain an intelligible speech signal and one that is more pleasant to listen, noise reduction is essential. In this paper a new Time Adaptive Discrete Bionic Wavelet Thresholding (TADBWT) scheme is proposed. The proposed technique uses Daubechies mother wavelet to achieve better enhancement of speech from additive non- stationary noises which occur in real life such as street noise and factory noise. Due to the integration of human auditory system model into the wavelet transform, bionic wavelet transform (BWT) has great potential for speech enhancement which may lead to a new path in speech processing. In the proposed technique, at first, discrete BWT is applied to noisy speech to derive TADBWT coefficients. Then the adaptive nature of the BWT is captured by introducing a time varying linear factor which updates the coefficients at each scale over time. This approach has shown better performance than the existing algorithms at lower input SNR due to modified soft level dependent thresholding on time adaptive coefficients. The objective and subjective test results confirmed the competency of the TADBWT technique. The effectiveness of the proposed technique is also evaluated for speaker recognition task under noisy environment. The recognition results show that the TADWT technique yields better performance when compared to alternate methods specifically at lower input SNR.

  3. Development of Agricultural Product Logistics from the Perspective of the 4PL

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, Wuya; YAN, Wei

    2013-01-01

    From the perspective of the Fourth Party Logistics (4PL), this paper elaborates the concept, background and development plight of agricultural products logistics, advises developing 4PL under the background of rapid development of agricultural products and logistics, etc. and explores issues of information, efficiency and supervision of agricultural products logistics, draws the conclusion that only construct an 4PL agricultural products logistics system can alleviate the aporia of cost, and ...

  4. Platelet Lysate-Modified Porous Silicon Microparticles for Enhanced Cell Proliferation in Wound Healing Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Flavia; Mori, Michela; Riva, Federica; Mäkilä, Ermei; Liu, Dongfei; Salonen, Jarno; Nicoletti, Giovanni; Hirvonen, Jouni; Caramella, Carla; Santos, Hélder A

    2016-01-13

    The new frontier in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds is the use of micro- and nanoparticles to deliver drugs or growth factors into the wound. Here, we used platelet lysate (PL), a hemoderivative of platelets, consisting of a multifactorial cocktail of growth factors, to modify porous silicon (PSi) microparticles and assessed both in vitro and ex vivo the properties of the developed microsystem. PL-modified PSi was assessed for its potential to induce proliferation of fibroblasts. The wound closure-promoting properties of the microsystem were then assessed in an in vitro wound healing assay. Finally, the PL-modified PSi microparticles were evaluated in an ex vivo experiment over human skin. It was shown that PL-modified PSi microparticles were cytocompatible and enhanced the cell proliferation in different experimental settings. In addition, this microsystem promoted the closure of the gap between the fibroblast cells in the wound healing assay, in periods of time comparable with the positive control, and induced a proliferation and regeneration process onto the human skin in an ex vivo experiment. Overall, our results show that PL-modified PSi microparticles are suitable microsystems for further development toward applications in the treatment of chronic nonhealing wounds.

  5. The sFlt-1/PlGF ratio as a predictor for poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Shan Chang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor-1 (sFlt-1/placental growth factor (PlGF ratio has been studied extensively as a predictive marker for pre-eclampsia. However, its usefulness for predicting neonatal outcomes remains unknown. This study aimed to evaluate the association of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio with pregnancy outcomes, neonatal morbidities and short-term postnatal growth patterns in pregnant women and their babies. Methods: sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured in women with fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR or pre-eclampsia during gestational age (GA of 16–36 weeks. These women were classified into high- and low-ratio groups with a sFlt-1/PlGF cut-off ratio of 85. The maternal and neonatal outcomes were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 25 pregnant women were recruited. Thirteen of them had a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio over 85 and twelve had a ratio of less than 85. The median duration from elevation of sFlt-1/PlGF to delivery was 4.5 weeks. Women in the high SFlt-1/PlGF ratio group had higher rates of intrauterine fetal demise (2/13 vs. 0/12 and early termination (1/13 vs. 0/12. The surviving offspring in this group had a higher incidence of preterm birth (GA: 31.4 ± 2.9 weeks vs. 37.3 ± 1.3 weeks, p < 0.001, lower birth weight (1142 ± 472 g vs. 2311 ± 236 g, p < 0.001, higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome (6/10 vs. 0/12, p = 0.002 and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (4/10 vs. 0/12, p = 0.01. However, the percentile of body weight, height and head circumference at 28 days of age, 56 days of age and the corrected age of 6 months were comparable between groups. Conclusions: High sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pregnant women is associated with poor pregnancy and neonatal outcomes. Therefore, the monitoring of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in pregnant women with fetal IUGR and timely management for placenta-associated diseases are

  6. Background parenchymal enhancement over exam time in patients with and without breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsaether, Amy; Pujara, Akshat C; Elias, Kristin; Pysarenko, Kristine; Gudi, Anjali; Dodelzon, Katerina; Babb, James S; Gao, Yiming; Moy, Linda

    2017-01-01

    To compare background parenchymal enhancement (BPE) over time in patients with and without breast cancer. This retrospective Institutional Review Board (IRB)-approved, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)-compliant study included 116 women (25-84 years, mean 54 years) with breast cancer who underwent breast magnetic resonance imaging at 3T between 1/2/2009 and 12/29/2009 and 116 age and date-of-exam-matched women without breast cancer (23-84 years, mean 51 years). Two independent, blinded readers (R1, R2) recorded BPE (minimal, mild, moderate, marked) at three times (100, 210, and 320 seconds postcontrast). Subsequent cancers were diagnosed in 9/96 control patients with follow up (12.6-93.0 months, mean 63.6 months). Exact Mann-Whitney, Fisher's exact, and McNemar tests were performed. Mean BPE was not found to be different between patients with and without breast cancer at any time (P = 0.36-0.64). At time 2 as compared with time 1, there were significantly more patients, both with and without breast cancer, with BPE >minimal (R1: 90 vs. 41 [P mild (R1: 59 vs. 10 [P breast cancer were significant only for R2 and ranged up to 7.67 (1.49, 39.5; P mild at time 2. BPE changes between the first and second postcontrast scans and stabilizes thereafter in most patients. Further investigation into the most clinically relevant timepoint for BPE assessment is warranted. 3 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:74-83. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  7. A Study on the Enhanced Best Performance Algorithm for the Just-in-Time Scheduling Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivashan Chetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Just-In-Time (JIT scheduling problem is an important subject of study. It essentially constitutes the problem of scheduling critical business resources in an attempt to optimize given business objectives. This problem is NP-Hard in nature, hence requiring efficient solution techniques. To solve the JIT scheduling problem presented in this study, a new local search metaheuristic algorithm, namely, the enhanced Best Performance Algorithm (eBPA, is introduced. This is part of the initial study of the algorithm for scheduling problems. The current problem setting is the allocation of a large number of jobs required to be scheduled on multiple and identical machines which run in parallel. The due date of a job is characterized by a window frame of time, rather than a specific point in time. The performance of the eBPA is compared against Tabu Search (TS and Simulated Annealing (SA. SA and TS are well-known local search metaheuristic algorithms. The results show the potential of the eBPA as a metaheuristic algorithm.

  8. Image enhancement in photoemission electron microscopy by means of imaging time-of-flight analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oelsner, A.; Krasyuk, A.; Fecher, G.H.; Schneider, C.M.; Schoenhense, G.

    2004-01-01

    Photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) is widely used in combination with synchrotron sources as a powerful tool to observe chemical and magnetic properties of metal and semiconductor surfaces. Presently, the resolution limit of these instruments using soft-X-ray excitation is limited to about 50 nm, because of the chromatic aberration of the electron optics used. Various sophisticated approaches have thus been reported for enhancing the spatial resolution in photoemission electron microscopy. This work demonstrates the use of a simple imaging energy filter based on electron time-of-flight (ToF) selection. The spatial resolution could be improved dramatically, even though the instrument was optimized using a rather large contrast aperture of 50 μm. A special (x, y, t)-resolving delayline detector was used as the imaging unit of this ToF-PEEM. It is operated in phase with the time structure of the synchrotron source, cutting time intervals from the raw image-forming data set in order to reduce the electron energy width contributing to the final images

  9. Using hyperentanglement to enhance resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and measurement time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James F.

    2017-03-01

    A hyperentanglement-based atmospheric imaging/detection system involving only a signal and an ancilla photon will be considered for optical and infrared frequencies. Only the signal photon will propagate in the atmosphere and its loss will be classical. The ancilla photon will remain within the sensor experiencing low loss. Closed form expressions for the wave function, normalization, density operator, reduced density operator, symmetrized logarithmic derivative, quantum Fisher information, quantum Cramer-Rao lower bound, coincidence probabilities, probability of detection, probability of false alarm, probability of error after M measurements, signal-to-noise ratio, quantum Chernoff bound, time-on-target expressions related to probability of error, and resolution will be provided. The effect of noise in every mode will be included as well as loss. The system will provide the basic design for an imaging/detection system functioning at optical or infrared frequencies that offers better than classical angular and range resolution. Optimization for enhanced resolution will be included. The signal-to-noise ratio will be increased by a factor equal to the number of modes employed during the hyperentanglement process. Likewise, the measurement time can be reduced by the same factor. The hyperentanglement generator will typically make use of entanglement in polarization, energy-time, orbital angular momentum and so on. Mathematical results will be provided describing the system's performance as a function of loss mechanisms and noise.

  10. Time and Frequency Localized Pulse Shape for Resolution Enhancement in STFT-BOTDR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqing Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-Time Fourier Transform-Brillouin Optical Time-Domain Reflectometry (STFT-BOTDR implements STFT over the full frequency spectrum to measure the distributed temperature and strain along the optic fiber, providing new research advances in dynamic distributed sensing. The spatial and frequency resolution of the dynamic sensing are limited by the Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR and the Time-Frequency (T-F localization of the input pulse shape. T-F localization is fundamentally important for the communication system, which suppresses interchannel interference (ICI and intersymbol interference (ISI to improve the transmission quality in multicarrier modulation (MCM. This paper demonstrates that the T-F localized input pulse shape can enhance the SNR and the spatial and frequency resolution in STFT-BOTDR. Simulation and experiments of T-F localized different pulses shapes are conducted to compare the limitation of the system resolution. The result indicates that rectangular pulse should be selected to optimize the spatial resolution and Lorentzian pulse could be chosen to optimize the frequency resolution, while Gaussian shape pulse can be used in general applications for its balanced performance in both spatial and frequency resolution. Meanwhile, T-F localization is proved to be useful in the pulse shape selection for system resolution optimization.

  11. A time correlation function theory describing static field enhanced third order optical effects at interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neipert, Christine; Space, Brian

    2006-12-14

    Sum vibrational frequency spectroscopy, a second order optical process, is interface specific in the dipole approximation. At charged interfaces, there exists a static field, and as a direct consequence, the experimentally detected signal is a combination of enhanced second and static field induced third order contributions. There is significant evidence in the literature of the importance/relative magnitude of this third order contribution, but no previous molecularly detailed approach existed to separately calculate the second and third order contributions. Thus, for the first time, a molecularly detailed time correlation function theory is derived here that allows for the second and third order contributions to sum frequency vibrational spectra to be individually determined. Further, a practical, molecular dynamics based, implementation procedure for the derived correlation functions that describe the third order phenomenon is also presented. This approach includes a novel generalization of point atomic polarizability models to calculate the hyperpolarizability of a molecular system. The full system hyperpolarizability appears in the time correlation functions responsible for third order contributions in the presence of a static field.

  12. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Wagels

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status–seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration. A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants’ choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se. In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  13. Exogenous Testosterone Enhances the Reactivity to Social Provocation in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagels, Lisa; Votinov, Mikhail; Kellermann, Thilo; Eisert, Albrecht; Beyer, Cordian; Habel, Ute

    2018-01-01

    Testosterone affects human social behavior in various ways. While testosterone effects are generally associated with muscular strength and aggressiveness, human studies also point towards enhanced status-seeking motives after testosterone administration. The current study tested the causal influence of exogenous testosterone on male behavior during a competitive provocation paradigm. In this double blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled study, 103 males were assigned to a PL or testosterone group receiving a colorless PL or testosterone gel. To induce provocation, males played a rigged reaction time game against an ostensible opponent. When participants lost, the opponent subtracted money from the participant who in return could subtract money from the ostensible opponent. Participants subjectively indicated anger and self-estimated treatment affiliation (testosterone or PL administration). A trial-by-trial analysis demonstrated that provocation and success during the repeated games had a stronger influence on participants' choice to reduce money from the opponent if they had received testosterone. Participants who believed to be in the testosterone group were angrier after the experiment and increased monetary reductions during the task course. In line with theories about mechanisms of testosterone in humans, provocation is shown to be necessary for the agency of exogenous testosterone. Thus, testosterone reinforces the conditional adjustment of aggressive behavior but not aggressive behavior per se . In contrast undirected frustration is not increased by testosterone but probably interferes with cognitive appraisals about biological mechanisms of testosterone.

  14. Probabilistic 3-D time-lapse inversion of magnetotelluric data: Application to an enhanced geothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Carbajal, Marina; Linde, Nicolas; Peacock, Jared R.; Zyserman, F. I.; Kalscheuer, Thomas; Thiel, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Surface-based monitoring of mass transfer caused by injections and extractions in deep boreholes is crucial to maximize oil, gas and geothermal production. Inductive electromagnetic methods, such as magnetotellurics, are appealing for these applications due to their large penetration depths and sensitivity to changes in fluid conductivity and fracture connectivity. In this work, we propose a 3-D Markov chain Monte Carlo inversion of time-lapse magnetotelluric data to image mass transfer following a saline fluid injection. The inversion estimates the posterior probability density function of the resulting plume, and thereby quantifies model uncertainty. To decrease computation times, we base the parametrization on a reduced Legendre moment decomposition of the plume. A synthetic test shows that our methodology is effective when the electrical resistivity structure prior to the injection is well known. The centre of mass and spread of the plume are well retrieved.We then apply our inversion strategy to an injection experiment in an enhanced geothermal system at Paralana, South Australia, and compare it to a 3-D deterministic time-lapse inversion. The latter retrieves resistivity changes that are more shallow than the actual injection interval, whereas the probabilistic inversion retrieves plumes that are located at the correct depths and oriented in a preferential north-south direction. To explain the time-lapse data, the inversion requires unrealistically large resistivity changes with respect to the base model. We suggest that this is partly explained by unaccounted subsurface heterogeneities in the base model from which time-lapse changes are inferred.

  15. Enhanced evaluation data initiates a collaborative out-of-school time food sponsors work group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifkin, Robin; Williams, Lauren A; Grode, Gabrielle M; Roberts-Johnson, Wendy-Anne

    2015-01-01

    Philadelphia's Healthy Kids, Healthy Communities Out-of-School Time (OST) Initiative led by the Health Promotion Council developed 10 Healthy Living Guidelines for Out-of-School Time Programs to support a healthy environment for Philadelphia youth in 200 OST programs. Health Promotion Council participated in an enhanced cross-site evaluation with the national Robert Wood Johnson Foundation evaluator during the final year of funding to learn more about food and nutrition in the OST setting, and to share data and engage the OST food providers. A plate waste study measured the quantity and nutrition composition of meals served to youth compared to food not eaten. Staff interviews measured program adherence to the Healthy Living Guidelines, along with other facets of the food environment in 7 Philadelphia OST programs. Online surveys were sent to OST programs. Food providers (sponsors) were interviewed using Appreciative Inquiry methodology to gain insight into systems, goals, and common interests. Aggregated plate waste data from 7 observations showed an average of 42% of the food uneaten after meal/snack consumption, and high sodium content of the meals. Twenty-nine staff at OST programs completed the online survey, and 3 food sponsors were interviewed. Recommendations to improve the food included increasing variety, offering more salads, fruits and vegetables, and culturally appropriate foods. Food sponsor interviews showed a variety of meal production, distribution, service and training systems, and an interest in working together. The food sponsors met to review the data and prioritized common goals. They continue to work together to improve systems and meals for food service. A food sponsors work group formed and continues as a result of sharing enhanced cross-site data about food in OST settings. Food sponsors continue to work together to improve systems and nutritional offerings for Philadelphia OST programs.

  16. Enhanced Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis Immunity over Time with Combined Drug and Immunotherapy Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasha E. Larsen

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available It is estimated that one third of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb. This astounding statistic, in combination with costly and lengthy treatment regimens make the development of therapeutic vaccines paramount for controlling the global burden of tuberculosis. Unlike prophylactic vaccination, therapeutic immunization relies on the natural pulmonary infection with Mtb as the mucosal prime that directs boost responses back to the lung. The purpose of this work was to determine the protection and safety profile over time following therapeutic administration of our lead Mtb vaccine candidate, ID93 with a synthetic TLR4 agonist (glucopyranosyl lipid adjuvant in a stable emulsion (GLA-SE, in combination with rifampicin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide (RHZ drug treatment. We assessed the host inflammatory immune responses and lung pathology 7–22 weeks post infection, and determined the therapeutic efficacy of combined treatment by enumeration of the bacterial load and survival in the SWR/J mouse model. We show that drug treatment alone, or with immunotherapy, tempered the inflammatory responses measured in brochoalveolar lavage fluid and plasma compared to untreated cohorts. RHZ combined with therapeutic immunizations significantly enhanced TH1-type cytokine responses in the lung over time, corresponding to decreased pulmonary pathology evidenced by a significant decrease in the percentage of lung lesions and destructive lung inflammation. These data suggest that bacterial burden assessment alone may miss important correlates of lung architecture that directly contribute to therapeutic vaccine efficacy in the preclinical mouse model. We also confirmed our previous finding that in combination with antibiotics therapeutic immunizations provide an additive survival advantage. Moreover, therapeutic immunizations with ID93/GLA-SE induced differential T cell immune responses over the course of infection that correlated

  17. Enhanced Predictions of Time to Critical Dielectric Breakdown of Materials Under Prolonged Exposure to Space Plasma Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The leading cause of spacecraft failures and malfunctions due to interactions with the space plasma environment is electrostatic discharge (ESD). The enhanced time...

  18. Comparison of the Incorporation of DHA in Circulatory and Neural Tissue When Provided as Triacylglycerol (TAG), Monoacylglycerol (MAG) or Phospholipids (PL) Provides New Insight into Fatty Acid Bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destaillats, Frédéric; Oliveira, Manuel; Bastic Schmid, Viktoria; Masserey-Elmelegy, Isabelle; Giuffrida, Francesca; Thakkar, Sagar K; Dupuis, Lénaïck; Gosoniu, Maria Laura; Cruz-Hernandez, Cristina

    2018-05-15

    Phospholipids (PL) or partial acylglycerols such as sn -1(3)-monoacylglycerol (MAG) are potent dietary carriers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and have been reported to provide superior bioavailability when compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). The main objective of the present study was to compare the incorporation of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in plasma, erythrocytes, retina and brain tissues in adult rats when provided as PL (PL-DHA) and MAG (MAG-DHA). Conventional dietary DHA oil containing TAG (TAG-DHA) as well as control chow diet were used to evaluate the potency of the two alternative DHA carriers over a 60-day feeding period. Fatty acid profiles were determined in erythrocytes and plasma lipids at time 0, 7, 14, 28, 35 and 49 days of the experimental period and in retina, cortex, hypothalamus, and hippocampus at 60 days. The assessment of the longitudinal evolution of DHA in erythrocyte and plasma lipids suggest that PL-DHA and MAG-DHA are efficient carriers of dietary DHA when compared to conventional DHA oil (TAG-DHA). Under these experimental conditions, both PL-DHA and MAG-DHA led to higher incorporations of DHA erythrocytes lipids compared to TAG-DHA group. After 60 days of supplementation, statistically significant increase in DHA level incorporated in neural tissues analyzed were observed in the DHA groups compared with the control. The mechanism explaining hypothetically the difference observed in circulatory lipids is discussed.

  19. Real-time tsunami inundation forecasting and damage mapping towards enhancing tsunami disaster resiliency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimura, S.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Kobayashi, H.; Musa, A.; Murashima, Y.

    2014-12-01

    With use of modern computing power and advanced sensor networks, a project is underway to establish a new system of real-time tsunami inundation forecasting, damage estimation and mapping to enhance society's resilience in the aftermath of major tsunami disaster. The system consists of fusion of real-time crustal deformation monitoring/fault model estimation by Ohta et al. (2012), high-performance real-time tsunami propagation/inundation modeling with NEC's vector supercomputer SX-ACE, damage/loss estimation models (Koshimura et al., 2013), and geo-informatics. After a major (near field) earthquake is triggered, the first response of the system is to identify the tsunami source model by applying RAPiD Algorithm (Ohta et al., 2012) to observed RTK-GPS time series at GEONET sites in Japan. As performed in the data obtained during the 2011 Tohoku event, we assume less than 10 minutes as the acquisition time of the source model. Given the tsunami source, the system moves on to running tsunami propagation and inundation model which was optimized on the vector supercomputer SX-ACE to acquire the estimation of time series of tsunami at offshore/coastal tide gauges to determine tsunami travel and arrival time, extent of inundation zone, maximum flow depth distribution. The implemented tsunami numerical model is based on the non-linear shallow-water equations discretized by finite difference method. The merged bathymetry and topography grids are prepared with 10 m resolution to better estimate the tsunami inland penetration. Given the maximum flow depth distribution, the system performs GIS analysis to determine the numbers of exposed population and structures using census data, then estimates the numbers of potential death and damaged structures by applying tsunami fragility curve (Koshimura et al., 2013). Since the tsunami source model is determined, the model is supposed to complete the estimation within 10 minutes. The results are disseminated as mapping products to

  20. Locating AED Enabled Medical Drones to Enhance Cardiac Arrest Response Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulver, Aaron; Wei, Ran; Mann, Clay

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) is prevalent in the United States. Each year between 180,000 and 400,000 people die due to cardiac arrest. The automated external defibrillator (AED) has greatly enhanced survival rates for OOHCA. However, one of the important components of successful cardiac arrest treatment is emergency medical services (EMS) response time (i.e., the time from EMS "wheels rolling" until arrival at the OOHCA scene). Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) have regularly been used for remote sensing and aerial imagery collection, but there are new opportunities to use drones for medical emergencies. The purpose of this study is to develop a geographic approach to the placement of a network of medical drones, equipped with an automated external defibrillator, designed to minimize travel time to victims of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Our goal was to have one drone on scene within one minute for at least 90% of demand for AED shock therapy, while minimizing implementation costs. In our study, the current estimated travel times were evaluated in Salt Lake County using geographical information systems (GIS) and compared to the estimated travel times of a network of AED enabled medical drones. We employed a location model, the Maximum Coverage Location Problem (MCLP), to determine the best configuration of drones to increase service coverage within one minute. We found that, using traditional vehicles, only 4.3% of the demand can be reached (travel time) within one minute utilizing current EMS agency locations, while 96.4% of demand can be reached within five minutes using current EMS vehicles and facility locations. Analyses show that using existing EMS stations to launch drones resulted in 80.1% of cardiac arrest demand being reached within one minute Allowing new sites to launch drones resulted in 90.3% of demand being reached within one minute. Finally, using existing EMS and new sites resulted in 90.3% of demand being reached while greatly reducing

  1. Interlinked dual-time feedback loops can enhance robustness to stochasticity and persistence of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolen, Paul; Baxter, Douglas A; Byrne, John H

    2009-03-01

    Multiple interlinked positive feedback loops shape the stimulus responses of various biochemical systems, such as the cell cycle or intracellular Ca2+ release. Recent studies with simplified models have identified two advantages of coupling fast and slow feedback loops. This dual-time structure enables a fast response while enhancing resistances of responses and bistability to stimulus noise. We now find that (1) the dual-time structure similarly confers resistance to internal noise due to molecule number fluctuations, and (2) model variants with altered coupling, which better represent some specific biochemical systems, share all the above advantages. We also develop a similar bistable model with coupling of a fast autoactivation loop to a slow loop. This model's topology was suggested by positive feedback proposed to play a role in long-term synaptic potentiation (LTP). The advantages of fast response and noise resistance are also present in this autoactivation model. Empirically, LTP develops resistance to reversal over approximately 1h . The model suggests this resistance may result from increased amounts of synaptic kinases involved in positive feedback.

  2. Vehicle Position Estimation Based on Magnetic Markers: Enhanced Accuracy by Compensation of Time Delays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeun-Sub Byun

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The real-time recognition of absolute (or relative position and orientation on a network of roads is a core technology for fully automated or driving-assisted vehicles. This paper presents an empirical investigation of the design, implementation, and evaluation of a self-positioning system based on a magnetic marker reference sensing method for an autonomous vehicle. Specifically, the estimation accuracy of the magnetic sensing ruler (MSR in the up-to-date estimation of the actual position was successfully enhanced by compensating for time delays in signal processing when detecting the vertical magnetic field (VMF in an array of signals. In this study, the signal processing scheme was developed to minimize the effects of the distortion of measured signals when estimating the relative positional information based on magnetic signals obtained using the MSR. In other words, the center point in a 2D magnetic field contour plot corresponding to the actual position of magnetic markers was estimated by tracking the errors between pre-defined reference models and measured magnetic signals. The algorithm proposed in this study was validated by experimental measurements using a test vehicle on a pilot network of roads. From the results, the positioning error was found to be less than 0.04 m on average in an operational test.

  3. Numerical modeling of an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, T.J.; Chew, W.C.; Aydiner, A.A.; Wright, D.L.; Smith, D.V.; Abraham, J.D.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, two numerical models are presented to simulate an enhanced very early time electromagnetic (VETEM) prototype system, which is used for buried-object detection and environmental problems. Usually, the VETEM system contains a transmitting loop antenna and a receiving loop antenna, which run on a lossy ground to detect buried objects. In the first numerical model, the loop antennas are accurately analyzed using the Method of Moments (MoM) for wire antennas above or buried in lossy ground. Then, Conjugate Gradient (CG) methods, with the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) or MoM, are applied to investigate the scattering from buried objects. Reflected and scattered magnetic fields are evaluated at the receiving loop to calculate the output electric current. However, the working frequency for the VETEM system is usually low and, hence, two magnetic dipoles are used to replace the transmitter and receiver in the second numerical model. Comparing these two models, the second one is simple, but only valid for low frequency or small loops, while the first modeling is more general. In this paper, all computations are performed in the frequency domain, and the FFT is used to obtain the time-domain responses. Numerical examples show that simulation results from these two models fit very well when the frequency ranges from 10 kHz to 10 MHz, and both results are close to the measured data.

  4. Time to Engage? Texting to Support and Enhance First Year Undergraduate Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldine Jones

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss a case study investigating how the academic and personal development of first year students on an undergraduate sports education degree can be supported and enhanced with mobile SMS communication. SMS-based technologies were introduced in response to students’ particular needs (in transition to Higher Education and characteristics (‘digital natives’. Despite being unaccustomed to using their mobile phones for academic study, students willingly participated in SMS communication with their tutor via a texting management service. Drawing on evidence from two student surveys, focus groups and a tutor’s journal, we illustrate the potential that mobile SMS communication has to link and establish continuity between face to face teaching sessions and online learning activities in the Virtual Learning Environment (VLE. Many students perceived the SMS communication to have had a positive impact on their management of study time. We link our findings with the existing literature and argue that mobile text based communication has the potential to support the development of time management skills, an important component of self regulatory learning, a skill which has been shown to be key in making a successful transition.

  5. Role of plastidic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (pl. PDC) in chloroplast metabolism of spinach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Siebert, D.; Homeyer, U.; Schultz, G.

    1986-01-01

    Labeling experiments of chloroplasts in the light ( 14 CO 2 , 2- 14 C-pyruvate etc.) revealed that pl. PDC is predominantly involved in the synthesis of branched chain amino acids and pl. isoprenoids (carotenes, PQ, α-T). In this context, pl. phosphoglycerate mutase as missing link in the C 3 → C 2 metabolism of chloroplasts was identified by latency experiments. This indicates a direct pathway from Calvin cycle to pl. PDC. Using protoplasts, maximal rates in pl. PDC metabolism were obtained. On the other hand, mitochondrial PDC in protoplasts is mainly involved in fatty acid synthesis by known mechanism. Additionally, cytosolic-ER-isoprenoids were formed (e.g. sterols). When 14 CO 2 was simultaneously applied with unlabeled acetate to protoplasts in the light an isotopic dilution of fatty acids were found but not of pl. isoprenoids. This may indicate an partially channeling of pl. PDC and mevalonate pathway for pl. isoprenoid synthesis. Inhibitory studies with DCMU point in the same direction

  6. Inhibition of Stromal PlGF Suppresses the Growth of Prostate Cancer Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dietmar Abraham

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and vascularization of prostate cancer is dependent on interactions between cancer cells and supporting stromal cells. The primary stromal cell type found in prostate tumors is the carcinoma-associated fibroblast, which produces placental growth factor (PlGF. PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family of angiogenic molecules and PlGF mRNA levels increase after androgen deprivation therapy in prostate cancer. In this study, we show that PlGF has a direct dose-dependent proliferative effect on human PC-3 prostate cancer cells in vitro and fibroblast-derived PlGF increases PC-3 proliferation in co-culture. In xenograft tumor models, intratumoral administration of murine PlGF siRNA reduced stromal-derived PlGF expression, reduced tumor burden and decreased the number of Ki-67 positive proliferating cells associated with reduced vascular density. These data show that targeting stromal PlGF expression may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  7. An Alternative to the 3PL: Using Asymmetric Item Characteristic Curves to Address Guessing Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sora; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2018-01-01

    Both the statistical and interpretational shortcomings of the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model in accommodating guessing effects on multiple-choice items are well documented. We consider the use of a residual heteroscedasticity (RH) model as an alternative, and compare its performance to the 3PL with real test data sets and through simulation…

  8. Memory for time and place contributes to enhanced confidence in memories for emotional events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmele, Ulrike; Davachi, Lila; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2012-01-01

    Emotion strengthens the subjective sense of remembering. However, these confidently remembered emotional memories have not been found be more accurate for some types of contextual details. We investigated whether the subjective sense of recollecting negative stimuli is coupled with enhanced memory accuracy for three specific types of central contextual details using the remember/know paradigm and confidence ratings. Our results indicate that the subjective sense of remembering is indeed coupled with better recollection of spatial location and temporal context. In contrast, we found a double-dissociation between the subjective sense of remembering and memory accuracy for colored dots placed in the conceptual center of negative and neutral scenes. These findings show that the enhanced subjective recollective experience for negative stimuli reliably indicates objective recollection for spatial location and temporal context, but not for other types of details, whereas for neutral stimuli, the subjective sense of remembering is coupled with all the types of details assessed. Translating this finding to flashbulb memories, we found that, over time, more participants correctly remembered the location where they learned about the terrorist attacks on 9/11 than any other canonical feature. Likewise participants’ confidence was higher in their memory for location vs. other canonical features. These findings indicate that the strong recollective experience of a negative event corresponds to an accurate memory for some kinds of contextual details, but not other kinds. This discrepancy provides further evidence that the subjective sense of remembering negative events is driven by a different mechanism than the subjective sense of remembering neutral events. PMID:22642353

  9. Contrast-enhanced time-resolved 3-D MRA: applications in neurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinacher, Peter C.; Stracke, Paul; Reinges, Marcus H.T.; Hans, Franz J.; Krings, Timo

    2007-01-01

    The decision-making process in the endovascular treatment of cranial dural AV fistulas and angiomas and their follow-up after treatment is usually based on conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Likewise, acquiring the vascular and hemodynamic information needed for presurgical evaluation of meningiomas may necessitate DSA or different MR-based angiographic methods to assess the arterial displacement, the location of bridging veins and tumor feeders, and the degree of vascularization. New techniques of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) permit the acquisition of images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability and clinical use of a newly developed contrast-enhanced 3-D dynamic MRA protocol for neurointerventional and neurosurgical planning and decision making. With a 3-T whole-body scanner (Philips Achieva), a 3-D dynamic contrast-enhanced (MultiHance, Bracco) MRA sequence with parallel imaging, and intelligent k-space readout (keyhole and ''CENTRA'' k-space filling) was added to structural MRI in patients with meningiomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas and pial arteriovenous malformations. The sequence had a temporal resolution of 1.3 s per 3-D volume with a spatial resolution of 0.566 x 0.566 x 1.5 mm per voxel in each 3-D volume and lasted 25.2 s. DSA was performed in selected patients following MRI. In patients with arteriovenous fistulas and malformations, MRA allowed the vascular shunt to be identified and correctly classified. Hemodynamic characteristics and venous architecture were clearly demonstrated. Larger feeding arteries could be identified in all patients. In meningiomas, MRA enabled assessment of the displacement of the cerebral arteries, depiction of the tumor feeding vessels, and evaluation of the anatomy of the venous system. The extent of tumor vascularization could be assessed in all patients and correlated with the histopathological findings that indicated

  10. Contrast-enhanced time-resolved 3-D MRA: applications in neurosurgery and interventional neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinacher, Peter C.; Stracke, Paul; Reinges, Marcus H.T.; Hans, Franz J.; Krings, Timo [University Hospital of the Technical University, Department of Neurosurgery, Aachen (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The decision-making process in the endovascular treatment of cranial dural AV fistulas and angiomas and their follow-up after treatment is usually based on conventional digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Likewise, acquiring the vascular and hemodynamic information needed for presurgical evaluation of meningiomas may necessitate DSA or different MR-based angiographic methods to assess the arterial displacement, the location of bridging veins and tumor feeders, and the degree of vascularization. New techniques of contrast-enhanced MR angiography (MRA) permit the acquisition of images with high temporal and spatial resolution. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability and clinical use of a newly developed contrast-enhanced 3-D dynamic MRA protocol for neurointerventional and neurosurgical planning and decision making. With a 3-T whole-body scanner (Philips Achieva), a 3-D dynamic contrast-enhanced (MultiHance, Bracco) MRA sequence with parallel imaging, and intelligent k-space readout (keyhole and ''CENTRA'' k-space filling) was added to structural MRI in patients with meningiomas, dural arteriovenous fistulas and pial arteriovenous malformations. The sequence had a temporal resolution of 1.3 s per 3-D volume with a spatial resolution of 0.566 x 0.566 x 1.5 mm per voxel in each 3-D volume and lasted 25.2 s. DSA was performed in selected patients following MRI. In patients with arteriovenous fistulas and malformations, MRA allowed the vascular shunt to be identified and correctly classified. Hemodynamic characteristics and venous architecture were clearly demonstrated. Larger feeding arteries could be identified in all patients. In meningiomas, MRA enabled assessment of the displacement of the cerebral arteries, depiction of the tumor feeding vessels, and evaluation of the anatomy of the venous system. The extent of tumor vascularization could be assessed in all patients and correlated with the histopathological findings that

  11. Toward a real-time system for temporal enhanced ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Shekoofeh; Van Woudenberg, Nathan; Sojoudi, Samira; Li, Ming; Xu, Sheng; Abu Anas, Emran M; Yan, Pingkun; Tahmasebi, Amir; Kwak, Jin Tae; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter; Pinto, Peter; Wood, Bradford; Mousavi, Parvin; Abolmaesumi, Purang

    2018-03-27

    We have previously proposed temporal enhanced ultrasound (TeUS) as a new paradigm for tissue characterization. TeUS is based on analyzing a sequence of ultrasound data with deep learning and has been demonstrated to be successful for detection of cancer in ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy. Our aim is to enable the dissemination of this technology to the community for large-scale clinical validation. In this paper, we present a unified software framework demonstrating near-real-time analysis of ultrasound data stream using a deep learning solution. The system integrates ultrasound imaging hardware, visualization and a deep learning back-end to build an accessible, flexible and robust platform. A client-server approach is used in order to run computationally expensive algorithms in parallel. We demonstrate the efficacy of the framework using two applications as case studies. First, we show that prostate cancer detection using near-real-time analysis of RF and B-mode TeUS data and deep learning is feasible. Second, we present real-time segmentation of ultrasound prostate data using an integrated deep learning solution. The system is evaluated for cancer detection accuracy on ultrasound data obtained from a large clinical study with 255 biopsy cores from 157 subjects. It is further assessed with an independent dataset with 21 biopsy targets from six subjects. In the first study, we achieve area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 0.94, 0.77, 0.94 and 0.92, respectively, for the detection of prostate cancer. In the second study, we achieve an AUC of 0.85. Our results suggest that TeUS-guided biopsy can be potentially effective for the detection of prostate cancer.

  12. Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a surrogate marker in preeclamptic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Patrícia Gonçalves; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira; Andrade, Silvia Passos; Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; da Cruz, Lívia Pieroni Barroso; Pereira, Jacqueline Braga; Martins, Breno Oliveira de Barcelos; Rezende, Cezar Alencar de Lima

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate plasma levels of angiogenic factors and their association with preeclampsia. Twenty-three women with preeclampsia and nine normotensive pregnant women from the Maternity of Hospital das Clínicas of Belo Horizonte/MG-Brazil were assessed by National High Blood Pressure Education Program Working Group Creteria (NHBPEPWG). The plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Placental growth factor (PlGF) were determined by ELISA assay. Plasma concentration of PlGF was 12-fold lower in preeclampsia versus non preeclampsia pregnancies. An inverse correlation was observed between PlGF plasma levels and mean arterial pressure (MAP); a decrease in 1pg/mL of PlGF resulted in 6.18 mm Hg increase in MAP. These results indicate that PlGF is related to MAP in pregnant women.

  13. Molecular characterization of the pL40 protein in Leptospira interrogans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei; Chen, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Xiang-Yan; Lai, Wei-Qiang; Hu, Bao-Yu; Zhao, Guo-Ping; Qin, Jin-Hong; Guo, Xiao-Kui

    2009-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic leptospires. The identification of outer membrane proteins (OMPs) conserved among pathogenic leptospires, which are exposed on the leptospiral surface and expressed during mammalian infection, has become a major focus of leptospirosis research. pL40, a 40 kDa protein coded by the LA3744 gene in Leptospira interrogans, was found to be unique to Leptospira. Triton X-114 fractionation and flow cytometry analyses indicate that pL40 is a component of the leptospiral outer membrane. The conservation of pL40 among Leptospira strains prevalent in China was confirmed by both Western blotting and PCR screening. Furthermore, the pL40 antigen could be recognized by sera from guinea pigs and mice infected with low-passage L. interrogans. These findings indicate that pL40 may serve as a useful serodiagnostic antigen and vaccine candidate for L. interrogans.

  14. Enhanced

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin I. Bayala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land Surface Temperature (LST is a key parameter in the energy balance model. However, the spatial resolution of the retrieved LST from sensors with high temporal resolution is not accurate enough to be used in local-scale studies. To explore the LST–Normalised Difference Vegetation Index relationship potential and obtain thermal images with high spatial resolution, six enhanced image sharpening techniques were assessed: the disaggregation procedure for radiometric surface temperatures (TsHARP, the Dry Edge Quadratic Function, the Difference of Edges (Ts∗DL and three models supported by the relationship of surface temperature and water stress of vegetation (Normalised Difference Water Index, Normalised Difference Infrared Index and Soil wetness index. Energy Balance Station data and in situ measurements were used to validate the enhanced LST images over a mixed agricultural landscape in the sub-humid Pampean Region of Argentina (PRA, during 2006–2010. Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (EOS-MODIS thermal datasets were assessed for different spatial resolutions (e.g., 960, 720 and 240 m and the performances were compared with global and local TsHARP procedures. Results suggest that the Ts∗DL technique is the most adequate for simulating LST to high spatial resolution over the heterogeneous landscape of a sub-humid region, showing an average root mean square error of less than 1 K.

  15. Enhanced conjugation stability and blood circulation time of macromolecular gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenjob, Ratchapol [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kun, Na [Department of Biotechnology, The Catholic University of Korea, 43 Jibong-ro, Wonmi-gu, Bucheon-si, Gyeonggi-do 420-743 (Korea, Republic of); Ghee, Jung Yeon [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Xiaoxia [Division of Functional Materials and Nano-Devices, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology & Engineering (NIMTE), Chinese Academy of Sciences, 519 Zhuangshi Street, Zhenhai District, Ningbo, Zhejiang 315201 (China); Cho, Steve K., E-mail: scho@gist.ac.kr [Division of Liberal Arts and Science, GIST College, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Don Haeng [Utah-Inha DDS and Advanced Therapeutics, B-403 Meet-You-All Tower, SongdoTechnopark, 7–50, Songdo-dong, Yeonsu-gu, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Inha University Hospital, Incheon 420-751 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Su-Geun, E-mail: Sugeun.Yang@Inha.ac.kr [Department of New Drug Development, School of Medicine, Inha University, 2F A-dong, Jeongseok Bldg., Sinheung-dong 3-ga, Jung-gu, Incheon 400-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we prepared macromolecular MR T1 contrast agent: pullulan-conjugated Gd diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) and estimated residual free Gd{sup 3+}, chelation stability in competition with metal ions, plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics, and abdominal MR contrast on rats. Residual free Gd{sup 3+} in Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was measured using colorimetric spectroscopy. The transmetalation of Gd{sup 3+} incubated with Ca{sup 2+} was performed by using a dialysis membrane (MWCO 100–500 Da) and investigated by ICP-OES. The plasma concentration profiles of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan were estimated after intravenous injection at a dose 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd. The coronal-plane abdominal images of normal rats were observed by MR imaging. The content of free Gd{sup 3+}, the toxic residual form, was less than 0.01%. Chelation stability of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was estimated, and only 0.2% and 0.00045% of Gd{sup 3+} were released from Gd-DTPA-Pullulan after 2 h incubation with Ca{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 2+}, respectively. Gd-DTPA-Pullulan displayed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h), much longer than 0.11 h and 0.79 h of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Abdominal MR imaging showed Gd-DTPA-Pullulan maintained initial MR contrast for 30 min. The extended plasma half-life of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan probably allows the prolonged MR acquisition time in clinic with enhanced MR contrast. - Highlights: • Macromolecule (pullulan) conjugated Gd contrast agent (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) showed the extended plasma half-life (t{sub 1/2,α} = 0.43 h, t{sub 1/2,β} = 2.32 h) in comparison with Gd-EOB-DTPA • Gd-DTPA-pullulan T1 contrast agent exhibited strong chelation stability against Gd. • The extended blood circulation attributed the enhanced and prolonged MR contrast on abdominal region of rats. • The extended blood circulation may provide prolonged MR acquisition time window in clinics.

  16. Sporadic insulinomas on volume perfusion CT: dynamic enhancement patterns and timing of optimal tumour-parenchyma contrast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Liang; Xue, Hua-dan; Liu, Wei; Wang, Xuan; Sun, Hao; Li, Ping; Jin, Zheng-yu [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Beijing (China); Wu, Wen-ming; Zhao, Yu-pei [Peking Union Medical College Hospital, Department of General Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2017-08-15

    To assess enhancement patterns of sporadic insulinomas on volume perfusion CT (VPCT), and to identify timing of optimal tumour-parenchyma contrast. Consecutive patients who underwent VPCT for clinically suspected insulinomas were retrospectively identified. Patients with insulinomas confirmed by surgery were included, and patients with familial syndromes were excluded. Two radiologists evaluated VPCT images in consensus. Tumour-parenchyma contrast at each time point was measured, and timing of optimal contrast was determined. Time duration of hyperenhancement (tumour-parenchyma contrast >20 Hounsfield units, HU) was recorded. Perfusion parameters were evaluated. Three dynamic enhancement patterns were observed in 63 tumours: persistent hyperenhancement (hyperenhancement time window ≥10 s) in 39 (61.9%), transient hyperenhancement (hyperenhancement <10 s) in 19 (30.2%) and non-hyperenhancement in 5 (7.9%). Timing of optimal contrast was 9 s after abdominal aorta threshold (AAT) of 200 HU, with tumour-parenchyma contrast of 77.6 ± 57.2 HU. At 9 s after AAT, 14 (22.2%) tumours were non-hyperenhancing, nine of which had missed transient hyperenhancement. Insulinomas with transient and persistent hyperenhancement patterns had significantly increased perfusion. Insulinomas have variable enhancement patterns. Tumour-parenchyma contrast is time-dependent. Optimal timing of enhancement is 9 s after AAT. VPCT enables tumour detection even if the hyperenhancement is transient. (orig.)

  17. Enhancement of Online Robotics Learning Using Real-Time 3D Visualization Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chiou

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses a real-time e-Lab Learning system based on the integration of 3D visualization technology with a remote robotic laboratory. With the emergence and development of the Internet field, online learning is proving to play a significant role in the upcoming era. In an effort to enhance Internet-based learning of robotics and keep up with the rapid progression of technology, a 3- Dimensional scheme of viewing the robotic laboratory has been introduced in addition to the remote controlling of the robots. The uniqueness of the project lies in making this process Internet-based, and remote robot operated and visualized in 3D. This 3D system approach provides the students with a more realistic feel of the 3D robotic laboratory even though they are working remotely. As a result, the 3D visualization technology has been tested as part of a laboratory in the MET 205 Robotics and Mechatronics class and has received positive feedback by most of the students. This type of research has introduced a new level of realism and visual communications to online laboratory learning in a remote classroom.

  18. Enhancing the estimation of blood pressure using pulse arrival time and two confounding factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ko Keun; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2010-01-01

    A new method of blood pressure (BP) estimation using multiple regression with pulse arrival time (PAT) and two confounding factors was evaluated in clinical and unconstrained monitoring situations. For the first analysis with clinical data, electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG) and invasive BP signals were obtained by a conventional patient monitoring device during surgery. In the second analysis, ECG, PPG and non-invasive BP were measured using systems developed to obtain data under conditions in which the subject was not constrained. To enhance the performance of BP estimation methods, heart rate (HR) and arterial stiffness were considered as confounding factors in regression analysis. The PAT and HR were easily extracted from ECG and PPG signals. For arterial stiffness, the duration from the maximum derivative point to the maximum of the dicrotic notch in the PPG signal, a parameter called TDB, was employed. In two experiments that normally cause BP variation, the correlation between measured BP and the estimated BP was investigated. Multiple-regression analysis with the two confounding factors improved correlation coefficients for diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure to acceptable confidence levels, compared to existing methods that consider PAT only. In addition, reproducibility for the proposed method was determined using constructed test sets. Our results demonstrate that non-invasive, non-intrusive BP estimation can be obtained using methods that can be applied in both clinical and daily healthcare situations

  19. Enhancing the estimation of blood pressure using pulse arrival time and two confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Hyun Jae; Kim, Ko Keun; Kim, Jung Soo; Lee, Boreom; Park, Kwang Suk

    2010-02-01

    A new method of blood pressure (BP) estimation using multiple regression with pulse arrival time (PAT) and two confounding factors was evaluated in clinical and unconstrained monitoring situations. For the first analysis with clinical data, electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG) and invasive BP signals were obtained by a conventional patient monitoring device during surgery. In the second analysis, ECG, PPG and non-invasive BP were measured using systems developed to obtain data under conditions in which the subject was not constrained. To enhance the performance of BP estimation methods, heart rate (HR) and arterial stiffness were considered as confounding factors in regression analysis. The PAT and HR were easily extracted from ECG and PPG signals. For arterial stiffness, the duration from the maximum derivative point to the maximum of the dicrotic notch in the PPG signal, a parameter called TDB, was employed. In two experiments that normally cause BP variation, the correlation between measured BP and the estimated BP was investigated. Multiple-regression analysis with the two confounding factors improved correlation coefficients for diastolic blood pressure and systolic blood pressure to acceptable confidence levels, compared to existing methods that consider PAT only. In addition, reproducibility for the proposed method was determined using constructed test sets. Our results demonstrate that non-invasive, non-intrusive BP estimation can be obtained using methods that can be applied in both clinical and daily healthcare situations.

  20. Enhanced just-in-time plus protocol for optical burst switching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Joel J. P. C.; Gregório, José M. B.; Vasilakos, Athanasios V.

    2010-07-01

    We propose a new one-way resource reservation protocol for optical burst switching (OBS) networks, called Enhanced Just-in-Time Plus (E-JIT+). The protocol is described in detail, and its formal specification is presented, following an extended finite state machine approach. The performance evaluation of E-JIT+ is analyzed in comparison with other proposed OBS protocols (JIT+ and E-JIT) for the following network topologies: rings; degree-two, degree-three, and degree-four chordal rings; mesh-torus; NSFNET; ARPANET; FCCN-NET; and the European Optical Network. We evaluate and compare the performance of the different protocols in terms of burst loss probability, taking into account the most important OBS network parameters. It was shown that E-JIT+ performs better than available one-way resource reservation protocols for all the evaluated network topologies. Moreover, the scalability of E-JIT+ was observed, and when the network traffic increases, the burst loss probability also increases, leading to a worse network performance.

  1. Massage Therapy of the Back Using a Real-Time Haptic-Enhanced Telerehabilitation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ramírez-Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the usability evaluation of a haptic-enhanced telerehabilitation system for massage therapy of the back using the Vybe haptic gaming pad and the gesture sensor LEAP motion controller. The evaluated system includes features that allow for (i administering online therapy programs, (ii providing self-adjustable and safety treatment of back massages using a virtual environment, and (iii saving and replaying massage sessions according to a patient’s therapy program. The usability evaluation with 25 older adults and 10 specialists suggests that the haptic telerehabilitation system is perceived with high usability and pleasurable user experience, while providing personalized intensity of haptic therapy in a supervised, real-time, and secure way to treat the patient. Moreover, the specialists totally agree that the system design features, such as save and play, and delimiting therapy zones are the most important for back massage therapy, while the features of regulating feedback intensity and providing/receiving a massage remotely are also important. Finally, based on their comments, five design insights aiming at improving the current version of the system were generated.

  2. Study of bioleaching under different hydraulic retention time for enhancing the dewaterability of digestate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linshuai; Gao, Jingqing; Zhu, Songfeng; Li, Yonghong; Zhang, Ruiqin

    2015-12-01

    Dewatering of kitchen waste digestate is a key problem to solve so as to increase the application of kitchen waste after anaerobic digestion. In this study, the effects of bioleaching under different hydraulic retention time (HRT = 2, 2.5, and 3 days) on dewaterability of kitchen waste digestate were evaluated. A 12-stage plug flow bioreactor with 180 L working volume was used for digestate bioleaching. The bioleached digestate under different HRTs were collected and dewatered by plate-and-frame filter press. The results showed that the moisture contents of digestate cakes were 67.87 % at 2 days of HRT, 58.06 % at 2.5 days of HRT, and 54.45 % at 3 days of HRT, respectively, indicating the longer the HRT, the lower the moisture content of filter cake. Balanced between the cost and practical need, 2.5 days can be used as the HRT in engineering application. Under the condition of HRT of 2.5 days, the pH, specific resistance to filtration (SRF), capillary suction time (CST), and sedimentation rate of digestate changed from the initial values of 8.08, 210.6 s, 23.4 × 10(12) m kg(-1) and 10 % to 3.21, 32.7 s, 2.44 × 10(12) m kg(-1) and 76.8 %, respectively. Based on the observations above, the authors conclude that bioleaching technology is an effective method to enhance digestate dewaterability and reduce the cost of subsequent reutilization.

  3. Interactive dual-volume rendering visualization with real-time fusion and transfer function enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macready, Hugh; Kim, Jinman; Feng, David; Cai, Weidong

    2006-03-01

    Dual-modality imaging scanners combining functional PET and anatomical CT constitute a challenge in volumetric visualization that can be limited by the high computational demand and expense. This study aims at providing physicians with multi-dimensional visualization tools, in order to navigate and manipulate the data running on a consumer PC. We have maximized the utilization of pixel-shader architecture of the low-cost graphic hardware and the texture-based volume rendering to provide visualization tools with high degree of interactivity. All the software was developed using OpenGL and Silicon Graphics Inc. Volumizer, tested on a Pentium mobile CPU on a PC notebook with 64M graphic memory. We render the individual modalities separately, and performing real-time per-voxel fusion. We designed a novel "alpha-spike" transfer function to interactively identify structure of interest from volume rendering of PET/CT. This works by assigning a non-linear opacity to the voxels, thus, allowing the physician to selectively eliminate or reveal information from the PET/CT volumes. As the PET and CT are rendered independently, manipulations can be applied to individual volumes, for instance, the application of transfer function to CT to reveal the lung boundary while adjusting the fusion ration between the CT and PET to enhance the contrast of a tumour region, with the resultant manipulated data sets fused together in real-time as the adjustments are made. In addition to conventional navigation and manipulation tools, such as scaling, LUT, volume slicing, and others, our strategy permits efficient visualization of PET/CT volume rendering which can potentially aid in interpretation and diagnosis.

  4. How can audiovisual pathways enhance the temporal resolution of time-compressed speech in blind subjects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo eHertrich

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In blind people, the visual channel cannot assist face-to-face communication via lipreading or visual prosody. Nevertheless, the visual system may enhance the evaluation of auditory information due to its cross-links to (1 the auditory system, (2 supramodal representations, and (3 frontal action-related areas. Apart from feedback or top-down support of, for example, the processing of spatial or phonological representations, experimental data have shown that the visual system can impact auditory perception at more basic computational stages such as temporal resolution. For example, blind as compared to sighted subjects are more resistant against backward masking, and this ability appears to be associated with activity in visual cortex. Regarding the comprehension of continuous speech, blind subjects can learn to use accelerated text-to-speech systems for "reading" texts at ultra-fast speaking rates (> 16 syllables/s, exceeding by far the normal range of 6 syllables/s. An fMRI study has shown that this ability, among other brain regions, significantly covaries with BOLD responses in bilateral pulvinar, right visual cortex, and left supplementary motor area. Furthermore, magnetoencephalographic (MEG measurements revealed a particular component in right occipital cortex phase-locked to the syllable onsets of accelerated speech. In sighted people, the "bottleneck" for understanding time-compressed speech seems related to a demand for buffering phonological material and is, presumably, linked to frontal brain structures. On the other hand, the neurophysiological correlates of functions overcoming this bottleneck, seem to depend upon early visual cortex activity. The present Hypothesis and Theory paper outlines a model that aims at binding these data together, based on early cross-modal pathways that are already known from various audiovisual experiments considering cross-modal adjustments in space, time, and object recognition.

  5. Enhanced Size Selection in Two-Photon Excitation for CsPbBr3 Perovskite Nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junsheng; Chábera, Pavel; Pascher, Torbjörn; Messing, Maria E; Schaller, Richard; Canton, Sophie; Zheng, Kaibo; Pullerits, Tõnu

    2017-10-19

    Cesium lead bromide (CsPbBr 3 ) perovskite nanocrystals (NCs), with large two-photon absorption (TPA) cross-section and bright photoluminescence (PL), have been demonstrated as stable two-photon-pumped lasing medium. With two-photon excitation, red-shifted PL spectrum and increased PL lifetime is observed compared with one-photon excitation. We have investigated the origin of such difference using time-resolved laser spectroscopies. We ascribe the difference to the enhanced size selection of NCs by two-photon excitation. Because of inherent nonlinearity, the size dependence of absorption cross-section under TPA is stronger. Consequently, larger size NCs are preferably excited, leading to longer excited-state lifetime and red-shifted PL emission. In a broad view, the enhanced size selection in two-photon excitation of CsPbBr 3 NCs is likely a general feature of the perovskite NCs and can be tuned via NC size distribution to influence their performance within NC-based nonlinear optical materials and devices.

  6. Using the CPU and GPU for real-time video enhancement on a mobile computer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available . In this paper, the current advances in mobile CPU and GPU hardware are used to implement video enhancement algorithms in a new way on a mobile computer. Both the CPU and GPU are used effectively to achieve realtime performance for complex image enhancement...

  7. Ultrafast carrier dynamics in bimetallic nanostructure-enhanced methylammonium lead bromide perovskites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarick, Holly F; Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Puretzky, Alexander A; Talbert, Eric M; DeBra, Zachary R; Soetan, Naiya; Geohegan, David B; Bardhan, Rizia

    2017-01-26

    In this work, we examine the impact of hybrid bimetallic Au/Ag core/shell nanostructures on the carrier dynamics of methylammonium lead tribromide (MAPbBr 3 ) mesoporous perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Plasmon-enhanced PSCs incorporated with Au/Ag nanostructures demonstrated improved light harvesting and increased power conversion efficiency by 26% relative to reference devices. Two complementary spectral techniques, transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and time-resolved photoluminescence (trPL), were employed to gain a mechanistic understanding of plasmonic enhancement processes. TAS revealed a decrease in the photobleach formation time, which suggests that the nanostructures improve hot carrier thermalization to an equilibrium distribution, relieving hot phonon bottleneck in MAPbBr 3 perovskites. TAS also showed a decrease in carrier decay lifetimes, indicating that nanostructures enhance photoinduced carrier generation and promote efficient electron injection into TiO 2 prior to bulk recombination. Furthermore, nanostructure-incorporated perovskite films demonstrated quenching in steady-state PL and decreases in trPL carrier lifetimes, providing further evidence of improved carrier injection in plasmon-enhanced mesoporous PSCs.

  8. Enhanced conjugation stability and blood circulation time of macromolecular gadolinium-DTPA contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenjob, Ratchapol; Kun, Na; Ghee, Jung Yeon; Shen, Zheyu; Wu, Xiaoxia; Cho, Steve K; Lee, Don Haeng; Yang, Su-Geun

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we prepared macromolecular MR T1 contrast agent: pullulan-conjugated Gd diethylene triamine pentaacetate (Gd-DTPA-Pullulan) and estimated residual free Gd(3+), chelation stability in competition with metal ions, plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics, and abdominal MR contrast on rats. Residual free Gd(3+) in Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was measured using colorimetric spectroscopy. The transmetalation of Gd(3+) incubated with Ca(2+) was performed by using a dialysis membrane (MWCO 100-500 Da) and investigated by ICP-OES. The plasma concentration profiles of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan were estimated after intravenous injection at a dose 0.1 mmol/kg of Gd. The coronal-plane abdominal images of normal rats were observed by MR imaging. The content of free Gd(3+), the toxic residual form, was less than 0.01%. Chelation stability of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan was estimated, and only 0.2% and 0.00045% of Gd(3+) were released from Gd-DTPA-Pullulan after 2h incubation with Ca(2+) and Fe(2+), respectively. Gd-DTPA-Pullulan displayed the extended plasma half-life (t1/2,α=0.43 h, t1/2,β=2.32 h), much longer than 0.11h and 0.79 h of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Abdominal MR imaging showed Gd-DTPA-Pullulan maintained initial MR contrast for 30 min. The extended plasma half-life of Gd-DTPA-Pullulan probably allows the prolonged MR acquisition time in clinic with enhanced MR contrast. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Historia natural de los plátanos y las bananas

    OpenAIRE

    López Sáez, José Antonio; Pérez Soto, Josué

    2011-01-01

    Los plátanos y las bananas que se cultivan en muchos países de clima tropical proceden de dos especies silvestres del género Musa que habitan en el Sureste Asiático: el plátano malayo y el plátano macho. A partir de ellas se han obtenido más de un millar de híbridos, razas o cultivares de agradable sabor y alto valor nutritivo. Otras plataneras se han utilizado como plantas ornamentales, proporcionan fibra o tintes naturales, materiales de construcción e incluso remedios en medicina tradicion...

  10. Ladrillos elaborados con plástico reciclado (PET), para mampostería no portante

    OpenAIRE

    Angumba Aguilar, Pedro Javier

    2016-01-01

    En el presente trabajo se investigó el uso de plástico reciclado para la fabricación de ladrillos para construcción de mampostería no portante. En primer lugar se realiza la caracterización de los residuos sólidos que se generan en la ciudad de Cuenca, donde el 22,7% del total recolectado es material plástico, que se desechan libremente sin un tratamiento previo. De la misma manera se investigan las características del plástico, Polientilen Tereftalato (PET) para descartar efectos nocivos al...

  11. eXTP: Enhanced X-Ray Timing and Polarimetry Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. N.; Feroci, M.; Santangelo, A.; Dong, Y. W.; Feng, H.; Lu, F. J.; Nandra, K.; Wang, Z. S.; Zhang, S.; Bozzo, E.; hide

    2016-01-01

    eXTP is a science mission designed to study the state of matter under extreme conditions of density, gravity and magnetism. Primary goals are the determination of the equation of state of matter at supra-nuclear density, the measurement of QED effects in highly magnetized star, and the study of accretion in the strong-field regime of gravity. Primary targets include isolated and binary neutron stars, strong magnetic field systems like magnetars, and stellar-mass and supermassive black holes. The mission carries a unique and unprecedented suite of state-of-the-art scientific instruments enabling for the first time ever the simultaneous spectral-timing-polarimetry studies of cosmic sources in the energy range from 0.5-30 keV (and beyond). Key elements of the payload are: the Spectroscopic Focusing Array (SFA) - a set of 11 X-ray optics for a total effective area of approx. 0.9 m(exp. 2) and 0.6 m(exp. 2) at 2 keV and 6 keV respectively, equipped with Silicon Drift Detectors offering less than 180 eV spectral resolution; the Large Area Detector (LAD) - a deployable set of 640 Silicon Drift Detectors, for a total effective area of approx. 3.4 m(exp. 2), between 6 and 10 keV, and spectral resolution better than 250 eV; the Polarimetry Focusing Array (PFA) - a set of 2 X-ray telescope, for a total effective area of 250 cm(exp. 2) at 2 keV, equipped with imaging gas pixel photoelectric polarimeters; the Wide Field Monitor (WFM) - a set of 3 coded mask wide field units, equipped with position-sensitive Silicon Drift Detectors, each covering a 90 degrees x 90 degrees field of view. The eXTP international consortium includes major institutions of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Universities in China, as well as major institutions in several European countries and the United States. The predecessor of eXTP, the XTP mission concept, has been selected and funded as one of the so-called background missions in the Strategic Priority Space Science Program of the Chinese

  12. Time-delayed contrast-enhanced MRI improves detection of brain metastases and apparent treatment volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnirsky, Marina; Nguyen, Vinh; Katz, Joel S; Steinklein, Jared; Rosen, Lisa; Warshall, Craig; Schulder, Michael; Knisely, Jonathan P S

    2016-02-01

    Contrast-enhanced MRI is the preeminent diagnostic test for brain metastasis (BM). Detection of BMs for stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) planning may improve with a time delay following administration of a high-relaxivity agent for 1.5-T and 3-T imaging systems. Metastasis detection with time-delayed MRI was evaluated in this study. Fifty-three volumetric MRI studies from 38 patients undergoing SRS for BMs were evaluated. All studies used 0.1-mmol/kg gadobenate dimeglumine (MultiHance; Bracco Diagnostics) immediately after injection, followed by 2 more axial T1-weighted sequences after 5-minute intervals (final image acquisition commenced 15 minutes after contrast injection). Two studies were motion limited and excluded. Two hundred eighty-seven BMs were identified. The studies were randomized and examined separately by 3 radiologists, who were blinded to the temporal sequence. Each radiologist recorded the number of BMs detected per scan. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test compared BM numbers between scans. One radiologist determined the scan on which BMs were best defined. All confirmed, visible tumors were contoured using iPlan RT treatment planning software on each of the 3 MRI data sets. A linear mixed model was used to analyze volume changes. The interclass correlations for Scans 1, 2, and 3 were 0.7392, 0.7951, and 0.7290, respectively, demonstrating excellent interrater reliability. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the second scan as compared with the first in 35.3% of subjects (95% CI 22.4%-49.9%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 1 and 2 ranged from 1 to 10. At least 1 new lesion was detected in the third scan as compared with the second in 21.6% of subjects (95% CI 11.3%-35.3%). The increase in BM numbers between Scans 2 and 3 ranged from 1 to 9. Between Scans 1 and 3, additional tumors were seen on 43.1% of scans (increase ranged from 1 to 14). The median increase in tumor number for all comparisons was 1. There was a significant increase in number

  13. A novel method for real-time edge-enhancement and its application to pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huayong; Bai, Enjian; Fan, Hong

    2010-11-01

    The coupling gain coefficient g is redefined and deduced based on coupling theory, the variant of coupling gain coefficient g for different ΓL and r is analyzed. A new optical system is proposed for image edge-enhancement. It recycles the back signal to amplify the edge signal, which has the advantages of high throughput efficiency and brightness. The optical system is designed and built, and the edge-enhanced image of hand bone is captured electronically by CCD camera. The principle of optical correlation is demonstrated, 3-D correlation distribution of letter H with and without edge-enhancement is simulated, the discrimination capability Iac and the full-width at half maximum intensity (FWHM) are compared for two kinds of correlators. The analysis shows that edge-enhancement preprocessing can improve the performance of correlator effectively.

  14. USE OF IMAGE ENHANCEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION EFFICIENCY ON WEARABLE GADGETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD EHSAN RANA

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to study the effects of image enhancement techniques on face recognition performance of wearable gadgets with an emphasis on recognition rate.In this research, a number of image enhancement techniques are selected that include brightness normalization, contrast normalization, sharpening, smoothing, and various combinations of these. Subsequently test images are obtained from AT&T database and Yale Face Database B to investigate the effect of these image enhancement techniques under various conditions such as change of illumination and face orientation and expression.The evaluation of data, collected during this research, revealed that the effect of image pre-processing techniques on face recognition highly depends on the illumination condition under which these images are taken. It is revealed that the benefit of applying image enhancement techniques on face images is best seen when there is high variation of illumination among images. Results also indicate that highest recognition rate is achieved when images are taken under low light condition and image contrast is enhanced using histogram equalization technique and then image noise is reduced using median smoothing filter. Additionally combination of contrast normalization and mean smoothing filter shows good result in all scenarios. Results obtained from test cases illustrate up to 75% improvement in face recognition rate when image enhancement is applied to images in given scenarios.

  15. Time of erythema onset after application of methyl nicotinate ointments as response parameter: influence of penetration kinetics and enhancing agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remane, Y; Leopold, C S

    2006-01-01

    The time of erythema onset may be used as a response parameter for quantification of the cutaneous erythema response induced by methyl nicotinate. The vehicles light mineral oil (LMO; test) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT; standard) were compared with regard to the pharmacodynamic response. Moreover, the influence of penetration enhancers on the time of erythema onset was investigated under zero order penetration kinetics. The enhancers dimethyl sulfoxide, diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and three different glycerides in different concentrations were added to MCT as a standard vehicle. All preparations were applied to the forearms of volunteers under infinite dose conditions at different thermodynamic drug activity levels (0.2-3.2% of the saturation level) and different drug concentrations (0.051-0.816%), respectively. Different penetration kinetics do not influence data of erythema onset, as these data are comparable to those obtained under finite dose conditions (first order penetration kinetics). With regard to the penetration enhancers, a significantly enhanced penetration of methyl nicotinate could be observed only for diethylene glycol monoethyl ether and dimethyl sulfoxide. However, no significant difference between light mineral oil and MCT could be found with regard to penetration enhancement. The time of erythema onset is an easy and efficient parameter for quantification of the pharmacodynamic response caused by nicotinates.

  16. Noise enhanced stability effect in a metastable system with two different kinds of time delays and cross-correlated noises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Zhenglin; Mei Dongcheng

    2011-01-01

    We numerically investigate the influences of the time delay τ simultaneously existing in both the deterministic and fluctuating forces, the time delay τ r existing only in the fluctuating force and the cross-correlation strength λ on the enhancement of the mean first-passage time (MFPT) as a function of the additive D and the multiplicative α noise intensities in a metastable system. The results indicate that both the multiplicative and additive noises can induce the noise-enhanced stability (NES) effect. An increase of λ can enhance or weaken the NES effect induced by the additive noise, depending on the value of τ. However, it weakens the NES effect induced by the multiplicative noise with a suppression of the effect of λ caused by increasing τ. The τ-induced critical behavior on both NES effects can be observed, i.e. an increase of τ can enhance or restrain the NES effects induced by the two kinds of noises. With an increase of λ and τ, MFPT versus D shows a transition from one peak to two peaks and finally one peak, implying the multiple NES effect caused by λ and τ. An increase of τ r can enhance the NES effect induced by the additive noise and weaken the NES effect induced by the multiplicative noise.

  17. Investigation of lipid oxidation and non-enzymatic browning reactions in marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Baron, Caroline P.

    Marine phospholipids (PL) have received much attention recently due to their numerous advantages. One of these advantages is their better resistance towards oxidation as compared to fish oil. In addition to the antioxidative properties of α-tocopherol and phospholipids, the better oxidative...... stability of marine PL might be attributed to antioxidative properties of pyrroles formed between oxidised lipids with amine groups from phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) or residues amino acids that are present in marine PL. The main objective of this study was to investigate if the presence of amine group...... of amino acids (leucine, methionine and lysine) from 2 authentic standards (PC and PE) and 2 purified marine PL (LC and MPL) through sonication method. Emulsions were incubated at 60 ºC for 0, 2, 4 and 6 days. Non-enzymatic browning reactions were investigated through measurement of i) Strecker aldehydes...

  18. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdu, G.; Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D.

    2012-01-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  19. Nodal collocation approximation for the multidimensional PL equations applied to transport source problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verdu, G. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica Y Nuclear, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain); Capilla, M.; Talavera, C. F.; Ginestar, D. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Departamento de Matematica Aplicada, Universitat Politecnica de Valencia, Cami de Vera, 14, 46022. Valencia (Spain)

    2012-07-01

    PL equations are classical high order approximations to the transport equations which are based on the expansion of the angular dependence of the angular neutron flux and the nuclear cross sections in terms of spherical harmonics. A nodal collocation method is used to discretize the PL equations associated with a neutron source transport problem. The performance of the method is tested solving two 1D problems with analytical solution for the transport equation and a classical 2D problem. (authors)

  20. Integration of differential equations by the pseudo-linear (PL) approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonalumi, Riccardo A.

    1998-01-01

    A new method of integrating differential equations was originated with the technique of approximately calculating the integrals called the pseudo-linear (PL) procedure: this method is A-stable. This article contains the following examples: 1st order ordinary differential equations (ODEs), 2nd order linear ODEs, stiff system of ODEs (neutron kinetics), one-dimensional parabolic (diffusion) partial differential equations. In this latter case, this PL method coincides with the Crank-Nicholson method

  1. Mapping QTLs Controlling Flowering Time and Important Agronomic Traits in Pearl Millet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sushil; Hash, C Tom; Nepolean, T; Satyavathi, C Tara; Singh, Govind; Mahendrakar, Mahesh D; Yadav, Rattan S; Srivastava, Rakesh K

    2017-01-01

    Pearl millet [ Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is a staple crop for the people of arid and semi-arid regions of the world. It is fast gaining importance as a climate resilient nutricereal. Exploiting the bold seeded, semi-dwarf, and early flowering genotypes in pearl millet is a key breeding strategy to enhance yield, adaptability, and for adequate food in resource-poor zones. Genetic variation for agronomic traits of pearl millet inbreds can be used to dissect complex traits through quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. This study was undertaken to map a set of agronomically important traits like flowering time (FT), plant height (PH), panicle length (PL), and grain weight (self and open-pollinated seeds) in the recombinant inbred line (RIL) population of ICMB 841-P3 × 863B-P2 cross. Excluding grain weight (open pollinated), heritabilities for FT, PH, PL, grain weight (selfed) were in high to medium range. A total of six QTLs for FT were detected on five chromosomes, 13 QTLs for PH on six chromosomes, 11 QTLs for PL on five chromosomes, and 14 QTLs for 1,000-grain weight (TGW) spanning five chromosomes. One major QTL on LG3 was common for FT and PH. Three major QTLs for PL, one each on LG1, LG2, and LG6B were detected. The large effect QTL for TGW (self) on LG6B had a phenotypic variance ( R 2 ) of 62.1%. The R 2 for FT, TGW (self), and PL ranged from 22.3 to 59.4%. A total of 21 digenic interactions were discovered for FT ( R 2 = 18-40%) and PL ( R 2 = 13-19%). The epistatic effects did not reveal any significant QTL × QTL × environment (QQE) interactions. The mapped QTLs for flowering time and other agronomic traits in present experiment can be used for marker-assisted selection (MAS) and genomic selection (GS) breeding programs.

  2. Time-domain electric field enhancement on micrometer scale in coupled split ring resonator upon terahertz radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Simon Lehnskov; Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Hoffmann, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    We present here a novel design for a coupled split ring resonator antenna optimized for time-domain electric field enhancement in the 0.1 to 1 terahertz (THz) range. The antenna is designed to be sensitive to the incident field polarization and seeks to avoid metal damage due to electron bombardm...

  3. Enhancing Student Engagement and Active Learning through Just-in-Time Teaching and the Use of Powerpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    This instructional article is about an innovative teaching approach for enhancing student engagement and active learning in higher education through a combination of just-in-time teaching and the use of PowerPoint technology. The central component of this approach was students' pre-lecture preparation of a short PowerPoint presentation in which…

  4. Cytomegalovirus-enhanced development of transplant arteriosclerosis in the rat; effect of timing of infection and recipient responsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hillebrands, JL; van Dam, JG; Onuta, G; Klatter, FA; Grauls, G; Bruggeman, CA; Rozing, J

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is put forward as a risk factor for transplant arteriosclerosis (TA). In this article, we studied CMV-enhanced development of TA in rats in different donor/recipient combinations in relation to the timing of infection. Recipient rats transplanted with an aortic allograft (BN to

  5. Quantitative analysis of the improvement in high zoom maritime tracking due to real-time image enhancement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Bachoo, AK

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to evaluate the improvement in the performance of tracking small maritime targets due to real-time enhancement of the video streams from high zoom cameras on pan-tilt pedestal. Due to atmospheric conditions these images can frequently...

  6. [Use of sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in preeclampsia : a monocentric retrospective analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeurgt, L; Chantraine, F; De Marchin, J; Minon, J-M; Nisolle, M

    2017-09-01

    Soluble Fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) is an anti-angiogenic factor released in higher amounts in preeclampsia and implicated in endothelial dysfunction. sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is used in the prediction of preeclampsia. An sFlt-1/PlGF ratio inferior to 38 predicts the short-term absence of preeclampsia. A ratio ? 85 (early-onset PE) or ? 110 (late-onset of PE) could diagnose preeclampsia. In this study, sFlt-1/PlGF ratio has been measured in 183 patients. Sixty-seven preeclampsia have been diagnosed preeclamptic at delivery. The median sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was 100.3. The median ratio among women with preeclampsia (N=67) versus no preeclampsia (N=116) was 212.7 versus 35.4. In accordance with this analysis, an sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ? 38 has a sensibility of 95,5 % and a specificity of 73.3 %. The positive predictive value and the negative predictive value were 67.4 % and 96.6 %, respectively. These results suggest that sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is helpful in the diagnosis of preeclampsia.

  7. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-05-17

    Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs' broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ~20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ0/τ100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O2/τ at 100% O2) that is often used to express S increases ×1.9 to 20.7 relative to the lower molecular weight PS, where this ratio is 11.0. This increase reduces to ×1.7 when the PEG is added (τ0/τ100=18.2), but the latter results in an increase ×2.7 in the PL intensity. The sensor's response time is <10s in all cases. The microporous structure of these blended films, with PEG decorating PS pores, serves a dual purpose. It results in light scattering that reduces the EL that is waveguided in the substrate of the OLEDs and

  8. Estimation of aortic time-enhancement curve in pharmacokinetic analysis. Dynamic study by multi-detector row computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Kidoya, Eiji; Higashimura, Kyoji; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masayuki

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to the development of software that provides a physiologic model of contrast medium enhancement by incorporating available physiologic data and contrast medium pharmacokinetics to predict an organ-specific aortic time-enhancement curve (TEC) in computed tomography (CT) with various contrast medium injection protocols in patients of various heights, weights, cardiac output levels, and so on. The physiologic model of contrast medium enhancement was composed of six compartments for early contrast enhancement pharmacokinetics. Contrast medium is injected via the antecubital vein and distributed to the right side of the heart, the pulmonary compartment, the left side of the heart, and the aorta. It then circulates back to the right side of the heart via the systemic circulation. A computer-based, compartmental model of the aortic system was generated using human physiologic parameters and six differential equations to describe the transport of contrast medium. Aortic TEC generated by the computer-based physiologic model of contrast medium enhancement showed validity and agreement with clinical data and findings published previously. A computer-based physiologic model that may help predict organ-specific CT contrast medium enhancement for different injection protocols was developed. Such a physiologic model may have multiple clinical applications. (author)

  9. Taxing Times: An Educational Intervention to Enhance Moral Reasoning in Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Elaine

    2015-01-01

    This paper outlines the development and implementation of an online educational intervention designed to enhance moral reasoning in higher level tax students. Before decisions are made about how to behave ethically, cognitive moral reasoning takes place. The importance of education in developing morally sensitive individuals who use principled…

  10. Enhancement of Single-Channel Periodic Signals in the Time-Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2012-01-01

    speech. That is, signal-dependent methods based on the signal statistics will introduce undesired distortion for some parts of speech compared to signal-independent methods based on the noise statistics. Since both the signal-independent and signal-dependent approaches to speech enhancement have...

  11. Aclimatização e crescimento de plântulas de mirtileiro 'climax' micropropagadas em função do substrato e da cobertura plástica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Regina Pelizza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a aclimatização e o crescimento de plântulas micropropagadas de mirtileiro (Vaccinium ashei cv. Climax, em função do substrato e da cobertura plástica, durante os meses de abril a dezembro de 2008. Foram utilizados três substratos (casca de arroz carbonizada + Húmus Fértil®, Plantmax® + vermiculita e solo + serragem jovem de Pínus e dois sistemas de cobertura (com e sem cobertura plástica sobre as plântulas. As plântulas, acondicionadas em sacos plásticos com os respectivos substratos e sistemas de cobertura, permaneceram em casa de vegetação com temperatura controlada, por 30 dias. Após, permaneceram por 60 dias sem controle ambiental e, em seguida, foram transferidas para telado. A partir de 30 dias, foram avaliados a percentagem de sobrevivência e o incremento de altura das plântulas. Ao término do experimento, foi avaliada a massa fresca e seca da parte aérea e da raiz das plântulas. A percentagem de sobrevivência das plântulas de mirtileiro em substrato Plantmax® + vermiculita é igual quando utilizada ou não a cobertura plástica. O uso da cobertura plástica não foi eficiente para incrementar a altura média das plântulas nos substratos Plantmax® + vermiculita e solo + serragem jovem. A maior massa seca de parte aérea foi obtida com o uso de Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica sobre as plântulas. Plantmax® + vermiculita com e sem cobertura plástica proporcionam maior massa seca radicular que os demais substratos e respectivos sistemas de cobertura, porém Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica é superior a Plantmax® + vermiculita com cobertura plástica. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, conclui-se que o melhor substrato e sistema de cobertura para a aclimatização e o crescimento de plântulas de mirtileiro 'Climax' são Plantmax® + vermiculita sem cobertura plástica.

  12. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignee, Andre; Jedrejczyk, Maciej; Schuessler, Gudrun; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2010-01-01

    Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignee, Andre [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: andre.ignee@gmx.de; Jedrejczyk, Maciej [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 2nd Division of Medical Faculty, Medical University, Ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: mjedrzejczyk@interia.pl; Schuessler, Gudrun [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: gudrunschuessler@gmx.de; Jakubowski, Wieslaw [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, 2nd Division of Medical Faculty, Medical University, Ul. Kondratowicza 8, 03-242 Warsaw (Poland)], E-mail: ewajbmd@go2.pl; Dietrich, Christoph F. [Department of Internal Medicine and Diagnostic Imaging, Caritas Hospital, Uhlandstr. 7, 97990 Bad Mergentheim (Germany)], E-mail: christoph.dietrich@ckbm.de

    2010-01-15

    Introduction: Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Patients and methods: Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60 s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. Results: The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10 cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6 cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. Discussion: (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4 cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6 cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves.

  14. Quantitative contrast enhanced ultrasound of the liver for time intensity curves-Reliability and potential sources of errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignee, Andre; Jedrejczyk, Maciej; Schuessler, Gudrun; Jakubowski, Wieslaw; Dietrich, Christoph F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Time intensity curves for real-time contrast enhanced low MI ultrasound is a promising technique since it adds objective data to the more subjective conventional contrast enhanced technique. Current developments showed that the amount of uptake in modern targeted therapy strategies correlates with therapy response. Nevertheless no basic research has been done concerning the reliability and validity of the method. Patients and methods: Videos sequences of 31 consecutive patients for at least 60 s were recorded. Parameters analysed: area under the curve, maximum intensity, mean transit time, perfusion index, time to peak, rise time. The influence of depth, lateral shift as well as size and shape of the region of interest was analysed. Results: The parameters time to peak and rise time showed a good stability in different depths. Overall there was a variation >50% for all other parameters. Mean transit time, time to peak and rise time were stable from 3 to 10 cm depths, whereas all other parameters showed only satisfying results at 4-6 cm. Time to peak and rise time were stable as well against lateral shifting whereas all other parameters had again variations over 50%. Size and shape of the region of interest did not influence the results. Discussion: (1) It is important to compare regions of interest, e.g. in a tumour vs. representative parenchyma in the same depths. (2) Time intensity curves should not be analysed in a depth of less than 4 cm. (3) The parameters area under the curve, perfusion index and maximum intensity should not be analysed in a depth more than 6 cm. (4) Size and shape of a region of interest in liver parenchyma do not affect time intensity curves.

  15. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF4:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Han; Cao, Wenbing; Huang, Qingming; Ma, En; Zhang, Xinqi; Yu, Jianchang

    2013-01-01

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF 4 synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF 4 :Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY 4 to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er 3+ was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF 4 : Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY 4

  16. The First Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophage Endolysin (PlyPl23) with High Potential to Control American Foulbrood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana; Leite, Marta; Kluskens, Leon D; Santos, Sílvio B; Melo, Luís D R; Azeredo, Joana

    2015-01-01

    Endolysins, which are peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes expressed during the terminal stage of the reproduction cycle of bacteriophages, have great potential to control Gram-positive pathogens. This work describes the characterization of a novel endolysin (PlyPl23) encoded on the genome of Paenibacillus larvae phage phiIBB_Pl23 with high potential to control American foulbrood. This bacterial disease, caused by P. larvae, is widespread in North America and Europe and causes important economic losses in apiculture. The restriction to antibiotic residues in honey imposed by the EU legislation hinders its therapeutic use to combat American foulbrood and enforces the development of alternative antimicrobial methods. The new endolysin described herein has an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase catalytic domain and exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against common P. larvae genotypes. Moreover, the enzyme displays high antimicrobial activity in a range of pH that matches environmental conditions (pH between 5.0 and 7.0), showing its feasible application in the field. At pH 7.0, a concentration of 0.2 μM of enzyme was enough to lyse 104 CFU.mL-1 of P. larvae in no more than 2 h. The presence of sucrose and of the substances present in the larvae gut content did not affect the enzyme activity. Interestingly, an increase of activity was observed when PlyPl23 was previously incubated in royal jelly. Furthermore, in vivo safety evaluation assays demonstrated that this enzyme is not toxic to the bee larvae. The present work describes for the first time an endolysin encoded in a P. larvae phage that presents high potential to integrate a commercial product to control the problematic American foulbrood.

  17. The First Paenibacillus larvae Bacteriophage Endolysin (PlyPl23 with High Potential to Control American Foulbrood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Oliveira

    Full Text Available Endolysins, which are peptidoglycan-degrading enzymes expressed during the terminal stage of the reproduction cycle of bacteriophages, have great potential to control Gram-positive pathogens. This work describes the characterization of a novel endolysin (PlyPl23 encoded on the genome of Paenibacillus larvae phage phiIBB_Pl23 with high potential to control American foulbrood. This bacterial disease, caused by P. larvae, is widespread in North America and Europe and causes important economic losses in apiculture. The restriction to antibiotic residues in honey imposed by the EU legislation hinders its therapeutic use to combat American foulbrood and enforces the development of alternative antimicrobial methods. The new endolysin described herein has an N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase catalytic domain and exhibits a broad-spectrum activity against common P. larvae genotypes. Moreover, the enzyme displays high antimicrobial activity in a range of pH that matches environmental conditions (pH between 5.0 and 7.0, showing its feasible application in the field. At pH 7.0, a concentration of 0.2 μM of enzyme was enough to lyse 104 CFU.mL-1 of P. larvae in no more than 2 h. The presence of sucrose and of the substances present in the larvae gut content did not affect the enzyme activity. Interestingly, an increase of activity was observed when PlyPl23 was previously incubated in royal jelly. Furthermore, in vivo safety evaluation assays demonstrated that this enzyme is not toxic to the bee larvae. The present work describes for the first time an endolysin encoded in a P. larvae phage that presents high potential to integrate a commercial product to control the problematic American foulbrood.

  18. The enhanced greenhouse signal versus natural variations in observed climate time series: a statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwiese, C D [J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1996-12-31

    It is a well-known fact that human activities lead to an atmospheric concentration increase of some IR-active trace gases (greenhouse gases GHG) and that this influence enhances the `greenhouse effect`. However, there are major quantitative and regional uncertainties in the related climate model projections and the observational data reflect the whole complex of both anthropogenic and natural forcing of the climate system. This contribution aims at the separation of the anthropogenic enhanced greenhouse signal in observed global surface air temperature data versus other forcing using statistical methods such as multiple (multiforced) regressions and neural networks. The competitive natural forcing considered are volcanic and solar activity, in addition the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) mechanism. This analysis will be extended also to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and anthropogenic sulfate formation in the troposphere

  19. The enhanced greenhouse signal versus natural variations in observed climate time series: a statistical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenwiese, C.D. [J.W. Goethe Univ., Frankfurt (Germany). Inst. for Meteorology and Geophysics

    1995-12-31

    It is a well-known fact that human activities lead to an atmospheric concentration increase of some IR-active trace gases (greenhouse gases GHG) and that this influence enhances the `greenhouse effect`. However, there are major quantitative and regional uncertainties in the related climate model projections and the observational data reflect the whole complex of both anthropogenic and natural forcing of the climate system. This contribution aims at the separation of the anthropogenic enhanced greenhouse signal in observed global surface air temperature data versus other forcing using statistical methods such as multiple (multiforced) regressions and neural networks. The competitive natural forcing considered are volcanic and solar activity, in addition the ENSO (El Nino/Southern Oscillation) mechanism. This analysis will be extended also to the NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) and anthropogenic sulfate formation in the troposphere

  20. How can audiovisual pathways enhance the temporal resolution of time-compressed speech in blind subjects?

    OpenAIRE

    Hertrich, Ingo; Dietrich, Susanne; Ackermann, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    In blind people, the visual channel cannot assist face-to-face communication via lipreading or visual prosody. Nevertheless, the visual system may enhance the evaluation of auditory information due to its cross-links to (1) the auditory system, (2) supramodal representations, and (3) frontal action-related areas. Apart from feedback or top-down support of, for example, the processing of spatial or phonological representations, experimental data have shown that the visual system can impact aud...

  1. Long-period ground motions at near-regional distances caused by the PL wave from, inland earthquakes: Observation and numerical simulation of the 2004 Mid-Niigata, Japan, Mw6.6 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furumura, T.; Kennett, B. L. N.

    2017-12-01

    We examine the development of large, long-period ground motions at near-regional distances (D=50-200 km) generated by the PL wave from large, shallow inland earthquakes, based on the analysis of strong motion records and finite-difference method (FDM) simulations of seismic wave propagation. PL wave can be represented as leaking modes of the crustal waveguide and are commonly observed at regional distances between 300 to 1000 km as a dispersed, long-period signal with a dominant period of about 20 s. However, observations of recent earthquakes at the dense K-NET and KiK-net strong motion networks in Japan demonstrate the dominance of the PL wave at near-regional (D=50-200 km) distances as, e.g., for the 2004 Mid Niigata, Japan, earthquake (Mw6.6; h=13 km). The observed PL wave signal between P and S wave shows a large, dispersed wave packet with dominant period of about T=4-10 s with amplitude almost comparable to or larger than the later arrival of the S and surface waves. Thus, the early arrivals of the long-period PL wave immediately after P wave can enhance resonance with large-scale constructions such as high-rise buildings and large oil-storage tanks etc. with potential for disaster. Such strong effects often occurred during the 2004 Mid Niigata earthquakes and other large earthquakes which occurred nearby the Kanto (Tokyo) basin. FDM simulation of seismic wave propagation employing realistic 3-D sedimentary structure models demonstrates the process by which the PL wave develops at near-regional distances from shallow, crustal earthquakes by constructive interference of the P wave in the long-period band. The amplitude of the PL wave is very sensitive to low-velocity structure in the near-surface. Lowered velocities help to develop large SV-to-P conversion and weaken the P-to-SV conversion at the free surface. Both effects enhance the multiple P reflections in the crustal waveguide and prevent the leakage of seismic energy into the mantle. However, a very

  2. User's guide for GSMP, a General System Modeling Program. [In PL/I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J. M.

    1979-10-01

    GSMP is designed for use by systems analysis teams. Given compiled subroutines that model the behavior of components plus instructions as to how they are to be interconnected, this program links them together to model a complete system. GSMP offers a fast response to management requests for reconfigurations of old systems and even initial configurations of new systems. Standard system-analytic services are provided: parameter sweeps, graphics, free-form input and formatted output, file storage and recovery, user-tested error diagnostics, component model and integration checkout and debugging facilities, sensitivity analysis, and a multimethod optimizer with nonlinear constraint handling capability. Steady-state or cyclic time-dependence is simulated directly, initial-value problems only indirectly. The code is written in PL/I, but interfaces well with FORTRAN component models. Over the last five years GSMP has been used to model theta-pinch, tokamak, and heavy-ion fusion power plants, open- and closed-cycle magneto-hydrodynamic power plants, and total community energy systems.

  3. Experiment Design Regularization-Based Hardware/Software Codesign for Real-Time Enhanced Imaging in Uncertain Remote Sensing Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo Atoche A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new aggregated Hardware/Software (HW/SW codesign approach to optimization of the digital signal processing techniques for enhanced imaging with real-world uncertain remote sensing (RS data based on the concept of descriptive experiment design regularization (DEDR is addressed. We consider the applications of the developed approach to typical single-look synthetic aperture radar (SAR imaging systems operating in the real-world uncertain RS scenarios. The software design is aimed at the algorithmic-level decrease of the computational load of the large-scale SAR image enhancement tasks. The innovative algorithmic idea is to incorporate into the DEDR-optimized fixed-point iterative reconstruction/enhancement procedure the convex convergence enforcement regularization via constructing the proper multilevel projections onto convex sets (POCS in the solution domain. The hardware design is performed via systolic array computing based on a Xilinx Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA XC4VSX35-10ff668 and is aimed at implementing the unified DEDR-POCS image enhancement/reconstruction procedures in a computationally efficient multi-level parallel fashion that meets the (near real-time image processing requirements. Finally, we comment on the simulation results indicative of the significantly increased performance efficiency both in resolution enhancement and in computational complexity reduction metrics gained with the proposed aggregated HW/SW co-design approach.

  4. Enhanced Discrete-Time Scheduler Engine for MBMS E-UMTS System Level Simulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pratas, Nuno; Rodrigues, António

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the design of an E-UMTS system level simulator developed for the study of optimization methods for the MBMS is presented. The simulator uses a discrete event based philosophy, which captures the dynamic behavior of the Radio Network System. This dynamic behavior includes the user...... mobility, radio interfaces and the Radio Access Network. Its given emphasis on the enhancements developed for the simulator core, the Event Scheduler Engine. Two implementations for the Event Scheduler Engine are proposed, one optimized for single core processors and other for multi-core ones....

  5. 1,2-propanediol-trehalose mixture as a potent quantitative real-time PCR enhancer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horáková, Helena; Polakovičová, Iva; Shaik, Gouse Mohiddin; Eitler, Jiří; Bugajev, Viktor; Dráberová, Lubica; Dráber, Petr

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 11, - (2011), e41 ISSN 1472-6750 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200520701; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H084; GA ČR GA301/09/1826; GA ČR GAP302/10/1759 Grant - others:GA AV CR(CZ) M200520901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : qPCR enhancer * trehalose * 1,2-propanediol Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.349, year: 2011

  6. Enhancement of Life Time of the Dimensionally Stable Anode for Copper Electroplating Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Son Seong Ho

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to enhance the long-term stability of DSA for copper electroplating process, in the present study, noble metal oxides with excellent electrochemical properties was used and optimum condition was determined the ratio of noble metal oxides, surface pre-treatment of titanium substrate and heat treatment. The effect of the surface pretreatment of titanium substrate and ratio of noble metal oxides were estimated by accelerated test at the highly current density conditions. The lifetime of DSA increase six-fold higher as the oxide thickness of Ta 7 : Ir 3 composition ratio. Under the optimal condition, surface pretreatment led to dramatic increase in the lifetime of DSA.

  7. Enhanced diffusion with abnormal temperature dependence in underdamped space-periodic systems subject to time-periodic driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, I. G.; Marchenko, I. I.; Zhiglo, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    We present a study of the diffusion enhancement of underdamped Brownian particles in a one-dimensional symmetric space-periodic potential due to external symmetric time-periodic driving with zero mean. We show that the diffusivity can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude at an appropriate choice of the driving amplitude and frequency. The diffusivity demonstrates abnormal (decreasing) temperature dependence at the driving amplitudes exceeding a certain value. At any fixed driving frequency Ω normal temperature dependence of the diffusivity is restored at low enough temperatures, T oscillation frequency at the potential minimum, the diffusivity is shown to decrease with Ω according to a power law, with the exponent related to the transient superdiffusion exponent. This behavior is found similar for the cases of sinusoidal in time and piecewise constant periodic ("square") driving.

  8. Long time effects in radiation enhanced permeation of H2 through stainless steel tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzinger, G.; Dobrozemsky, R.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of this research is to give the particulars of influences of penetrating radiation on permeation and diffusion processes of hydrogen isotopes in stainless steel. Short time as well as long time effects have been investigated. Such processes are not only of interest for the fuel inventory of fusion reactors, but also for environmental aspects (tritium release). (Author)

  9. Advantages of time-resolved contrast-enhanced 4D MR angiography in splenic arterial steal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obmann, Verena C; Chalian, Majid; Mansoori, Bahar; Sanchez, Edmund; Gulani, Vikas

    2018-03-07

    Splenic artery steal syndrome (SASS) is a severe complication affecting up to 10% of orthotopic liver transplant (OLT) patients. In this case report, we present a 35-year-old male with OLT secondary to liver failure due to hemochromatosis, who developed SASS. We describe potential application of different imaging techniques for diagnosis of SASS with focus on the value of time-resolved contrast enhanced 4D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Strip Silicon Photo-Multiplier: An innovation for enhanced time and position measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doroud, K., E-mail: Katayoun.Doroud@cern.ch [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Williams, M.C.S. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN, Bologna (Italy); Yamamoto, K. [Solid State Division, Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., Hamamatsu (Japan)

    2017-05-01

    There is considerable R&D concerning precise time measurement from a variety of detectors, and in particular for the Silicon PhotoMultiplier (SiPM). In this paper we discuss a new geometry for the SiPM in the form of a strip. A strip can be read out at both end, with each end coupled to an individual TDC (time to digital converter). The time difference is related to the position of the firing SPAD along the length of the strip, while the average of the two times gives the time of the hit. Results from the testing of the first prototype Strip SiPMs are presented in this paper.

  11. Real-Time Transportation Mode Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Enhanced with Mode Availability Layers: A Case Study in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ji Byon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, departments of transportation (DOTs have dispatched probe vehicles with dedicated vehicles and drivers for monitoring traffic conditions. Emerging assisted GPS (AGPS and accelerometer-equipped smartphones offer new sources of raw data that arise from voluntarily-traveling smartphone users provided that their modes of transportation can correctly be identified. By introducing additional raster map layers that indicate the availability of each mode, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of mode detection results. Even in its simplest form, an artificial neural network (ANN excels at pattern recognition with a relatively short processing timeframe once it is properly trained, which is suitable for real-time mode identification purposes. Dubai is one of the major cities in the Middle East and offers unique environments, such as a high density of extremely high-rise buildings that may introduce multi-path errors with GPS signals. This paper develops real-time mode identification ANNs enhanced with proposed mode availability geographic information system (GIS layers, firstly for a universal mode detection and, secondly for an auto mode detection for the particular intelligent transportation system (ITS application of traffic monitoring, and compares the results with existing approaches. It is found that ANN-based real-time mode identification, enhanced by mode availability GIS layers, significantly outperforms the existing methods.

  12. Analysis of factors influencing the integrated bolus peak timing in contrast-enhanced brain computed tomographic angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Soon Yong; Choi, Kwan Woo; Jeong, Hoi Woun; Jang, Seo Goo; Jung, Jae Young; Yun, Jung Soo; Kim, Ki Won; Lee, Young Ah; Son, Jin Hyun; Min, Jung Whan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the factors influencing integrated bolus peak timing in contrast- enhanced computed tomographic angiography (CTA) and to determine a method of calculating personal peak time. The optimal time was calculated by performing multiple linear regression analysis, after finding the influence factors through correlation analysis between integrated peak time of contrast medium and personal measured value by monitoring CTA scans. The radiation exposure dose in CTA was 716.53 mGy·cm and the radiation exposure dose in monitoring scan was 15.52 mGy (2 - 34 mGy). The results were statistically significant (p < .01). Regression analysis revealed, a -0.160 times decrease with a one-step increase in heart rate in male, and -0.004, -0.174, and 0.006 times decrease with one-step in DBP, heart rate, and blood sugar, respectively, in female. In a consistency test of peak time by calculating measured peak time and peak time by using the regression equation, the consistency was determined to be very high for male and female. This study could prevent unnecessary dose exposure by encouraging in clinic calculation of personal integrated peak time of contrast medium prior to examination

  13. Spatiotemporally enhancing time-series DMSP/OLS nighttime light imagery for assessing large-scale urban dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanhua; Weng, Qihao

    2017-06-01

    Accurate, up-to-date, and consistent information of urban extents is vital for numerous applications central to urban planning, ecosystem management, and environmental assessment and monitoring. However, current large-scale urban extent products are not uniform with respect to definition, spatial resolution, temporal frequency, and thematic representation. This study aimed to enhance, spatiotemporally, time-series DMSP/OLS nighttime light (NTL) data for detecting large-scale urban changes. The enhanced NTL time series from 1992 to 2013 were firstly generated by implementing global inter-calibration, vegetation-based spatial adjustment, and urban archetype-based temporal modification. The dataset was then used for updating and backdating urban changes for the contiguous U.S.A. (CONUS) and China by using the Object-based Urban Thresholding method (i.e., NTL-OUT method, Xie and Weng, 2016b). The results showed that the updated urban extents were reasonably accurate, with city-scale RMSE (root mean square error) of 27 km2 and Kappa of 0.65 for CONUS, and 55 km2 and 0.59 for China, respectively. The backdated urban extents yielded similar accuracy, with RMSE of 23 km2 and Kappa of 0.63 in CONUS, while 60 km2 and 0.60 in China. The accuracy assessment further revealed that the spatial enhancement greatly improved the accuracy of urban updating and backdating by significantly reducing RMSE and slightly increasing Kappa values. The temporal enhancement also reduced RMSE, and improved the spatial consistency between estimated and reference urban extents. Although the utilization of enhanced NTL data successfully detected urban size change, relatively low locational accuracy of the detected urban changes was observed. It is suggested that the proposed methodology would be more effective for updating and backdating global urban maps if further fusion of NTL data with higher spatial resolution imagery was implemented.

  14. A multi-objective location-inventory model for 3PL providers with sustainable considerations under uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Daghigh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, logistics development is considered as an important aspect of any country’s development. Outsourcing logistics activities to third party logistics (3PL providers is a common way to achieve logistics development. On the other hand, globalization and increasing customers’ concern about the environmental impact of activities as well as the appearance of the issue of social responsibility have led companies employ sustainable supply chain management, which considers economic, environmental and social benefits, simultaneously. This paper proposes a multi-objective model to design logistics network for 3PL providers by considering sustainable objectives under uncertainty. Objective functions include minimizing the total cost, minimizing greenhouse gas emission and maximizing social responsibility subject to fair access to products, number of created job opportunities and local community development. It is worth mentioning that in the present paper the perishability of products is also considered. A numerical example is provided to solve and validate model using augmented Epsilon-Constraint method. The results show that three sustainable objectives were in conflict and as the one receives more desirable values, the others fall into more undesirable values. In addition, by increasing maximum perishable time periods and by considering lateral transshipment among facilities of a level one can improve sustainability indices of the problem, which indicates the necessity of such policy in improving network sustainability.

  15. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame: Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    organization. The ten full-time personnel, assisted by part-time helpers , would fill, for example, the following functional billets: 1. Chief of Staff...FDT members would be selected based on the following criteria: past performance, leadership potential, language skills , and demonstrated willingness to...An additional advantage for the National Guard and the states of the units participating in this FEP component is the additional skill sets that are

  16. Real time interrogation technique for fiber Bragg grating enhanced fiber loop ringdown sensors array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunlong; Li, Ruoming; Shi, Yuechun; Zhang, Jintao; Chen, Xiangfei; Liu, Shengchun

    2015-06-01

    A novel fiber Bragg grating aided fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) sensor array and the wavelength-time multiplexing based interrogation technique for the FLRD sensors array are proposed. The interrogation frequency of the system is formulated and the interrelationships among the parameters of the system are analyzed. To validate the performance of the proposed system, a five elements array is experimentally demonstrated, and the system shows the capability of real time monitoring every FLRD element with interrogation frequency of 125.5 Hz.

  17. Max CAPR: high-resolution 3D contrast-enhanced MR angiography with acquisition times under 5 seconds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Clifton R; Borisch, Eric A; Glockner, James F; Mostardi, Petrice M; Rossman, Phillip J; Young, Phillip M; Riederer, Stephen J

    2010-10-01

    High temporal and spatial resolution is desired in imaging of vascular abnormalities having short arterial-to-venous transit times. Methods that exploit temporal correlation to reduce the observed frame time demonstrate temporal blurring, obfuscating bolus dynamics. Previously, a Cartesian acquisition with projection reconstruction-like (CAPR) sampling method has been demonstrated for three-dimensional contrast-enhanced angiographic imaging of the lower legs using two-dimensional sensitivity-encoding acceleration and partial Fourier acceleration, providing 1mm isotropic resolution of the calves, with 4.9-sec frame time and 17.6-sec temporal footprint. In this work, the CAPR acquisition is further undersampled to provide a net acceleration approaching 40 by eliminating all view sharing. The tradeoff of frame time and temporal footprint in view sharing is presented and characterized in phantom experiments. It is shown that the resultant 4.9-sec acquisition time, three-dimensional images sets have sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to clearly portray arterial and venous phases of contrast passage. It is further hypothesized that these short temporal footprint sequences provide diagnostic quality images. This is tested and shown in a series of nine contrast-enhanced MR angiography patient studies performed with the new method.

  18. Real-time in vivo micromorphology and histopathology of choroidal osteoma using enhanced depth imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameez Hussain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal osteoma is a usually unilateral benign tumor of the choroid composed of mature bone. Optical coherence tomography (OCT has been used to image osteoma for several years. With the advent of enhanced depth imaging (EDI feature of spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT, better visualization of the morphology of choroidal lesions has been possible. Herein we present a case of choroidal osteoma in a 45-year-old woman, wherein in vivo morphology of the choroidal osteoma had been visualized using EDI technique of SD-OCT before and after performing photodynamic therapy. EDI OCT has proven to be a valuable noninvasive imaging modality, almost comparable to histopathological examination, for diagnosing choroidal osteomas and for providing an insight into the in vivo micromorphological changes occurring during the course of the disease.

  19. Real Time MODBUS Transmissions and Cryptography Security Designs and Enhancements of Protocol Sensitive Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aamir Shahzad

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Information technology (IT security has become a major concern due to the growing demand for information and massive development of client/server applications for various types of applications running on modern IT infrastructure. How has security been taken into account and which paradigms are necessary to minimize security issues while increasing efficiency, reducing the influence on transmissions, ensuring protocol independency and achieving substantial performance? We have found cryptography to be an absolute security mechanism for client/server architectures, and in this study, a new security design was developed with the MODBUS protocol, which is considered to offer phenomenal performance for future development and enhancement of real IT infrastructure. This study is also considered to be a complete development because security is tested in almost all ways of MODBUS communication. The computed measurements are evaluated to validate the overall development, and the results indicate a substantial improvement in security that is differentiated from conventional methods.

  20. A perturbative approach for enhancing the performance of time series forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mattos Neto, Paulo S G; Ferreira, Tiago A E; Lima, Aranildo R; Vasconcelos, Germano C; Cavalcanti, George D C

    2017-04-01

    This paper proposes a method to perform time series prediction based on perturbation theory. The approach is based on continuously adjusting an initial forecasting model to asymptotically approximate a desired time series model. First, a predictive model generates an initial forecasting for a time series. Second, a residual time series is calculated as the difference between the original time series and the initial forecasting. If that residual series is not white noise, then it can be used to improve the accuracy of the initial model and a new predictive model is adjusted using residual series. The whole process is repeated until convergence or the residual series becomes white noise. The output of the method is then given by summing up the outputs of all trained predictive models in a perturbative sense. To test the method, an experimental investigation was conducted on six real world time series. A comparison was made with six other methods experimented and ten other results found in the literature. Results show that not only the performance of the initial model is significantly improved but also the proposed method outperforms the other results previously published. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pemodelan Enterprise Architecture Sistem Informasi Akademik SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang Dengan Framework Zachman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alfonsa Chintia Dea Prananingrum

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang belum dapat memanfaatkan teknologi komputer secara optimal karena masih menggunakan cara manual dalam pengelolaan berbagai macam data akademik sehingga memberikan masalah seperti lambatnya dalam pembuatan laporan yang menyulitkan kepala sekolah dalam pengambilan keputusan. Oleh sebab itu, SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang membutuhkan Sistem Informasi Akademik untuk memberikan kemudahan dalam mengelola berbagai macam data akademik secara terintegrasi serta memberikan layanan yang lebih baik kepada siswanya. Sebuah model architecture enterprise Sistem Informasi Akademik dibutuhkan agar meminimalisir kegagalan ketika menerapkan sistem tersebut sekaligus dapat berjalan sesuai kebutuhan di SMA PL Don Bosko Semarang. Metode analisis dalam penelitian ini menggunakan Framework Zachman yang memberikan pondasi dalam membantu menyediakan struktur dasar organisasi sehingga dapat mendukung perancangan dan pengembangan sistem informasi suatu organisasi. Hasil dari penelitian ini berupa blueprint (cetak biru pemodelan Sistem Informasi Akademik. Kata kunci— sistem informasi akademik, architecture enterprise, framework zachman, bluprint

  2. Tunneling time in fluctuating symmetric double wells: Suppression and enhancement of tunneling by spatial symmetry-preserving perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kar, Susmita; Bhattacharyya, S.P.

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetric double-well parameters cause enhancement of tunneling at ω ∼ ω 0 while rectified sinusoidal fluctuations suppress it at ω∼(ω 0 )/2 . Research highlights: → Spatial symmetry-preserving sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of symmetrical double-well parameters have contrasting effects on tunneling. → Sinusoidal fluctuations at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 causes resonance enhancement of tunneling, ω 0 being the 0 + ↔ 1 + transition frequency. → Under rectified sinusoidal fluctuations at a frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 suppression or coherent destruction of tunneling is observed due to barrier localization. → The observations are explained by energy-gain analysis and analysis of the time-dependent overlap amplitudes. - Abstract: We investigate how tunneling-time gets affected by spatial symmetry preserving fluctuations in the parameters determining the width, barrier height and well-depth of a symmetric double-well potential. Sinusoidal and rectified sinusoidal fluctuations of the well-parameters are shown to have contrasting effects. Significant enhancement of tunneling is noticed when the well-parameters fluctuate sinusoidally with frequency ω ∼ ω 0 while under rectified sinusoidal perturbation, quenching of tunneling takes place at a fluctuation frequency ω∼1/2 ω 0 ,ω 0 , being the frequency of the lowest transition allowed by the fluctuation induced spatial perturbation of even parity. Time-dependent Hellmann-Feynman theorem is invoked to analyze the energy changes induced by fluctuations. It turns out that the enhancement of tunneling in the sinusoidally fluctuating double well at frequency ω ∼ ω 0 is caused by transition to 1 ± levels under the barrier while in the rectified sinusoidal field at ω∼1/2 ω 0 , a two-photon like process suppresses the tunneling by inducing barrier localization.

  3. Development and dissection of diagnostic SNP markers for the downy mildew resistance genes Pl Arg and Pl 8 and maker-assisted gene pyramiding in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Talukder, Z I; Hulke, B S; Foley, M E

    2017-06-01

    Diagnostic DNA markers are an invaluable resource in breeding programs for successful introgression and pyramiding of disease resistance genes. Resistance to downy mildew (DM) disease in sunflower is mediated by Pl genes which are known to be effective against the causal fungus, Plasmopara halstedii. Two DM resistance genes, Pl Arg and Pl 8 , are highly effective against P. halstedii races in the USA, and have been previously mapped to the sunflower linkage groups (LGs) 1 and 13, respectively, using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. In this study, we developed high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) maps encompassing the Pl arg and Pl 8 genes and identified diagnostic SNP markers closely linked to these genes. The specificity of the diagnostic markers was validated in a highly diverse panel of 548 sunflower lines. Dissection of a large marker cluster co-segregated with Pl Arg revealed that the closest SNP markers NSA_007595 and NSA_001835 delimited Pl Arg to an interval of 2.83 Mb on the LG1 physical map. The SNP markers SFW01497 and SFW06597 delimited Pl 8 to an interval of 2.85 Mb on the LG13 physical map. We also developed sunflower lines with homozygous, three gene pyramids carrying Pl Arg , Pl 8 , and the sunflower rust resistance gene R 12 using the linked SNP markers from a segregating F 2 population of RHA 340 (carrying Pl 8 )/RHA 464 (carrying Pl Arg and R 12 ). The high-throughput diagnostic SNP markers developed in this study will facilitate marker-assisted selection breeding, and the pyramided sunflower lines will provide durable resistance to downy mildew and rust diseases.

  4. Enhancement mechanisms of short-time aerobic digestion for waste activated sludge in the presence of cocoamidopropyl betaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Siqing; Zhou, Yun; Eustance, Everett; Zhang, Zhiqiang

    2017-10-18

    Cocoamidopropyl betaine (CAPB), which is a biodegradable ampholytic surfactant, has recently been found to dramatically enhance the aerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) in short-time aerobic digestion (STAD) systems. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms in which CAPB enhances WAS aerobic digestion performance. Results showed that CAPB could dramatically enhance the solubilization of soluble proteins (PN), polysaccharides (PS), nucleic acids (NA) and humic-like substances (HS) in the STAD system within the initial 2 h. Then PN, PS and NA gradually decreased, while HS showed only minor decease. In addition, CAPB increased the proportion of low MW fractions (biodegradable. Specific oxygen uptake rates and dehydrogenase enzyme activity results indicated that CAPB markedly improved the aerobic microorganism activities. Microbial community analyses and principle coordinate analyses (PCoA) revealed that CAPB increased the proportion of some functional microorganisms, including Proteobacteria, Planctomycetales, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Aeromonas. The changes driven by CAPB could explain the enhanced performance of the STAD system for WAS aerobic treatment.

  5. Phage Pl mutants with altered transducing abilities for Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wall, J.D.; Harriman, P.D.

    1974-01-01

    A search was made for mutants of the coliphage P1 with altered transducing frequencies. A method was developed for the rapid assay of transducing frequencies in single plaques using prophage lambda as the transduced bacterial marker. This procedure selects for mutants altered in their ability to package host DNA. Mutants with 5 to 10 times higher or 10 to 20 times lower frequencies than those of wild-type P1 were found. Not only are the markers used for the detection of the mutants affected, but all other markers are similarly affected (not always to the same extent). One of the high transducing frequency mutants is a suppressible amber, indicating that loss of a function increases P1's ability to package host DNA preferentially. (U.S.)

  6. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TROYER, G.L.

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse rise time versus photo peak position and resolution. These data were collected to investigate the effect of pulse rise time compensation on resolution and efficiency

  7. A methodology for rearranging transit stops for enhancing transit users generalized travel time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurul Hassan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study develops a methodology to consolidate transit stops. It develops a mathematical model and a program which takes stop consolidation decision(s according to users generalized travel time savings and desired accessibility. The model iterates until the users generalized travel time savings are maximized. The study tests this mathematical model in different hypothetical scenarios. Six factors (distance between stops, passenger activity, average cruising speed, maximum walking distance, service frequency, and percentage of decreased passengers with multiple levels were set to build the scenarios. Three responses (percentage of consolidated stops, percentages of travel time and operating time savings were observed. The findings showed that the distance between the stops the passenger activity, and the probable demand change (or the percentage of decreased passengers are the most influential factors. The frequency of service was found to be influential as well. The average cruising speed has very little influence on the response variables. Finally, the model is tested on two routes (route 900 and 930 of Al Ain City public bus service. It shows that 22 and 32 out of 98 and 126 stops can be consolidated in route 900 and 930 respectively. This can save considerable amounts of users travel and operating times. In monetary values, the savings are about $329,827 and $491,094 per year for routes 900 and 930, respectively.

  8. Modeling of time-lapse multi-scale seismic monitoring of CO2 injected into a fault zone to enhance the characterization of permeability in enhanced geothermal systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Borgia, A.; Daley, T. M.; Oldenburg, C. M.; Jung, Y.; Lee, K. J.; Doughty, C.; Altundas, B.; Chugunov, N.; Ramakrishnan, T. S.

    2017-12-01

    Subsurface permeable faults and fracture networks play a critical role for enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) by providing conduits for fluid flow. Characterization of the permeable flow paths before and after stimulation is necessary to evaluate and optimize energy extraction. To provide insight into the feasibility of using CO2 as a contrast agent to enhance fault characterization by seismic methods, we model seismic monitoring of supercritical CO2 (scCO2) injected into a fault. During the CO2 injection, the original brine is replaced by scCO2, which leads to variations in geophysical properties of the formation. To explore the technical feasibility of the approach, we present modeling results for different time-lapse seismic methods including surface seismic, vertical seismic profiling (VSP), and a cross-well survey. We simulate the injection and production of CO2 into a normal fault in a system based on the Brady's geothermal field and model pressure and saturation variations in the fault zone using TOUGH2-ECO2N. The simulation results provide changing fluid properties during the injection, such as saturation and salinity changes, which allow us to estimate corresponding changes in seismic properties of the fault and the formation. We model the response of the system to active seismic monitoring in time-lapse mode using an anisotropic finite difference method with modifications for fracture compliance. Results to date show that even narrow fault and fracture zones filled with CO2 can be better detected using the VSP and cross-well survey geometry, while it would be difficult to image the CO2 plume by using surface seismic methods.

  9. Parallel, explicit, and PWTD-enhanced time domain volume integral equation solver

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Yang

    2013-07-01

    Time domain volume integral equations (TDVIEs) are useful for analyzing transient scattering from inhomogeneous dielectric objects in applications as varied as photonics, optoelectronics, and bioelectromagnetics. TDVIEs typically are solved by implicit marching-on-in-time (MOT) schemes [N. T. Gres et al., Radio Sci., 36, 379-386, 2001], requiring the solution of a system of equations at each and every time step. To reduce the computational cost associated with such schemes, [A. Al-Jarro et al., IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat., 60, 5203-5215, 2012] introduced an explicit MOT-TDVIE method that uses a predictor-corrector technique to stably update field values throughout the scatterer. By leveraging memory-efficient nodal spatial discretization and scalable parallelization schemes [A. Al-Jarro et al., in 28th Int. Rev. Progress Appl. Computat. Electromagn., 2012], this solver has been successfully applied to the analysis of scattering phenomena involving 0.5 million spatial unknowns. © 2013 IEEE.

  10. Pulse Rise Time Characterization of a High Pressure Xenon Gamma Detector for use in Resolution Enhancement

    CERN Document Server

    Troyer, G L

    2000-01-01

    High pressure xenon ionization chamber detectors are possible alternatives to traditional thallium doped sodium iodide (NaI(Tl)) and hyperpure germanium as gamma spectrometers in certain applications. Xenon detectors incorporating a Frisch grid exhibit energy resolutions comparable to cadmium/zinc/telluride (CZT) (e.g. 2% (at) 662keV) but with far greater sensitive volumes. The Frisch grid reduces the position dependence of the anode pulse risetimes, but it also increases the detector vibration sensitivity, anode capacitance, voltage requirements and mechanical complexity. We have been investigating the possibility of eliminating the grid electrode in high-pressure xenon detectors and preserving the high energy resolution using electronic risetime compensation methods. A two-electrode cylindrical high pressure xenon gamma detector coupled to time-to-amplitude conversion electronics was used to characterize the pulse rise time of deposited gamma photons. Time discrimination was used to characterize the pulse r...

  11. External quality control of Pléiades orthoimagery – Part II: Geometric testing and validation of a Pléiades-1B orthoproduct covering Maussane test site

    OpenAIRE

    GRAZZINI Jacopo; AASTRAND Paer

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the current report is to provide with a final statement on the geometric capabilities of Pléiades sensors through the Quality Control (QC) of Pléiades-1B orthocorrected imagery following the recent validation of Pléiades-1A. Namely, the validation process aims at measuring the influence of different factors on the geometric accuracy of Pléiades-1B orthoimagery. For that purpose, a light benchmarking is implemented as: • a single far-from-nadir image datasetis evaluated using 2 ...

  12. Serial measurements of serum human placental lactogen (hPL) and serial ultrasound examinations in the evaluation of fetal growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Steen; von Tabouillot, D; Schioler, V

    2000-01-01

    Serial serum hPL measurements and serial ultrasound fetometry were compared in the evaluation of fetal growth by relating these two parameters to size at birth and to clinical factors known to influence size at birth. The data were from a prospective study of 1000 consecutive pregnant women...... considered to be at risk for fetal growth retardation with retrospective analysis. Serum hPL was measured by radioimmunoassay and fetal weight estimated by ultrasound every 3 weeks during the last trimester. hPL values were expressed as multiples of the median (MoM) and linear regression analysis of the h......PL MoM values was carried out for each pregnancy to find the slope of the line (hPL-slope); at least 3 serum hPL values were required. The estimated fetal weight and weight-for-age at birth was expressed in Z-scores. The individual intrauterine growth velocity was calculated by regression analysis...

  13. Marketingo strategija plėtojant lauko vaizdo reklamos verslą

    OpenAIRE

    Jucytė, Jolanta

    2008-01-01

    Baigiamajame magistro darbe „Marketingo strategija plėtojant lauko vaizdo reklamos verslą“ išskiriama lauko vaizdo reklamos verslo problema, jos plėtojimo aktualijos. Nagrinėjama marketingo strategijos sąvoka. Išanalizavus ir susiteminus literatūrą marketingo strategijos planavimo, formulavimo ir įgyvendinimo klausimu, pateiktas teorinis marketingo strategijos modelis, tinkantis lauko vaizdo reklamos verslui. Išorinės reklamos rinkoje aplinka nuolat kinta, aštrėja įmonių konkurencinė kova, to...

  14. Semiscale power loss experiment S-PL-3 with primary feed and bleed plant recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.R.; Streit, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to verify the accuracy of the RELAP5 model of the S-PL-3 experiment (part of the Semiscale loss-of-offsite-power test series) by comparing the RELAP5 model with actual data obtained during the experiment. Included are a description of the experiment, an analysis of preliminary results, and the comparison of posttest RELAP5 calculations with experiment data. RELAP5 modeling of the S-PL-3 transient produced qualitative agreement with experiment data

  15. Complement activation cascade triggered by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes: The challenges ahead

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghimi, S.M.; Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Hashemi, S.H.

    2010-01-01

    reactions to certain PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines in both experimental animals and man. These reactions are classified as pseudoallergy and may be associated with cardiopulmonary disturbance and other related symptoms of anaphylaxis. Recent studies suggest that complement activation may be a contributing......, but not a rate limiting factor, in eliciting hypersensitivity reactions to such nanomedicines in sensitive individuals. This is rather surprising since PEGylated structures are generally assumed to suppress protein adsorption and blood opsonization events including complement. Here, we examine the molecular...... basis of complement activation by PEG-PL engineered nanomedicines and carbon nanotubes and discuss the challenges ahead....

  16. Religinio turizmo plėtros galimybės Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje

    OpenAIRE

    Macijauskaitė, Indrė

    2010-01-01

    Darbo objektas – Religinis turizmas Lietuvoje. Probleminis (tiriamasis) klausimas: Kokios religinio turizmo plėtros galimybės Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje? Tyrimo tikslas: Ištirti religinio turizmo plėtros galimybes Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje. Rašant darbą buvo išsikelti keturi uždaviniai, kad išanalizuoti religinio turizmo sampratų kaitą ir religinio turizmo vietą Lietuvos turizmo rinkoje buvo atlikta mokslinė ir statistinių duomenų analizė. Išanalizuotos religinio turizmo galimybės Liet...

  17. Report: Enhanced Controls Needed to Prevent Further Abuse of Religious Compensatory Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #16-P-0333, September 27, 2016. Inadequate controls for Religious Compensatory Time resulted in payouts to employees of $73,514, and may result in additional payouts of up to $81,927. For more information, please click on the link above.

  18. Does Enhancing Work-Time Control and Flexibility Reduce Turnover? A Naturally Occurring Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Phyllis; Kelly, Erin L; Hill, Rachelle

    2011-02-01

    We investigate the turnover effects of an organizational innovation (ROWE-Results Only Work Environment) aimed at moving away from standard time practices to focus on results rather than time spent at work. To model rates of turnover, we draw on survey data from a sample of employees at a corporate headquarters (N = 775) and institutional records of turnover over eight months following the ROWE implementation. We find the odds of turnover are indeed lower for employees participating in the ROWE initiative, which offers employees greater work-time control and flexibility, and that this is the case regardless of employees' gender, age, or family life stage. ROWE also moderates the turnover effects of organizational tenure and negative home-to-work spillover, physical symptoms, and job insecurity, with those in ROWE who report these situations generally less likely to leave the organization. Additionally, ROWE reduces turnover intentions among those remaining with the corporation. This research moves the "opting-out" argument from one of private troubles to an issue of greater employee work-time control and flexibility by showing that an organizational policy initiative can reduce turnover.

  19. Enhancement of radiation effect on mouse intestinal crypt survival by timing of 5-fluorouracil administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, E.; Coffey, C.; Maruyama, Y.

    1977-01-01

    There is a marked dependence of mouse crypt survival on the sequence of combined drug-radiation treatment and on the time lapse between irradiation and drug administration. When 5-fluorouracil is administered 6 hours after irradiation or later (up to 18 hours postirradiation), crypt survival drops significantly

  20. Enhancing Time-Connectives with 3D Immersive Virtual Reality (IVR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passig, David; Eden, Sigal

    2010-01-01

    This study sought to test the most efficient representation mode with which children with hearing impairment could express a story while producing connectives indicating relations of time and of cause and effect. Using Bruner's (1973, 1986, 1990) representation stages, we tested the comparative effectiveness of Virtual Reality (VR) as a mode of…

  1. Enhanced Performance by Time-Frequency-Phase Feature for EEG-Based BCI Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baolei Xu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new motor parameter imagery paradigm using clench speed and clench force motor imagery. The time-frequency-phase features are extracted from mu rhythm and beta rhythms, and the features are optimized using three process methods: no-scaled feature using “MIFS” feature selection criterion, scaled feature using “MIFS” feature selection criterion, and scaled feature using “mRMR” feature selection criterion. Support vector machines (SVMs and extreme learning machines (ELMs are compared for classification between clench speed and clench force motor imagery using the optimized feature. Our results show that no significant difference in the classification rate between SVMs and ELMs is found. The scaled feature combinations can get higher classification accuracy than the no-scaled feature combinations at significant level of 0.01, and the “mRMR” feature selection criterion can get higher classification rate than the “MIFS” feature selection criterion at significant level of 0.01. The time-frequency-phase feature can improve the classification rate by about 20% more than the time-frequency feature, and the best classification rate between clench speed motor imagery and clench force motor imagery is 92%. In conclusion, the motor parameter imagery paradigm has the potential to increase the direct control commands for BCI control and the time-frequency-phase feature has the ability to improve BCI classification accuracy.

  2. Enhanced constitutive invasion activity in human nontumorigenic keratinocytes exposed to a low level of barium for a long time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen D; Yajima, Ichiro; Ohnuma, Shoko; Ohgami, Nobutaka; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ichihara, Gaku; Kato, Masashi

    2015-02-01

    We have recently demonstrated that exposure to barium for a short time (≤4 days) and at a low level (5 µM = 687 µg/L) promotes invasion of human nontumorigenic HaCaT cells, which have characteristics similar to those of normal keratinocytes, suggesting that exposure to barium for a short time enhances malignant characteristics. Here we examined the effect of exposure to low level of barium for a long time, a condition mimicking the exposure to barium through well water, on malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes. Constitutive invasion activity, focal adhesion kinase (FAK) protein expression and activity, and matrix metalloproteinase 14 (MMP14) protein expression in primary cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes, HaCaT keratinocytes, and HSC5 and A431 human squamous cell carcinoma cells were augmented following an increase in malignancy grade of the cells. Constitutive invasion activity, FAK phosphorylation, and MMP14 expression levels of HaCaT keratinocytes after treatment with 5 µM barium for 4 months were significantly higher than those of control untreated HaCaT keratinocytes. Taken together, our results suggest that exposure to a low level of barium for a long time enhances constitutive malignant characteristics of HaCaT keratinocytes via regulatory molecules (FAK and MMP14) for invasion. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Real-time data collection technologies: Enhanced decision-making and cost savings January, 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T.L.; Vu, H.Q.

    2006-01-01

    Hand-held computers, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and wireless communication devices are rapidly replacing traditional methods for field monitoring and data collection. Although pencil and paper remain important means of data transcription, field technicians can now use Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) to record their field notes and monitoring data. As data are uploaded wirelessly from the field, decision-makers can view realtime reports and maps that identify sample locations and monitoring results. The combination of PDAs, wireless communications, and web-based GIS provides field personnel and decision-makers many benefits throughout the life cycle of a project, including improved data consistency, real-time transfer of data from field locations to centralized databases, input validation, elimination of transcription errors, and cost savings. Concerns have been expressed however, about investing in hardware, software, and training for a new technology. This paper, based on several years of experience using wireless technologies for dozens of projects, is focused specifically on two case studies. The first case study is a large lead removal site in the Midwest at which real-time data collection technologies were used throughout the project to collect thousands of data points. The second is the Hurricane Katrina/Rita emergency response requiring rapid data collection under extraordinary circumstances. At both sites, the use of real-time data collection technologies significantly improved the data management process which reduced overall costs and increased efficiency. These results could not have been achieved using traditional data collection procedures. The oral presentation will focus on the advantages and disadvantages of the real-time data collection technologies, lessons learned, and planning considerations. A live demonstration, following a typical data collection scenario in which data are collected and plotted on a GIS map in near real-time

  4. Real-time molecular imaging throughout the entire cell cycle by targeted plasmonic-enhanced Rayleigh/Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bin; Austin, Lauren A; El-Sayed, Mostafa A

    2012-10-10

    Due to their strong enhancement of scattered light, plasmonic nanoparticles have been utilized for various biological and medical applications. Here, we describe a new technique, Targeted Plasmonic-Enhanced Single-Cell Rayleigh/Raman Spectroscopy, to monitor the molecular changes of any cell-component, such as the nucleus, during the different phases of its full cell cycle by simultaneously recording its Rayleigh images and Raman vibration spectra in real-time. The analysis of the observed Raman DNA and protein peaks allowed the different phases of the cell cycle to be identified. This technique could be used for disease diagnostics and potentially improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cellular functions such as division, death, signaling, and drug action.

  5. Real-time monitoring through the use of technology to enhance performances throughout HIV cascades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Matthew; Mills, Stephen J; Stephan, Eric

    2017-09-01

    Controlling the HIV epidemic requires strong linkages across a 'cascade' of prevention, testing, and treatment services. Information and communications technology (ICT) offers the potential to monitor and improve the performance of this HIV cascade in real time. We assessed recent (media to expand reach and improve programmatic targeting; technology in healthcare settings to strengthen coordination, guide clinical decision-making and improve clinical interactions; and telephone-based follow-up to improve treatment retention and adherence. With exceptions, publications have tended to be descriptive rather than evaluative, and the evidence-base for the effectiveness of ICT-driven interventions remains mixed. There is widespread recognition of the potential for ICT to improve HIV cascade performance, but with significant challenges. Successful implementation of real-time cascade monitoring will depend upon stakeholder engagement, compatibility with existing workflows, appropriate resource allocation, and managing expectations.

  6. Force Enhancement Packages for Countering Nuclear Threats in the 2022-2027 Time Frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    personnel, assisted by part-time helpers , would fill, for example, the following functional billets: 1. Chief of Staff (COS) to oversee all aspects of...members would be selected based on the following criteria: past performance, leadership potential, language skills , and demonstrated willingness to advocate...states of the units participating in this FEP component is the additional skill sets that are useful were there ever to be a loose nuke search in the

  7. Recording A Sunrise: A Citizen Science Project to Enhance Sunrise/set Prediction Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Teresa; Chizek Frouard, Malynda; Bartlett, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    Smartphones, with their ever increasing capabilities, are becoming quite instrumental for data acquisition in a number of fields. Understanding refraction and how it affects what we see on the horizon is no exception. Current algorithms that predict sunrise and sunset times have an error of one to four minutes at mid-latitudes (0° - 55° N/S) due to limitations in the atmospheric models they incorporate. At higher latitudes, slight changes in refraction can cause significant discrepancies, even including difficulties determining when the Sun appears to rise or set. A thorough investigation of the problem requires a substantial data set of observed rise/set times and corresponding meteorological data from around the world, which is currently lacking. We have developed a mobile application so that this data can be taken using smartphones as part of a citizen science project. The app allows the viewer to submit a video of sunrise/set and attaches geographic location along with meteorological data taken from a local weather station. The project will help increase scientific awareness in the public by allowing members of the community to participate in the data-taking process, and give them a greater awareness of the scientific significance of phenomenon they witness every day. The data from the observations will lead to more complete rise/set models that will provide more accurate times to the benefit of astronomers, navigators, and outdoorsmen. The app will be available on the Google Play Store.

  8. A Non-invasive Real-time Localization System for Enhanced Efficacy in Nasogastric Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhenglong; Foong, Shaohui; Maréchal, Luc; Tan, U-Xuan; Teo, Tee Hui; Shabbir, Asim

    2015-12-01

    Nasogastric (NG) intubation is one of the most commonly performed clinical procedures. Real-time localization and tracking of the NG tube passage at the larynx region into the esophagus is crucial for safety, but is lacking in current practice. In this paper, we present the design, analysis and evaluation of a non-invasive real-time localization system using passive magnetic tracking techniques to improve efficacy of the clinical NG intubation process. By embedding a small permanent magnet at the insertion tip of the NG tube, a wearable system containing embedded sensors around the neck can determine the absolute position of the NG tube inside the body in real-time to assist in insertion. In order to validate the feasibility of the proposed system in detecting erroneous tube placement, typical reference intubation trajectories are first analyzed using anatomically correct models and localization accuracy of the system are evaluated using a precise robotic platform. It is found that the root-mean-squared tracking accuracy is within 5.3 mm for both the esophagus and trachea intubation pathways. Experiments were also designed and performed to demonstrate that the system is capable of tracking the NG tube accurately in biological environments even in presence of stationary ferromagnetic objects (such as clinical instruments). With minimal physical modification to the NG tube and clinical process, this system allows accurate and efficient localization and confirmation of correct NG tube placement without supplemental radiographic methods which is considered the current clinical standard.

  9. Enhanced Requirements for Assessment in a Competency-Based, Time-Variable Medical Education System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruppen, Larry D; Ten Cate, Olle; Lingard, Lorelei A; Teunissen, Pim W; Kogan, Jennifer R

    2018-03-01

    Competency-based, time-variable medical education has reshaped the perceptions and practices of teachers, curriculum designers, faculty developers, clinician educators, and program administrators. This increasingly popular approach highlights the fact that learning among different individuals varies in duration, foundation, and goal. Time variability places particular demands on the assessment data that are so necessary for making decisions about learner progress. These decisions may be formative (e.g., feedback for improvement) or summative (e.g., decisions about advancing a student). This article identifies challenges to collecting assessment data and to making assessment decisions in a time-variable system. These challenges include managing assessment data, defining and making valid assessment decisions, innovating in assessment, and modeling the considerable complexity of assessment in real-world settings and richly interconnected social systems. There are hopeful signs of creativity in assessment both from researchers and practitioners, but the transition from a traditional to a competency-based medical education system will likely continue to create much controversy and offer opportunities for originality and innovation in assessment.

  10. Time-domain prefilter design for enhanced tracking and vibration suppression in machine motion control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Matthew O. T.; Shinonawanik, Praween; Wongratanaphisan, Theeraphong

    2018-05-01

    Structural flexibility can impact negatively on machine motion control systems by causing unmeasured positioning errors and vibration at locations where accurate motion is important for task execution. To compensate for these effects, command signal prefiltering may be applied. In this paper, a new FIR prefilter design method is described that combines finite-time vibration cancellation with dynamic compensation properties. The time-domain formulation exploits the relation between tracking error and the moment values of the prefilter impulse response function. Optimal design solutions for filters having minimum H2 norm are derived and evaluated. The control approach does not require additional actuation or sensing and can be effective even without complete and accurate models of the machine dynamics. Results from implementation and testing on an experimental high-speed manipulator having a Delta robot architecture with directionally compliant end-effector are presented. The results show the importance of prefilter moment values for tracking performance and confirm that the proposed method can achieve significant reductions in both peak and RMS tracking error, as well as settling time, for complex motion patterns.

  11. Nuclear criticality safety and time reactivity enhancement aspects of energy amplifier system devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siciliano, F [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Trisaia, Rotondelle, Matera (Italy). Direzione INFO

    1995-12-01

    As far as the Rubbia`s and colleagues proposal of innovating Energy Amplifier system (E.A.s.) device driven by a particle beam accelerator is concerned, four basic topics are comprised in the present paper: (1) A short outline of the nuclear aspects of Th-U and U-Pu fuel cycles regarding their general breeding and efficiency features. (2) The needed nuclear criticality control requirements have been studied in terms of safety regulating parameters on the basis of the ThO2 mixed oxides selected as fuel kind for the E.A.s. device technology development. Particular attention is devoted to time evolution of neutron multiplication factor since delayed development of the 233U buildup and so system reactivity are expected in the Th-U cycle. (3) Code E.A.s. device irradiation and post-irradiation modelling for determining higher actinides buildup, fission products formation and fuel consumption trends as function of time, system enrichment degree and flux level parameters. (4) The confirmation, on the basis of the same specific power irradiation, of expected actinides waste obtainment cleaner than the one deriving from the U-Pu cycle utilization. For this end, a model comparison of equivalent enriched fissile nuclides in both cycles has been devised as having, within the range of 0-700 days, ten irradiation periods of about 53 MW/ton specific power and equivalent cooling time post-irradiation periods.

  12. Enhancing Nursing Staffing Forecasting With Safety Stock Over Lead Time Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNair, Douglas S

    2015-01-01

    In balancing competing priorities, it is essential that nursing staffing provide enough nurses to safely and effectively care for the patients. Mathematical models to predict optimal "safety stocks" have been routine in supply chain management for many years but have up to now not been applied in nursing workforce management. There are various aspects that exhibit similarities between the 2 disciplines, such as an evolving demand forecast according to acuity and the fact that provisioning "stock" to meet demand in a future period has nonzero variable lead time. Under assumptions about the forecasts (eg, the demand process is well fit as an autoregressive process) and about the labor supply process (≥1 shifts' lead time), we show that safety stock over lead time for such systems is effectively equivalent to the corresponding well-studied problem for systems with stationary demand bounds and base stock policies. Hence, we can apply existing models from supply chain analytics to find the optimal safety levels of nurse staffing. We use a case study with real data to demonstrate that there are significant benefits from the inclusion of the forecast process when determining the optimal safety stocks.

  13. Estimation and Extrapolation of Tree Parameters Using Spectral Correlation between UAV and Pléiades Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Abdollahnejad

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The latest technological advances in space-borne imagery have significantly enhanced the acquisition of high-quality data. With the availability of very high-resolution satellites, such as Pléiades, it is now possible to estimate tree parameters at the individual level with high fidelity. Despite innovative advantages on high-precision satellites, data acquisition is not yet available to the public at a reasonable cost. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs have the practical advantage of data acquisition at a higher spatial resolution than that of satellites. This study is divided into two main parts: (1 we describe the estimation of basic tree attributes, such as tree height, crown diameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, and stem volume derived from UAV data based on structure from motion (SfM algorithms; and (2 we consider the extrapolation of the UAV data to a larger area, using correlation between satellite and UAV observations as an economically viable approach. Results have shown that UAVs can be used to predict tree characteristics with high accuracy (i.e., crown projection, stem volume, cross-sectional area (CSA, and height. We observed a significant relation between extracted data from UAV and ground data with R2 = 0.71 for stem volume, R2 = 0.87 for height, and R2 = 0.60 for CSA. In addition, our results showed a high linear relation between spectral data from the UAV and the satellite (R2 = 0.94. Overall, the accuracy of the results between UAV and Pléiades was reasonable and showed that the used methods are feasible for extrapolation of extracted data from UAV to larger areas.

  14. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergamaschi, Anna; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The MYTHEN photon-counting ASIC operated in time-over-threshold mode shows an innovative approach towards the development of a detector operating with very high photon intensities while maintaining the single-photon sensitivity for synchrotron radiation experiments. The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems

  15. Time-over-threshold readout to enhance the high flux capabilities of single-photon-counting detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergamaschi, Anna, E-mail: anna.bergamaschi@psi.ch; Dinapoli, Roberto; Greiffenberg, Dominic; Henrich, Beat; Johnson, Ian; Mozzanica, Aldo; Radicci, Valeria; Schmitt, Bernd; Shi, Xintian; Stoppani, Laura [Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-11-01

    The MYTHEN photon-counting ASIC operated in time-over-threshold mode shows an innovative approach towards the development of a detector operating with very high photon intensities while maintaining the single-photon sensitivity for synchrotron radiation experiments. The MYTHEN single-photon-counting (SPC) detector has been characterized using the time-over-threshold (ToT) readout method, i.e. measuring the time that the signal produced by the detected X-rays remains above the comparator threshold. In the following it is shown that the ToT readout preserves the sensitivity, dynamic range and capability of background suppression of the SPC mode, while enhancing the count-rate capability, which is the main limitation of state-of-the-art SPC systems.

  16. All-phase MR angiography using independent component analysis of dynamic contrast enhanced MRI time series. φ-MRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kiyotaka; Matsuzawa, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Masaki; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakayama, Naoki; Kwee, I.L.

    2003-01-01

    Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (dynamic MRI) represents a MRI version of non-diffusible tracer methods, the main clinical use of which is the physiological construction of what is conventionally referred to as perfusion images. The raw data utilized for constructing MRI perfusion images are time series of pixel signal alterations associated with the passage of a gadolinium containing contrast agent. Such time series are highly compatible with independent component analysis (ICA), a novel statistical signal processing technique capable of effectively separating a single mixture of multiple signals into their original independent source signals (blind separation). Accordingly, we applied ICA to dynamic MRI time series. The technique was found to be powerful, allowing for hitherto unobtainable assessment of regional cerebral hemodynamics in vivo. (author)

  17. Performance Analysis of the Enhanced DSR Routing Protocol for the Short Time Disconnected MANET to the OPNET Modeler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAPAJ Ján

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Disconnected mobile ad-hoc networks (MANET are very important areas of the research. In this article, the performance analysis of the enhanced dynamic source routing protocol (OPP_DSR is introduced. This modification enables the routing process in the case when there are no connections to other mobile nodes. It also will enable the routing mechanisms when the routes, selected by routing mechanisms, are disconnected for some time. Disconnection can be for a short time and standard routing protocol DSR cannot reflect on this situation.The main idea is based on opportunistic forwarding where the nodes not only forward data but it's stored in the cache during long time. The network parameters throughput, routing load and are analysed.

  18. Elderly fallers enhance dynamic stability through anticipatory postural adjustments during a choice stepping reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Tisserand

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the case of disequilibrium, the capacity to step quickly is critical to avoid falling for elderly. This capacity can be simply assessed through the choice stepping reaction time test (CSRT, where elderly fallers (F take longer to step than elderly non-fallers (NF. However, reasons why elderly F elongate their stepping time remain unclear. The purpose of this study is to assess the characteristics of anticipated postural adjustments (APA that elderly F develop in a stepping context and their consequences on the dynamic stability. 44 community-dwelling elderly subjects (20 F and 22 NF performed a CSRT where kinematics and ground reaction forces were collected. Variables were analyzed using two-way repeated measures ANOVAs. Results for F compared to NF showed that stepping time is elongated, due to a longer APA phase. During APA, they seem to use two distinct balance strategies, depending on the axis: in the anteroposterior direction, we measured a smaller backward movement and slower peak velocity of the center of pressure (CoP; in the mediolateral direction, the CoP movement was similar in amplitude and peak velocity between groups but lasted longer. The biomechanical consequence of both strategies was an increased margin of stability (MoS at foot-off, in the respective direction. By elongating their APA, elderly F use a safer balance strategy that prioritizes dynamic stability conditions instead of the objective of the task. Such a choice in balance strategy probably comes from muscular limitations and/or a higher fear of falling and paradoxically indicates an increased risk of fall.

  19. The enhancement of time-stepping procedures in SYVAC A/C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broyd, T.W.

    1986-01-01

    This report summarises the work carried out an SYVAC A/C between February and May 1985 aimed at improving the way in which time-stepping procedures are handled. The majority of the work was concerned with three types of problem, viz: i) Long vault release, short geosphere response ii) Short vault release, long geosphere response iii) Short vault release, short geosphere response The report contains details of changes to the logic and structure of SYVAC A/C, as well as the results of code implementation tests. It has been written primarily for members of the UK SYVAC development team, and should not be used or referred to in isolation. (author)

  20. Evaluation of enhancements to Thevenin equivalent based methods for real-time voltage stability assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Angel; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    The possibilities offered by the use of Phasor Measurement Units (PMU) in real - time monitoring provide interesting ways to ensure secure operation of power systems. This paper studies the specific case of voltage stability and the possible improvements to the Thevenin equivalent methods, which...... is applied generally with local measurements. This paper uses the PMU measurements to calculate the grid transformation coefficients to obtain wide - area information. This is achieved by studying the generator's electromo tive force estimated using values in the coefficient transformation matrix...

  1. A Multiplexed Assay That Monitors Effects of Multiple Compound Treatment Times Reveals Candidate Immune-Enhancing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyan; Henowitz, Liza; Zweifach, Adam

    2018-05-01

    We previously developed a flow cytometry assay that monitored lytic granule exocytosis in cytotoxic T lymphocytes stimulated by contacting beads coated with activating anti-CD3 antibodies. That assay was multiplexed in that responses of cells that did or did not receive the activating stimulus were distinguished via changes in light scatter accompanying binding of cells to beads, allowing us to discriminate compounds that activate responses on their own from compounds that enhance responses in cells that received the activating stimulus, all within a single sample. Here we add a second dimension of multiplexing by developing means to assess in a single sample the effects of treating cells with test compounds for different times. Bar-coding cells before adding them to test wells lets us determine compound treatment time while also monitoring activation status and response amplitude at the point of interrogation. This multiplexed assay is suitable for screening 96-well plates. We used it to screen compounds from the National Cancer Institute, identifying several compounds that enhance anti-LAMP1 responses. Multiple-treatment-time (MTT) screening enabled by bar-coding and read via high-throughput flow cytometry may be a generally useful method for facilitating the discovery of compounds of interest.

  2. A Lunchtime Walk in Nature Enhances Restoration of Autonomic Control during Night-Time Sleep: Results from a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gladwell, Valerie F; Kuoppa, Pekka; Tarvainen, Mika P; Rogerson, Mike

    2016-03-03

    Walking within nature (Green Exercise) has been shown to immediately enhance mental well-being but less is known about the impact on physiology and longer lasting effects. Heart rate variability (HRV) gives an indication of autonomic control of the heart, in particular vagal activity, with reduced HRV identified as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Night-time HRV allows vagal activity to be assessed whilst minimizing confounding influences of physical and mental activity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a lunchtime walk in nature increases night-time HRV. Participants (n = 13) attended on two occasions to walk a 1.8 km route through a built or a natural environment. Pace was similar between the two walks. HRV was measured during sleep using a RR interval sensor (eMotion sensor) and was assessed at 1-2 h after participants noted that they had fallen asleep. Markers for vagal activity were significantly greater after the walk in nature compared to the built walk. Lunchtime walks in nature-based environments may provide a greater restorative effect as shown by vagal activity than equivalent built walks. Nature walks may improve essential recovery during night-time sleep, potentially enhancing physiological health.

  3. Title VI in '76: Review of Projects Funded Under P.L. 91-230 Title VI-B, Education of the Handicapped Act, as Amended by P.L. 93-380 and P.L. 94-142. Fiscal Year 1976.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee.

    Summarized are 89 projects which served exceptional students in all 67 Florida school districts and were funded during the 1975-76 school year under P.L. 91-230 Title VI B (Education of the Handicapped Act) as ammended by P.L. 93-380 and P.L. 94-142. Projects are divided into the following major areas; Florida Learning Resources System,…

  4. Time to enhancement derived from ultrafast breast MRI as a novel parameter to discriminate benign from malignant breast lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mus, Roel D.; Borelli, Cristina; Bult, Peter; Weiland, Elisabeth; Karssemeijer, Nico; Barentsz, Jelle O.; Gubern-Mérida, Albert; Platel, Bram; Mann, Ritse M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • New view-sharing sequences (e.g. TWIST) enable ultrafast dynamic breast MRI. • TWIST sequences accurately characterize the inflow of contrast in breast lesions. • TTE evaluation allows breast lesion classification with very high accuracy. • The use of TTE significantly increases the specificity of breast MRI. • TWIST imaging may increase the potential of breast MRI as screening tool. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate time to enhancement (TTE) as novel dynamic parameter for lesion classification in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: In this retrospective study, 157 women with 195 enhancing abnormalities (99 malignant and 96 benign) were included. All patients underwent a bi-temporal MRI protocol that included ultrafast time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectory (TWIST) acquisitions (1.0 × 0.9 × 2.5 mm, temporal resolution 4.32 s), during the inflow of contrast agent. TTE derived from TWIST series and relative enhancement versus time curve type derived from volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) series were assessed and combined with basic morphological information to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and kappa statistics were applied. Results: TTE had a significantly better discriminative ability than curve type (p < 0.001 and p = 0.026 for reader 1 and 2, respectively). Including morphology, sensitivity of TWIST and VIBE assessment was equivalent (p = 0.549 and p = 0.344, respectively). Specificity and diagnostic accuracy were significantly higher for TWIST than for VIBE assessment (p < 0.001). Inter-reader agreement in differentiating malignant from benign lesions was almost perfect for TWIST evaluation (κ = 0.86) and substantial for conventional assessment (κ = 0.75). Conclusions: TTE derived from ultrafast TWIST acquisitions is a valuable parameter that allows robust differentiation between malignant and benign breast lesions with high

  5. Time to enhancement derived from ultrafast breast MRI as a novel parameter to discriminate benign from malignant breast lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mus, Roel D., E-mail: aroel.mus@radboudumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Borelli, Cristina, E-mail: cristinaborelli@hotmail.it [Department of Radiology, Scientific Institute “Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza” Hospital, Viale Cappuccini 1, 71013, San Giovanni Rotondo, Foggia (Italy); Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center (internal address 766), Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Bult, Peter, E-mail: peter.bult@radboudumc.nl [Department of Pathology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Weiland, Elisabeth, E-mail: elisabeth.weiland@siemens.com [Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen (Germany); Karssemeijer, Nico, E-mail: nico.karssemeijer@radboudumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Barentsz, Jelle O., E-mail: jelle.barentsz@radboudumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Gubern-Mérida, Albert, E-mail: albert.gubernmerida@radboudumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Platel, Bram, E-mail: bram.platel@radboudumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands); Mann, Ritse M., E-mail: ritse.mann@radboudumc.nl [Department of Radiology, Radboud University Medical Center, Geert Grooteplein Zuid 10, 6525GA Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • New view-sharing sequences (e.g. TWIST) enable ultrafast dynamic breast MRI. • TWIST sequences accurately characterize the inflow of contrast in breast lesions. • TTE evaluation allows breast lesion classification with very high accuracy. • The use of TTE significantly increases the specificity of breast MRI. • TWIST imaging may increase the potential of breast MRI as screening tool. - Abstract: Objectives: To investigate time to enhancement (TTE) as novel dynamic parameter for lesion classification in breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods: In this retrospective study, 157 women with 195 enhancing abnormalities (99 malignant and 96 benign) were included. All patients underwent a bi-temporal MRI protocol that included ultrafast time-resolved angiography with stochastic trajectory (TWIST) acquisitions (1.0 × 0.9 × 2.5 mm, temporal resolution 4.32 s), during the inflow of contrast agent. TTE derived from TWIST series and relative enhancement versus time curve type derived from volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) series were assessed and combined with basic morphological information to differentiate benign from malignant lesions. Receiver operating characteristic analysis and kappa statistics were applied. Results: TTE had a significantly better discriminative ability than curve type (p < 0.001 and p = 0.026 for reader 1 and 2, respectively). Including morphology, sensitivity of TWIST and VIBE assessment was equivalent (p = 0.549 and p = 0.344, respectively). Specificity and diagnostic accuracy were significantly higher for TWIST than for VIBE assessment (p < 0.001). Inter-reader agreement in differentiating malignant from benign lesions was almost perfect for TWIST evaluation (κ = 0.86) and substantial for conventional assessment (κ = 0.75). Conclusions: TTE derived from ultrafast TWIST acquisitions is a valuable parameter that allows robust differentiation between malignant and benign breast lesions with high

  6. Enhanced performance for differential detection in coherent Brillouin optical time-domain analysis sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Liyang; Zhang, Yunpeng; Li, Zonglei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Pan, Wei; Yan, Lianshan

    2016-11-01

    Logarithmic detectors (LogDs) have been used in coherent Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA) sensors to reduce the effect of phase fluctuation, demodulation complexities, and measurement time. However, because of the inherent properties of LogDs, a DC component at the level of hundreds of millivolts that prohibits high-gain signal amplification (SA) could be generated, resulting in unacceptable data acquisition (DAQ) inaccuracies and decoding errors in the process of prototype integration. By generating a reference light at a level similar to the probe light, differential detection can be applied to remove the DC component automatically using a differential amplifier before the DAQ process. Therefore, high-gain SA can be employed to reduce quantization errors. The signal-to-noise ratio of the weak Brillouin gain signal is improved from ˜11.5 to ˜21.8 dB. A BOTDA prototype is implemented based on the proposed scheme. The experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) is improved from ±1.9 to ±0.8 MHz at the end of a 40-km sensing fiber.

  7. Workload assessment on foundry SME to enhance productivity using full time equivalent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Amarria Dila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminium SME aims to increase the production amount by producing wok as much as 300 Units. The problem is workload analysis of operator on the wok production line in the wok foundry SME as well as the production cycle-making cycle time and analyze the workload received by the operator when producing 300 woks using the full time equivalent (FTE method. This study aims to measure the workload of each division worker in the production process with a total of 13 workers observed. This study provides a work division recommendation based on the workload that has been carefully examined. This research involves percentage of workload effectiveness and the wages of workers. In lathe division have overload workload. While the printing division, melting inspection division, packaging and transportation division including normal workload category and the percentage of good work effectiveness. The result provides recommendations for the addition of 2 workers in each division that includes the category of overload of the lathe division with the number of initial workers as many as 13 workers to 15 workers. In the last stage perform a simulation by comparing the system of prefix work and proposal. The simulation results obtained with the initial work system to get an average of 223 woks / day. Meanwhile, for the proposed work system to get an average output of 291 woks.

  8. A Framework for Enhancing Real-time Social Media Data to Improve Disaster Management Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attique Shah, Syed; Zafer Şeker, Dursun; Demirel, Hande

    2018-05-01

    Social Media datasets are playing a vital role to provide information that can support decision making in nearly all domains of technology. It is due to the fact that social media is a quick and economical approach for data collection from public through methods like crowdsourcing. It is already proved by existing research that in case of any disaster (natural or man-made) the information extracted from Social Media sites is very critical to Disaster Management Systems for response and reconstruction. This study comprises of two components, the first part proposes a framework that provides updated and filtered real time input data for the disaster management system through social media and the second part consists of a designed web user API for a structured and defined real time data input process. This study contributes to the discipline of design science for the information systems domain. The aim of this study is to propose a framework that can filter and organize data from the unstructured social media sources through recognized methods and to bring this retrieved data to the same level as that of taken through a structured and predefined mechanism of a web API. Both components are designed to a level such that they can potentially collaborate and produce updated information for a disaster management system to carry out accurate and effective.

  9. Real-Time EEG Signal Enhancement Using Canonical Correlation Analysis and Gaussian Mixture Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Teng Lin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are usually contaminated with various artifacts, such as signal associated with muscle activity, eye movement, and body motion, which have a noncerebral origin. The amplitude of such artifacts is larger than that of the electrical activity of the brain, so they mask the cortical signals of interest, resulting in biased analysis and interpretation. Several blind source separation methods have been developed to remove artifacts from the EEG recordings. However, the iterative process for measuring separation within multichannel recordings is computationally intractable. Moreover, manually excluding the artifact components requires a time-consuming offline process. This work proposes a real-time artifact removal algorithm that is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, feature extraction, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM to improve the quality of EEG signals. The CCA was used to decompose EEG signals into components followed by feature extraction to extract representative features and GMM to cluster these features into groups to recognize and remove artifacts. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated by effectively removing artifacts caused by blinks, head/body movement, and chewing from EEG recordings while preserving the temporal and spectral characteristics of the signals that are important to cognitive research.

  10. Using recruitment source timing and diagnosticity to enhance applicants' occupation-specific human capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Michael C; Ployhart, Robert E; Campion, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    [Correction Notice: An Erratum for this article was reported in Vol 102(5) of Journal of Applied Psychology (see record 2017-14296-001). In the article, the following headings were inadvertently set at the wrong level: Method, Participants and Procedure, Measures, Occupation specific human capital, Symbolic jobs, Relevant majors, Occupation-specific capital hotspots, Source timing, Source diagnosticity, Results, and Discussion. All versions of this article have been corrected.] This study proposes that reaching applicants through more diagnostic recruitment sources earlier in their educational development (e.g., in high school) can lead them to invest more in their occupation-specific human capital (OSHC), thereby making them higher quality candidates. Using a sample of 78,157 applicants applying for jobs within a desirable professional occupation in the public sector, results indicate that applicants who report hearing about the occupation earlier, and applicants who report hearing about the occupation through more diagnostic sources, have higher levels of OSHC upon application. Additionally, source timing and diagnosticity affect the likelihood of candidates applying for jobs symbolic of the occupation, selecting relevant majors, and attending educational institutions with top programs related to the occupation. These findings suggest a firm's recruiting efforts may influence applicants' OSHC investment strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. La Transfiguración de Rafael : un mito plástico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Viñuales

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga mitológica de una obra de arte plástico (pintura especialmente se limita a la reproducción de un mito o leyenda mítica fijada anteriormente en lenguaje oral o como muciio escrito o literario. El artista reproduce el mito conocido según los cánones de la época y con el estilo personal que le caracterice, pero no «inventa», ni descubre ni «cuenta» un mito nuevo. Rafael en su obra «La transfiguración» creemos que es una excepción a esta regla presentándonos una mítica que no existía antes en las dos leyendas milagrosas bíblicas que narra el cuadro.The mythological charge in a work of plastic art, is límited to the reproduction of a myth or a mythical legend which has been previously fixed on oral language or bay far written or literary. The artist reproduces the known myth according  to the canon of the time and with the personal style which is characterísed by, but he doesn't invent, neither discovers  nor tells anew myth. In Rafael's work "The transfiguration»  we think that is an exception to this rule, it presents a myth which didn't exist before in the two Biblical miraculous legends that the painting tells.

  12. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    OpenAIRE

    Kujundžić Žužana; Dimić Gordana R.; Markov Siniša L.; Kocić-Tanackov Sunčica D.; Mojović Ljiljana V.; Pejin Jelena D.; Marković Milica N.

    2013-01-01

    This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis,...

  13. Parent and child acceptability and staff evaluation of K-SADS-PL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Merete Juul; Thomsen, Per Hove; Bilenberg, Niels

    2007-01-01

    Standardised diagnostic interviews are used increasingly in child and adolescent psychiatry; yet little is known about the attitudes towards such interviews among parents, children and staff members. In this study, we have aimed to assess (1) the K-SADS-PL's acceptability to parents and children (2...

  14. Establecimiento de plántulas in vitro de clones de ajo peruano (Allium sativum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leidy López Quintero

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el establecimiento in vitro de dos clones de ajo peruano mediante el uso de procesos estandarizados de desinfección e introducción in vitro de meristemos de ajo de clones nacionales. Se validó el uso de hipocloritode calcio (1 g.L-1 e hipoclorito de sodio (0.1% como desinfectantes, permitiendo la eliminación total de los microorganismos presentes en los explantes yuna viabilidad del 66.3 y 64.5% en los clones P-007A y P-007B. El establecimiento in vitro de las plántulas se realizó en medio de cultivo MS con 0,5 mg.L-1 de ácido naftalen acético (ANA y 0,64 mg.L-1 de 2-Isopentil adenina(2ip, donde el clon P-007A desarrollo plántulas de 15mm con 2.52 hojas, mientras en el clon P-007B las plántulas tenían 13.6mm con 2.16 hojas. Las plántulas establecidas de ajo de los clones peruanos lograron los parámetros de desarrollo indicados para la etapa de establecimiento de la especie.

  15. Modification indices for the 2-pl and the nominal response model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, it is shown that various violations of the 2-PL model and the nominal response model can be evaluated using the Lagrange multiplier test or the equivalent efficient score test. The tests presented here focus on violation of local stochastic independence and insufficient capture of the

  16. Los plásticos en la construcción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arredondo, Francisco

    1959-06-01

    Full Text Available Not availableAunque la industria de los plásticos no nació hasta el siglo XIX, puede decirse que los romanos utilizaron dichos materiales, pues hoy noticias del uso de la caseína para fijar pigmentos en los papiros.

  17. Accuracy comparison of Pléiades satellite ortho-images using GPS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ivan Henrico

    imagery to achieve a certain level of geometric accuracy are in literature well .... The Pléiades primary product can be described as the processing ..... This article studied the influence of two types of GCP collection methods on the accuracy of.

  18. Considerações Sobre a Reciclagem de Embalagens Plásticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forlin Flávio J.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda considerações atualizadas sobre a reciclagem de embalagens plásticas com foco no setor de alimentos. No contexto mundial é avaliado o crescente volume de utilização de embalagens plásticas na preservação de alimentos e levantados os componentes sanitários, mercadológicos, sócio-econômicos e ambientais associados. São avaliadas como potenciais vias de reciclagem a transformação mecânica de embalagens plásticas em novos materiais ou produtos, a recuperação de resinas, a transformação térmica, a reutilização de embalagens e a degradação ambiental. O contexto brasileiro mostra potenciais características de viabilidade sócio-econômica e empresarial para a reciclagem de embalagens plásticas, exigindo, todavia, maior conjunção de ações governamentais, empresariais e de pesquisa no setor.

  19. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro et Concept

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2005-01-01

    Un nouveau cours pratique sur les environnements Premium et Quantum de Schneider est proposé aux automaticiens concepteurs ou installateurs, et aux techniciens de bureau d'études, pour découvrir l'outil de programmation Unity. La prochaine session aura lieu du 24 au 28 janvier 2005. Le cours est ouvert aux personnes capables de développer sous PL7-Pro ou Concept. Objectifs : Maîtriser les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; programmer en Unity-Pro sur Base Premium et Quantum. Programme : Environnement Quantum et Coupleur Profibus (1 journée) : configuration d'un automate sous Unity Pro et d'un coupleur Profibus DP. Conversion à Unity sur base Quantum et Premium (3,5 jours) : l'offre globale Unity, evolution par rapport à PL7 et Concept ; conversion d'application depuis PL7 Pro ; outils de mise au point ; manipulation des variables structurées ; utilisation des fonctions ; gestion des DF...

  20. Caffeine Enhances Memory Performance in Young Adults during Their Non-optimal Time of Day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Stephanie M; Buckley, Timothy P; Baena, Elsa; Ryan, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated), college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1). During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in physiological arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students' non-optimal time of day - early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams.

  1. Real-time dynamic coupling of GPC-enhanced diffraction-limited focal spots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villangca, Mark; Bañas, Andrew; Kopylov, Oleksii; Palima, Darwin; Glückstad, Jesper

    2015-03-01

    We have previously demonstrated on-demand dynamic coupling of an optically manipulated wave-guided optical waveguide (WOW) using diffractive techniques on a "point and shoot" approach. In this work, the generation of the coupling focal spots is done in real-time following the position of the WOW. Object-tracking routine has been added in the trapping program to get the position of the WOW. This approach allows continuous coupling of light through the WOWs which may be useful in some application. In addition, we include a GPC light shaper module in the holography setup to efficiently illuminate the spatial light modulator (SLM). The ability to switch from on-demand to continuous addressing with efficient illumination leverages our WOWs for potential applications in stimulation and nonlinear optics.

  2. Real-time Dynamic Coupling of GPC-enhanced Diffraction-limited Focal Spots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villangca, Mark Jayson; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Kopylov, Oleksii

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated on-demand dynamic coupling of an optically manipulated wave-guided optical waveguide (WOW) using diffractive techniques on a “point and shoot” approach. In this work, the generation of the coupling focal spots is done in real-time following the position of the WOW....... Object-tracking routine has been added in the trapping program to get the position of the WOW. This approach allows continuous coupling of light through the WOWs which may be useful in some application. In addition, we include a GPC light shaper module in the holography setup to efficiently illuminate...... the spatial light modulator (SLM). The ability to switch from on-demand to continuous addressing with efficient illumination leverages our WOWs for potential applications in stimulation and nonlinear optics....

  3. Caffeine enhances memory performance in young adults during their non-optimal time of day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M Sherman

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Many college students struggle to perform well on exams in the early morning. Although students drink caffeinated beverages to feel more awake, it is unclear whether these actually improve performance. After consuming coffee (caffeinated or decaffeinated, college-age adults completed implicit and explicit memory tasks in the early morning and late afternoon (Experiment 1. During the morning, participants ingesting caffeine demonstrated a striking improvement in explicit memory, but not implicit memory. Caffeine did not alter memory performance in the afternoon. In Experiment 2, participants engaged in cardiovascular exercise in order to examine whether increases in physiological arousal similarly improved memory. Despite clear increases in arousal, exercise did not improve memory performance compared to a stretching control condition. These results suggest that caffeine has a specific benefit for memory during students’ non-optimal time of day – early morning. These findings have real-world implications for students taking morning exams.

  4. Enhancement of real-time EPICS IOC PV management for the data archiving system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ha

    2015-10-01

    The operation of a 100-MeV linear proton accelerator, the major driving values and experimental data need to be archived. According to the experimental conditions, different data are required. Functions that can add new data and delete data in real time need to be implemented. In an experimental physics and industrial control system (EPICS) input output controller (IOC), the value of process variables (PVs) are matched with the driving values and data. The PV values are archived in text file format by using the channel archiver. There is no need to create a database (DB) server, just a need for large hard disk. Through the web, the archived data can be loaded, and new PV values can be archived without stopping the archive engine. The details of the implementation of a data archiving system with channel archiver are presented, and some preliminary results are reported.

  5. Nursing intervention to enhance acceptance of pregnancy in first-time mothers: focusing on the comfortable experiences of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuka

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe effective nursing care through evaluation of a nursing intervention that enhanced acceptance of pregnancy and focused on a comfortable experience for pregnant women. Thirty-two subjects who were expected to have a normal pregnancy were assigned into either the intervention or the control group. The nursing intervention consisted of the use of a pregnancy diary and four interviews, two of which were held in the first trimester, one in the second and one in the third trimester. The nursing care given was recorded in tapes and field notes. The data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. As a result of analyzing the nursing care of 13 women pregnant for the first time who were provided with nursing intervention, the following seven categories of nursing care were extracted for the intervention: encouragement of women to record their experiences using a pregnancy diary; recognizing and acknowledging negative feelings; reducing the negative aspects of pregnancy and reframing; expression and reinforcement of positive feelings; clarification and reinforcement of positive meanings; awareness of own comfortable experiences; promotion of diverse comfortable aspects and continuation of comfortable experiences. The seven nursing care interventions were effective in increasing the comfortable experiences of pregnant women and enhancing a positive attitude towards pregnancy. Nursing intervention can aid in enhancing positivity and comfort in pregnant women. Furthermore, this nursing intervention can be applied to adolescents, socially disadvantaged pregnant women, and hospitalized women.

  6. Real-time trace gas sensor using a multimode diode laser and multiple-line integrated cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpf, Andreas; Rao, Gottipaty N

    2015-07-01

    We describe and demonstrate a highly sensitive trace gas sensor based on a simplified design that is capable of measuring sub-ppb concentrations of NO2 in tens of milliseconds. The sensor makes use of a relatively inexpensive Fabry-Perot diode laser to conduct off-axis cavity enhanced spectroscopy. The broad frequency range of a multimode Fabry-Perot diode laser spans a large number of absorption lines, thereby removing the need for a single-frequency tunable laser source. The use of cavity enhanced absorption spectroscopy enhances the sensitivity of the sensor by providing a pathlength on the order of 1 km in a small volume. Off-axis alignment excites a large number of cavity modes simultaneously, thereby reducing the sensor's susceptibility to vibration. Multiple-line integrated absorption spectroscopy (where one integrates the absorption spectra over a large number of rovibronic transitions of the molecular species) further improves the sensitivity of detection. Relatively high laser power (∼400  mW) is used to compensate for the low coupling efficiency of a broad linewidth laser to the optical cavity. The approach was demonstrated using a 407 nm diode laser to detect trace quantities of NO2 in zero air. Sensitivities of 750 ppt, 110 ppt, and 65 ppt were achieved using integration times of 50 ms, 5 s, and 20 s respectively.

  7. Enhanced responses to tumor immunization following total body irradiation are time-dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Diab

    Full Text Available The development of successful cancer vaccines is contingent on the ability to induce effective and persistent anti-tumor immunity against self-antigens that do not typically elicit immune responses. In this study, we examine the effects of a non-myeloablative dose of total body irradiation on the ability of tumor-naïve mice to respond to DNA vaccines against melanoma. We demonstrate that irradiation followed by lymphocyte infusion results in a dramatic increase in responsiveness to tumor vaccination, with augmentation of T cell responses to tumor antigens and tumor eradication. In irradiated mice, infused CD8(+ T cells expand in an environment that is relatively depleted in regulatory T cells, and this correlates with improved CD8(+ T cell functionality. We also observe an increase in the frequency of dendritic cells displaying an activated phenotype within lymphoid organs in the first 24 hours after irradiation. Intriguingly, both the relative decrease in regulatory T cells and increase in activated dendritic cells correspond with a brief window of augmented responsiveness to immunization. After this 24 hour window, the numbers of dendritic cells decline, as does the ability of mice to respond to immunizations. When immunizations are initiated within the period of augmented dendritic cell activation, mice develop anti-tumor responses that show increased durability as well as magnitude, and this approach leads to improved survival in experiments with mice bearing established tumors as well as in a spontaneous melanoma model. We conclude that irradiation can produce potent immune adjuvant effects independent of its ability to induce tumor ablation, and that the timing of immunization and lymphocyte infusion in the irradiated host are crucial for generating optimal anti-tumor immunity. Clinical strategies using these approaches must therefore optimize such parameters, as the correct timing of infusion and vaccination may mean the difference

  8. Real-time feedback enhances forward propulsion during walking in old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Jason R; Maletis, Michela; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Reduced propulsive function during the push-off phase of walking plays a central role in the deterioration of walking ability with age. We used real-time propulsive feedback to test the hypothesis that old adults have an underutilized propulsive reserve available during walking. 8 old adults (mean [SD], age: 72.1 [3.9] years) and 11 young adults (age: 21.0 [1.5] years) participated. For our primary aim, old subjects walked: 1) normally, 2) with visual feedback of their peak propulsive ground reaction forces, and 3) with visual feedback of their medial gastrocnemius electromyographic activity during push-off. We asked those subjects to match a target set to 20% and 40% greater propulsive force or push-off muscle activity than normal walking. We tested young subjects walking normally only to provide reference ground reaction force values. Walking normally, old adults exerted 12.5% smaller peak propulsive forces than young adults (Ppush-off muscle activities when we provided propulsive feedback. Most notably, force feedback elicited propulsive forces that were equal to or 10.5% greater than those of young adults (+20% target, P=0.87; +40% target, P=0.02). With electromyographic feedback, old adults significantly increased their push-off muscle activities but without increasing their propulsive forces. Old adults with propulsive deficits have a considerable and underutilized propulsive reserve available during level walking. Further, real-time propulsive feedback represents a promising therapeutic strategy to improve the forward propulsion of old adults and thus maintain their walking ability and independence. © 2013.

  9. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2012-01-31

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF ( approximately 2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage ( approximately 25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these

  10. Soluble Flt-1 and PlGF: new markers of early pregnancy loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muttukrishna, Shanthi

    2011-01-01

    Recent data have indicated a relationship between placental oxygen and angiogenic protein levels in the first trimester of normal pregnancies. Our objective was to investigate if maternal serum levels of angiogenic factors Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor 1 (sFlt-1), soluble Endoglin and placental growth factor (PlGF) are altered in women with symptoms of threatened miscarriage (TM) and if they are predictive of a subsequent miscarriage. Blood samples were collected at 6-10 weeks from women presenting with TM (n = 40), from asymptomatic controls (n = 32) and from non- pregnant women in their luteal phase (n = 14). All samples were assayed for serum level of sFLT-1, PlGF, sEndoglin and HSP70 using commercial ELISAs. Samples were analysed retrospectively on the basis of pregnancy outcome. TM group included 21 women with a normal pregnancy outcome and 19 with subsequent complete miscarriage. The latter subgroup had significantly lower mean maternal serum (MS) sFlt-1 (83%, P<0.001) and PlGF (44%, P<0.001) compared to those with a normal pregnancy outcome. Asymptomatic control pregnant women had similar MS levels of sFlt-1 and PlGF compared to the TM patients with a normal outcome. The mean MS sFlt-1 (>10 fold) and MS PlGF (∼2 fold) levels were significantly (P<0.001) higher in control pregnant women compared to the non-pregnant group in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Soluble Endoglin was not altered in the normal pregnant women compared to non pregnant women, although lower in the TM subgroup with a subsequent miscarriage (∼25%, P<0.001) compared to TM with a live birth. There was no significant difference in the mean MS HSP 70 levels between the different groups. This study shows that sFlt1 and PlGF MS levels are increased by several folds in early pregnancy and that MS sFlt-1 and MS PlGF are markedly decreased in threatened miscarriage patients who subsequently have a miscarriage suggesting these proteins are

  11. Legislative change enabling use of early part-time sick leave enhanced return to work and work participation in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Virta, Lauri J; Kausto, Johanna; Autti-Rämö, Ilona; Martimo, Kari-Pekka; Laaksonen, Mikko; Leinonen, Taina; Husgafvel-Pursiainen, Kirsti; Burdorf, Alex; Solovieva, Svetlana

    2017-09-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of the use of part-time sick leave at the early (first 12 weeks) stage of work disability due to mental disorder or musculoskeletal disease on sustained return to work (RTW) and overall work participation. Methods In a nation-wide register-based quasi-experimental study, we compared sustained RTW (ie, ≥28 consecutive days at work) and 2-year work participation between the part- and full-time sickness absence (SA) benefit groups (N=1878 in each group) using propensity-score matching. Persons who received partial or full SA benefit due to musculoskeletal diseases or mental disorders between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2011 were eligible as cases or controls, respectively. Results A higher proportion showed sustained RTW after part- compared to full-time sick leave [absolute risk difference 8.0%, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 5.3-10.9]. Moreover, the proportion of time at work was at a 10.5% higher level in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. The prevalence of full disability retirement was almost three-fold among the full- compared to part-time sick leave group, whereas partial disability retirement was 4.5-fold more prevalent in the part- compared to full-time sick leave group. Conclusions The use of part-time sick leave during the first three months of SA enhances RTW and overall work participation during two years among persons with mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases. The prescription of part-time sick leave can be recommended at an early stage of work disability.

  12. Quality management: reduction of waiting time and efficiency enhancement in an ENT-university outpatients' department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Matthias; Helbig, Silke; Kahla-Witzsch, Heike A; May, Angelika

    2009-01-01

    Background Public health systems are confronted with constantly rising costs. Furthermore, diagnostic as well as treatment services become more and more specialized. These are the reasons for an interdisciplinary project on the one hand aiming at simplification of planning and scheduling patient appointments, on the other hand at fulfilling all requirements of efficiency and treatment quality. Methods As to understanding procedure and problem solving activities, the responsible project group strictly proceeded with four methodical steps: actual state analysis, analysis of causes, correcting measures, and examination of effectiveness. Various methods of quality management, as for instance opinion polls, data collections, and several procedures of problem identification as well as of solution proposals were applied. All activities were realized according to the requirements of the clinic's ISO 9001:2000 certified quality management system. The development of this project is described step by step from planning phase to inauguration into the daily routine of the clinic and subsequent control of effectiveness. Results Five significant problem fields could be identified. After an analysis of causes the major remedial measures were: installation of a patient telephone hotline, standardization of appointment arrangements for all patients, modification of the appointments book considering the reason for coming in planning defined working periods for certain symptoms and treatments, improvement of telephonic counselling, and transition to flexible time planning by daily updates of the appointments book. After implementation of these changes into the clinic's routine success could be demonstrated by significantly reduced waiting times and resulting increased patient satisfaction. Conclusion Systematic scrutiny of the existing organizational structures of the outpatients' department of our clinic by means of actual state analysis and analysis of causes revealed the necessity

  13. Ultrafast spontaneous emission of copper-doped silicon enhanced by an optical nanocavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumikura, Hisashi; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya

    2014-05-23

    Dopants in silicon (Si) have attracted attention in the fields of photonics and quantum optics. However, the optical characteristics are limited by the small spontaneous emission rate of dopants in Si. This study demonstrates a large increase in the spontaneous emission rate of copper isoelectronic centres (Cu-IECs) doped into Si photonic crystal nanocavities. In a cavity with a quality factor (Q) of ~16,000, the photoluminescence (PL) lifetime of the Cu-IECs is 1.1 ns, which is 30 times shorter than the lifetime of a sample without a cavity. The PL decay rate is increased in proportion to Q/Vc (Vc is the cavity mode volume), which indicates the Purcell effect. This is the first demonstration of a cavity-enhanced ultrafast spontaneous emission from dopants in Si, and it may lead to the development of fast and efficient Si light emitters and Si quantum optical devices based on dopants with efficient optical access.

  14. Magnetospheric conditions at the time of enhanced wave-particle interactions near the plasmapause

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, J.C.; Rosenberg, T.J.; Lanzerotti, L.J.

    1976-01-01

    The morphology of geomagnetic and particle disturbances occurring in the American sector during the 0700--1000 UT time interval on January 2, 1971, is examined. This period includes the VLF/X ray burst correlation event that was detected near the plasmapause at Lapprox.4 in the vicinity of Siple Station, Antarctica (Rosenberg et al., 1971; Foster and Rosenberg, 1976a). It is found that a sequence of substorm intensifications occurred (0730, 0820, 0850, and 0925 UT), successive intensifications tending to occur more westwardly than the preceding ones. The last intensification in the sequence was confined principally to latitudes higher than the nominal auroral zone. Injections of energetic electrons into the night side magnetosphere were observed at Lapprox.6.6 during the intensifications at approx.0820 and approx.0850 UT. The onset and pronounced temporal and spectral features of the electron precipitation at Lapprox.4 near dawn can be related to these electron injections when cross-L inward convection and azimuthal drit are considered. It is suggested that injected electrons penetrated at least to the region just outside the plasmapause during the substorm and that simultaneous electron precipitation and VLF wave generation were associated with the onset of cyclotron resonance interactions following the arrival of the electrons on the field line over Siple Station

  15. Gist in time: Scene semantics and structure enhance recall of searched objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephs, Emilie L; Draschkow, Dejan; Wolfe, Jeremy M; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-09-01

    Previous work has shown that recall of objects that are incidentally encountered as targets in visual search is better than recall of objects that have been intentionally memorized (Draschkow, Wolfe, & Võ, 2014). However, this counter-intuitive result is not seen when these tasks are performed with non-scene stimuli. The goal of the current paper is to determine what features of search in a scene contribute to higher recall rates when compared to a memorization task. In each of four experiments, we compare the free recall rate for target objects following a search to the rate following a memorization task. Across the experiments, the stimuli include progressively more scene-related information. Experiment 1 provides the spatial relations between objects. Experiment 2 adds relative size and depth of objects. Experiments 3 and 4 include scene layout and semantic information. We find that search leads to better recall than explicit memorization in cases where scene layout and semantic information are present, as long as the participant has ample time (2500ms) to integrate this information with knowledge about the target object (Exp. 4). These results suggest that the integration of scene and target information not only leads to more efficient search, but can also contribute to stronger memory representations than intentional memorization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient Algorithms for Real-Time GPU Volumetric Cloud Rendering with Enhanced Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Jiménez de Parga

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents several new techniques for volumetric cloud rendering using efficient algorithms and data structures based on ray-tracing methods for cumulus generation, achieving an optimum balance between realism and performance. These techniques target applications such as flight simulations, computer games, and educational software, even with conventional graphics hardware. The contours of clouds are defined by implicit mathematical expressions or triangulated structures inside which volumetric rendering is performed. Novel techniques are used to reproduce the asymmetrical nature of clouds and the effects of light-scattering, with low computing costs. The work includes a new method to create randomized fractal clouds using a recursive grammar. The graphical results are comparable to those produced by state-of-the-art, hyper-realistic algorithms. These methods provide real-time performance, and are superior to particle-based systems. These outcomes suggest that our methods offer a good balance between realism and performance, and are suitable for use in the standard graphics industry.

  17. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2017-05-01

    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H 2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV). Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Time-dependent enhancement of lymphocyte activation by mitogens after exposure to isolation or water scheduling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessop, J J; Gale, K; Bayer, B M

    1988-01-01

    The effects of isolation and water scheduling on mitogen induced lymphocyte proliferation were investigated. Isolated rats were animals which had been raised in group-housed conditions and then transferred to individual cages with ad lib access to water for a 1 or 2 week period. Water scheduled rats were maintained in group housing (5 rats per cage) with ad lib access to food but with access to water for a single 30 minute session each day. Responses of these groups were compared to those of animals which had been continuously group-housed with ad lib access to food and water. No differences in lymphocyte responses to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) were found 1 week after exposure to isolation. However, after 2 weeks, splenic and blood T lymphocytes from isolated animals demonstrated an increased proliferative response to suboptimum and maximum concentrations of PHA. Splenic B lymphocyte responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from isolated animals were also increased by 2- to 3-fold compared to group-housed controls. Two weeks of exposure of animals to daily water scheduling similarly increased the splenic lymphocyte proliferation. This increased responsiveness to PHA was not accompanied by a significant change in the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to PHA, in the total number of white blood cells, or the proportion of splenic T or T helper lymphocytes. Our results show that the increase in lymphocyte proliferation is time-dependent, requires greater than 1 week of exposure to isolation and is due to factors other than changes in sensitivity to mitogen or T lymphocyte number.

  19. Intraindividual comparison of T1 relaxation times after gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA administration for cardiac late enhancement imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doeblin, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.doeblin@charite.de [Department of Cardiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Benjamin Franklin, Berlin (Germany); Schilling, Rene, E-mail: rene.schilling@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Wagner, Moritz, E-mail: moritz.wagner@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Luhur, Reny, E-mail: renyluhur@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Huppertz, Alexander, E-mail: alexander.huppertz@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Imaging Science Institute, Charité, Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: bernd.hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); Taupitz, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.taupitz@harite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Charité Campus Mitte, Berlin (Germany); and others

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: To evaluate T1-relaxation times of chronic myocardial infarction (CMI) using gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) over time and to determine the optimal imaging window for late enhancement imaging with both contrast agents. Material and methods: Twelve patients with CMI were prospectively included and examined on a 1.5 T magnetic resonance (MR) system using relaxivity-adjusted doses of gadobutrol (0.15 mmol/kg) and Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) in random order. T1-relaxation times of remote myocardium (RM), infarcted myocardium (IM), and left ventricular cavity (LVC) were assessed from short-axis TI scout imaging using the Look–Locker approach and compared intraindividually using a Wilcoxon paired signed-rank test (α < 0.05). Results: Within 3 min of contrast agent administration (CA), IM showed significantly lower T1-relaxation times than RM with both contrast agents, indicating beginning cardiac late enhancement. Differences between gadobutrol and Gd-DTPA in T1-relaxation times of IM and RM were statistically not significant through all time points. However, gadobutrol led to significantly higher T1-relaxation times of LVC than Gd-DTPA from 6 to 9 min (220 ± 15 ms vs. 195 ± 30 ms p < 0.01) onwards, resulting in a significantly greater ΔT1 of IM to LVC at 9–12 min (−20 ± 35 ms vs. 0 ± 35 ms, p < 0.05) and 12–15 min (−25 ± 45 ms vs. −10 ± 60 ms, p < 0.05). Using Gd-DTPA, comparable ΔT1 values were reached only after 25–35 min. Conclusion: This study indicates good delineation of IM to RM with both contrast agents as early as 3 min after administration. However, we found significant differences in T1 relaxation times with greater ΔT1 IM–LVC using 0.15 mmol/kg gadobutrol compared to 0.20 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA after 9–15 min post-CA suggesting earlier differentiability of IM and LVC using gadobutrol.

  20. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D volumetric time-resolved MRA combining PCASL for intracranial vessels. President award proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Tatsuno, Satoshi; Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto; Takahara, Taro

    2013-01-01

    Hemodynamic information is required for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up examination of numerous cerebrovascular diseases. A recently introduced technique for non-contrast 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi phase angiography (CINEMA)-provides useful qualitative information on the morphologic and dynamic filling of intracranial vessels and requires no catheter insertion or contrast agent. We propose combining CINEMA with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). We present a preliminary study of non-contrast time-resolved MRA with time-of-arrival map and discuss its clinical relevance. Studies in all volunteers and patients clearly depicted major intracranial vessels. In patients, CINEMA-PCASL demonstrated the nidus, feeding arteries, and right posterior cerebral artery, and subsequent draining into the superficial venous system was clearly observed with a temporal resolution of 200 ms. Time-of-arrival maps presented the different filling time of every segment vessel in a single colorful image. The expected pattern of delayed transit to more distal vessels is apparent as well as the earlier arrival in central portions of larger vessels. This preliminary study demonstrated the usefulness of the CINEMA-PCASL technique in evaluating the cerebral vasculature. Simultaneous acquisition of high quality temporal and spatial resolutions obviated the need for contrast agent. (author)

  1. Non-contrast-enhanced 3D volumetric time-resolved MRA combining PCASL for intracranial vessels. President award proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Masanobu; Yoneyama, Masami; Tabuchi, Takashi; Tatsuno, Satoshi [Yaesu Clinic, Tokyo (Japan); Takemura, Atsushi; Obara, Makoto [Philips Electronics Japan, Tokyo (Japan); Takahara, Taro [Tokai Univ., Hiratsuka, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2013-02-15

    Hemodynamic information is required for accurate diagnosis, effective treatment, and follow-up examination of numerous cerebrovascular diseases. A recently introduced technique for non-contrast 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric time-resolved magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)-contrast inherent inflow enhanced multi phase angiography (CINEMA)-provides useful qualitative information on the morphologic and dynamic filling of intracranial vessels and requires no catheter insertion or contrast agent. We propose combining CINEMA with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (PCASL). We present a preliminary study of non-contrast time-resolved MRA with time-of-arrival map and discuss its clinical relevance. Studies in all volunteers and patients clearly depicted major intracranial vessels. In patients, CINEMA-PCASL demonstrated the nidus, feeding arteries, and right posterior cerebral artery, and subsequent draining into the superficial venous system was clearly observed with a temporal resolution of 200 ms. Time-of-arrival maps presented the different filling time of every segment vessel in a single colorful image. The expected pattern of delayed transit to more distal vessels is apparent as well as the earlier arrival in central portions of larger vessels. This preliminary study demonstrated the usefulness of the CINEMA-PCASL technique in evaluating the cerebral vasculature. Simultaneous acquisition of high quality temporal and spatial resolutions obviated the need for contrast agent. (author)

  2. Space-time relationship in continuously moving table method for large FOV peripheral contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabati, M; Lauzon, M L; Frayne, R

    2003-01-01

    Data acquisition using a continuously moving table approach is a method capable of generating large field-of-view (FOV) 3D MR angiograms. However, in order to obtain venous contamination-free contrast-enhanced (CE) MR angiograms in the lower limbs, one of the major challenges is to acquire all necessary k-space data during the restricted arterial phase of the contrast agent. Preliminary investigation on the space-time relationship of continuously acquired peripheral angiography is performed in this work. Deterministic and stochastic undersampled hybrid-space (x, k y , k z ) acquisitions are simulated for large FOV peripheral runoff studies. Initial results show the possibility of acquiring isotropic large FOV images of the entire peripheral vascular system. An optimal trade-off between the spatial and temporal sampling properties was found that produced a high-spatial resolution peripheral CE-MR angiogram. The deterministic sampling pattern was capable of reconstructing the global structure of the peripheral arterial tree and showed slightly better global quantitative results than stochastic patterns. Optimal stochastic sampling patterns, on the other hand, enhanced small vessels and had more favourable local quantitative results. These simulations demonstrate the complex spatial-temporal relationship when sampling large FOV peripheral runoff studies. They also suggest that more investigation is required to maximize image quality as a function of hybrid-space coverage, acquisition repetition time and sampling pattern parameters

  3. Human umbilical-cord-blood mononucleated cells enhance the survival of lethally irradiated mice. Dosage and the window of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalenko, Olga A.; Ende, Norman; Azzam, Edouard I.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the window of time and dose of human umbilical-cord-blood (HUCB) mononucleated cells necessary for successful treatment of radiation injury in mice. Female A/J mice (27-30 weeks old) were exposed to an absorbed dose of 9-10 Gy of 137 Cs γ-rays delivered acutely to the whole body. They were treated either with 1 × 10 8 or 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells at 24-52 h after the irradiation. The antibiotic Levaquin was applied 4 h postirradiation. The increased dose of cord-blood cells resulted in enhanced survival. The enhancement of survival in animals that received 2 × 10 8 HUCB mononucleated cells relative to irradiated but untreated animals was highly significant (P < 0.01). Compared with earlier studies, the increased dose of HUCB mononucleated cells, coupled with early use of an antibiotic, extended the window of time for effective treatment of severe radiation injury from 4 to 24-52 h after exposure. (author)

  4. Mixed-time parallel evolution in multiple quantum NMR experiments: sensitivity and resolution enhancement in heteronuclear NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying Jinfa; Chill, Jordan H.; Louis, John M.; Bax, Ad

    2007-01-01

    A new strategy is demonstrated that simultaneously enhances sensitivity and resolution in three- or higher-dimensional heteronuclear multiple quantum NMR experiments. The approach, referred to as mixed-time parallel evolution (MT-PARE), utilizes evolution of chemical shifts of the spins participating in the multiple quantum coherence in parallel, thereby reducing signal losses relative to sequential evolution. The signal in a given PARE dimension, t 1 , is of a non-decaying constant-time nature for a duration that depends on the length of t 2 , and vice versa, prior to the onset of conventional exponential decay. Line shape simulations for the 1 H- 15 N PARE indicate that this strategy significantly enhances both sensitivity and resolution in the indirect 1 H dimension, and that the unusual signal decay profile results in acceptable line shapes. Incorporation of the MT-PARE approach into a 3D HMQC-NOESY experiment for measurement of H N -H N NOEs in KcsA in SDS micelles at 50 o C was found to increase the experimental sensitivity by a factor of 1.7±0.3 with a concomitant resolution increase in the indirectly detected 1 H dimension. The method is also demonstrated for a situation in which homonuclear 13 C- 13 C decoupling is required while measuring weak H3'-2'OH NOEs in an RNA oligomer

  5. Enhanced precipitation promotes decomposition and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems, but seasonal timing of wetting matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Xochi; Germino, Matthew; de Graaff, Marie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    AimsChanging precipitation regimes in semiarid ecosystems will affect the balance of soil carbon (C) input and release, but the net effect on soil C storage is unclear. We asked how changes in the amount and timing of precipitation affect litter decomposition, and soil C stabilization in semiarid ecosystems.MethodsThe study took place at a long-term (18 years) ecohydrology experiment located in Idaho. Precipitation treatments consisted of a doubling of annual precipitation (+200 mm) added either in the cold-dormant season or in the growing season. Experimental plots were planted with big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata), or with crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). We quantified decomposition of sagebrush leaf litter, and we assessed organic soil C (SOC) in aggregates, and silt and clay fractions.ResultsWe found that: (1) increased precipitation applied in the growing season consistently enhanced decomposition rates relative to the ambient treatment, and (2) precipitation applied in the dormant season enhanced soil C stabilization.ConclusionsThese data indicate that prolonged increases in precipitation can promote soil C storage in semiarid ecosystems, but only if these increases happen at times of the year when conditions allow for precipitation to promote plant C inputs rates to soil.

  6. Photo-stability and time-resolved photoluminescence study of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots passivated in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Chih-Yi [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Mao, Ming-Hua, E-mail: mhmao@ntu.edu.tw [Graduate Institute of Photonics and Optoelectronics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Electronics Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Department of Electrical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

    2016-08-28

    We report photo-stability enhancement of colloidal CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) passivated in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film using the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. 62% of the original peak photoluminescence (PL) intensity remained after ALD. The photo-oxidation and photo-induced fluorescence enhancement effects of both the unpassivated and passivated QDs were studied under various conditions, including different excitation sources, power densities, and environment. The unpassivated QDs showed rapid PL degradation under high excitation due to strong photo-oxidation in air while the PL intensity of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivated QDs was found to remain stable. Furthermore, recombination dynamics of the unpassivated and passivated QDs were investigated by time-resolved measurements. The average lifetime of the unpassivated QDs decreases with laser irradiation time due to photo-oxidation. Photo-oxidation creates surface defects which reduces the QD emission intensity and enhances the non-radiative recombination rate. From the comparison of PL decay profiles of the unpassivated and passivated QDs, photo-oxidation-induced surface defects unexpectedly also reduce the radiative recombination rate. The ALD passivation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} protects QDs from photo-oxidation and therefore avoids the reduction of radiative recombination rate. Our experimental results demonstrated that passivation of colloidal QDs by ALD is a promising method to well encapsulate QDs to prevent gas permeation and to enhance photo-stability, including the PL intensity and carrier lifetime in air. This is essential for the applications of colloidal QDs in light-emitting devices.

  7. Enhancing Hydrogen Diffusion in Silica Matrix by Using Metal Ion Implantation to Improve the Emission Properties of Silicon Nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bornacelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient silicon-based light emitters continue to be a challenge. A great effort has been made in photonics to modify silicon in order to enhance its light emission properties. In this aspect silicon nanocrystals (Si-NCs have become the main building block of silicon photonic (modulators, waveguide, source, and detectors. In this work, we present an approach based on implantation of Ag (or Au ions and a proper thermal annealing in order to improve the photoluminescence (PL emission of Si-NCs embedded in SiO2. The Si-NCs are obtained by ion implantation at MeV energy and nucleated at high depth into the silica matrix (1-2 μm under surface. Once Si-NCs are formed inside the SiO2 we implant metal ions at energies that do not damage the Si-NCs. We have observed by, PL and time-resolved PL, that ion metal implantation and a subsequent thermal annealing in a hydrogen-containing atmosphere could significantly increase the emission properties of Si-NCs. Elastic Recoil Detection measurements show that the samples with an enhanced luminescence emission present a higher hydrogen concentration. This suggests that ion metal implantation enhances the hydrogen diffusion into silica matrix allowing a better passivation of surface defects on Si NCs.

  8. Three-photon excited PL spectroscopy and photo-generated Frenkel defects in wide-bandgap layered CdI2 semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miah, M. Idrish

    2009-01-01

    We performed a three-photon excitation nonlinear photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in single crystals of wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBSs). The crystal temperature (T L )-dependent PL emission intensity (I PL ) excited with different excitation power density (P) was measured. The PL emissions showed characteristics I PL with their maxima at around 520 nm. The I PL might be due to the presence of the photo-generated Frenkel defects (FDs) in WBSs. A detailed analysis of the PL spectra showed a third-order power law dependence of the maximum I PL on P for all the crystal temperature T L . The I PL was found to increase with decreasing T L . The results demonstrated the existence of the self-trapped excitons resulting from the presence of the FDs in the crystals.

  9. Three-photon excited PL spectroscopy and photo-generated Frenkel defects in wide-bandgap layered CdI{sub 2} semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish, E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.a [Qeensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [School of Biomolecular and Physical Sciences, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia)] [Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331 (Bangladesh)

    2009-12-14

    We performed a three-photon excitation nonlinear photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy in single crystals of wide-bandgap semiconductors (WBSs). The crystal temperature (T{sub L})-dependent PL emission intensity (I{sub PL}) excited with different excitation power density (P) was measured. The PL emissions showed characteristics I{sub PL} with their maxima at around 520 nm. The I{sub PL} might be due to the presence of the photo-generated Frenkel defects (FDs) in WBSs. A detailed analysis of the PL spectra showed a third-order power law dependence of the maximum I{sub PL} on P for all the crystal temperature T{sub L}. The I{sub PL} was found to increase with decreasing T{sub L}. The results demonstrated the existence of the self-trapped excitons resulting from the presence of the FDs in the crystals.

  10. sFlt-1 and PlGF kinetics during and after pregnancy in women with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Langeza; van den Meiracker, Anton H; Geensen, Roos; Kaya, Aslihan; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Duvekot, Johannes J; Verdonk, Koen; Steegers, Eric A P; Russcher, Henk; Danser, Jan A H; Visser, Willy

    2017-06-10

    To assess the evolution of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in women with suspected or with confirmed preeclampsia and to investigate the changes in sFlt-1 and PlGF levels in preeclamptic women after delivery. In this exploratory tertiary referral university centre study, using the Roche Diagnostics Elecsys assay, sFlt-1 and PlGF were determined in two groups of patients. In the first group of 46 patients with suspected or confirmed preeclampsia, sFlt-1 and PlGF were measured at least twice during their pregnancy. Women had singleton pregnancies and a median pregnancy duration of 26 weeks (range 18 - 40 weeks). In the second group, sFlt-1 and PlGF of 26 preeclamptic patients were determined before and after delivery. The median gestational age at inclusion was 29 weeks (16 - 37) and the median days between antepartum measurement and delivery was 2 days (1 - 7). In the first group, 90% of patients with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≤38 at baseline (n = 30), ruling out PE, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio remained stable for up to 100 days. In 16 patients with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio >38 and in 10% of those with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio <38 at baseline the ratio increased further. In the second group, after delivery, sFlt-1 dropped to <1% of its pre-delivery values with a half-life of 1.4 ± 0.3 days, while PlGF dropped to ≈ 30% of its pre-delivery values with a half-life of 3.7 ± 4.3 days. Based on this small cohort, up to 10% of women admitted with suspected or confirmed PE presenting with a sFlt-1/PlGF ratio ≤38 display a rise of this sFlt-1/PlGF ratio in subsequent weeks, implying that repeated determination of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is required to reject this condition definitively. Furthermore, the rapid and pronounced decline of sFlt-1 values after delivery in patients with PE/HELLP suggests that sFlt-1, in contrast with PlGF, is almost entirely placenta-derived. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using time-intensity curves in prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Junchu; Chen Ming; Sun Huifen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the characters of time-intensity curve of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. Methods: 2.4 ml Sono Vue were injected as a bolus in 40 patients, 23 patients with BPH and 17 with prostate cancer. High perfusion area in both inner and outer gland were measured with time-intensity curves. Results: It was proved by the time-intensity curves that, in BPH cases, the outer prostate gland presented with mild enhancedment and slow wash-off, while the inner gland presented with moderate enhancedment and fast wash-off. Otherwise, both the inner and outer gland in prostate cancer cases presented with high-intensitive enhancedment and slow wash-off. There was marked difference statistical significance on the up slop, average intensity and area under the time-intensity curves in 90 s and 150 s between the cases of BPH and prostate cancer (P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of high perfusion area in both inner and outer glands is helpful for diagnosing BPH and prostate cancer. (authors)

  12. Artificial Neural Network classification of operator workload with an assessment of time variation and noise-enhancement to increase performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander James Casson

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Workload classification---the determination of whether a human operator is in a high or low workload state to allow their working environment to be optimized---is an emerging application of passive Brain-Computer Interface (BCI systems. Practical systems must not only accurately detect the current workload state, but also have good temporal performance: requiring little time to set up and train the classifier, and ensuring that the reported performance level is consistent and predictable over time. This paper investigates the temporal performance of an Artificial Neural Network based classification system. For networks trained on little EEG data good classification accuracies (86% are achieved over very short time frames, but substantial decreases in accuracy are found as the time gap between the network training and the actual use is increased. Noise-enhanced processing, where artificially generated noise is deliberately added to the testing signals, is investigated as a potential technique to mitigate this degradation without requiring the network to be re-trained using more data. Small stochastic resonance effects are demonstrated whereby the classification process gets better in the presence of more noise. The effect is small and does not eliminate the need for re-training, but it is consistent, and this is the first demonstration of such effects for non-evoked/free-running EEG signals suitable for passive BCI.

  13. Supra-aortic low-dose contrast-enhanced time-resolved magnetic resonance (MR) angiography at 3 T: comparison with time-of-flight MR angiography and high-resolution contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Youn-Joo; Kim, Bum-soo; Koo, Ja-Sung; Kim, Bom-Yi; Jang, Jinhee; Choi, Hyun Seok; Jung, So-Lyung; Ahn, Kook-Jin

    2015-06-01

    Low-dose, time-resolved, contrast-enhanced, magnetic resonance angiography (TR-CEMRA) has been described previously; however, a comparative study between low dose TR-CEMRA and time-of-flight MRA (TOF-MRA) in the diagnosis of supra-aortic arterial stenosis has not yet been published. To demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of low-dose TR-CEMRA compared with TOF-MRA, using high-resolution contrast-enhanced MRA (HR-CEMRA) as the reference standard. This prospective study consisted of 30 consecutive patients. All patients underwent TOF-MRA of the neck and circle of Willis and supra-aortic HR-CEMRA, followed by supra-aortic low-dose TR-CEMRA. Gadoterate meglumine (Gd-DOTA, Dotarem(®), Guerbet, Roissy CdG Cedex, France) was injected at a dose of 0.1 mmol/kg for HR-CEMRA, followed by a 0.03 mmol/kg bolus for low-dose TR-CEMRA. Three readers evaluated the assessibility and image quality, and then two readers classified each stenosis into the following categories: normal (0-30%), mild stenosis (31-50%), moderate (51-70%), severe (71-99%), and occlusion. TR-CEMRA and HR-CEMRA showed a greater number of assessable arterial segments than TOF-MRA (P supra-aortic arterial stenosis, and could be more useful option than TOF-MRA. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  14. Contrast enhancement technique in brain 3D-CTA studies. Optimizing the amount of contrast medium according to scan time based on TDC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terasawa, Kazuaki; Hatcho, Atsushi

    2008-01-01

    In three-dimensional CT angiography (3D-CTA), good reproducibility can be obtained by maintaining the maximum CT numbers (HU) at a specified level. However, the correlation between the scan time and the injection time showed that the maximum CT numbers increased and varied due to the additional contrast enhancement effect from recirculation of the injected contrast medium for longer injection times when the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit time (mgI/s) was maintained at a specified level based on the time-density curve (TDC) of the phantom. The amount of contrast medium employed at our hospital has been optimized based on an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time providing a contrast enhancement effect of 300 HU in the middle cerebral artery. Using this standard, a TDC phantom was employed to obtain an iodinated contrast medium dose per unit time, permitting equivalent maximum CT values (used as standard values) to be obtained by changing the injection time. A contrast-enhancement technique that accounts for the variation in the scan time was evaluated. Strong correlations were observed between the scan time and the injection time (R 2 =0.969) and between the injection time and the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight (R 2 =0.994). We conclude that adjusting the dose of iodinated contrast medium per unit body weight per unit time according to the scan time permits optimization of the contrast-enhancement technique. (author)

  15. Optimized enhancement in helical CT: Experiences with a real-time bolus tracking system in 628 patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirchner, J.; Kickuth, R.; Laufer, U.; Noack, M.; Liermann, D.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: Ultrafast detector technology enables bolus-triggered application of contrast media. In a prospective study we investigated the benefit of this new method with the intention of optimizing enhancement during examination of the chest and abdomen. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, we examined 548 patients under standardized conditions. All examinations were performed on a Somatom Plus 4 Power CT system (Siemens Corp., Forchheim, Germany) using the CARE-Bolus software. This produces repetitive low-dose test images (e.g. for the lung: 140 kV, 43 mA, TI 0.5 s) and measures the Hounsfield attenuation in a pre-selected region of interest. After exceeding a defined threshold, a diagnostic spiral CT examination was begun automatically. The data obtained from 321 abdominal CT and 179 lung CT examinations were correlated with different parameters such as age, weight and height of the patients and parameters of vascular access. In a group of 80 patients, the injection of contrast medium was stopped after reaching a pre-defined threshold of an increase of 100 HU over the baseline. Then, we assessed the maximal enhancement of liver, pulmonal artery trunk and aortic arch. RESULTS: There was no correlation between bolus geometry and age, body surface or weight. In helical CT of the abdomen the threshold was reached after a mean trigger time of 27 s (range 13-67 s) and only 65 ml (range 41-105 ml) of contrast medium were administered. In helical CT of the lung the threshold was reached after 21 s (range 12-48 s) and the mean amount of administered contrast medium was 48 ml (range 38-71 ml). CONCLUSION: Bolus triggering allows optimized enhancement of the organs and reduces the dose of contrast material required compared with standard administration. Kirchner, J. (2000). Clinical Radiology 55, 368-373

  16. Optimized enhancement in helical CT: experiences with a real-time bolus tracking system in 628 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, J; Kickuth, R; Laufer, U; Noack, M; Liermann, D

    2000-05-01

    Ultrafast detector technology enables bolus-triggered application of contrast media. In a prospective study we investigated the benefit of this new method with the intention of optimizing enhancement during examination of the chest and abdomen. In total, we examined 548 patients under standardized conditions. All examinations were performed on a Somatom Plus 4 Power CT system (Siemens Corp., Forchheim, Germany) using the CARE-Bolus software. This produces repetitive low-dose test images (e.g. for the lung: 140 kV, 43 mA, TI 0.5 s) and measures the Hounsfield attenuation in a pre-selected region of interest. After exceeding a defined threshold, a diagnostic spiral CT examination was begun automatically. The data obtained from 321 abdominal CT and 179 lung CT examinations were correlated with different parameters such as age, weight and height of the patients and parameters of vascular access. In a group of 80 patients, the injection of contrast medium was stopped after reaching a pre-defined threshold of an increase of 100 HU over the baseline. Then, we assessed the maximal enhancement of liver, pulmonal artery trunk and aortic arch. There was no correlation between bolus geometry and age, body surface or weight. In helical CT of the abdomen the threshold was reached after a mean trigger time of 27 s (range 13-67 s) and only 65 ml (range 41-105 ml) of contrast medium were administered. In helical CT of the lung the threshold was reached after 21 s (range 12-48 s) and the mean amount of administered contrast medium was 48 ml (range 38-71 ml). Bolus triggering allows optimized enhancement of the organs and reduces the dose of contrast material required compared with standard administration. Copyright 2000 The Royal College of Radiologists.

  17. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan; Shinar, Joseph; Shinar, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ 0 /τ 100 (PL decay time τ at 0% O 2 /τ at 100% O 2 ) that is often used to express S

  18. Contrast enhancement in an optical time-domain reflectometer via self-phase modulation compensation by chirped probe pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, A E; Potapov, V T; Vdovenko, V S; Simikin, D E; Gorshkov, B G

    2016-01-01

    In the present paper we propose a novel method for optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR)–reflectogram contrast enhancement via compensation of nonlinear distortions of propagating probe pulse, which arise due to the self-phase modulation (SPM) effect in optical fiber. The compensation is performed via preliminary frequency modulation (chirp) of the initial probe pulse according to the specific law. As a result the OTDR contrast at some distant predefined fiber point is fully restored to the value of non-distorted probe pulse at the beginning of the fiber line. As a result, the performance of the phase OTDR increases. The point of full SPM compensation could be shifted to any other point of the fiber line via preliminary frequency modulation index change. The feasibility of the proposed method is theoretically proved and experimentally demonstrated. (paper)

  19. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, A.R.; Kim, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Kim, D.W.; Park, M.; Yu, I.K.; Kim, S.H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M.H.; Seong, K.C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  20. Time resolved study of the emission enhancement mechanisms in orthogonal double-pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanginés, R., E-mail: roberto.sangines@ccadet.unam.mx; Sobral, H.

    2013-10-01

    The evolution of laser induced ablation plume on aluminum targets has been investigated in orthogonal pre-ablation double pulse scheme at atmospheric pressure from the earliest stages of plasma evolution. Time-resolved emission spectra from neutrals, singly- and doubly-ionized species obtained with the double pulse experiment have been compared with those from the single pulse configuration. Signal-to-noise enhancement reaches values of up to 15 depending on the analyzed species; and the lower the charge state the later its maximum signal-to-noise ratio is reached. Ablation plume dynamics was monitored from 10 ns after the plasma onset via shadowgraphy and fast-photography with narrow interference filters to follow the evolution of individual species. Results show that ionic species from the target are located at the plasma core while nitrogen from the background air is found at the plume peripheral. Initially both configurations exhibit similar ablation plume sizes and their expansions were successfully fitted with the strong explosion model for the first 500 ns. At later times a good agreement was obtained by using the drag model, which predicts that the plume expansion eventually stops due to interaction with the background gas particles. The emission enhancement measured in the double pulse scheme is discussed in terms of the models describing the plume dynamics. - Highlights: • Production of 2 + ions at the earliest stages of plasma evolution • The higher the charge state the inner the location within the ablation plume. • The expansion rate of the second (ablation) plume was measured. • Shock and drag models successfully fit the ablation shock front expansion.

  1. PL/SQL and Bind Variable: the two ways to increase the efficiency of Network Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitesh KUMAR SHARMA

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Modern data analysis applications are driven by the Network databases. They are pushing traditional database and data warehousing technologies beyond their limits due to their massively increasing data volumes and demands for low latency. There are three major challenges in working with network databases: interoperability due to heterogeneous data repositories, proactively due to autonomy of data sources and high efficiency to meet the application demand. This paper provides the two ways to meet the third challenge of network databases. This goal can be achieved by network database administrator with the usage of PL/SQL blocks and bind variable. The paper will explain the effect of PL/SQL block and bind variable on Network database efficiency to meet the modern data analysis application demand.

  2. Comparison of two methods for extraction of volatiles from marine PL emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Henna Fung Sieng; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic headspace (DHS) thermal desorption principle using Tenax GR tube, as well as the solid phase micro‐extraction (SPME) tool with carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane 50/30 µm CAR/PDMS SPME fiber, both coupled to GC/MS were implemented for the isolation and identification of both lipid...... and Strecker derived volatiles in marine phospholipids (PL) emulsions. Comparison of volatile extraction efficiency was made between the methods. For marine PL emulsions with a highly complex composition of volatiles headspace, a fiber saturation problem was encountered when using CAR/PDMS‐SPME for volatiles...... analysis. However, the CAR/PDMS‐SPME technique was efficient for lipid oxidation analysis in emulsions of less complex headspace. The SPME method extracted volatiles of lower molecular weights more efficient than the DHS method. On the other hand, DHS Tenax GR appeared to be more efficient in extracting...

  3. El valor patriotismo, a\ttravés de obras plásticas cubanas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamilé Montero Leyva

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available La\tinvestigación aborda una temática de gran vigencia y actualidad para la finalidad de la educación cubana: el fortalecimiento del valor patriotismo a través de obras plásticas cubanas en los estudiantes de la Secundaria Básica. Se proponen actividades de apreciación artística estructuradas teniendo en cuenta cada unas de las variantes a trabajar, donde aborda la vida y obra de los artistas de la plástica cubanos, así como un cuestionario para la realización de la apreciación. Se brindan orientaciones metodológicas, y además se puede establecer la relación intermateria con las demás asignaturas del grado: Español. Historia de Cuba, Historia Antigua y Medieval.

  4. Las Artes Plásticas como medio articulador del currículo escolar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Fernández-Zamora

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Recibido 2 de noviembre de 2006 • Aprobado 30 de noviembre de 2006   Este ensayo se basa en la experiencia realizada por una maestra, en la cual integra el currículum, correlacionando las disciplinas de la matemática, ciencias, estudios sociales y español a través de los elementos del lenguaje plástico. La experiencia se desarrolló en una escuela rural costarricense.

  5. Periodic assessment of plasma sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and its association with placental morphometry in gestational hypertension (GH) - a prospective follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevaratnam, Kamalan; Nadarajah, Vishna Devi; Judson, John Paul; Nalliah, Sivalingam; Abdullah, Mohd Farouk

    2010-09-28

    Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal plasma PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in pregnant women with gestational hypertension at three intervals of pregnancy and correlate these biomarker levels with placental morphometry. Venous blood samples (antepartum, intrapartum and post partum periods) were drawn to estimate for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels while placental tissue samples were examined for placental morphometry. PlGF levels were lower in gestational hypertension (GH) compared to normotensive during antepartum and intrapartum period, whereas sFlt-1 levels were elevated in GH at antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum intervals during pregnancy. An inverse relationship between these two biomarkers was observed through correlation analysis. PlGF levels were inversely correlated with total villous surface area of the placental periphery (TCsa-C) and villous capillarization (VC-C) of the placental periphery. We established periodic values of for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels for the first time in an ethnically diverse Malaysian setting. We suggest the development of GH in women is related to defective capillarization. In demonstrating periodic changes, this study suggest the possibility of developing GH and other long term health complications as a result of prolonged exposure to sFlt-1. The correlation between PlGF levels and morphometric findings also support possible capillarization defect.

  6. Periodic assessment of plasma sFlt-1 and PlGF concentrations and its association with placental morphometry in gestational hypertension (GH - a prospective follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalliah Sivalingam

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy contributes to about 12% of maternal deaths in Malaysia and similarly worldwide. Early detection and adequate management are preventable strategies. Biochemical markers of abnormal angiogenesis would be more specific in early detection than routine blood pressure and proteinuria measurements. The aim of this study was to estimate maternal plasma PlGF and sFlt-1 levels in pregnant women with gestational hypertension at three intervals of pregnancy and correlate these biomarker levels with placental morphometry. Methods Venous blood samples (antepartum, intrapartum and post partum periods were drawn to estimate for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels while placental tissue samples were examined for placental morphometry. Results PlGF levels were lower in gestational hypertension (GH compared to normotensive during antepartum and intrapartum period, whereas sFlt-1 levels were elevated in GH at antepartum, intrapartum and postpartum intervals during pregnancy. An inverse relationship between these two biomarkers was observed through correlation analysis. PlGF levels were inversely correlated with total villous surface area of the placental periphery (TCsa-C and villous capillarization (VC-C of the placental periphery. Conclusion We established periodic values of for sFlt-1 and PlGF levels for the first time in an ethnically diverse Malaysian setting. We suggest the development of GH in women is related to defective capillarization. In demonstrating periodic changes, this study suggest the possibility of developing GH and other long term health complications as a result of prolonged exposure to sFlt-1. The correlation between PlGF levels and morphometric findings also support possible capillarization defect.

  7. A Study on the Pricing Model for 3PL of Inventory Financing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhilan Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Being a new research area, logistics finance solves the contradiction between banks and SMEs (small and medium enterprises about financing; it is beneficial to financial market and logistics market development too. As a service innovation, it unites the interests of bank, 3PL (third-party logistics providers, and SMEs and integrates material, finance, and information. Logistics finance has been developed in recent years in China, but the research is not enough on 3PL enterprises. On the background of that, the paper makes a research in the field of logistics finance with different pricing methods, based on the perspective of third-party logistics enterprises. This paper proposes a pricing model of inventory financing that can maximize the cash flow of 3PL enterprise, when the default rate of the small- and medium-sized enterprise is affected by the pledge price. And then this paper studies the model of inventory financing that can maximize the cash flow of enterprise under the condition of the existence of cash discount rate. The core factors affecting the loan-to-value ratio were established through analysis of mathematical model. We also consider the loan-to-value ratio of cash discount rate in the model. Results show that in the pledge of the known function and cash discount the price change can be calculated to meet enterprise cash flow lending rates and get biggest loan-to-value ratio.

  8. Enhancement of porous silicon photoluminescence by electroless deposition of nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amdouni, S. [Unité de nanomatériaux et photonique, Université El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, 2092 El Manar, Tunis Tunisia (Tunisia); Rahmani, M., E-mail: rahmanimehdi79@yahoo.com [Unité de nanomatériaux et photonique, Université El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, 2092 El Manar, Tunis Tunisia (Tunisia); Zaïbi, M.-A [Unité de nanomatériaux et photonique, Université El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, 2092 El Manar, Tunis Tunisia (Tunisia); Ecole Nationale Supérieure des Ingénieurs de Tunis, Université de Tunis, 5 Avenue Taha Hussein, 1008 Tunis (Tunisia); Oueslati, M. [Unité de nanomatériaux et photonique, Université El Manar, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, Département de Physique, 2092 El Manar, Tunis Tunisia (Tunisia)

    2015-01-15

    Nickel-porous silicon nanocomposites (PS/Ni) are elaborated by an electroless deposition method using NiCl{sub 2} aqueous solution. The presence of nickel ions in the porous layer is confirmed by Fourier Transformed InfraRed spectroscopy (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy. The photoluminescence (PL) spectra of PS/Ni, prepared at different electroless durations (t{sub edp}), are analyzed. A remarkable enhancement in the integrated PL intensity of PS containing nickel was observed. The lower t{sub edp} favor the deposition of nickel in PS, hence the silicon dangling bonds at the porous surface are quenched and this was increased the PL intensity. However, for the longer t{sub edp}, the PL intensity has been considerably decreased due to the destruction of some Si nanocrystallites. The PL spectra of PS/Ni, for t{sub edp} less than 8 min, show a multiband profile indicating the creation of new luminescent centers by Ni elements which induces a strong modification in the emission mechanisms. - Highlights: • Deposition of Ni ions into porous silicon (PS) layer using the electroless method. • Formation of Ni–O bonds on the porous layer. • The photoluminescence (PL) intensity of PS is enhanced after Ni deposition. • The increase of the PL is due to the contribution of radiative centers related to Ni.

  9. Using the angiogenic factors sFlt-1 and PlGF with Doppler ultrasound of the uterine artery for confirming preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlmann, Franz; Al Naimi, Ammar

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the value of the angiogenic factors for diagnosing preeclampsia and predicting the severity of manifestation. A secondary aim is assessing the combination of the uterine artery Doppler with the angiogenic factors for improving the diagnostic power. This is a prospective single center study in a tertiary referral hospital. This study includes 728 individual patients. Inclusion criteria were singleton pregnancies, a referral to the hospital with suspicion of preeclampsia and any one or combination of the following symptoms: headache, upper abdominal pain, edema, and hypertension. Patients with complications that would affect the course of the pregnancy, such as placenta praevia, premature preterm rupture of membranes, breech presentation, and fetal chromosomal or structural anomalies, were excluded from the study. Blood samples collection and uterine artery Doppler ultrasound were performed at time of recruitment. The differences in sFlt-1, PlGF, and their quotient among normal collective and patients with preeclampsia were analyzed. Doppler ultrasound was performed by one of four highly qualified sonographers. Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U test, Spearman's rank correlation, receiver operating characteristic curves, Chi-square test, and logistic regression were used in the analysis. A total of 1003 individual samples for the angiogenic factors were included in the analysis. 584 out of the recruited 728 patients had follow-up data with delivery information at the study hospital. Patients with preeclampsia show a significant increase in sFlt-1, which directly correlate with the increased severity of manifestation (Spearman's ρ 0.49). The sFlt-1 cut-off value of 5424 pg/ml confirms preeclampsia with 83.7 % sensitivity, 68.1 % specificity, and 24 % misclassification rate. Preeclampsia patients also show a significant decrease in PlGF, which negatively correlates with the increased severity of manifestation (Spearman's ρ -0.39). A Pl

  10. Ultrasonic sludge disintegration for enhanced methane production in anaerobic digestion: effects of sludge hydrolysis efficiency and hydraulic retention time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Jin; Lee, Jonghak

    2012-01-01

    Hydrolysis of waste activated sludge (WAS) has been regarded as the rate limiting step of anaerobic sludge digestion. Therefore, in this study, the effect of ultrasound and hydraulic residence time during sludge hydrolysis was investigated with the goal of enhancing methane production from anaerobic digestion (AD). WAS was ultrasonically disintegrated for hydrolysis, and it was semi-continuously fed to an anaerobic digesters at various hydraulic retention times (HRTs). The results of these experiments showed that the solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiencies when using ultrasonically disintegrated sludge were higher during AD than the control sludge. The longer the HRT, the higher the removal efficiencies of solids and COD, while methane production increased with lower HRT. Sludge with 30% hydrolysis produced 7 × more methane production than the control sludge. The highest methane yields were 0.350 m(3)/kg volatile solids (VS)(add) and 0.301 m(3)/kg COD(con) for 16 and 30% hydrolyzed sludge, respectively. In addition, we found that excess ultrasound irradiation may inhibit AD since the 50% hydrolyzed sludge produced lower methane yields than 16 and 30% hydrolyzed sludge.

  11. Time-dependent fermentation control strategies for enhancing synthesis of marine bacteriocin 1701 using artificial neural network and genetic algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jiansheng; Meng, Fanmei; Ai, Yuncan

    2013-06-01

    The artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) were combined to optimize the fermentation process for enhancing production of marine bacteriocin 1701 in a 5-L-stirred-tank. Fermentation time, pH value, dissolved oxygen level, temperature and turbidity were used to construct a "5-10-1" ANN topology to identify the nonlinear relationship between fermentation parameters and the antibiotic effects (shown as in inhibition diameters) of bacteriocin 1701. The predicted values by the trained ANN model were coincided with the observed ones (the coefficient of R(2) was greater than 0.95). As the fermentation time was brought in as one of the ANN input nodes, fermentation parameters could be optimized by stages through GA, and an optimal fermentation process control trajectory was created. The production of marine bacteriocin 1701 was significantly improved by 26% under the guidance of fermentation control trajectory that was optimized by using of combined ANN-GA method. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits using enhanced-spatial-resolution terahertz time-domain spectroscopy and imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahi, Kiarash; Shahbazmohamadi, Sina; Asadizanjani, Navid

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, a comprehensive set of techniques for quality control and authentication of packaged integrated circuits (IC) using terahertz (THz) time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is developed. By material characterization, the presence of unexpected materials in counterfeit components is revealed. Blacktopping layers are detected using THz time-of-flight tomography, and thickness of hidden layers is measured. Sanded and contaminated components are detected by THz reflection-mode imaging. Differences between inside structures of counterfeit and authentic components are revealed through developing THz transmission imaging. For enabling accurate measurement of features by THz transmission imaging, a novel resolution enhancement technique (RET) has been developed. This RET is based on deconvolution of the THz image and the THz point spread function (PSF). The THz PSF is mathematically modeled through incorporating the spectrum of the THz imaging system, the axis of propagation of the beam, and the intensity extinction coefficient of the object into a Gaussian beam distribution. As a result of implementing this RET, the accuracy of the measurements on THz images has been improved from 2.4 mm to 0.1 mm and bond wires as small as 550 μm inside the packaging of the ICs are imaged.

  13. Remix, Pastiche, Plágio: autorias da nova geração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Demo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A querela em torno do plágio parece estar se acalmando um pouco, ainda que o problema permaneça sumamente grave. Não significa que vamos engolir o plágio, mas que precisamos entender razões de sua proliferação e visões diferenciadas de autoria (BLUM, 2009. Dentro da visão puritana (moderna, plágio é nada mais que fraude criminosa, porque se apropria de direitos alheios. Dentro, porém, da visão mais não linear (pós-moderna, além de ser difícil delimitar o que seria plágio iniludivelmente, pode-se perceber que originalidade, em certo sentido, não existe: as ideias são sempre dinâmicas compartilhadas cultural e linguisticamente (WEINBERGER, 2007. O jeito pessoal de reconstruir as ideias talvez seja único, mas não todas as ideias. Se formos excessivamente rigorosos, toda conversa é plágio, inclusive obras científicas. Na célebre alusão de Newton, sua produção matemática representou avanço decisivo no mundo científico, mas a partir de outros autores (usava a expressão: apoiado nos ombros de antecessores. É problema certamente que muitos estudantes, usando a internet, copiem friamente trechos inteiros como se fossem seus ou mesmo "comprem" uma dissertação. Ocorre também que a nova geração apresenta traços de identidade bastante diferentes, em especial com respeito à vida acadêmica e seus códigos de conduta: estudar é importante, mas é apenas um pedaço na vida e, sob pressões extremas, plagiar também é "opção". Neste texto busco analisar preliminarmente metamorfoses da autoria na nova geração.

  14. Analysis of Phospholipid Mixtures from Biological Tissues by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption and Ionization Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS): A Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibisch, Mandy; Fuchs, Beate; Schiller, Jurgen; Sub, Rosmarie; Teuber, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is increasingly used to investigate the phospholipid (PL) compositions of tissues and body fluids, often without previous separation of the total mixture into the individual PL classes. Therefore, the questions of whether all PL classes are detectable…

  15. An Introduction to the DA-T Gibbs Sampler for the Two-Parameter Logistic (2PL Model and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Maris

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The DA-T Gibbs sampler is proposed by Maris and Maris (2002 as a Bayesian estimation method for a wide variety of Item Response Theory (IRT models. The present paper provides an expository account of the DAT Gibbs sampler for the 2PL model. However, the scope is not limited to the 2PL model. It is demonstrated how the DA-T Gibbs sampler for the 2PL may be used to build, quite easily, Gibbs samplers for other IRT models. Furthermore, the paper contains a novel, intuitive derivation of the Gibbs sampler and could be read for a graduate course on sampling.

  16. Caracterización de plásmidos de Acinetobacter spp. de origen hospitalario y ambiental

    OpenAIRE

    Salto, Ileana Paula

    2017-01-01

    Los plásmidos pueden ser considerados como un ensamble de distintos módulos funcionales característicos que le confieren su identidad (Thomas, 2000). Los plásmidos pueden contener en su secuencia genes de proteínas con funciones plenamente plasmídicas (replicación, movilización y mantenimiento), como así también módulos accesorios que le confieren al microorganismo huésped alguna función beneficiosa para competir por un nicho ecológico. Estos plásmidos, cumplen una función particular y necesa...

  17. Análisis de Perfil de Textura en Plátanos Pelipita, Hartón y Topocho

    OpenAIRE

    Granados, Clemente; Acevedo, Diofanor; Cabeza, Adis; Lozano, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la textura del plátano Pelipita (Musa ABB) crudo y cocido en comparación con plátanos crudos y cocidos Hartón verde (Musa AAB) y Topocho (Musa ABB del subgrupo Silver Bluggoe) mediante un análisis de perfil de textura. El estudio de la textura como propiedad física del alimento es de suma importancia para determinar la aceptabilidad del mismo. A muestras de plátanos Pelipita de la variedad Musa ABB se les aplicó un análisis del perfil de textura a tiemp...

  18. AlgM4: A New Salt-Activated Alginate Lyase of the PL7 Family with Endolytic Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiyuan Huang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Alginate lyases are a group of enzymes that catalyze the depolymerization of alginates into oligosaccharides or monosaccharides. These enzymes have been widely used for a variety of purposes, such as producing bioactive oligosaccharides, controlling the rheological properties of polysaccharides, and performing structural analyses of polysaccharides. The algM4 gene of the marine bacterium Vibrio weizhoudaoensis M0101 encodes an alginate lyase that belongs to the polysaccharide lyase family 7 (PL7. In this study, the kinetic constants Vmax (maximum reaction rate and Km (Michaelis constant of AlgM4 activity were determined as 2.75 nmol/s and 2.72 mg/mL, respectively. The optimum temperature for AlgM4 activity was 30 °C, and at 70 °C, AlgM4 activity dropped to 11% of the maximum observed activity. The optimum pH for AlgM4 activity was 8.5, and AlgM4 was completely inactive at pH 11. The addition of 1 mol/L NaCl resulted in a more than sevenfold increase in the relative activity of AlgM4. The secondary structure of AlgM4 was altered in the presence of NaCl, which caused the α-helical content to decrease from 12.4 to 10.8% and the β-sheet content to decrease by 1.7%. In addition, NaCl enhanced the thermal stability of AlgM4 and increased the midpoint of thermal denaturation (Tm by 4.9 °C. AlgM4 exhibited an ability to degrade sodium alginate, poly-mannuronic acid (polyM, and poly-guluronic acid (polyG, resulting in the production of oligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization (DP of 2–9. AlgM4 possessed broader substrate, indicating that it is a bifunctional alginate lyase. Thus, AlgM4 is a novel salt-activated and bifunctional alginate lyase of the PL7 family with endolytic activity.

  19. eBiometrics: an enhanced multi-biometrics authentication technique for real-time remote applications on mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuseler, Torben; Lami, Ihsan; Jassim, Sabah; Sellahewa, Harin

    2010-04-01

    The use of mobile communication devices with advance sensors is growing rapidly. These sensors are enabling functions such as Image capture, Location applications, and Biometric authentication such as Fingerprint verification and Face & Handwritten signature recognition. Such ubiquitous devices are essential tools in today's global economic activities enabling anywhere-anytime financial and business transactions. Cryptographic functions and biometric-based authentication can enhance the security and confidentiality of mobile transactions. Using Biometric template security techniques in real-time biometric-based authentication are key factors for successful identity verification solutions, but are venerable to determined attacks by both fraudulent software and hardware. The EU-funded SecurePhone project has designed and implemented a multimodal biometric user authentication system on a prototype mobile communication device. However, various implementations of this project have resulted in long verification times or reduced accuracy and/or security. This paper proposes to use built-in-self-test techniques to ensure no tampering has taken place on the verification process prior to performing the actual biometric authentication. These techniques utilises the user personal identification number as a seed to generate a unique signature. This signature is then used to test the integrity of the verification process. Also, this study proposes the use of a combination of biometric modalities to provide application specific authentication in a secure environment, thus achieving optimum security level with effective processing time. I.e. to ensure that the necessary authentication steps and algorithms running on the mobile device application processor can not be undermined or modified by an imposter to get unauthorized access to the secure system.

  20. Detection of infusate leakage in the brain using real-time imaging of convection-enhanced delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenika, Vanja; Dickinson, Peter; Bringas, John; LeCouteur, Richard; Higgins, Robert; Park, John; Fiandaca, Massimo; Berger, Mitchel; Sampson, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof

    2008-11-01

    The authors have shown that convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of gadoteridol-loaded liposomes (GDLs) into different regions of normal monkey brain results in predictable, widespread distribution of this tracking agent as detected by real-time MR imaging. They also have found that this tracking technique allows monitoring of the distribution of similar nanosized agents such as therapeutic liposomes and viral vectors. A limitation of this procedure is the unexpected leakage of liposomes out of targeted parenchyma or malignancies into sulci and ventricles. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of CED after the onset of these types of leakage. The authors documented this phenomenon in a study of 5 nonhuman primates and 7 canines, comprising 54 CED infusion sessions. Approximately 20% of these infusions resulted in leakage into cerebral ventricles or sulci. All of the infusions and leakage events were monitored with real-time MR imaging. The authors created volume-distributed versus volume-infused graphs for each infusion session. These graphs revealed the rate of distribution of GDL over the course of each infusion and allowed the authors to evaluate the progress of CED before and after leakage. The distribution of therapeutics within the target structure ceased to increase or resulted in significant attenuation after the onset of leakage. An analysis of the cases in this study revealed that leakage undermines the efficacy of CED. These findings reiterate the importance of real-time MR imaging visualization during CED to ensure an accurate, robust distribution of therapeutic agents.

  1. Recovery from a cycling time trial is enhanced with carbohydrate-protein supplementation vs. isoenergetic carbohydrate supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemon Peter WR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this study we assessed whether a liquid carbohydrate-protein (C+P supplement (0.8 g/kg C; 0.4 g/kg P ingested early during recovery from a cycling time trial could enhance a subsequent 60 min effort on the same day vs. an isoenergetic liquid carbohydrate (CHO supplement (1.2 g/kg. Methods Two hours after a standardized breakfast, 15 trained male cyclists completed a time trial in which they cycled as far as they could in 60 min (AMex using a Computrainer indoor trainer. Following AMex, subjects ingested either C+P, or CHO at 10, 60 and 120 min, followed by a standardized meal at 4 h post exercise. At 6 h post AMex subjects repeated the time trial (PMex. Results There was a significant reduction in performance for both groups in PMex versus AMex. However, performance and power decreases between PMex and AMex were significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05 with CHO (-1.05 ± 0.44 km and -16.50 ± 6.74 W vs C+P (-0.30 ± 0.50 km and -3.86 ± 6.47 W. Fat oxidation estimated from RER values was significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05 in the C+P vs CHO during the PMex, despite a higher average workload in the C+P group. Conclusion Under these experimental conditions, liquid C+P ingestion immediately after exercise increases fat oxidation, increases recovery, and improves subsequent same day, 60 min efforts relative to isoenergetic CHO ingestion.

  2. Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO2 Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian Toelle

    2008-11-30

    This project, 'Application of Time-Lapse Seismic Monitoring for the Control and Optimization of CO{sub 2} Enhanced Oil Recovery Operations', investigated the potential for monitoring CO{sub 2} floods in carbonate reservoirs through the use of standard p-wave seismic data. This primarily involved the use of 4D seismic (time lapse seismic) in an attempt to observe and map the movement of the injected CO{sub 2} through a carbonate reservoir. The differences between certain seismic attributes, such as amplitude, were used for this purpose. This technique has recently been shown to be effective in CO{sub 2} monitoring in Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) projects, such as Weyborne. This study was conducted in the Charlton 30/31 field in the northern Michigan Basin, which is a Silurian pinnacle reef that completed its primary production in 1997 and was scheduled for enhanced oil recovery using injected CO{sub 2}. Prior to injection an initial 'Base' 3D survey was obtained over the field and was then processed and interpreted. CO{sub 2} injection within the main portion of the reef was conducted intermittently during 13 months starting in August 2005. During this time, 29,000 tons of CO{sub 2} was injected into the Guelph formation, historically known as the Niagaran Brown formation. By September 2006, the reservoir pressure within the reef had risen to approximately 2000 lbs and oil and water production from the one producing well within the field had increased significantly. The determination of the reservoir's porosity distribution, a critical aspect of reservoir characterization and simulation, proved to be a significant portion of this project. In order to relate the differences observed between the seismic attributes seen on the multiple 3D seismic surveys and the actual location of the CO{sub 2}, a predictive reservoir simulation model was developed based on seismic attributes obtained from the base 3D seismic survey and available well data. This

  3. The Leu33/Pro polymorphism (PlA1/PlA2) of the glycoprotein IIIa (GPIIIa) receptor is not related to myocardial infarction in the ECTIM Study. Etude Cas-Temoins de l'Infarctus du Myocarde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S M; Poirier, O; Marques-Vidal, P; Evans, A; Arveiler, D; Luc, G; Emmerich, J; Cambien, F

    1997-06-01

    The GPIIb/IIIa receptor complex may contribute to acute coronary syndromes by mediating platelet aggregation. The Leu33/Pro polymorphism (PlA1/PlA2) of the GPIIIa has recently been shown to be associated with CHD in a small case-control study. We have investigated this polymorphism in a large multicenter study of patients with myocardial infarction and controls and found no difference in the distribution of allele and genotype frequencies between cases and controls.

  4. Investigation on surface-plasmon-enhanced light emission of InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhenzhong; Li, Qiang; Fan, Qigao; Zhu, Yixin

    2018-05-01

    We demonstrate surface-plasmon (SP) enhanced light emission from InGaN/GaN near ultraviolet (NUV) multiple quantum wells (MQWs) using Ag thin films and nano-particles (NPs). Two types of Ag NP arrays are fabricated on the NUV-MQWs, one is fabricated on p-GaN layer with three different sizes of about 120, 160 and 240 nm formed by self-assembled process, while the other is embedded close to the MQWs. In addition, the influence of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) and localized surface plasmon (LSP) in NUV-MQWs has been investigated by photoluminescence (PL) measurement. Both PL measurements and theoretical simulation results show that the NUV light would be extracted more effectively under LSP mode than that of SPP mode. The highest enhancement of PL intensity is increased by 324% for the sample with NPs embedded in etched p-GaN near the MQWs as compared with the bare MQWs, also is about 1.24 times higher than the MQW sample covered with Ag NPs on the surface, indicating strong surface scattering and SP coupling between Ag NPs and NUV-MQWs.

  5. Localized surface plasmon enhanced deep UV-emitting of AlGaN based multi-quantum wells by Al nanoparticles on SiO2 dielectric interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ju; Wang, Shuai; Chen, Jingwen; Wu, Feng; Dai, Jiangnan; Long, Hanling; Zhang, Yi; Zhang, Wei; Feng, Zhe Chuan; Zhang, Jun; Du, Shida; Ye, Lei; Chen, Changqing

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we report a 2.6-fold deep ultraviolet emission enhancement of integrated photoluminescence (PL) intensity in AlGaN-based multi-quantum wells (MQWs) by introducing the coupling of local surface plasmons from Al nanoparticles (NPs) on a SiO2 dielectric interlayer with excitons and photons in MQWs at room temperature. In comparison to bare AlGaN MQWs, a significant 2.3-fold enhancement of the internal quantum efficiency, from 16% to 37%, as well as a 13% enhancement of photon extraction efficiency have been observed in the MQWs decorated with Al NPs on SiO2 dielectric interlayer. Polarization-dependent PL measurement showed that both the transverse electric and transverse magnetic mode were stronger than the original intensity in bare AlGaN MQWs, indicating a strong LSPs coupling process and vigorous scattering ability of the Al/SiO2 composite structure. These results were confirmed by the activation energy of non-radiative recombination from temperature-dependent PL measurement and the theoretical three dimensional finite difference time domain calculations.

  6. Registration of Aerial Image with Airborne LiDAR Data Based on Plücker Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHENG Qinghong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Registration of aerial image with airborne LiDAR data is a key to feature extraction. A registration model based on Plücker line is proposed. The relative position and attitude relationship between the conjugate lines in LiDAR and image is determined based on Plücker linear equation, which describes line transformation in space, then coplanarity condition equation is established. Finally, coordinate transformation between image point and corresponding LiDAR point is achieved by the spiral movement of Plücker lines in the image. The registration model of Plücker linear coplanarity condition equation is simple, and jointly describes the rotation and translation to avoid coupling error between them, so the accuracy is approved. This research provides technical support for high-quality earth spatial information acquisition.

  7. Offer a novel method for size appraise of NiO nanoparticles by PL analysis: Synthesis by sonochemical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyid Javad Musevi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we will discuss the optical properties of NiO nanoparticles that we have investigated recently by photoluminescence (PL spectroscopy. In particular, we will show the blue-shifts of PL, originating from the electron–hole recombination of the self-trapped exciton (STE, observed in smaller-sized NiO nanoparticles. To explain the size effect in relating to the STE PL shift, a question has been raised on whether it is appropriate to apply him quantum confinement (QC theory usually used for the Mott-Winner type excitons in semiconductors to wide band-gap material, such as silica. Variations in several parameters and their effects on the structural (crystal size and morphology properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Characterizations were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, thermal stability (TGA and DTA, solid state UV and solid state florescent (PL.

  8. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menten, Martin J., E-mail: martin.menten@icr.ac.uk; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe, E-mail: uwe.oelfke@icr.ac.uk [Joint Department of Physics at The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London SM2 5NG (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  9. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menten, Martin J.; Fast, Martin F.; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. Methods: kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Results: Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left–right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. Conclusions: This study has highlighted the influence of

  10. Using dual-energy x-ray imaging to enhance automated lung tumor tracking during real-time adaptive radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menten, Martin J; Fast, Martin F; Nill, Simeon; Oelfke, Uwe

    2015-12-01

    Real-time, markerless localization of lung tumors with kV imaging is often inhibited by ribs obscuring the tumor and poor soft-tissue contrast. This study investigates the use of dual-energy imaging, which can generate radiographs with reduced bone visibility, to enhance automated lung tumor tracking for real-time adaptive radiotherapy. kV images of an anthropomorphic breathing chest phantom were experimentally acquired and radiographs of actual lung cancer patients were Monte-Carlo-simulated at three imaging settings: low-energy (70 kVp, 1.5 mAs), high-energy (140 kVp, 2.5 mAs, 1 mm additional tin filtration), and clinical (120 kVp, 0.25 mAs). Regular dual-energy images were calculated by weighted logarithmic subtraction of high- and low-energy images and filter-free dual-energy images were generated from clinical and low-energy radiographs. The weighting factor to calculate the dual-energy images was determined by means of a novel objective score. The usefulness of dual-energy imaging for real-time tracking with an automated template matching algorithm was investigated. Regular dual-energy imaging was able to increase tracking accuracy in left-right images of the anthropomorphic phantom as well as in 7 out of 24 investigated patient cases. Tracking accuracy remained comparable in three cases and decreased in five cases. Filter-free dual-energy imaging was only able to increase accuracy in 2 out of 24 cases. In four cases no change in accuracy was observed and tracking accuracy worsened in nine cases. In 9 out of 24 cases, it was not possible to define a tracking template due to poor soft-tissue contrast regardless of input images. The mean localization errors using clinical, regular dual-energy, and filter-free dual-energy radiographs were 3.85, 3.32, and 5.24 mm, respectively. Tracking success was dependent on tumor position, tumor size, imaging beam angle, and patient size. This study has highlighted the influence of patient anatomy on the success rate of real-time

  11. Incorporating Geodectic Processing Modules into a Real-Time Earthworm Environment to Enhance NOAA's Tsunami Warning Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, K. A.

    2017-12-01

    The National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration's National and Pacific Tsunami Warning Centers currently rely on traditional seismic data in order to detect and evaluate potential tsunamigenic earthquakes anywhere on the globe. The first information products disseminated by the centers following a significant seismic event are based solely on seismically-derived earthquake locations and magnitudes, and are issued within minutes of the earthquake origin time. Thus, the rapid and reliable determination of the earthquake magnitude is a critical piece of information needed by the centers to generate the appropriate alert levels. However, seismically-derived magnitudes of large events are plagued by well-known problems, particularly during the first few minutes following the origin time; near-source broad-band instruments may go off scale, and magnitudes tend to saturate until sufficient teleseismic data arrive to represent the long-period signal that characterizes large events. However, geodetic data such as high-rate Global Positioning System (hGPS) displacements and seismogeodetic data that is a combination of collocated hGPS and accelerometer data do not suffer from these limitations. These sensors stay on scale, even for large events, and they record both dynamic and static displacements that may be used to estimate magnitude without saturation. Therefore, there is an ongoing effort to incorporate these data streams into the operations of the tsunami warning centers to enhance current magnitude determination capabilities, and eventually, to invert the geodetic displacements for mechanism and finite-fault information. These later quantities will be useful for tsunami modeling and forecasting. The tsunami warning centers rely on the Earthworm system for real-time data acquisition, so we have developed Earthworm modules for the Magnitude from Peak Ground Displacement (MPGD) algorithm, developed at the University of Washington and the University of California

  12. Joint Maximum Likelihood Time Delay Estimation of Unknown Event-Related Potential Signals for EEG Sensor Signal Quality Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyungsoo; Lim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jaeseok; Kang, Won-Seok; Moon, Cheil; Choi, Ji-Woong

    2016-01-01

    Electroencephalograms (EEGs) measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI) studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR) is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP) signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE) schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML) criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°. PMID:27322267

  13. Joint Maximum Likelihood Time Delay Estimation of Unknown Event-Related Potential Signals for EEG Sensor Signal Quality Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyungsoo Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalograms (EEGs measure a brain signal that contains abundant information about the human brain function and health. For this reason, recent clinical brain research and brain computer interface (BCI studies use EEG signals in many applications. Due to the significant noise in EEG traces, signal processing to enhance the signal to noise power ratio (SNR is necessary for EEG analysis, especially for non-invasive EEG. A typical method to improve the SNR is averaging many trials of event related potential (ERP signal that represents a brain’s response to a particular stimulus or a task. The averaging, however, is very sensitive to variable delays. In this study, we propose two time delay estimation (TDE schemes based on a joint maximum likelihood (ML criterion to compensate the uncertain delays which may be different in each trial. We evaluate the performance for different types of signals such as random, deterministic, and real EEG signals. The results show that the proposed schemes provide better performance than other conventional schemes employing averaged signal as a reference, e.g., up to 4 dB gain at the expected delay error of 10°.

  14. Effect of sludge retention time on continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal granules at different COD loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Lv, Yufeng; Zeng, Huiping; Zhang, Jie

    2016-11-01

    The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on the continuous-flow system with enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) granules at different COD loading was investigated during the operation of more than 220days. And the results showed that when the system operated at long SRT (30days) and low COD loading (200mg·L(-1)), it could maintain excellent performance. However, long SRT and high COD loading (300mg·L(-1)) deteriorated the settling ability of granules and the performance of system and resulted in the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria. Meanwhile, the transformation of poly-β-hydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and glycogen in metabolism process was inhibited. Moreover, the results of pyrosequencing indicated that filamentous bacteria had a competitive advantage over polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) at high COD loading and long SRT. The PAOs specious of Candidatus_Accumlibater and system performance increased obviously when the SRT was reduced to 20days at high COD loading. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Big Data Analytics Embedded Smart City Architecture for Performance Enhancement through Real-Time Data Processing and Decision-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagya Nathali Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of the smart city is widely favored, as it enhances the quality of life of urban citizens, involving multiple disciplines, that is, smart community, smart transportation, smart healthcare, smart parking, and many more. Continuous growth of the complex urban networks is significantly challenged by real-time data processing and intelligent decision-making capabilities. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a smart city framework based on Big Data analytics. The proposed framework operates on three levels: (1 data generation and acquisition level collecting heterogeneous data related to city operations, (2 data management and processing level filtering, analyzing, and storing data to make decisions and events autonomously, and (3 application level initiating execution of the events corresponding to the received decisions. In order to validate the proposed architecture, we analyze a few major types of dataset based on the proposed three-level architecture. Further, we tested authentic datasets on Hadoop ecosystem to determine the threshold and the analysis shows that the proposed architecture offers useful insights into the community development authorities to improve the existing smart city architecture.

  16. Effect of inversion time on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement quantification evaluated with synthetic inversion recovery MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varga-Szemes, Akos; Schoepf, U.J.; De Cecco, Carlo N.; Fuller, Stephen R.; Suranyi, Pal [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Geest, Rob J. van der [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Leiden (Netherlands); Spottiswoode, Bruce S. [Siemens Medical Solutions, Chicago, IL (United States); Muscogiuri, Giuseppe [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Bambino Gesu Children' s Hospital IRCCS, Department of Imaging, Rome (Italy); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Eberhard-Karls University Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Maurovich-Horvat, Pal; Merkely, Bela [Semmelweis University, MTA-SE Cardiovascular Imaging Research Group, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest (Hungary); Litwin, Sheldon E. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Medical Imaging-North East Netherlands, Department of Radiology, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2017-08-15

    To evaluate the influence of inversion time (TI) on the precision of myocardial late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) quantification using synthetic inversion recovery (IR) imaging in patients with myocardial infarction (MI). Fifty-three patients with suspected prior MI underwent 1.5-T cardiac MRI with conventional magnitude (MagIR) and phase-sensitive IR (PSIR) LGE imaging and T1 mapping at 15 min post-contrast. T1-based synthetic MagIR and PSIR images were calculated with a TI ranging from -100 to +150 ms at 5-ms intervals relative to the optimal TI (TI{sub 0}). LGE was quantified using a five standard deviation (5SD) and full width at half-maximum (FWHM) thresholds. Measurements were compared using one-way analysis of variance. The MagIR{sub sy} technique provided precise assessment of LGE area at TIs ≥ TI{sub 0}, while precision was decreased below TI{sub 0}. The LGE area showed significant differences at ≤ -25 ms compared to TI{sub 0} using 5SD (P < 0.001) and at ≤ -65 ms using the FWHM approach (P < 0.001). LGE measurements did not show significant difference over the analysed TI range in the PSIR{sub sy} images using either of the quantification methods. T1 map-based PSIR{sub sy} images provide precise quantification of MI independent of TI at the investigated time point post-contrast. MagIR{sub sy}-based MI quantification is precise at TI{sub 0} and at longer TIs while showing decreased precision at TI values below TI{sub 0}. (orig.)

  17. Nicotine-induced enhancement of attention in the five-choice serial reaction time task: the influence of task demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, B; Shoaib, M; Stolerman, I P

    2002-07-01

    Beneficial effects of nicotine on cognitive processes including attention have potential therapeutic uses and have been proposed as incentives for tobacco smoking. To establish task conditions under which the effects of nicotine on attention are obtained reliably and to characterise such effects further. Rats were trained in a modified version of the five-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) to detect 1-s light stimuli with greater than 70% accuracy and fewer than 20% omission errors. Nicotine was tested under different task requirements by varying signal event rate, stimulus duration and stimulus predictability, and by introducing white-noise distractors. Nicotine (0.05-0.2 mg/kg, s.c.) repeatedly improved accuracy and reduced omission errors and reaction times, leading to increases in numbers of reinforcers earned. Anticipatory responding was increased. Parametric modifications intended to increase demands on sustained attention did not affect performance in a manner suggesting that this subtype of attention was being taxed, and the effects of nicotine were not more marked under such conditions. Shorter stimulus durations impaired performance, but this manipulation weakened the effect of nicotine on accuracy. In contrast, the presence of noise distractors facilitated the effects of nicotine to the extent that distractor-induced impairments were abolished by the drug. The 5-CSRTT can provide a sensitive rodent model for the attention-enhancing effects of nicotine. Changes made to the procedure may have increased its sensitivity to nicotine, particularly with respect to accuracy. There were indications that the effects of nicotine were largest on processes of selective attention or on disengaging attention from irrelevant events and shifting it to behaviourally significant stimuli.

  18. Appropriate xenon-inhalation time in xenon-enhanced CT using the end-tidal gas-sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Hideo; Furuhata, Shigeru; Onozuka, Satoshi; Uchida, Koichi; Fujii, Koji; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Toya, Shigeo; Shiga, Hayao

    1988-12-01

    For the end-tidal gas-sampling method of xenon-enhanced CT (Xe-CT), the respective functional images of K, lambda, and the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied and compared using the data at 7-, 10-, 15- and 25-minute inhalations. The most appropriate inhalation time of xenon gas was evaluated in 14 clinical cases. An end-tidal xenon curve which represents the arterial xenon concentration was monitored with a xenon analyzer; the xenon concentration was gradually increased to a level of 50% by using a xenon inhalator with a closed circuit to prevent the overestimation of the xenon concentration sampled from the mask. Serial CT scans were taken over a period of 25 minutes of inhalation. The functional images of K, lambda, and rCBF were calculated for serial CT scans for 7, 10, 15 and 25 minutes using Fick's equation. Those various images and absolute values were then compared. The rCBF value of a 15-minute inhalation was approximately 15% greater than that of 25 minutes, while the values of K, lambda, rCBF from a 15-minute inhalation were significantly correlated to those from 25 minutes. The regression line made it possible to estimate 25-minute inhalation values from those of 15 minutes. In imaging, the rCBF mapping of the 15-minute inhalation was found to be more reliable than that of 25 minutes. This study suggests that the minimal time of xenon inhalation is 15 minutes for the end-tidal gas-sampling method. A longer inhalation may be necessary for the estimation of rCBF in the low-flow area, such as the white matter or the pathological region.

  19. Pl(17) is a novel gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in the cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Long, Y M; Jan, C C; Ma, G J; Gulya, T J

    2015-04-01

    Pl 17, a novel downy mildew resistance gene independent of known downy mildew resistance genes in sunflowers, was genetically mapped to linkage group 4 of the sunflower genome. Downy mildew (DM), caused by Plasmopara halstedii (Farl.). Berl. et de Toni, is one of the serious sunflower diseases in the world due to its high virulence and the variability of the pathogen. DM resistance in the USDA inbred line, HA 458, has been shown to be effective against all virulent races of P. halstedii currently identified in the USA. To determine the chromosomal location of this resistance, 186 F 2:3 families derived from a cross of HA 458 with HA 234 were phenotyped for their resistance to race 734 of P. halstedii. The segregation ratio of the population supported that the resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene, Pl 17. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) primers were used to identify molecular markers linked to Pl 17. Bulked segregant analysis using 849 SSR markers located Pl 17 to linkage group (LG) 4, which is the first DM gene discovered in this linkage group. An F2 population of 186 individuals was screened with polymorphic SSR and SNP primers from LG4. Two flanking markers, SNP SFW04052 and SSR ORS963, delineated Pl 17 in an interval of 3.0 cM. The markers linked to Pl 17 were validated in a BC3 population. A search for the physical location of flanking markers in sunflower genome sequences revealed that the Pl 17 region had a recombination frequency of 0.59 Mb/cM, which was a fourfold higher recombination rate relative to the genomic average. This region can be considered amenable to molecular manipulation for further map-based cloning of Pl 17.

  20. Emission Enhancement and Intermittency in Polycrystalline Organolead Halide Perovskite Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Inorganic-organic halide organometal perovskites have demonstrated very promising performance for opto-electronic applications, such as solar cells, light-emitting diodes, lasers, single-photon sources, etc. However, the little knowledge on the underlying photophysics, especially on a microscopic scale, hampers the further improvement of devices based on this material. In this communication, correlated conventional photoluminescence (PL characterization and wide-field PL imaging as a function of time are employed to investigate the spatially- and temporally-resolved PL in CH3NH3PbI3−xClx perovskite films. Along with a continuous increase of the PL intensity during light soaking, we also observe PL blinking or PL intermittency behavior in individual grains of these films. Combined with significant suppression of PL blinking in perovskite films coated with a phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM layer, it suggests that this PL intermittency is attributed to Auger recombination induced by photoionized defects/traps or mobile ions within grains. These defects/traps are detrimental for light conversion and can be effectively passivated by the PCBM layer. This finding paves the way to provide a guideline on the further improvement of perovskite opto-electronic devices.

  1. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus Pl(ARG) introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S; Bachlava, E; Dussle, C M; Tang, S; Gao, W; Saski, C; Knapp, S J; Schön, C-C; Hahn, V; Bauer, E

    2010-11-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus Pl(ARG) originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped Pl(ARG) on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F(2) individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with Pl(ARG) as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOS(sel) × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F(2) individuals that does not segregate for Pl(ARG). A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with Pl(ARG). Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the Pl(ARG) region on LG 1.

  2. Fine mapping of the sunflower resistance locus PlARG introduced from the wild species Helianthus argophyllus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckhorst, S.; Bachlava, E.; Dußle, C. M.; Tang, S.; Gao, W.; Saski, C.; Knapp, S. J.; Schön, C.-C.; Hahn, V.

    2010-01-01

    Downy mildew, caused by Plasmopara halstedii, is one of the most destructive diseases in cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). The dominant resistance locus PlARG originates from silverleaf sunflower (H. argophyllus Torrey and Gray) and confers resistance to all known races of P. halstedii. We mapped PlARG on linkage group (LG) 1 of (cms)HA342 × ARG1575-2, a population consisting of 2,145 F2 individuals. Further, we identified resistance gene candidates (RGCs) that cosegregated with PlARG as well as closely linked flanking markers. Markers from the target region were mapped with higher resolution in NDBLOSsel × KWS04, a population consisting of 2,780 F2 individuals that does not segregate for PlARG. A large-insert sunflower bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was screened with overgo probes designed for markers RGC52 and RGC151, which cosegregated with PlARG. Two RGC-containing BAC contigs were anchored to the PlARG region on LG 1. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1416-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700574

  3. Development of real-time core monitoring system models with accuracy-enhanced neural network and its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Bon Hyun

    1994-02-01

    In a complicated system like pressurized water reactor, a number of key safety parameters need to be selected to represent the reactor systems safety. It could be more effective for the reactor safety to make the key safety parameters in real-time available directly to the reactor operator. Direct representation of key safety parameters is also desirable in the view of reactor core design since it could reduce unnecessary margins for various components of uncertainties. In this thesis, real-time core monitoring system models have been developed with use of artificial neural networks for the prediction of nuclear hot channel factor (HCF) and core departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) which are known to be the fundamental core safety parameters for pressurized water reactors. Artificial neural network algorithm, has been shown to be successful for the conservative and accurate prediction of the HCF and DNBR. For the development of system models, training patterns were generated using the FLAIR and COBRAIV-i computer codes for the HCF and DNBR. The selected input variables were the core power, reactor coolant flow, temperature, pressure, power distribution, boron concentration, and rod position. The developed system models could replace the existing core monitoring systems and then afford a better efficiency by using the additional margin which otherwise needs to be reserved for various unidentified uncertainties. Several variations of the neural network technique have been proposed and compared based on numerical experiments. The neural network can be augmented by use of a functional link to improve the performance of the network model. The functional link is found to be very effective especially when the relationship between the input parameters and the output parameters is overly complicated such as in the core HCF and DNBR. For the further enhancement of DNBR accuracy, two-fold weight sets were used. The coarse weight set can provide a quick and

  4. Estimativa do vigor das sementes e das plântulas de Bixa orellana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Leopoldo Ferreira

    Full Text Available RESUMO A multiplicação de espécies como as da planta de urucum tem limitações em função do conhecimento limitado das características morfológicas e fisiológicas das sementes e das plântulas e da restrição de métodos para determinar a qualidade dessas sementes. Nessa pesquisa, o objetivo foi estudar a adequação do teste de envelhecimento acelerado para estimar o vigor das sementes de urucum (Bixa orellana L., relacionando os resultados desse teste com a formação das plântulas e as diferenças de genótipo dos acessos genéticos. As sementes de urucum, representadas por quatro acessos genéticos, e por três lotes, foram avaliadas pelos testes de germinação, primeira contagem da germinação, classificação do vigor das plântulas e emergência das plântulas (total e índice de velocidade. No teste de envelhecimento acelerado foram avaliados a temperatura, de 41 ºC, e os períodos, de 48; 72 e 96 horas, de exposição das sementes às umidades relativas de 100% (água e de 76% (solução saturada de NaCl. A solução saturada reduz a quantidade de água absorvida pelas sementes de urucum, expostas às condições do teste de envelhecimento acelerado, reduzindo a deterioração das sementes, favorecendo a uniformidade dos resultados e a redução da proliferação de fungos, comuns na germinação das sementes de urucum. O teste de envelhecimento acelerado, com água ou solução salina, por 72 horas ou 96 horas, é eficiente para classificar as sementes de urucum quanto à qualidade. Assim, as variações dos teores de água das sementes de urucum devem ser entre 23;6 e 28;9% (72 horas e 29;7 e 32;9% (96 horas para a utilização da água e entre 7,3 e 9,5% para a utilização da solução salina de NaCl.

  5. Estudio de la fractura de materiales compuestos por una matriz de plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Maspoch, M. Ll. (Maria Lluïsa)

    1992-01-01

    Se estudia el comportamiento a fractura de materiales, compuestos por una matriz de plástico en la que se ha dispersado una segunda fase en forma de partículas elastoméricas. Como matriz se han utilizado dos materiales diferentes: una resina de poliéster insaturada y poliestireno. Se estudia la morfología de los materiales compuestos preparados, se determinan los parámetros de fractura y otras propiedades mecánicas, se realiza el estudio fractográfico y finalmente se analizan los resultados e...

  6. El Datamart en una empresa industrial del sector plástico

    OpenAIRE

    Mellado Flores, Rubén Roberto; Mellado Flores, Rubén Roberto

    2002-01-01

    Pensamos que una empresa que quiera ser competitiva en los actuales momentos debe adoptar los conceptos de la administración digital y en lo relacionado al Front-offíce establecer sistemas del tipo CRM, Administración de las Relaciones con los Clientes. Parte central de éstos sistemas son los Datamart. En el presente trabajo queremos demostrar que con el uso de la Tecnología de la Información podemos obtener ventaja competitiva, para lo cuál planteamos el uso del Datamart. Primero pl...

  7. Astronomia.pl: Ideas for the International Year of Astronomy 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czart, K.; Pomierny, J.

    2008-06-01

    Astronomia.pl is an internet portal for Polish-speaking people. As a website, most of our activities in IYA2009 will focus on the internet and other electronic media. We will prepare a content-rich website, in cooperation with the Polish committee for IYA2009. We present some extended suggestions for ideas proposed by the IAU, like postage stamps or mobile phone wallpapers, ring tones and themes and some original propositions like naming a small Solar System body for each country, a computer game, a stadium as a solar clock, a media event with thousands of amateur astronomers in one place and a network of cities.

  8. Cirugía plástica periodontal, una realidad asistencial: reporte de casos

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia,Godoy; Guerrero,Virginia; Lozano,Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    En la actualidad, la periodoncia no solo se encarga de resolver los procesos infecciosos que afectan al periodonto, sino que también es responsable de la preservación de la función, del confort y de la estética de los tejidos periodontales. Es por eso que hoy en día las técnicas de cirugía plástica periodontal son una herramienta esencial para la resolución de defectos mucogingivales en donde el tejido conectivo subepitelial, debido a su biología, se ha convertido en la mejor alternativa para...

  9. Arte de recreo: La experiencia plástica como medio educativo

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez Romero, María

    2016-01-01

    Este proyecto propone defender un arte colectivo que funcione en su plenitud con la colaboración del público. Hace uso del factor procesual y relacional para acercarlo a las personas que no tienen noción del arte contemporáneo. Propone hacer partícipe al espectador de la creación plástica y otorgar más importancia a la experiencia que adquieran que a su resultado final. Tenemos la intención de reencantar el arte a través de la atracción, la estética y el juego. Buscamos influir...

  10. Análisis plástico y Ensayos de Losas multidireccionales de HRFA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maturana, A.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a theoretical and experimental study of multidirectional steel fibers reinforced concrete slabs (SFRC. The study is based on a real building application using SFRC flag slabs. For the evaluation of the slabs bearing capacity, plastic calculations are performed both at section and structure levels. The section analysis uses the perfect plastic stress-strain diagram, with reference to the values of the strength characteristics of SFRC based on previous jobs that used similar fibers and dosages. In the structure analysis the plastic yield lines method has been used. This method relates the section last bearing moment and the plastic collapse load. The experimental campaign has consisted of the testing of six 2 m. diameter circular shaped slabs prototypes, and has allowed to verify the reference resistance used in the calculations.En este trabajo se realiza un estudio teórico- experimental de losas multidireccionales de hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero (HRFA. El estudio se enmarca en una aplicación de un edificio real usando HRFA en los forjados. Para la evaluación de la capacidad resistente de las losas, se realizan cálculos plásticos, tanto a nivel de sección como de estructura. A nivel de sección se emplea el diagrama tensión-deformación plástico perfecto, tomando como referencia los valores de las características resistentes del HRFA aportados en trabajos anteriores que emplearon fibras y dosificaciones similares. A nivel de estructura se emplea el método plástico de las líneas de rotura, que relaciona el momento último de la sección la carga de colapso plástico. La campaña experimental, consiste en ensayar seis prototipos en forma de loseta circular de 2 m de diámetro, verificando el valor de la resistencia de referencia empleada en los cálculos.

  11. Imagen, artista y enfermedad en la creación plástica

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez García, Nieves

    2013-01-01

    NOTA 520 8 La Tesis Doctoral, titulada “Imagen, artista y enfermedad en la creación plástica“, tiene como objetivo investigar y establecer la relación entre el arte, - como proceso creativo- y la enfermedad, entendida esta como un factor importante e, incluso, decisivo en la propia configuración de la imagen y de la personalidad del artista. Como punto de partida, se procede a analizar diacrónicamente y con profundidad el concepto de “la leyenda del artista” y la consideración social de la...

  12. VEGFR1-mediated pericyte ablation links VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Renhai; Xue, Yuan; Hedlund, Eva-Maria

    2010-01-01

    . Moreover, blockade of VEGFR1 but not VEGFR2 significantly restores pericyte saturation in mature retinal vessels. Our findings link VEGF and PlGF to cancer-associated retinopathy, reveal the molecular mechanisms of VEGFR1 ligand-mediated retinopathy, and define VEGFR1 as an important target......, and adenoviral vectors ablates pericytes from the mature retinal vasculature through the VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1)-mediated signaling pathway, leading to increased vascular leakage. In contrast, we demonstrate VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) is primarily expressed in nonvascular photoreceptors and ganglion cells...

  13. Técnicas experimentais para tomateiro tipo salada sob estufas plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes,Sidinei José; Storck,Lindolfo; Heldwein,Arno Bernardo; Feijó,Sandra; Ros,César Augusto da

    1998-01-01

    Realizou-se um ensaio em branco com a cultura do tomateiro, cv. Monte Carlo, sob ambiente modificado por estufa plástica de 24 x 12m. Foram realizadas 11 colheitas dos frutos, sendo determinado o peso total. A unidade básica de colheita foi composta pelo agrupamento de três plantas na fila. O espaçamento entre as plantas na fila foi de 0,3m e 1,0m entre filas, resultando em 10 filas com 24 unidades básicas cada uma. Concluiu-se que o delineamento experimental mais adequado é o inteiramente ca...

  14. The Natural History of Kidney Graft Cortical Microcirculation Determined by Real-Time Contrast-Enhanced Sonography (RT-CES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Carlos; López, María Ovidia; Ros, Amaia; Aguilar, Ana; Menendez, David; Rivas, Begoña; Santana, María José; Vaca, Marco Antonio; Escuin, Fernando; Madero, Rosario; Selgas, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the therapy of choice for end-stage kidney disease. Graft's life span is shorter than expected due in part to the delayed diagnosis of various complications, specifically those related to silent progression. It is recognized that serum creatinine levels and proteinuria are poor markers of mild kidney lesions, which results in delayed clinical information. There are many investigation looking for early markers of graft damage. Decreasing kidney graft cortical microcirculation has been related to poor prognosis in kidney transplantation. Cortical capillary blood flow (CCBF) can be measured by real-time contrast-enhanced sonography (RT-CES). Our aim was to describe the natural history of CCBF over time under diverse conditions of kidney transplantation, to explore the influence of donor conditions and recipient events, and to determine the capacity of CCBF for predicting renal function in medium term. RT-CES was performed in 79 consecutive kidney transplant recipients during the first year under regular clinical practice. Cortical capillary blood flow was measured. Clinical variables were analyzed. The influence of CCBF has been determined by univariate and multivariate analysis using mixed regression models based on sequential measurements for each patient over time. We used a first-order autoregression model as the structure of the covariation between measures. The post-hoc comparisons were considered using the Bonferroni correction. The CCBF values varied significantly over the study periods and were significantly lower at 48 h and day 7. Brain-death donor age and CCBF levels showed an inverse relationship (r: -0.62, p<0.001). Living donors showed higher mean CCBF levels than brain-death donors at each point in the study. These significant differences persisted at month 12 (54.5 ± 28.2 vs 33.7 ± 30 dB/sec, living vs brain-death donor, respectively, p = 0.004) despite similar serum creatinine levels (1.5 ± 0.3 and 1.5 ± 0.5 mg/dL). A

  15. Hepatic Vein Arrival Time for Diagnosis of Liver Cirrhosis: A 10-Year Single-Center Experience With Contrast-Enhanced Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbattista, Teresa; Ridolfi, Francesco; Consalvo, Giovanni Traina; Brunelli, Eugenio

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the performance of contrast-enhanced sonography with a second-generation contrast agent in assessing the severity of chronic diffuse liver disease and differentiating cirrhotic from noncirrhotic liver disease. Contrast-enhanced sonography was performed after intravenous bolus injection of a second-generation contrast agent in 14 healthy control participants and 160 consecutive patients with cirrhotic and noncirrhotic liver disease (n = 78 and 82, respectively) enrolled between March 2004 and April 2014. The intensity of enhancement in a main hepatic vein was used to determine hepatic vein arrival time, time to peak intensity, and peak contrast enhancement. The hepatic vein arrival time was lower in cirrhotic patients compared with both noncirrhotic patients and controls (mean ± SD, 15.0 ± 2.8, 21.5 ± 3.4, and 25.6 ± 4.7 seconds, respectively; P < .05). The hepatic vein arrival time in noncirrhotic patients was also significantly lower than that in controls (P < .05). The time to peak intensity was significantly lower in cirrhotic patients compared with noncirrhotic patients and controls (40.7 ± 13.7, 49.4 ± 12.8, and 51.2 ± 13.7 seconds; P < .05). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that the hepatic vein arrival time more accurately excluded a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis than the time to peak intensity (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.953 versus 0.694). Specifically, a hepatic vein arrival time cutoff value of 17 seconds excluded liver cirrhosis with 91.1% sensitivity and 93.6% specificity. Contrast-enhanced sonography is a valid alternative method for noninvasive staging of liver diseases. The hepatic vein arrival time could be used to exclude liver cirrhosis in a clinical setting.

  16. Real-time monitoring of school absenteeism to enhance disease surveillance: a pilot study of a mobile electronic reporting system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawpoolsri, Saranath; Khamsiriwatchara, Amnat; Liulark, Wongwat; Taweeseneepitch, Komchaluch; Sangvichean, Aumnuyphan; Thongprarong, Wiraporn; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Singhasivanon, Pratap

    2014-05-12

    School absenteeism is a common source of data used in syndromic surveillance, which can eventually be used for early outbreak detection. However, the absenteeism reporting system in most schools, especially in developing countries, relies on a paper-based method that limits its use for disease surveillance or outbreak detection. The objective of this study was to develop an electronic real-time reporting system on school absenteeism for syndromic surveillance. An electronic (Web-based) school absenteeism reporting system was developed to embed it within the normal routine process of absenteeism reporting. This electronic system allowed teachers to update students' attendance status via mobile tablets. The data from all classes and schools were then automatically sent to a centralized database for further analysis and presentation, and for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of absent students. In addition, the system also had a disease investigation module, which provided a link between absenteeism data from schools and local health centers, to investigate causes of fever among sick students. The electronic school absenteeism reporting system was implemented in 7 primary schools in Bangkok, Thailand, with total participation of approximately 5000 students. During May-October 2012 (first semester), the percentage of absentees varied between 1% and 10%. The peak of school absenteeism (sick leave) was observed between July and September 2012, which coincided with the peak of dengue cases in children aged 6-12 years being reported to the disease surveillance system. The timeliness of a reporting system is a critical function in any surveillance system. Web-based application and mobile technology can potentially enhance the use of school absenteeism data for syndromic surveillance and outbreak detection. This study presents the factors that determine the implementation success of this reporting system.

  17. Plasmon resonance-induced photoluminescence enhancement of CdTe/Cds quantum dots thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Hongyu [Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Nanjing 210003 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Xu, Ling, E-mail: xuling@nju.edu.cn [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Wu, Yangqing; Xu, Jun; Ma, Zhongyuan; Chen, Kunji [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructure and School of Electronic Science and Engineering, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated. • PL intensity of the quantum dots films was enhanced due to Au nanorods. • Internal quantum efficiency increased due to localized surface plasmon resonance. • The lifetimes of quantum dots films decreased after interaction with Au nano-rods. - Abstract: CdTe/CdS quantum dots/Au nano-rods nano-composite films were fabricated on planar Si substrates. The optical properties of all samples were investigated and the corresponding simulations were studied. It was found that the photoluminescence intensity of the CdTe/CdS quantum dots films was enhanced about 9-fold after the incorporation of Au nano-rods, the internal quantum efficiency increased from 24.3% to 35.2% due to the localized surface plasmon resonance. The time-resolved luminescence decay curves showed that the lifetimes of CdTe/CdS quantum dots films decreased to 2.8 ns after interaction with Au nano-rods. The results of finite-difference time-domain simulation indicated that Au nano-rods induced the localization of electric field, which enhanced the PL intensity of quantum dots films in the vicinity of Au nano-rods.

  18. Social relationships enhance the time spent eating and intake of a novel diet in pregnant Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong-Han; Kang, Hyun-Min; Seo, Seongwon

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of social relationships on the feed intake, eating behavior, and growth, upon exposure to a novel diet, in Hanwoo ( Bos taurus coreanae ) heifers during pregnancy. Twenty-four pregnant Hanwoo heifers, averaging 438 ± 27.8 kg in weight, 21 months in age, and 194 ± 8.5 days in pregnancy, were involved in a two-month (eight weeks) experiment. The heifers were randomly assigned to either the single housing group (SG; one individual per pen, n = 12), or the paired housing group (PG; two individuals per pen, n = 12). All pens were of the same size (5 × 5 m) and provided with one feed bin, which automatically recorded the individual feed intake and eating behavior. As the experiment began, the diet of the heifers was switched from a total mixed ration (TMR; 250 g/kg ryegrass straw and 750 g/kg concentrate mix) to a forage-only diet (mixed hay cubes composed of 500 g/kg alfalfa, 250 g/kg timothy, and 250 g/kg blue grass hay). The heifers were fed ad libitum twice a day. The individual feed intake and eating behavior were recorded daily throughout the experiment, and body weights (BWs) were measured every four weeks before the morning feeding. PG animals visited the feed bin 22% less often than SG. PG, however, stayed 39% longer in the feed bin and consumed 40% more feed per visit, compared with SG. Consequently, PG heifers spent 23% more time in eating and had 16% more daily dry matter intake than SG during the experiment. Average daily gain during the experimental period tended to be greater in PG than in SG. When pregnant Hanwoo heifers encountered a novel diet, social relationships (i.e., presence of a pen-mate) enhanced their time spent eating and feed intake. Social interactions, even with an unfamiliar individual, may be helpful for pregnant Hanwoo heifers cope with a diet challenge compared to solitary situation.

  19. Estudo do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Cereus jamacaru DC em diferentes substratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderlucia Silva Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar o desenvolvimento de mudas de Cereus jamacaru DC, em substratos a base de fibra de coco e casca de arroz carbonizada. Os tratamentos utilizados foram dispostos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado constituídos por cinco substratos a base de fibra de coco (FC e casca de arroz carbonizado (CAC, misturados com diferentes proporções volumétricas. Os tratamentos constituíram-se dos substratos 100% FC (T1, 100% CAC (T2, 75%FC+25%CAC (T3, 50%FC+50%CAC (T4, e 25%FC+75%CAC (T5. Cada tratamento foi composto por 14 repetições com 2 plantas por tratamento. Caixas de plástico transparente foram utilizados como recipientes. Aos 125 dias após o transplantio, foram avaliadas as seguintes variáveis das plântulas: comprimento, número, massa fresco e massa seco de raiz; massa fresco e massa seco da parte aérea; comprimento da parte aérea. Nas condições do experimento, conclui-se que o substrato composto somente por fibra de coco apresentou melhores resultados em todas as variáveis analisadas.

  20. Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI en mipymes - Agrocadena del plátano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín Darío Arango Serna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo surge como resultado de una investigación en el tema de Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI en la cadena productiva de deshidratados de plátano, compuesta por una planta deshidratadora (proveedor y una granja porcina (cliente, incorporando el costo de transporte del producto como parámetro integral de los costos de inventarios, con el fin de examinar las prácticas de gestión de inventarios antes y después de la implementación de VMI. Se muestra inicialmente la contextualización de la cadena en el ámbito del sector y la agroindustria del plátano en Colombia. Posteriormente, se desarrolla el modelo de coordinación de inventarios, tomando como referencia el modelo propuesto por Yao, et al. [1], el cual se fundamenta en el modelo de lote económico de pedido (EOQ. Se realiza la modelación matemática en los escenarios sin VMI y con VMI, incorporando el costo de transporte del producto al costo total del manejo de inventarios. Los resultados muestran que la adopción de VMI genera ahorros para la cadena integrada y como el costo de transporte resulta ser un elemento individual relevante en la estructura de costos logísticos de la cadena estudiada.

  1. Technical Training: Programmation Unity-Pro pour utilisateurs de Schneider PL7-Pro

    CERN Multimedia

    Monique Duval

    2004-01-01

    Annonce de nouveau cours pour l'environnement d'automatisme Schneider Un nouveau cours sur les environnements d'automatisme Premium et Quantum de Schneider est maintenant offert dans le cadre de l'Enseignement technique du CERN, afin de découvrir le nouvel outil de programmation Unity. Cette formation, mise en place par le GUAPI (Groupe des utilisateurs d'automates programmables industriels du CERN), sera essentiellement technique et pratique, destinée aux automaticiens concepteurs, metteurs en oeuvre, installateurs, intégrateurs et techniciens de bureau d'études. Ce cours est ouvert aux personnes étant déjà capables de développer une application PL7-Pro sur TSX Premium, ou ayant suivi le stage AP571. Objectifs : Maîtriser rapidement les différences fonctionnelles d'Unity-Pro par rapport à PL7-Pro; programmer en PLC TSX Premium sous Unity, et notamment connaître l'ensemble des l...

  2. Luminescence lifetime enhanced by exciton-plasmon couple in hybrid CsPbBr3 perovskite/Pt nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunxu; Zhang, Jisen; Chen, Yongyi; Jing, Pengtao; Zhang, Ligong; Zhao, Haifeng; Fu, Xihong; Wang, Lijun

    2018-02-01

    Photoluminescence (PL) and time-resolved spectroscopic studies on plasmonically coupled semiconductor nanoparticles (SNPs) have demonstrated the PL quenched and lifetime enhanced of SNPs in the presence of metal nanoparticles (MNPs). The hybrid colloidal CsPbBr3 perovskite SNPs/Pt MNPs (S-M) structures exhibit novel optical properties due to the synergetic interaction between the individual components. In hybrid S-M nanostructures colloidal chemistry incorporates SNP and MNP into a single unit resulting in the formation of plexciton (or excimon) which has now been established in a series of hybrid structures. The experimental results of femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy based on the time-resolved pump-probe confirm the transformation from excitons to plexcitons. It was found that the experimental data can’t be well described by the theory based on conventional Fӧster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The differences between theory and experiment may be due to the missing some PbBr2 PL peaks, the reason will be revealed further.

  3. Covalent Linking Greatly Enhances Photoinduced Electron Transfer in Fullerene-Quantum Dot Nanocomposites: Time-Domain Ab Initio Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Victor; Prezhdo, Oleg

    2013-01-01

    , it leads to a notably weaker QD-C-60 interaction than a lengthy molecular bridge. We show that the ET rate in a nonbonded mixture of QDs and C-60 can be enhanced by doping. The photoinduced ET is promoted primarily by mid- and low-frequency vibrations. The study establishes the basic design principles...... for enhancing photoinduced charge separation in nanoscale light harvesting materials....

  4. O plágio, a cópia e a intertextualidade na produção acadêmica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Judensnaider

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: PT-BR; mso-fareast-language: PT-BR; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">A ocorrência cada vez mais frequente do plágio nos trabalhos discentes enseja a discussão sobre a sua prática, em especial quando resultante da falta de compreensão sobre o real significado do caráter intertextual da produção acadêmica. Na investigação sobre os possíveis diálogos entre as várias camadas do texto cientifico, esse artigo procura estabelecer distância entre eles e a prática do plágio ou da cópia, assim o fazendo por meio da análise da construção de sentido a partir da leitura e da escrita como exercício da leitura de mundo e do processo dialógico entre discursos e sujeitos.

  5. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets Aclimatização e anatomia foliar de plântulas de figo micropropagadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.A sobrevivência de plantas micropropagadas durante e após a aclimatização é um processo limitante para o estabelecimento de plantas. Poucas informações são encontradas de como a anatomia de órgãos vegetativos de Ficus carica pode ser afetada pelas condições de cultivo e aclimatização. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os efeitos do tempo em meio de cultura e substratos durante a aclimatização de plântulas de figueira produzidas in vitro e cultivadas no campo. Plântulas multiplicadas in vitro foram separadas e transferidas para meio WPM, onde foram mantidas por 0; 15; 30; 45 e 60 dias. Diferentes

  6. Enhancement of electron transfer from CdSe core/shell quantum dots to TiO2 films by thermal annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao, Cong; Meng, Xiangdong; Jing, Pengtao; Sun, Mingye; Zhao, Jialong; Li, Haibo

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrated the enhancement of electron transfer from CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to TiO 2 films via thermal annealing by means of steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The significant decrease in PL intensities and lifetimes of the QDs on TiO 2 films was clearly observed after thermal annealing at temperature ranging from 100 °C to 300 °C. The obtained rates of electron transfer from CdSe core/shell QDs with red, yellow, and green emissions to TiO 2 films were significantly enhanced from several times to an order of magnitude (from ∼10 7 s −1 to ∼10 8 s −1 ). The improvement in efficiencies of electron transfer in the TiO 2 /CdSe QD systems was also confirmed. The enhancement could be considered to result from the thermal annealing reduced distance between CdSe QDs and TiO 2 films. The experimental results revealed that thermal annealing would play an important role on improving performances of QD based optoelectronic devices. -- Highlights: • Annealing-induced enhancement of electron transfer from CdSe to TiO 2 is reported. • CdSe QDs on TiO 2 and SiO 2 films are annealed at various temperatures. • Steady-state and time-resolved PL spectroscopy of CdSe QDs is studied. • The enhancement is related to the reduced distance between CdSe QDs and TiO 2

  7. Entre a melancolia e a exaltação: povo e nação na obra de Plínio Salgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Regina de Freitas Dutra

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O artigo pretende mostrar como Plínio Salgado retrata o Brasil e o homem brasileiro, mapeando as raízes culturais "singulares" da nossa brasilidade, em contraste com a realidade européia e, ao fazê-lo, define sua concepção de Nação. O nosso pressuposto é que o quadro referencial que conforma o pensamento pliniano sobre Povo/Nação é o do Romantismo. Os conceitos de Povo/Nação, elaborados em afinidade com esses referentes, devem ser entendidos como parte constitutiva da ideologia nacionalista do integralismo na versão desse autor. Interessa-nos ressaltar que as formulações políticas de Plínio Salgado foram elaboradas em um momento da história brasileira, em que as definições da identidade e do caráter nacional brasileiros eram pré-requisitos indispensáveis para a escolha de modelos e o estabelecimento de padrões de sociabilidade política. Daí a importância de se destacar os seus pontos de contato com a obra de outros ensaístas do período.The article has the aim to show the way in which Plínio Salgado portrays Brazil and its people. He tracks the unique cultural roots of Brazilian very own self, therefore contrasting them with the European reality and, by doing so, he defines a concept of Nation. Our presupposition is that the referential frame which shapes Salgado's thinking about People/Nation, is the same used in the Romanticism. The concepts of People/Nation, elaborated in affinity with such referential, must be understood as a constitutive part of the nationalist ideology of "Integralismo" in the author's perspective. We are interested in highlighting the fact that the political formulations of Plínio Salgado were elaborated in a moment of Brazilian history, in which the definition of a national identity and character, were considered essential prerequisites for the choice of role models and for establishing patterns of political sociability. Thus the importance to highlight the aspects of his thoughts which

  8. Enhancing the Quality of Service for Real Time Traffic over Optical Burst Switching (OBS Networks with Ensuring the Fairness for Other Traffics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A Al-Shargabi

    Full Text Available Optical burst switching (OBS networks have been attracting much consideration as a promising approach to build the next generation optical Internet. A solution for enhancing the Quality of Service (QoS for high priority real time traffic over OBS with the fairness among the traffic types is absent in current OBS' QoS schemes. In this paper we present a novel Real Time Quality of Service with Fairness Ratio (RT-QoSFR scheme that can adapt the burst assembly parameters according to the traffic QoS needs in order to enhance the real time traffic QoS requirements and to ensure the fairness for other traffic. The results show that RT-QoSFR scheme is able to fulfill the real time traffic requirements (end to end delay, and loss rate ensuring the fairness for other traffics under various conditions such as the type of real time traffic and traffic load. RT-QoSFR can guarantee that the delay of the real time traffic packets does not exceed the maximum packets transfer delay value. Furthermore, it can reduce the real time traffic packets loss, at the same time guarantee the fairness for non real time traffic packets by determining the ratio of real time traffic inside the burst to be 50-60%, 30-40%, and 10-20% for high, normal, and low traffic loads respectively.

  9. Model-based, semiquantitative and time intensity curve shape analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI: a comparison in patients undergoing antiangiogenic treatment for recurrent glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavini, Cristina; Verhoeff, Joost J. C.; Majoie, Charles B.; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Richel, Dick J.; Maas, Mario

    2011-01-01

    To compare time intensity curve (TIC)-shape analysis of dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) data with model-based analysis and semiquantitative analysis in patients with high-grade glioma treated with the antiangiogenic drug bevacizumab. Fifteen patients had a pretreatment

  10. Brain capillary transit time heterogeneity in healthy volunteers measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced T1-weighted perfusion MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Henrik B.W.; Vestergaard, Mark B.; Lindberg, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Capillary transit time heterogeneity, measured as CTH, may set the upper limit for extraction of substances in brain tissue, e.g., oxygen. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of dynamic contrast-enhanced T1 weighted MRI (DCE-MRI) at 3 Tesla (T), in estimating CTH...

  11. Biometria e morfologia da semente e plântula de oiticica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Oliveira Diniz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A carência de trabalhos sobre plantas nativas da Caatinga nordestina é perceptível, sobretudo, no que se refere aos estudos de suas sementes. Dentre as referidas espécies, destaca-se por seus múltiplos usos, a oiticica (Licania rigida Benth. Objetivou-se com este trabalho determinar e descrever a biometria e morfologia da semente e plântula de oiticica. O trabalho foi conduzido no Laboratório de Análises de Sementes do Departamento de Fitotecnia/UFC. Foram realizadas, nas sementes, medições individuais de comprimento, largura e espessura e a determinação morfológica de suas partes internas e externas, além da caracterização da plântula com suas respectivas estruturas. A semente de oiticica é eurispérmica, apresenta comprimento de 3,1 a 5,0 cm, largura de 1,3 a 1,7 cm e espessura de 1,2 a 1,7 cm. O embrião é grande de formato linear, com cotilédones carnosos de cor branca amarelada, dobrados e apresentam nervuras e o eixo hipocótilo-radícula curto. Germinação inicia-se aos 15 dias, sendo hipógea criptocotiledonar. A plântula possui nas faces dos primórdios foliares, uma camada esbranquiçada com aspecto cotonoso.Biometry and morphology of seed and seedling of oiticicaAbstract: Lack of works in native plants of caatinga northeastern is obvious, especially, relating to study of seeds. Among these species, stands out for its multiple uses, the oiticica (Licania rigida Benth. The objective of present experiment was to determinate the biometry and morphology the seed and seedling of Licania rigida. The essay was conducted at the Laboratory of Analysis of Seeds of the Phytotechny Department/UFC. Used were what measurement referent this length, width end thickness as well as detailed description internal end external of seed. Results showed that the seeds are euryspermycs, has length 3.1 to 5.0 cm, width 1.3 to 1.7 cm and thickness 1.2 to 1.7 cm. The embryo is large linear format, with fleshy cotyledons yellowed, folded

  12. Photoluminescent (PL) or electroluminescent (EL) quantum dots for display, lighting, and photomedicine (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yajie

    2017-02-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) have gone through a long journey before finding their ways into the display field. This talk will briefly touch on the history before trying to answer several key questions related to QDs applications in display: What are QDs? How are they made? What properties do they have and Why? How can these properties be used to improve color and efficiency of display, in either photoluminescence (PL) or electroluminescence (EL) mode? And what are the remaining challenges for QDs wide adoption in display industry? Lastly, some most recent progresses in our UCF lab at both PL and EL fronts will be highlighted. For PL, a cadmium-free perovskite-polymer composite films with exceptionally narrow emission green peaks (FWHM 20 nm) and good water and thermal stability will be reported. Together with red quantum dots or PFS/KSF phosphors as down-converters for blue LEDs, a white-light source with 95% Rec. 2020 color gamut was demonstrated [1]. For EL, red quantum dot light emitting devices (QLEDs) with record luminance of 165,000 Cd/m2 has been obtained at a current density of 1000 mA/cm2 with a low driving voltage of 5.8 V and CIE coordinates of (0.69, 0.31). [2] The potential of using these QLEDs for light sources for integrated sensing platform [3] or high efficiency, high color quality hybrid white OLED [4] will be discussed. [1] Y. N. Wang, J. He, H. Chen, J. S. Chen, R. D. Zhu, P. Ma, A. Towers, Y. Lin, A. J. Gesquiere, S. T. Wu, Y. J. Dong. Ultrastable, Highly Luminescent Organic-Inorganic Perovskite - Polymer Composite Films, Advanced Materials, accepted, (2016). [2] Y. J. Dong, J.M. Caruge, Z. Q. Zhou, C. Hamilton, Z. Popovic, J. Ho, M. Stevenson, G. Liu, V. Bulovic, M. Bawendi, P. T. Kazlas, S. Coe-Sullivan, and J. Steckel Ultra-bright, Highly Efficient, Low Roll-off Inverted Quantum-Dot Light Emitting Devices (QLEDs). SID Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap. 46, 270-273 (2015). [3] J. He, H. Chen, S. T. Wu, and Y. J. Dong, Integrated Sensing Platform Based on Quantum

  13. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Zerbato

    Full Text Available Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  14. Migração específica de antioxidante de embalagens plásticas para alimentos Specific migration of antioxidant from plastic packages for food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Coltro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de aditivos em materiais plásticos é essencial para o processamento e desempenho dos plásticos, uma vez que os aditivos conferem características desejadas aos polímeros. No entanto, há restrições determinadas pela Agência Nacional de Vigilância Sanitária (ANVISA para as embalagens plásticas de alimentos, as quais devem ser avaliadas por meio de ensaios físicos, realizados por laboratório acreditado, para verificar se os requisitos estabelecidos pela ANVISA são atendidos. Sendo assim, o objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver metodologia que permita a avaliação da migração de 3-(3,5-di-terc-butil-4-hidroxifenil propionato de n-octadecila, antioxidante de nome comercial Irganox 1076, CAS 2082-79-3, presente em embalagens plásticas para contato com alimentos, empregando cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência. Esse estudo também teve como finalidade comprovar se o conteúdo de Irganox 1076 de amostras comerciais de filmes plásticos atende ao requisito de limite de migração específica estabelecido pela ANVISA para este aditivo. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a metodologia utilizada para os simulantes aquoso, ácido e gorduroso é satisfatória e adequada para a análise da migração específica do Irganox 1076, uma vez que todos os parâmetros necessários para a validação do método foram atingidos. As amostras de filme de PEBD e de EVA analisadas atendem ao limite de migração específica do Irganox 1076 para todos os simulantes avaliados.The use of additives in plastics is essential for the processing and performance of plastic products since the additives enhance the desired characteristics of the polymers. Nevertheless, there are restrictions established by the Brazilian Agency of Sanitary Surveillance (ANVISA for plastic packages intended to be in contact with foodstuffs which must be submitted to analyses at a proper laboratory in order to check the compliance with the requirements established

  15. Dual-enhancement of ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance in Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} lead-free ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yongbin; Jia, Yanmin, E-mail: wuzheng@zjnu.cn, E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn; Wu, Jiang; Shen, Yichao [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Wu, Zheng, E-mail: wuzheng@zjnu.cn, E-mail: ymjia@zjnu.edu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua 321004 (China); Luo, Haosu [Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2014-07-28

    A mutual enhancement action between the ferro-/piezoelectric polarization and the photoluminescent performance of rare earth Pr{sup 3+} doped (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5})NbO{sub 3} (KNN) lead-free ceramics is reported. After Pr{sup 3+} doping, the KNN ceramics exhibit the maximum enhancement of ∼1.2 times in the ferroelectric remanent polarization strength and ∼1.25 times in the piezoelectric coefficient d{sub 33}, respectively. Furthermore, after undergoing a ferro-/piezoelectric polarization treatment, the maximum enhancement of ∼1.3 times in photoluminescence (PL) was observed in the poled 0.3% Pr{sup 3+} doped sample. After the trivalent Pr{sup 3+} unequivalently substituting the univalent (K{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}){sup +}, A-sites ionic vacancies will occur to maintain charge neutrality, which may reduce the inner stress and ease the domain wall motions, yielding to the enhancement in ferro-/piezoelectric performance. The polarization-induced enhancement in PL is attributed to the decrease of crystal symmetry abound the Pr{sup 3+} ions after polarization. The dual-enhancement of the ferro-/piezoelectric and photoluminescent performance makes the Pr{sup 3+} doped KNN ceramic hopeful for piezoelectric/luminescent multifunctional devices.

  16. Multiple approaches for enhancing all-organic electronics photoluminescent sensors: Simultaneous oxygen and pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Rui; Xiao, Teng; Cui, Weipan [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Joseph, E-mail: jshinar@iastate.edu [Ames Laboratory-USDOE and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Shinar, Ruth, E-mail: rshinar@iastate.edu [Microelectronics Research Center and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2013-05-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Novel simply-fabricated all-organic electronics pH and oxygen optical monitor. •Excitation sources: directionally emitting, narrowed multicolor microcavity OLEDs. •Photodetectors: small molecule- or polymer-based with selective spectral responses. •Sensor film: structured high molecular weight polystyrene:polyethylene glycol blend. •×1.9 sensitivity enhancement and ×2.7 increase in the photoluminescence for oxygen. -- Abstract: Key issues in using organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) as excitation sources in structurally integrated photoluminescence (PL)-based sensors are the low forward light outcoupling, the OLEDs’ broad electroluminescence (EL) bands, and the long-lived remnant EL that follows an EL pulse. The outcoupling issue limits the detection sensitivity (S) as only ∼20% of the light generated within standard OLEDs can be forward outcoupled and used for sensor probe excitation. The EL broad band interferes with the analyte-sensitive PL, leading to a background that reduces S and dynamic range. In particular, these issues hinder designing compact sensors, potentially miniaturizable, that are devoid of optical filters and couplers. We address these shortcomings by introducing easy-to-employ multiple approaches for outcoupling improvement, PL enhancement, and background EL reduction leading to novel, compact all-organic device architectures demonstrated for simultaneous monitoring of oxygen and pH. The sensor comprises simply-fabricated, directionally-emitting, narrower-band, multicolor microcavity OLED excitation and small molecule- and polymer-based organic photodetectors (OPDs) with a more selective spectral response. Additionally, S and PL intensity for oxygen are enhanced by using polystyrene (PS):polyethylene glycol (PEG) blends as the sensing film matrix. By utilizing higher molecular weight PS, the ratio τ{sub 0}/τ{sub 100} (PL decay time τ at 0% O{sub 2}/τ at 100% O{sub 2}) that is often used

  17. Classification of some Linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. Genotypes for Salinity Tolerance using Germination, Seedling Growth, and Ion Content Clasificación de algunos Genotipos de Linaza (Linum usitatissimum L. para Tolerancia a Salinidad usando Germinación, Crecimiento de Plántulas y Contenido de Iones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir Kaya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinity reduces germination, delays emergence, and inhibits seedling growth of linseed (Linum usitatissimum L. while some varieties are less affected by salinity than others. In this study, we aimed to determine the effects of NaCl levels (0, 5, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 on germination and seedling growth of 10 linseed genotypes (lines 87, 89, 104, 114, 193, 194, 209, 215, C-90 and cv. San-85 and to classify the genotypes for salinity tolerance using germination and seedling characteristics. Germination percentage, mean germination time, root and shoot length, seedling fresh and dry weight, Na+ content and Na:K ratio of seedlings were investigated. Classification of linseed genotypes for salinity tolerance was done according to (i combination of Principal Component and Cluster Analysis, (ii Na+ content, and (iii Na:K ratio of seedling. The results showed that the highest values were obtained from lines 193, 194 and 215 except for mean germination time, while germination percentage was not adversely influenced by NaCl up to 20 dS m-1. Seedling growth was inhibited at 20 dS m-1 although genotypes exhibited varying responses. Na+ content was enhanced by NaCl, but seedling from lines 194, 193 and 215 had the lowest Na+ content at all NaCl levels. Cluster analysis performed by multiple parameters revealed three groups for salinity tolerance. It was concluded that lines 193, 194, and 215 were tolerant, lines 87, 209, C-90, and cv. Sari-85 were moderately tolerant and lines 89, 104, and 114 were salt-sensitive genotypes. Classification of genotypes for Na+ content and Na:K ratio showed similar result for tolerant genotypes while different genotypes for sensitive group were detected.La salinidad reduce germinación, retrasa emergencia, e inhibe el crecimiento de plántulas de lino (Linum usitatissimum L. mientras algunas variedades son menos afectadas por la salinidad que otras. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar los efectos de niveles de NaCl (0, 5

  18. Gold Doping of Silver Nanoclusters: A 26-Fold Enhancement in the Luminescence Quantum Yield

    KAUST Repository

    Soldan, Giada

    2016-04-10

    A high quantum yield (QY) of photoluminescence (PL) in nanomaterials is necessary for a wide range of applications. Unfortunately, the weak PL and moderate stability of atomically precise silver nanoclusters (NCs) suppress their utility. Herein, we accomplished a ≥26-fold PL QY enhancement of the Ag29(BDT)12(TPP)4 cluster (BDT: 1,3-benzenedithiol; TPP: triphenylphosphine) by doping with a discrete number of Au atoms, producing Ag29-xAux(BDT)12(TPP)4, x=1-5. The Au-doped clusters exhibit an enhanced stability and an intense red emission around 660nm. Single-crystal XRD, mass spectrometry, optical, and NMR spectroscopy shed light on the PL enhancement mechanism and the probable locations of the Au dopants within the cluster.

  19. In situ formation of adhesive hydrogels based on PL with laterally grafted catechol groups and their bonding efficacy to wet organic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Mingming; Jiang, Rui; Zhao, Jin; Zhang, Juntao; Yuan, Xubo; Yuan, Xiaoyan

    2015-12-01

    Adhesives with catechol moieties have been widely investigated in recent years. However, actually how much catechol groups for these mussel bio-inspired adhesives, especially in their natural form under physiological condition, is appropriate to bond with organic substrates has not been studied intensively. This study blends ε-polylysine (PL), featuring laterally grafted catechols under physiological conditions (pH 7.4), with oxidized dextran to form a hydrogel in situ via the Schiff base without introducing small cytotoxic molecules as crosslinking agents. It finds that the amount of catechol groups imposes an obvious influence on gelation time, swelling behavior, and hydrogel morphology. Both the storage modulus and adhesion strength are found to increase first and decrease afterwards with an increase of pendent catechol content. Furthermore, catechol hydrogen interactions and the decrease in the crosslink density derived from the decrease of amino groups on PL are simultaneously found to affect the storage modulus. Meanwhile, multiple hydrogen-bonding interactions of catechol with amino, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups, which are in abundance on the surface of tissue, are mainly found to provide an adhesive force. The study finds that with more catechol, there is a greater chance that the cohesive force will weaken, making the entire adhesion strength of the hydrogel decrease. Using a cytotoxicity test, the nontoxicity of the hydrogel towards the growth of L929 cells is proven, indicating that hydrogels have potential applications in soft tissue repair under natural physiological conditions.

  20. Antimicrobial potential of triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kujundžić Žužana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is concerned with the testing of antimicrobial activity of triticale stillage obtained after lactic fermentation by Lactobacillus fermentum PL-1. The antimicrobial tests were performed using the disc-diffusion and agar well diffusion methods. It was found that fermented triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation exhibited an inhibitory effect towards tested Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis. The triticale stillage without addition of CaCO3 before fermentation showed a stronger antimicrobial effect in comparison with the triticale stillage with added CaCO3. Triticale stillage after lactic acid fermentation did not show any antifungal effect on the growth of tested moulds (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, and Fusarium subglutinans. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31017

  1. Cirugía plástica básica para el no especialista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Fernández

    2015-10-01

    • Quemaduras. Primeros auxilios. Por calor. Por electricidad. Por ácidos o álcalis., etc.          Las técnicas están descritas en un lenguaje accesible al no especialista y están profusamente ilustradas en colores.         La edición fue realizada por impresión médica.         El Prof. Coiffman es también el director del tratado “Coiffman. Cirugía Plástica, Reconstructiva y Estética”, que, en su tercera edición, consta de ocho tomos. Esta obra es el texto de estudio de la especialidad en iberolatinoamérica y tiene 170 coautores internacionales. Fue editada por la Editorial Amolca.

  2. Effects of austenitization temperature on the microstructure of 15BCr30 and PL22 boron steels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Suski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies boron precipitation and segregation at austenitic grain boundaries for low carbon boron steels types: PL22 and 15BCr30. The following parameters were evaluated: percentage of martensite/bainite, size and nucleation sites of austenitic grains and precipitates sizes. Three austenitization temperatures were studied (870, 1050 and 1200 °C. The highest martensite percentage occurred for 1050 °C. Iron-borocarbides were detected at grain boundaries for all tested temperatures. At 870 °C the coarse iron-borocarbides are due to non-solubility and coalescence. The highest martensite percentage at 1050 °C is caused by the discrete precipitation of iron-borocarbides at austenitic grains boundaries. The discrete precipitation was due to the low non-equilibrium segregation of boron at grain boundaries. The low non-equilibrium segregation and the small grain size at 1050 °C reduce the total boron concentration at grain boundaries.

  3. Bolsas de plástico y lazos sociales. Notas de campo sobre reciclaje

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Montero Mórtola

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La protección del medio ambiente no sólo consiste en grandes campañas mediáticas y políticas. Existe una ciudadanía silenciosa que ha empezado a modificar actitudes, rescatar viejas costumbres y adaptarlas a distintos espacios de este mundo globalizado (domésticos, informales.... Un cambio cultural donde la reutilización de objetos desechados, a través de actividades artesanales y educativas, sirve para poner en marcha una serie de vínculos y lazos sociales. Estudiando el reciclaje de bolsas de plástico, la antropología puede restituir esos curiosos procesos organizativos, prácticas sociales sólo visibles a partir de un trabajo de campo continuado.

  4. Theory and Practice in Self-Esteem Enhancement: Circle-Time and Efficacy-Based Approaches--A Controlled Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David; Moran, Teresa

    2007-01-01

    There are differences of opinion about self-esteem enhancement in the classroom; these differences exist at both conceptual and practical levels. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether techniques employed by primary school teachers as a day-to-day part of their teaching can have measurable effects on the self-esteem of their pupils. Two…

  5. Estrategias para el desarrollo empresarial: Asociatividad en el sector plástico venezolano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Antonia Cervilla de Olivieri

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Sobre la base de una iniciativa de colaboración puesta en marcha por un conjunto de empresas del sector plástico venezolano, este trabajo pretende ilustrar los beneficios que otorga la participación en redes empresariales e identificar los retos para su consolidación, a fin de proponer recomendaciones para el diseño de estrategias de desarrollo empresarial. La investigación se realizó siguiendo una metodología cualitativa, con base en el enfoque del estudio de caso. Se discuten los marcos conceptuales pertinentes y se presenta el caso de la Corporación de Plásticos Mirandino (CORPLAMI, consorcio de empresas fabricantes de empaques flexibles que inició actividades en 1999, describiéndose su evolución y analizando las barreras superadas para la conformación del grupo así como las amenazas a su sostenibilidad. El caso presentado está basado en la conformación de una red horizontal, donde las empresas cooperan en algunas actividades pero compiten entre sí en un mismo mercado, esperando obtener beneficios individuales de la acción conjunta. Esta experiencia muestra que el camino a seguir para la conformación de redes de empresas pasa por la definición y la ejecución de una estrategia empresaria instrumentada a través de acciones que persiguen los objetivos de mejora en la productividad y en la competitividad.

  6. Meio século de artes plásticas em Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelaida de Juan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Durante as recentes décadas, as artes plásticas em Cuba desenvolveram diversas tendências como a abstração, o fotorrealismo, o neoexpressionismo, o conceitualismo etc., enquanto algumas temáticas e alguns caracteres cuja base remete às culturas afro-cubanas são mantidos. Às manifestações com antecedentes nacionais se agregará, como manifestação orgânica, o design gráfico, que vem se constituindo numa escola de particularidades próprias. Na atualidade proliferam as instalações e as performances, muitas vezes com caráter interdisciplinar, como no caso da video art.Durante las recientes décadas, las artes plásticas en Cuba han desarrollado diversas tendencias como la abstracción, el fotorrealismo, el neoexpresionismo, el conceptualismo, etc., mientras mantienen algunas temáticas y caracteres cuya base se remite a las culturas afrocubanas. A las manifestaciones con antecedentes nacionales se añadirá, como manifestación orgánica, el diseño gráfico que se ha constituido en una escuela de caracteres propios. En la actualidad proliferan las instalaciones y los performances, a menudo con carácter interdisciplinario, así como el video art.During recent decades, several trends have emerged in the Cuban visual arts, e.g., abstraction, photorealism, neoexpressionism and conceptualism, among others, without losing sight of certain themes and characters based on Afro-Cuban cultures. To the manifestations of a national heritage should be added, as an organic expression, graphic design, which is becoming a school with unique features. Today, we have a proliferation of performances and installations, often of interdisciplinary nature, as is the case of video art.

  7. Efectos del control del picudo negro (Cosmopolites sordidus en el plátano.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Armendáriz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue comprobar el efecto en el plátano de las capturas masivas de adultos con feromonas y de la aplicación de hongos entomopatógenos sobre Cosmopolites sordidus. La investigación se realizó en el Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador, de diciembre 2013 a octubre 2014 en una parcela de nueva plantación de plátano Barraganete y se valoró el efecto de la eliminación de restos vegetales de las parcelas. El diseño experimental fue al azar con tres repeticiones. En laboratorio se comprobó la infectividad de la cepa de Beauveria bassiana sobre adultos del picudo negro y del picudo café (Metamasius hemipterus (92,80 y 100% en M. hemipterus frente a 46,70 y 16,20% en C. sordidus. Las capturas de adultos fueron continuas a lo largo del ensayo, con una media de 0,37 adultos/trampa/día. Los datos agronómicos indicaron una diferencia positiva y significativa (análisis de la varianza de los tratamientos frente al control en el perímetro del pseudotallo (F de 4,982 y en el peso de los racimos entre las parcelas limpias con feromonas y con hongos limpias frente al control (F= 3,994. Al comparar los tratamientos el peso del racimo y la longitud de los dedos fueron significativamente mayores en las parcelas de feromonas frente a las de hongos (F = 4,508. Las capturas de adultos con feromonas no estuvieron condicionadas por la limpieza de las parcelas, aunque esta sí incidió en la altura de las plantas (F= 4,245.

  8. Plágio e publicação científica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Gemal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos, a palavra ética tem estado em evidência no país, usualmente referida a sua ausência. Neste cenário, no qual sobram palavras e faltam atitudes, refletir, debater e concretizar ações sobre este tema na publicação científica tornam-se imprescindíveis. O acesso aberto e a democratização do conhecimento e, principalmente, da informa-ção, têm permitido atualmente uma possibilidade fabulosa de avanços na formação de pesquisadores e cidadãos.Neste contexto, a cultura do plágio tem maiores condições de se disseminar e de se tornar socialmente aceita. Isto faz com que instituições e editores de revistas científicas sejam colocados em situações que exigem atitudes imediatas e coerentes com os princípios éti-cos do campo da ciência. Em uma rápida busca no Google do termo “plágio em publicação científica”, encontramos cerca de 400 mil resultados, o que evidencia os danos e riscos que dizem respeito a todos nós: editores, pesquisadores, alunos, gestores de instituições de pesquisa — corresponsáveis pela acuidade da informação — e leitores.

  9. Variación genética en plántulas de Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Martínez Hernández

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa en plántulas de 7 meses de edad pertenecientes a 42 familias de polinización libre de tres especies de Eucalyptus (E. globulus, E. resinifera, y E. rudis. El ensayo se estableció en condiciones de vivero con germoplasma colectado en plantaciones establecidas en la cuenca del Valle de México. Los resultados indicaron la existencia de variación significativa (P≤0.05 entre especies y entre familias dentro de especies para las variables altura, diámetro, número de hojas y número de ramas, aunque no en el área foliar. A nivel de especies se encontraron diferencias significativas en todas las variables relacionadas con la acumulación y distribución de biomasa, excepto en el peso seco de las hojas. También se encontró una variación significativa (P≤0.01 a nivel de familias dentro de especies en el peso seco del tallo, el peso seco de hojas y la biomasa aérea mientras que el peso seco de las ramas y la biomasa de raíz no presentaron una variación significativa entre las familias. El componente de variación de familias dentro de especies aportó del 2 al 12 % de la variación fenotípica total, mientras que las especies contribuyeron sólo del 0.5 a 7.5 de esta variación. El mayor porcentaje de variación se presentó dentro de parcelas, con valores de 80 a 90 % del total en todas las variables de crecimiento y acumulación de biomasa de las plántulas.

  10. TkPl_SU: An Open-source Perl Script Builder for Seismic Unix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    TkPl_SU (beta) is a graphical user interface (GUI) to select parameters for Seismic Unix (SU) modules. Seismic Unix (Stockwell, 1999) is a widely distributed free software package for processing seismic reflection and signal processing. Perl/Tk is a mature, well-documented and free object-oriented graphical user interface for Perl. In a classroom environment, shell scripting of SU modules engages students and helps focus on the theoretical limitations and strengths of signal processing. However, complex interactive processing stages, e.g., selection of optimal stacking velocities, killing bad data traces, or spectral analysis requires advanced flows beyond the scope of introductory classes. In a research setting, special functionality from other free seismic processing software such as SioSeis (UCSD-NSF) can be incorporated readily via an object-oriented style to programming. An object oriented approach is a first step toward efficient extensible programming of multi-step processes, and a simple GUI simplifies parameter selection and decision making. Currently, in TkPl_SU, Perl 5 packages wrap 19 of the most common SU modules that are used in teaching undergraduate and first-year graduate student classes (e.g., filtering, display, velocity analysis and stacking). Perl packages (classes) can advantageously add new functionality around each module and clarify parameter names for easier usage. For example, through the use of methods, packages can isolate the user from repetitive control structures, as well as replace the names of abbreviated parameters with self-describing names. Moose, an extension of the Perl 5 object system, greatly facilitates an object-oriented style. Perl wrappers are self-documenting via Perl programming document markup language.

  11. Industria del plástico en el noreste de México y Texas, 1995-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Corrales C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se compara el peso específico de la industria del plástico entreTexas y el noreste de México; ambas regiones son fabricantes de plástico, e interactúan a través de un comercio intenso, que las hace dependientes. También se comparan las tendencias de su producción, capacidades tecnológicas y localización geográfica para abastecer el mercado, entre otros aspectos. El crecimiento de esta industria le permitirá a México agregar valor a su petróleo. Las importaciones crecientes de resinas, junto con su participación escasa como proveedor de la industriamaquiladora de exportación generan la expectativa de un amplio mercado para el plástico; para lograrlo, necesita impulsar la petroquímica.

  12. Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kędzia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Prompt System in the Process of Mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet The paper offers a critical evaluation of the power and usefulness of an automatic prompt system based on the extended Relaxation Labelling algorithm in the process of (manual mapping plWordNet on Princeton WordNet. To this end the results of manual mapping – that is inter-lingual relations between plWN and PWN synsets – are juxtaposed with the automatic prompts that were generated for the source language synsets to be mapped. We check the number and type of inter-lingual relations introduced on the basis of automatic prompts and the distance of the respective prompt synsets from the actual target language synsets.

  13. Timing of Enhanced Post-Deployment Screening: Exploration of Participants' Preferences and of the Associations among Timing, the Prevalence of Health Problems, and the Likelihood of Referral

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zamorski, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    .... The optimal timing of such screening is uncertain: If done immediately upon return, few members endorse health concerns, perhaps because of a "honeymoon" effect in which homecoming is seen as the solution to any and...

  14. Upcoversion performance improvement of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er by Sn codoping: Enhanced emission intensity and reduced decay time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Han, E-mail: fjfzyh@fzu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Cao, Wenbing [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China); Huang, Qingming [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Ma, En [Fujian Institute of Research on the Structure of Matter, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Zhang, Xinqi [Instrumentation Analysis and Research Center, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350002 (China); Yu, Jianchang [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou, Fujian 350108 (China)

    2013-11-15

    In this manuscript we report a phenomenon that upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased obviously by Sn codoping with Yb/Er into hexagonal NaYF{sub 4} synchronously. X-ray powder diffiraction, field emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, electron spin-resonance spectroscopy and upconversion emission spectra were employed to explore the relation of crystal structure and properties. From these characterizations we found that symmetry of the rare earth ion local crystal field could be tuned by different Sn codoping concentration. For the variable valence property of Sn the local crystal field asymmetry and emission intensity of NaYF{sub 4}:Yb, Er arrived to the maximum when 3 mol% Sn was codoped, while decay time was reduced. The study of this changing tends of upconversion emission intensity and decay time constant may be helpful for design and fabrication of high performance upconversion materials. - Graphical abstract: Variable-valenced Sn is introduced with Yb/Er into NaFY{sub 4} to tune structure and local crystal field. Upconversion emission intensity of Er{sup 3+} was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. Display Omitted - Highlights: • NaYF{sub 4}: Yb, Er was codoped with different concentration Sn. • Upconversion emission intensity was enhanced while decay time constant was decreased. • Introduction of variable-valenced Sn is effective to tune structure and crystal field of NaFY{sub 4}.

  15. Effects of linear and nonlinear time-delayed feedback on the noise-enhanced stability phenomenon in a periodically driven bistable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Zheng-Lin; Mei, Dong-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    We investigate numerically the effects of time delay on the phenomenon of noise-enhanced stability (NES) in a periodically modulated bistable system. Three types of time-delayed feedback, including linear delayed feedback, nonlinear delayed feedback and global delayed feedback, are considered. We find a non-monotonic behaviour of the mean first-passage time (MFPT) as a function of the delay time τ, with a maximum in the case of linear delayed feedback and with a minimum in the case of nonlinear delayed feedback. There are two peculiar values of τ around which the NES phenomenon is enhanced or weakened. For the case of global delayed feedback, the increase of τ always weakens the NES phenomenon. Moreover, we also show that the amplitude A and the frequency Ω of the periodic forcing play an opposite role in the NES phenomenon, i.e. the increase of A weakens the NES effect while the increase of Ω enhances it. These observations demonstrate that the time-delayed feedback can be used as a feasible control scheme for the NES phenomenon

  16. Evaluation of intra-articular injection of autologous platelet lysate (PL) in horses with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrnenopoulou, Panagiota; Diakakis, Nikolaos; Karayannopoulou, Maria; Savvas, Ioannis; Koliakos, Georgios

    2016-06-01

    Regenerative medicine has become one of the most promising therapies of equine osteoarthritis. Platelet lysate (PL) is rich in bioactive proteins and growth factors that play a crucial role in tissue healing. To evaluate the efficacy of intra-articularly injected autologous PL in equine athletes with naturally occurring osteoarthritis. Fifteen warmblood geldings aged 8-19 years with osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint were included in this study. They were randomly divided into two groups; 10 horses received intra-articular injections of PL and 5 of normal saline (controls). Before treatment, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) levels in basal plasma and prepared PL were estimated. Each joint was injected twice within a three-week period. Lameness was evaluated using the American Association of Equine Practitioners grading system, before treatment and 10 days after each intra-articular injection. Horses were examined fortnightly for one year. Radiographic examination was performed six months post-treatment. The generalized estimating equation test was used for statistical analysis. Acceptable levels of PDGF were detected in PLs (mean ± SD: 258.0 ± 52.3 pg/ml). The majority of horses (9/10) responded positively to PL treatment presenting lower lameness grades (p < 0.0005) compared to controls 10 days after the second injection, and returned to normal athletic activity. Radiographs revealed no changes in osteoarthritis lesions six months after treatment. One year post-injections, however, all horses relapsed to their initial degree of lameness. Intra-articularly injected autologous PL is an efficient method for temporarily managing osteoarthritis of the distal interphalangeal joint in athletic horses.

  17. Síntesis y biodegradación de polihidroxialcanoatos: plásticos de origen microbiano

    OpenAIRE

    GONZÁLEZ GARCÍA, Yolanda; MEZA CONTRERAS, Juan Carlos; GONZÁLEZ REYNOSO, Orfil; CÓRDOVA LÓPEZ, Jesús Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Los polihidroxialcanoatos (PHA) son biopoliésteres sintetizados intracelularmente por algunos microorganismos como reserva de carbono y energía que, una vez extraídos de la célula, presentan propiedades físicas similares a plásticos derivados del petróleo. A partir de la década de 1980 han sido estudiados intensivamente y actualmente siguen siendo un tema de investigación importante, sobre todo como sustitutos de los plásticos de origen petroquímico, ya que los PHA son completamente biodegrad...

  18. O plágio, a cópia e a intertextualidade na produção acadêmica

    OpenAIRE

    Ivy Judensnaider

    2011-01-01

    Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: PT-BR; mso-fareast-language: PT-BR; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">A ocorrência cada vez mais frequente do plágio nos trabalhos discentes enseja a discussão sobre a sua prática, em especial quando resultante da falta de compreensão sobre o real significado do caráter intertextual da produção acadêmica. Na investigação sobre os possíveis diálogos entr...

  19. Investigation of moisture stability and PL characteristics of terpineol-passivated organic–inorganic hybrid perovskite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Guo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This work presents a novel method for preparing perovskite films using a simple processing technique. Perovskite paste was prepared by dispersing an equimolar mix of PbI2 and methyl ammonium iodide powders into terpineol with stirring. From these precursors, perovskite films were fabricated using doctor blading and drying for 24 h at room temperature. The prepared films were then placed into relative humidity (RH levels of 30, 50, and 70 % to test the moisture stability. The crystal structure, phases, and morphology were investigated with XRD and SEM/EDX. These samples exhibited good stability against long time exposure to moisture for 70 days. The XRD results showed that samples stored at RH 70 % contained only a small amount of hydrate compound after 70 days storage, while in the sample stored at RH 50 %, the formation of PbI2 was observed. The sample at RH 30 % manifested almost no change when stored for the same storage period. We attribute the enhanced moisture stability, compared with the spin-coated samples, to a passivated surface of the perovskite film by terpineol which exhibits a hydrophobic moiety. Time-resolved photoluminescence measurements show that the passivation of surface defect states by the formation of either PbI2 or hydrated compound leads to prolonged charge carrier recombination times. Graphical Abstract

  20. Preoperative evaluation of neurovascular relationship by using contrast-enhanced and unenhanced 3D time-of-flight MR angiography in patients with trigeminal neuralgia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Zhou; Zhiling, Liu; Chuanfu, Li; Qingshi Zeng; Chuncheng, Qu; Shilei, Ni

    2011-01-01

    Background Microvascular decompression is an etiological strategy for the therapy of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Preoperative identification of neurovascular compression, therefore, could have an impact on the determination of appropriate treatment for TN. Purpose To evaluate the value of contrast-enhanced and unenhanced three-dimensional (3D) time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography in the visualization of neurovascular relationship in patients with TN. Material and Methods Thirty-seven patients with unilateral TN underwent unenhanced and contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MR angiography with a 3.0-T MR system. Images were reviewed by a radiologist blinded to clinical details. Vascular contact with the trigeminal nerve was identified, and the nature of the involved vessels (artery or vein) was determined. All patients underwent microvascular decompression. Results In 37 patients with TN, contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MR angiography identified surgically verified neurovascular contact in 35 of 36 symptomatic nerves, and there was no false-positive. Based on surgical findings, the sensitivity of MR imaging was 97.2% and specificity 100%. The nature of the offending vessel was correctly identified in 94.4% of the patients by using the combination of contrast-enhanced and unenhanced MR angiography. Conclusion Contrast-enhanced 3D TOF MR angiography is useful in the detection of vascular contact with the trigeminal nerve in patients with TN, and this MR imaging in combination with unenhanced MR angiography could help in the identification of the nature of the responsible vessels

  1. Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MR Imaging of the Liver: The Effect on T2 Relaxation Times and Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cieszanowski, Andrzej; Podgórska, Joanna; Rosiak, Grzegorz; Maj, Edyta; Grudziński, Ireneusz P.; Kaczyński, Bartosz; Szeszkowski, Wojciech; Milczarek, Krzysztof; Rowiński, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect of gadoxetic acid disodium (Gd-EOB-DTPA) on T2 relaxation times and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of the liver and focal liver lesions on a 1.5-T system. Magnetic resonance (MR) studies of 50 patients with 35 liver lesions were retrospectively analyzed. All examinations were performed at 1.5T and included T2-weighted turbo spin-echo (TSE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) images acquired before and after intravenous administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. To assess the effect of this hepatobiliary contrast agent on T2-weighted TSE images and DW images T2 relaxation times and ADC values of the liver and FLLs were calculated and compared pre- and post-injection. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal hepatic lesions were lower on enhanced than on unenhanced T2-weighted TSE images (decrease of 2.7% and 3.6% respectively), although these differences were not statistically significant. The mean ADC values of the liver showed statistically significant decrease (of 4.6%) on contrast-enhanced DW images, compared to unenhanced images (P>0.05). The mean ADC value of liver lesions was lower on enhanced than on unenhanced DW images, but this difference (of 2.9%) did not reach statistical significance. The mean T2 relaxation times of the liver and focal liver lesions as well as the mean ADC values of liver lesions were not significantly different before and after administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Therefore, acquisition of T2-weighted and DW images between the dynamic contrast-enhanced examination and hepatobiliary phase is feasible and time-saving

  2. Clinical performance of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced pediatric abdominal MR angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Yousaf, Ufra; Hsiao, Albert; Cheng, Joseph Y; Alley, Marcus T; Lustig, Michael; Pauly, John M; Vasanawala, Shreyas S

    2015-10-01

    Pediatric contrast-enhanced MR angiography is often limited by respiration, other patient motion and compromised spatiotemporal resolution. To determine the reliability of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography method for depicting abdominal arterial anatomy in young children. With IRB approval and informed consent, we retrospectively identified 27 consecutive children (16 males and 11 females; mean age: 3.8 years, range: 14 days to 8.4 years) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography at our institution, who had undergone free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography studies. A radio-frequency-spoiled gradient echo sequence with Cartesian variable density k-space sampling and radial view ordering, intrinsic motion navigation and intermittent fat suppression was developed. Images were reconstructed with soft-gated parallel imaging locally low-rank method to achieve both motion correction and high spatiotemporal resolution. Quality of delineation of 13 abdominal arteries in the reconstructed images was assessed independently by two radiologists on a five-point scale. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the proportion of diagnostically adequate cases were calculated. Interobserver agreements were also analyzed. Eleven out of 13 arteries achieved acceptable image quality (mean score range: 3.9-5.0) for both readers. Fair to substantial interobserver agreement was reached on nine arteries. Free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography frequently yields diagnostic image quality for most abdominal arteries in young children.

  3. Clinical performance of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced pediatric abdominal MR angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Joseph Y. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States); Yousaf, Ufra; Alley, Marcus T.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S. [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Stanford, CA (United States); Hsiao, Albert [University of California, San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Lustig, Michael [Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States); University of California, Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, Berkeley, CA (United States); Pauly, John M. [Stanford University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2015-10-15

    Pediatric contrast-enhanced MR angiography is often limited by respiration, other patient motion and compromised spatiotemporal resolution. To determine the reliability of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography method for depicting abdominal arterial anatomy in young children. With IRB approval and informed consent, we retrospectively identified 27 consecutive children (16 males and 11 females; mean age: 3.8 years, range: 14 days to 8.4 years) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography at our institution, who had undergone free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography studies. A radio-frequency-spoiled gradient echo sequence with Cartesian variable density k-space sampling and radial view ordering, intrinsic motion navigation and intermittent fat suppression was developed. Images were reconstructed with soft-gated parallel imaging locally low-rank method to achieve both motion correction and high spatiotemporal resolution. Quality of delineation of 13 abdominal arteries in the reconstructed images was assessed independently by two radiologists on a five-point scale. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the proportion of diagnostically adequate cases were calculated. Interobserver agreements were also analyzed. Eleven out of 13 arteries achieved acceptable image quality (mean score range: 3.9-5.0) for both readers. Fair to substantial interobserver agreement was reached on nine arteries. Free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography frequently yields diagnostic image quality for most abdominal arteries in young children. (orig.)

  4. Clinical performance of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced pediatric abdominal MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Tao; Cheng, Joseph Y.; Yousaf, Ufra; Alley, Marcus T.; Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Hsiao, Albert; Lustig, Michael; Pauly, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric contrast-enhanced MR angiography is often limited by respiration, other patient motion and compromised spatiotemporal resolution. To determine the reliability of a free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography method for depicting abdominal arterial anatomy in young children. With IRB approval and informed consent, we retrospectively identified 27 consecutive children (16 males and 11 females; mean age: 3.8 years, range: 14 days to 8.4 years) referred for contrast-enhanced MR angiography at our institution, who had undergone free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography studies. A radio-frequency-spoiled gradient echo sequence with Cartesian variable density k-space sampling and radial view ordering, intrinsic motion navigation and intermittent fat suppression was developed. Images were reconstructed with soft-gated parallel imaging locally low-rank method to achieve both motion correction and high spatiotemporal resolution. Quality of delineation of 13 abdominal arteries in the reconstructed images was assessed independently by two radiologists on a five-point scale. Ninety-five percent confidence intervals of the proportion of diagnostically adequate cases were calculated. Interobserver agreements were also analyzed. Eleven out of 13 arteries achieved acceptable image quality (mean score range: 3.9-5.0) for both readers. Fair to substantial interobserver agreement was reached on nine arteries. Free-breathing spatiotemporally accelerated 3-D time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography frequently yields diagnostic image quality for most abdominal arteries in young children. (orig.)

  5. Differentiation of hypertensive heart disease with hypertrophy and hepertrophic cardiomyopathy using consecutive time-course images of Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Kouichi; Isibashi, Yutaka; Shimada, Toshio; Tsukihashi, Hironori; Sato, Hidetoshi; Kitamura, Jun; Morioka, Shigefumi; Kawamitsu, Hideaki; Sugimura, Kazuro

    1996-01-01

    We used consecutive time-course Gd-DTPA contrast magnetic resonance images to differentiate hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) from hypertensive heart disease with hypertrophy (HHD). Seventeen patients with HCM, 6 patients with HHD and 5 normal subjects (control) were studied. ECG-gated MRI with 1.5T system was performed before and after intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA (0.1mmol/Kg) using spin echo sequence. Gd-DTPA enhanced MRI was repeated every 10 to 55 minutes. We measured signal intensity (SI) of midleft ventricular myocardium and skeletal muscle, and then calculated the ratio between myocardial SI and skeletal muscle SI. Myocardium was enhanced by Gd-DTPA in all patients. However, there was difference in the decay of enhancement effect by Gd-DTPA between HCM and HHD. The decay in HCM was more slowly than in both HHD and control. There was no difference in the decay between HHD and control. The difference in the decay between HCM and HHD became significant 25 minutes after Gd-DTPA injection and lasted until 55 minutes. We conclude that the time-course of the decay of enhancement effect by Gd-DTPA is helpful to differentiate HCM from HHD and the difference of the decay might reflect structural changes of myocardium. (author)

  6. Well-resolved oil-soluble Au-doped ZnCdS quantum dots and enhancing doping emission with In-codoping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Ruosheng, E-mail: zengrsh@gznu.edu.cn [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Sun, Zhiguo [School of Chemistry and Materials Science, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China); Zhou, Chunjiao [College of Science, Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha 410128 (China); Fang, Cheng; Han, Guo-Cheng [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China); Chen, Zhencheng, E-mail: chenzhcheng@guet.edu.cn [School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Guilin University of Electronic Technology, Guilin 541004 (China)

    2016-06-25

    Highly emissive semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) with tunable color are valuable in many applications such as solid state lighting and bio-imaging. Herein, we report a facile synthetic method to Au:ZnCdS and Au:ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell QDs with tunable emission color. The highly active Au precursor (HAuCl{sub 4}) is prevented to be decomposed at high reaction temperature using 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) as the surface ligand. High-quality Au:ZnCdS/ZnS core/shell QDs are prepared and the highest photoluminescence (PL) quantum yield (QY) can achieve 42% by overcoating of ZnS layer over the bare Au:ZnCdS core QDs. Furthermore, through using Au{sup +} ion as the primary dopants and trivalent cation In{sup 3+} as co-dopants, the PL QY can be enhanced significantly because compensation of In{sup 3+} ion-codoping for the charge imbalance from Au{sup +}-doping. This codoping strategy may be applied to other related optical materials to control the optical properties based on our understanding for physical mechanism. - Highlights: • High-quality oil-soluble Au:ZnCdS/ZnS QDs were prepared for the first time. • The highly active HAuCl4 is prevented to decompose by using 1-dodecanethiol. • The highest PL QY of Au:ZnCdS/ZnS QDs can achieve 42% by overcoating ZnS layer. • The PL QY of QDs can be significantly enhanced by Au{sup +}, In{sup 3+}-codoping.

  7. GMP-grade platelet lysate enhances proliferation and migration of tenon fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carducci, Augusto; Scafetta, Gaia; Siciliano, Camilla; Carnevale, Roberto; Rosa, Paolo; Coccia, Andrea; Mangino, Giorgio; Bordin, Antonella; Vingolo, Enzo Maria; Pierelli, Luca; Lendaro, Eugenio; Ragona, Giuseppe; Frati, Giacomo; De Falco, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Tenon's fibroblasts (TFs), widely employed as in vitro model for many ophthalmological studies, are routinely cultured with FBS. Platelet Lysate (PL), a hemoderivate enriched with growth factors and cytokines has been largely tested in several clinical applications and as substitute of FBS in culture. Here, we investigate whether PL can exert biological effects on TF populations similarly to other cell types. Results show that PL significantly enhances cell proliferation and migration vs. FBS, without influencing cell size/granularity. Upregulation of EGF, VEGF, KDR, MMP2-9, FAK mRNA levels also occurs and phosphorylation of AKT but not of ERK1/2 is significantly enhanced. The inhibition of the PI3kinase/AKT pathway with the specific inhibitor wortmannin, decreases PL-induced cell migration but not proliferation. Condition supernatants containing PL show increased bioavailability of Nitric Oxide and reduced levels of 8-Iso-PGF2-alpha, correlating with cell proliferation and migration. Pro-angiogenic/inflammatory soluble factors (GRO, Angiogenin, EGF, I-309, PARC) are exclusively or greater expressed in media containing PL than FBS. GMP-grade PL preparations positively influence in vitro biological effects of TFs representing a suitable and safer alternative to FBS.

  8. Enhancement of optical and structural quality of semipolar (11-22) GaN by introducing nanoporous SiNx interlayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monavarian, Morteza; Metzner, Sebastian; Izyumskaya, Natalia; Müller, Marcus; Okur, Serdal; Zhang, Fan; Can, Nuri; Das, Saikat; Avrutin, Vitaliy; Özgür, Ümit; Bertram, Frank; Christen, Juergen; Morkoç, Hadis

    2015-03-01

    Enhancement of optical and structural quality of semipolar (11‾22) GaN grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on planar m-sapphire substrates was achieved by using an in-situ epitaxial lateral overgrowth (ELO) technique with nanoporous SiNx layers employed as masks. In order to optimize the procedure, the effect of SiNx deposition time was studied by steady-state photoluminescence (PL), and X-ray diffraction. The intensity of room temperature PL for the (11‾22) GaN layers grown under optimized conditions was about three times higher compared to those for the reference samples having the same thickness but no SiNx interlayers. This finding is attributed to the blockage of extended defect propagation toward the surface by the SiNx interlayers as evidenced from the suppression of emissions associated with basal-plane and prismatic stacking faults with regard to the intensity of donor bound excitons (D0X) in lowtemperature PL spectra. In agreement with the optical data, full width at half maximum values of (11‾22) X-ray rocking curves measured for two different in-plane rotational orientations of [1‾100] and [11‾23] reduced from 0.33º and 0.26º for the reference samples to 0.2º and 0.16º for the nano-ELO structures grown under optimized conditions, respectively.

  9. Quantitative analysis of the improvement in omnidirectional maritime surveillance and tracking due to real-time image enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Jason P.; Bachoo, Asheer K.; Nicolls, Fred C.; le Roux, Francois P. J.

    2011-05-01

    Tracking targets in a panoramic image is in many senses the inverse problem of tracking targets with a narrow field of view camera on a pan-tilt pedestal. In a narrow field of view camera tracking a moving target, the object is constant and the background is changing. A panoramic camera is able to model the entire scene, or background, and those areas it cannot model well are the potential targets and typically subtended far fewer pixels in the panoramic view compared to the narrow field of view. The outputs of an outward staring array of calibrated machine vision cameras are stitched into a single omnidirectional panorama and used to observe False Bay near Simon's Town, South Africa. A ground truth data-set was created by geo-aligning the camera array and placing a differential global position system receiver on a small target boat thus allowing its position in the array's field of view to be determined. Common tracking techniques including level-sets, Kalman filters and particle filters were implemented to run on the central processing unit of the tracking computer. Image enhancement techniques including multi-scale tone mapping, interpolated local histogram equalisation and several sharpening techniques were implemented on the graphics processing unit. An objective measurement of each tracking algorithm's robustness in the presence of sea-glint, low contrast visibility and sea clutter - such as white caps is performed on the raw recorded video data. These results are then compared to those obtained with the enhanced video data.

  10. Tuning the carbon nanotube photoluminescence enhancement at addition of cysteine through the change of external conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnosov, N.V.; Karachevtsev, M.V.; Leontiev, V.S.; Karachevtsev, V.A., E-mail: karachevtsev@ilt.kharkov.ua

    2017-01-15

    The enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) from the semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes suspended with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) in water observed after amino acids doping is the largest at cysteine addition. The PL intensity increased through the passivation of p-defects on the carbon nanotube sidewall by the cysteine molecules due to thiol group. The effect of several external factors on the cysteine-induced enhancement of PL from carbon nanotubes covered with ssDNA was studied: UV irradiation, tip or bath sonication treatment of the suspension, the ionic strength and pH of aqueous suspension. It turned out that all these factors have an essential influence on the dependence of the PL enhancement on the cysteine concentration through inducing of additional defects on nanotube as well as a change of the nanotube surface coverage with polymer. The obtained experimental results demonstrated that PL from carbon nanotubes can be exploited successfully for the monitoring of cysteine concentration in aqueous solution. - Highlights: • Cysteine doping enhances carbon nanotube emission more than other amino acids do. • SWNT emission dependence on cysteine concentration is tuned by UV irradiation and pH. • Type of sonication treatment influences SWNT PL dependence on cysteine concentration. • Polymer coverage and defectiveness of nanotubes effect on nanotube emission. • Graphic abstract.

  11. Kinetic energy dependence of carrier diffusion in a GaAs epilayer studied by wavelength selective PL imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, S. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Providence High School, Charlotte, NC 28270 (United States); Su, L.Q.; Kon, J. [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Gfroerer, T. [Davidson College, Davidson, NC 28035 (United States); Wanlass, M.W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Zhang, Y., E-mail: yong.zhang@uncc.edu [University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Photoluminescence (PL) imaging has been shown to be an efficient technique for investigating carrier diffusion in semiconductors. In the past, the measurement was typically carried out by measuring at one wavelength (e.g., at the band gap) or simply the whole emission band. At room temperature in a semiconductor like GaAs, the band-to-band PL emission may occur in a spectral range over 200 meV, vastly exceeding the average thermal energy of about 26 meV. To investigate the potential dependence of the carrier diffusion on the carrier kinetic energy, we performed wavelength selective PL imaging on a GaAs double hetero-structure in a spectral range from about 70 meV above to 50 meV below the bandgap, extracting the carrier diffusion lengths at different PL wavelengths by fitting the imaging data to a theoretical model. The results clearly show that the locally generated carriers of different kinetic energies mostly diffuse together, maintaining the same thermal distribution throughout the diffusion process. Potential effects related to carrier density, self-absorption, lateral wave-guiding, and local heating are also discussed.

  12. SIA "Baltegle" naudas plūsmas analīze un vadīšana

    OpenAIRE

    Jegorova, Valērija

    2011-01-01

    Vairākiem Latvijas uzņēmumiem ir aktuālas stabilizēšanas problēmas, kuras ietekmēja naudas plūsmas neefektīva vadīšana. Diplomdarba mērķis ir novērtēt SIA „Baltegle” naudas plūsmu un izstrādāt priekšlikumus tās optimizācijai. Pirmajā diplomdarba nodaļā apskatīta naudas plūsmas būtība, otrajā nodaļā - naudas plūsmas pārskata sagatavošanas īpatnības, trešajā nodaļā - analīzes un vadīšanas aspekti. Ceturtajā nodaļā pētīta SIA „Baltegle” saimnieciskā darbība. Piektajā nodaļā veikta uzņēmuma...

  13. Modification of ChPL (chitosan protein–lipid nanoparticles for in vitro release of rifampicin (RIF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poopak Farnia

    2015-01-01

    Results and conclusions: The average size of RIF ChPL-NPs was about 50–250nm. The release of RIF from the dialysis bag started after 30 min which was 2400ng/ml; after 16 h the release of RIF was 15,000ng/ml; and at 40 h the concentration reached to 19,600ng/ml. Therefore, these results showed a slow release of RIF from ChPL-NPs. Basically, the intensity of the surface charges in nanoparticle is important as it determines their interaction with bioactive compound. In RIF ChPL-NPs, lipid had negative charges, whereas chitosan and gelatin had positive charges. The electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged ions would ultimately cause an effective system drug delivery. RIF ChPL-NPs is not only suitable for intravenous administration, but it can be used as an inhalation aerosol, because this nanoparticle has a capacity to adhere to mucosal surfaces and transiently open the tight junction.

  14. Effect of duration of contrast material injection on peak enhancement times and values of the aorta, main portal vein, and liver at dynamic MDCT with the dose of contrast medium tailored to patient weight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erturk, S.M.; Ichikawa, T.; Sou, H.; Tsukamoto, T.; Motosugi, U.; Araki, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of contrast material injection duration on peak enhancement times and attenuation values of the aorta, main portal vein, and liver at MDCT when the dose of contrast material is adjusted to patient weight. Material and methods: Seventy-five patients were randomly assigned to one of five groups, with durations of injection of 25, 30, 35, 40, or 45 s. All patients were injected with 2 ml/kg iodine (300 mg/ml). Attenuation values and peak enhancement times for the aorta, main portal vein, and liver were determined. The relationship between patient weight and enhancement times and values, the differences regarding peak enhancement times, and the relationship between injection duration and enhancement values were investigated using Pearson correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Spearman rank correlation, respectively. Results: No significant correlations were seen between patient weight and peak enhancement times or values. Mean peak enhancement times for the aorta, main portal vein, and liver were 9-11 s, 18-22 s, and 30-34 s, respectively (p > 0.05). The correlations between injection duration and peak enhancement values were significant and negative. Conclusions: Regardless of patient weight and injection duration, peak enhancement times of aorta, main portal vein and liver were approximately 10, 20, and 30 s, respectively. The enhancement values tended to be higher for shorter injection durations

  15. Palmyra Atoll, 2006 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Palmyra Atoll, (5.88467, -162.10281 ) ARGOS ID 307-001. Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature and conductivity, and...

  16. Saipan 2005 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Saipan, CNMI (15.2375N, 145.72283W) ARGOS Buoy ID 26105 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature, and surface...

  17. Genetics and mapping of a novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Foley, M E; Cai, X W; Gulya, T J

    2016-04-01

    A novel downy mildew resistance gene, Pl(18), was introgressed from wild Helianthus argophyllus into cultivated sunflower and genetically mapped to linkage group 2 of the sunflower genome. The new germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. Sunflower downy mildew (DM) is considered to be the most destructive foliar disease that has spread to every major sunflower-growing country of the world, except Australia. A new dominant downy mildew resistance gene (Pl 18) transferred from wild Helianthus argophyllus (PI 494573) into cultivated sunflower was mapped to linkage group (LG) 2 of the sunflower genome using bulked segregant analysis with 869 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Phenotyping 142 BC1F2:3 families derived from the cross of HA 89 and H. argophyllus confirmed the single gene inheritance of resistance. Since no other Pl gene has been mapped to LG2, this gene was novel and designated as Pl (18). SSR markers CRT214 and ORS203 flanked Pl(18) at a genetic distance of 1.1 and 0.4 cM, respectively. Forty-six single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers that cover the Pl(18) region were surveyed for saturation mapping of the region. Six co-segregating SNP markers were 1.2 cM distal to Pl(18), and another four co-segregating SNP markers were 0.9 cM proximal to Pl(18). The new BC2F4-derived germplasm, HA-DM1, carrying Pl(18) has been released to the public. This new line is highly resistant to all Plasmopara halstedii races identified in the USA providing breeders with an effective new source of resistance against downy mildew in sunflower. The molecular markers that were developed will be especially useful in marker-assisted selection and pyramiding of Pl resistance genes because of their close proximity to the gene and the availability of high-throughput SNP detection assays.

  18. A Class of Optimal Rectangular Filtering Matrices for Single-Channel Signal Enhancement in the Time Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Benesty, Jacob; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new class of op- timal rectangular filtering matrices for single-channel speech enhancement. The new class of filters exploits the fact that the dimension of the signal subspace is lower than that of the full space. By doing this, extra degrees of freedom...... in the filters, that are otherwise reserved for preserving the signal subspace, can be used for achieving an improved output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Moreover, the filters allow for explicit control of the tradeoff between noise reduction and speech distortion via the chosen rank of the signal subspace...... and real signals. The results show a number of interesting things. Firstly, they show how speech distortion can be traded for noise reduction and vice versa in a seamless manner. Moreover, the introduced filter designs are capable of achieving both the upper and lower bounds for the output SNR via...

  19. The cross-pathway control system regulates production of the secondary metabolite toxin, sirodesmin PL, in the ascomycete, Leptosphaeria maculans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Ellen M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirodesmin PL is a secondary metabolite toxin made by the ascomycetous plant pathogen, Leptosphaeria maculans. The sirodesmin biosynthetic genes are clustered in the genome. The key genes are a non-ribosomal peptide synthetase, sirP, and a pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ. Little is known about regulation of sirodesmin production. Results Genes involved in regulation of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans have been identified. Two hundred random insertional T-DNA mutants were screened with an antibacterial assay for ones producing low levels of sirodesmin PL. Three such mutants were isolated and each transcribed sirZ at very low levels. One of the affected genes had high sequence similarity to Aspergillus fumigatus cpcA, which regulates the cross-pathway control system in response to amino acid availability. This gene was silenced in L. maculans and the resultant mutant characterised. When amino acid starvation was artificially-induced by addition of 3-aminotriazole for 5 h, transcript levels of sirP and sirZ did not change in the wild type. In contrast, levels of sirP and sirZ transcripts increased in the silenced cpcA mutant. After prolonged amino acid starvation the silenced cpcA mutant produced much higher amounts of sirodesmin PL than the wild type. Conclusions Production of sirodesmin PL in L. maculans is regulated by the cross pathway control gene, cpcA, either directly or indirectly via the pathway-specific transcription factor, sirZ.

  20. MediPlEx - a tool to combine in silico & experimental gene expression profiles of the model legume Medicago truncatula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stutz Leonhard J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs are in general used to gain a first insight into gene activities from a species of interest. Subsequently, and typically based on a combination of EST and genome sequences, microarray-based expression analyses are performed for a variety of conditions. In some cases, a multitude of EST and microarray experiments are conducted for one species, covering different tissues, cell states, and cell types. Under these circumstances, the challenge arises to combine results derived from the different expression profiling strategies, with the goal to uncover novel information on the basis of the integrated datasets. Findings Using our new analysis tool, MediPlEx (MEDIcago truncatula multiPLe EXpression analysis, expression data from EST experiments, oligonucleotide microarrays and Affymetrix GeneChips® can be combined and analyzed, leading to a novel approach to integrated transcriptome analysis. We have validated our tool via the identification of a set of well-characterized AM-specific and AM-induced marker genes, identified by MediPlEx on the basis of in silico and experimental gene expression profiles from roots colonized with AM fungi. Conclusions MediPlEx offers an integrated analysis pipeline for different sets of expression data generated for the model legume Medicago truncatula. As expected, in silico and experimental gene expression data that cover the same biological condition correlate well. The collection of differentially expressed genes identified via MediPlEx provides a starting point for functional studies in plant mutants. MediPlEx can freely be used at http://www.cebitec.uni-bielefeld.de/mediplex.

  1. Crystalline Ethylene Oxide and Propylene Oxide Triblock Copolymer Solid Dispersion Enhance Solubility, Stability and Promoting Time- Controllable Release of Curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thais F R; das Neves Lopes, Franciely C C; Rebelo, Marcia A; Souza, Juliana F; da Silva Pontes, Katiusca; Santos, Carolina; Severino, Patricia; Junior, Jose M O; Komatsu, Daniel; Chaud, Marco V

    2018-01-01

    The design and development of an effective medicine are, however, often faced with a number of challenges. One of them is the close relationship of drug's bioavailability with solubility, dissolution rate and permeability. The use of curcumin's (CUR) therapeutic potential is limited by its poor water solubility and low chemical stability. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of polymer and solid dispersion (SD) preparation techniques to enhance the aqueous solubility, dissolution rate and stability of the CUR. The recent patents on curcumin SD were reported as (i) curcumin with polyvinylpyrrolidone (CN20071 32500 20071214, WO2006022012 and CN20151414227 20150715), (ii) curcumin-zinc/polyvinylpyrrolidone (CN20151414227 20150715), (iii) curcumin-poloxamer 188 (CN2008171177 20080605), (iv) curcumin SD prepared by melting method (CN20161626746-20160801). SD obtained by co-preciptation or microwave fusion and the physical mixture of CUR with Poloxamer-407 (P-407), Hydroxypropylmetylcellulose-K4M (HPMC K4M) and Polyvinylpyrrolidone-K30 (PVP-K30) were prepared at the ratios of 1:2; 1:1 and 2:1. The samples were evaluated by solubility, stability, dissolution rate and characterized by SEM, PXRD, DSC and FTIR. The solubility, stability (pH 7.0) and dissolution rate were significantly greater for SD (CUR:P-407 1:2). The PXRD,SEM and DSC indicated a change in the crystalline state of CUR. The enhancement of solubility was dependent on a combination of factors including the weight ratio, preparation techniques and carrier properties. The drug release data fitted well with the Weibull equation, indicating that the drug release was controlled by diffusion, polymer relaxation and erosion occurring simultaneously. Thus, these SDs, specifically CUR:P-407 1:2 w/w, can overcome the barriers of poor bioavailability to reap many beneficial properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Plástica da valva mitral em portadores de febre reumática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M. A. Pomerantzeff

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os resultados tardios da plástica da valva mitral em pacientes reumáticos. Casuística e Métodos: Durante o período de março de 1980 a dezembro de 1997, 201 pacientes portadores de insuficiência mitral secundária a febre reumática foram submetidos à plástica da valva mitral, no Instituto do Coração do HCFMUSP. A idade média foi de 26,9 ± 15,4 anos e 59,7% dos pacientes eram do sexo feminino. Outros diagnósticos estavam presentes em 67,7% dos pacientes, sendo o mais freqüente a insuficiência tricúspide (31,3%. As técnicas de plástica da valva mitral foram: anel de Carpentier em 75 (37,3%, anuloplastia com tira posterior de pericárdio bovino em 68 (33,8%, anuloplastia posterior segmentar em 16 (7,9%, ressecção quadrangular da cúspide posterior com plicatura do anel correspondente em 11 (5,5%, ressecção de segmento da cúspide anterior em 6 (3%, anuloplastia tipo De Vega em 6 (3%, Kay em 5 (2,5%, Reed em 4 (2% e outras em 10 pacientes. Técnicas associadas de plástica foram empregadas em 94 (46,8% pacientes, sendo a mais freqüente o encurtamento de cordas (48 pacientes - 23,9%. Cirurgias associadas foram realizadas em 113 pacientes (56,2%. As curvas actuariais de Kaplan-Meier foram comparadas através de análise de regressão linear. Resultados: A mortalidade hospitalar foi de 4 (2,0% pacientes, e as causas de mortalidade foram a falência de múltiplos órgãos em 2 (50% pacientes e o baixo débito cardíaco em 2 (50%. No pós-operatório tardio, 83,9% dos pacientes se encontravam em classe funcional I (NYHA. A sobrevida actuarial foi de 93,9 ± 1,9% em 125 meses. Vinte e três pacientes foram reoperados no pós-operatório tardio, com um intervalo médio de 35,7 meses. A sobrevida livre de reoperação foi 43,3 ± 13,7% em 125 meses. Analisando-se separadamente os pacientes segundo a faixa etária, no grupo menor de 16 anos (Grupo 1 a sobrevida actuarial foi de 91,3 ± 3,8%, contra uma sobrevida de

  3. The photoluminescence/excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu-implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    O'Donnell, Kevin Peter

    2011-05-01

    Several distinct luminescent centres form in GaN samples doped with Eu. One centre, Eu2, recently identified as the isolated, substitutional Eu impurity, EuGa, is dominant in ion-implanted samples annealed under very high pressures (1 GPa) of N2. According to structural determinations, such samples exhibit an essentially complete removal of lattice damage caused by the implantation process. A second centre, Eu1, probably comprising EuGa in association with an intrinsic lattice defect, produces a more complex emission spectrum. In addition there are several unidentified features in the 5D0 to 7F2 spectral region near 620 nm. We can readily distinguish Eu1 and Eu2 by their excitation spectra, in particular through their different sensitivities to above-gap and below-gap excitation. The present study extends recent work on photoluminescence/ excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu1 and Eu2 to arrive at an understanding of these mechanisms in terms of residual optically active defect concentrations. We also report further on the \\'host-independent\\' excitation mechanism that is active in the case of a prominent minority centre. The relevance of this work to the operation of the red GaN:Eu light-emitting diode is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. sativa L. por caracteres bioquímicos en semillas y plántulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto A. Galussi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Las semillas de los cultivares de alfalfa son morfológicamente similares, por ello, el análisis de proteínas en semillas y plántulas podría resultar adecuado para diferenciar los cultivares. El objetivo de este trabajo fue caracterizar cultivares de alfalfa, provenientes de dos cosechas, a nivel de proteínas de las semillas a través de SDS PAGE y A PAGE, y en estado de protrusión y cotiledonar por el análisis de la isoenzima Alcohol Deshidrogenasa (ADH. El tamaño muestral adecuado para electroforesis fue de 0,5g de semillas en 5,00ml de buffer de extracción y el volumen de siembra apropiado fue de 10μl. En ambos métodos, SDS PAGE y A PAGE, se logró el fraccionamiento proteico, aunque no fue posible la diferenciación entre cultivares; las escasas diferencias halladas no fueron repetibles en muestras de diferentes años de cosecha. El sistema ADH manifestó diferencias entre cultivares, lográndose mayor diferenciación en el estado de protrusión.

  5. The photoluminescence/excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu-implanted GaN

    KAUST Repository

    O'Donnell, Kevin Peter; Roqan, Iman S.; Wang, Ke; Lorenz, Katharina; Alves, Eduardo Jorge; Boćkowski, Michał X.

    2011-01-01

    Several distinct luminescent centres form in GaN samples doped with Eu. One centre, Eu2, recently identified as the isolated, substitutional Eu impurity, EuGa, is dominant in ion-implanted samples annealed under very high pressures (1 GPa) of N2. According to structural determinations, such samples exhibit an essentially complete removal of lattice damage caused by the implantation process. A second centre, Eu1, probably comprising EuGa in association with an intrinsic lattice defect, produces a more complex emission spectrum. In addition there are several unidentified features in the 5D0 to 7F2 spectral region near 620 nm. We can readily distinguish Eu1 and Eu2 by their excitation spectra, in particular through their different sensitivities to above-gap and below-gap excitation. The present study extends recent work on photoluminescence/ excitation (PL/E) spectroscopy of Eu1 and Eu2 to arrive at an understanding of these mechanisms in terms of residual optically active defect concentrations. We also report further on the 'host-independent' excitation mechanism that is active in the case of a prominent minority centre. The relevance of this work to the operation of the red GaN:Eu light-emitting diode is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Piattella, Oliver; Rodrigues, Davi; Velten, Hermano; Zimdahl, Winfried

    2016-01-01

    The series of texts composing this book is based on the lectures presented during the II José Plínio Baptista School of Cosmology, held in Pedra Azul (Espírito Santo, Brazil) between 9 and 14 March 2014. This II JBPCosmo has been entirely devoted to the problem of understanding theoretical and observational aspects of Cosmic Background Radiation (CMB). The CMB is one of the most important phenomena in Physics and a fundamental probe of our Universe when it was only 400,000 years old. It is an extraordinary laboratory where we can learn from particle physics to cosmology; its discovery in 1965 has been a landmark event in the history of physics. The observations of the anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation through the satellites COBE, WMAP and Planck provided a huge amount of data which are being analyzed in order to discover important information regarding the composition of our universe and the process of structure formation.

  7. ROTULAGEM DE TRANSGÊNICOS NO BRASIL: O RETROCESSO DO PL N° 4.181/08

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Brunetti Suzuki

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Tramita no Senado Federal o Projeto de Lei n° 4.148/08, do Deputado Luiz Carlos Heinz, que pretende alterar o sistema de rotulagem de transgênicos no Brasil. Atualmente, a Lei de Biossegurança, que abriga questões alimentares e ambientais junto com o princípio da informação que rege o Direito do Consumidor, determina que qualquer produto com mais de 1% (um por cento de transgênico em sua composição apresente as respectivas informações em seu rótulo. Se aprovado o Projeto, a rotulagem demandará, antes, estudo que detecte a incidência e a proporção de organismos geneticamente modificados, bem como retirará das embalagens o símbolo característico dos transgênicos. Este artigo apresenta as questões que envolvem os alimentos transgênicos no Brasil, bem como o tratamento legal referente à rotulagem, segurança alimentar e meio ambiente, para, ao final, demonstrar o retrocesso jurídico e funcional que reside no PL n° 4.148/08.

  8. El plátano verde en la matriz productiva de la zona 8 de Ecuador.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén D. Paz Morales

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ecuador con la Constitución de 2008 sentó las bases para la matriz productiva como nuevo modelo de desarrollo en el Ecuador, y con ello se creó todo un andamiaje de instituciones, reglamentos y créditos de largo plazo que apunten a desarrollar armónicamente las empresas ya existentes y a crear nuevos emprendimientos con el fin de aprovechar la materia prima existente en el país. La creación de las zonas de desarrollo por la SENPLADES fue fundamental para organizar por número de habitantes cada una de ellas. La zona 8 conformada por Guayaquil, Durán y Samborondón, es una de las de mayor dinamismo comercial. El Proyecto IC-ULVR 13-19 presenta una investigación exploratoria sobre los derivados del plátano verde en la matriz productiva, para cuyo fin se aplicó una observación guiada a autoservicios de la zona y una encuesta online para conocer los gustos y preferencias de los consumidores.

  9. Perfusion of surgical cavity wall enhancement in early post-treatment MR imaging may stratify the time-to-progression in glioblastoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Park

    Full Text Available To determine if perfusion in surgical cavity wall enhancement (SCWE obtained in early post-treatment MR imaging can stratify time-to-progression (TTP in glioblastoma.This study enrolled 60 glioblastoma patients with more than 5-mm-thick SCWEs as detected on contrast-enhanced MR imaging after concurrent chemoradiation therapy. Two independent readers categorized the shape and perfusion state of SCWEs as nodular or non-nodular and as having positive or negative perfusion compared with the contralateral grey matter on arterial spin labeling (ASL. The perfusion fraction on ASL within the contrast-enhancing lesion was calculated. The independent predictability of TTP was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards modelling.The perfusion fraction was higher in the non-progression group, significantly for reader 2 (P = 0.03 and borderline significantly for reader 1 (P = 0.08. A positive perfusion state and (P = 0.02 a higher perfusion fraction of the SCWE were found to become an independent predictor of longer TTP (P = 0.001 for reader 1 and P < 0.001 for reader 2. The contrast enhancement pattern did not become a TTP predictor.Assessment of perfusion in early post-treatment MR imaging can stratify TTP in patients with glioblastoma for adjuvant temozolomide therapy. Positive perfusion in SCWEs can become a predictor of a longer TTP.

  10. Heart rate biofeedback fails to enhance children's ability to identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conley, Marguerite M; Gastin, Paul B; Brown, Helen; Shaw, Christine

    2011-03-01

    Physical activity recommendations for children in several countries advise that all young people should accumulate at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Perceiving physical activity intensity, however, can be a difficult task for children and it is not clear whether children can identify their levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity in accordance with the recommended guidelines. This study aimed to (1) explore whether children can identify time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity; and (2) investigate whether heart rate biofeedback would improve children's ability to estimate time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Thirty seven children (15 boys and 22 girls, mean age 12.6 years) wore data recording Polar E600 heart rate monitors during eight physical education lessons. At the end of each lesson children's estimated time in zone was compared to their actual time in zone. During a six lesson Intervention phase, one class was assigned to a biofeedback group whilst the other class acted as the control group and received no heart rate biofeedback. Post-Intervention, students in the biofeedback group were no better than the control group at estimating time spent in zone (mean relative error of estimation biofeedback group: Pre-Intervention 41±32% to Post-Intervention 28±26%; control group: Pre-Intervention 40±39% to Post-Intervention 31±37%). Thus it seems that identifying time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity remains a complex task for children aged 11-13 even with the help of heart rate biofeedback. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diseño de espacios pedagógicos en el área de artes visuales para la Escuela de Artes Plásticas

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Rodríguez, Álvaro; Vega Aguilar, María Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Diseñar espacios adecuados para la enseñanza y desarrollo de las artes visuales para el edificio de la Escuela de Artes Plásticas. Universidad de Costa Rica UCR::Docencia::Artes y Letras::Facultad de Bellas Artes::Escuela de Artes Plásticas

  12. Highly efficient indoor air purification using adsorption-enhanced-photocatalysis-based microporous TiO2 at short residence time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jinze; Zhu, Lizhong

    2013-01-01

    A short residence time is a key design parameter for the removal of organic pollutants in catalyst-based indoor air purification systems. In this study, we synthesized a series of TiO2 with different micropore volumes and studied their removal efficiency of indoor carbonyl pollutants at a short residence time. Our results indicated that the superior adsorption capability of TiO2 with micropores improved its performance in the photocatalytic degradation of cyclohexanone, while the photocatalytic removal of the pollutant successfully kept porous TiO2 from becoming saturated. When treated with 1 mg m(-3) cyclohexanone at a relatively humidity of 18%, the adsorption amount on microporous TiO2 was 5.4-7.9 times higher than that on P25. Removal efficiency via photocatalysis followed'the same order as the adsorption amount: TiO2-5 > TiO2-20 > TiO2-60 > TiO2-180 > P25. The advantage of microporous TiO2 over P25 became more pronounced when the residence time declined from 0.072 to 0.036 s. Moreover, as the concentration of cyclohexanone deceased from 1000 ppb to 500 ppb, removal efficiency by microporous TiO2 increased more rapidly than P25.

  13. Half-time strategies to enhance second-half performance in team-sports players: a review and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; West, Daniel J; Harper, Liam D; Cook, Christian J; Kilduff, Liam P

    2015-03-01

    A number of intermittent team sports require that two consecutive periods of play (lasting for ~30-45 min) are separated by a 10-20 min half-time break. The half-time practices employed by team-sports players generally include returning to the changing rooms, temporarily relaxing from the cognitive and physical demands of the first half, rehydration and re-fuelling strategies, addressing injury or equipment concerns, and receiving tactical instruction and coach feedback. However, the typically passive nature of these actions has been associated with physiological changes that impair performance during the second half. Both physical and cognitive performances have been found to decline in the initial stages of subsequent exercise that follows half-time. An increased risk of injury has also been observed during this period. Therefore, half-time provides sports scientists and strength and conditioning coaches with an opportunity to optimise second-half performance. An overview of strategies thought to benefit team-sports athletes is presented; specifically, the efficacy of heat maintenance strategies (including passive and active methods), post-activation potentiation, hormonal priming, and modified hydro-nutritional practices are discussed. A theoretical model of applying these strategies in a manner that compliments current practice is also offered.

  14. Real-Time 12-Lead High-Frequency QRS Electrocardiography for Enhanced Detection of Myocardial Ischemia and Coronary Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlegel, Todd T.; Kulecz, Walter B.; DePalma, Jude L.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Wilson, John S.; Rahman, M. Atiar; Bungo, Michael W.

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have shown that diminution of the high-frequency (HF; 150-250 Hz) components present within the central portion of the QRS complex of an electrocardiogram (ECG) is a more sensitive indicator for the presence of myocardial ischemia than are changes in the ST segments of the conventional low-frequency ECG. However, until now, no device has been capable of displaying, in real time on a beat-to-beat basis, changes in these HF QRS ECG components in a continuously monitored patient. Although several software programs have been designed to acquire the HF components over the entire QRS interval, such programs have involved laborious off-line calculations and postprocessing, limiting their clinical utility. We describe a personal computer-based ECG software program developed recently at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that acquires, analyzes, and displays HF QRS components in each of the 12 conventional ECG leads in real time. The system also updates these signals and their related derived parameters in real time on a beat-to-beat basis for any chosen monitoring period and simultaneously displays the diagnostic information from the conventional (low-frequency) 12-lead ECG. The real-time NASA HF QRS ECG software is being evaluated currently in multiple clinical settings in North America. We describe its potential usefulness in the diagnosis of myocardial ischemia and coronary artery disease.

  15. Novel optical and structural properties of porous GaAs formed by anodic etching of n±GaAs in a HF:C_2H_5OH:HCl:H_2O_2:H_2O electrolyte: effect of etching time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saad, M.

    2014-01-01

    Porous GaAs layers have been formed by anodic etching of n±type GaAs (10.0) substrates in a HF:C_2H_5OH:HCl:H_2O_2:H_2O electrolyte. A dramatic impact of etching time on the optical and structural properties of porous GaAs layer is demonstrated. The nano/micro-features of porous GaAs layers are revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging. Two-peak room temperature photoluminescence (PL), "blue-green"and "green-yellow", is obtained in all prepared porous GaAs samples. Proper adjustment of etching time is found to produce a white color layer, instead of the usual dark gray color of porous GaAs. This is found to cause vast enhancement in the intensity of the visible PL in porous GaAs layer. Chemical composition and structural characterization by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and micro-Raman spectroscopy, confirm that this layer is characterized with monoclinic β-Ga_2O_3 rich surface. Etching time induced-modification of structural and chemical properties of porous GaAs layer is discussed and correlated to its PL behavior. It is inferred that the "blue-green"PL in porous GaAs can be ascribed to different degrees of quantum confinement in GaAs nano crystallites, whereas, the "green-yellow"PL is highly influenced by the As_2O_3 and Ga_2O_3, content in the porous GaAs layer. In addition, the reflectance measurements reveal an anti-refection trend of behavior of porous GaAs layers in the spectral range (500-1,100 nm). (author)

  16. Social Familiarity Reduces Reaction Times and Enhances Survival of Group-Living Predatory Mites under the Risk of Predation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strodl, Markus Andreas; Schausberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni. Methodology/Principal Findings We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae. Significance In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment. PMID:22927997

  17. Social familiarity reduces reaction times and enhances survival of group-living predatory mites under the risk of predation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Andreas Strodl

    Full Text Available Social familiarity, which is based on the ability to recognise familiar conspecific individuals following prior association, may affect all major life activities of group-living animals such as foraging, reproduction and anti-predator behaviours. A scarcely experimentally tested explanation why social familiarity is beneficial for group-living animals is provided by limited attention theory. Limited attention theory postulates that focusing on a given task, such as inspection and assessment of unfamiliar group members, has cognitive and associated physiological and behavioural costs with respect to the attention paid to other tasks, such as anti-predator vigilance and response. Accordingly, we hypothesised that social familiarity enhances the anti-predator success of group-living predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis, confronted with an intraguild predator, the predatory mite Amblyseius andersoni.We videotaped and analysed the response of two P. persimilis larvae, held in familiar or unfamiliar pairs, to attacks by a gravid A. andersoni female, using the behavioural analyses software EthoVision Pro®. Familiar larvae were more frequently close together, reacted more quickly to predator attacks, survived more predator encounters and survived longer than unfamiliar larvae.In line with the predictions of limited attention theory, we suggest that social familiarity improves anti-predator behaviours because it allows prey to shift attention to other tasks rather than group member assessment.

  18. Enhancing quality of carbon nanotubes through a real-time controlled CVD process with application to next-generation nanosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxminarayana, Karthik; Jalili, Nader

    2004-07-01

    Nanocrystals and nanostructures will be the building blocks for future materials that will exhibit enhanced or entirely new combinations of properties with tremendous opportunity for novel technologies that can have far-reaching impact on our society. It is, however, realized that a major challenge for the near future is the design, synthesis and integration of nanostructures to develop functional nanosystems. In view of this, this exploratory research seeks to facilitate the development of a controlled and deterministic framework for nanomanufacturing of nanotubes as the most suitable choice among nanostructures for a plethora of potential applications in areas such as nanoelectronic devices, biological probes, fuel cell electrodes, supercapacitors and filed emission devices. Specifically, this paper proposes to control and maintain the most common nanotube growth parameters (i.e., reaction temperature and gas flow rate) through both software and hardware modifications. The influence of such growth parameters in a CVD process on some of the most vital and crucial aspects of nanotubes (e.g., length, diameter, yield, growth rate and structure) can be utilized to arrive at some unique and remarkable properties for the nanotubes. The objective here is, therefore, to control the process parameters to pinpoint accuracy, which would enable us to fabricate nanotubes having the desired properties and thereby maximize their ability to function at its fullest potential. To achieve this and in order to provide for experimental validation of the proposed research program, an experimental test-bed using the nanotube processing test chamber and a mechatronics workstation are being constructed.

  19. Augmenting real-time video with virtual models for enhanced visualization for simulation, teaching, training and guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Michael; Bensch, Alexander; Dawson-Elli, Alexander; Linte, Cristian A.

    2015-03-01

    In minimally invasive surgical interventions direct visualization of the target area is often not available. Instead, clinicians rely on images from various sources, along with surgical navigation systems for guidance. These spatial localization and tracking systems function much like the Global Positioning Systems (GPS) that we are all well familiar with. In this work we demonstrate how the video feed from a typical camera, which could mimic a laparoscopic or endoscopic camera used during an interventional procedure, can be used to identify the pose of the camera with respect to the viewed scene and augment the video feed with computer-generated information, such as rendering of internal anatomy not visible beyond the imaged surface, resulting in a simple augmented reality environment. This paper describes the software and hardware environment and methodology for augmenting the real world with virtual models extracted from medical images to provide enhanced visualization beyond the surface view achieved using traditional imaging. Following intrinsic and extrinsic camera calibration, the technique was implemented and demonstrated using a LEGO structure phantom, as well as a 3D-printed patient-specific left atrial phantom. We assessed the quality of the overlay according to fiducial localization, fiducial registration, and target registration errors, as well as the overlay offset error. Using the software extensions we developed in conjunction with common webcams it is possible to achieve tracking accuracy comparable to that seen with significantly more expensive hardware, leading to target registration errors on the order of 2 mm.

  20. Using just-in-time teaching and peer instruction in a residency program's core curriculum: enhancing satisfaction, engagement, and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuller, Mary C; DaRosa, Debra A; Crandall, Marie L

    2015-03-01

    To assess use of the combined just-in-time teaching (JiTT) and peer instruction (PI) instructional strategy in a residency program's core curriculum. In 2010-2011, JiTT/PI was piloted in 31 core curriculum sessions taught by 22 faculty in the Northwestern University Feinberg School of Medicine's general surgery residency program. JiTT/PI required preliminary and categorical residents (n=31) to complete Web-based study questions before weekly specialty topic sessions. Responses were examined by faculty members "just in time" to tailor session content to residents' learning needs. In the sessions, residents answered multiple-choice questions (MCQs) using clickers and engaged in PI. Participants completed surveys assessing their perceptions of JiTT/PI. Videos were coded to assess resident engagement time in JiTT/PI sessions versus prior lecture-based sessions. Responses to topic session MCQs repeated in review sessions were evaluated to study retention. More than 70% of resident survey respondents indicated that JiTT/PI aided in the learning of key points. At least 90% of faculty survey respondents reported positive perceptions of aspects of the JiTT/PI strategy. Resident engagement time for JiTT/PI sessions was significantly greater than for prior lecture-based sessions (z=-2.4, P=.016). Significantly more review session MCQ responses were correct for residents who had attended corresponding JiTT/PI sessions than for residents who had not (chi-square=13.7; df=1; P<.001). JiTT/PI increased learner participation, learner retention, and the amount of learner-centered time. JiTT/PI represents an effective approach for meaningful and active learning in core curriculum sessions.

  1. Neutral vs positive oral contrast in diagnosing acute appendicitis with contrast-enhanced CT: sensitivity, specificity, reader confidence and interpretation time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeger, D M; Chang, S D; Kolli, P; Shah, V; Huang, W; Thoeni, R F

    2011-01-01

    Objective The study compared the sensitivity, specificity, confidence and interpretation time of readers of differing experience in diagnosing acute appendicitis with contrast-enhanced CT using neutral vs positive oral contrast agents. Methods Contrast-enhanced CT for right lower quadrant or right flank pain was performed in 200 patients with neutral and 200 with positive oral contrast including 199 with proven acute appendicitis and 201 with other diagnoses. Test set disease prevalence was 50%. Two experienced gastrointestinal radiologists, one fellow and two first-year residents blindly assessed all studies for appendicitis (2000 readings) and assigned confidence scores (1=poor to 4=excellent). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated. Total interpretation time was recorded. Each reader's interpretation with the two agents was compared using standard statistical methods. Results Average reader sensitivity was found to be 96% (range 91–99%) with positive and 95% (89–98%) with neutral oral contrast; specificity was 96% (92–98%) and 94% (90–97%). For each reader, no statistically significant difference was found between the two agents (sensitivities p-values >0.6; specificities p-values>0.08), in the area under the ROC curve (range 0.95–0.99) or in average interpretation times. In cases without appendicitis, positive oral contrast demonstrated improved appendix identification (average 90% vs 78%) and higher confidence scores for three readers. Average interpretation times showed no statistically significant differences between the agents. Conclusion Neutral vs positive oral contrast does not affect the accuracy of contrast-enhanced CT for diagnosing acute appendicitis. Although positive oral contrast might help to identify normal appendices, we continue to use neutral oral contrast given its other potential benefits. PMID:20959365

  2. Evaluation of three-dimensional gadolinium-enhanced MR angiography using the timing monitoring function of contrast material (Smart Prep technique)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihashi, Toshio; Sasaki, Sadayuki; Yoshizawa, Satoshi; Maki, Toshio; Kitagawa, Matsuo; Suzuki, Takeshi

    1998-01-01

    The Smart Prep technique for gadolinium-enhanced three-dimensional MR angiography (3D-MRA) was evaluated in clinical practice. By monitoring signal intensity in the region of interest (tracking volume) in the target vessel, start timing after contrast injection can be optimized using the Smart Prep technique. Successful triggering was obtained in the chest, abdomen, and pelvic areas in about 80% of the cases in this study. Failures with this technique were mainly due to changes in tracking volume caused by patient motion and respiration. We noted that the scan started earlier than expected in the thoracic aorta when part of the heart or pulmonary artery was included in the tracking volume. Thus, care must be taken in defining the size and location of the tracking volume in gadolinium-enhanced 3D-MRA using the Smart Prep technique. (author)

  3. Analysis of the effects of time delay in clock recovery circuits based on Phase-locked loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zibar, Darko; Oxenløwe, Leif Katsuo; Clausen, Anders

    2004-01-01

    Influence of time delay in a balanced optical phase-locked loops (OPLL) with a proportional integrator (Pl) filter is investigated using a delayed differential equation (DDE) is investigated. The limitations, which a time delay imposes on the Pl filter bandwidth, at increasing values of loop gain...

  4. SU-F-I-63: Relaxation Times of Lipid Resonances in NAFLD Animal Model Using Enhanced Curve Fitting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, K-H; Yoo, C-H; Lim, S-I; Choe, B-Y [Department of Biomedical Engineering, and Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The objective of this study is to evaluate the relaxation time of methylene resonance in comparison with other lipid resonances. Methods: The examinations were performed on a 3.0T MRI scanner using a four-channel animal coil. Eight more Sprague-Dawley rats in the same baseline weight range were housed with ad libitum access to water and a high-fat (HF) diet (60% fat, 20% protein, and 20% carbohydrate). In order to avoid large blood vessels, a voxel (0.8×0.8×0.8 cm{sup 3}) was placed in a homogeneous area of the liver parenchyma during free breathing. Lipid relaxations in NC and HF diet rats were estimated at a fixed repetition time (TR) of 6000 msec, and multi echo time (TEs) of 40–220 msec. All spectra for data measurement were processed using the Advanced Method for Accurate, Robust, and Efficient Spectral (AMARES) fitting algorithm of the Java-based Magnetic Resonance User Interface (jMRUI) package. Results: The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance in normal-chow diet was 37.1 msec (M{sub 0}, 2.9±0.5), with a standard deviation of 4.3 msec. The mean T2 relaxation time of the methylene resonance was 31.4 msec (M{sub 0}, 3.7±0.3), with a standard deviation of 1.8 msec. The T2 relaxation times of methylene protons were higher in normal-chow diet rats than in HF rats (p<0.05), and the extrapolated M{sub 0} values were higher in HF rats than in NC rats (p<0.005). The excellent linear fit with R{sup 2}>0.9971 and R{sup 2}>0.9987 indicates T2 relaxation decay curves with mono-exponential function. Conclusion: In in vivo, a sufficient spectral resolution and a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) can be achieved, so that the data measured over short TE values can be extrapolated back to TE = 0 to produce better estimates of the relative weights of the spectral components. In the short term, treating the effective decay rate as exponential is an adequate approximation.

  5. THE WAY TO ENHANCE THE VALUE ADDED: SATISFYING THE NEEDS OF TIME CONSCIOUS CONSUMERS IN THE FOOD MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MÓNIKA Fodor

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of the life style and the way of life have an impact on the preferences of food consumers. The free time not only means an opportunity to have a rest for the consumer of the 21st century, but the customers make efforts to spend it diversely in accordance with the actual trends. The accelerated rhythm of life, the social changes cause the revaluation of the quality of life. A growing stratum is effected by the accelerated pace of work and life and as a result of it the role of time that can be spend up freely is becoming more valuable, determining the way of food consumption and the choosing of the place where to have meal.

  6. OPTIMASI OLSR ROUTING PROTOCOL PADA JARINGAN WIRELESS MESH DENGAN ADAPTIVE REFRESHING TIME INTERVAL DAN ENHANCE MULTI POINT RELAY SELECTING ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faosan Mapa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Wireless Mesh Network (WMN adalah suatu konektivitas jaringan yang self-organized, self-configured dan multi-hop. Tujuan dari WMN adalah menawarkan pengguna suatu bentuk jaringan nirkabel yang dapat dengan mudah berkomunikasi dengan jaringan konvensional dengan kecepatan tinggi dan dengan cakupan yang lebih luas serta biaya awal yang minimal. Diperlukan suatu desain protokol routing yang efisien untuk WMN yang secara adaptif dapat mendukung mesh routers dan mesh clients. Dalam tulisan ini, diusulkan untuk mengoptimalkan protokol OLSR, yang merupakan protokol routing proaktif. Digunakan heuristik yang meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki metode MPR selecting algorithm. Suatu analisa dalam meningkatkan protokol OLSR melalui adaptive refreshing time interval dan memperbaiki algoritma pemilihan MPR menunjukkan kinerja yang signifikan dalam hal throughput jika dibandingkan dengan protokol OLSR yang asli. Akan tetapi, terdapat kenaikan dalam hal delay. Pada simulasi yang dilakukan dapat disimpulkan bahwa OLSR dapat dioptimalkan dengan memodifikasi pemilihan node MPR berdasarkan cost effective dan penyesuaian waktu interval refreshing hello message sesuai dengan keadaan

  7. Hybrid monitoring scheme for end-to-end performance enhancement of multicast-based real-time media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ju-Won; Kim, JongWon

    2004-10-01

    As real-time media applications based on IP multicast networks spread widely, end-to-end QoS (quality of service) provisioning for these applications have become very important. To guarantee the end-to-end QoS of multi-party media applications, it is essential to monitor the time-varying status of both network metrics (i.e., delay, jitter and loss) and system metrics (i.e., CPU and memory utilization). In this paper, targeting the multicast-enabled AG (Access Grid) a next-generation group collaboration tool based on multi-party media services, the applicability of hybrid monitoring scheme that combines active and passive monitoring is investigated. The active monitoring measures network-layer metrics (i.e., network condition) with probe packets while the passive monitoring checks both application-layer metrics (i.e., user traffic condition by analyzing RTCP packets) and system metrics. By comparing these hybrid results, we attempt to pinpoint the causes of performance degradation and explore corresponding reactions to improve the end-to-end performance. The experimental results show that the proposed hybrid monitoring can provide useful information to coordinate the performance improvement of multi-party real-time media applications.

  8. Time dependent enhanced resistance against antibiotics & metal salts by planktonic & biofilm form of Acinetobacter haemolyticus MMC 8 clinical isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharvari Vijaykumar Gaidhani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Available literature shows paucity of reports describing antibiotic and metal resistance profile of biofilm forming clinical isolates of Acinetobacter haemolyticus. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the antibiotic and metal resistance profile