WorldWideScience

Sample records for times higher relative

  1. On the de Sitter and Nariai solutions in general relativity and their extension in higher dimensional space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hidekazu; Ishihara, Hideki.

    1983-01-01

    Various geometrical properties of Nariai's less-familiar solution of the vacuum Einstein equations R sub( mu nu ) = lambda g sub( mu nu ) is f irst summarized in comparison with de Sitter's well-known solution. Next an extension of both solutions is performed in a six-dimensional space on the supposition that such an extension will in future become useful to elucidate more closely the creation of particles in an inflationary stage of the big-bang universe. For preparation, the behavior of a massive scalar field in the extended space-time is studied in a classical level. (author)

  2. Part-Time Higher Education: Employer Engagement under Threat?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Geoff

    2014-01-01

    Employer support for employees who are studying part-time for higher education qualifications constitutes a form of indirect employer engagement with higher education institutions that has contributed strongly to the development of work-related skills and knowledge over the years. However, this form of employer engagement with higher education…

  3. Higher dimensional time-energy entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richart, Daniel Lampert

    2014-01-01

    Judging by the compelling number of innovations based on taming quantum mechanical effects, such as the development of transistors and lasers, further research in this field promises to tackle further technological challenges in the years to come. This statement gains even more importance in the information processing scenario. Here, the growing data generation and the correspondingly higher need for more efficient computational resources and secure high bandwidth networks are central problems which need to be tackled. In this sense, the required CPU minituarization makes the design of structures at atomic levels inevitable, as foreseen by Moore's law. From these perspectives, it is necessary to concentrate further research efforts into controlling and manipulating quantum mechanical systems. This enables for example to encode quantum superposition states to tackle problems which are computationally NP hard and which therefore cannot be solved efficiently by classical computers. The only limitation affecting these solutions is the low scalability of existing quantum systems. Similarly, quantum communication schemes are devised to certify the secure transmission of quantum information, but are still limited by a low transmission bandwidth. This thesis follows the guideline defined by these research projects and aims to further increase the scalability of the quantum mechanical systems required to perform these tasks. The method used here is to encode quantum states into photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). An intrinsic limitation of photons is that the scalability of quantum information schemes employing them is limited by the low detection efficiency of commercial single photon detectors. This is addressed by encoding higher dimensional quantum states into two photons, increasing the scalability of the scheme in comparison to multi-photon states. Further on, the encoding of quantum information into the emission-time degree of

  4. Higher dimensional time-energy entanglement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richart, Daniel Lampert

    2014-07-08

    Judging by the compelling number of innovations based on taming quantum mechanical effects, such as the development of transistors and lasers, further research in this field promises to tackle further technological challenges in the years to come. This statement gains even more importance in the information processing scenario. Here, the growing data generation and the correspondingly higher need for more efficient computational resources and secure high bandwidth networks are central problems which need to be tackled. In this sense, the required CPU minituarization makes the design of structures at atomic levels inevitable, as foreseen by Moore's law. From these perspectives, it is necessary to concentrate further research efforts into controlling and manipulating quantum mechanical systems. This enables for example to encode quantum superposition states to tackle problems which are computationally NP hard and which therefore cannot be solved efficiently by classical computers. The only limitation affecting these solutions is the low scalability of existing quantum systems. Similarly, quantum communication schemes are devised to certify the secure transmission of quantum information, but are still limited by a low transmission bandwidth. This thesis follows the guideline defined by these research projects and aims to further increase the scalability of the quantum mechanical systems required to perform these tasks. The method used here is to encode quantum states into photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC). An intrinsic limitation of photons is that the scalability of quantum information schemes employing them is limited by the low detection efficiency of commercial single photon detectors. This is addressed by encoding higher dimensional quantum states into two photons, increasing the scalability of the scheme in comparison to multi-photon states. Further on, the encoding of quantum information into the emission-time degree of

  5. Relational time in physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.K.T.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) defended in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also know as Principia, published in 1687, the utilization of absolute time in physics. According to him 'absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external'. Leibniz (1646-1716), on the other hand, was against this concept and proposed relative time to replace it: 'As for my opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is; that I hold it to be an order of coexistence, as time is an order of successions'. Leibniz ideas were accepted and developed by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his book The Science of Mechanics, published in 1883. In this work we consider the implementation of relational time, as proposed by Leibniz and Mach, and the consequences this implementation will mean for physics as a whole. We consider some specific examples related to mechanics (Newton's bucket experiment, the flattening of the Earth, Foucault's pendulum experiment) and to electromagnetism (Ampere's force between current carrying wires, an electric charge describing a Larmor radius due to a nearby large magnet, two charges orbiting around one another). We generalize these ideas considering the principle of physical proportions (PPP), according to which no absolute magnitudes should appear in the laws of physics. We present some laws satisfying this principle and others which do not comply with it. The laws which do not satisfy the PPP should be based upon incomplete theories. We present the consequences of complete theories complying with this fundamental principle of nature. (author)

  6. Relational time in physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assis, A.K.T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Isaac Newton (1642-1727) defended in his book Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy, also know as Principia, published in 1687, the utilization of absolute time in physics. According to him 'absolute, true, and mathematical time, of itself, and from its own nature, flows equably without relation to anything external'. Leibniz (1646-1716), on the other hand, was against this concept and proposed relative time to replace it: 'As for my opinion, I have said more than once, that I hold space to be something merely relative, as time is; that I hold it to be an order of coexistence, as time is an order of successions'. Leibniz ideas were accepted and developed by Ernst Mach (1838-1916) in his book The Science of Mechanics, published in 1883. In this work we consider the implementation of relational time, as proposed by Leibniz and Mach, and the consequences this implementation will mean for physics as a whole. We consider some specific examples related to mechanics (Newton's bucket experiment, the flattening of the Earth, Foucault's pendulum experiment) and to electromagnetism (Ampere's force between current carrying wires, an electric charge describing a Larmor radius due to a nearby large magnet, two charges orbiting around one another). We generalize these ideas considering the principle of physical proportions (PPP), according to which no absolute magnitudes should appear in the laws of physics. We present some laws satisfying this principle and others which do not comply with it. The laws which do not satisfy the PPP should be based upon incomplete theories. We present the consequences of complete theories complying with this fundamental principle of nature. (author)

  7. Higher Education: A Time for Triage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-10-01

    Higher education faces unprecedented challenges. The confluence of changing economic and demographic tends; new patterns of federal and state spending; more explicit expectations by students and their families for affordable, accessible education; and heightened scrutiny by those who claim a legitimate interest in higher education is inescapably altering the environment in which this system operates. Higher education will never again be as it was before. Further, many believe that tinkering around the margins is no longer an adequate response to the new demands. Fundamental change is deemed necessary to meet the challenge of this melange of pressures. A number of commentators have observed that political and corporate America have responded to their challenges by instituting a fundamental restructuring of those institutions. The medical community is also in the midst of a similar basic restructuring of the health care delivery system in this country. Now its education's turn. People are questioning the historically expressed mission of higher education. They make the claim that we cost too much, spend carelessly, teach poorly, plan myopically, and when questioned, act defensively. Educational administrators, from department chairs up, are confronted with the task of simultaneously reforming and cutting back. They have no choice. They must establish politically sophisticated priority settings and effect a hard-nosed reallocation of resources in a social environment where competing public needs have equivalent--or stronger--emotional pulls. Triage in a medical context involves confronting an emergency in which the demand for attention far outstrips available assistance by establishing a sequence of care in which one key individual orchestrates the application of harsh priorities which have been designed to maximize the number of survivors. In recent years, the decisions that have been made in some centers of higher education bear a striking similarity. The literature

  8. Charged fluid distribution in higher dimensional spheroidal space-time

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A general solution of Einstein field equations corresponding to a charged fluid distribution on the background of higher dimensional spheroidal space-time is obtained. The solution generates several known solutions for superdense star having spheroidal space-time geometry.

  9. Relation Between Higher Physical Activity and Public Transit Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernez Moudon, Anne; Kang, Bumjoon; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Zhou, Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We isolated physical activity attributable to transit use to examine issues of substitution between types of physical activity and potential confounding of transit-related walking with other walking. Methods. Physical activity and transit use data were collected in 2008 to 2009 from 693 Travel Assessment and Community study participants from King County, Washington, equipped with an accelerometer, a portable Global Positioning System, and a 7-day travel log. Physical activity was classified into transit- and non–transit-related walking and nonwalking time. Analyses compared physical activity by type between transit users and nonusers, between less and more frequent transit users, and between transit and nontransit days for transit users. Results. Transit users had more daily overall physical activity and more total walking than did nontransit users but did not differ on either non–transit-related walking or nonwalking physical activity. Most frequent transit users had more walking time than least frequent transit users. Higher physical activity levels for transit users were observed only on transit days, with 14.6 minutes (12.4 minutes when adjusted for demographics) of daily physical activity directly linked with transit use. Conclusions. Because transit use was directly related to higher physical activity, future research should examine whether substantive increases in transit access and use lead to more physical activity and related health improvements. PMID:24625142

  10. Just in Time Research: Data Breaches in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grama, Joanna

    2014-01-01

    This "Just in Time" research is in response to recent discussions on the EDUCAUSE Higher Education Information Security Council (HEISC) discussion list about data breaches in higher education. Using data from the Privacy Rights Clearinghouse, this research analyzes data breaches attributed to higher education. The results from this…

  11. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time

  12. Ecuador's higher education system in times of change

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, María Isabel; Torres León, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador’s higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador’s universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions of full-time faculty. This article describes the attempt to raise the level of Ecuador’s system of higher education and its impact on faculty and a...

  13. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    OpenAIRE

    Van Hoof, Hubert

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador’s higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador’s universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions of full-time faculty. This article describes the attempt to raise the level of Ecuador’s system of higher education and its impact on faculty and a...

  14. The Times Higher Education Ranking Product: Visualising Excellence through Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stack, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper will examine the Times Higher Education's (THE) World University Rankings as a corporate media product. A number of empirical studies have critiqued the methodology of the THE, yet individuals, Higher Education Institutions (HEIs) and governments continue to use them for decision-making. This paper analyses the influence of…

  15. Time Management and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyril, A. Vences

    2015-01-01

    The only thing, which can't be changed by man, is time. One cannot get back time lost or gone Nothing can be substituted for time. Time management is actually self management. The skills that people need to manage others are the same skills that are required to manage themselves. The purpose of the present study was to explore the relation between…

  16. Adopting Consumer Time: Potential Issues for Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Time and temporality have received little attention in the consumerism, marketing or, until recently, higher education literature. This paper attempts to compare the notions of timing implicit in education as "paideia" (transitional personal growth) with that implicit in consumerism and the marketing practices which foster it. This…

  17. The Polyakov relation for the sphere and higher genus surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menotti, Pietro

    2016-01-01

    The Polyakov relation, which in the sphere topology gives the changes of the Liouville action under the variation of the position of the sources, is also related in the case of higher genus to the dependence of the action on the moduli of the surface. We write and prove such a relation for genus 1 and for all hyperelliptic surfaces. (paper)

  18. Relational time in anyonic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, A.; Brennen, G. K.; Osborne, T. J.; Milburn, G. J.; Stace, T. M.

    2018-03-01

    In a seminal paper [Phys. Rev. D 27, 2885 (1983), 10.1103/PhysRevD.27.2885], Page and Wootters suggest that time evolution could be described solely in terms of correlations between systems and clocks, as a means of dealing with the "problem of time" stemming from vanishing Hamiltonian dynamics in many theories of quantum gravity. Their approach seeks to identify relational dynamics given a Hamiltonian constraint on the physical states. Here we present a "state-centric" reformulation of the Page and Wootters model better suited to cases where the Hamiltonian constraint is satisfied, such as anyons emerging in Chern-Simons theories. We describe relational time by encoding logical "clock" qubits into topologically protected anyonic degrees of freedom. The minimum temporal increment of such anyonic clocks is determined by the universality of the anyonic braid group, with nonuniversal models naturally exhibiting discrete time. We exemplify this approach by using SU (2) 2 anyons and discuss generalizations to other states and models.

  19. Higher Education Relations: Iranian and the United States Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review examined the views of 35 higher education professionals in order to explore the history of higher education relations between Iran and the United States particularly before and after the revolution in Iran. The study used interviews with participants, correspondence, and published material from journals, monographs, and newspapers. All…

  20. Naked singularities in higher dimensional Vaidya space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S. G.; Dadhich, Naresh

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the end state of the gravitational collapse of a null fluid in higher-dimensional space-times. Both naked singularities and black holes are shown to be developing as the final outcome of the collapse. The naked singularity spectrum in a collapsing Vaidya region (4D) gets covered with the increase in dimensions and hence higher dimensions favor a black hole in comparison to a naked singularity. The cosmic censorship conjecture will be fully respected for a space of infinite dimension

  1. Programming real-time executives in higher order language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudriat, E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Methods by which real-time executive programs can be implemented in a higher order language are discussed, using HAL/S and Path Pascal languages as program examples. Techniques are presented by which noncyclic tasks can readily be incorporated into the executive system. Situations are shown where the executive system can fail to meet its task scheduling and yet be able to recover either by rephasing the clock or stacking the information for later processing. The concept of deadline processing is shown to enable more effective mixing of time and information synchronized systems.

  2. Employability and work-related learning activities in higher education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnell, Marie; Kolmos, Anette

    2017-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on how academic staff perceive their roles and responsibilities regarding work-related learning, and how they approach and implement work-related learning activities in curricula across academic environments in higher education. The study is based on case studies...

  3. China-ASEAN Relations in Higher Education: An Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    China's dramatic economic rise has tended to overshadow other wider perspectives on the developing China and Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) relationship, including in higher education. The article examines contemporary relations between China and ASEAN, set against the longer term development of cultural and trade relations. It is…

  4. Time-Discrete Higher-Order ALE Formulations: Stability

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) formulations deal with PDEs on deformable domains upon extending the domain velocity from the boundary into the bulk with the purpose of keeping mesh regularity. This arbitrary extension has no effect on the stability of the PDE but may influence that of a discrete scheme. We examine this critical issue for higher-order time stepping without space discretization. We propose time-discrete discontinuous Galerkin (dG) numerical schemes of any order for a time-dependent advection-diffusion-model problem in moving domains, and study their stability properties. The analysis hinges on the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity for dG. Exploiting the variational structure and assuming exact integration, we prove that our conservative and nonconservative dG schemes are equivalent and unconditionally stable. The same results remain true for piecewise polynomial ALE maps of any degree and suitable quadrature that guarantees the validity of the Reynold\\'s identity. This approach generalizes the so-called geometric conservation law to higher-order methods. We also prove that simpler Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order are conditionally stable, that is, subject to a mild ALE constraint on the time steps. Numerical experiments corroborate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  5. Term-time Employment and Student Attainment in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cath Dennis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of UK full-time university students engaging in term-time employment (TTE is rising. Students engaging in TTE have previously been found to achieve less well academically than those who do not. This study aimed to explore patterns of TTE and academic achievement of undergraduates at a large UK higher education institution. Self-reported TTE hours were matched to attainment data for 1304 undergraduate students in levels 1-4 of study (SQCF levels 7-10. The majority of students in TTE (71%, n=621 reported undertaking TTE to cover essential living expenses. Compared to students not undertaking TTE, attainment was significantly better at low levels of TTE (1-10 hours, and only significantly worse when TTE was >30 hours/week. This pattern was magnified when job type was taken into account – students employed in skilled roles for ≤10 hours/week on average attained grades 7% higher than those not in TTE; students working >10 hours/week in unskilled positions showed a mean 1.6% lower grade. The impact of ‘academic potential’ (measured via incoming UCAS tariff was accounted for in the model. The finding that students engaging in some categories of TTE achieve better academic outcomes than their non-employed peers is worthy of further investigation. This study is unable to provide direct evidence of possible causation, but would tentatively suggest that students may benefit from taking on 10 or fewer hours of TTE per week.

  6. Measuring Stratigraphic Congruence Across Trees, Higher Taxa, and Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Anne; Wills, Matthew A

    2016-09-01

    The congruence between the order of cladistic branching and the first appearance dates of fossil lineages can be quantified using a variety of indices. Good matching is a prerequisite for the accurate time calibration of trees, while the distribution of congruence indices across large samples of cladograms has underpinned claims about temporal and taxonomic patterns of completeness in the fossil record. The most widely used stratigraphic congruence indices are the stratigraphic consistency index (SCI), the modified Manhattan stratigraphic measure (MSM*), and the gap excess ratio (GER) (plus its derivatives; the topological GER and the modified GER). Many factors are believed to variously bias these indices, with several empirical and simulation studies addressing some subset of the putative interactions. This study combines both approaches to quantify the effects (on all five indices) of eight variables reasoned to constrain the distribution of possible values (the number of taxa, tree balance, tree resolution, range of first occurrence (FO) dates, center of gravity of FO dates, the variability of FO dates, percentage of extant taxa, and percentage of taxa with no fossil record). Our empirical data set comprised 647 published animal and plant cladograms spanning the entire Phanerozoic, and for these data we also modeled the effects of mean age of FOs (as a proxy for clade age), the taxonomic rank of the clade, and the higher taxonomic group to which it belonged. The center of gravity of FO dates had not been investigated hitherto, and this was found to correlate most strongly with some measures of stratigraphic congruence in our empirical study (top-heavy clades had better congruence). The modified GER was the index least susceptible to bias. We found significant differences across higher taxa for all indices; arthropods had lower congruence and tetrapods higher congruence. Stratigraphic congruence-however measured-also varied throughout the Phanerozoic, reflecting

  7. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Shanker, Balasubramaniam; Bagci, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order

  8. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.; Beghein, Yves; Nair, Naveen V.; Cools, Kristof; Bagci, Hakan; Shanker, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method's efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  9. Relating timed and register automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Figueira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Timed automata and register automata are well-known models of computation over timed and data words respectively. The former has clocks that allow to test the lapse of time between two events, whilst the latter includes registers that can store data values for later comparison. Although these two models behave in appearance differently, several decision problems have the same (undecidability and complexity results for both models. As a prominent example, emptiness is decidable for alternating automata with one clock or register, both with non-primitive recursive complexity. This is not by chance. This work confirms that there is indeed a tight relationship between the two models. We show that a run of a timed automaton can be simulated by a register automaton, and conversely that a run of a register automaton can be simulated by a timed automaton. Our results allow to transfer complexity and decidability results back and forth between these two kinds of models. We justify the usefulness of these reductions by obtaining new results on register automata.

  10. Timing matters: the processing of pitch relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Annekathrin; Grimm, Sabine; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson J.; Schröger, Erich

    2014-01-01

    The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms), impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone of a pair higher than pitch of first tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs). We measured the mismatch negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations) to second tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g., pitch of second tone lower). A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms) and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms) was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms). In the Long Gap condition, the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms), but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone, the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms). Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing. PMID:24966823

  11. Timing matters: The processing of pitch relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annekathrin eWeise

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The human central auditory system can automatically extract abstract regularities from a variant auditory input. To this end, temporarily separated events need to be related. This study tested whether the timing between events, falling either within or outside the temporal window of integration (~350 ms, impacts the extraction of abstract feature relations. We utilized tone pairs for which tones within but not across pairs revealed a constant pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone of a pair higher than pitch of 1st tone, while absolute pitch values varied across pairs. We measured the Mismatch Negativity (MMN; the brain’s error signal to auditory regularity violations to 2nd tones that rarely violated the pitch relation (e.g. pitch of 2nd tone lower. A Short condition in which tone duration (90 ms and stimulus onset asynchrony between the tones of a pair were short (110 ms was compared to two conditions, where this onset asynchrony was long (510 ms. In the Long Gap condition the tone durations were identical to Short (90 ms, but the silent interval was prolonged by 400 ms. In Long Tone the duration of the first tone was prolonged by 400 ms, while the silent interval was comparable to Short (20 ms. Results show a frontocentral MMN of comparable amplitude in all conditions. Thus, abstract pitch relations can be extracted even when the within-pair timing exceeds the integration period. Source analyses indicate MMN generators in the supratemporal cortex. Interestingly, they were located more anterior in Long Gap than in Short and Long Tone. Moreover, frontal generator activity was found for Long Gap and Long Tone. Thus, the way in which the system automatically registers irregular abstract pitch relations depends on the timing of the events to be linked. Pending that the current MMN data mirror established abstract rule representations coding the regular pitch relation, neural processes building these templates vary with timing.

  12. Mass generation and related issues from exotic higher dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colatto, Luiz Paulo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil); Andrade, Marco Antonio de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), Resende, RJ (Brazil); Assis, Leonardo Paulo Guimaraes de; Helayel-Neto, Jose Abdalla [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas(LAFEX/CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Fisica Experimental de Altas Energias; Matheus-Valle, Jose Luiz [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil); Rojas, Moises [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: he main purpose of this work is to show that massless Dirac equation formulated for non-interacting Majorana-Weyl spinors in higher dimensions, particularly in D = 1 + 9 and D = 5 + 5, may yield to an interpretation of massive Majorana and Dirac spinors in D = 1 + 3 dimensions. The particular case of a dimensional reduction from D = 4 + 4 to D = 1 + 3 has already been fairly-well discussed in the literature. By adopting suitable representations of the Dirac matrices in higher dimensions, we pursue the investigation of which higher dimensional space-times and which metric signatures concerning massless Dirac equations in highermay induce massive spinors in D = 1+3 dimensions. The mixing of the chiral fermions in higher dimensions may induce a mechanism such that four massive Majorana fermions may show up and, at an appropriate limit an almost zero and a huge mass show up with corresponding left-handed and right-handed eigenstates. This mechanism could reassess a peculiar connection with the See-Saw scheme associated to neutrino with Majorana-type masses. The masses of the particle are fixed by the dimensional reduction scheme, which the decoupled dimensions contribute coordinates and depend on the mass invariants in lower dimensions. This proposal should allow us to understand the generation of hierarchies for the fermionic masses in D = 1 + 3, or in lower dimensions in general, starting from the constraints between the energy and the momentum in (n; n) dimensions. For the initial D = 5 + 5 Majorana-Weyl spinors framework using the Weyl representation to the Dirac matrices we observe an intriguing decomposition of space-time that result in two equivalent D = 1 + 4 massive spinors which mass term, in D = 1 + 3 included, is originated from the remained component and that could induce a Brane-World mechanism. (author)

  13. A stable higher order space time Galerkin marching-on-in-time scheme

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2013-07-01

    We present a method for the stable solution of time-domain integral equations. The method uses a technique developed in [1] to accurately evaluate matrix elements. As opposed to existing stabilization schemes, the method presented uses higher order basis functions in time to improve the accuracy of the solver. The method is validated by showing convergence in temporal basis function order, time step size, and geometric discretization order. © 2013 IEEE.

  14. Ecuador's Higher Education System in Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoof, Hubert B.; Estrella, Mateo; Eljuri, Marie-Isabel; León, Leonardo Torres

    2013-01-01

    Ecuador's higher education system is undergoing dramatic changes. The National Constitution of 2008 and the Higher Education Law of 2010 have changed the way Ecuador's universities are funded, administered, and accredited. The importance of research was elevated and drastic changes were made to the academic qualifications and employment conditions…

  15. General relativity and gauge gravity theories of higher order

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    1998-01-01

    It is a short review of today's gauge gravity theories and their relations with Einstein General Relativity. The conceptions of construction of the gauge gravity theories with higher derivatives are analyzed. GR is regarded as the gauge gravity theory corresponding to the choice of G ∞4 as the local gauge symmetry group and the symmetrical tensor of rank two g μν as the field variable. Using the mathematical technique, single for all fundamental interactions (namely variational formalism for infinite Lie groups), we can obtain Einstein's theory as the gauge theory without any changes. All other gauge approaches lead to non-Einstein theories of gravity. But above-mentioned mathematical technique permits us to construct the gauge gravity theory of higher order (for instance SO (3,1)-gravity) so that all vacuum solutions of Einstein equations are the solutions of the SO (3,1)-gravity theory. The structure of equations of SO(3,1)-gravity becomes analogous to Weeler-Misner geometrodynamics one

  16. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  17. Restyling the Humanities Curriculum of Higher Education for Posthuman Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jamila R.

    2016-01-01

    The future viability of the humanities in higher education has been broadly debated. Yet, most of these debates are missing an important consideration. The humanities' object of study is the human, an object that some would argue has been replaced in our onto-epistemological systems by the posthuman. In her 2013 book, "The Posthuman,"…

  18. Rebooting Irish Higher Education: Policy Challenges for Challenging Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelkorn, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    The 2008 global financial crisis cast a long shadow over Ireland's higher education and research system. The IMF said Ireland experienced an "unprecedented economic correction", while Ireland's National Economic and Social Development Office said Ireland was beset by five different crises: a banking crisis, a fiscal crisis, an economic…

  19. Higher Education in Times of Financial Distress: The Minnesota Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severns, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Like many states, Minnesota has incurred large budget deficits during the past two years. Those deficits have, in turn, led to changes in a number of areas of state government, particularly higher education. Faculty have incurred pay freezes and layoffs, programs have closed, and tuition increased. Campuses within the MnSCU system have been…

  20. Learning and Teaching Problems in Part-Time Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, D. I.

    1988-01-01

    Results of a British survey of the administrations of six universities and six public colleges, employers, and employees who were part-time students are reported and discussed. The survey assessed the perceptions of those groups concerning problems in the instruction and learning of part-time students. (MSE)

  1. A higher order space-time Galerkin scheme for time domain integral equations

    KAUST Repository

    Pray, Andrew J.

    2014-12-01

    Stability of time domain integral equation (TDIE) solvers has remained an elusive goal formany years. Advancement of this research has largely progressed on four fronts: 1) Exact integration, 2) Lubich quadrature, 3) smooth temporal basis functions, and 4) space-time separation of convolutions with the retarded potential. The latter method\\'s efficacy in stabilizing solutions to the time domain electric field integral equation (TD-EFIE) was previously reported for first-order surface descriptions (flat elements) and zeroth-order functions as the temporal basis. In this work, we develop the methodology necessary to extend the scheme to higher order surface descriptions as well as to enable its use with higher order basis functions in both space and time. These basis functions are then used in a space-time Galerkin framework. A number of results are presented that demonstrate convergence in time. The viability of the space-time separation method in producing stable results is demonstrated experimentally for these examples.

  2. A Review of the Literature Related to Government Relations in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumfield, Randall; Miller, Michael T.

    2008-01-01

    This review of literature identifies the primary writings and research related to how higher education institutions operate government relations offices. These offices are defined by their mission and role of interfacing between institutional needs and officers and public officials. The review first reports the literature related to public…

  3. Higher time derivatives of the generalized Liapunov function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schieve, W.C.; Bulsara, A.R.

    1975-01-01

    Using the generalized N-body expression for a Liapunov functional developed by Prigogine and coworkers, a condition is obtained whereby the successive time derivatives of this function alternate in sign for weakly coupled systems. This generalized Liapunov function contains contributions from the diagonal as well as off-diagonal (correlation) components of the density matrix. The alternating sign condition is applied (and seen to hold true) for the cases of elastic phonon scattering in a lattice, three-phonon scattering (the anharmonic lattice), and the quantum electron gas. It is also proved simply for the Friedrichs model

  4. Research-related intercultural higher education in satellite geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, M.; Heck, B.; Krueger, C. P.

    2009-04-01

    In order to improve the education of young researchers (master degree, PhD, PostDocs) a cooperation between the Department of Geomatics (DGEOM), Federal University of Paraná (UFPR), Curitiba (Brazil) and the Geodetic Institute (GIK), University Karlsruhe (TH), Karlsruhe (Germany) was established which now exists since more than five years. The joint venture is actually called "PROBRAL: Precise positioning and height determination by means of GPS: Modeling of errors and transformation into physical heights" and focuses on research and education within the field of satellite geodesy. PROBRAL is funded by the Brazilian academic exchange service CAPES and the German academic exchange service DAAD. The geodetic aim of the research project is to validate and improve the quality of 3d positions derived from observations related to satellite navigation systems like GPS. In order to fulfill this ambitious goal sustainably, research has to be carried out in close cooperation. At the same time, e.g. to guarantee continuous success, a coordinated education has to be ensured. Besides technical education aspects key competences (e.g. language, capacity for teamwork, project management skills) are trained. Within the presentation the lessons which were learned from this project are discussed in detail.

  5. Is quality assurance in higher education contextually relative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It does this by raising questions such as whether quality in higher education is the same as, for example, quality of clothing or the quality of meat in local butcheries. The article questions ... AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL.

  6. The Future Relations Between Research and Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nybom, Thorsten

    1997-01-01

    Explores factors affecting the relationship between research and higher education, particularly in the rapidly changing European context where the rise in mass education and institutional differentiation has created a crisis for the traditional university. Argues that these changes will lead to a fundamental restructuring of research and its…

  7. Higher education : Features, trends and needs in relation to sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maragakis, A.; Van den Dobbelsteen, A.A.J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The progress of sustainability within higher education has steadily increased in focus over the last decade and has increasingly become a topic of academic research. With various scholars, journals and conferences exclusively dealing with the subject, a wealth of literature has been produced on best

  8. Monodromy relations in higher-loop string amplitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hohenegger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available New monodromy relations of loop amplitudes are derived in open string theory. We particularly study N-point (planar and non-planar one-loop amplitudes described by a world-sheet cylinder and derive a set of relations between subamplitudes of different color orderings. Various consistency checks are performed by matching α′-expansions of planar and non-planar amplitudes involving elliptic iterated integrals with the resulting periods giving rise to two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. The latter refer to the two homology cycles on the once-punctured complex elliptic curve and the monodromy equations provide relations between these two sets of multiple elliptic zeta values. Furthermore, our monodromy relations involve new objects for which we present a tentative interpretation in terms of open string scattering amplitudes in the presence of a non-trivial gauge field flux. Finally, we provide an outlook on how to generalize the new monodromy relations to the non-oriented case and beyond the one-loop level. Comparing a subset of our results with recent findings in the literature we find therein several serious issues related to the structure and significance of monodromy phases and the relevance of missed contributions from contour integrations.

  9. Special relativity and space-time geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molski, M.

    An attempt has been made to formulate the special theory of relativity in a space-time that is explicitly absolute and strictly determines the kinematical characteristics of a particle in uniform translational motion. The approach developed is consistent with Einstein's relativity and permits explanation of the inertia phenomenon.

  10. It's about time understanding Einstein's relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Mermin, N David

    2005-01-01

    In It's About Time, N. David Mermin asserts that relativity ought to be an important part of everyone's education--after all, it is largely about time, a subject with which all are familiar. The book reveals that some of our most intuitive notions about time are shockingly wrong, and that the real nature of time discovered by Einstein can be rigorously explained without advanced mathematics. This readable exposition of the nature of time as addressed in Einstein's theory of relativity is accessible to anyone who remembers a little high school algebra and elementary plane geometry. The book evolved as Mermin taught the subject to diverse groups of undergraduates at Cornell University, none of them science majors, over three and a half decades. Mermin's approach is imaginative, yet accurate and complete. Clear, lively, and informal, the book will appeal to intellectually curious readers of all kinds, including even professional physicists, who will be intrigued by its highly original approach.

  11. Linear time relational prototype based learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisbrecht, Andrej; Mokbel, Bassam; Schleif, Frank-Michael; Zhu, Xibin; Hammer, Barbara

    2012-10-01

    Prototype based learning offers an intuitive interface to inspect large quantities of electronic data in supervised or unsupervised settings. Recently, many techniques have been extended to data described by general dissimilarities rather than Euclidean vectors, so-called relational data settings. Unlike the Euclidean counterparts, the techniques have quadratic time complexity due to the underlying quadratic dissimilarity matrix. Thus, they are infeasible already for medium sized data sets. The contribution of this article is twofold: On the one hand we propose a novel supervised prototype based classification technique for dissimilarity data based on popular learning vector quantization (LVQ), on the other hand we transfer a linear time approximation technique, the Nyström approximation, to this algorithm and an unsupervised counterpart, the relational generative topographic mapping (GTM). This way, linear time and space methods result. We evaluate the techniques on three examples from the biomedical domain.

  12. Part-Time Higher Education in English Colleges: Adult Identities in Diminishing Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmond, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Adult participation in higher education has frequently entailed mature students studying part time in lower-ranked institutions. In England, higher education policies have increasingly emphasised higher education provision in vocational further education colleges, settings which have extensive adult traditions but which mainly teach…

  13. Time as the Fourth Dimension in the Globalization of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Judith

    2009-01-01

    This paper calls for an analysis of time to be integrated into the theories on the globalization of higher education. Specifically, the author argues that academic capitalism, fuelled by globalization, has led to changes in the university visible in time/space compression, time acceleration, the reification of time and our internalization of the…

  14. The Benefits of Part-Time Undergraduate Study and UK Higher Education Policy: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennion, Alice; Scesa, Anna; Williams, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Part-time study in the UK is significant: nearly 40 per cent of higher education students study part-time. This article reports on a literature review that sought to understand the economic and social benefits of part-time study in the UK. It concludes that there are substantial and wide-ranging benefits from studying part-time. The article also…

  15. "The Balancing Act"--Irish Part-Time Undergraduate Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmody, Merike; Fleming, Bairbre

    2009-01-01

    While the numbers of part-time students has increased in higher education in Ireland, little is known about these students or about how they balance their study and other commitments. Drawing on a larger study on Irish students' experiences in higher education, this article attempts to address this gap in research and reports on Irish part-time…

  16. Higher Education Institution Leaders' Identity Constructions in Times of Changing Structures and Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigerstedt, Christa

    2016-01-01

    The focus in this paper is on the leadership of higher education institutions (HEI) in Finland and more specifically on the rector's leadership. The higher education sector is undergoing many changes and has been so for a long time. How, then, do the current changes become visible from a leadership perspective? The leadership discourse is here…

  17. Higher Education Public Relations at the Year 2000: Assessing the Status of Public Relations at Colleges and Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyronel, Anthony C.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of higher education public relations professionals playing a key role in institutional decision making and not being limited to the role of communication technician or information processor. Reviews studies on relationships between higher education and the media and between public relations professionals and…

  18. The Supply of Part-Time Higher Education in the UK. Research Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Birkbeck, Anne Jamieson; Mason, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    This report explores the supply of part-time higher education in the UK, with particular consideration to the study of part-time undergraduate provision in England. It is the final publication in the series of reports on individual student markets that were commissioned by Universities UK following the publication of the reports on the Future size…

  19. The Motivations and Outcomes of Studying for Part-Time Mature Students in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Jon; Hammond, Cathie

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the motivations and outcomes for mature students who study part-time in higher education (HE) in the UK. Although many students in HE are mature part-time learners, they have not been the specific focus of much research or policy interest. In-depth narrative interviews were carried out with 18 graduates who had studied…

  20. Amniotic Fluid Cells Show Higher Pluripotency-Related Gene Expression Than Allantoic Fluid Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Debora; Generali, Melanie; Görtz, Sabrina; Geering, Diego; Slamecka, Jaroslav; Hoerstrup, Simon P; Bleul, Ulrich; Weber, Benedikt

    2017-10-01

    Amniotic fluid represents an abundant source of multipotent stem cells, referred as broadly multipotent given their differentiation potential and expression of pluripotency-related genes. However, the origin of this broadly multipotent cellular fraction is not fully understood. Several sources have been proposed so far, including embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. In this regard, the ovine developmental model uniquely allows for direct comparison of fetal fluid-derived cells from two separate fetal fluid cavities, the allantois and the amnion, over the entire duration of gestation. As allantoic fluid mainly collects fetal urine, cells originating from the efferent urinary tract can directly be compared with cells deriving from the extraembryonic amniotic tissues and the fetus. This study shows isolation of cells from the amniotic [ovine amniotic fluid cells (oAFCs)] and allantoic fluid [ovine allantoic fluid cells (oALCs)] in a strictly paired fashion with oAFCs and oALCs derived from the same fetus. Both cell types showed cellular phenotypes comparable to standard mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), with trilineage differentiation potential, and expression of common ovine MSC markers. However, the expression of MSC markers per single cell was higher in oAFCs as measured by flow cytometry. oAFCs exhibited higher proliferative capacities and showed significantly higher expression of pluripotency-related genes OCT4, STAT3, NANOG, and REX1 by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction compared with paired oALCs. No significant decrease of pluripotency-related gene expression was noted over gestation, implying that cells with high differentiation potential may be isolated at the end of pregnancy. In conclusion, this study suggests that cells with highest stem cell characteristics may originate from the fetus itself or the amniotic fetal adnexa rather than from the efferent urinary tract or the allantoic fetal adnexa.

  1. Time in Newtonian physics and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kichenassamy, S.

    1980-01-01

    The Newtonian point of view is presented as is the relativist one over time: concepts of guide-marks, clocks and setting to time. One of the consequences of Einstein's theory, the dilation of durations, is developed in particular [fr

  2. Detrended fluctuation analysis based on higher-order moments of financial time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yue; Shang, Pengjian

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a generalized method of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is proposed as a new measure to assess the complexity of a complex dynamical system such as stock market. We extend DFA and local scaling DFA to higher moments such as skewness and kurtosis (labeled SMDFA and KMDFA), so as to investigate the volatility scaling property of financial time series. Simulations are conducted over synthetic and financial data for providing the comparative study. We further report the results of volatility behaviors in three American countries, three Chinese and three European stock markets by using DFA and LSDFA method based on higher moments. They demonstrate the dynamics behaviors of time series in different aspects, which can quantify the changes of complexity for stock market data and provide us with more meaningful information than single exponent. And the results reveal some higher moments volatility and higher moments multiscale volatility details that cannot be obtained using the traditional DFA method.

  3. Shorter Perceived Outpatient MRI Wait Times Associated With Higher Patient Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Anna; Glenn, Harold; Mahmood, Rabia; Cai, Qingpo; Kang, Jian; Duszak, Richard

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess differences in perceived versus actual wait times among patients undergoing outpatient MRI examinations and to correlate those times with patient satisfaction. Over 15 weeks, 190 patients presenting for outpatient MR in a radiology department in which "patient experience" is one of the stated strategic priorities were asked to (1) estimate their wait times for various stages in the imaging process and (2) state their satisfaction with their imaging experience. Perceived times were compared with actual electronic time stamps. Perceived and actual times were compared and correlated with standardized satisfaction scores using Kendall τ correlation. The mean actual wait time between patient arrival and examination start was 53.4 ± 33.8 min, whereas patients perceived a mean wait time of 27.8 ± 23.1 min, a statistically significant underestimation of 25.6 min (P perceived wait times at all points during patient encounters were correlated with higher satisfaction scores (P perceived and actual wait times were both correlated with higher satisfaction scores. As satisfaction surveys play a larger role in an environment of metric transparency and value-based payments, better understanding of such factors will be increasingly important. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-07-01

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  5. The peculiarities' study of higher education applicants' employment in pharmaceutical specialties of full-time training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Kotvitska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Employment of applicants of pharmaceutical higher education has both positive and negative impact on the quality of educational services provided by institutions, especially in terms of knowledge and skills acquired by student. Objective is to study peculiarities of higher education employment, full-time training, and features driving them to conclude labor agreements. Materials and methods. During the study, we used juridical and comparative legal methods of analysis. Results. The study has defined the following features of the employment of applicants of higher education in the health care institutions, pharmaceutical enterprises and organizations. The current legislation provides the applicants of higher education enrolled in HEIs for full-time training with a right to make a free choice of the field of study, profession, type of occupation and work. The relationship developed between an applicant and higher education institutions are not to be regarded as an employment relationship. The working under the items of labor agreement for person who combine it with the full-time education is not a part or combination or sharing, and is considered the main place of job. Thus, it stipulates maintenance of records book of the employed worker according to the general procedure. An applicant of higher education has discretion to choose working hours (full- or part-time working day, full- or part-time working week with taking into consideration the HEIs schedule and only in the free time. When full-time operating in frameworks of collective agreement at enterprise, institution, or organization, having accounted peculiarities of operation, non-standardized working day for some positions can be set. The current legislation stipulates possibility of employment for persons without higher pharmaceutical education to the health care institutions on the clearly defined positions. Conclusions.The country authority has created and is providing favorable

  6. Relating Derived Relations as a Model of Analogical Reasoning: Reaction Times and Event-Related Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M.; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as…

  7. Tunneling Flight Time, Chemistry, and Special Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Jakob; Pollak, Eli

    2017-09-07

    Attosecond ionization experiments have not resolved the question "What is the tunneling time?". Different definitions of tunneling time lead to different results. Second, a zero tunneling time for a material particle suggests that the nonrelativistic theory includes speeds greater than the speed of light. Chemical reactions, occurring via tunneling, should then not be considered in terms of a nonrelativistic quantum theory calling into question quantum dynamics computations on tunneling reactions. To answer these questions, we define a new experimentally measurable paradigm, the tunneling flight time, and show that it vanishes for scattering through an Eckart or a square barrier, irrespective of barrier length or height, generalizing the Hartman effect. We explain why this result does not lead to experimental measurement of speeds greater than the speed of light. We show that this tunneling is an incoherent process by comparing a classical Wigner theory with exact quantum mechanical computations.

  8. The Notion of Time in Special Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Bakman, Yefim; Pogorelsky, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Even though the concepts of time and space are basic concepts of physics, they have not been vouchsafed a constructive definition. As to space, this is no wonder because a correct notion of space cannot be formed in the frame of the existing physical paradigm. However, a definition of time can be given on the basis of the simple principle that each physical magnitude constitutes a feature of some physical carrier (Costa, 1987). This article deals with identifying that carrier for the feature ...

  9. A Linear-Elasticity Solver for Higher-Order Space-Time Mesh Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2018-01-01

    A linear-elasticity approach is presented for the generation of meshes appropriate for a higher-order space-time discontinuous finite-element method. The equations of linear-elasticity are discretized using a higher-order, spatially-continuous, finite-element method. Given an initial finite-element mesh, and a specified boundary displacement, we solve for the mesh displacements to obtain a higher-order curvilinear mesh. Alternatively, for moving-domain problems we use the linear-elasticity approach to solve for a temporally discontinuous mesh velocity on each time-slab and recover a continuous mesh deformation by integrating the velocity. The applicability of this methodology is presented for several benchmark test cases.

  10. "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 Ranking: Old Wine in a New Bottle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Kaycheng

    2013-01-01

    "Times Higher Education" 100 under 50 ranking is a new twist to the university ranking. It focuses on universities that have a history of 50 years or less with the purpose of offsetting the advantage of prestige of the older ones. This article re-analysed the data publicly available and looked into relevant conceptual and statistical issues. The…

  11. Employers' Demand for and the Provision of Part-Time Higher Education for Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotman-Dickenson, Danusia

    1987-01-01

    A study of public and private employers' demand for part-time higher education for their employees and the response of institutions is reported. The study focuses on Wales and on the regional economic and social trends affecting educational demand and supply. Improved communication between employers, employees, and institutions is recommended.…

  12. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkinjon Karimov

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  13. Higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equations involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Erkinjon Karimov; Sardor Pirnafasov

    2017-01-01

    In this work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. Using method of separation of variables, we reduce fractional order partial differential equation to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  14. Testing General Relativity with Pulsar Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stairs Ingrid H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulsars of very different types, including isolated objects and binaries (with short- and long-period orbits, and white-dwarf and neutron-star companions provide the means to test both the predictions of general relativity and the viability of alternate theories of gravity. This article presents an overview of pulsars, then discusses the current status of and future prospects for tests of equivalence-principle violations and strong-field gravitational experiments.

  15. Timing and related artifacts in multidimensional NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marion, Dominique

    2012-01-01

    The information content of multidimensional NMR spectra is limited by the presence of several kinds of artifacts that originate from incorrect timing of evolution periods. The objective of this review is to provide tools for successful implementation of published pulse sequences, in which timing and pulse compensations are often implicit. We will analyze the constraints set by the use of Fourier transformation, the spin precession during rectangular or shaped pulses, the Bloch-Siegert effects due to pulse on other spins and the delay introduced by the filters for the acquisition dimension. A frequency dependent phase correction or an incorrect scaling of the first data point leads to baseline offsets or curvature due to the properties of the Fourier transform. Because any r.f. pulse has a finite length, chemical shift is always active during excitation, flip-back, inversion, and refocusing pulses. Rectangular or selective shaped pulses can be split into three periods: an ideal rotation surrounded by two chemical shift evolution periods, which should be subtracted from the adjacent delays to avoid linear phase correction. Bloch-Siegert effects originate from irradiation at frequencies near those observed in the spectrum and can lead to phase or frequency shifts. They can be minimized by simultaneous irradiation on both sides of the observed spins. In terms of timing, the very end of the pulse sequence the acquisition behaves differently since the data are filtered by either analog or digital means. This additional delay is filter and spectrometer specific and should be tuned to minimize the required phase correction. Combined together, all these adjustments lead to perfectly phased spectra with flat baseline and no peak shifts or distortion. (author)

  16. Brazilian savanna fruits contain higher bioactive compounds content and higher antioxidant activity relative to the conventional red delicious apple.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egle Machado de Almeida Siqueira

    Full Text Available The bioactive compounds content and the antioxidant activity (AA of twelve fruits native to the Cerrado were compared with the Red Delicious apple by means of the antiradical efficiency (using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil assay/DPPH, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP and the β-carotene/linoleic system. The antiradical efficiency (AE and the kinetic parameters (Efficient concentration/EC50 and time needed to reach the steady state to EC50 concentration/TEC50 of the DPPH curve were also evaluated for comparison with the Trolox equivalent (TE values. A strong, significant and positive correlation was observed between the TE and AE values, whereas a weak and negative correlation was observed between TE and EC50, suggesting that the values of AE and TE are more useful for the determination of antiradical activity in fruits than the widely used EC50. The total phenolic content found in the fruits corresponded positively to their antioxidant activity. The high content of bioactive compounds (flavanols, anthocyanins or vitamin C relative to the apple values found in araticum, cagaita, cajuzinho, jurubeba, lobeira, magaba and tucum corresponded to the high antioxidant activity of these fruits. Flavanols and anthocyanins may be the main bioactive components in these Cerrado fruits. The daily consumption of at least seven of the twelve Cerrado fruits studied, particularly, araticum, cagaita, lobeira and tucum, may confer protection against oxidative stress, and thus, they may prevent chronic diseases and premature aging. The findings of this study should stimulate demand, consumption and cultivation of Cerrado fruits and result in sustainable development of the region where this biome dominates.

  17. The Role of Public Relations as A Management Function in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Anggreni Putri

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, public relations in higher education institution become an integral part of the management team. It must contribute to achieve organizational goals and demonstrate an organizational accountability identified by measurable result. Placement public relations at certain positions in management has consequences in the process of implementation of the public relations function. It happened because the management, workflow and hierarchy greatly affects work patterns as well as patterns of...

  18. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea

    2013-03-16

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our estimates hold without any restrictions on the time steps for dG with exact integration or Reynolds\\' quadrature. They involve a mild restriction on the time steps for the practical Runge-Kutta-Radau methods of any order. The key ingredients are the stability results shown earlier in Bonito et al. (Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: stability, 2013) along with a novel ALE projection. Numerical experiments illustrate and complement our theoretical results. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Increased Total Anesthetic Time Leads to Higher Rates of Surgical Site Infections in Spinal Fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puffer, Ross C; Murphy, Meghan; Maloney, Patrick; Kor, Daryl; Nassr, Ahmad; Freedman, Brett; Fogelson, Jeremy; Bydon, Mohamad

    2017-06-01

    A retrospective review of a consecutive series of spinal fusions comparing patient and procedural characteristics of patients who developed surgical site infections (SSIs) after spinal fusion. It is known that increased surgical time (incision to closure) is associated with a higher rate of postoperative SSIs. We sought to determine whether increased total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) is a factor in the development of SSIs as well. In spine surgery for deformity and degenerative disease, SSI has been associated with operative time, revealing a nearly 10-fold increase in SSI rates in prolonged surgery. Surgical time is associated with infections in other surgical disciplines as well. No studies have reported whether total anesthetic time (intubation to extubation) has an association with SSIs. Surgical records were searched in a retrospective fashion to identify all spine fusion procedures performed between January 2010 and July 2012. All SSIs during that timeframe were recorded and compared with the list of cases performed between 2010 and 2012 in a case-control design. There were 20 (1.7%) SSIs in this fusion cohort. On univariate analyses of operative factors, there was a significant association between total anesthetic time (Infection 7.6 ± 0.5 hrs vs. no infection -6.0 ± 0.1 hrs, P operative time (infection 5.5 ± 0.4 hrs vs. no infection - 4.4 ± 0.06 hrs, P infections, whereas level of pathology and emergent surgery were not significant. On multivariate logistic analysis, BMI and total anesthetic time remained independent predictors of SSI whereas ASA status and operative time did not. Increasing BMI and total anesthetic time were independent predictors of SSIs in this cohort of over 1000 consecutive spinal fusions. 3.

  20. YAOPBM-II: extension to higher degrees and to shorter time series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korzennik, S G [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)], E-mail: skorzennik@cfa.harvard.edu

    2008-10-15

    In 2005, I presented a new fitting methodology (Yet AnOther Peak Bagging Method -YAOPBM), derived for very-long time series (2088-day-long) and applied it to low degree modes, {iota} {<=} 25. That very-long time series was also sub-divided into shorter segments (728-day-long) that were each fitted over the same range of degrees, to estimate changes with solar activity levels. I present here the extension of this method in several 'directions': a) to substantially higher degrees ({iota} {<=} 125); b) to shorter time series (364- and 182-day-long); and c) to additional 728-day-long segments, covering now some 10 years of observations. I discuss issues with the fitting, namely the leakage matrix, and the f- and p1 mode at very low frequencies, and I present some of the characteristics of the observed temporal changes.

  1. Euclidean scalar Green function in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    We construct the explicit Euclidean scalar Green function associated with a massless field in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time, i.e., a (1+d)-space-time with d≥3 which presents a solid angle deficit. Our result is expressed in terms of an infinite sum of products of Legendre functions with Gegenbauer polynomials. Although this Green function cannot be expressed in a closed form, for the specific case where the solid angle deficit is very small, it is possible to develop the sum and obtain the Green function in a more workable expression. Having this expression it is possible to calculate the vacuum expectation value of some relevant operators. As an application of this formalism, we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the square of the scalar field, 2 (x)> Ren , and the energy-momentum tensor, μν (x)> Ren , for the global monopole space-time with spatial dimensions d=4 and d=5

  2. Spanish Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory Construction and Validity among Higher Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usart, Mireia; Romero, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The study of "Time Orientation" (TO) has been focused on how to measure this construct and its effects on human behavior. Defined as a fundamental psychological variable, TO is multidimensional, sensible to cultural differences and age. Although its relation to learning, it deserves further study in the different Higher…

  3. Conditional Health-Related Benefits of Higher Education: An Assessment of Compensatory versus Accumulative Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-01-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneou...

  4. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M.

    2016-01-01

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  5. Higher spins tunneling from a time dependent and spherically symmetric black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siahaan, Haryanto M. [Parahyangan Catholic University, Physics Department, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2016-03-15

    The discussions of Hawking radiation via tunneling method have been performed extensively in the case of scalar particles. Moreover, there are also several works in discussing the tunneling method for Hawking radiation by using higher spins, e.g. neutrino, photon, and gravitino, in the background of static black holes. Interestingly, it is found that the Hawking temperature for static black holes using the higher spins particles has no difference compared to the one computed using scalars. In this paper, we study the Hawking radiation for a spherically symmetric and time dependent black holes using the tunneling of Dirac particles, photon, and gravitino. We find that the obtained Hawking temperature is similar to the one derived in the tunneling method by using scalars. (orig.)

  6. Calculating Higher-Order Moments of Phylogenetic Stochastic Mapping Summaries in Linear Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Amrit

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Stochastic mapping is a simulation-based method for probabilistically mapping substitution histories onto phylogenies according to continuous-time Markov models of evolution. This technique can be used to infer properties of the evolutionary process on the phylogeny and, unlike parsimony-based mapping, conditions on the observed data to randomly draw substitution mappings that do not necessarily require the minimum number of events on a tree. Most stochastic mapping applications simulate substitution mappings only to estimate the mean and/or variance of two commonly used mapping summaries: the number of particular types of substitutions (labeled substitution counts) and the time spent in a particular group of states (labeled dwelling times) on the tree. Fast, simulation-free algorithms for calculating the mean of stochastic mapping summaries exist. Importantly, these algorithms scale linearly in the number of tips/leaves of the phylogenetic tree. However, to our knowledge, no such algorithm exists for calculating higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries. We present one such simulation-free dynamic programming algorithm that calculates prior and posterior mapping variances and scales linearly in the number of phylogeny tips. Our procedure suggests a general framework that can be used to efficiently compute higher-order moments of stochastic mapping summaries without simulations. We demonstrate the usefulness of our algorithm by extending previously developed statistical tests for rate variation across sites and for detecting evolutionarily conserved regions in genomic sequences. PMID:28177780

  7. Problems and Issues in Higher Education: Perspectives on Iran-United States Educational Relations and Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fereshteh, M. Hussein

    This review evaluates the writings and opinions of Americans and Iranians on relations and influences between institutions of higher education in Iran and the United States before and after the 1979 revolution. The review explores the arrival of modern western education in Iran, Egypt, and Turkey where a traditional education system had prevailed…

  8. Cui Bono? On the Relative Merits of Technology-Enhanced Learning and Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mykhnenko, Vlad

    2016-01-01

    This article provides evidence from a 4-year longitudinal study on the comparative use of illustrative video podcasts during Economic Geography lectures vis-à-vis traditional educational methods in order to guide pedagogic practice and future research on the relative merits of technology-enhanced learning in higher education. Key benefits derived…

  9. The Work-Related Quality of Life Scale for Higher Education Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Julian A.; Van Laar, Darren; Easton, Simon; Kinman, Gail

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that higher education employees experience comparatively high levels of job stress. A range of instruments, both generic and job-specific, has been used to measure stressors and strains in this occupational context. The Work-related Quality of Life (WRQoL) scale is a measure designed to capture perceptions of the working…

  10. Widening Participation in Sport-Related Studies in Higher Education: An Exploratory Study of Symbolic Struggles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundvall, Suzanne; Meckbach, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on widening participation in higher education and the low recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds within sport-related programs. The purpose of the study has been to describe and increase the understanding of how the preconditions and premises for choosing to study "sport" appear to students from diverse…

  11. Exploring Public Relations Excellence and Integrated Marketing Communications at Private, Nonprofit Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Shannon K.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Many recent articles discuss the increased marketization of higher education, but few examine whether such practices are executed at their optimum level of efficiency and efficacy. This study addressed the significant lack of research in this area and answers the central question of how optimally public relations and marketing departments…

  12. Geometrical optics in general relativity: A study of the higher order corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anile, A.M.

    1976-01-01

    The higher order corrections to geometrical optics are studied in general relativity for an electromagnetic test wave. An explicit expression is found for the average energy--momentum tensor which takes into account the first-order corrections. Finally the first-order corrections to the well-known area-intensity law of geometrical optics are derived

  13. International Relations as a Field of Study in the Canadian System of Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istomina, Kateryna

    2015-01-01

    The research presents an attempt to investigate the current state of international relations as a field of study in the context of higher education system in Canada. It contains a general overview of the field of study, focusing predominantly on the role and function of the given academic discipline. The scientific investigation covers the issue…

  14. The Role of Public Relations as A Management Function in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggreni Putri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, public relations in higher education institution become an integral part of the management team. It must contribute to achieve organizational goals and demonstrate an organizational accountability identified by measurable result. Placement public relations at certain positions in management has consequences in the process of implementation of the public relations function. It happened because the management, workflow and hierarchy greatly affects work patterns as well as patterns of decision making in carrying out communication tasks performed by public relations.The goal of research to find out the role and position in public relations in management education institution (university in achieving its objectives. After identification of roles and positions performance public relations firm, the study aims to evaluate the performance of public relations as part of management.This study used a qualitative descriptive research method with the study subjects were Mahendradatta University Public Relations and internal stakeholders. Data drawn from interviews with the help of the interview guide and then processed into information that can answer the research objectives.The result of the research shows that not all public relations officers in Mahendradatta University, do their role as real public relations officers. They also do not have the same understanding about the role of a public relations officer will just place public relations in same position as marketing.

  15. Flexible Learning and Teaching: Looking Beyond the Binary of Full-time/Part-time Provision in South African Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara M Jones

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages with literature on flexible learning and teaching in order to explore whether it may be possible, within the South African context, to have flexible learning and teaching provide a third way which goes beyond the current practice of full-time/part-time provision. This binary classification of students is a proxy for day-time/after-hours delivery.  The argument is made that effective, flexible learning and teaching requires a fundamental shift in thinking about learning and teaching in higher education that moves us beyond such binaries. The paper proposes that in order to ensure access and success for students, ‘common knowledge’ (Edwards, 2010 will need to be co-constructed which understands flexible learning and teaching in ways which will meet needs of a diversity of students, including working students. It will require ‘resourceful leadership’ (Edwards, 2014 within the university that recognises, enhances and gives purpose to the capability of colleagues at every level of the systems they lead. Also, it will require the building of ‘common knowledge’ between certain sectors of universities and particular workplaces.

  16. TIME MANAGEMENT SKILLS IN HIGHER INSTITUTIONS: A CASE STUDY OF ELECTRICAL, ELECTRONIC & SYSTEMS ENGINEERING UNDERGRADUATE STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NORBAHIAH MISRAN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Time management is an important skill that every student in higher education institutions should acquire since it is one of the key factors in assuring excellent achievement in academic. Students with poor time-management skills are far more likely to be tressed and, as a result, have a negative impact on the quality of life. Thus, this paper discusses this issue based on a study among students of Electrical, Electronic & System Engineering at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia according to year of study and then establishes the relationship with the student's academic performance. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire carried out on 272 undergraduate students from year one to year four for 2015/2016 session. These data were then analysed using ANOVA statistical inference and Pearson correlations. Results revealed that time management skills of the respondents were at moderate level and established a negative correlation with year of study. This study also found significant findings where time management skills have a positive but weak correlation with student’s academic performance. These findings suggest the need for additional research to further refine the justifications of these measures. The university is also anticipated to provide a good platform for students to develop their time management skills at the early stage of their admission to university.

  17. Wavelet Transform Based Higher Order Statistical Analysis of Wind and Wave Time Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib Huseni, Gulamhusenwala; Balaji, Ramakrishnan

    2017-10-01

    Wind, blowing on the surface of the ocean, imparts the energy to generate the waves. Understanding the wind-wave interactions is essential for an oceanographer. This study involves higher order spectral analyses of wind speeds and significant wave height time histories, extracted from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast database at an offshore location off Mumbai coast, through continuous wavelet transform. The time histories were divided by the seasons; pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter and the analysis were carried out to the individual data sets, to assess the effect of various seasons on the wind-wave interactions. The analysis revealed that the frequency coupling of wind speeds and wave heights of various seasons. The details of data, analysing technique and results are presented in this paper.

  18. Relating derived relations as a model of analogical reasoning: reaction times and event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes-Holmes, Dermot; Regan, Donal; Barnes-Holmes, Yvonne; Commins, Sean; Walsh, Derek; Stewart, Ian; Smeets, Paul M; Whelan, Robert; Dymond, Simon

    2005-11-01

    The current study aimed to test a Relational Frame Theory (RFT) model of analogical reasoning based on the relating of derived same and derived difference relations. Experiment 1 recorded reaction time measures of similar-similar (e.g., "apple is to orange as dog is to cat") versus different-different (e.g., "he is to his brother as chalk is to cheese") derived relational responding, in both speed-contingent and speed-noncontingent conditions. Experiment 2 examined the event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with these two response patterns. Both experiments showed similar-similar responding to be significantly faster than different-different responding. Experiment 2 revealed significant differences between the waveforms of the two response patterns in the left-hemispheric prefrontal regions; different-different waveforms were significantly more negative than similar-similar waveforms. The behavioral and neurophysiological data support the RFT prediction that, all things being equal, similar-similar responding is relationally "simpler" than, and functionally distinct from, different-different analogical responding. The ERP data were fully consistent with findings in the neurocognitive literature on analogy. These findings strengthen the validity of the RFT model of analogical reasoning and supplement the behavior-analytic approach to analogy based on the relating of derived relations.

  19. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Mohammadreza; Haghighi, Mohammad; Jahangard, Leila; Bajoghli, Hafez; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA) dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI) is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored. Method During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI. Results Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation. Conclusion The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. PMID:26834474

  20. Higher-order fluctuation-dissipation relations in plasma physics: Binary Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I.

    2018-05-01

    A recent approach that led to compact frequency domain formulations of the cubic and quartic fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs) for the classical one-component plasma (OCP) [Golden and Heath, J. Stat. Phys. 162, 199 (2016), 10.1007/s10955-015-1395-6] is generalized to accommodate binary ionic mixtures. Paralleling the procedure followed for the OCP, the basic premise underlying the present approach is that a (k ,ω ) 4-vector rotational symmetry, known to be a pivotal feature in the frequency domain architectures of the linear and quadratic fluctuation-dissipation relations for a variety of Coulomb plasmas [Golden et al., J. Stat. Phys. 6, 87 (1972), 10.1007/BF01023681; J. Stat. Phys. 29, 281 (1982), 10.1007/BF01020787; Golden, Phys. Rev. E 59, 228 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevE.59.228], is expected to be a pivotal feature of the frequency domain architectures of the higher-order members of the FDT hierarchy. On this premise, each member, in its most tractable form, connects a single (p +1 )-point dynamical structure function to a linear combination of (p +1 )-order p density response functions; by definition, such a combination must also remain invariant under rotation of their (k1,ω1) ,(k2,ω2) ,...,(kp,ωp) , (k1+k2+⋯+kp,ω1+ω2+⋯+ωp) 4-vector arguments. Assigned to each 4-vector is a species index that corotates in lock step. Consistency is assured by matching the static limits of the resulting frequency domain cubic and quartic FDTs to their exact static counterparts independently derived in the present work via a conventional time-independent perturbation expansion of the Liouville distribution function in its macrocanonical form. The proposed procedure entirely circumvents the daunting issues of entangled Liouville space paths and nested Poisson brackets that one would encounter if one attempted to use the conventional time-dependent perturbation-theoretic Kubo approach to establish the frequency domain FDTs beyond quadratic order.

  1. Time trends in absolute and relative socioeconomic inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in northern Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilcz, Máté; Mosquera, Paola A; Sebastián, Miguel San; Gustafsson, Per E

    2018-02-01

    The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables. Slope index of inequality (SII) and relative index of inequality (RII) were used as summary measures of the social gradient in physical inactivity. The linear trend in inequalities and difference between gender and years were estimated by interaction analyses. The year 2010 displayed the highest physical inactivity inequalities for all socioeconomic position indicators, but educational and occupational inequalities decreased in 2014. However, significant positive linear trends were found in absolute and relative income inequalities. Moreover, women had significantly higher RII of education in physical inactivity in 2014 and significantly higher SII and RII of income in physical inactivity in 2010, than did men in the same years. The recent reduction in educational and occupational inequalities following the high inequalities around the time of the great recession in 2010 suggests that the current policies might be fairly effective. However, to eventually alleviate inequities in physical inactivity, the focus of the researchers and policymakers should be directed toward the widening trends of income inequalities in physical inactivity.

  2. Improving Spiking Dynamical Networks: Accurate Delays, Higher-Order Synapses, and Time Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, Aaron R; Eliasmith, Chris

    2018-03-01

    Researchers building spiking neural networks face the challenge of improving the biological plausibility of their model networks while maintaining the ability to quantitatively characterize network behavior. In this work, we extend the theory behind the neural engineering framework (NEF), a method of building spiking dynamical networks, to permit the use of a broad class of synapse models while maintaining prescribed dynamics up to a given order. This theory improves our understanding of how low-level synaptic properties alter the accuracy of high-level computations in spiking dynamical networks. For completeness, we provide characterizations for both continuous-time (i.e., analog) and discrete-time (i.e., digital) simulations. We demonstrate the utility of these extensions by mapping an optimal delay line onto various spiking dynamical networks using higher-order models of the synapse. We show that these networks nonlinearly encode rolling windows of input history, using a scale invariant representation, with accuracy depending on the frequency content of the input signal. Finally, we reveal that these methods provide a novel explanation of time cell responses during a delay task, which have been observed throughout hippocampus, striatum, and cortex.

  3. Tests of general relativity from timing the double pulsar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, M; Stairs, I H; Manchester, R N; McLaughlin, M A; Lyne, A G; Ferdman, R D; Burgay, M; Lorimer, D R; Possenti, A; D'Amico, N; Sarkissian, J M; Hobbs, G B; Reynolds, J E; Freire, P C C; Camilo, F

    2006-10-06

    The double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B is unique in that both neutron stars are detectable as radio pulsars. They are also known to have much higher mean orbital velocities and accelerations than those of other binary pulsars. The system is therefore a good candidate for testing Einstein's theory of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity in the strong-field regime. We report on precision timing observations taken over the 2.5 years since its discovery and present four independent strong-field tests of general relativity. These tests use the theory-independent mass ratio of the two stars. By measuring relativistic corrections to the Keplerian description of the orbital motion, we find that the "post-Keplerian" parameter s agrees with the value predicted by general relativity within an uncertainty of 0.05%, the most precise test yet obtained. We also show that the transverse velocity of the system's center of mass is extremely small. Combined with the system's location near the Sun, this result suggests that future tests of gravitational theories with the double pulsar will supersede the best current solar system tests. It also implies that the second-born pulsar may not have formed through the core collapse of a helium star, as is usually assumed.

  4. The concept of structure and content of health related trainings for higher educational establishments’ students

    OpenAIRE

    Yu.A. Kopylov; L.N. Jackowska; M.D. Kudryavtsev; V.A. Kuzmin; I.A. Tolstopyatov; S. S. Iermakov

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: analysis of modern directions of physical culture education scientific and practical problems’ solution in higher educational establishment of health related orientation. Material: analysis of publications in scientific journals. Results: we have shown significance of student’s physical functioning as the basis of his motor, coordination and mental qualities’ development. Main difficulties of existing physical education practice have been cleared up. It has been found that prevailing...

  5. Higher Prevalence of Left-Handedness in Twins? Not After Controlling Birth Time Confounders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkilä, Kauko; Vuoksimaa, Eero; Saari-Kemppainen, Aulikki; Kaprio, Jaakko; Rose, Richard J; Haukka, Jari; Pitkäniemi, Janne; Iivanainen, Matti

    2015-10-01

    Pregnancy- and birth-related factors may have an effect on handedness. Compared with singletons, twins have a lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, and are at higher risk for birth complications. We tested whether the prevalence of left-handedness is higher among twins than singletons, and if so, whether that difference is fully explained by pregnancy and birth-related differences between twins and singletons. We analyzed Finnish population-based datasets; included were 8,786 twins and 5,892 singletons with information on birth weight (n = 12,381), Apgar scores (n = 11,129), and gestational age (n = 11,811). Two twin cohorts were involved: FinnTwin12 included twins born during 1983-1987, and FinnTwin16 included twins born during 1974-1979. We had two comparison groups of singletons: 4,101 individuals born during 1986-1988 and enrolled in the Helsinki Ultrasound Trial, and 1,791 individuals who were partners of FinnTwin16 twins. We used logistic regression models with writing hand as the outcome for comparison and evaluating effects of covariates. Left-handedness was more common in twins (9.67%) than in singletons (8.27%; p = .004). However, Apgar scores were associated with handedness, and after controlling for covariates, we found no difference in the prevalence of left-handedness between twins and singletons. Increased left-handedness among twins, often reported by others, was evident in our data, but only among our older twin cohorts, and that association disappeared after removing effects of perinatal covariates.

  6. A novel fast gas chromatography method for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2014-05-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in ambient air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C9-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a 14.5 min analysis time. Moreover, in-situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an 11.7 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to 19.7 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). These analysis times potentially allow for a twofold to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in-situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC (OBVOC) linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest

  7. Time-dependent pseudo-reciprocity relations in neutronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modak, R.S.; Sahni, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    Earlier, certain reciprocity-like relations have been shown to hold in some restricted steady state cases in neutron diffusion and transport theories. Here, the possibility of existence of similar relations in time-dependent situations is investigated

  8. Agency Beliefs Over Time and Across Cultures: Free Will Beliefs Predict Higher Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Gilad; Farh, Jiing-Lih; Wong, Kin Fai Ellick

    2017-01-01

    In three studies, we examined the relationship between free will beliefs and job satisfaction over time and across cultures. Study 1 examined 252 Taiwanese real-estate agents over a 3-months period. Study 2 examined job satisfaction for 137 American workers on an online labor market over a 6-months period. Study 3 extended to a large sample of 14,062 employees from 16 countries and examined country-level moderators. We found a consistent positive relationship between the belief in free will and job satisfaction. The relationship was above and beyond other agency constructs (Study 2), mediated by perceived autonomy (Studies 2-3), and stronger in countries with a higher national endorsement of the belief in free will (Study 3). We conclude that free-will beliefs predict outcomes over time and across cultures beyond other agency constructs. We call for more cross-cultural and longitudinal studies examining free-will beliefs as predictors of real-life outcomes. PMID:29191084

  9. Effects on noise properties of GPS time series caused by higher-order ionospheric corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Liu, Hongfei

    2014-04-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HOI) effects are one of the principal technique-specific error sources in precise global positioning system (GPS) analysis. These effects also influence the non-linear characteristics of GPS coordinate time series. In this paper, we investigate these effects on coordinate time series in terms of seasonal variations and noise amplitudes. Both power spectral techniques and maximum likelihood estimators (MLE) are used to evaluate these effects quantitatively and qualitatively. Our results show an overall improvement for the analysis of global sites if HOI effects are considered. We note that the noise spectral index that is used for the determination of the optimal noise models in our analysis ranged between -1 and 0 both with and without HOI corrections, implying that the coloured noise cannot be removed by these corrections. However, the corrections were found to have improved noise properties for global sites. After the corrections were applied, the noise amplitudes at most sites decreased, among which the white noise amplitudes decreased remarkably. The white noise amplitudes of up to 81.8% of the selected sites decreased in the up component, and the flicker noise of 67.5% of the sites decreased in the north component. Stacked periodogram results show that, no matter whether the HOI effects are considered or not, a common fundamental period of 1.04 cycles per year (cpy), together with the expected annual and semi-annual signals, can explain all peaks of the north and up components well. For the east component, however, reasonable results can be obtained only based on HOI corrections. HOI corrections are useful for better detecting the periodic signals in GPS coordinate time series. Moreover, the corrections contributed partly to the seasonal variations of the selected sites, especially for the up component. Statistically, HOI corrections reduced more than 50% and more than 65% of the annual and semi-annual amplitudes respectively at the

  10. A relation between deformed superspace and Lee-Wick higher-derivative theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, M.; Ferrari, A. F.; Palechor, C. A.; Senise, C. R., Jr.

    2015-07-01

    We propose a non-anticommutative superspace that relates to the Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative theories, which are known for their interesting properties and have led to proposals of phenomenologically viable higher-derivative extensions of the Standard Model. The deformation of superspace we consider does not preserve supersymmetry or associativity in general, but, we show that a non-anticommutative version of the Wess-Zumino model can be properly defined. In fact, the definition of chiral and antichiral superfields turns out to be simpler in our case than in the well known N=1/2 supersymmetric case. We show that when the theory is truncated at the first nontrivial order in the deformation parameter, supersymmetry is restored, and we end up with a well-known Lee-Wick type of higher-derivative extension of the Wess-Zumino model. Thus, we show how non-anticommutativity could provide an alternative mechanism for generating these higher-derivative theories.

  11. Relativity time-delay experiments utilizing 'Mariner' spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, P. B.; Anderson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    Relativity predicts that the transit time of a signal propagated from the earth to a spacecraft and retransmitted back to earth ought to exhibit an additional, variable time delay. The present work describes some of the analytical techniques employed in experiments using Mariner spacecraft designed to test the accuracy of this prediction. Two types of data are analyzed in these relativity experiments; these include phase-coherent, two-way Doppler shift and round-trip, transit-time measurements. Results of Mariner 6 and 7 relativistic time-delay experiments are in agreement with Einstein's theory of general relativity with an uncertainty of 3%.

  12. Conditional health-related benefits of higher education: an assessment of compensatory versus accumulative mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauldry, Shawn

    2014-06-01

    A college degree is associated with a range of health-related benefits, but the effects of higher education are known to vary across different population subgroups. Competing theories have been proposed for whether people from more or less advantaged backgrounds or circumstances will gain greater health-related benefits from a college degree. This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health) and recently developed models for analyzing heterogeneous treatment effects to examine how the effect of obtaining a college degree on the self-rated health of young adults varies across the likelihood of obtaining a college degree, a summary measure of advantage/disadvantage. Results indicate that a college degree has a greater effect on self-rated health for people from advantaged backgrounds. This finding differs from two recent studies, and possible reasons for the contrasting findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Leveraging People-Related Maturity Issues for Achieving Higher Maturity and Capability Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buglione, Luigi

    During the past 20 years Maturity Models (MM) become a buzzword in the ICT world. Since the initial Crosby's idea in 1979, plenty of models have been created in the Software & Systems Engineering domains, addressing various perspectives. By analyzing the content of the Process Reference Models (PRM) in many of them, it can be noticed that people-related issues have little weight in the appraisals of the capabilities of organizations while in practice they are considered as significant contributors in traditional process and organizational performance appraisals, as stressed instead in well-known Performance Management models such as MBQA, EFQM and BSC. This paper proposes some ways for leveraging people-related maturity issues merging HR practices from several types of maturity models into the organizational Business Process Model (BPM) in order to achieve higher organizational maturity and capability levels.

  14. Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher risk of subclinical atherosclerosis in Korean adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Kyoung Jung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is a proposed link between dietary zinc intake and atherosclerosis, but this relationship remains unclear. Phytate may contribute to this relationship by influencing zinc bioavailability. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between zinc bioavailability and subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy Korean adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present cross-sectional analysis used baseline data from the Korean multi-Rural Communities Cohort Study (MRCohort, which is a part of The Korean Genome Epidemiology Study (KoGES. A total of 5,532 subjects (2,116 men and 3,416 women aged 40 years and older were recruited from rural communities in South Korea between 2005 and 2010. Phytate:zinc molar ratio, estimated from a food-based food frequency questionnaire (FFQ of 106 food items, was used to determine zinc bioavailability, and carotid intima media thickness (cIMT and pulse wave velocity (PWV were measured to calculate the subclinical atherosclerotic index. RESULTS: We found that phytate:zinc molar ratio is positively related to cIMT in men. A higher phytate:zinc molar ratio was significantly related to an increased risk of atherosclerosis in men, defined as the 80(th percentile value of cIMT (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.11, 95% CI 1.42-3.15, P for trend = 0.0009, and especially in elderly men (5(th vs. 1(st quintile, OR = 2.58, 95% CI 1.52-4.37, P for trend = 0.0021. We found a positive relationship between phytate:zinc molar ratio and atherosclerosis risk among women aged 65 years or younger. Phytate:zinc molar ratio was not found to be related to PWV. CONCLUSIONS: Lower zinc bioavailability may be related to higher atherosclerosis risk.

  15. No higher risk for colorectal cancer in atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahner, Edith; Sbrozzi-Vanni, Andrea; Vannella, Lucy; Corleto, Vito Domenico; Di Giulio, Emilio; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Annibale, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Atrophic gastritis of the corporal mucosa is a frequent cause of hypergastrinemia. Hypergastrinemia is implicated in colorectal cancer development. To assess whether hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is associated with a higher risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Among 441 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients, 160 who were aged >40 and underwent colonoscopy for anaemia, diarrhoea or colorectal cancer-screening were retrospectively selected. Each patient was age- and gender-matched with a normogastrinemic control with healthy stomach. Controls had colonoscopy, gastroscopy with biopsies and gastrin assessment. 160 hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis patients and 160 controls were included. 28 atrophic gastritis patients and 36 controls had neoplastic colorectal lesions (p=0.33). Patients and controls did not differ for frequency of colorectal adenomas (10.6% vs. 13.1%, p=0.60) or cancer (6.9% vs. 9.4%, p=0.54). Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis was not associated with a higher probability of developing colorectal cancer (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.34-3.16). Age >50 years (OR 3.86) but not hypergastrinemia (OR 0.61) was associated with colorectal cancer. Hypergastrinemic atrophic gastritis is not associated with higher risk for colorectal cancer. Atrophic gastritis-related hypergastrinemia is not associated with an increased risk of neoplastic colorectal lesions. Closer surveillance of colonic neoplasia in atrophic gastritis patients seems not appropriate. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparison of Trust and Social Relations among Students in Russian and Hungarian Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornélia Lazányi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Trust is the basis of social relations and the building block of every society. However, various societies have different levels of social trust, which is a consequence of various cultural dimensions’ as well as historic and economic variables’ interplay. The paper intends to explore the relation of social embeddedness and the level of interpersonal trust in two significantly different cultures – Russian and Hungarian. The results presented in the article are, on the one hand, the outcomes of secondary analysis of the data obtained from the World Values Survey and the European Social Survey, on the other hand, they also offer an insight into the still ongoing primary research on 585 students in business higher education in Hungary and Russia. The results indicate that although there are gender and other demographic variables based differences, social embeddedness and national culture (values, attitudes, behaviour is of relevant influence on the level of interpersonal trust. According to the data presented, the Hungarians – despite being a low-trust nation – in general trust their peers more than the Russians do. However, if we distinguish between two forms of trust – thick and thin – the Hungarians then achieve significantly higher scores in thin trust only.

  17. Reduced Time in Therapeutic Range and Higher Mortality in Atrial Fibrillation Patients Taking Acenocoumarol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Caravaca, José Miguel; Roldán, Vanessa; Esteve-Pastor, María Asunción; Valdés, Mariano; Vicente, Vicente; Marín, Francisco; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2018-01-01

    The efficacy and tolerability of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) depends on the quality of anticoagulant control, reflected by the mean time in therapeutic range (TTR) of international normalized ratio 2.0 to 3.0. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the association between TTR and change in TTR (ΔTTR) with the risk of mortality and clinically significant events in a consecutive cohort of atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. We included 1361 AF patients stable on VKAs (international normalized ratio 2.0-3.0) during at least the previous 6 months. After 6 months of follow-up we recalculated TTR, calculated ΔTTR (ie, the difference between baseline and 6-month TTRs) and investigated the association of both with the risk of mortality and "clinically significant events" (defined as the composite of stroke or systemic embolism, major bleeding, acute coronary syndrome, acute heart failure, and all-cause deaths). The median ΔTTR at 6 months of entry was 20% (interquartile range 0-34%), 796 (58.5%) patients had a TTR reduction of at least 20%, while 330 (24.2%) had a TTR <65%. During follow-up, 34 (2.5% [4.16% per year]) patients died and 61 (4.5% [7.47% per year]) had a clinically significant event. Median ΔTTR was significantly higher in patients who died (35.5% vs 20%; P = 0.002) or sustained clinically significant events (28% vs 20%; P = 0.022). Based on Cox regression analyses, the overall risk of mortality at 6 months for each decrease point in TTR was 1.02 (95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P = 0.003), and the risk of clinically significant events was 1.01 (95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = 0.028). Patients with TTR <65% at 6 months had higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio = 2.96; 95% CI, 1.51-5.81; P = 0.002) and clinically significant events (hazard ratio = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.01-2.88; P = 0.046). Our findings suggest that in AF patients anticoagulated with VKAs, a change in TTR over 6 months (ie, ΔTTR) is an independent risk factor for mortality and clinically significant events

  18. QUALITY-RELATED FUNDING IN ROMANIAN HIGHER EDUCATION THROUGHOUT 2003 – 2011: A GLOBAL ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel-Alexandru Vîiu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article explores quality-related funding and its global outcomes in the context of Romanian higher education by focusing on the funding allocations provided to public universities throughout a period of nine years based on their institutional performance on the quality indicators integrated in the funding algorithm. Global funding allocations between universities are analysed and a summative appraisal for the entire nine-year window is provided. The article also explores the relation between quality- related funding, institutional disciplinary profiles and the results of a comprehensive evaluation conducted in 2011 by the Ministry of Education to complete a classification of the universities. The main findings indicate a low overall impact of qualityrelated funding for many institutions, but also a clear pattern in which universities focused on science, technology, engineering and mathematics overwhelmingly outperformed mixed institutions, as well as those focused on humanities, arts and social sciences. Furthermore, the global quality-related funding outcomes of the 2003 – 2011 period studied in the paper are shown to be significantly associated with the results of the 2011 classification

  19. Future Time Perspective Impacts Gain-Related but Not Loss-Related Intertemporal Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tian; Tan, Yuxin; Gong, Xianmin; Yin, Shufei; Qiu, Fangshu; Hu, Xue

    2018-01-01

    Future time perspective (FTP) modulates individuals' temporal orientation in selecting their motivations and goals, which widely influences their cognitions and behaviors. However, it remains unclear how FTP exactly affects intertemporal choice. To clarify the effect of FTP on intertemporal choice, 90 college students ( M age = 21.70, SD = 1.23) were randomly assigned to the limited FTP condition (16 males, 29 females) and the open-ended FTP condition (17 males, 28 females). In the limited FTP condition, participants were instructed to imagine their states of being 70 years old, whereas in the open-ended FTP condition, they were instructed to describe their current states. All participants then completed a series of intertemporal choice tasks, in which they chose from gain- and loss-related choices occurring at various time points. Results showed that the participants who received the future-imagining manipulation had more limited FTP compared with those who did not receive the manipulation, which confirmed the validity of the FTP manipulation. A 2 (FTP: limited vs. open-ended) × 2 (type of choice: gain vs. loss) repeated measures ANOVA on discount rate revealed a significant interaction between these two factors. The participants in the limited FTP condition had higher discount rates on gain-related choices but showed no difference on loss-related choices compared with the participants under the open-ended FTP condition. The results suggest that limited FTP could lower individuals' future orientation (i.e., willingness to delay an outcome) on gain-related, but not on loss-related, intertemporal decision-making.

  20. Simple relations between mean passage times and Kramers' stationary rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boilley, David; Jurado, Beatriz; Schmitt, Christelle

    2004-01-01

    The classical problem of the escape time of a metastable potential well in a thermal environment is generally studied by various quantities like Kramers' stationary escape rate, mean first passage time, nonlinear relaxation time, or mean last passage time. In addition, numerical simulations lead to the definition of other quantities as the long-time limit escape rate and the transient time. In this paper, we propose some simple analytical relations between all these quantities. In particular, we point out the hypothesis used to evaluate these various times in order to clarify their comparison and applicability, and show how average times include the transient time and the long-time limit of the escape rate

  1. The Changing Faces of Corruption in Georgian Higher Education: Access through Times and Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orkodashvili, Mariam

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a comparative-historical analysis of access to higher education in Georgia. It describes the workings of corrupt channels during the Soviet and early post-Soviet periods and the role of standardized tests in fighting corruption in higher education admission processes after introduction of the Unified National Entrance…

  2. Flourishing for the Common Good: Positive Leadership in Christian Higher Education during Times of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlvig, Jolyn E.

    2018-01-01

    This paper argues that higher education should exist for society's common good, a focus that has been lost in recent years (Dorn, 2011; Eagan et al., 2015; Ford 2016; Habley, Bloom & Robbins, 2012). To explore how Christian higher education can provide leadership in returning to a focus on the common good, this paper traces the movement of…

  3. Relative entropy and waiting time for continuous-time Markov processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chazottes, J.R.; Giardinà, C.; Redig, F.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    For discrete-time stochastic processes, there is a close connection between return (resp. waiting) times and entropy (resp. relative entropy). Such a connection cannot be straightforwardly extended to the continuous-time setting. Contrarily to the discrete-time case one needs a reference measure on

  4. Higher emotional intelligence is related to lower test anxiety among students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadpanah M

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mohammad Ahmadpanah,1 Mohammadreza Keshavarz,1 Mohammad Haghighi,1 Leila Jahangard,1 Hafez Bajoghli,2 Dena Sadeghi Bahmani,3 Edith Holsboer-Trachsler,3 Serge Brand3,4 1Behavioral Disorders and Substances Abuse, Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran; 2Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS, Iranian Institute for Reduction of High-Risk Behaviors, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; 3Psychiatric Clinics of the University of Basel, Center for Affective, Stress and Sleep Disorders, 4Department of Sport, Exercise and Health Science, Sport Science Section, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland Background: For students attending university courses, experiencing test anxiety (TA dramatically impairs cognitive performance and success at exams. Whereas TA is a specific case of social phobia, emotional intelligence (EI is an umbrella term covering interpersonal and intrapersonal skills, along with positive stress management, adaptability, and mood. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that higher EI and lower TA are associated. Further, sex differences were explored.Method: During an exam week, a total of 200 university students completed questionnaires covering sociodemographic information, TA, and EI.Results: Higher scores on EI traits were associated with lower TA scores. Relative to male participants, female participants reported higher TA scores, but not EI scores. Intrapersonal and interpersonal skills and mood predicted low TA, while sex, stress management, and adaptability were excluded from the equation.Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that efforts to improve intrapersonal and interpersonal skills, and mood might benefit students with high TA. Specifically, social commitment might counteract TA. Keywords: test anxiety, emotional intelligence, students, interpersonal skills, intrapersonal skills

  5. Higher-order corrections in the cut vertex theory and the reciprocity relation in (PHI3)6 field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, T.

    1980-01-01

    Higher-order corrections to deep inelastic and inclusive annihilation processes in the asymptotically free (PHI 3 ) 6 theory are calculated by using the method of cut vertices proposed by Mueller. Renormalization of the cut vertices is carried out up the two-loop level and it is found that, in the minimal subtraction scheme, the equality between the anomalous dimension of the space-like cut vertex and that of the corresponding time-like cut vertex does not hold beyond the leading order. Corrections to the coefficient functions are also calculated to study the Q 2 dependence of the moment up to the next-to-leading order. It is shown that the reciprocity relation suggested by Gribov and Lipatov on the basis of the leading-order calculation does not hold in the higher order. (orig.)

  6. Time Well Spent? Relating Television Use to Children’s Free-Time Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandewater, Elizabeth A.; Bickham, David S.; Lee, June H.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study assessed the claim that children’s television use interferes with time spent in more developmentally appropriate activities. METHODS Data came from the first wave of the Child Development Supplement, a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 12 in 1997 (N = 1712). Twenty-four-hour time-use diaries from 1 randomly chosen weekday and 1 randomly chosen weekend day were used to assess children’s time spent watching television, time spent with parents, time spent with siblings, time spent reading (or being read to), time spent doing homework, time spent in creative play, and time spent in active play. Ordinary least squares multiple regression was used to assess the relationship between children’s television use and time spent pursuing other activities. RESULTS Results indicated that time spent watching television both with and without parents or siblings was negatively related to time spent with parents or siblings, respectively, in other activities. Television viewing also was negatively related to time spent doing homework for 7- to 12-year-olds and negatively related to creative play, especially among very young children (younger than 5 years). There was no relationship between time spent watching television and time spent reading (or being read to) or to time spent in active play. CONCLUSIONS The results of this study are among the first to provide empirical support for the assumptions made by the American Academy of Pediatrics in their screen time recommendations. Time spent viewing television both with and without parents and siblings present was strongly negatively related to time spent interacting with parents or siblings. Television viewing was associated with decreased homework time and decreased time in creative play. Conversely, there was no support for the widespread belief that television interferes with time spent reading or in active play. PMID:16452327

  7. Real-Time Systems: Reflections on higher education in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    File, Jonathan M.; Goedegebuure, Leo; Goedegebuure, L.C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Real-time systems (An ICT definition) In real-time multiprocessing there is the extra requirement that the system complete its response to any input within a certain critical time. This poses additional problems, particularly in situations where the system is heavily loaded and is subject to many

  8. Higher plantar pressure on the medial side in four soccer‐related movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui‐lam; Chamari, Karim; De Wei Mao; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hong, Youlian

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the plantar pressure in four soccer‐related movements in 15 male soccer players (mean (SD) age 20.9 (1.3) years, height 173 (4) cm, weight 61.7 (3.6) kg). Design To record plantar pressure distribution, the players wore soccer boots with 12 circular studs and with an insole pressure recorder device equipped with 99 sensors. Plantar pressure was recorded in five successful trials in each of the four soccer‐related movements: running, sideward cutting, 45° cutting and landing from a vertical jump. Each footprint was divided into 10 recorded areas for analysis. Results Compared with running at 3.3 m/s, maximal speed sideward cutting and 45° cutting induced higher peak pressure (pplantar surface as compared with the lateral side. Conclusions These data suggest that the medial side of the plantar surface may be more prone to injuries, and that foot orthosis adoption, improved soccer boot design and specific muscle training could be considered to reduce pressure and the subsequent risk of injury. PMID:17178776

  9. Higher plantar pressure on the medial side in four soccer-related movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Pui-lam; Chamari, Karim; Mao, De Wei; Wisløff, Ulrik; Hong, Youlian

    2007-02-01

    To measure the plantar pressure in four soccer-related movements in 15 male soccer players (mean (SD) age 20.9 (1.3) years, height 173 (4) cm, weight 61.7 (3.6) kg). To record plantar pressure distribution, the players wore soccer boots with 12 circular studs and with an insole pressure recorder device equipped with 99 sensors. Plantar pressure was recorded in five successful trials in each of the four soccer-related movements: running, sideward cutting, 45 degrees cutting and landing from a vertical jump. Each footprint was divided into 10 recorded areas for analysis. Compared with running at 3.3 m/s, maximal speed sideward cutting and 45 degrees cutting induced higher peak pressure (pplantar surface as compared with the lateral side. These data suggest that the medial side of the plantar surface may be more prone to injuries, and that foot orthosis adoption, improved soccer boot design and specific muscle training could be considered to reduce pressure and the subsequent risk of injury.

  10. Relation between Time Perspective and Delay Discounting: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuscher, Ursina; Mitchell, Suzanne H.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relation between delay discounting and future time perspective by reviewing how these concepts have been measured and quantified in order to assess their conceptual similarities. The extent to which the different measures are empirically related is reviewed by describing studies that have assessed both constructs…

  11. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-01-01

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective. PMID:26694439

  12. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Marc; Rudolph, Tina; Linares Gutierrez, Damisela; Winkler, Isabell

    2015-12-17

    Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  13. Time Perspective and Emotion Regulation as Predictors of Age-Related Subjective Passage of Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Wittmann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Hardly any empirical work exists concerning the relationship between the intra-individually stable time perspective relating to the past, present, and future and the subjective speed of time passing in everyday life. Moreover, studies consistently show that the subjective passage of time over the period of the last ten years speeds up as we get older. Modulating variables influencing this phenomenon are still unknown. To investigate these two unresolved issues, we conducted an online survey with n = 423 participants ranging in age between 17 and 81 assessing trait time perspective of the past, present, and future, and relating these subscales with a battery of measures pertaining to the subjective passage of time. Moreover, the subjective passage of time as an age-dependent variable was probed in relationship to emotion awareness, appraisal and regulation. Results show how present hedonism is linked with having fewer routines in life and a faster passage of the last week; the past negative perspective is related to time pressure, time expansion and more routine; a pronounced future perspective is related to a general faster passage of time. Importantly, increased emotion regulation and a balanced time perspective are related to a slower passage of the last ten years. These novel findings are discussed within models of time perception and the time perspective.

  14. Low External Workloads Are Related to Higher Injury Risk in Professional Male Basketball Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toni Caparrós, Martí Casals, Álvaro Solana, Javier Peña

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The primary purpose of this study was to identify potential risk factors for sports injuries in professional basketball. An observational retrospective cohort study involving a male professional basketball team, using game tracking data was conducted during three consecutive seasons. Thirty-three professional basketball players took part in this study. A total of 29 time-loss injuries were recorded during regular season games, accounting for 244 total missed games with a mean of 16.26 ± 15.21 per player and season. The tracking data included the following variables: minutes played, physiological load, physiological intensity, mechanical load, mechanical intensity, distance covered, walking maximal speed, maximal speed, sprinting maximal speed, maximal speed, average offensive speed, average defensive speed, level one acceleration, level two acceleration, level three acceleration, level four acceleration, level one deceleration, level two deceleration, level three deceleration, level four deceleration, player efficiency rating and usage percentage. The influence of demographic characteristics, tracking data and performance factors on the risk of injury was investigated using multivariate analysis with their incidence rate ratios (IRRs. Athletes with less or equal than 3 decelerations per game (IRR, 4.36; 95% CI, 1.78-10.6 and those running less or equal than 1.3 miles per game (lower workload (IRR, 6.42 ; 95% CI, 2.52-16.3 had a higher risk of injury during games (p < 0.01 in both cases. Therefore, unloaded players have a higher risk of injury. Adequate management of training loads might be a relevant factor to reduce the likelihood of injury according to individual profiles.

  15. Classical and quantum-mechanical axioms with the higher time derivative formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamalov, Timur

    2013-01-01

    A Newtonian mechanics model is essentially the model of a point body in an inertial reference frame. How to describe extended bodies in non-inertial (vibration) reference frames with the random initial conditions? One of the most generalized ways of descriptions (known as the higher derivatives formalism) consists in taking into account the infinite number of the higher temporal derivatives of the coordinates in the Lagrange function. Such formalism describing physical objects in the infinite dimensions space does not contradict to the quantum mechanics and infinite dimensions Hilbert space.

  16. The relativity theory and the nature of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleri, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from March's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon, Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a superdeterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs

  17. The relativity theory and the nature of time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selleri, F.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper and its continuation, old and recent ideas concerning the nature of time are reviewed by starting from Mach's refusal of Newton's absolute time. Modern experimental evidence shows that the slowing down of moving clocks is a real phenomenon. Such is also the so-called twin paradox owing its name to its evident incompatibility with the philosophy of relativism (which should not be confused with the theory of relativity). Lorentz' reformulation of relativity theory started by postulating physical effects of the ether, but adopted Einstein's clock synchronization: more than anything else this stopped Lorentz from understanding the advantages of different synchronization procedures. One of the problems of the usual approach is the necessity of a super deterministic universe, as stressed by Popper. Recent results obtained by the author show that a theory is possible, based on relative time but on absolute simultaneity, in which all the conceptual difficulties of relativity are avoided. (Author) 21 refs

  18. Higher Order Loess Terracettes and Related Ungulate Activities in Western Pottawattamie County, Iowa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weihs, B. J.

    2009-12-01

    Terracettes are small, quasi-parallel, staircase-like, stepped landforms. They are generally less than a meter in tread width and riser height and as long as 300 meters, located transversely along slopes. Many theories purport to explain the mechanisms that cause them, including animal disturbance, soil creep, solifluction (gelifluction), slumping and rotational slippage, regolith control, vegetation control, subsidence, and anthropogenic or tectonic activities. This thesis was aimed at morphologically characterizing terracettes in the western Iowa Loess Hills, with an emphasis on further classifying the forms morphogenetically. Onsite observations suggest that terracettes in this area are highly associated with anthropogenically induced grazing of domestic ungulates such as cattle, horses, and sheep, as well as deer. A new class of terracette (higher order or mega-terracette) is proposed that characterizes (and differentiates) the study area forms based on size, in that the study area contains terracettes that are an order above those discussed by other authors (sub-meter). This new addition to the current standard (tear terracettes-risers bare of vegetation, and normal terracettes-normal to the slope), as suggested by Anderson (1972), will add to the local understanding of the forms, and especially to the theory of polygenesis in which terracettes can result from a host of processes. This new class of terracette (mega) is higher magnitude, and directly related to ungulate activities such as geophagy, soil transport (from hooves), compaction, smearing, pawing, and wallowing (dust bathing) as well as the effects of variable soil moisture on erosion of the forms used by the animals. High magnitude terracettes in western Pottawattamie County, Iowa

  19. Transformative, transgressive social learning: rethinking higher education pedagogy in times of systemic global dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lotz-Sisitka, Heila; Wals, A.E.J.; Kronlid, David; McGarry, Dylan

    2015-01-01

    The nature of the sustainability challenges currently at hand is such that dominant pedagogies and forms of learning that characterize higher education need to be reconsidered to enable students and staff to deal with accelerating change, increasing complexity, contested knowledge claims and

  20. Blurring Time and Place in Higher Education with Bring Your Own Device Applications: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundgren, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is increasing rapidly in society, and student device ownership is becoming more or less ubiquitous in many parts of the world. This might be an under-utilised resource that could benefit the educational practices of institutions of higher education. This review examines 91 journal articles from 28 countries published in…

  1. The United Nations, Peace, and Higher Education: Pedagogic Interventions in Neoliberal Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kester, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Peace and conflict studies (PACS) education in recent decades has become a popular approach to social justice learning in higher education institutions (Harris, Fisk, and Rank 1998; Smith 2007; Carstarphen et al. 2010; Bajaj and Hantzopoulos 2016) and has been provided legitimacy through a number of different United Nations (UN) declarations…

  2. Breadth vs. Depth: The Timing of Specialization in Higher Education. NBER Working Paper No. 15943

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamud, Ofer

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the tradeoff between early and late specialization in the context of higher education. While some educational systems require students to specialize early by choosing a major field of study prior to entering university, others allow students to postpone this choice. I develop a model in which individuals, by taking courses in…

  3. Times, Measures and the Man: the Future of British Higher Education Treated Historically and Comparatively

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neave, Guy

    2006-01-01

    This article is a tribute to the life work of Maurice Kogan. Very little of higher education's landscape in the United Kingdom has remained unchanged over the past four decades and this article sets out to analyze the way the perception of the role of universities in society has changed in the

  4. The problem of time quantum mechanics versus general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Anderson, Edward

    2017-01-01

    This book is a treatise on time and on background independence in physics. It first considers how time is conceived of in each accepted paradigm of physics: Newtonian, special relativity, quantum mechanics (QM) and general relativity (GR). Substantial differences are moreover uncovered between what is meant by time in QM and in GR. These differences jointly source the Problem of Time: Nine interlinked facets which arise upon attempting concurrent treatment of the QM and GR paradigms, as is required in particular for a background independent theory of quantum gravity. A sizeable proportion of current quantum gravity programs - e.g. geometrodynamical and loop quantum gravity approaches to quantum GR, quantum cosmology, supergravity and M-theory - are background independent in this sense. This book's foundational topic is thus furthermore of practical relevance in the ongoing development of quantum gravity programs. This book shows moreover that eight of the nine facets of the Problem of Time already occur upon ...

  5. On a higher order multi-term time-fractional partial differential equation involving Caputo-Fabrizio derivative

    OpenAIRE

    Pirnapasov, Sardor; Karimov, Erkinjon

    2017-01-01

    In the present work we discuss higher order multi-term partial differential equation (PDE) with the Caputo-Fabrizio fractional derivative in time. We investigate a boundary value problem for fractional heat equation involving higher order Caputo-Fabrizio derivatives in time-variable. Using method of separation of variables and integration by parts, we reduce fractional order PDE to the integer order. We represent explicit solution of formulated problem in particular case by Fourier series.

  6. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira [Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Prestes, Jonato [Universidade Católica de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m{sup 2}) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2}) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m{sup 2,} p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Elderly women with metabolic syndrome present higher cardiovascular risk and lower relative muscle strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farias, Darlan Lopes; Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Teixeira, Tatiane Gomes; Vieira, Denis César Leite; Tarja, Vitor; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; Silva, Alessandro de Oliveira; Funghetto, Silvana Schwerz; Coura, Maritza Alves de Sousa; Valduga, Renato; Karnikowski, Margô Gomes de Oliveira; Prestes, Jonato

    2013-01-01

    To compare the metabolic, anthropometric, arterial blood pressure, and muscle strength parameters of elderly women with and without metabolic syndrome. A case-control study with 27 (67.3±4.8 years of age, 31.0±5.0kg/m"2) elderly women with metabolic syndrome and 33 (68.8±5.6 years of age, 27.2±5.3kg/m"2) sedentary control elderly women. They were submitted to an evaluation of body composition by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and muscle strength testing with 10 maximal repetitions of knee extension. When compared to the elderly women without metabolic syndrome, those with the metabolic syndrome had higher levels for body mass (72.2±13.5 versus 63.4±14.6kg, p=0.03), body mass index (31.0±5.0 versus 27.2±5.3kg/m"2", p=0.007), fat mass (30.9±9.9 versus 24.4±8.5kg, p=0.01), systolic arterial pressure (125.1±8.2 versus 119.3±8.7mmHg, p=0.01), diastolic arterial pressure (75.5±6.9 versus 71.4±6.7mmHg, p=0.03), mean arterial pressure (92.5±6.2 versus 87.1±6.7mmHg, p=0.004), blood glucose (103.8±19.1 versus 91.1±5.9mg/dL, p=0.001), triglycerides (187.1±70.2 versus 116.3±36.7mg/dL, p=0.001), and creatine kinase (122.6±58.6 versus 89.8±32.5U/L, p=0.01); lower levels were found for fat-free mass (55.9±5.8 versus 59.3±6.7%; p=0.05), HDL-C (40.7±5.0 versus 50.5±10.1mg/dL, p=0.001), and relative muscle strength (0.53±0.14 versus 0.62±0.12, p=0.01). Elderly women with metabolic syndrome have a higher cardiovascular risk and less relative muscle strength when compared to those without metabolic syndrome. Relative muscle strength may be related to the cardiovascularr risk factors of the metabolic syndrome

  8. Quantum relativity theory and quantum space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banai, M.

    1984-01-01

    A quantum relativity theory formulated in terms of Davis' quantum relativity principle is outlined. The first task in this theory as in classical relativity theory is to model space-time, the arena of natural processes. It is shown that the quantum space-time models of Banai introduced in another paper is formulated in terms of Davis's quantum relativity. The recently proposed classical relativistic quantum theory of Prugovecki and his corresponding classical relativistic quantum model of space-time open the way to introduce, in a consistent way, the quantum space-time model (the quantum substitute of Minkowski space) of Banai proposed in the paper mentioned. The goal of quantum mechanics of quantum relativistic particles living in this model of space-time is to predict the rest mass system properties of classically relativistic (massive) quantum particles (''elementary particles''). The main new aspect of this quantum mechanics is that it provides a true mass eigenvalue problem, and that the excited mass states of quantum relativistic particles can be interpreted as elementary particles. The question of field theory over quantum relativistic model of space-time is also discussed. Finally it is suggested that ''quarks'' should be considered as quantum relativistic particles. (author)

  9. Transient fluctuation relations for time-dependent particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; de Martino, Alessandro; Egger, Reinhold; Narozhny, Boris

    2010-09-01

    We consider particle transport under the influence of time-varying driving forces, where fluctuation relations connect the statistics of pairs of time-reversed evolutions of physical observables. In many “mesoscopic” transport processes, the effective many-particle dynamics is dominantly classical while the microscopic rates governing particle motion are of quantum-mechanical origin. We here employ the stochastic path-integral approach as an optimal tool to probe the fluctuation statistics in such applications. Describing the classical limit of the Keldysh quantum nonequilibrium field theory, the stochastic path integral encapsulates the quantum origin of microscopic particle exchange rates. Dynamically, it is equivalent to a transport master equation which is a formalism general enough to describe many applications of practical interest. We apply the stochastic path integral to derive general functional fluctuation relations for current flow induced by time-varying forces. We show that the successive measurement processes implied by this setup do not put the derivation of quantum fluctuation relations in jeopardy. While in many cases the fluctuation relation for a full time-dependent current profile may contain excessive information, we formulate a number of reduced relations, and demonstrate their application to mesoscopic transport. Examples include the distribution of transmitted charge, where we show that the derivation of a fluctuation relation requires the combined monitoring of the statistics of charge and work.

  10. Related research on corneal higher-order aberrations after different ways refractive surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Xi He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the changes of corneal high-order aberration(including Coma, Spab, RMShafter laser in situ keratomileusis(LASIKwith femtosecond laser, sub-Bowman keratomileusis(SBKand laser epithelial keratomileusis(LASEK.METHODS: Of 82 myopic patients(164 eyes, 31 patients(62 eyeswere treated by FS-LASIK, 31 patients(62 eyeswere treated by SBK, 20 patients(40 eyeswere treated by LASEK. Sirius system was used for measuring the coma aberration, spherical aberration, and high order aberration at 1, 15d,1, 3mo after surgery.RESULTS: 1Vision: The uncorrected visual acuity of the three groups had no differences(P>0.05. 2Corneal aberrations: Three kinds of surgical procedure for patients with corneal aberration had significant impact. The C7, C8, C12 and RMSh of three groups were increased significantly(P0.05. The C7, C8, C12 and RMSh were not recovered to preoperative levels after 3mo. But the increase of patients after FS-LASIK was smaller than the other two groups, with statistical significance(P0.05.CONCLUSION: Compared with SBK and LASEK,FS-LASIK has better visual acuity in the early postoperative and corneal higher-order aberrations increase is relatively small.

  11. Factors relating to the attraction of talented early career academics in South African higher education institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorcas L. Lesenyeho

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: South African higher education institutions (HEIs are facing significant challenges in attracting talents to academic positions. Research purpose: The main objective of this research was to determine factors that will attract early career academics to South African HEIs. Motivation for the study: Currently there exists limited research on factors that attract early career academics to HEIs as preferred employers. Research approach, design and method: A qualitative approach was adopted for this study; semi-structured interviews were conducted to gain data. The study participants comprised of 23 academic staff members from various merged South African HEIs. Main findings: The findings show that nine themes are related to the attraction of early career academics to HEIs: career development and advancement, opportunities to make a contribution, employer branding and prestige, job security, flexible working hours (work–life balance, intellectual stimulation, innovation, opportunity to apply skills and autonomy. Practical/managerial implications: The results also challenge HEIs to develop a superior employer brand with a strong employee value proposition (EVP that would attract, develop and reward early career academics for their work efforts. Contribution/value-add: The study provides important practical guidelines that could assist HEIs to attract talented early career academics and become an employer of choice.

  12. The Relation of Students’ Choice of Private Higher Education and Marketing Strategies in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozbal Okai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Severe market conditions and advancing technology demand a well-planned and a strategic marketing approach in all sectors as well as in education sector. This study examined the relationship between the students’ choice and the marketing strategies of private higher education (HE in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BIH. To perceive this relation, we chose one of the private universities in Sarajevo. The study is based on a student survey which employed a questionnaire of 55 questions under 4 sub-groups and was done by 146 students. The first step of the questionnaire was determining the motives of the students to attend a private HE institution. The next part was to investigate the information sources of the students. These two steps followed the understanding of the evaluation criteria and the decision process of the students. Finally, the survey was concluded with the post enrollment observations of the students. The data obtained analyzed by SPSS software. The results revealed a strong consistency. The students were willing to have quality education and improve themselves via HE. They were using internet as a prior information source but would not make a final decision without parents’ confirmation. The overall satisfaction of the students showed that our subject university communicates with the target groups efficiently and enjoys the benefits of positive ‘word of mouth’ marketing. Finally, we addressed the marketing strategies that we reaped throughout the study to suggest a course of action to private HEIs in the conclusion part.

  13. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhusi, Catalin V; Meck, Warren H

    2009-07-22

    Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset) independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock. Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s). When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results. These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  14. Relativity theory and time perception: single or multiple clocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catalin V Buhusi

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Current theories of interval timing assume that humans and other animals time as if using a single, absolute stopwatch that can be stopped or reset on command. Here we evaluate the alternative view that psychological time is represented by multiple clocks, and that these clocks create separate temporal contexts by which duration is judged in a relative manner. Two predictions of the multiple-clock hypothesis were tested. First, that the multiple clocks can be manipulated (stopped and/or reset independently. Second, that an event of a given physical duration would be perceived as having different durations in different temporal contexts, i.e., would be judged differently by each clock.Rats were trained to time three durations (e.g., 10, 30, and 90 s. When timing was interrupted by an unexpected gap in the signal, rats reset the clock used to time the "short" duration, stopped the "medium" duration clock, and continued to run the "long" duration clock. When the duration of the gap was manipulated, the rats reset these clocks in a hierarchical order, first the "short", then the "medium", and finally the "long" clock. Quantitative modeling assuming re-allocation of cognitive resources in proportion to the relative duration of the gap to the multiple, simultaneously timed event durations was used to account for the results.These results indicate that the three event durations were effectively timed by separate clocks operated independently, and that the same gap duration was judged relative to these three temporal contexts. Results suggest that the brain processes the duration of an event in a manner similar to Einstein's special relativity theory: A given time interval is registered differently by independent clocks dependent upon the context.

  15. Time-discrete higher order ALE formulations: a priori error analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Bonito, Andrea; Kyza, Irene; Nochetto, Ricardo H.

    2013-01-01

    We derive optimal a priori error estimates for discontinuous Galerkin (dG) time discrete schemes of any order applied to an advection-diffusion model defined on moving domains and written in the Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) framework. Our

  16. A higher order numerical method for time fractional partial differential equations with nonsmooth data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yanyuan; Yan, Yubin

    2018-03-01

    Gao et al. [11] (2014) introduced a numerical scheme to approximate the Caputo fractional derivative with the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation is sufficiently smooth, Lv and Xu [20] (2016) proved by using energy method that the corresponding numerical method for solving time fractional partial differential equation has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 equation has low regularity and in this case the numerical method fails to have the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 quadratic interpolation polynomials. Based on this scheme, we introduce a time discretization scheme to approximate the time fractional partial differential equation and show by using Laplace transform methods that the time discretization scheme has the convergence rate O (k 3 - α), 0 0 for smooth and nonsmooth data in both homogeneous and inhomogeneous cases. Numerical examples are given to show that the theoretical results are consistent with the numerical results.

  17. Regional 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Hypometabolism is Associated with Higher Apathy Scores Over Time in Early Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatchel, Jennifer R; Donovan, Nancy J; Locascio, Joseph J; Becker, J Alex; Rentz, Dorene M; Sperling, Reisa A; Johnson, Keith A; Marshall, Gad A

    2017-07-01

    Apathy is among the earliest and most pervasive neuropsychiatric symptoms in prodromal and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia that correlates with functional impairment and disease progression. We investigated the association of apathy with regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. 57 North American research sites. 402 community dwelling elders. Apathy was assessed using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Questionnaire. Baseline FDG metabolism in five regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy and AD was investigated in relationship to apathy at baseline (cross-sectional general linear model) and longitudinally (mixed random/fixed effect model). Covariates included age, sex, diagnosis, apolipoprotein E genotype, premorbid intelligence, cognition, and antidepressant use. Cross-sectional analysis revealed that posterior cingulate hypometabolism, diagnosis, male sex, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores. Longitudinal analysis revealed that the interaction of supramarginal hypometabolism and time, posterior cingulate hypometabolism, and antidepressant use were associated with higher apathy scores across time; only supramarginal hypometabolism was positively related to rate of increase of apathy. Results support an association of apathy with hypometabolism in parietal regions commonly affected in early stages of AD, rather than medial frontal regions implicated in the neurobiology of apathy in later stages. Further work is needed to substantiate whether this localization is specific to apathy rather than to disease stage, and to investigate the potential role of AD proteinopathies in the pathogenesis of apathy. Copyright © 2017 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Relating Time-Dependent Acceleration and Height Using an Elevator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinser, Jason M.

    2015-01-01

    A simple experiment in relating a time-dependent linear acceleration function to height is explored through the use of a smartphone and an elevator. Given acceleration as a function of time, a(t), the velocity function and position functions are determined through integration as in v(t)=? a(t) dt (1) and x(t)=? v(t) dt. Mobile devices such as…

  19. Earlier school start times are associated with higher rates of behavioral problems in elementary schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peggy S; Gilbert, Lauren R; Haak, Eric A; Bi, Shuang; Smith, Olivia A

    2017-04-01

    Early school start times may curtail children's sleep and inadvertently promote sleep restriction. The current study examines the potential implications for early school start times for behavioral problems in public elementary schools (student ages 5-12 years) in Kentucky. School start times were obtained from school Web sites or by calling school offices; behavioral and disciplinary problems, along with demographic information about schools, were obtained from the Kentucky Department of Education. Estimated associations controlled for teacher/student ratio, racial composition, school rank, enrollment, and Appalachian location. Associations between early school start time and greater behavioral problems (harassment, in-school removals, suspensions, and expulsions) were observed, although some of these associations were found only for schools serving the non-Appalachian region. Findings support the growing body of research showing that early school start times may contribute to student problems, and extend this research through a large-scale examination of elementary schools, behavioral outcomes, and potential moderators of risk. Copyright © 2017 National Sleep Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Late-time tails of wave propagation in higher dimensional spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Vitor; Yoshida, Shijun; Dias, Oscar J.C.; Lemos, Jose P.S.

    2003-01-01

    We study the late-time tails appearing in the propagation of massless fields (scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational) in the vicinities of a D-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. We find that at late times the fields always exhibit a power-law falloff, but the power law is highly sensitive to the dimensionality of the spacetime. Accordingly, for odd D>3 we find that the field behaves as t -(2l+D-2) at late times, where l is the angular index determining the angular dependence of the field. This behavior is entirely due to D being odd; it does not depend on the presence of a black hole in the spacetime. Indeed this tail is already present in the flat space Green's function. On the other hand, for even D>4 the field decays as t -(2l+3D-8) , and this time there is no contribution from the flat background. This power law is entirely due to the presence of the black hole. The D=4 case is special and exhibits, as is well known, t -(2l+3) behavior. In the extra dimensional scenario for our Universe, our results are strictly correct if the extra dimensions are infinite, but also give a good description of the late-time behavior of any field if the large extra dimensions are large enough

  1. RELATION BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AND REASONING ABILITY OF HIGHER SECONDARY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    C. Daisy Nambikkai; Dr. A.Veliappan

    2017-01-01

    The present study aims to find out the relationship between emotional intelligence and reasoning ability of the higher secondary students. Among the population, 724 samples of higher secondary students were selected randomly from Puducherry region. Findings of the study were i) significant difference is found between male and female higher secondary students in their reasoning ability in science on analogical reasoning, classification as reasoning, eclectic reasoning, deductive reasoning and ...

  2. Approximate solution of space and time fractional higher order phase field equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamseldeen, S.

    2018-03-01

    This paper is concerned with a class of space and time fractional partial differential equation (STFDE) with Riesz derivative in space and Caputo in time. The proposed STFDE is considered as a generalization of a sixth-order partial phase field equation. We describe the application of the optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM) to obtain an approximate solution for the suggested fractional initial value problem. An averaged-squared residual error function is defined and used to determine the optimal convergence control parameter. Two numerical examples are studied, considering periodic and non-periodic initial conditions, to justify the efficiency and the accuracy of the adopted iterative approach. The dependence of the solution on the order of the fractional derivative in space and time and model parameters is investigated.

  3. Pubertal Timing and Youth Internalizing Psychopathology: The Role of Relational Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomerantz, Hayley; Parent, Justin; Forehand, Rex; Breslend, Nicole Lafko; Winer, Jeffrey P

    2017-02-01

    The current study examined relational aggression as a potential mechanism that explains the association between off-time pubertal development and internalizing problems in youth. Youth gender was also examined as a moderator for the association between these variables. It was hypothesized that early pubertal maturation would be associated with higher levels of relationally aggressive behavior which, in turn, would be associated with elevated levels of internalizing problems. Parents of 372 children between the ages of 8 and 17 were recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk. Parents responded to demographic information about themselves, as well as information about their child's pubertal timing, relationally aggressive behavior, and anxiety and depressive symptoms. Findings indicated that early pubertal timing was associated with higher levels of anxiety directly, and higher levels of both anxiety and depressive symptoms indirectly through higher levels of relational aggression. In all but one of the pathways examined, gender was not found to moderate the associations between the study variables of interest. This study is the first to examine relational aggression as a mechanism by which early pubertal timing leads to internalizing problems. The findings suggest that relational aggression could be a target for intervention among early developing youth who are at risk for internalizing problems.

  4. Pediatric scalds: do cooking-related burns have a higher injury burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachier, Marielena; Hammond, Sarah E; Williams, Regan; Jancelewicz, Timothy; Feliz, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric scald burns result in frequent emergency room visits and hospitalizations. We investigated whether cooking-related burns produce greater morbidity requiring more extensive care than noncooking burns. We performed a 6-y review at our free-standing children's hospital. Children aged cooking versus noncooking burns. The Mann-Whitney U test, a chi-square test, and the negative binomial were used to compare continuous, categorical, and count data between groups. Bivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors among patients with adverse outcomes. We identified 308 patients; 262 (85%) cooking and 46 (15%) noncooking burns. Most patients were African-American males, with public insurance, and a median age of 2 y. Cooking burns preferentially occurred over the head, neck, and upper body; noncooking burns were distributed over the lower body (P  0.11). In subgroup analysis, semisolid and grease burns resulted in increased rates of wound contractures and/or limited mobility when compared with noncooking burns (P = 0.05 and P = 0.008, respectively). Patients with complications were more likely to have third degree burns and required more consults, longer hospitalization, and more surgical debridements and clinic visits. Most accidental scald burns occurred in young children during food preparation. Greater long-term morbidity was found in patients with semisolid and grease burns. This subset of children has a higher injury burden and requires extensive care in the acute and long-term setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Time to eat? The relationship between food security and food-related time use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Timothy K M; Nanney, M Susie; Tuttle, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    In the present analysis, we seek to establish a relationship between time spent on food-related activities and food security status as well as between time spent on these activities and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program) participation and benefit level. After matching similar households using Coarsened Exact Matching, we estimate the relationship between food-related time, food insecurity and SNAP participation and benefit level using a comprehensive data set that combines two subsets of the Current Population Survey from years 2004-2010: the Food Security Supplement and the American Time Use Survey. City, suburban and rural areas of the USA. Non-institutionalized US population over the age of 15 years. Total sample size is 10 247 households. In single households, food insecurity and SNAP participation are associated with 20% more time in meal preparation and 13% less time eating. Similarly, in married households, SNAP participation and benefit level are associated with 32% less time in meal preparation while food insecurity is associated with 17% less time eating and 14% less time in grocery shopping. A significant relationship exists between time spent on food-related activities and food insecurity and SNAP. This implies that federal and state government may need to consider the time constraints many low-income households face when reforming food assistance programmes.

  6. Approaching space-time through velocity in doubly special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloisio, R.; Galante, A.; Grillo, A.F.; Luzio, E.; Mendez, F.

    2004-01-01

    We discuss the definition of velocity as dE/d vertical bar p vertical bar, where E, p are the energy and momentum of a particle, in doubly special relativity (DSR). If this definition matches dx/dt appropriate for the space-time sector, then space-time can in principle be built consistently with the existence of an invariant length scale. We show that, within different possible velocity definitions, a space-time compatible with momentum-space DSR principles cannot be derived

  7. Riccion from higher-dimensional space-time with D-dimensional ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    suggest that space-time above 3 05¢1016 GeV should be fractal. .... Here VD is the volume of SD, g´4·Dµ is the determinant of the metric tensor gMN (M ...... means that above 3.05x1016 GeV, SD is not a smooth surface whereas M4 is smooth.

  8. Widening Participation, Social Justice and Injustice: Part-Time Students in Higher Education in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This article critically assesses the nature and scope of current financial support for part-time undergraduates in England, highlighting its importance for widening participation. It considers the limitations of these financial arrangements, why they are in need of reform, and some of the consequences of their inadequacies. The paper argues that…

  9. Seven Steps to Heaven: Time and Tide in 21st Century Contemporary Music Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Annie K.

    2018-01-01

    Throughout the time of my teaching career, the tide has exposed changes in the nature of music, students and music education. This paper discusses teaching and learning in contemporary music at seven critical stages of 21st century music education: i) diverse types of undergraduate learners; ii) teaching traditional classical repertoire and skills…

  10. (Re-)designing higher education curricula in times of systemic dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tassone, Valentina C.; O’Mahony, Catherine; McKenna, Emma; Eppink, Hansje J.; Wals, Arjen E.J.

    2017-01-01

    There is an urgent need to address the grand sustainability challenges of our time, and to explore new and more responsible ways of operating, researching, and innovating that enable society to respond to these challenges. The emergent Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) policy agenda can act

  11. Internationalization, Regionalization, and Soft Power: China's Relations with ASEAN Member Countries in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, there has been a resurgence of regionalism in world politics. Prospects for new alliances are opened up often on a regional basis. In East and Southeast Asia, regionalization is becoming evident in higher education, with both awareness and signs of a rising ASEAN+3 higher education community. The quest for regional influence…

  12. Relativity for everyone how space-time bends

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the theory of special and general relativity in detail, without digressions such as information on Einstein's life or the historical background. However, complicated calculations are replaced with figures and thought experiments, the text being formulated in such a way that the reader will be able to understand the gist intuitively. The first part of the book focuses on the essentials of special relativity. Explanations are provided of the famous equivalence between mass and energy and of why Einstein was able to use the theory of electrodynamics as a template for his "electrodynamics of moving bodies", simply because besides the speed of light, the electric charge itself is also absolute, leading to the relativity of other physical quantities. General relativity is then introduced, mainly with the help of thought experiments. Reference is made to the previously introduced special relativity and the equivalence principle and, using many figures, it is explained how space-time is bending und...

  13. Relativity Based on Physical Processes Rather Than Space-Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2013-09-01

    Physicists' understanding of relativity and the way it is handled is at present dominated by the interpretation of Albert Einstein, who related relativity to specific properties of space and time. The principal alternative to Einstein's interpretation is based on a concept proposed by Hendrik A. Lorentz, which uses knowledge of classical physics to explain relativistic phenomena. In this paper, we will show that on the one hand the Lorentz-based interpretation provides a simpler mathematical way of arriving at the known results for both Special and General Relativity. On the other hand, it is able to solve problems which have remained open to this day. Furthermore, a particle model will be presented, based on Lorentzian relativity, which explains the origin of mass without the use of the Higgs mechanism, based on the finiteness of the speed of light, and which provides the classical results for particle properties that are currently only accessible through quantum mechanics.

  14. Time Is Brain: The Stroke Theory of Relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Camilo R

    2018-04-25

    Since the introduction of the philosophical tenet "Time is Brain!," multiple lines of research have demonstrated that other factors contribute to the degree of ischemic injury at any one point in time, and it is now clear that the therapeutic window of acute ischemic stroke is more protracted than it was first suspected. To define a more realistic relationship between time and the ischemic process, we used computational modeling to assess how these 2 variables are affected by collateral circulatory competence. Starting from the premise that the expression "Time=Brain" is mathematically false, we reviewed the existing literature on the attributes of cerebral ischemia over time, with particular attention to relevant clinical parameters, and the effect of different variables, particularly collateral circulation, on the time-ischemia relationship. We used this information to construct a theoretical computational model and applied it to categorically different yet abnormal cerebral perfusion scenarios, allowing comparison of their behavior both overall (i.e., final infarct volume) and in real-time (i.e., instantaneous infarct growth rate). Optimal collateral circulatory competence was predictably associated with slower infarct growth rates and prolongation of therapeutic window. Modeling of identifiable specific types of perfusion maps allows forecasting of the fate of the ischemic process over time. Distinct cerebral perfusion map patterns can be readily identified in patients with acute ischemic stroke. These patterns have inherently different behaviors relative to the time-ischemia construct, allowing the possibility of improving parsing and treatment allocation. It is clearly evident that the effect of time on the ischemic process is relative. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Learning Styles of Medical Students Change in Relation to Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurpinar, Erol; Bati, Hilal; Tetik, Cihat

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if any changes exist in the learning styles of medical students over time and in relation to different curriculum models with these learning styles. This prospective cohort study was conducted in three different medical faculties, which implement problem-based learning (PBL), hybrid, and integrated…

  16. Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1994-01-01

    A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...

  17. Reciprocal Relations between Children's Sleep and Their Adjustment over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Ryan J.; El-Sheikh, Mona

    2014-01-01

    Child sleep and adjustment research with community samples is on the rise with a recognized need of explicating this association. We examined reciprocal relations between children's sleep and their internalizing and externalizing symptoms using 3 waves of data spanning 5 years. Participants included 176 children at Time 1 (M = 8.68 years; 69%…

  18. Is expressive timing relational invariant under tempo transformation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honing, H.

    2007-01-01

    This empirical study is concerned with examining the relation between tempo and expressive timing in music performance. This was investigated by asking listeners (N = 307) to distinguish between an original recording and a tempo-transformed version in a musical genre of their preference (jazz or

  19. Prospective and retrospective time perception are related to mental time travel: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Unlike prospective time perception paradigms, in which participants are aware that they have to estimate forthcoming time, little is known about retrospective time perception in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper addresses this shortcoming by comparing prospective and retrospective time estimation in younger adults, older adults, and AD patients. In four prospective tasks (lasting 30s, 60s, 90s, or 120s) participants were asked to read a series of numbers and to provide a verbal estimation of the reading time. In four other retrospective tasks, they were not informed about time judgment until they were asked to provide a verbal estimation of four elapsed time intervals (lasting 30s, 60s, 90s, or 120s). AD participants gave shorter verbal time estimations than older adults and younger participants did, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly in these patients. For all participants, the duration of the retrospective tasks was underestimated as compared to the prospective tasks and both estimations were shorter than the real time interval. Prospective time estimation was further correlated with mental time travel, as measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. Mental time travel was even higher correlated with retrospective time estimation. Our findings shed light on the relationship between time perception and the ability to mentally project oneself into time, two skills contributing to human memory functioning. Finally, time perception deficits, as observed in AD patients, can be interpreted in terms of dramatic changes occurring in frontal lobes and hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tensor-product preconditioners for higher-order space-time discontinuous Galerkin methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2017-02-01

    A space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high-order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  1. Tensor-Product Preconditioners for Higher-Order Space-Time Discontinuous Galerkin Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diosady, Laslo T.; Murman, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    space-time discontinuous-Galerkin spectral-element discretization is presented for direct numerical simulation of the compressible Navier-Stokes equat ions. An efficient solution technique based on a matrix-free Newton-Krylov method is developed in order to overcome the stiffness associated with high solution order. The use of tensor-product basis functions is key to maintaining efficiency at high order. Efficient preconditioning methods are presented which can take advantage of the tensor-product formulation. A diagonalized Alternating-Direction-Implicit (ADI) scheme is extended to the space-time discontinuous Galerkin discretization. A new preconditioner for the compressible Euler/Navier-Stokes equations based on the fast-diagonalization method is also presented. Numerical results demonstrate the effectiveness of these preconditioners for the direct numerical simulation of subsonic turbulent flows.

  2. A coarse grained description of time evolution: Irreversible state reduction and time-energy relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonifacio, R.; Milan Univ.

    1983-05-01

    We show that a proper coarse-grained description of time evolution leads to a finite difference equation with step tau for the density operator. This implies state reduction to the diagonal form in the energy representation and a quasi ergodic behaviour of quantum mechanical ensemble averages. An intrinsic time-energy relation tauΔE>=(h/2π)/2 is proposed, and its equivalence to a time quantization is discussed. (author)

  3. Higher Volume at Time of Breast Conserving Surgery Reduces Re-Excision in DCIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Wolf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to compare the surgical and pathological variables which impact rate of re-excision following breast conserving therapy (BCS with or without concurrent additional margin excision (AM. Methods. The pathology database was queried for all patients with DCIS from January 2004 to September 2008. Pathologic assessment included volume of excision, subtype, size, distance from margin, grade, necrosis, multifocality, calcifications, and ER/PR status. Results. 405 cases were identified and 201 underwent BCS, 151-BCS-AM, and 53-mastectomy. Among the 201 BCS patients, 190 underwent re-excision for close or involved margins. 129 of these were treated with BCS and 61 with BCS-AM (P<.0001. The incidence of residual DCIS in the re-excision specimens was 32% (n=65 for BCS and 22% (n=33 for BCS-AM (P<.05. For both the BCS and the BCS-AM cohorts, volume of tissue excised is inversely correlated to the rate of re-excision (P=.0284. Multifocality (P=.0002 and ER status (P=.0382 were also significant predictors for rate of re-excision and variation in surgical technique was insignificant. Conclusions. The rate of positive margins, re-excision, and residual disease was significantly higher in patients with lower volume of excision. The performance of concurrent additional margin excision increases the efficacy of BCS for DCIS.

  4. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Pareja, Maritza; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar; Mesas, Arthur E; López-García, Esther; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB) are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components. Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders. Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trendassociated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions. OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  5. Space and Time as Relations: The Theoretical Approach of Leibniz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil Evangelidis

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The epistemological rupture of Copernicus, the laws of planetary motions of Kepler, the comprehensive physical observations of Galileo and Huygens, the conception of relativity, and the physical theory of Newton were components of an extremely fertile and influential cognitive environment that prompted the restless Leibniz to shape an innovative theory of space and time. This theory expressed some of the concerns and intuitions of the scientific community of the seventeenth century, in particular the scientific group of the Academy of Sciences of Paris, but remained relatively unknown until the twentieth century. After Einstein, however, the relational theory of Leibniz gained wider respect and fame. The aim of this article is to explain how Leibniz foresaw relativity, through his critique of contemporary mechanistic philosophy.

  6. Relativity for everyone how space-time bends

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Kurt

    2015-01-01

    This book, now in a revised and updated second edition, explains the theory of special and general relativity in detail without approaching Einstein's life or the historical background. The text is formulated in such a way that the reader will be able to understand the essence intuitively, and new sections have been added on time machines, the twin paradoxes, and tensors. The first part of the book focuses on the essentials of special relativity. It explains the famous equivalence between mass and energy and tells why Einstein was able to use the theory of electrodynamics as a template for his "electrodynamics of moving bodies". General relativity is then addressed, mainly with the help of thought experiments. Reference is made to the previously introduced special relativity and the equivalence principle and, using many figures, it is explained how space-time is bending under gravity. The climax of the book is the Einstein equation of gravity, which describes the way in which matter bends space-time. The read...

  7. Obesity-related eating behaviors are associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza Muñoz-Pareja

    Full Text Available Obesity-related eating behaviors (OREB are associated with higher energy intake. Total energy intake can be decomposed into the following constituents: food portion size, food energy density, the number of eating occasions, and the energy intake from energy-rich beverages. To our knowledge this is the first study to examine the association between the OREB and these energy components.Data were taken from a cross-sectional study conducted in 2008-2010 among 11,546 individuals representative of the Spanish population aged ≥ 18 years. Information was obtained on the following 8 self-reported OREB: not planning how much to eat before sitting down, eating precooked/canned food or snacks bought at vending machines or at fast-food restaurants, not choosing low-energy foods, not removing visible fat from meat or skin from chicken, and eating while watching TV. Usual diet was assessed with a validated diet history. Analyses were performed with linear regression with adjustment for main confounders.Compared to individuals with ≤ 1 OREB, those with ≥ 5 OREB had a higher food energy density (β 0.10; 95% CI 0.08, 0.12 kcal/g/day; p-trend<0.001 and a higher consumption of sugary drinks (β 7; 95% CI -7, 20 ml/day; p-trend<0.05 and of alcoholic beverages (β 24; 95% CI 10, 38 ml/day; p-trend<0.001. Specifically, a higher number of OREB was associated with higher intake of dairy products and red meat, and with lower consumption of fresh fruit, oily fish and white meat. No association was found between the number of OREB and food portion size or the number of eating occasions.OREB were associated with higher food energy density and higher consumption of sugary and alcoholic beverages. Avoiding OREB may prove difficult because they are firmly socially rooted, but these results may nevertheless serve to palliate the undesirable effects of OREB by reducing the associated energy intake.

  8. Art in time and space: context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieber, David; Nadal, Marcos; Leder, Helmut; Rosenberg, Raphael

    2014-01-01

    The experience of art emerges from the interaction of various cognitive and affective processes. The unfolding of these processes in time and their relation with viewing behavior, however, is still poorly understood. Here we examined the effect of context on the relation between the experience of art and viewing time, the most basic indicator of viewing behavior. Two groups of participants viewed an art exhibition in one of two contexts: one in the museum, the other in the laboratory. In both cases viewing time was recorded with a mobile eye tracking system. After freely viewing the exhibition, participants rated each artwork on liking, interest, understanding, and ambiguity scales. Our results show that participants in the museum context liked artworks more, found them more interesting, and viewed them longer than those in the laboratory. Analyses with mixed effects models revealed that aesthetic appreciation (compounding liking and interest), understanding, and ambiguity predicted viewing time for artworks and for their corresponding labels. The effect of aesthetic appreciation and ambiguity on viewing time was modulated by context: Whereas art appreciation tended to predict viewing time better in the laboratory than in museum context, the relation between ambiguity and viewing time was positive in the museum and negative in the laboratory context. Our results suggest that art museums foster an enduring and focused aesthetic experience and demonstrate that context modulates the relation between art experience and viewing behavior.

  9. Assessments of higher-order ionospheric effects on GPS coordinate time series: A case study of CMONOC with longer time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Deng, Liansheng; Zhou, Xiaohui; Ma, Yifang

    2014-05-01

    Higher-order ionospheric (HIO) corrections are proposed to become a standard part for precise GPS data analysis. For this study, we deeply investigate the impacts of the HIO corrections on the coordinate time series by implementing re-processing of the GPS data from Crustal Movement Observation Network of China (CMONOC). Nearly 13 year data are used in our three processing runs: (a) run NO, without HOI corrections, (b) run IG, both second- and third-order corrections are modeled using the International Geomagnetic Reference Field 11 (IGRF11) to model the magnetic field, (c) run ID, the same with IG but dipole magnetic model are applied. Both spectral analysis and noise analysis are adopted to investigate these effects. Results show that for CMONOC stations, HIO corrections are found to have brought an overall improvement. After the corrections are applied, the noise amplitudes decrease, with the white noise amplitudes showing a more remarkable variation. Low-latitude sites are more affected. For different coordinate components, the impacts vary. The results of an analysis of stacked periodograms show that there is a good match between the seasonal amplitudes and the HOI corrections, and the observed variations in the coordinate time series are related to HOI effects. HOI delays partially explain the seasonal amplitudes in the coordinate time series, especially for the U component. The annual amplitudes for all components are decreased for over one-half of the selected CMONOC sites. Additionally, the semi-annual amplitudes for the sites are much more strongly affected by the corrections. However, when diplole model is used, the results are not as optimistic as IGRF model. Analysis of dipole model indicate that HIO delay lead to the increase of noise amplitudes, and that HIO delays with dipole model can generate false periodic signals. When dipole model are used in modeling HIO terms, larger residual and noise are brought in rather than the effective improvements.

  10. Reaction time in relation to duration of heroin abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović-Mitrović Slađana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Consequences of heroin abuse include organic damage of cerebral structures. The level of impairments is in a direct and positive relation with the length of heroin abuse. Objective. The aim of this research was the evaluation of the reaction time with heroin addicts with different length of substance abuse. Methods. Research method: 90 examinees were divided into three groups with relation to the length of heroin abuse. Data collection included a questionnaire referring to socio-demographic and addictive characteristics. A specially designed programme was used for the evaluation of reaction time to audio/ visual signal. Results. In relation to the reaction time as overall model, the difference between examinees with different length of heroin abuse can be found on the marginal level of significance (F=1.69; df=12; p=0.07. In visual modality, with the increase of length of heroin abuse leads to a significant prolongation of simple (the first visual sign: F=3.29; df=2; p=0.04 and choice reaction time (the second visual sign: F=4.97; df=2; p=0.00; the third visual sign: F=3.08; df=2; p=0.05. Longer heroin consumption also leads to the prolongation of the simple (the first auditory task: F=3.41; df=2; p=0.04 and the complex auditory reaction time (the second auditory task: F=5.67; df=2; p=0.01; the third auditory task: F=6.42; df=2; p=0.00. Conclusion. Heroin abuse leads to the prolongation of both simple and choice reaction time in visual as well as auditory modality. The average daily dose of opiates was the most important predictor of the abovementioned cognitive dysfunction.

  11. Improved test of time dilation in special relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saathoff, G; Karpuk, S; Eisenbarth, U; Huber, G; Krohn, S; Muñoz Horta, R; Reinhardt, S; Schwalm, D; Wolf, A; Gwinner, G

    2003-11-07

    An improved test of time dilation in special relativity has been performed using laser spectroscopy on fast ions at the heavy-ion storage-ring TSR in Heidelberg. The Doppler-shifted frequencies of a two-level transition in 7Li+ ions at v=0.064c have been measured in the forward and backward direction to an accuracy of Deltanu/nu=1 x 10(-9) using collinear saturation spectroscopy. The result confirms the relativistic Doppler formula and sets a new limit of 2.2 x 10(-7) for deviations from the time dilation factor gamma(SR)=(1-v2/c2)(-1/2).

  12. Canonical quantization of general relativity in discrete space-times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambini, Rodolfo; Pullin, Jorge

    2003-01-17

    It has long been recognized that lattice gauge theory formulations, when applied to general relativity, conflict with the invariance of the theory under diffeomorphisms. We analyze discrete lattice general relativity and develop a canonical formalism that allows one to treat constrained theories in Lorentzian signature space-times. The presence of the lattice introduces a "dynamical gauge" fixing that makes the quantization of the theories conceptually clear, albeit computationally involved. The problem of a consistent algebra of constraints is automatically solved in our approach. The approach works successfully in other field theories as well, including topological theories. A simple cosmological application exhibits quantum elimination of the singularity at the big bang.

  13. Monitoring crop leaf area index time variation from higher resolution remotely sensed data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    The leaf area index (LAI) is significant for research on global climate change and ecological environment. China HJ-1 satellite has a revisit cycle of four days, providing CCD data (HJ-1 CCD) with a resolution of 30 m. However, the HJ-1 CCD is incapable of obtaining observations at multiple angles. This is problematic because single angle observations provide insufficient data for determining the LAI. This article proposes a new method for determining LAI using HJ-1 CCD data. The proposed method uses background knowledge of dynamic land surface processes that are extracted from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LAI 1-km resolution data. To process the uncertainties that arise from using two data sources with different spatial resolutions, the proposed method is implemented in a dynamitic Bayesian network scheme by integrating a LAI dynamic process model and a canopy reflectance model with remotely sensed data. Validation results showed that the determination coefficient between estimated and measured LAI was 0.791, and the RMSE was 0.61. This method can enhance the accuracy of the retrieval results while retaining the time series variation characteristics of the vegetation LAI. The results suggest that this algorithm can be widely applied to determining high-resolution leaf area indices using data from China HJ-1 satellite even if information from single angle observations are insufficient for quantitative application

  14. Seven novel probe systems for real-time PCR provide absolute single-base discrimination, higher signaling, and generic components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, James L; Hu, Peixu; Shafer, David A

    2014-11-01

    We have developed novel probe systems for real-time PCR that provide higher specificity, greater sensitivity, and lower cost relative to dual-labeled probes. The seven DNA Detection Switch (DDS)-probe systems reported here employ two interacting polynucleotide components: a fluorescently labeled probe and a quencher antiprobe. High-fidelity detection is achieved with three DDS designs: two internal probes (internal DDS and Flip probes) and a primer probe (ZIPR probe), wherein each probe is combined with a carefully engineered, slightly mismatched, error-checking antiprobe. The antiprobe blocks off-target detection over a wide range of temperatures and facilitates multiplexing. Other designs (Universal probe, Half-Universal probe, and MacMan probe) use generic components that enable low-cost detection. Finally, single-molecule G-Force probes employ guanine-mediated fluorescent quenching by forming a hairpin between adjacent C-rich and G-rich sequences. Examples provided show how these probe technologies discriminate drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis mutants, Escherichia coli O157:H7, oncogenic EGFR deletion mutations, hepatitis B virus, influenza A/B strains, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the human VKORC1 gene. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology and the Association for Molecular Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Influence of higher BMI for hepatitis B- and C-related hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masakazu; Tashiro, Hirotaka; Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Shintaro; Hamaoka, Michinori; Ohdan, Hideki

    2017-08-01

    Although obesity is associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development, its impact on the surgical outcomes of patients with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-and hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related HCC remains unclear. We retrospectively analyzed 714 patients with HCC who underwent curative hepatectomy. Among them, the HBV-related HCC group (n = 125) and HCV-related HCC group (n = 426) were subdivided according to the presence of body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m 2 . The surgical outcomes were compared. The 5-year overall survival rate after hepatectomy in the HBV-related HCC group was significantly better than that in the HCV-related HCC group. The 5-year overall survival rates of the HBV-related HCC with and without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups were 65 and 85%, respectively. The 5-year overall survival rates in the HCV-related HCC with and without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups were 75 and 65%, respectively. The HBV-related HCC with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups had a significantly worse prognosis than the HBV-related HCC without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups, while the HCV-related HCC with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups had a significantly better prognosis than the HCV-related HCC without BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 groups. Multivariate analysis revealed that BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 was the positive and negative prognostic factor for the surgical outcomes of patients with HBV- and HCV-related HCC, respectively. BMI ≥ 25 kg/m 2 negatively affected the surgical outcomes of patients with HBV-related HCC and positively affected those of patients with HCV-related HCC.

  16. Health-related Quality of Life and Related Factors in Full-time and Part-time Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byungsung; Kim, Wonjoon; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Changwon; Kim, Youngshin

    2012-07-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the number of part-time workers in Korea with little information available on associated changes in quality of life. This study was designed to compare part-time and full-time workers in terms of the quality of life and related factors. Data were extracted from the 4th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted in 2008. Of the 1,284 participants selected, 942 were females (range, 20 to 64 years). Based on the information provided by self-administered questionnaire, subjects were categorized according to the working pattern (full-time and part-time) and working hours (part-time group was associated with poorer quality of life (odds ratio [OR], 0.49; P = 0.028). For both sexes, the non-stress group was linked with superior quality of life in comparison to the stress group (OR, 2.64; P = 0.002; OR, 2.17; P < 0.001). Female employees engaged in non-manual labor had superior quality of life than those engaged in manual labor (OR, 1.40; P = 0.027). This study concludes that working less than 30 hours per week is related to lower quality of life in comparison to working 30 hours or more in male employees in Korea.

  17. Physical relativity. Space-time structure from a dynamical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Harvey R.

    Physical Relativity explores the nature of the distinction at the heart of Einstein's 1905 formulation of his special theory of relativity: that between kinematics and dynamics. Einstein himself became increasingly uncomfortable with this distinction, and with the limitations of what he called the 'principle theory' approach inspired by the logic of thermodynamics. A handful of physicists and philosophers have over the last century likewise expressed doubts about Einstein's treatment of the relativistic behaviour of rigid bodies and clocks in motion in the kinematical part of his great paper, and suggested that the dynamical understanding of length contraction and time dilation intimated by the immediate precursors of Einstein is more fundamental. Harvey Brown both examines and extends these arguments (which support a more 'constructive' approach to relativistic effects in Einstein's terminology), after giving a careful analysis of key features of the pre-history of relativity theory. He argues furthermore that the geometrization of the theory by Minkowski in 1908 brought illumination, but not a causal explanation of relativistic effects. Finally, Brown tries to show that the dynamical interpretation of special relativity defended in the book is consistent with the role this theory must play as a limiting case of Einstein's 1915 theory of gravity: the general theory of relativity. Appearing in the centennial year of Einstein's celebrated paper on special relativity, Physical Relativity is an unusual, critical examination of the way Einstein formulated his theory. It also examines in detail certain specific historical and conceptual issues that have long given rise to debate in both special and general relativity theory, such as the conventionality of simultaneity, the principle of general covariance, and the consistency or otherwise of the special theory with quantum mechanics. Harvey Brown's new interpretation of relativity theory will interest anyone working on

  18. Processes for producing polyhydroxybutyrate and related polyhydroxyalkanoates in the plastids of higher plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somerville, C.R.; Nawrath, C.; Poirier, Y.

    1997-03-11

    The present invention relates to a process for producing poly-D-(-)-3-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB) and related polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) in the plastids of plants. The production of PHB is accomplished by genetically transforming plants with modified genes from microorganisms. The genes encode the enzymes required to synthesize PHB from acetyl-CoA or related metabolites and are fused with additional plant sequences for targeting the enzymes to the plastid. 37 figs.

  19. Parental Encouragement in Relation to Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, A. S. Arul; Barathi, C.

    2016-01-01

    Parental Encouragement refers to the general process undertaken by the parents to initiative and directs the behaviour of the children towards high academic achievement. The present study aims to probe the relationship between Parental Encouragement and Academic Achievement of Higher Secondary School Students. Survey method was employed and the…

  20. Managing Resources and Relations in Higher Education Institutions: A Framework for Understanding Performance Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sophia Shi-Huei; Peng, Michael Yao-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Changes in social systems demonstrate that various structural disadvantages have jointly led to increasing competition among higher education institutions (HEIs) in many countries, especially Taiwan. Institutional administrators must recognize the need to understand how to improve performance and consistently outperform other institutions.…

  1. Exploring the Content of Instrumental Lessons and Gender Relations in Australian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Katie

    2008-01-01

    This observational study analysed the lesson content of 24 instrumental lessons (piano, strings and winds) using a gender-balanced sample (equal numbers of male/female teachers and students) from five Australian higher education institutions to ascertain the priorities of topics in advanced applied music lessons in the Western Classical tradition.…

  2. Evolving ASEAN-Australia Relations in Higher Education. Towards a Regional Knowledge Network?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Australia's attitude towards ASEAN has waxed and waned over recent decades, including in higher education. In part a reflection of tensions between its geography and history, it highlighted the question of the extent to which Australia saw itself as an Asian country (an uncertainty shared by a number of its ASEAN neighbours). Reviewing changes in…

  3. Disruptive Conduct: The Impact of Disruptive Technologies on Social Relations in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flavin, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Higher education institutions (HEIs) have invested significantly in digital technologies for learning and teaching. However, technologies provided by HEIs have not been universally successful in terms of adoption and usage. Meanwhile, both students and lecturers use disruptive technologies to support learning and teaching. This article examines…

  4. Higher Education Teachers' Experiences with Learning Analytics in Relation to Student Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Deborah; Huijser, Henk; Heath, David; Lizzio, Alf; Toohey, Danny; Miles, Carol; Searle, Bill; Bronnimann, Jurg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a study of Australian and New Zealand academics (n = 276) that teach tertiary education students. The study aimed to explore participants' early experiences of learning analytics in a higher education milieu in which data analytics is gaining increasing prominence. Broadly speaking participants were asked about:…

  5. Widening the Participation into Higher Education: Examining Bourdieusian Theory in Relation to HE in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnell, Iona

    2015-01-01

    Bourdieu's theories enable us to conceptualise and understand why some people participate in higher education and some do not. Focussing on the working class as the marginalised social group in HE, Bourdieu demonstrated how education perpetuates inequality and lack of opportunity. The theories, or "thinking tools" as he called them,…

  6. Examining Success Factors Related to ERP Implementations in Higher Education Shared Services Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanoff, Dawn Galadriel Pfeiffer

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the enterprise resource planning (ERP) implementations that utilized a shared services model in higher education. The purpose of this research was to examine the critical success factors which were perceived to contribute to project success. This research employed a quantitative non-experimental correlational design and the…

  7. Reliability-Related Issues in the Context of Student Evaluations of Teaching in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Ilker

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations of teaching (SET) have been the principal instrument to elicit students' opinions in higher education institutions. Many decisions, including high-stake ones, are made based on SET scores reported by students. In this respect, reliability of SET scores is of considerable importance. This paper has an argument that there are…

  8. A Live-Time Relation: Motion Graphics meets Classical Music

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2014-01-01

    , liveness and atmosphere. The design model will be a framework for both academic analytical studies as well as for designing time-based narratives and visual concepts involving motion graphics in spatial contexts. I focus on cases in which both pre-rendered, and live generated motion graphics are designed......In our digital age, we frequently meet fine examples of live performances of classical music with accompanying visuals. Yet, we find very little theoretical or analytical work on the relation between classical music and digital temporal visuals, nor on the process of creating them. In this paper, I...... present segments of my work toward a working model for the process of design of visuals and motion graphics applied in spatial contexts. I show how various design elements and components: line and shape, tone and colour, time and timing, rhythm and movement interact with conceptualizations of space...

  9. A method for investigating relative timing information on phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Daniel; Matsen, Frederick A; Stadler, Tanja

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, we present a new way to describe the timing of branching events in phylogenetic trees. Our description is in terms of the relative timing of diversification events between sister clades; as such it is complementary to existing methods using lineages-through-time plots which consider diversification in aggregate. The method can be applied to look for evidence of diversification happening in lineage-specific "bursts", or the opposite, where diversification between 2 clades happens in an unusually regular fashion. In order to be able to distinguish interesting events from stochasticity, we discuss 2 classes of neutral models on trees with relative timing information and develop a statistical framework for testing these models. These model classes include both the coalescent with ancestral population size variation and global rate speciation-extinction models. We end the paper with 2 example applications: first, we show that the evolution of the hepatitis C virus deviates from the coalescent with arbitrary population size. Second, we analyze a large tree of ants, demonstrating that a period of elevated diversification rates does not appear to have occurred in a bursting manner.

  10. Visual outcomes in relation to time to treatment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Annette; Bloch, Sara Brandi; Fuchs, Josefine

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To study the relation between the interval from diagnosis to initiation of intravitreal injection therapy and visual outcome in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and to report changes over time in fellow-eye status. METHODS: Retrospective chart review. The study included...

  11. Factors related to orthodontic treatment time in adult patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Camila Esteves de Oliveira Melo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The length of time that it takes an orthodontist to treat adult patients varies widely. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate how different variables influence treatment time. METHODS: Seventy clinical case reports of successfully treated adult patients were examined. The patients were selected from 4,723 records held by three experienced orthodontists. The influence exerted by the following variables on treatment time was assessed: age, sex, facial pattern, severity of malocclusion (measured by the PAR index, sagittal relationship of canines, type of brackets (ceramic or metal, tooth extractions, missed appointments and orthodontic appliance issues/breakages, the latter being the dependent variable. Assessment was performed by multiple linear regression analysis, followed by the stepwise method with P < 0.05. RESULTS: The number of times a patient missed their appointment (no-show (R² = 14.4%, p < 0.0001 and the number of appliance issues/breakages (R² = 29.71%, p = 0.0037 significantly affected variability in treatment time, and these two variables together can predict 43.75% (R² total of the overall variability in treatment time. Other factors, such as canine relationship at the beginning of treatment, bracket type (metal or ceramic, tooth extractions, age at start of treatment, severity of the initial malocclusion, sex and facial pattern had no significant bearing on treatment time. CONCLUSIONS: The duration of orthodontic treatment in adults, when performed by experienced orthodontists, is mainly influenced by factors related to patient compliance. However, several factors which were not included in this study may contribute to variability in orthodontic treatment time.

  12. Shifting Governance and Control in Church-Related Institutions of Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fioke, Clarence J.; King, Richard A.

    Factors related to shifts in governance patterns of church-related private colleges were investigated through historical document analysis, interviews with 34 presidents and board members, and 59 questionnaires returned by current and past board members of 2 New Mexico institutions. Document analysis focused upon mission statements, annual…

  13. On El Naschie's complex time, Hawking's imaginary time and special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejias, Antonio; Di Sigalotti, Leonardo G.; Sira, Eloy; De Felice, Fernando

    2004-01-01

    The idea of complex time, as first proposed by El Naschie in 1995, not only provided a very important mathematical utility in clarifying the nature of nowness, but also opened a definite possibility for the instantaneous transmission of information through the theoretical prediction of massless particles travelling at velocities larger than the speed of light. Based on a very simple thought experiment, here we show that the complex nature of time arises when two independent inertial observers, in relative uniform motion, communicate via a light signal in order to compare their own proper time measurements for the same event. The observation that the time employed by the signal to go from one observer to the other is calculable, but not measurable, permits to build up a general expression for the complex time, which not only complies with the possibility of time decomposition into two dimensions, but also conciliates with the idea of a complex space. In particular, we find that El Naschie's complex time can be interpreted as an asymptotic limit when the velocity of the moving observer equals that of light. Within this new formulation, the inverse Lorentz transformations of special relativity follow as a direct consequence of the complex time

  14. The Time 'Onewayness' Shared by Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetta, Giuseppe

    2006-01-01

    The measure of the mutation, or change, any material elementary particle unceasingly undergoes, is defined as that of the displacement of a point moving in a three-dimensional Euclidean space, at the velocity of light, on a trajectory decomposable in a rotation and a translation. The rotation accounts for the spin angular momentum of the particle, the translation for its change of location. Then, an elementary mutation is proportional to an elementary interval of universal time. The connection between space and time is such that the operation of universal time conjugation, that is, the change of sign of t, involves space inversion, so coinciding with the operation currently defined as TCP. It implies that to a given physical process, another equally possible one corresponds in which the sequence of events (that still follow the same time course) is reversed, and actors are the enantiomorphic counterparts (anti-particles instead of particles, and vice versa) of those playing in the first physical process. Since no alternative is left to any elementary particle, that exists in that it undergoes an everlasting mutation, the unidirectionality of time must not be understood as a choice between two alternative directions. Many formalisms of Special Relativity can be derived from the above definition of the mutation of a material elementary particle. Anyhow, some discordances seems to crop out whose discussion is beyond the purpose of the present paper

  15. Cosmology in time asymmetric extensions of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, Genly; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the cosmological behavior in a universe governed by time asymmetric extensions of general relativity, which is a novel modified gravity based on the addition of new, time-asymmetric, terms on the Hamiltonian framework, in a way that the algebra of constraints and local physics remain unchanged. Nevertheless, at cosmological scales these new terms can have significant effects that can alter the universe evolution, both at early and late times, and the freedom in the choice of the involved modification function makes the scenario able to produce a huge class of cosmological behaviors. For basic ansatzes of modification, we perform a detailed dynamical analysis, extracting the stable late-time solutions. Amongst others, we find that the universe can result in dark-energy dominated, accelerating solutions, even in the absence of an explicit cosmological constant, in which the dark energy can be quintessence-like, phantom-like, or behave as an effective cosmological constant. Moreover, it can result to matter-domination, or to a Big Rip, or experience the sequence from matter to dark energy domination. Additionally, in the case of closed curvature, the universe may experience a cosmological bounce or turnaround, or even cyclic behavior. Finally, these scenarios can easily satisfy the observational and phenomenological requirements. Hence, time asymmetric cosmology can be a good candidate for the description of the universe

  16. Neuropsychological factors related to returning to work in patients with higher brain dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Akiko; Hashimoto, Manabu; Okazaki, Tetsuya; Hachisuka, Kenji

    2008-12-01

    We conducted neuropsychological tests of patients with higher brain dysfunction to examine the characteristics of barriers to employment. We tested 92 patients with higher brain dysfunction (average age of 36.3 +/- 13.8 years old, ranging between 16 and 63 years old, with an average post-injury period of 35.6 +/- 67.8 months) who were hospitalized at the university hospital between February 2002 and June 2007 for further neuropsychological evaluation, conducting the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R), Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised (WMS-R), the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Behavioral Assessment of Dysexecutive Syndrome (BADS). The outcomes after discharge were classified between competitive employment, sheltered employment and non-employment, and the three groups were compared using one-way analysis of variance and the Scheffe test. The WAIS-R subtests were mutually compared based on the standard values of significant differences described in the WAIS-R manual. Verbal performance and full scale Intelligence Quotient (IQ) of WAIS-R were 87.7 +/- 15.6 (mean +/- standard deviation), 78.5 +/- 18.1 and 81.0 +/- 17.2, respectively, and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration and delayed recall were 74.6 +/- 20.0, 76.6 +/- 21.4, 72.0 +/- 20.4, 89.0 +/- 16.5 and 65.2 +/- 20.8, respectively. The competitive employment group showed significantly higher scores in performance IQ and full IQ on the WAIS-R and verbal memory, visual memory, general memory and delayed recall on the WMS-R and RBMT than the non-employment group. The sheltered employment group showed a significantly higher score in delayed recall than the non-employment group. No difference was observed in the FAB or BADS between the three groups. In the subtests of the WAIS-R, the score for Digit Symbol-Coding was significantly lower than almost all the other subtests. For patients with higher brain dysfunction, IQ (full

  17. The Triple Shift: Student-Mothers, Identity Work and Engagement with Low-Status Vocationally Related Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul H.

    2017-01-01

    This paper discusses a piece of qualitative research that examined the narratives that a group of learners articulated when they discussed their experiences of studying on a relatively low-status, vocationally related higher education programme. These students were school-based teaching assistants who were undertaking foundation degree study at a…

  18. Osteoporosis-Related Mortality: Time-Trends and Predictive Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ziadé

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is one of the leading causes of handicap worldwide and a major contributor to the global burden of diseases. In particular, osteoporosis is associated with excess mortality. We reviewed the impact of osteoporosis on mortality in a population by defining three categories: mortality following hip fractures, mortality following other sites of fractures, and mortality associated with low bone mineral density (BMD. Hip fractures, as well as other fractures at major sites are all associated with excess mortality, except at the forearm site. This excess mortality is higher during the first 3-6 months after the fracture and then declines over time, but remains higher than the mortality of the normal population up to 22 years after the fracture. Low BMD is also associated with high mortality, with hazard ratios of around 1.3 for every decrease in 1 standard deviation of bone density at 5 years, independently of fractures, reflecting a more fragile population. Finally predictors of mortality were identified and categorised in demographic known factors (age and male gender and in factors reflecting a poor general health status such as the number of comorbidities, low mental status, or level of social dependence. Our results indicate that the management of a patient with osteoporosis should include a multivariate approach that could be based on predictive models in the future.

  19. Higher-order Brain Areas Associated with Real-time Functional MRI Neurofeedback Training of the Somato-motor Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auer, Tibor; Dewiputri, Wan Ilma; Frahm, Jens; Schweizer, Renate

    2018-05-15

    Neurofeedback (NFB) allows subjects to learn self-regulation of neuronal brain activation based on information about the ongoing activation. The implementation of real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rt-fMRI) for NFB training now facilitates the investigation into underlying processes. Our study involved 16 control and 16 training right-handed subjects, the latter performing an extensive rt-fMRI NFB training using motor imagery. A previous analysis focused on the targeted primary somato-motor cortex (SMC). The present study extends the analysis to the supplementary motor area (SMA), the next higher brain area within the hierarchy of the motor system. We also examined transfer-related functional connectivity using a whole-volume psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analysis to reveal brain areas associated with learning. The ROI analysis of the pre- and post-training fMRI data for motor imagery without NFB (transfer) resulted in a significant training-specific increase in the SMA. It could also be shown that the contralateral SMA exhibited a larger increase than the ipsilateral SMA in the training and the transfer runs, and that the right-hand training elicited a larger increase in the transfer runs than the left-hand training. The PPI analysis revealed a training-specific increase in transfer-related functional connectivity between the left SMA and frontal areas as well as the anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC) for right- and left-hand trainings. Moreover, the transfer success was related with training-specific increase in functional connectivity between the left SMA and the target area SMC. Our study demonstrates that NFB training increases functional connectivity with non-targeted brain areas. These are associated with the training strategy (i.e., SMA) as well as with learning the NFB skill (i.e., aMCC and frontal areas). This detailed description of both the system to be trained and the areas involved in learning can provide valuable information

  20. The structural basis of the fluorite-related rare earth higher oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Z.C.; Eyring, LeRoy

    1996-01-01

    In this paper phenomenological structural principles, and rules for their application are advanced for predicting the ideal structures of the higher oxides of the rare earths. These principles allow to establish a generic formula incorporating all known phases, guide the correct modelling of the established structures and demonstrate that structures previously proposed but proven incorrect do not follow the structural principles. They also can be used to predict the structures not yet established for known phases, including polymorphs, and provide rationalization for phases fitting the generic formula that have not yet been found. The structural principles flow naturally from the fluorite substructure characteristic of all established phases. 39 refs., 5 tabs., 16 figs

  1. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, Abraham [Astronomy department, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: rafael.alvesbatista@physics.ox.ac.uk, E-mail: david.sloan@physics.ox.ac.uk [Department of Physics - Astrophysics, University of Oxford, DWB, Keble Road, OX1 3RH, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M {sub ⊙} stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  2. Relative likelihood for life as a function of cosmic time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loeb, Abraham; Batista, Rafael A.; Sloan, David

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We address this question by calculating the relative formation probability per unit time of habitable Earth-like planets within a fixed comoving volume of the Universe, dP ( t )/ dt , starting from the first stars and continuing to the distant cosmic future. We conservatively restrict our attention to the context of ''life as we know it'' and the standard cosmological model, ΛCDM . We find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near ∼ 0.1 M ⊙ stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  3. Management competencies in higher education: Perceived job importance in relation to level of training required

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid L. Potgieter

    2010-11-01

    Research purpose: The aim of this article is to determine the relationship between a specific set of HOD managerial competencies identified as being important for the job and the level of training required in terms of these competencies. Motivation for the study: Research has provided evidence that HODs are often ill-prepared for their managerial role, which requires the development of specific management competencies to enable them to fulfil their roles effectively. Research design, approach and method: A non-experimental quantitative survey design approach was followed and correlational data analyses were performed. A cross-sectional sample of 41 HODs of 22 departments from various faculties of a higher education institution in Gauteng participated in this study. The Management Competency Inventory (MCI of Visser (2009 was applied as a measure. Main findings: The Pearson product-moment analysis indicated that there is a significant relationship between the competencies indicated as being important for the job and the level of training required. Practical/Managerial implications: Training needs of HODs should be formally assessed and the depth of training required in terms of the identified management competencies should be considered in the design of training programmes. Contributions/Value-add: The information obtained in this study may potentially serve as a foundation for the development of an HOD training programme in the South African higher education environment.

  4. It's about time elementary mathematical aspects of relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Roger

    2017-01-01

    This book has three main goals. First, it explores a selection of topics from the early period of the theory of relativity, focusing on particular aspects that are interesting or unusual. These include the twin paradox relativistic mechanics and its interaction with Maxwell's laws the earliest triumphs of general relativity relating to the orbit of Mercury and the deflection of light passing near the sun and the surprising bizarre metric of Kurt Godel, in which time travel is possible. Second, it provides an exposition of the differential geometry needed to understand these topics on a level that is intended to be accessible to those with just two years of university-level mathematics as background. Third, it reflects on the historical development of the subject and its significance for our understanding of what reality is and how we can know about the physical universe. The book also takes note of historical prefigurations of relativity, such as Euler's 1744 result that a particle moving on a surface and sub...

  5. The Language-Related Academic Self-Confidence of Noncitizen Students in US Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodnight, Melissa Rae

    2017-01-01

    For this multivariate regression study I utilized data from the Cooperative Institutional Research Program (CIRP) surveys of freshman and senior undergraduates to examine the language-related academic self-confidence (LRASC) of noncitizen students in relationship to college environmental factors like academic disengagement and assertiveness.…

  6. How Tenure in Higher Education Relates to Faculty Productivity and Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjounes, Cindy Kay

    2016-01-01

    Some public university systems are considering abolishing tenure as a cost-saving mechanism, but little is known about how this change may impact organizational outcomes related to faculty retention and research productivity. Using Almendarez' human capital theory, the purpose of this concurrent mixed methods study was to explore how tenure…

  7. Phase transitions between lower and higher level management learning in times of crisis: an experimental study based on synergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liening, Andreas; Strunk, Guido; Mittelstadt, Ewald

    2013-10-01

    Much has been written about the differences between single- and double-loop learning, or more general between lower level and higher level learning. Especially in times of a fundamental crisis, a transition between lower and higher level learning would be an appropriate reaction to a challenge coming entirely out of the dark. However, so far there is no quantitative method to monitor such a transition. Therefore we introduce theory and methods of synergetics and present results from an experimental study based on the simulation of a crisis within a business simulation game. Hypothesized critical fluctuations - as a marker for so-called phase transitions - have been assessed with permutation entropy. Results show evidence for a phase transition during the crisis, which can be interpreted as a transition between lower and higher level learning.

  8. Scaling relation for leptonic constants of higher excitations in heavy quarkonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.V.

    1994-01-01

    Using a specific scheme of the QCD sum rules, one derives the relation for leptonic constants of nS-wave heavy quarkonia, so f 2 n1 /f 2 n2 =n 2 /n 1 , that does not depend on the quarkonium content, and it is in a good agreement with the experimental values of constants for the ψ- and γ-families. 9 refs

  9. Analysis of the Value Creation in Higher Institutions: A Relational Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel SÁNCHEZ-FERNÁNDEZ

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in value creation, a review of the relevant educational literature reveals that there is no generally accepted and empirically confirmed relational model of the student value creation process. This paper contributes in this way, analyzing several antecedents and consequences in the value creation process between graduates and their universities. We therefore study the effects of the quality of the student-professor interaction, trust, and university image on student perceived value. Moreover, we analyze the impact of perceived value on student satisfaction and loyalty. An empirical study was carried out in order to test the proposed theoretical model. The findings provide relevant academic and managerial implications for strategic decisionmaking at universities.

  10. The role of higher protein diets in weight control and obesity-related comorbidities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne; Geiker, Nina

    2015-01-01

    The importance of the relative dietary content of protein, carbohydrate and the type of carbohydrate (that is, glycemic index (GI)) for weight control under ad libitum conditions has been controversial owing to the lack of large scale studies with high diet adherence. The Diet, Obesity and Genes...... (DioGenes) European multicentre trial examined the importance of a slight increase in dietary protein content, reduction in carbohydrate and the importance of choosing low (LGI) vs high GI (HGI) carbohydrates for weight control in 932 obese families. Only the adults underwent a diet of 800 kcal per day...... for 8 weeks, and after losing ~11kg they were randomized to one of five energy ad libitum diets for 6 months. The diets differed in protein content and GI. The high-protein (HP) diet groups consumed 5.4% points more energy from protein than the normal protein (NP) groups, and the LGI diet groups...

  11. Work-related teaching and learning methods to foster generic skills in Higher Education. An Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Frison

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Within the framework of modernisation of higher education systems in Europe, universities are invited to go beyond a knowledge-based perspective focused on disciplinary approaches and to be more concentrated on encouraging generic skills to deal with today’s complex and unpredictable career paths. The literature about Work-Related Learning and Work-Integrated Learning offers evidence to research regarding contributions of work-related experiences to the development of generic skills. The first part of the article presents a literature review carried out following the matching among three main keywords: work-related learning, generic skills, and higher education. Resources focused on the integration/teaching of generic skills in formal curriculum or in co-curriculum work-related activities and they were collected in order to explore the link between work-related learning in higher education and the development of generic skills. The focus is to identify valuable considerations to improve teaching strategies and methods. The second part presents an Italian work-related experience developed within the course of “Organizational Intervention Research Methods,” which involved 22 master’s degree students. The work-related assignment will be described in addition to the content analysis process of the 22 collected texts and the findings about the development of generic skills.

  12. Stride time synergy in relation to walking during dual task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Læssøe, Uffe; Madeleine, Pascal

    2012-01-01

    point of view elemental and performance variables may represent good and bad components of variability [2]. In this study we propose that the gait pattern can be seen as an on-going movement synergy in which each stride is corrected by the next stride (elemental variables) to ensure a steady gait...... (performance variable). AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate stride time synergy and to identify good and bad stride variability in relation to walking during dual task. METHODS: Thirteen healthy young participants walked along a 2x5 meter figure-of-eight track at a self-selected comfortable speed...... with a positive slope going through the mean of the strides, and bad variance with respect to a similar line with a negative slope. The general variance coefficient (CV%) was also computed. The effect of introducing a concurrent cognitive task (dual task: counting backwards in sequences of 7) was evaluated...

  13. Reef Sharks Exhibit Site-Fidelity and Higher Relative Abundance in Marine Reserves on the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Mark E.; Babcock, Elizabeth A.; Pikitch, Ellen K.; Abercrombie, Debra L.; Lamb, Norlan F.; Chapman, Demian D.

    2012-01-01

    Carcharhinid sharks can make up a large fraction of the top predators inhabiting tropical marine ecosystems and have declined in many regions due to intense fishing pressure. There is some support for the hypothesis that carcharhinid species that complete their life-cycle within coral reef ecosystems, hereafter referred to as “reef sharks”, are more abundant inside no-take marine reserves due to a reduction in fishing pressure (i.e., they benefit from marine reserves). Key predictions of this hypothesis are that (a) individual reef sharks exhibit high site-fidelity to these protected areas and (b) their relative abundance will generally be higher in these areas compared to fished reefs. To test this hypothesis for the first time in Caribbean coral reef ecosystems we combined acoustic monitoring and baited remote underwater video (BRUV) surveys to measure reef shark site-fidelity and relative abundance, respectively. We focused on the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi), the most common reef shark in the Western Atlantic, at Glover's Reef Marine Reserve (GRMR), Belize. Acoustically tagged sharks (N = 34) were detected throughout the year at this location and exhibited strong site-fidelity. Shark presence or absence on 200 BRUVs deployed at GRMR and three other sites (another reserve site and two fished reefs) showed that the factor “marine reserve” had a significant positive effect on reef shark presence. We rejected environmental factors or site-environment interactions as predominant drivers of this pattern. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that marine reserves can benefit reef shark populations and we suggest new hypotheses to determine the underlying mechanism(s) involved: reduced fishing mortality or enhanced prey availability. PMID:22412965

  14. Empirical Analysis of Time in Relation to Economic Development. A System of Time Accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA CARAGEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a new approach to the relation between socio-economic development and time. Measuring the economic development of a country by GDP it is obvious that the indicator is an insufficient measure in order to illustrate the progress of the society. National Time Accounting is a set of methods for measuring, comparing and analyzing how people spend and experience their time. The approach is based on evaluated time use or the flow of emotional experience during daily activities. In order to determine the level of development an international system of new statistical indicators was elaborated to express development trough the quality of life growing. The indicators are related to the economic level of the country, living and environmental conditions, employment and the quality of human capital in labour market, but also they reflect the household activities, the balance between professional and private life of people, health condition. The U-index helps to overcome some of the limitations of interpersonal comparisons of subjective well-being.

  15. A Time Domain Waveform for Testing General Relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huwyler, Cédric; Jetzer, Philippe; Porter, Edward K

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational-wave parameter estimation is only as good as the theory the waveform generation models are based upon. It is therefore crucial to test General Relativity (GR) once data becomes available. Many previous works, such as studies connected with the ppE framework by Yunes and Pretorius, rely on the stationary phase approximation (SPA) to model deviations from GR in the frequency domain. As Fast Fourier Transform algorithms have become considerably faster and in order to circumvent possible problems with the SPA, we test GR with corrected time domain waveforms instead of SPA waveforms. Since a considerable amount of work has been done already in the field using SPA waveforms, we establish a connection between leading-order-corrected waveforms in time and frequency domain, concentrating on phase-only corrected terms. In a Markov Chain Monte Carlo study, whose results are preliminary and will only be available later, we will assess the ability of the eLISA detector to measure deviations from GR for signals coming from supermassive black hole inspirals using these corrected waveforms. (paper)

  16. Higher-Order Squeezing of Quantum Field and the Generalized Uncertainty Relations in Non-Degenerate Four-Wave Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xi-Zeng; Su, Bao-Xia

    1996-01-01

    It is found that the field of the combined mode of the probe wave and the phase-conjugate wave in the process of non-degenerate four-wave mixing exhibits higher-order squeezing to all even orders. And the generalized uncertainty relations in this process are also presented.

  17. Research on Interventions for Adolescents with Learning Disabilities: A Meta-Analysis of Outcomes Related to Higher-Order Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, H. Lee

    2001-01-01

    Details meta-analysis of 58 intervention studies related to higher-order processing (i.e., problem solving) for adolescents with learning disabilities. Discusses factors that increased effect sizes: (1) measures of metacognition and text understanding; (2) instruction including advanced organizers, new skills, and extended practice; and (3)…

  18. Continuing professional education: Motivations and experiences of health and social care professional's part-time study in higher education. A qualitative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrow, Simon; Mairs, Hilary; Pusey, Helen; Bradshaw, Timothy; Keady, John

    2016-11-01

    To understand the motivations and experiences of health and social care professionals undertaking part-time, accredited, continuing professional education in higher education. A review following systematic principles. Systematic searches for literature published between January 2000 and December 2015 using the databases: SCOPUS, Web of Science, Medline, PsychINFO, Social Policy and Practice and CINAHL. Studies were included if they were published in the English language and were qualitative in design, focussing on the motivations and experiences of staff engaged in part-time, accredited, higher education study. Three reviewers appraised the quality of the selected studies. Thirteen qualitative studies were identified for the review. Motivating factors for staff to engage in part-time, accredited, continuing professional development study included: personal and professional drivers, influence of workplace/management and funding and availability. Key themes in relation to how staff experienced study included: the demands of adjusting to the academic requirements of higher education study; the experience of juggling competing demands of study, work and family; and the presence or absence of support for part-time study in the personal and professional arenas. Health and social care professionals experience a number of challenges when engaging in part-time, continuing professional education in higher education institutions. A significant challenge is the juggling of competing demands of study, work and family, and this may have a negative impact on learning. Research is needed to inform how higher education can address the specific learning needs of this population and develop pedagogic approaches that are both responsive to need and support of effective learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A High-Order, Linear Time-Invariant Model for Application to Higher Harmonic Control and Flight Control System Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Rendy P.; Tischler, Mark B.; Celi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    This research describes a new methodology for the extraction of a high-order, linear time invariant model, which allows the periodicity of the helicopter response to be accurately captured. This model provides the needed level of dynamic fidelity to permit an analysis and optimization of the AFCS and HHC algorithms. The key results of this study indicate that the closed-loop HHC system has little influence on the AFCS or on the vehicle handling qualities, which indicates that the AFCS does not need modification to work with the HHC system. However, the results show that the vibration response to maneuvers must be considered during the HHC design process, and this leads to much higher required HHC loop crossover frequencies. This research also demonstrates that the transient vibration responses during maneuvers can be reduced by optimizing the closed-loop higher harmonic control algorithm using conventional control system analyses.

  20. Time-dependent relative activities in the radioactive families

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiernik, M.

    1976-01-01

    The relative activities of the members of the principal radioactive families, with respect to the initial activities of chosen parents were calculated for a wide range of time intervals. Tables ard graphs that are useful for radiochemistry, source standardization and chronology are presented.Three series of graphs and tables are included; series A corresponds to the family 4n, series B corresponds to the family 4n+ x, series C corresponds to the family 4n+2. A foustry, source standardization and chronology are presented. rth series 4n+1 ( 241 Pu/ 209 Bi) was not included, because it does not exist in nature and, thus, is of little interest. Each series begins with a table identified by a plain letter (A,B,C) where all the nuclides considered for the calculations and their half-lives are listed. Branching was neglected. All the series begin with isotopes of plutonium in order to show some examples of no-equilibrium, and five of the longest lived members of each family were chosen as the parents of the sub-families. The graphs show that, besides their obvious use in radiochemical separations and standardizations, each family beginning with a naturally occuring nuclide has a particular time span (before secular equilibrium occurs) that can be used for chronology. Thus, if the proper radionuclides are present, we can use the wide range families in geological and archeological research and the short range ones in other kinds of jobs, like checking the authenticity of art masterpieces and other forensic problems. (T.G.)

  1. Time, Individualisation, and Ethics: Relating Vladimir Nabokov and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeverot, Herner

    2014-01-01

    This article states that the concept of time we generally hold is a spatial version of time. However, a spatial time concept creates a series of problems, with unfortunate consequences for education.The problems become particularly obvious when the spatial time concept is used as a basis for the education function that is connected to the…

  2. Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Holanda, R.F.L., E-mail: montirana1992@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Aracaju—SE (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η( z ) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ{sub 0} and Einstein radius θ {sub E} . In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance D {sub A} {sub ol} of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.

  3. EFFECTS OF HIGHER EDUCATION ON GLOBAL COMPETITIVENESS: REVIEWS IN RELATION WITH EUROPEAN COUNTRIES AND THE MIDDLE EAST COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HILAL YILDIRIR KESER

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is investigate the effects of higher education on global competitiveness One of the most widely accepted definition of global competitiveness is in the form of " efficiency level encompassing all of the institutions that will ensure sustainable growth in a country, policies and factors of production". Therefore the competitiveness of a country depends on the factors such as; The level of development of R & D activities and productivity, performance of various sectors, the country's trade surplus, producing goods hosting high-tech in their nature, availability of expert and skilled labor force. But one of the main points in the realization of these factors is the quality of the higher education. Higher education has an important role in the formation of qualified labour. And the qualified labour carries the competitiveness firstly of the sector and then of the country up to higher ranks by increasing the performance and productivity of the companies. The study will be discussed in the following way: firstly the context of the global competitiveness will be mentioned, secondly, the role and importance of higher education will be put forth by explaining the basic determinants of competitivenes particularly within the World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Index. Finally, assessments will be made in relation with the situation of higher education in global competitiveness in European countries and Middle Eastern countries.

  4. Time-resolved photoemission micro-spectrometer using higher-order harmonics of Ti:sapphire laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azuma, J.; Kamada, M.; Kondo, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: A new photoemission spectrometer is under construction for the photoemission microscopy and the time-resolved pump- probe experiment. The higher order harmonics of the Ti:sapphire laser is used as the light source of the VUV region in this system. Because the fundamental laser is focused tightly into the rare gas jet to generate the higher order harmonics, the spot size of the laser, in other words, the spot size of the VUV light source is smaller than a few tens of micrometer. This smallness of the spot size has advantage for the microscopy. In order to compensate the low flux of the laser harmonics, a multilayer-coated schwaltzshild optics was designed. The multilayers play also as the monochromatic filter. The spatial resolution of this schwaltzshild system is found to be less than 1 micrometer by the ray-tracing calculations. A main chamber of the system is equipped with a time-of-flight energy analyzer to improve the efficiency of the electron detection. The main chamber and the gas chamber are separated by a differential pumping chamber and a thin Al foil. The system is designed for the study of the clean surface. It will be capable to perform the sub-micron photoemission microscopy and the femto-second pump-probe photoemission study for the various photo-excited dynamics on clean surfaces

  5. Mapping of uncertainty relations between continuous and discrete time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiuchiù, Davide; Pigolotti, Simone

    2018-03-01

    Lower bounds on fluctuations of thermodynamic currents depend on the nature of time, discrete or continuous. To understand the physical reason, we compare current fluctuations in discrete-time Markov chains and continuous-time master equations. We prove that current fluctuations in the master equations are always more likely, due to random timings of transitions. This comparison leads to a mapping of the moments of a current between discrete and continuous time. We exploit this mapping to obtain uncertainty bounds. Our results reduce the quests for uncertainty bounds in discrete and continuous time to a single problem.

  6. Constraint Logic Programming for Resolution of Relative Time Expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Translating time expression into absolute time points or durations is a challenge for natural languages processing such as text mining and text understanding in general. We present a constraint logic language CLP(Time) tailored to text usages concerned with time and calendar. It provides a simple...... and flexible formalism to express relationships between different time expressions in a text, thereby giving a recipe for resolving them into absolute time. A constraint solver is developed which, as opposed to some earlier approaches, is independent of the order in which temporal information is introduced...

  7. Quantifying avoidance-related behaviour and bleeding times of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yonela Zifikile Njis

    2013-07-05

    Jul 5, 2013 ... South African Journal of Animal Science 2013, 43 (Issue 5, .... However in some studies (arena tests) rams appeared less fearful compared to ewes, with ewes being more active having higher measurements of locomotion ( ...

  8. The Ricci flow part IV : long-time solutions and related topics

    CERN Document Server

    Chow, Bennett; Glickenstein, David; Isenberg, James

    2015-01-01

    Ricci flow is a powerful technique using a heat-type equation to deform Riemannian metrics on manifolds to better metrics in the search for geometric decompositions. With the fourth part of their volume on techniques and applications of the theory, the authors discuss long-time solutions of the Ricci flow and related topics. In dimension 3, Perelman completed Hamilton's program to prove Thurston's geometrization conjecture. In higher dimensions the Ricci flow has remarkable properties, which indicates its usefulness to understand relations between the geometry and topology of manifolds. This b

  9. T2 relaxation time is related to liver fibrosis severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Luiz; Uppal, Ritika; Alford, Jamu; Fuchs, Bryan C.; Yamada, Suguru; Tanabe, Kenneth; Chung, Raymond T.; Lauwers, Gregory; Chew, Michael L.; Boland, Giles W.; Sahani, Duhyant V.; Vangel, Mark; Hahn, Peter F.; Caravan, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The grading of liver fibrosis relies on liver biopsy. Imaging techniques, including elastography and relaxometric, techniques have had varying success in diagnosing moderate fibrosis. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between the T2-relaxation time of hepatic parenchyma and the histologic grade of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis C undergoing both routine, liver MRI and liver biopsy, and to validate our methodology with phantoms and in a rat model of liver fibrosis. Methods This study is composed of three parts: (I) 123 patients who underwent both routine, clinical liver MRI and biopsy within a 6-month period, between July 1999 and January 2010 were enrolled in a retrospective study. MR imaging was performed at 1.5 T using dual-echo turbo-spin echo equivalent pulse sequence. T2 relaxation time of liver parenchyma in patients was calculated by mono-exponential fit of a region of interest (ROI) within the right lobe correlating to histopathologic grading (Ishak 0–6) and routine serum liver inflammation [aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT)]. Statistical comparison was performed using ordinary logistic and ordinal logistic regression and ANOVA comparing T2 to Ishak fibrosis without and using AST and ALT as covariates; (II) a phantom was prepared using serial dilutions of dextran coated magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. T2 weighed imaging was performed by comparing a dual echo fast spin echo sequence to a Carr-Purcell-Meigboom-Gill (CPMG) multi-echo sequence at 1.5 T. Statistical comparison was performed using a paired t-test; (III) male Wistar rats receiving weekly intraperitoneal injections of phosphate buffer solution (PBS) control (n=4 rats); diethylnitrosamine (DEN) for either 5 (n=5 rats) or 8 weeks (n=4 rats) were MR imaged on a Bruker Pharmascan 4.7 T magnet with a home-built bird-cage coil. T2 was quantified by using a mono-exponential fitting algorithm on multi-slice multi

  10. Body lift, drag and power are relatively higher in large-eared than in small-eared bat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Håkansson, Jonas; Jakobsen, Lasse; Hedenström, Anders; Johansson, L Christoffer

    2017-10-01

    Bats navigate the dark using echolocation. Echolocation is enhanced by external ears, but external ears increase the projected frontal area and reduce the streamlining of the animal. External ears are thus expected to compromise flight efficiency, but research suggests that very large ears may mitigate the cost by producing aerodynamic lift. Here we compare quantitative aerodynamic measures of flight efficiency of two bat species, one large-eared ( Plecotus auritus ) and one small-eared ( Glossophaga soricina ), flying freely in a wind tunnel. We find that the body drag of both species is higher than previously assumed and that the large-eared species has a higher body drag coefficient, but also produces relatively more ear/body lift than the small-eared species, in line with prior studies on model bats. The measured aerodynamic power of P. auritus was higher than predicted from the aerodynamic model, while the small-eared species aligned with predictions. The relatively higher power of the large-eared species results in lower optimal flight speeds and our findings support the notion of a trade-off between the acoustic benefits of large external ears and aerodynamic performance. The result of this trade-off would be the eco-morphological correlation in bat flight, with large-eared bats generally adopting slow-flight feeding strategies. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białek, Michał; Markiewicz, Łukasz; Sawicki, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship). However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal. The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries-conjoint analysis-which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 and 2), and they are more stable over time (Study 2) compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  12. Introducing conjoint analysis method into delayed lotteries studies: Its validity and time stability are higher than in adjusting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal eBialek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The delayed lotteries are much more common in everyday life than are pure lotteries. Usually, we need to wait to find out the outcome of the risky decision (e.g., investing in a stock market, engaging in a relationship. However, most research has studied the time discounting and probability discounting in isolation using the methodologies designed specifically to track changes in one parameter. Most commonly used method is adjusting, but its reported validity and time stability in research on discounting are suboptimal.The goal of this study was to introduce the novel method for analyzing delayed lotteries - conjoint analysis - which hypothetically is more suitable for analyzing individual preferences in this area. A set of two studies compared the conjoint analysis with adjusting. The results suggest that individual parameters of discounting strength estimated with conjoint have higher predictive value (Study 1 & 2, and they are more stable over time (Study 2 compared to adjusting. We discuss these findings, despite the exploratory character of reported studies, by suggesting that future research on delayed lotteries should be cross-validated using both methods.

  13. Singularity Structure Analysis of the Higher-Dimensional Time-Gated Manakov System: Periodic Excitations and Elastic Scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuetche, Victor Kamgang; Bouetou, Thomas Bouetou; Kofane, Timoleon Crepin

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the singularity structure analysis of the higher-dimensional time-gated Manakov system referring to the (2+1)-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schroedinger (CNLS) equations, and we show that these equations are Painleve-integrable. By means of the Weiss et al.'s methodology, we show the arbitrariness of the expansion coefficients and the consistency of the truncation corresponding to a special Baecklund transformation (BT) of these CNLS equations. In the wake of such transformation, following the Hirota's formalism, we derive a one-soliton solution. Besides, by using the Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scheme which provides a general Lax-representation of an evolution system, we show that the (2+1)-dimensional CNLS system under interests is completely integrable. Furthermore, using the arbitrariness of the above coefficients, we unearth and investigate a typical spectrum of periodic coherent structures while depicting elastic interactions amongst such patterns. (author)

  14. Computer-mediated communication and time pressure induce higher cardiovascular responses in the preparatory and execution phases of cooperative tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Ferrer, Raquel; Serrano Rosa, Miguel Ángel; Zornoza Abad, Ana; Salvador Fernández-Montejo, Alicia

    2010-11-01

    The cardiovascular (CV) response to social challenge and stress is associated with the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. New ways of communication, time pressure and different types of information are common in our society. In this study, the cardiovascular response to two different tasks (open vs. closed information) was examined employing different communication channels (computer-mediated vs. face-to-face) and with different pace control (self vs. external). Our results indicate that there was a higher CV response in the computer-mediated condition, on the closed information task and in the externally paced condition. These role of these factors should be considered when studying the consequences of social stress and their underlying mechanisms.

  15. Investigation of Turkish Higher Education as a Means of Influence in Relation to ‘Soft Power'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilal BÜYÜKGÖZE

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the realization of soft power's potential in time which was emerged by the canalization of international diplomacy conjuncture directing to new quests after the industrial revolution and cold war, states have been led to apply various ways and methods regarding their foreign policies. Turkey also utilizes soft power, defined generally as the ability to shape the preferences of others through appeal rather than coerce, both through financial co-operations, constructive applications in international policy and through national institutions, foundations and Non-Governmental Organizations for its appearance and perception in international system. Higher education, which has an international characteristic, may also be assessed as a soft power element through international students and academics. Accordingly, in the current study, power and soft power terms were investigated, and the role of soft power in Turkey's foreign policy and Turkish higher education was examined. The findings of the study showed that the strategies toward internationalism in higher education are not sufficient, academics and university students have a certain level of awareness on the issue though. The results were interpreted within the scope of the literature, and managerial and functional characteristics of Turkish higher education as well.

  16. Quantum Statistical Entropy of Non-extreme and Nearly Extreme Black Holes in Higher-Dimensional Space-Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Dian-Yan

    2003-01-01

    The free energy and entropy of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in higher-dimensional space-time are calculated by the quantum statistic method with a brick wall model. The space-time of the black holes is divided into three regions: region 1, (r > r0); region 2, (r0 > r > n); and region 3, (T-J > r > 0), where r0 is the radius of the outer event horizon, and r, is the radius of the inner event horizon. Detailed calculation shows that the entropy contributed by region 2 is zero, the entropy contributed by region 1 is positive and proportional to the outer event horizon area, the entropy contributed by region 3 is negative and proportional to the inner event horizon area. The total entropy contributed by all the three regions is positive and proportional to the area difference between the outer and inner event horizons. As rt approaches r0 in the nearly extreme case, the total quantum statistical entropy approaches zero.

  17. Energy-momentum conserving higher-order time integration of nonlinear dynamics of finite elastic fiber-reinforced continua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erler, Norbert; Groß, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Since many years the relevance of fibre-reinforced polymers is steadily increasing in fields of engineering, especially in aircraft and automotive industry. Due to the high strength in fibre direction, but the possibility of lightweight construction, these composites replace more and more traditional materials as metals. Fibre-reinforced polymers are often manufactured from glass or carbon fibres as attachment parts or from steel or nylon cord as force transmission parts. Attachment parts are mostly subjected to small strains, but force transmission parts usually suffer large deformations in at least one direction. Here, a geometrically nonlinear formulation is necessary. Typical examples are helicopter rotor blades, where the fibres have the function to stabilize the structure in order to counteract large centrifugal forces. For long-run analyses of rotor blade deformations, we have to apply numerically stable time integrators for anisotropic materials. This paper presents higher-order accurate and numerically stable time stepping schemes for nonlinear elastic fibre-reinforced continua with anisotropic stress behaviour.

  18. Exact methods for time constrained routing and related scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohl, Niklas

    1995-01-01

    of customers. In the VRPTW customers must be serviced within a given time period - a so called time window. The objective can be to minimize operating costs (e.g. distance travelled), fixed costs (e.g. the number of vehicles needed) or a combination of these component costs. During the last decade optimization......This dissertation presents a number of optimization methods for the Vehicle Routing Problem with Time Windows (VRPTW). The VRPTW is a generalization of the well known capacity constrained Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP), where a fleet of vehicles based at a central depot must service a set...... of J?rnsten, Madsen and S?rensen (1986), which has been tested computationally by Halse (1992). Both methods decompose the problem into a series of time and capacity constrained shotest path problems. This yields a tight lower bound on the optimal objective, and the dual gap can often be closed...

  19. U.S.-Vietnam Relations: Is Now the Time?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Medeiros, John

    1990-01-01

    .... Planning for restoration of relations has ebbed and flowed in the intervening 15 years, coming closest to realization in 1977-78 under the Carter Administration, which entered office intending...

  20. Turbulent times : Consequences for crisis management and related future research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, I.; Vos, Marita F.; Vos, Marita

    In this chapter, we will address the idea that organisational resilience calls for management across organisational and discipline borders. We will also discuss the need for related applied research and technological development. Finally, we will look into future research design.

  1. Academic Community Consumer Assessment an Institution of Public Higher Education in Relation to Green it Practices in Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Hernan Contreras Pinochet

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is understanding the consumers of the academic community community in a public higher education institution in relation to Green IT practices in organizations. This study aims to confirm the model developed by Lunardi et al. (2011 Lunardi et al. (2014 through the application of multivariate statistical technique of Structural Equation Modeling (SEM. The survey research was conducted in a public higher education institution, based in the city of Osasco, using structured questionnaire with five point likert scale options and the respondents were: the students and professors from graduate school in Business Administration, in addition to employees administrative technician education. The results confirmed the highly significant and demonstrate that the model is consistent with proper adjustment can be used in future research.

  2. A novel Fast Gas Chromatography based technique for higher time resolution measurements of speciated monoterpenes in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C. E.; Kato, S.; Nakashima, Y.; Kajii, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic emissions supply the largest fraction of non-methane volatile organic compounds (VOC) from the biosphere to the atmospheric boundary layer, and typically comprise a complex mixture of reactive terpenes. Due to this chemical complexity, achieving comprehensive measurements of biogenic VOC (BVOC) in air within a satisfactory time resolution is analytically challenging. To address this, we have developed a novel, fully automated Fast Gas Chromatography (Fast-GC) based technique to provide higher time resolution monitoring of monoterpenes (and selected other C9-C15 terpenes) during plant emission studies and in ambient air. To our knowledge, this is the first study to apply a Fast-GC based separation technique to achieve quantification of terpenes in air. Three chromatography methods have been developed for atmospheric terpene analysis under different sampling scenarios. Each method facilitates chromatographic separation of selected BVOC within a significantly reduced analysis time compared to conventional GC methods, whilst maintaining the ability to quantify individual monoterpene structural isomers. Using this approach, the C10-C15 BVOC composition of single plant emissions may be characterised within a ~ 14 min analysis time. Moreover, in situ quantification of 12 monoterpenes in unpolluted ambient air may be achieved within an ~ 11 min chromatographic separation time (increasing to ~ 19 min when simultaneous quantification of multiple oxygenated C9-C10 terpenoids is required, and/or when concentrations of anthropogenic VOC are significant). This corresponds to a two- to fivefold increase in measurement frequency compared to conventional GC methods. Here we outline the technical details and analytical capability of this chromatographic approach, and present the first in situ Fast-GC observations of 6 monoterpenes and the oxygenated BVOC linalool in ambient air. During this field deployment within a suburban forest ~ 30 km west of central Tokyo, Japan, the

  3. Preparing students for higher education and careers in agriculture and related fields: An ethnography of an urban charter school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Kesha Atasha

    This study explored the preparation of students for higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields at an urban charter high school. The data were collected through interviews, observations, and field notes. The data were analyzed by qualitative methodology with phenomenology as the theoretical framework. Findings indicated that administrators thought it was important to incorporate agricultural science courses into urban school curricula. They stated that agricultural science courses gave urban students a different way of looking at science and helped to enhance the science and technology focus of the school. Further, agricultural science courses helped to break urban students' stereotypes about agriculture and helped to bring in more state funding for educational programs. However they thought that it was more challenging to teach agricultural science in urban versus rural schools and they focused more on Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) related careers. The students had mixed views about higher education and careers in agriculture. This was based on their limited knowledge and stereotypes about agricultural majors and career options. The students highlighted several key reasons why they chose to enroll in agricultural science courses. This included the benefits of dual science credits and the ability to earn an associate degree upon successful completion of their program. Students also loved science and appreciated the science intensive nature of the agricultural courses. Additionally, they thought that the agricultural science courses were better than the other optional courses. The results also showed that electronic media such as radio and TV had a negative impact on students' perceptions about higher education and careers in agriculturally-related fields. Conclusions and recommendations are presented.

  4. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordão, B. O.; Quaresma, D. S.; Peixoto, J. G. P.

    2018-03-01

    The metrology area has taken a step forward with regard to the uncertainty calculation. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (i) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1x10-4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it re-producible; (ii) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (iii) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate.

  5. Relation between the psychological and thermodynamic arrows of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlodinow, Leonard; Brun, Todd A.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we lay out an argument that generically the psychological arrow of time should align with the thermodynamic arrow of time where that arrow is well defined. This argument applies to any physical system that can act as a memory, in the sense of preserving a record of the state of some other system. This result follows from two principles: the robustness of the thermodynamic arrow of time to small perturbations in the state, and the principle that a memory should not have to be fine-tuned to match the state of the system being recorded. This argument applies even if the memory system itself is completely reversible and nondissipative. We make the argument with a paradigmatic system, and then formulate it more broadly for any system that can be considered a memory. We illustrate these principles for a few other example systems and compare our criteria to earlier treatments of this problem.

  6. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel, E-mail: bjordan@on.br [Observatorio Nacional (LPTF/ON), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Primário de Tempo e Frequência; Peixoto, José Guilherme P. [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (LNMRI/IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes

    2017-07-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10{sup -4} s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  7. The quantity time relation in the ionizing radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordão, Bruno; Quaresma, Daniel; Peixoto, José Guilherme P.

    2017-01-01

    The area of metrology has taken a step forward with regard to the calculation of uncertainty. This mathematical tool used in laboratories is essential to ensure that the values resulting from a measurement are reliable. For this to be possible, all equipment used in a measurement process must be reliable and, above all, traceable to the international metrology system. We propose to present in this work: (1) the development and calibration of a microcontrolled time device with a resolution of 1 x 10 -4 s, in order to characterize the time greatness and make it reproducible; (2) the calibration of the quartz clock present in a computer present in the dosimetry laboratories; (3) a more in-depth study of the influence of time quantity on calibrations of instruments used in the area of radiological protection, diagnostic radiology and radiotherapy, with measurements performed on the Kerma magnitude in air or its rate. (author)

  8. Chromosomal radiosensitivity of human leucocytes in relation to sampling time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buul, P.P.W. van; Natarajan, A.T.

    1980-01-01

    Frequencies of chromosomal aberrations after irradiation with X-rays of peripheral blood lymphocytes in vitro were determined at different times after initiation of cultures. In each culture, the kinetics of cell multiplication was followed by using BrdU labelling and differential staining of chromosomes. The results indicate that the mixing up of first and second cell cycle cells at later sampling times cannot explain the observed variation in the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations but that donor-to-donor variation is a predominant factor influencing yields of aberrations. The condition of a donor seems to be most important because repeats on the same donor also showed marked variability. (orig.)

  9. Adult age differences in prospective memory in the laboratory: are they related to higher stress levels in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ihle, Andreas; Kliegel, Matthias; Hering, Alexandra; Ballhausen, Nicola; Lagner, Prune; Benusch, Julia; Cichon, Anja; Zergiebel, Annekathrin; Oris, Michel; Schnitzspahn, Katharina M

    2014-01-01

    To explain age deficits found in laboratory-based prospective memory (PM) tasks, it has recently been suggested that the testing situation per se may be more stressful for older adults, thereby impairing their performance. To test this assumption, subjective and physiological stress levels were assessed at several times during the experiment in 33 younger and 29 older adults. In addition, half of participants were randomized in a condition where they completed a relaxation intervention before performing a time-based PM task. Results confirmed the age deficit in laboratory PM. Subjective and physiological stress levels showed no age difference and no detrimental association with PM. The intervention successfully reduced stress levels in both age groups but had no effect on PM or the age deficit. In conclusion, data suggest that age deficits usually observed in laboratory PM may not be due to higher stress levels in the older adults.

  10. The role of time in relational quantum theories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gryb, S.; Thebault, K.

    2011-01-01

    We propose a solution to the problem of time for systems with a single global Hamiltonian constraint. Our solution stems from the observation that, for these theories, conventional gauge theory methods fail to capture the classical dynamics of the full system. We propose a new strategy for

  11. International mobility placements enable students and staff in Higher Education to enhance transversal and employability-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Henrietta J

    2015-10-01

    Internationalization has commanded an ever-more prominent position in higher education over recent years, and is now firmly entrenched. While academia has long been outward looking-international research collaborations, conferences and student exchanges are well-established practices-it is relatively recently that internationalization has become a goal in its own right, rather than a consequence of normal academic activity. There are multiple interdependent drivers behind this: a focus on graduate employability and development of broad competencies and transferable skills in addition to subject-specific training, 'international awareness' being confirmed as a graduate attribute that is highly valued by employers, the availability of detailed information enabling prospective students to choose between Higher Education Institutions on the basis of their international opportunities and graduate employment rates, increasing competition between Institutions to attract the best students and to ascend national and international league tables, and (both driving and reflecting these trends) national policy frameworks. This minireview focuses on two aspects of internationalization of direct relevance to microbiology students and academic staff in a typical Higher Education Institution: student research placements overseas, and the impact of international mobility on teaching practice and the student experience. Practical strategies for developing intercultural awareness and enhancing employability are highlighted. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Continuous radon measurements in schools: time variations and related parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovani, C.; Cappelletto, C.; Garavaglia, M.; Pividore, S.; Villalta, R.

    2004-01-01

    Some results are reported of observations made within a four-year survey, during different seasons and in different conditions of school building use. Natural radon variations (day-night cycles, seasonal and temperature dependent variations etc..) and artificial ones (opening of windows, weekends and vacations, deployment of air conditioning or heating systems. etc.) were investigated as parameters affecting time dependent radon concentrations. (P.A.)

  13. Reconstructing relative genome size of vascular plants through geological time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Barry H; Hilton, Jason; Bateman, Richard M; Upchurch, Garland R; Lake, Janice A; Leitch, Ilia J; Cromwell, Avery; Knight, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The strong positive relationship evident between cell and genome size in both animals and plants forms the basis of using the size of stomatal guard cells as a proxy to track changes in plant genome size through geological time. We report for the first time a taxonomic fine-scale investigation into changes in stomatal guard-cell length and use these data to infer changes in genome size through the evolutionary history of land plants. Our data suggest that many of the earliest land plants had exceptionally large genome sizes and that a predicted overall trend of increasing genome size within individual lineages through geological time is not supported. However, maximum genome size steadily increases from the Mississippian (c. 360 million yr ago (Ma)) to the present. We hypothesise that the functional relationship between stomatal size, genome size and atmospheric CO2 may contribute to the dichotomy reported between preferential extinction of neopolyploids and the prevalence of palaeopolyploidy observed in DNA sequence data of extant vascular plants. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  14. Exploratory joint and separate tracking of geographically related time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasingam, Balakumar; Willett, Peter; Levchuk, Georgiy; Freeman, Jared

    2012-05-01

    Target tracking techniques have usually been applied to physical systems via radar, sonar or imaging modalities. But the same techniques - filtering, association, classification, track management - can be applied to nontraditional data such as one might find in other fields such as economics, business and national defense. In this paper we explore a particular data set. The measurements are time series collected at various sites; but other than that little is known about it. We shall refer to as the data as representing the Megawatt hour (MWH) output of various power plants located in Afghanistan. We pose such questions as: 1. Which power plants seem to have a common model? 2. Do any power plants change their models with time? 3. Can power plant behavior be predicted, and if so, how far to the future? 4. Are some of the power plants stochastically linked? That is, do we observed a lack of power demand at one power plant as implying a surfeit of demand elsewhere? The observations seem well modeled as hidden Markov. This HMM modeling is compared to other approaches; and tests are continued to other (albeit self-generated) data sets with similar characteristics. Keywords: Time-series analysis, hidden Markov models, statistical similarity, clustering weighted

  15. Age related neuromuscular changes in sEMG of m. Tibialis Anterior using higher order statistics (Gaussianity & linearity test).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, Ariba; Arjunan, Sridhar P; Kumar, Dinesh K

    2016-08-01

    Age-associated changes in the surface electromyogram (sEMG) of Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle can be attributable to neuromuscular alterations that precede strength loss. We have used our sEMG model of the Tibialis Anterior to interpret the age-related changes and compared with the experimental sEMG. Eighteen young (20-30 years) and 18 older (60-85 years) performed isometric dorsiflexion at 6 different percentage levels of maximum voluntary contractions (MVC), and their sEMG from the TA muscle was recorded. Six different age-related changes in the neuromuscular system were simulated using the sEMG model at the same MVCs as the experiment. The maximal power of the spectrum, Gaussianity and Linearity Test Statistics were computed from the simulated and experimental sEMG. A correlation analysis at α=0.05 was performed between the simulated and experimental age-related change in the sEMG features. The results show the loss in motor units was distinguished by the Gaussianity and Linearity test statistics; while the maximal power of the PSD distinguished between the muscular factors. The simulated condition of 40% loss of motor units with halved the number of fast fibers best correlated with the age-related change observed in the experimental sEMG higher order statistical features. The simulated aging condition found by this study corresponds with the moderate motor unit remodelling and negligible strength loss reported in literature for the cohorts aged 60-70 years.

  16. Brain activations related to saccadic response conflict are not sensitive to time on task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa eBeldzik

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e. a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  17. Brain Activations Related to Saccadic Response Conflict are not Sensitive to Time on Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldzik, Ewa; Domagalik, Aleksandra; Oginska, Halszka; Marek, Tadeusz; Fafrowicz, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Establishing a role of the dorsal medial frontal cortex in the performance monitoring and cognitive control has been a challenge to neuroscientists for the past decade. In light of recent findings, the conflict monitoring hypothesis has been elaborated to an action-outcome predictor theory. One of the findings that led to this re-evaluation was the fMRI study in which conflict-related brain activity was investigated in terms of the so-called time on task effect, i.e., a linear increase of the BOLD signal with longer response times. The aim of this study was to investigate brain regions involved in the processing of saccadic response conflict and to account for the time on task effect. A modified spatial cueing task was implemented in the event-related fMRI study with oculomotor responses. The results revealed several brain regions which show higher activity for incongruent trials in comparison to the congruent ones, including pre-supplementary motor area together with the frontal and parietal regions. Further analysis accounting for the effect of response time provided evidence that these brain activations were not sensitive to time on task but reflected purely the congruency effect.

  18. [Survival time of HIV/AIDS cases and related factors in Beijing, 1995-2015].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wang, J; He, S F; Chen, J; Lu, H Y

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To analyze the survival time of HIV/AIDS cases and related factors in Beijing from 1995 to 2015. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the data of 12 874 HIV/AIDS cases. The data were collected from Chinese HIV/AIDS Comprehensive Information Management System. Life table method was applied to calculate the survival proportion, and Cox proportion hazard regression model were used to identify the factors related with survival time. Results: Among 12 874 HIV/AIDS cases, 303 (2.4%) died of AIDS related diseases; 9 346 (72.6%) received antiretroviral therapy. The average survival time was 226.5 months (95 %CI : 223.0-230.1), and the survival rates of 1, 5, 10, and 15 years were 98.2%, 96.4%, 93.2%, and 91.9% respectively. Multivariate Cox proportion hazard regression model showed that AIDS phase ( HR =1.439, 95 %CI : 1.041-1.989), heterosexual transmission ( HR =1.646, 95 %CI : 1.184-2.289), being married ( HR =2.186, 95 %CI : 1.510-3.164); older age (≥60 years) at diagnosis ( HR =6.608, 95 %CI : 3.546-12.316); lower CD(4)(+)T cell counts at diagnosis (<350 cells/μl) ( HR =8.711, 95 %CI : 5.757-13.181); receiving no antiretroviral therapy (ART) ( HR =18.223, 95 %CI : 13.317-24.937) were the high risk factors influencing the survival of AIDS patients compared with HIV phase, homosexual transmission, being unmarried, younger age (≤30 years), higher CD(4)(+)T cell count (≥350 cell/μl) and receiving ART. Conclusion: The average survival time of HIV/AIDS cases was 226.5 months after diagnoses. Receiving ART, higher CD(4)(+)T cell counts at the first test, HIV phase, younger age, being unmarried and the homosexual transmission were related to the longer survival time of HIV/AIDS cases. Receiving no ART, the lower CD(4)(+)T cell counts at the first test, AIDS phase, older age, being married and heterosexual transmission indicated higher risk of death due to AIDS.

  19. Credentialism, Adults, and Part-Time Higher Education in the United Kingdom: An Account of Rising Take Up and Some Implications for Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Explains the growing importance of higher-level qualifications for adults in the UK, highlighting statistical trends in commitment to learning and qualifying-the result of taking part-time courses in higher education. Most part-time undergraduates fund their own tuition. Mature students' backgrounds and perspectives partly account for their rising…

  20. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  1. Dogs cannot bark: event-related brain responses to true and false negated statements as indicators of higher-order conscious processing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia Herbert

    Full Text Available The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level and prime-target expressions (word level. Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences, target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600-1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

  2. Relating the thermodynamic arrow of time to the causal arrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allahverdyan, Armen E; Janzing, Dominik

    2008-01-01

    Consider a Hamiltonian system that consists of a slow subsystem S and a fast subsystem F. The autonomous dynamics of S is driven by an effective Hamiltonian, but its thermodynamics is unexpected. We show that a well-defined thermodynamic arrow of time (second law) emerges for S whenever there is a well-defined causal arrow from S to F and the back-action is negligible. This is because the back-action of F on S is described by a non-globally Hamiltonian Born–Oppenheimer term that violates the Liouville theorem, and makes the second law inapplicable to S. If S and F are mixing, under the causal arrow condition they are described by microcanonical distributions P(S) and P(S|F). Their structure supports a causal inference principle proposed recently in machine learning

  3. Organized Sport Participation Is Associated with Higher Levels of Overall Health-Related Physical Activity in Children (CHAMPS Study-DK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Møller, Niels C.; Andersen, Lars B.; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Objective Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. Methods This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Results Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (psports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Conclusions Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international guideline concordance in children. PMID:26262678

  4. Higher perceived risk of antimicrobials is related to lower antimicrobial usage among pig farmers in four European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visschers, V H M; Postma, M; Sjölund, M; Backhans, A; Collineau, L; Loesken, S; Belloc, C; Dewulf, J; Emanuelson, U; Grosse Beilage, E; Siegrist, M; Stärk, K D C

    2016-11-12

    The prudent use of antimicrobials (AMs) should be widened in pig farming to reduce the risk of AM resistance (AMR) in human and veterinary medicine. It is therefore important to understand pig farmers' motivators and the barriers to AM usage (AMU) on their farms. The authors investigated pig farmers' self-estimated levels of AMU, their perceived benefits and risks and the need for AMs in a cross-sectional survey in Belgium, France, Germany and Sweden. The authors also compared these perceptions between the four countries and related them to pig farmers' actual AMU. The results showed that farmers who used more AMs also estimated their own usage as higher. Farmers perceived many benefits but relatively few risks of AMU in pig farming. Some significant cross-country differences in farmers' perceptions were found, but they were relatively small. After controlling for country differences and farm differences, only perceived risks had a significant association with AMU. The authors therefore conclude that in order to promote prudent AMU, it seems most promising to focus on the structural differences in pig farming and veterinary medicine (e.g. legislation, role of the veterinarian) among countries. In addition, interventions which aim at reducing AMU should increase farmers' awareness of the risks of extensive AMU. British Veterinary Association.

  5. General Relativity without paradigm of space-time covariance, and resolution of the problem of time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, Chopin; Yu, Hoi-Lai

    2014-01-01

    The framework of a theory of gravity from the quantum to the classical regime is presented. The paradigm shift from full space-time covariance to spatial diffeomorphism invariance, together with clean decomposition of the canonical structure, yield transparent physical dynamics and a resolution of the problem of time. The deep divide between quantum mechanics and conventional canonical formulations of quantum gravity is overcome with a Schrödinger equation for quantum geometrodynamics that describes evolution in intrinsic time. Unitary time development with gauge-invariant temporal ordering is also viable. All Kuchar observables become physical; and classical space-time, with direct correlation between its proper times and intrinsic time intervals, emerges from constructive interference. The framework not only yields a physical Hamiltonian for Einstein's theory, but also prompts natural extensions and improvements towards a well behaved quantum theory of gravity. It is a consistent canonical scheme to discuss Horava-Lifshitz theories with intrinsic time evolution, and of the many possible alternatives that respect 3-covariance (rather than the more restrictive 4-covariance of Einstein's theory), Horava's "detailed balance" form of the Hamiltonian constraint is essentially pinned down by this framework. Issues in quantum gravity that depend on radiative corrections and the rigorous definition and regularization of the Hamiltonian operator are not addressed in this work.

  6. Relation of time to complete redistribution and the severity of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the severity of coronary artery disease and the time to complete redistribution (RD) was investigated in 66 patients with angina pectoris (AP) (28 SVD, 18 DVD and 20 TVD) and 104 patients with myocardial infarction (MI) (45 SVD, 36 DVD and 23 TVD). Stress thallium scan was performed immediately, 30 minutes (early) and 4 hours (delayed) after exercise. RD was classified into three groups (complete, incomplete and no RD). Early complete RD was observed in 15 (23 %) of AP and 3 (3 %) of MI cases. In both cases, the incidence of early RD was higher in SVD compared to DVD and TVD. And diffuse slow washout calculated from exercise and RD study disturbed the incidence of early RD in DVD and TVD. In the early RD cases of AP, coronary stenosis showed mild and collateral was not correlated, however, in the complete or incomplete RD of MI, coronary stenosis showed severe (> 90 %) and the frequency of collateral was higher compared to no RD cases. In MI cases, complete, incomplete and no RD were observed in 22 %, 25 % and 53 %, respectively. In the latter, a- or dys-kinesis at infarct zone was often observed which showed myocardial viability. In conclusion, early RD was observed about 20 % of coronary artery disease and the time to complete RD was closely related to the severity of coronary artery disease. In addition, the sensitivity for detecting transient thallium defect was influenced by the delay in beginning imaging. (author)

  7. Medical discourse, cornerstone of gender relations in contemporary times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, Dolores

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The concept of gender establishes not only a distinction between biological sex (natural data and the object of biological and medical knowledge and social sex (constructed within and by power relations. As a category of analysis, it also allows us to research the area of tension which governs the mutual construction of both. This construction inevitably pervades language and its capacity to establish categories of thought in cultures. This paper will demonstrate how the conceptual and linguistic category of «Woman» is one of the areas where this mutual construction may be found in the 19th century.

    El concepto de género no establece sólo una distinción entre sexo biológico (dato natural y objeto de conocimiento de la biología y de la medicina y sexo social (construido dentro de y por relaciones de poder. Como categoría de análisis permite también indagar en el espacio de tensión que gobierna la construcción mutua de uno y de otro. Esa construcción pasa sin lugar a duda por el lenguaje y su capacidad de enraizar en la cultura categorías de pensamiento. Este trabajo pretende poner de manifiesto cómo la categoría lingüística y conceptual de la-mujer es uno de los lugares donde en el siglo XIX se encarna esa construcción mutua.

  8. Mean Velocity vs. Mean Propulsive Velocity vs. Peak Velocity: Which Variable Determines Bench Press Relative Load With Higher Reliability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Pestaña-Melero, Francisco L; Pérez-Castilla, Alejandro; Rojas, Francisco J; Gregory Haff, G

    2018-05-01

    García-Ramos, A, Pestaña-Melero, FL, Pérez-Castilla, A, Rojas, FJ, and Haff, GG. Mean velocity vs. mean propulsive velocity vs. peak velocity: which variable determines bench press relative load with higher reliability? J Strength Cond Res 32(5): 1273-1279, 2018-This study aimed to compare between 3 velocity variables (mean velocity [MV], mean propulsive velocity [MPV], and peak velocity [PV]): (a) the linearity of the load-velocity relationship, (b) the accuracy of general regression equations to predict relative load (%1RM), and (c) the between-session reliability of the velocity attained at each percentage of the 1-repetition maximum (%1RM). The full load-velocity relationship of 30 men was evaluated by means of linear regression models in the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press throw (BPT) variants performed with a Smith machine. The 2 sessions of each BPT variant were performed within the same week separated by 48-72 hours. The main findings were as follows: (a) the MV showed the strongest linearity of the load-velocity relationship (median r = 0.989 for concentric-only BPT and 0.993 for eccentric-concentric BPT), followed by MPV (median r = 0.983 for concentric-only BPT and 0.980 for eccentric-concentric BPT), and finally PV (median r = 0.974 for concentric-only BPT and 0.969 for eccentric-concentric BPT); (b) the accuracy of the general regression equations to predict relative load (%1RM) from movement velocity was higher for MV (SEE = 3.80-4.76%1RM) than for MPV (SEE = 4.91-5.56%1RM) and PV (SEE = 5.36-5.77%1RM); and (c) the PV showed the lowest within-subjects coefficient of variation (3.50%-3.87%), followed by MV (4.05%-4.93%), and finally MPV (5.11%-6.03%). Taken together, these results suggest that the MV could be the most appropriate variable for monitoring the relative load (%1RM) in the BPT exercise performed in a Smith machine.

  9. Reaction time inconsistency in a spatial stroop task: age-related differences through childhood and adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Benjamin R; Strauss, Esther H; Hultsch, David F; Hunter, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    Age-related differences in inconsistency of reaction time (RT) across the life span were examined on a task with differing levels of demand on executive control. A total of 546 participants, aged 5 to 76 years, completed a spatial Stroop task that permitted observations under three conditions (congruent, incongruent, and neutral) according to the correspondence between the required response (based on stimulus direction) and stimulus location. An interference effect was observed across all ages. Analyses of neutral condition data replicated previous research demonstrating RT inconsistency follows a U-shaped developmental curve across the life span. The relationship between age and inconsistency, however, depended on condition: inconsistency in the congruent condition was higher than inconsistency in both the neutral and incongruent conditions across middle-aged groups. Reaction time inconsistency may reflect processing efficiency that is maximal in young adulthood and may also be sensitive to fluctuations in performance that reflect momentarily highly efficient responding.

  10. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-01-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales

  11. Late time acceleration of the 3-space in a higher dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akarsu, Özgür; Dereli, Tekin

    2013-02-01

    We present cosmological solutions for (1+3+n)-dimensional steady state universe in dilaton gravity with an arbitrary dilaton coupling constant w and exponential dilaton self-interaction potentials in the string frame. We focus particularly on the class in which the 3-space expands with a time varying deceleration parameter. We discuss the number of the internal dimensions and the value of the dilaton coupling constant to determine the cases that are consistent with the observed universe and the primordial nucleosynthesis. The 3-space starts with a decelerated expansion rate and evolves into accelerated expansion phase subject to the values of w and n, but ends with a Big Rip in all cases. We discuss the cosmological evolution in further detail for the cases w = 1 and w = ½ that permit exact solutions. We also comment on how the universe would be conceived by an observer in four dimensions who is unaware of the internal dimensions and thinks that the conventional general relativity is valid at cosmological scales.

  12. Factors influencing the intention to use social media for work-related purposes at a South African higher education institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liezel Cilliers

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The rapid development of information communication technology (ICT has changed much of contemporary society. ICT’s influence extends to the working context with ramifications not only for employees but also for the entire organisation. Research purpose: The primary purpose of this research was to investigate the behavioural intention of a sample of employees at a traditional higher education institution to make use of social media within the workplace. Motivation for the study: Social media has become a common tool within society for communication and networking purposes. An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can assist the organisation to better manage social media usage within the workplace. Research design, approach and method: The research adopted the positivism paradigm with a quantitative research approach. The data were analysed making use of exploratory factor analysis and multiple regression analysis. A traditional higher education institution was chosen as the research site for the study, relying on a convenience sample (n = 134 and data gathered using the work-related social media scale and behavioural intention to use scale. Main findings: Although most employees make use of social media for problem-solving and communication purposes already in the workplace, organisations should allow their employees to help manage their reputation on social media. Practical and managerial implications: An understanding of the factors that influence behavioural intention to use social media within the workplace can serve as a useful precursor for both employee and organisational-specific interventions. This study has specific relevance to the use of ICT platforms, such as social media, in traditional higher education institutions in South Africa. The study’s results are therefore useful to both employees as end-users and managers as drivers of such interventions

  13. Nutrition targeting by food timing: time-related dietary approaches to combat obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofer, Sigal; Stark, Aliza H; Madar, Zecharia

    2015-03-01

    Effective nutritional guidelines for reducing abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome are urgently needed. Over the years, many different dietary regimens have been studied as possible treatment alternatives. The efficacy of low-calorie diets, diets with different proportions of fat, protein, and carbohydrates, traditional healthy eating patterns, and evidence-based dietary approaches were evaluated. Reviewing literature published in the last 5 y reveals that these diets may improve risk factors associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, each diet has limitations ranging from high dropout rates to maintenance difficulties. In addition, most of these dietary regimens have the ability to attenuate some, but not all, of the components involved in this complicated multifactorial condition. Recently, interest has arisen in the time of day foods are consumed (food timing). Studies have examined the implications of eating at the right or wrong time, restricting eating hours, time allocation for meals, and timing of macronutrient consumption during the day. In this paper we review new insights into well-known dietary therapies as well as innovative time-associated dietary approaches for treating obesity and metabolic syndrome. We discuss results from systematic meta-analyses, clinical interventions, and animal models. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  14. Trajectories of higher- and lower-order dimensions of negative and positive affect relative to restrictive eating in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Berg, Kelly C; Cao, Li; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Peterson, Carol B; Crow, Scott J

    2017-07-01

    Despite robust support for the role of affect in the maintenance of binge eating and purging, the relationship between affect and restrictive eating remains poorly understood. To investigate the relationship between restrictive eating and affect, ecological momentary assessment data from 118 women with anorexia nervosa (AN) were used to examine trajectories of higher-order dimensions of negative affect (NA) and positive affect (PA), as well as lower-order dimensions of NA (Fear, Guilt) and PA (Joviality, Self-Assurance) relative to restrictive eating. Affect trajectories were modeled before and after restrictive eating episodes and AN subtype was examined as a moderator of these trajectories. Across the sample, Guilt significantly increased before and decreased after restrictive eating episodes. Global NA, Global PA, Fear, Joviality, and Self-Assurance did not vary relative to restrictive eating episodes across the sample. However, significant subtype by trajectory interactions were detected for PA indices. Among individuals with AN restricting subtype, Global PA, Joviality, and Self-Assurance decreased prior to and Self-Assurance increased following restrictive eating episodes. In contrast, Global PA and Self-Assurance increased prior to, but did not change following, restrictive eating episodes among individuals with AN binge eating/purging subtype. Results suggest that dietary restriction may function to mitigate guilt across AN subtypes and to enhance self-assurance among individuals with AN restricting subtype. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. The maize INDETERMINATE1 flowering time regulator defines a highly conserved zinc finger protein family in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colasanti Joseph

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maize INDETERMINATE1 gene, ID1, is a key regulator of the transition to flowering and the founding member of a transcription factor gene family that encodes a protein with a distinct arrangement of zinc finger motifs. The zinc fingers and surrounding sequence make up the signature ID domain (IDD, which appears to be found in all higher plant genomes. The presence of zinc finger domains and previous biochemical studies showing that ID1 binds to DNA suggests that members of this gene family are involved in transcriptional regulation. Results Comparison of IDD genes identified in Arabidopsis and rice genomes, and all IDD genes discovered in maize EST and genomic databases, suggest that ID1 is a unique member of this gene family. High levels of sequence similarity amongst all IDD genes from maize, rice and Arabidopsis suggest that they are derived from a common ancestor. Several unique features of ID1 suggest that it is a divergent member of the maize IDD family. Although no clear ID1 ortholog was identified in the Arabidopsis genome, highly similar genes that encode proteins with identity extending beyond the ID domain were isolated from rice and sorghum. Phylogenetic comparisons show that these putative orthologs, along with maize ID1, form a group separate from other IDD genes. In contrast to ID1 mRNA, which is detected exclusively in immature leaves, several maize IDD genes showed a broad range of expression in various tissues. Further, Western analysis with an antibody that cross-reacts with ID1 protein and potential orthologs from rice and sorghum shows that all three proteins are detected in immature leaves only. Conclusion Comparative genomic analysis shows that the IDD zinc finger family is highly conserved among both monocots and dicots. The leaf-specific ID1 expression pattern distinguishes it from other maize IDD genes examined. A similar leaf-specific localization pattern was observed for the putative ID1 protein

  16. Photodetection-induced relative timing jitter in synchronized time-lens source for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqi Wang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Synchronized time-lens source is a novel method to generate synchronized optical pulses to mode-locked lasers, and has found widespread applications in coherent Raman scattering microscopy. Relative timing jitter between the mode-locked laser and the synchronized time-lens source is a key parameter for evaluating the synchronization performance of such synchronized laser systems. However, the origins of the relative timing jitter in such systems are not fully determined, which in turn prevents the experimental efforts to optimize the synchronization performance. Here, we demonstrate, through theoretical modeling and numerical simulation, that the photodetection could be one physical origin of the relative timing jitter. Comparison with relative timing jitter due to the intrinsic timing jitter of the mode-locked laser is also demonstrated, revealing different qualitative and quantitative behaviors. Based on the nature of this photodetection-induced timing jitter, we further propose several strategies to reduce the relative timing jitter. Our theoretical results will provide guidelines for optimizing synchronization performance in experiments.

  17. Has the American Public's Interest in Information Related to Relationships Beyond "The Couple" Increased Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Amy C

    2017-01-01

    Finding romance, love, and sexual intimacy is a central part of our life experience. Although people engage in romance in a variety of ways, alternatives to "the couple" are largely overlooked in relationship research. Scholars and the media have recently argued that the rules of romance are changing, suggesting that interest in consensual departures from monogamy may become popular as people navigate their long-term coupling. This study utilizes Google Trends to assess Americans' interest in seeking out information related to consensual nonmonogamous relationships across a 10-year period (2006-2015). Using anonymous Web queries from hundreds of thousands of Google search engine users, results show that searches for words related to polyamory and open relationships (but not swinging) have significantly increased over time. Moreover, the magnitude of the correlation between consensual nonmonogamy Web queries and time was significantly higher than popular Web queries over the same time period, indicating this pattern of increased interest in polyamory and open relationships is unique. Future research avenues for incorporating consensual nonmonogamous relationships into relationship science are discussed.

  18. Socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time in German men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Bucksch, Jens; Schneider, Sven; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-12-11

    Sitting time is ubiquitous for most adults in developed countries and is most prevalent in three domains: in the workplace, during transport and during leisure time. The correlates of prolonged sitting time in workplace settings are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific associations between the socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time. A cross-sectional sample of working German adults (n = 1515; 747 men; 43.5 ± 11.0 years) completed questionnaires regarding domain-specific sitting times and physical activity (PA) and answered statements concerning beliefs about sitting. To identify gender-specific correlates of work-related sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions. The overall median was 2 hours of work-related sitting time/day. Regression analyses showed for men (β = -.43) and for women (β = -.32) that work-related PA was negatively associated with work-related sitting time, but leisure-related PA was not a significant correlate. For women only, transport-related PA (β = -.07) was a negative correlate of work-related sitting time, suggesting increased sitting times during work with decreased PA in transport. Education and income levels were positively associated, and in women only, age (β = -.14) had a negative correlation with work-related sitting time. For both genders, TV-related sitting time was negatively associated with work-related sitting time. The only association with cognitive correlates was found in men for the belief 'Sitting for long periods does not matter to me' (β = .10) expressing a more positive attitude towards sitting with increasing sitting durations. The present findings show that in particular, higher educated men and women as well as young women are high-risk groups to target for reducing prolonged work-related sitting time. In addition, our findings propose considering increasing transport-related PA, especially in women, as

  19. 75 FR 32846 - Final Rule Relating to Time and Order of Issuance of Domestic Relations Orders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-10

    ... is issued after the parties divorce. Example 3 illustrates that an order would not fail to be a QDRO... Alternate payee, Divorce, Domestic relations orders, Employee benefit plans, Marital property, Spouse, Plan administrator, Pensions, Qualified domestic relations orders. 0 For the reasons set forth in the preamble, the...

  20. Organized Sport Participation Is Associated with Higher Levels of Overall Health-Related Physical Activity in Children (CHAMPS Study-DK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J; Møller, Niels C; Andersen, Lars B; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2015-01-01

    Many children fail to meet international guideline recommendations for health-related activity (≥60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA]), and intervention studies to date have reported negligible effects. Explore the associations of organized leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed-effects regression models and reported with beta coefficients (b) and adjusted odds ratios (aOR). Participants were 53% female, with mean(SD) age = 8.4(1.4) years. Boys were more active than girls (p<0.001), and physical activity levels and guideline concordance decreased with age (p<0.001). Soccer participation at any frequency was associated with greater overall MVPA (b[95% CI] = 0.66[0.20,1.13] to 2.44[1.44,3.44]). Depending on participation frequency, this equates to 5-20 minutes more MVPA on the average day and 3 to 15 fold increased odds of achieving recommended levels of health-related physical activity (aOR[95%CI] = 3.04[1.49,6.19] to 14.49[1.97,106.56]). Similar associations were identified among children playing handball at least twice per week. Relationships with other sports (gymnastics, basketball, volleyball) were inconsistent. Many children, particularly girls and those in higher grade levels do not adhere to health-related physical activity recommendations. Organized leisure-time sport participation may be a viable strategy to increase overall health-related physical activity levels and international

  1. A Time of Quiet Activism: Research, Practice, and Policy in American Women's Higher Education, 1945-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Linda

    2005-01-01

    This article reflects on three narratives that affected American women's participation in higher education during the first twenty years after World War II. In hindsight, the educators of the 1950s and early 1960s may seem gratuitously meek and self-effacing. In comparison to later efforts, their activism can appear unnecessarily limited and too…

  2. Just-in-Time Research: A Call to Arms for Research into Mobile Technologies in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne-Davis, Lucie; Dexter, Hilary; Hart, Jo; Cappelli, Tim; Byrne, Ged; Sampson, Ian; Mooney, Jane; Lumsden, Colin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n = 443) who received…

  3. Funding System of Full-Time Higher Education and Technical Efficiency: Case of the University of Ljubljana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajnikar, Maks; Debevec, Jasmina

    2008-01-01

    The present paper tackles the issue of the higher education funding system in Slovenia. Its main attribute is that institutions are classified into study groups according to their fields of education, and funds granted by the state are based on their weights or study group factors (SGF). Analysis conducted using data envelopment analysis tested…

  4. A Lesson of Lost Political Capital in Public Higher Education: Leadership Challenges in a Time of Needed Organizational Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Mark; Jacobson, Rod

    2012-01-01

    All higher education institutions are struggling with a rapidly changing market and financial landscape. Here is a management-centered analysis of what happened when a college president, recognizing the need to make a radical adaptation to those changes, tried moving a campus community to a new organizational model, without collegial consensus,…

  5. Boarding is associated with higher rates of medication delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sri-On, Jiraporn; Chang, Yuchiao; Curley, David P; Camargo, Carlos A; Weissman, Joel S; Singer, Sara J; Liu, Shan W

    2014-09-01

    Hospital crowding and emergency department (ED) boarding are large and growing problems. To date, there has been a paucity of information regarding the quality of care received by patients boarding in the ED compared with the care received by patients on an inpatient unit. We compared the rate of delays and adverse events at the event level that occur while boarding in the ED vs while on an inpatient unit. This study was a secondary analysis of data from medical record review and administrative databases at 2 urban academic teaching hospitals from August 1, 2004, through January 31, 2005. We measured delayed repeat cardiac enzymes, delayed partial thromboplastin time level checks, delayed antibiotic administration, delayed administration of home medications, and adverse events. We compared the incidence of events during ED boarding vs while on an inpatient unit. Among 1431 patient medical records, we identified 1016 events. Emergency department boarding was associated with an increased risk of home medication delays (risk ratio [RR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.26-1.88), delayed antibiotic administration (RR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.72-3.52), and adverse events (RR, 2.36; 95% CI, 1.15-4.72). On the contrary, ED boarding was associated with fewer delays in repeat cardiac enzymes (RR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.09-0.27) and delayed partial thromboplastin time checks (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.27-0.96). Compared with inpatient units, ED boarding was associated with more medication-related delays and adverse events but fewer laboratory-related delays. Until we can eliminate ED boarding, it is critical to identify areas for improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Information and Communication Technology Use Is Related to Higher Well-Being Among the Oldest-Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Tamara; Reed, Andrew E; Carr, Dawn C

    2017-09-01

    Older adults often prioritize socially meaningful goals over informational goals. Thus, we predicted that using information and communication technology (ICT) in service of socially meaningful versus informational goals relates to higher well-being among the oldest-old. We surveyed 445 adults aged 80+ (mean = 84, range = 80-93; 64% female; 26% non-White) online or via telephone. Participants reported motivations for ICT use (connect with others, learn new information) and rated their psychological and physical well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, loneliness, goal attainment, subjective health, functional limitations). We conducted regression and mediation analyses to test our hypothesis. Participants used ICT more to connect with friends/family (M = 3.66, SD = 1.28) than to learn information (M = 2.61, SD = 1.44), p relationships between ICT use and psychological well-being, whereas informational motivations mediated the relationships between ICT use and physical well-being. Older adults aged 80+ use ICT less than other generations, but may have much to gain. Using social versus informational technologies may enhance multiple aspects of well-being in different ways during very late life. Highlighting such benefits may increase ICT adoption among the oldest-old. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Imaging of first-order surface-related multiples by reverse-time migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuejian; Liu, Yike; Hu, Hao; Li, Peng; Khan, Majid

    2017-02-01

    Surface-related multiples have been utilized in the reverse-time migration (RTM) procedures, and additional illumination for subsurface can be provided. Meanwhile, many cross-talks are generated from undesired interactions between forward- and backward-propagated seismic waves. In this paper, subsequent to analysing and categorizing these cross-talks, we propose RTM of first-order multiples to avoid most undesired interactions in RTM of all-order multiples, where only primaries are forward-propagated and crosscorrelated with the backward-propagated first-order multiples. With primaries and multiples separated during regular seismic data processing as the input data, first-order multiples can be obtained by a two-step scheme: (1) the dual-prediction of higher-order multiples; and (2) the adaptive subtraction of predicted higher-order multiples from all-order multiples within local offset-time windows. In numerical experiments, two synthetic and a marine field data sets are used, where different cross-talks generated by RTM of all-order multiples can be identified and the proposed RTM of first-order multiples can provide a very interpretable image with a few cross-talks.

  8. Hard Times in Higher Education: The Closure of Subject Centres and the Implications for Education for Sustainable Development (ESD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Chalkley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Within many British Universities and, indeed, across higher education internationally, how best to provide education for sustainable development (ESD has become an increasingly important issue. There is now a widespread view that higher education sectors have a key part to play in preparing societies for the transition to a low carbon economy and the shift towards more sustainable ways of living and working. In the UK, a leading role in this field has been played by the Higher Education Academy and especially its network of 24 Subject Centres, each of which promotes curriculum enhancement in a particular discipline area. The mission of the Higher Education Academy has been to help raise the overall quality of the student learning experience across all disciplines and all Higher Education institutions (HEIs. As part of promoting and supporting many kinds of curriculum innovation and staff development, the HE Academy has championed the cause of ESD. Now, however, as a result of government spending cuts, the Academy is facing severe budget reductions and all its Subject Centres are soon to close. At this pivotal moment, the purpose of this paper is, therefore, to review the HE Academy’s past contribution to ESD and to explore the likely future implications of the demise of its Subject Centres. The paper ends by outlining some ideas as to how the ESD agenda might be advanced in the post-Subject Centre era, in the light of the Academy’s intention to support subject communities under its new structure. The paper has been developed through participation in key committees, engagement with Academy and Subject Centre staff, as well as through a literature review.

  9. Examining the Potential Impact of Full Tuition Fees on Mature Part-Time Students in English Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Angela

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines current part-time mature learners' views on the potential impact upon future students as full fees are introduced from 2012. It investigates the problems which part-time mature learners may face with the advent of student loans and subsequent debt, given that they are usually combining complex lives with their studies, with…

  10. Sleep Deprivation in Young and Healthy Subjects Is More Sensitively Identified by Higher Frequencies of Electrodermal Activity than by Skin Conductance Level Evaluated in the Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo F. Posada-Quintero

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyzed multiple measures of the autonomic nervous system (ANS based on electrodermal activity (EDA and heart rate variability (HRV for young healthy subjects undergoing 24-h sleep deprivation. In this study, we have utilized the error awareness test (EAT every 2 h (13 runs total, to evaluate the deterioration of performance. EAT consists of trials where the subject is presented words representing colors. Subjects are instructed to press a button (“Go” trials or withhold the response if the word presented and the color of the word mismatch (“Stroop No-Go” trial, or the screen is repeated (“Repeat No-Go” trials. We measured subjects' (N = 10 reaction time to the “Go” trials, and accuracy to the “Stroop No-Go” and “Repeat No-Go” trials. Simultaneously, changes in EDA and HRV indices were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationship between reactiveness and vigilance measures and indices of sympathetic control based on HRV were analyzed. We found the performance improved to a stable level from 6 through 16 h of deprivation, with a subsequently sustained impairment after 18 h. Indices of higher frequencies of EDA related more to vigilance measures, whereas lower frequencies index (skin conductance leve, SCL measured the reactiveness of the subject. We conclude that indices of EDA, including those of the higher frequencies, termed TVSymp, EDASymp, and NSSCRs, provide information to better understand the effect of sleep deprivation on subjects' autonomic response and performance.

  11. Investigating a New Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement by Motivational Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.

    2012-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The purpose of this study was to examine the nature of time-related academic behavior (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) in the academic context. Specifically, this study aimed to build a new model for understanding these behaviors in a motivational framework by using motivational orientation to frame these…

  12. Policies and Practices of Family Friendliness. Time and Employment Relations in Knowledge Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tove Håpnes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements for parents, both mothers and fathers, to make the combination of work and family possible.To recruit competent women and men, knowledge work organisations have to accommodate to working hours that are compatible with the responsibility for a family. In the knowledge economy in Norway we therefore find women and men with higher education trying to act out the ideals of gen- der equality at work and at home. In this paper we explore how family-friendly policies in knowledge work organisations result in family-friendly practices.We do this by analysing two R&D departments belonging to large Norwegian companies in the international market. Both had policies of gender equality and family friendly working time arrangements and career opportunities for women with reduced hours.We show how different employment relations and forms of organisation influenced the work and time practices of the research scientists. Using the concept of social contracts in em- ployment and a relational concept of time, we found that it was more difficult to realise the reduced hours in the organisation that took responsibility for the career and welfare of their employees in a long-term perspective because of the mutual trust and obligations in this relationship.The women in the organisation with more transactional relations where their employment was dependent upon the market and their short-term economic performance, were able to use their accounting system to reduce their hours.The young fathers in the same organisation who were not yet established as experts, could not use the accounting system to limit their hours like the senior women.They needed to work long hours on scientific publications to qualify as researchers to secure their employment. In Norway an ideology of gender equality and the universal welfare state has created generous leave arrangements

  13. Some operational tools for solving fractional and higher integer order differential equations: A survey on their mutual relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryakova, Virginia S.

    2012-11-01

    The Laplace Transform (LT) serves as a basis of the Operational Calculus (OC), widely explored by engineers and applied scientists in solving mathematical models for their practical needs. This transform is closely related to the exponential and trigonometric functions (exp, cos, sin) and to the classical differentiation and integration operators, reducing them to simple algebraic operations. Thus, the classical LT and the OC give useful tool to handle differential equations and systems with constant coefficients. Several generalizations of the LT have been introduced to allow solving, in a similar way, of differential equations with variable coefficients and of higher integer orders, as well as of fractional (arbitrary non-integer) orders. Note that fractional order mathematical models are recently widely used to describe better various systems and phenomena of the real world. This paper surveys briefly some of our results on classes of such integral transforms, that can be obtained from the LT by means of "transmutations" which are operators of the generalized fractional calculus (GFC). On the list of these Laplace-type integral transforms, we consider the Borel-Dzrbashjan, Meijer, Krätzel, Obrechkoff, generalized Obrechkoff (multi-index Borel-Dzrbashjan) transforms, etc. All of them are G- and H-integral transforms of convolutional type, having as kernels Meijer's G- or Fox's H-functions. Besides, some special functions (also being G- and H-functions), among them - the generalized Bessel-type and Mittag-Leffler (M-L) type functions, are generating Gel'fond-Leontiev (G-L) operators of generalized differentiation and integration, which happen to be also operators of GFC. Our integral transforms have operational properties analogous to those of the LT - they do algebrize the G-L generalized integrations and differentiations, and thus can serve for solving wide classes of differential equations with variable coefficients of arbitrary, including non-integer order

  14. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae-Won; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Honda, Yasushi; Ha, Mina; Kim, Ho; Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis; Mueller, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions.

  15. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Park

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Methods Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Results Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021, and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Conclusions Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions.

  16. Time trend of malaria in relation to climate variability in Papua New Guinea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolam, Joel; Inape, Kasis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was conducted to describe the regional malaria incidence in relation to the geographic and climatic conditions and describe the effect of altitude on the expansion of malaria over the last decade in Papua New Guinea. Methods Malaria incidence was estimated in five provinces from 1996 to 2008 using national health surveillance data. Time trend of malaria incidence was compared with rainfall and minimum/maximum temperature. In the Eastern Highland Province, time trend of malaria incidence over the study period was stratified by altitude. Spatio-temporal pattern of malaria was analyzed. Results Nationwide, malaria incidence was stationary. Regionally, the incidence increased markedly in the highland region (292.0/100000/yr, p =0.021), and remained stationary in the other regions. Seasonality of the malaria incidence was related with rainfall. Decreasing incidence of malaria was associated with decreasing rainfall in the southern coastal region, whereas it was not evident in the northern coastal region. In the Eastern Highland Province, malaria incidence increased in areas below 1700 m, with the rate of increase being steeper at higher altitudes. Conclusions Increasing trend of malaria incidence was prominent in the highland region of Papua New Guinea, while long-term trend was dependent upon baseline level of rainfall in coastal regions. PMID:26987606

  17. Dissociating neural variability related to stimulus quality and response times in perceptual decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Stefan; Bennett, Daniel; Sewell, David K; Paton, Bryan; Egan, Gary F; Smith, Philip L; Murawski, Carsten

    2018-03-01

    According to sequential sampling models, perceptual decision-making is based on accumulation of noisy evidence towards a decision threshold. The speed with which a decision is reached is determined by both the quality of incoming sensory information and random trial-by-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations. To investigate those decision dynamics at the neural level, participants made perceptual decisions while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted. On each trial, participants judged whether an image presented under conditions of high, medium, or low visual noise showed a piano or a chair. Higher stimulus quality (lower visual noise) was associated with increased activation in bilateral medial occipito-temporal cortex and ventral striatum. Lower stimulus quality was related to stronger activation in posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). When stimulus quality was fixed, faster response times were associated with a positive parametric modulation of activation in medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, while slower response times were again related to more activation in PPC, DLPFC and insula. Our results suggest that distinct neural networks were sensitive to the quality of stimulus information, and to trial-to-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations, but that reaching a decision was a consequence of their joint activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Solid malignant neoplasms after childhood irradiation: decrease of the relative risk with time after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vathaire, F. de; Shamsaldin, A.; Grimaud, E.; Campbell, S.; Guerra, M.; Raquin, M.; Hardiman, C.; Jan, P.; Rumeau, N.; Diallo, I.; Nicolazic, G.; Lamon, A.; Oberlin, O.; Cervens, C. de; Suarez, A.; Meresse, V.; Eschwege, F.; Sancho-Garnier, H.; Chavaudra, J.; Lermerle, J.; Bessa, E.; Bell, J.; Hawkins, M.; Schlienger, J.Y.; Panis, X.; Lagrande, J.L.; Gaboriaud, G.; Zucker, J.M.; Daly-Schveitzer, N.

    1995-01-01

    The pattern of the temporal distribution of solid cancer incidence after irradiation in childhood is not well known, although, its importance in radioprotection is well known. We studied a cohort of 1 055 children from 8 European cancer centres, who received radiotherapy between 1942 and 1985 for a first cancer in childhood. After a mean follow-up of 19 years, 26 children developed a solid second malignant neoplasm (SMN), as compared to 5.6 expected from general population rates. Both the excess relative risk and the excess of absolute risk of solid SMN were higher among children who were younger at time of the irradiation. After reaching a maximum 15 to 20 years after irradiation, the excess relative risk of SMN decreased with time after irradiation, when controlling for age at irradiation and sex. The analysis of the risk of thyroid, brain and breast cancer together, as a function of the dose averaged on these 3 organs lead to similar results. (authors). 16 refs., 8 tabs., 2 figs

  19. The Hidden Benefits of Part-Time Higher Education Study to Working Practices: Is There a Case for Making Them More Visible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callender, Claire; Little, Brenda

    2015-01-01

    Within the UK, part-time study is now seen as important in meeting wider government objectives for higher education (HE) and for sustainable economic growth through skills development. Yet, measures to capture the impact of HE may not be wholly appropriate to part-time study. In particular, the continuing focus on tangible, economic measures may…

  20. Factors Related to the Adoption of IT Emerging Technologies by Research and Non-Research Based Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Then, Keri Ann; Amaria, Pesi

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the adoption of information technology (IT) emerging technology by higher education institutions with a focus on non-research and research based institutions categorized by Carnegie Mellon classifications that are members of EDUCAUSE, a higher education non-profit organization, whose mission is the use of IT in higher…

  1. The Role of Trust in Creating Value and Student Loyalty in Relational Exchanges between Higher Education Institutions and Their Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Sergio W.; de Oliveira Mota, Marcio

    2010-01-01

    The globalization of educational services and the increasing competition coming from the private sector have forced higher education institutions to market their programs more aggressively and to look at student loyalty as the key for future success. Student loyalty to higher education institutions represents not only a more stable financial basis…

  2. Khat chewing among students of higher education in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia: prevalence, pattern, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% (P higher compared with females at 3.7% (P higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities' interventions and services.

  3. Perceived Stress in Adults Aged 65 to 90: Relations to Facets of Time Perspective and COMT Val158Met Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnlund, Michael; Åström, Elisabeth; Adolfsson, Rolf; Carelli, Maria G

    2018-01-01

    This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future) in a population-based sample of older adults (65-90 years, N = 340). The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index) was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI) was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN) scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT ) Val 158 Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with stress (or "anxiety") related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  4. Perceived Stress in Adults Aged 65 to 90: Relations to Facets of Time Perspective and COMT Val158Met Polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rönnlund

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relation between perceived stress and time perspective (views of past, present, future in a population-based sample of older adults (65–90 years, N = 340. The Perceived Questionnaire (PSQ index was used to measure stress and the Swedish version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory (S-ZTPI was used to operationalize time perspective. Unlike the original inventory, S-ZTPI separates positive and negative aspects of a future time perspective and we hypothesized that the Future Negative (FN scale would be important to account for variations in stress. Additionally, associations with Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Val158Met polymorphism were examined, motivated by prior associations of this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with stress (or “anxiety” related personality traits. In line with the hypotheses, FN was the strongest predictor of PSQ index scores in multiple regression analyses. In a related vein, the dichotomization of the unitary Future scale increased the association between PSQ scores and a measure of deviations from a balanced time perspective, i.e., the difference between a proposed optimal and observed ZTPI profile. Finally, higher levels of stress as well as higher scores on FN were observed in COMT Val/Val carriers, at least among men. This suggests a shared dopaminergic genetic influence on these variables. Collectively, the results demonstrate that perceived stress is closely linked to time perspective and highlight the need to take negative aspects of a future temporal orientation into account to understand this relation.

  5. [Japanese learners' processing time for reading English relative clauses analyzed in relation to their English listening proficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Yoshinori

    2011-06-01

    The present study examined Japanese university students' processing time for English subject and object relative clauses in relation to their English listening proficiency. In Analysis 1, the relation between English listening proficiency and reading span test scores was analyzed. The results showed that the high and low listening comprehension groups' reading span test scores do not differ. Analysis 2 investigated English listening proficiency and processing time for sentences with subject and object relative clauses. The results showed that reading the relative clause ending and the main verb section of a sentence with an object relative clause (such as "attacked" and "admitted" in the sentence "The reporter that the senator attacked admitted the error") takes less time for learners with high English listening scores than for learners with low English listening scores. In Analysis 3, English listening proficiency and comprehension accuracy for sentences with subject and object relative clauses were examined. The results showed no significant difference in comprehension accuracy between the high and low listening-comprehension groups. These results indicate that processing time for English relative clauses is related to the cognitive processes involved in listening comprehension, which requires immediate processing of syntactically complex audio information.

  6. Relative Age Effect and Academic Timing in American Junior College Baseball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, Thomas C; Furtado, Ovande; Fontana, Fabio E

    2018-02-01

    Previous research has shown that older athletes within age groupings are often perceived to be more talented simply due to advanced maturity, leading to biased selection in higher levels of sports competition, now commonly termed relative age effect (RAE). This study's goals were to determine whether (a) RAE influenced the selection of junior college baseball participants and (b) academic timing ( Glamser & Marciani, 1992 ), in which academic status determines age groupings more than strict age guidelines for college sports, influenced the formation of RAE. Participants were 150 junior college baseball players. Our results showed that RAE was only a significant factor, comparing the birth distribution of participants born before and after the midpoint of the participation year, when academic timing was also a factor in determining age groupings. In addition, the birth rate distribution, though not significantly different than expected, was greater only when those participants born during the expected participation year were included. The results of this study indicate that RAE could bear more influence among American student-athletes than was previously reported in that RAE in conjunction with academic timing does influence the selection of collegiate athletes.

  7. Flexible Pedagogies: Part-Time Learners and Learning in Higher Education. Flexible Pedagogies: Preparing for the Future Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This publication focuses on national and international policy initiatives to develop a better understanding of part-time learners and the types of flexibility that may enhance their study especially pedagogically. As part of our five-strand research project "Flexible Pedagogies: preparing for the future" it: (1) highlights the challenges…

  8. Recruitment and Retention of Full-Time Engineering Faculty, Fall 1980. Higher Education Panel Report Number 52.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atelsek, Frank J.; Gomberg, Irene L.

    The extent of faculty vacancies in colleges of engineering, the effects of such vacancies upon research and instructional programs, and the nature of the competition between academia and industry in hiring engineering faculty were surveyed. The focus is on permanent full-time faculty positions in the following major engineering fields:…

  9. The Economic Domino Effect: A Phenomenological Study Exploring Community College Faculty's Lived Experiences during Financial Hard Times in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tridai A.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the lived experiences of eight full-time community college faculty members who taught during the economic crisis of 2008. The study was guided by the central research question, "How do community college faculty members describe their lived experiences regarding the recent economic crisis of 2008 and its impact…

  10. High School Students' Time Management Skills in Relation to Research Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akcoltekin, Alpturk

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the opinions of high school students relating to time management and present a correlation of their time management skills with demographic variables, as well as examining the relation between their level of research anxiety and time management skills. The study group composed 270 12th-grade students (127 males and…

  11. Changes in Time-Related Academic Behaviour Are Associated with Contextual Motivational Shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.; Lane, Forrest C.; Mwavita, Mwarumba

    2018-01-01

    Research in the field of time-related academic behaviour (i.e., procrastination and timely engagement) has traditionally been focused on more stable factors, such as personality. Recent research suggests there may be a motivational component to these behaviours. The present study examines whether time-related academic behaviour is stable across…

  12. Leisure time physical activity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuillemin, Anne; Boini, Stéphanie; Bertrais, Sandrine; Tessier, Sabrina; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Hercberg, Serge; Guillemin, Francis; Briançon, Serge

    2005-08-01

    There are few data on the relationship between health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in the general population. We investigated the relationships of meeting public health recommendations (PHR) for moderate and vigorous physical activity with HRQoL in French adult subjects. LTPA and HRQoL were assessed in 1998 in 2333 men and 3321 women from the SU.VI.MAX. cohort using the French versions of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ) and the SF-36 questionnaire, respectively. Relationship between LTPA and HRQoL was assessed using analysis of variance. Results from multivariate analysis showed that meeting physical activity recommended levels was associated with higher HRQoL scores (except in Bodily pain dimension for women): differences in mean HRQoL scores between subjects meeting or not PHR ranged from 2.4 (Mental health) to 4.5 (Vitality) and from 2.2 (Bodily pain) to 5.7 (Vitality) for women and men, respectively. Subjects meeting PHR for physical activity had better HRQoL than those who did not. Our data suggest that 30' of moderate LTPA per day on a regular basis may be beneficial on HRQoL. Higher intensity LTPA is associated with greater HRQoL. This emphasizes the importance to promote at least moderate physical activity.

  13. Teachers' views of using e-learning for non-traditional students in higher education across three disciplines [nursing, chemistry and management] at a time of massification and increased diversity in higher education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Helen T; O'Driscoll, Mike; Simpson, Vikki; Shawe, Jill

    2013-09-01

    The expansion of the higher educational sector in the United Kingdom over the last two decades to meet political aspirations of the successive governments and popular demand for participation in the sector (the Widening Participation Agenda) has overlapped with the introduction of e-learning. This paper describes teachers' views of using e-learning for non-traditional students in higher education across three disciplines [nursing, chemistry and management] at a time of massification and increased diversity in higher education. A three phase, mixed methods study; this paper reports findings from phase two of the study. One university in England. Higher education teachers teaching on the nursing, chemistry and management programmes. Focus groups with these teachers. Findings from these data show that teachers across the programmes have limited knowledge of whether students are non-traditional or what category of non-traditional status they might be in. Such knowledge as they have does not seem to influence the tailoring of teaching and learning for non-traditional students. Teachers in chemistry and nursing want more support from the university to improve their use of e-learning, as did teachers in management but to a lesser extent. Our conclusions confirm other studies in the field outside nursing which suggest that non-traditional students' learning needs have not been considered meaningfully in the development of e-learning strategies in universities. We suggest that this may be because teachers have been required to develop e-learning at the same time as they cope with the massification of, and widening participation in, higher education. The findings are of particular importance to nurse educators given the high number of non-traditional students on nursing programmes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Just-in-time research: a call to arms for research into mobile technologies in higher education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Byrne-Davis

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile technologies are becoming commonplace in society and in education. In higher education, it is crucial to understand the impact of constant access to information on the development of the knowledge and competence of the learner. This study reports on a series of four surveys completed by UK-based medical students (n=443 who received tablet computers (iPads from their medical school during their 4th year of study. Students were surveyed prior to receiving the iPads and again regarding their usage and experiences at 2, 6 and 12 months post receipt of tablets. Findings indicate that students differed in their use of iPads but that the majority felt that tablets had impacted on their learning and the majority were using them frequently (at least once a day during learning. Almost half of the students reported that clinical supervisors had raised the possibility of tablets changing patient care. These results, although only descriptive, raise important questions about the impact of mobile technologies on learning.

  15. Ecuadorian youth, social and geographic mobility and higher education in Spain and Ecuador. Unequal educational trajectories in times of crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Vega Solís

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the paper we analyze the inequalities that emerge from and are reproduced in Ecuadorian’s higher education trajectories in the context of economic crises. We focus on the strategies that these youth and their families employ for social mobility as well as the role of public policy in these processes. We examine the trajectories of three groups: sons and daughters of the 2000 migration wave from Ecuador to Spain who study at universities in Spain, those who have returned to Ecuador for their studies, and Ecuadorians who move to Spain in order to carry out postgraduate studies, some of them funded by scholarships from the Ecuadorian government. The research project employed a qualitative methodology based on interviews, focus groups and a survey with Ecuadorians in Spain who took the entrance exam for admittance into Ecuador’s public university system. Our findings highlight the varied forms of capitals that these diverse students employ, as well as the social and economic constraints that they encounter. In a period of economic crisis in Spain, the first group of students must often downgrade their expectations in order to continue their studies. Their experience contrasts starkly with Ecuadorians undertaking postgraduate studies in Spain, whose heterogenous trajectories are upwardly and geographically mobile. The case of the return university students to Ecuador shows us that education is inserted into a broader strategy that depends on transnational networks shaped over more than a decade of Ecuador-Spain migration.

  16. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashad Mohammed Alsanosy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. (1 To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2 to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Khat chewing prevalence among higher education students was found to be 23.1%, significantly higher among males at 38.5% than among females at 2.1% . Lifetime Khat chewer students were 24.8% for males at 40.5%, significantly higher compared with females at 3.7% . Univariate analysis revealed that the gender of student, smoking status of student, a friend’s smoking, and Khat chewing were associated with a significant high risk of Khat chewing (   for all. Conclusions. The use of Khat trend is increasing among higher education students in Jazan region. A multilevel, value based, comprehensive, and strategic long-term intervention plan is needed. The comprehensive plan may include social interventions geared by creating recreations alternatives and opportunities for youth and a critical review for current authorities’ interventions and services.

  17. Do New Production Concepts and a new Management of Employment Relations, yield higher Employee Performance and lower Job Strain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolus Kraan

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In the past decades, in reaction to dysfunctions of Tayloristic and professional bureaucratic production concepts and employment relations, several new forms of employment relations and NPCs, appeared. Examples are the Socio-technical NPC and customized employment relations. In this study both this NPC and customized employment relations - i.c. customized performance targets - demonstrate positive associations with employee performance. According to Socio-technical theory the design of employment relations is relatively unimportant, as human resources are mobilised primarily by the production concept. Our results for this NPC show the legitimacy of this assumption, because its high employee performance is irrespective of the employment relation instruments. On the contrary, in the other NPCs and in professional bureaucracies, the (employment relation instruments of respectively an increased period needed for learning the job, and customized performance targets can compensate for the lower employee performance in these production concepts. The results do not show increased job strain, due to new production concepts, or new employment relations. production concepts, employment relations, labour productivity, socio-technical theory

  18. Academic Work—Faster, Higher, Further? On the (Missing Proportion of Work to Spare Time in the (Cultural Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Dressel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We make the practices of the academic production of knowledge a subject of critical discussion by focusing on the world of academic work and the academics themselves. Based on interviews with academics in the field of cultural sciences we conclude that with regard to their daily routines, their annual schedules, and their life-courses the so-called private life (family life, leisure time etc. becomes dominated by the social and cultural logics of the working sphere. Although it might appear exaggerated, we will refer to the humanities as a "total institution" which entails social, physical, and mental costs for its "inmates" as well as for those who never managed to become "inmates" (in spite of their efforts and those who don’t belong to the institution any more. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0801385

  19. Spinor Green function in higher-dimensional cosmic string space-time in the presence of magnetic flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinelly, J.; Mello, E.R. Bezerra de

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the vacuum polarization effects associated with quantum fermionic charged fields in a generalized (d+1)-dimensional cosmic string space-times considering the presence of a magnetic flux along the string. In order to develop this analysis we calculate a general expression for the respective Green function, valid for several different values of d, which is expressed in terms of a bispinor associated with the square of the Dirac operator. Adopting this result, we explicitly calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensors, (T A B ) Ren. , associated with massless fields. Moreover, for specific values of the parameters which codify the cosmic string and the fractional part of the ratio of the magnetic flux by the quantum one, we were able to present in closed forms the bispinor and the respective Green function for massive fields.

  20. The health-related quality of life was not improved by targeting higher hemoglobin in the Normal Hematocrit Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyne, Daniel W

    2012-07-01

    The Normal Hematocrit Trial (NHT) was the largest trial of epoetin randomizing 1265 hemodialysis patients with cardiac disease to lower (9-11 g/dl) or higher (13-15 g/dl) hemoglobin (Hgb), hypothesizing that higher Hgb would reduce mortality, and improve survival and quality of life. The trial was terminated early, and a 1998 publication reported that targeting higher hematocrit levels led to an insignificant increase in the primary end points (death or myocardial infarct), or risk ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.9-1.90, but the P-value was not given, and all-cause death risk was not reported. A higher target reportedly did not increase hospitalization rates, but did significantly improve the 'physical function' domain of quality of life. Comparing the 1996 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-filed clinical trial report to the 1998 publication, however, found several discrepancies. Among these, the 1998 article reported interim trial results with only the adjusted CI but did not state that the unadjusted CIs were 99.912th percentile, and despite being a secondary end point, reported only the association of achieved Hgb with higher quality of life score. Randomization to the higher target had actually increased the risk for the primary end point (risk ratio 1.28, 95% CI=1.06-1.56; P=0.0112; 99.92% CI=0.92-1.78), the risk of death (risk ratio 1.27, 95% CI=1.04-1.54), non-access thrombotic events (P=0.041), and hospitalization rate (P=0.04), while 'physical function' did not improve (P=0.88). Hence, disclosure of these results in the 1998 publication or access to the FDA-filed report on the NHT in the late 1990s would likely have led to earlier concerns about epoetin safety and greater doubts about its benefits.

  1. Substantially Higher and Earlier Occurrence of Anti-Tuberculosis Drug-Related Adverse Reactions in HIV Coinfected Tuberculosis Patients: A Matched-Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matono, Takashi; Nishijima, Takeshi; Teruya, Katsuji; Morino, Eriko; Takasaki, Jin; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Kaku, Mitsuo; Oka, Shinichi

    2017-11-01

    Little information exists on the frequency, severity, and timing of first-line anti-tuberculosis drug-related adverse events (TB-AEs) in HIV-tuberculosis coinfected (HIV-TB) patients in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. This matched-cohort study included HIV-TB patients as cases and HIV-uninfected tuberculosis (non-HIV-TB) patients as controls. Tuberculosis was culture-confirmed in both groups. Cases were matched to controls in a 1:4 ratio on age, sex, and year of diagnosis. TB-AEs were defined as Grade 2 or higher requiring drug discontinuation/regimen change. From 2003 to 2015, 94 cases and 376 controls were analyzed (95% men, 98% Asians). Standard four-drug combination therapy was initiated in 91% of cases and 89% of controls (p = 0.45). Cases had a higher frequency of TB-AE [51% (48/94) vs. 10% (39/376), p tuberculosis treatment. HIV infection was an independent risk factor for TB-AEs in the multivariate Cox analysis [adjusted HR (aHR): 6.96; 95% confidence interval: 3.93-12.3]. TB-AEs occurred more frequently in HIV-TB than in non-HIV-TB patients, and were more severe. The majority of TB-AEs occurred within 4 weeks of initiating anti-tuberculosis treatment. Because TB-AEs may delay ART initiation, careful monitoring during this period is warranted in coinfected patients.

  2. Plant uptake of 134Cs in relation to soil properties and time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massas, I.; Skarlou, V.; Haidouti, C.

    2002-01-01

    134 Cs uptake by sunflower and soybean plants grown on seven different soils and its relation to soil properties were studied in a greenhouse pot experiment. Soil in each pot was contaminated by dripping the 134 Cs in layers, and sunflower and soybean plants were grown for three and two successive periods, respectively. 134 Cs plant uptake was expressed as the transfer factor (TF) (Bq kg -1 plant/Bq kg -1 soil) and as the daily plant uptake (flux) (Bq pot -1 day -1 ) taking into account biomass production and growth time. For the studied soils and for both plants, no consistent trend of TFs with time was observed. The use of fluxes, in general, provided less variable results than TFs and stronger functional relationships. A negative power functional relationship between exchangeable potassium plus ammonium cations expressed as a percentage of cation exchange capacity of each soil and 134 Cs fluxes was found for the sunflower plants. A similar but weaker relationship was observed for soybean plants. The significant correlation between sunflower and soybean TFs and fluxes, as well as the almost identical highest/lowest 134 Cs flux ratios, in the studied soils, indicated a similar effect of soil characteristics on 134 Cs uptake by both plants. In all the studied soils, sunflower 134 Cs TFs and fluxes were significantly higher than the respective soybean values, while no significant difference was observed in potassium content and daily potassium plant uptake (flux) of the two plants

  3. A new model of special relativity and the relationship between the time warps of general and special relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stannard, Warren B.

    2018-05-01

    Einstein’s two theories of relativity were introduced over 100 years ago. High school science students are seldom exposed to these revolutionary ideas as they are often perceived to be too difficult conceptually and mathematically. This paper brings together the two theories of relativity in a way that is logical and consistent and enables the teaching of relativity as a single subject. This paper introduces new models and analogies which are suitable for the teaching of Einstein’s relativity at a high school level, exposing students to our best understanding of time, space, matter and energy.

  4. Supporting the Academic Majority: Policies and Practices Related to Part-Time Faculty's Job Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eagan, M. Kevin, Jr.; Jaeger, Audrey J.; Grantham, Ashley

    2015-01-01

    The academic workforce in higher education has shifted in the last several decades from consisting of mostly full-time, tenure-track faculty to one comprised predominantly of contingent, non-tenure-track faculty. This substantial shift toward part-time academic labor has not corresponded with institutions implementing more supportive policies and…

  5. Korean Mature Women Students' Various Subjectivities in Relation to Their Motivation for Higher Education: Generational Differences amongst Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunghoe

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative case study attempts to conceptualize certain "patterns" and "processes" of which 28 mature women undergraduates give meanings to their motivation for higher education in their life contexts. Particular attention has been paid to include diverse groups of women according to their age, prior educational…

  6. Characteristics Expected in Fields of Higher Education and Gender Stereotypical Traits Related to Academic Success: A Mirror Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verniers, Catherine; Martinot, Delphine

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test whether the content of a gender stereotype concerning general academic achievement matched the characteristics deemed to predict success in the fields of higher education dominated by women and men respectively. A sample of 207 undergraduate students rated the extent to which characteristics ascribed to…

  7. Multiple, Relational and Emotional Mobilities: Understanding Student Mobilities in Higher Education as More than "Staying Local" and "Going Away"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Kirsty

    2017-01-01

    This paper advances theorising around student geographies in higher education (HE). It extends recent work, which has problematised the primacy of social class and binary thinking about student mobilities, and presents local/non-local experiences and im/mobility as a defining dualism. Drawing on a qualitative longitudinal study of women's…

  8. The Use of Critical Thinking in Higher Education in Relation to the International Student: Shifting Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammersley-Fletcher, Linda; Hanley, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Academic staff working within Western higher education institutions (HEIs), have a responsibility to encourage the continuous critique of knowledge and values, expressed both within the curriculum that they deliver and within society more widely. Critical thinking is often regarded as the hallmark of a good education. Atkinson however raised…

  9. Organizational Integration Strategies for Promoting Enduring Donor Relations in Higher Education: The Value of Building Inner Circle Network Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung-Hoon, Tanise L.; Hite, Julie M.; Hite, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    Successful fund-raising efforts are critical for public higher education institutions as they seek to offset uncertainty in government funding. This study evaluated the enhancement of fund-raising capacity through the maintenance of enduring donor relationships. Utilizing the Donor/Organization Integration Model, the study examined interactions…

  10. Development and Validation of a 2 x 2 Model of Time-Related Academic Behavior: Procrastination and Timely Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Kamden K.; Cho, YoonJung; Steele, Misty R.; Bridges, Stacey L.

    2013-01-01

    Procrastination is an educational concern for classroom instructors because of its negative psychological and academic impacts on students. However, the traditional view of procrastination as a unidimensional construct is insufficient in two regards. First, the construct needs to be viewed more broadly as time-related academic behavior,…

  11. Psychological detachment from work during non-work time: linear or curvilinear relations with mental health and work engagement?

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMAZU, Akihito; MATSUDAIRA, Ko; DE JONGE, Jan; TOSAKA, Naoya; WATANABE, Kazuhiro; TAKAHASHI, Masaya

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether a higher level of psychological detachment during non-work time is associated with better employee mental health (Hypothesis 1), and examined whether psychological detachment has a curvilinear relation (inverted U-shaped pattern) with work engagement (Hypothesis 2). A large cross-sectional Internet survey was conducted among registered monitors of an Internet survey company in Japan. The questionnaire included scales for psychological detachment, employee mental he...

  12. On the electromagnetic field and the Teukolsky relations in arbitrary space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coll, B.; Ferrando, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The relations on the electromagnetic field obtained by Teukolsky for type D, vacuum space-times are studied. The role played by the maxwellian geometry of the basic tetrad is shown. It is proved that Teukolsky relations are, generically, incomplete. Once completed, their generalization to arbitrary space-times is given [fr

  13. Is There a Time for Everything? Attitudes Related to Women's Sequencing of Career and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined business students' (n=203) attitudes relating to sequencing of career and family events for women. Results indicated gender, attitudes regarding women's timing of career and children, and women's ability to balance work and family demands were significantly related. There was a relationship between attitudes toward timing of marriage and…

  14. 17 CFR 260.7a-24 - Words relating to periods of time in the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Words relating to periods of time in the past. 260.7a-24 Section 260.7a-24 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Requirements As to Contents § 260.7a-24 Words relating to periods of time in the past. Unless the context...

  15. Khat Chewing among Students of Higher Education in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Prevalence, Pattern, and Related Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Alsanosy, Rashad Mohammed; Mahfouz, Mohamed Salih; Gaffar, Abdelrahim Mutwakel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. (1) To estimate the prevalence and behavioral patterns of Khat chewing and (2) to investigate factors that influenced the pattern of Khat use among undergraduate students in different higher education institutions in Jazan region, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study using a pretested structured self-administered quantitative questionnaire was used to collect data. SPSS version 17 software program was used for data analysis. Results. The overall current Kha...

  16. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    1997-01-01

    This book deals with special relativity theory and its application to cosmology. It presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The book will be of interest to cosmologists, astrophysicists, theoretical

  17. Development of fear and guilt in young children: stability over time and relations with psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Erika; Baibazarova, Eugenia; Ktistaki, Georgia; Shelton, Katherine H; van Goozen, Stephanie H M

    2012-08-01

    Extremes in fearful temperament have long been associated with later psychopathology and risk pathways. Whereas fearful children are inhibited and anxious and avoid novel events, fearless individuals are disinhibited and more likely to engage in aggressive behavior. However, very few studies have examined fear in infants from a multimethod and prospective longitudinal perspective. This study had the following objectives: to examine behavioral, maternal reported, and physiological indices of fearful temperament in infancy, together with their relations and stability over time; and to establish whether early indices of fear predict fear later in toddlerhood. We also examined the association between behavioral and physiological measures of fear and guilt and whether fear in infancy predicts guilt in toddlers. Finally, we investigated infant risk factors for later psychopathology. We recorded skin conductance level (SCL) and heart rate (HR) and observed children's responses during a Laboratory Temperament Assessment Battery fear paradigm across the first 3 years of life and during a guilt induction procedure at age 3 (N = 70). The results indicate that different measures of infant fear were associated across time. Observed fearlessness in infancy predicted observed fearlessness and low levels of SCL arousal to fear and guilt in toddlers. Low levels of HR and SCL to fear in infancy predicted low levels of physiological arousal to the same situation and to guilt 2 years later. Fear and guilt were significantly associated across measures. Finally, toddlers with clinically significant internalizing problems at age 3 were already notably more fearful in Year 1 as reflected by their significantly higher HR levels. The results indicated that assessments of children in infancy are predictive of how these children react 2 years later and therefore lend support to the idea that the emotional thermostat is set in the first 3 years of life. They also showed, for the first time

  18. The role of time and time perspective in age-related processes: Introduction to the special issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Helene H; Isaacowitz, Derek M

    2016-09-01

    There currently appears to be a general consensus on the relationship between time perspective and aging, such that (a) future time is perceived as more limited with age and (b) older people are more present-focused and less future-focused than younger people. At the same time, there are debates about whether these age differences are positively related to well-being and to what extent there are boundary conditions beyond which these age differences would cease to occur. The 8 manuscripts included in this Special Issue attempt to shed light on these debates. In doing so, they refine the dominant theoretical perspective on the topic-socioemotional selectivity theory-and introduce new theoretical perspectives. New measures and methodologies for studying time perspective and aging are also discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A television in the bedroom is associated with higher weekday screen time among youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD)

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, Charmaine B.; Waring, Molly E.; Pagoto, Sherry L.; Lemon, Stephenie C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A TV in the bedroom has been associated with screen time in youth. Youth with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) have higher rates of screen time, but associations with bedroom TVs are unknown in this population. We examined the association of having a bedroom TV with screen time among youth with ADD/ADHD. Methods: Data were from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. Youth 6–17 years whose parent/guardian reported a physician's diagnosis of ADD/ADHD (n ...

  20. Student Understanding of Time in Special Relativity: Simultaneity and Reference Frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Shaffer, Peter S.; Vokos, Stamatis

    2001-01-01

    Reports on an investigation of students' understanding of the concept of time in special relativity. Discusses a series of research tasks to illustrate how student reasoning of fundamental concepts of relativity was probed. Indicates that after standard instruction, students have serious difficulties with the relativity of simultaneity and the…

  1. The difference between the perception of absolute and relative motion: A reaction time study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.B.J. Smeets (Jeroen); E. Brenner (Eli)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractWe used a reaction-time paradigm to examine the extent to which motion detection depends on relative motion. In the absence of relative motion, the responses could be described by a simple model based on the detection of a fixed change in position. If relative motion was present, the

  2. Distinct Signaling Pathways After Higher or Lower Doses of Radiation in Three Closely Related Human Lymphoblast Cell Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, T.-P.; Lai, L.-C.; Lin, B.-I.; Chen, L.-H.; Hsiao, T.-H.; Liber, Howard L.; Cook, John A.; Mitchell, James B.; Tsai, M.-H.; Chuang, Eric Y.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor p53 plays an essential role in cellular responses to DNA damage caused by ionizing radiation; therefore, this study aims to further explore the role that p53 plays at different doses of radiation. Materials and Methods: The global cellular responses to higher-dose (10 Gy) and lower dose (iso-survival dose, i.e., the respective D0 levels) radiation were analyzed using microarrays in three human lymphoblast cell lines with different p53 status: TK6 (wild-type p53), NH32 (p53-null), and WTK1 (mutant p53). Total RNAs were extracted from cells harvested at 0, 1, 3, 6, 9, and 24 h after higher and lower dose radiation exposures. Template-based clustering, hierarchical clustering, and principle component analysis were applied to examine the transcriptional profiles. Results: Differential expression profiles between 10 Gy and iso-survival radiation in cells with different p53 status were observed. Moreover, distinct gene expression patterns were exhibited among these three cells after 10 Gy radiation treatment, but similar transcriptional responses were observed in TK6 and NH32 cells treated with iso-survival radiation. Conclusions: After 10 Gy radiation exposure, the p53 signaling pathway played an important role in TK6, whereas the NFkB signaling pathway appeared to replace the role of p53 in WTK1. In contrast, after iso-survival radiation treatment, E2F4 seemed to play a dominant role independent of p53 status. This study dissected the impacts of p53, NFkB and E2F4 in response to higher or lower doses of γ-irradiation.

  3. Overeating at dinner time among Japanese workers: Is overeating related to stress response and late dinner times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akiko; Sakurazawa, Hirofumi; Fujita, Takanori; Akamatsu, Rie

    2016-06-01

    There are several known risk factors for overeating, including negative feelings and hunger. It was hypothesized that overtime work is associated with stress responses and later dinner times, leading to longer periods of time without eating, and that this, in turn, leads to a strong experience of hunger and consequent overeating at dinner. The aim of this study was to examine relationships among overeating at dinner, stress responses (e.g., fatigue, anxiety, and depression), and dinner times in Japanese male workers. In December 2012, 255 Japanese male workers at a leasing company completed a self-report questionnaire about overeating at dinner, psychological stress responses, physical stress responses, and dinner times. Each worker was sent an email with a link to the questionnaire website, where his answers were collected. Relationships between overeating at dinner and lifestyle issues were investigated using multiple linear regression analysis treating overeating as a dependent variable. Factors related to overeating at dinner included psychological stress response (β = 0.251 p overeating at dinner is related to dinner time in men and to stress responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Beyond chronological age: examining time and health as age-related mediators in relations to work motives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  5. Do new production concepts and a new management of employment relations, yield higher employee performance and low job strain?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.

    2006-01-01

    In this article old versus new production concepts (NPCs) and employment relation instruments, are studied, separately and in combination, to find out which yield high employee performance and low job strain. Therefore, in 2005, TNO conducted coupled surveys among 149 supervisors and employees. In

  6. Higher refusal rates for organ donation among older potential donors in the Netherlands: impact of the donor register and relatives.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leiden, H.A. van; Jansen, N.E.; Haase-Kromwijk, B.J.; Hoitsma, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The availability of donor organs is considerably reduced by relatives refusing donation after death. There is no previous large-scale evaluation of the influence of the Donor Register (DR) consultation and the potential donor's age on this refusal in The Netherlands. METHODS: This study

  7. Educational Technology-Related Performance of Teaching Faculty in Higher Education: Implications for eLearning Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larbi-Apau, Josephine A.; Guerra-Lopez, Ingrid; Moseley, James L.; Spannaus, Timothy; Yaprak, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The study examined teaching faculty's educational technology-related performances (ETRP) as a measure for predicting eLearning management in Ghana. A total of valid data (n = 164) were collected and analyzed on applied ISTE-NETS-T Performance Standards using descriptive and ANOVA statistics. Results showed an overall moderate performance with the…

  8. Continuous time random walk: Galilei invariance and relation for the nth moment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fa, Kwok Sau

    2011-01-01

    We consider a decoupled continuous time random walk model with a generic waiting time probability density function (PDF). For the force-free case we derive an integro-differential diffusion equation which is related to the Galilei invariance for the probability density. We also derive a general relation which connects the nth moment in the presence of any external force to the second moment without external force, i.e. it is valid for any waiting time PDF. This general relation includes the generalized second Einstein relation, which connects the first moment in the presence of any external force to the second moment without any external force. These expressions for the first two moments are verified by using several kinds of the waiting time PDF. Moreover, we present new anomalous diffusion behaviours for a waiting time PDF given by a product of power-law and exponential function.

  9. Higher Language Ability is Related to Angular Gyrus Activation Increase During Semantic Processing, Independent of Sentence Incongruency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ettinger-Veenstra, Helene; McAllister, Anita; Lundberg, Peter; Karlsson, Thomas; Engström, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task—which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency—employing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, there was a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing, is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that no evidence is found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation. PMID

  10. Higher language ability is related to angular gyrus activation increase during semantic processing, independent of sentence incongruency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene eVan Ettinger-Veenstra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the relation between individual language ability and neural semantic processing abilities. Our aim was to explore whether high-level language ability would correlate to decreased activation in language-specific regions or rather increased activation in supporting language regions during processing of sentences. Moreover, we were interested if observed neural activation patterns are modulated by semantic incongruency similarly to previously observed changes upon syntactic congruency modulation. We investigated 27 healthy adults with a sentence reading task - which tapped language comprehension and inference, and modulated sentence congruency - employing functional magnetic resonance imaging. We assessed the relation between neural activation, congruency modulation, and test performance on a high-level language ability assessment with multiple regression analysis. Our results showed increased activation in the left-hemispheric angular gyrus extending to the temporal lobe related to high language ability. This effect was independent of semantic congruency, and no significant relation between language ability and incongruency modulation was observed. Furthermore, a significant increase of activation in the inferior frontal gyrus bilaterally when the sentences were incongruent, indicating that processing incongruent sentences was more demanding than processing congruent sentences and required increased activation in language regions. The correlation of high-level language ability with increased rather than decreased activation in the left angular gyrus, a region specific for language processing is opposed to what the neural efficiency hypothesis would predict. We can conclude that there is no evidence found for an interaction between semantic congruency related brain activation and high-level language performance, even though the semantic incongruent condition shows to be more demanding and evoking more neural activation.

  11. Multifractal analysis of visibility graph-based Ito-related connectivity time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czechowski, Zbigniew; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we investigate multifractal properties of connectivity time series resulting from the visibility graph applied to normally distributed time series generated by the Ito equations with multiplicative power-law noise. We show that multifractality of the connectivity time series (i.e., the series of numbers of links outgoing any node) increases with the exponent of the power-law noise. The multifractality of the connectivity time series could be due to the width of connectivity degree distribution that can be related to the exit time of the associated Ito time series. Furthermore, the connectivity time series are characterized by persistence, although the original Ito time series are random; this is due to the procedure of visibility graph that, connecting the values of the time series, generates persistence but destroys most of the nonlinear correlations. Moreover, the visibility graph is sensitive for detecting wide "depressions" in input time series.

  12. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ruderman

    Full Text Available This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004.Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees.Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis.Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17, drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98, non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64, violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43, and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53.Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  13. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A; Wilson, Deirdra F; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05-4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00-2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73-2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45-2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37-2.53). Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted.

  14. Does Prison Crowding Predict Higher Rates of Substance Use Related Parole Violations? A Recurrent Events Multi-Level Survival Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael A.; Wilson, Deirdra F.; Reid, Savanna

    2015-01-01

    Objective This administrative data-linkage cohort study examines the association between prison crowding and the rate of post-release parole violations in a random sample of prisoners released with parole conditions in California, for an observation period of two years (January 2003 through December 2004). Background Crowding overextends prison resources needed to adequately protect inmates and provide drug rehabilitation services. Violence and lack of access to treatment are known risk factors for drug use and substance use disorders. These and other psychosocial effects of crowding may lead to higher rates of recidivism in California parolees. Methods Rates of parole violation for parolees exposed to high and medium levels of prison crowding were compared to parolees with low prison crowding exposure. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a Cox model for recurrent events. Our dataset included 13070 parolees in California, combining individual level parolee data with aggregate level crowding data for multilevel analysis. Results Comparing parolees exposed to high crowding with those exposed to low crowding, the effect sizes from greatest to least were absconding violations (HR 3.56 95% CI: 3.05–4.17), drug violations (HR 2.44 95% CI: 2.00–2.98), non-violent violations (HR 2.14 95% CI: 1.73–2.64), violent and serious violations (HR 1.88 95% CI: 1.45–2.43), and technical violations (HR 1.86 95% CI: 1.37–2.53). Conclusions Prison crowding predicted higher rates of parole violations after release from prison. The effect was magnitude-dependent and particularly strong for drug charges. Further research into whether adverse prison experiences, such as crowding, are associated with recidivism and drug use in particular may be warranted. PMID:26492490

  15. Expression analysis of fiber related genes in cotton (gossypium hirsutum l.) through real time pcr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, N.; Khatoon, A.; Asif, M.; Bashir, A.

    2016-01-01

    Cotton fibers are unicellular seed trichomes and the largest known plant cells. Fiber morphogenesis in cotton is a complex process involving a large number of genes expressed throughout fiber development process. The expression profiling of five gene families in various cotton tissues was carried out through real time PCR. Expression analysis revealed that transcripts of expansin, tubulin and E6 were elevated from 5 to 20 days post anthesis (DPA) fibers. Three Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) including LTP1, LTP3, LTP7 exhibited highest expression in 10 - 20 DPA fibers. Transcripts of LTP3 were detected in fibers and non fiber tissues that of LTP7 were almost negligible in non fiber tissues. Sucrose phosphate synthase gene showed highest expression in 10 DPA fibers while sucrose synthse (susy) expressed at higher rate in 5-20 DPA fibers as well as roots. The results reveal that most of fiber related genes showed high expression in 5-20 DPA fibers. Comprehensive expression study may help to determine tissue and stage specificity of genes under study. The study may also help to explore complex process of fiber development and understand the role of these genes in fiber development process. Highly expressed genes in fibers may be transformed in cotton for improvement of fiber quality traits. Genes that were expressed specifically in fibers or other tissues could be used for isolation of upstream regulatory sequences. (author)

  16. Fatal alcohol-related traffic crashes increase subsequent to changes to and from daylight savings time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, G J; Davis, J W; Hicks, R A

    1998-06-01

    On the hypothesis that sleepiness and alcohol interact to increase the risk of alcohol-related traffic fatalities, the percentages of alcohol-related fatal traffic crashes were assessed for the entire state of New Mexico for the years 1989-1992, for each of the seven days that preceded the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time and for each of the 14 days which followed the changes to and from Daylight Savings Time. Consistent with our hypothesis the percentage of alcohol-related fatal crashes increased significantly during the first seven days after these changes in Daylight Savings Time.

  17. Torsional resonance mode magnetic force microscopy: enabling higher lateral resolution magnetic imaging without topography-related effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaidatzis, A; García-Martín, J M

    2013-01-01

    We present experimental work that reveals the benefits of performing magnetic force microscopy measurements employing the torsional resonance mode of cantilever oscillation. This approach provides two clear advantages: the ability of performing magnetic imaging without topography-related interference and the significant lateral resolution improvement (approximately 15%). We believe that this work demonstrates a significant improvement to a versatile magnetic imaging technique widely used in academia and in industry. (paper)

  18. Redfield Ratios in Inland Waters: Higher Biological Control of C:N:P Ratios in Tropical Semi-arid High Water Residence Time Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng H. They

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The canonical Redfield C:N:P ratio for algal biomass is often not achieved in inland waters due to higher C and N content and more variability when compared to the oceans. This has been attributed to much lower residence times and higher contributions of the watershed to the total organic matter pool of continental ecosystems. In this study we examined the effect of water residence times in low latitude lakes (in a gradient from humid to a semi-arid region on seston elemental ratios in different size fractions. We used lake water specific conductivity as a proxy for residence time in a region of Eastern Brazil where there is a strong precipitation gradient. The C:P ratios decreased in the seston and bacterial size-fractions and increased in the dissolved fraction with increasing water retention time, suggesting uptake of N and P from the dissolved pool. Bacterial abundance, production and respiration increased in response to increased residence time and intracellular nutrient availability in agreement with the growth rate hypothesis. Our results reinforce the role of microorganisms in shaping the chemical environment in aquatic systems particularly at long water residence times and highlights the importance of this factor in influencing ecological stoichiometry in all aquatic ecosystems.

  19. An ecological time-series study of heat-related mortality in three European cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Europe has experienced warmer summers in the past two decades and there is a need to describe the determinants of heat-related mortality to better inform public health activities during hot weather. We investigated the effect of high temperatures on daily mortality in three cities in Europe (Budapest, London, and Milan, using a standard approach. Methods An ecological time-series study of daily mortality was conducted in three cities using Poisson generalized linear models allowing for over-dispersion. Secular trends in mortality and seasonal confounding factors were controlled for using cubic smoothing splines of time. Heat exposure was modelled using average values of the temperature measure on the same day as death (lag 0 and the day before (lag 1. The heat effect was quantified assuming a linear increase in risk above a cut-point for each city. Socio-economic status indicators and census data were linked with mortality data for stratified analyses. Results The risk of heat-related death increased with age, and females had a greater risk than males in age groups ≥65 years in London and Milan. The relative risks of mortality (per °C above the heat cut-point by gender and age were: (i Male 1.10 (95%CI: 1.07–1.12 and Female 1.07 (1.05–1.10 for 75–84 years, (ii M 1.10 (1.06–1.14 and F 1.08 (1.06–1.11 for ≥85 years in Budapest (≥24°C; (i M 1.03 (1.01–1.04 and F 1.07 (1.05–1.09, (ii M 1.05 (1.03–1.07 and F 1.08 (1.07–1.10 in London (≥20°C; and (i M 1.08 (1.03–1.14 and F 1.20 (1.15–1.26, (ii M 1.18 (1.11–1.26 and F 1.19 (1.15–1.24 in Milan (≥26°C. Mortality from external causes increases at higher temperatures as well as that from respiratory and cardiovascular disease. There was no clear evidence of effect modification by socio-economic status in either Budapest or London, but there was a seemingly higher risk for affluent non-elderly adults in Milan. Conclusion We found broadly consistent

  20. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njisane, Yonela Z; Muchenje, Voster

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB) of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT) and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*), pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL) and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s) BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s). Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04%) values than castrates (35.1±0.95%). Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N) than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N). There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  1. Influence of Municipal Abattoir Conditions and Animal-related Factors on Avoidance-related Behaviour, Bleeding Times at Slaughter and the Quality of Lamb Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonela Z. Njisane

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of municipal abattoir conditions and animal factors on avoidance-related behaviour (AB of sheep at slaughter, bleeding times (BT and mutton quality. The behaviour of 66 castrates and 19 ewes of different age categories was observed at three stages of slaughter. Higher behaviour scores indicated higher levels of AB. Time intervals between the start of blood flow and the time the flow changed from a constant stream into drips were recorded as BT. Thirty two meat samples were obtained to measure quality variables. These were colour (L*, a* and b*, pH24, temperature, cooking loss (CL and tenderness. Correlations were determined between BT and meat quality variables. Animal behaviour at slaughter differed with breed, gender and age group. Avoidance behaviour was higher in the Dorper breed than in both the Merino breed and their crosses. It was also higher in younger (<10 months lambs than in older sheep. Castrates were more aggressive or in panic than ewes. Castrates had longer (72.6±0.53 s BT than the ewes (63.6±2.82 s. Ewes had higher CL (39.8±1.04% values than castrates (35.1±0.95%. Meat from castrates was tougher (32.6±1.95 N than the meat from ewes (24.3±1.16 N. There were no significant correlations obtained between BT and meat quality variables. It can therefore be concluded that abattoir conditions, breed, age and gender had an effect on AB at slaughter. Gender had an effect on BT and mutton quality.

  2. Cosmological special relativity the large scale structure of space, time and velocity

    CERN Document Server

    Carmeli, Moshe

    2002-01-01

    This book presents Einstein's theory of space and time in detail, and describes the large-scale structure of space, time and velocity as a new cosmological special relativity. A cosmological Lorentz-like transformation, which relates events at different cosmic times, is derived and applied. A new law of addition of cosmic times is obtained, and the inflation of the space at the early universe is derived, both from the cosmological transformation. The relationship between cosmic velocity, acceleration and distances is given. In the appendices gravitation is added in the form of a cosmological g

  3. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the human gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic t...... imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism, and its importance for host health, although stool consistency, a proxy for colonic transit time, has recently been negatively associated with gut microbial richness. To address the relationships between colonic...... transit time and the gut microbial composition and metabolism, we assessed the colonic transit time of 98 subjects using radiopaque markers, and profiled their gut microbiota by16S rRNA gene sequencing and their urine metabolome by ultra performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Based...

  4. An earlier time of scan is associated with greater threat-related amygdala reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranger, David A A; Margolis, Seth; Hariri, Ahmad R; Bogdan, Ryan

    2017-08-01

    Time-dependent variability in mood and anxiety suggest that related neural phenotypes, such as threat-related amygdala reactivity, may also follow a diurnal pattern. Here, using data from 1,043 young adult volunteers, we found that threat-related amygdala reactivity was negatively coupled with time of day, an effect which was stronger in the left hemisphere (β = -0.1083, p-fdr = 0.0012). This effect was moderated by subjective sleep quality (β = -0.0715, p-fdr = 0.0387); participants who reported average and poor sleep quality had relatively increased left amygdala reactivity in the morning. Bootstrapped simulations suggest that similar cross-sectional samples with at least 300 participants would be able to detect associations between amygdala reactivity and time of scan. In control analyses, we found no associations between time and V1 activation. Our results provide initial evidence that threat-related amygdala reactivity may vary diurnally, and that this effect is potentiated among individuals with average to low sleep quality. More broadly, our results suggest that considering time of scan in study design or modeling time of scan in analyses, as well as collecting additional measures of circadian variation, may be useful for understanding threat-related neural phenotypes and their associations with behavior, such as fear conditioning, mood and anxiety symptoms, and related phenotypes. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Defects in higher-dimensional quantum field theory. Relations to AdS/CFT-correspondence and Kondo lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, R.

    2007-03-15

    The present work is addressed to defects and boundaries in quantum field theory considering the application to AdS/CFT correspondence. We examine interactions of fermions with spins localised on these boundaries. Therefore, an algebra method is emphasised adding reflection and transmission terms to the canonical quantisation prescription. This method has already been applied to bosons in two space-time dimensions before. We show the possibilities of such reflection-transmission algebras in two, three, and four dimensions. We compare with models of solid state physics as well as with the conformal field theory approach to the Kondo effect. Furthermore, we discuss ansatzes of extensions to lattice structures. (orig.)

  6. Pedagogical Change at Times of Change in the Higher Education System: An Exploration of Early Career Mentoring, Co-publication and Teaching & Learning Insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Boyd

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Universities are at a time of change. Their social, political and economic conditions are under challenge, while technological change challenges curriculum design and implementation, requiring reconsiderations of teaching and learning practices. In this context, and as part of the conference session on Higher education in 2014: threshold, watershed or business as usual?, I reviewed an approach I have been trialing to supporting early- and mid-career academics to navigate through this changing environment. This paper presents an illustrated essay on a human-scale approach to early- and mid-career mentoring through the establishment of small team-based research and writing projects. The essay provides examples of activities that, on the one hand, assist academics to develop the tools they need to navigate the new and evolving environment of higher education, while on the other hand directly addresses key pedagogical issues and provides new insight into teaching and learning in higher education.

  7. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Keiser, G M; Ohshima, Y; Shestople, P; Lockhart, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16f o clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency 3 . The 16f o clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16f o clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests. (paper)

  8. Pediatric Patients' Malnutrition and Its Relation to Hospitalization Times and Causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarey, Luis M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Relates the nutritional status of 1,378 hospitalized pediatric patients to length of hospitalization and definitive hospitalization diagnosis. Findings indicated the length of hospitalization time increased markedly with malnutrition, especially for patients with diarrhea. (BJD)

  9. Greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in a population of elderly Japanese men with relatively low dietary calcium intake: Fujiwara-kyo Osteoporosis Risk in Men (FORMEN) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Y; Iki, M; Fujita, Y; Tamaki, J; Kouda, K; Yura, A; Moon, J-S; Winzenrieth, R; Iwaki, H; Ishizuka, R; Amano, N; Tomioka, K; Okamoto, N; Kurumatani, N

    2015-05-01

    The effects of milk intake on bone health are not clear in elderly Asian men with low dietary calcium intake. This study showed that greater milk intake is associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and higher bone microarchitecture index in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. The consumption of milk or dairy products is widely recommended for maintaining bone health regardless of gender or age. However, little evidence exists on the beneficial effects of milk intake on bone health in elderly Japanese men characterized with relatively low dietary calcium intake. Here we examined whether or not greater milk intake was associated with lower bone turnover, higher bone density, and stronger bone microarchitecture in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men. Interviews were conducted to obtain information on medical history and lifestyle, including the amount of habitual milk intake, nutrient intake calculations based on a 1-week food diary, and measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) at the lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), and femoral neck (FN) by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), trabecular bone score (TBS) using DXA images at LS, and biochemical markers of bone turnover in sera. Participants with a history of diseases or medications that affect bone metabolism, or with missing data, were excluded from the analysis. The median intake of milk in the 1479 participants (mean age, 73.0 ± 5.1 years) was one glass of milk per day. Bone turnover markers showed a decreasing trend (p turnover, higher aBMD, and higher TBS in community-dwelling elderly Japanese men.

  10. In Iranian female and male adolescents, romantic love is related to hypomania and low depressive symptoms, but also to higher state anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajoghli, Hafez; Joshaghani, Narges; Gerber, Markus; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2013-06-01

    Experiencing romantic love is important in individual development. Little is known about romantic love among adolescents in non-Western countries. The aim of the present study was to explore romantic love among Iranian male and female adolescents. A total of 201 adolescents (mean age: 17.73 years) took part in the study; of these, 81 indicated they were experiencing romantic love at the time of survey, and 120 indicated they were not in love. Participants answered questionnaires related to affective states (hypomania, depressive symptoms, state and trait anxiety) and exercise, and completed a sleep log for seven consecutive nights. Compared to controls, participants in love displayed favourable hypomania scores, fewer depressive symptoms and increased concentration during the day. However, participants in love also had higher state anxiety scores. Moreover, hypomanic-like stages increased with duration of relationship in female, but not in male participants. The pattern of results suggests a favourable association between being currently in love and emotional and cognitive processes. Sleep, however, seemed unrelated to this specific state.

  11. Dose and time relations in Hg(++)-induced tubular necrosis and regeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J B; Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1994-01-01

    relationship is caused by a dose-related induction of kidney damage leading to increasing leakage of mercury through the kidneys. Histopathologic investigation revealed extensive necrosis of the proximal tubules in kidneys from mice exposed to 100 mumole HgCl2/kg or higher doses. Moreover, maximum renal damage...

  12. Correlates of adolescent sleep time and variability in sleep time: the role of individual and health related characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Melisa; Kirchner, H Lester; Drotar, Dennis; Johnson, Nathan; Rosen, Carol; Redline, Susan

    2011-03-01

    Adolescents are predisposed to short sleep duration and irregular sleep patterns due to certain host characteristics (e.g., age, pubertal status, gender, ethnicity, socioeconomic class, and neighborhood distress) and health-related variables (e.g., ADHD, asthma, birth weight, and BMI). The aim of the current study was to investigate the relationship between such variables and actigraphic measures of sleep duration and variability. Cross-sectional study of 247 adolescents (48.5% female, 54.3% ethnic minority, mean age of 13.7years) involved in a larger community-based cohort study. Significant univariate predictors of sleep duration included gender, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent income, and BMI. In multivariate models, gender, minority status, and BMI were significantly associated with sleep duration (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more sleep. Univariate models demonstrated that age, minority ethnicity, neighborhood distress, parent education, parent income, pubertal status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time. In the multivariate model, age, minority status, and BMI were significantly related to variability in total sleep time (all pminority adolescents, and those of a lower BMI obtaining more regular sleep. These data show differences in sleep patterns in population sub-groups of adolescents which may be important in understanding pediatric health risk profiles. Sub-groups that may particularly benefit from interventions aimed at improving sleep patterns include boys, overweight, and minority adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantifying the effect of editor-author relations on manuscript handling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarigöl, Emre; Garcia, David; Scholtes, Ingo; Schweitzer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In this article we study to what extent the academic peer review process is influenced by social relations between the authors of a manuscript and the editor handling the manuscript. Taking the open access journal PlosOne as a case study, our analysis is based on a data set of more than 100,000 articles published between 2007 and 2015. Using available data on handling editor, submission and acceptance time of manuscripts, we study the question whether co-authorship relations between authors and the handling editor affect the manuscript handling time , i.e. the time taken between the submission and acceptance of a manuscript. Our analysis reveals (1) that editors handle papers co-authored by previous collaborators significantly more often than expected at random, and (2) that such prior co-author relations are significantly related to faster manuscript handling. Addressing the question whether these shorter manuscript handling times can be explained by the quality of publications, we study the number of citations and downloads which accepted papers eventually accumulate. Moreover, we consider the influence of additional (social) factors, such as the editor's experience, the topical similarity between authors and editors, as well as reciprocal citation relations between authors and editors. Our findings show that, even when correcting for other factors like time, experience, and performance, prior co-authorship relations have a large and significant influence on manuscript handling times, speeding up the editorial decision on average by 19 days.

  14. Smoking is Associated with Higher Disease-related Costs and Lower Health-related Quality of Life in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Severs, M.; Mangen, M.J.; Valk, M.E. van der; Fidder, H.H.; Dijkstra, G.; Have, M. van der; Bodegraven, A.A. van; Jong, D.J. de; Woude, C.J. van der; Romberg-Camps, M.J.; Clemens, C.H.; Jansen, J.M.; Meeberg, P.C. van de; Mahmmod, N.; Ponsioen, C.Y.; Vermeijden, J.R.; Jong, A E F de; Pierik, M.; Siersema, P.D.; Oldenburg, B.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: Smoking affects the course of inflammatory bowel disease [IBD]. We aimed to study the impact of smoking on IBD-specific costs and health-related quality-of-life [HrQoL] among adults with Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]. Methods: A large cohort of IBD patients

  15. Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, F.; Hartman, K.L.; Pierce, G.J.; Valavanis, V.D.; Huisman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Each year, a phytoplankton spring bloom starts just north of the North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre, and then expands northwards across the entire North Atlantic. Here, we investigate whether the timing of the spring migration of baleen whales is related to the timing of the phytoplankton spring bloom,

  16. Recurrence relations and time evolution in the three-dimensional Sawada model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.H.; Hong, J.

    1984-01-01

    Time-dependent behavior of the three-dimensional Sawada model is obtained by a method of recurrence relations. Exactly calculated quantities are the time evolution of the density-fluctuation operator and its random force. As an application, their linear coefficients, the relaxation and memory functions are used to obtain certain dynamic quantities, e.g., the mobility

  17. A longitudinal study on time perspectives: relations with academic delay of gratification and learning environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peetsma, T.; Schuitema, J.; van der Veen, I.

    2012-01-01

    After they start secondary school (at age 12 in the Netherlands), students' time perspectives on school and professional career and self-regulated learning decrease, while their perspectives on leisure increase. We aimed to investigate relations in the developments in time perspectives and delay of

  18. Leadership Behaviour of College Students in Relation to Their Leisure Time Activities in College Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Priyanka

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the Leadership behaviour of college students in relation to their Leisure time activities in college life. In this study, the researcher wants to see the contribution of leisure time activities in developing the qualities of leadership of college students. The main objective of the study was to find out the relationship…

  19. Relations between Self Regulation, Future Time Perspective and the Delay of Gratification in University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Suleyman

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted on 508 (331 female, 144 male) first grade university students in order to investigate the relations between self regulation, the future time perspectives, and the delay of gratification in the academic field. A future time perspective scale, an academic delay of gratification scale and a motivational strategies for…

  20. 26 CFR 1.25A-5 - Special rules relating to characterization and timing of payments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... also provides Student A with an education loan and pays Student A for working in a work/study job in... receipts and disbursements method of accounting, qualified tuition and related expenses are treated as paid...-time freshman at University X, pays $2,000 for qualified tuition and related expenses for a 16-hour...

  1. On the Linear Relation between the Mean and the Standard Deviation of a Response Time Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Brown, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Although it is generally accepted that the spread of a response time (RT) distribution increases with the mean, the precise nature of this relation remains relatively unexplored. The authors show that in several descriptive RT distributions, the standard deviation increases linearly with the mean. Results from a wide range of tasks from different…

  2. Trade-offs between commuting time and health-related activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Thomas J

    2012-10-01

    To further understand documented associations between obesity and urban sprawl, this research describes individuals' trade-offs between health-related activities and commuting time. A cross-section of 24,861 working-age individuals employed full-time and residing in urban counties is constructed from the American Time Use Survey (2003-2010). Data are analyzed using seemingly unrelated regressions to quantify health-related activity decreases in response to additional time spent commuting. Outcomes are total daily minutes spent in physical activity at a moderate or greater intensity, preparing food, eating meals with family, and sleeping. Commuting time is measured as all travel time between home and work and vice versa. The mean commuting time is 62 min daily, the median is 55 min, and 10.1% of workers commute 120 min or more. Spending an additional 60 min daily commuting above average is associated with a 6% decrease in aggregate health-related activities and spending an additional 120 min is associated with a 12% decrease. The greatest percentage of commuting time comes from sleeping time reductions (28-35%). Additionally, larger proportions of commuting time are taken from physical activity and food preparation relative to the mean commuting length: of 60 min spent commuting, 16.1% is taken from physical activity and 4.1% is taken from food preparation; of 120 min commuting, 20.3% is taken from physical activity and 5.6% is taken from food preparation. The results indicate that longer commutes are associated with behavioral patterns which over time may contribute to obesity and other poor health outcomes. These findings will assist both urban planners and researchers wishing to understand time constraints' impacts on health.

  3. Profiling Occupant Behaviour in Danish Dwellings using Time Use Survey Data - Part II: Time-related Factors and Occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barthelmes, V.M.; Li, R.; Andersen, R.K.

    2018-01-01

    Occupant behaviour has been shown to be one of the key driving factors of uncertainty in prediction of energy consumption in buildings. Building occupants affect building energy use directly and indirectly by interacting with building energy systems such as adjusting temperature set...... occupant profiles for prediction of energy use to reduce the gap between predicted and real building energy consumptions. In this study, we exploit diary-based Danish Time Use Surveys for understanding and modelling occupant behaviour in the residential sector in Denmark. This paper is a continuation......-points, switching lights on/off, using electrical devices and opening/closing windows. Furthermore, building inhabitants’ daily activity profiles clearly shape the timing of energy demand in households. Modelling energy-related human activities throughout the day, therefore, is crucial to defining more realistic...

  4. Development of efficient time-evolution method based on three-term recurrence relation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akama, Tomoko; Kobayashi, Osamu; Nanbu, Shinkoh

    2015-01-01

    The advantage of the real-time (RT) propagation method is a direct solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation which describes frequency properties as well as all dynamics of a molecular system composed of electrons and nuclei in quantum physics and chemistry. Its applications have been limited by computational feasibility, as the evaluation of the time-evolution operator is computationally demanding. In this article, a new efficient time-evolution method based on the three-term recurrence relation (3TRR) was proposed to reduce the time-consuming numerical procedure. The basic formula of this approach was derived by introducing a transformation of the operator using the arcsine function. Since this operator transformation causes transformation of time, we derived the relation between original and transformed time. The formula was adapted to assess the performance of the RT time-dependent Hartree-Fock (RT-TDHF) method and the time-dependent density functional theory. Compared to the commonly used fourth-order Runge-Kutta method, our new approach decreased computational time of the RT-TDHF calculation by about factor of four, showing the 3TRR formula to be an efficient time-evolution method for reducing computational cost

  5. Optimal Consumption and Investment under Time-Varying Relative Risk Aversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, Mogens

    2011-01-01

    We consider the continuous time consumption-investment problem originally formalized and solved by Merton in case of constant relative risk aversion. We present a complete solution for the case where relative risk aversion with respect to consumption varies with time, having in mind an investor...... with age-dependent risk aversion. This provides a new motivation for life-cycle investment rules. We study the optimal consumption and investment rules, in particular in the case where the relative risk aversion with respect to consumption is increasing with age....

  6. Understanding the Relative Contributions of Lower-Level Word Processes, Higher-Level Processes, and Working Memory to Reading Comprehension Performance in Proficient Adult Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Brenda

    2012-01-01

    Although a considerable amount of evidence has been amassed regarding the contributions of lower-level word processes, higher-level processes, and working memory to reading comprehension, little is known about the relationships among these sources of individual differences or their relative contributions to reading comprehension performance. This…

  7. Physical Activity Producing Low, but Not Medium or Higher, Vertical Impacts Is Inversely Related to BMI in Older Adults: Findings From a Multicohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhakeem, Ahmed; Hannam, Kimberly; Deere, Kevin C; Hartley, April; Clark, Emma M; Moss, Charlotte; Edwards, Mark H; Dennison, Elaine; Gaysin, Tim; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Tobias, Jon H

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background High impact physical activity (PA) is thought to improve skeletal health, but its relation to other health outcomes are unclear. We investigated associations between PA impact magnitude and body mass index (BMI) in older adults. Methods Data were taken from the Cohort for Skeletal Health in Bristol and Avon (COSHIBA), Hertfordshire Cohort Study, and MRC National Survey of Health and Development. Vertical acceleration peaks from 7-day hip-worn accelerometer recordings were used to classify PA as low (0.5 impact. Cohort-specific associations of low, medium, and higher impact PA with BMI were examined using linear regressions and estimates combined using random-effects meta-analysis. Results A total of 1182 participants (mean age = 72.7 years, 68% female) were included. Low, medium, and higher impact PA were inversely related to BMI in initial models. After adjustment for confounders and other impacts, low, but not medium or higher, impacts were inversely related to BMI (−0.31, p impacts). In adjusted analyses of body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in COSHIBA, low, but not medium or higher, impacts were inversely related to total body fat mass (−0.19, p impact PA was weakly and positively associated with lean mass (0.05, p = .06). Conclusions Greater exposure to PA producing low magnitude vertical impacts was associated with lower BMI and fat mass at older age. Low impact PA may help reduce obesity risk in older adults. PMID:29028919

  8. Relative performance of priority rules for hybrid flow shop scheduling with setup times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio Yochihiro Fuchigami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses the hybrid flow shop scheduling problem with explicit and sequence-independent setup times. This production environment is a multistage system with unidirectional flow of jobs, wherein each stage may contain multiple machines available for processing. The optimized measure was the total time to complete the schedule (makespan. The aim was to propose new priority rules to support the schedule and to evaluate their relative performance at the production system considered by the percentage of success, relative deviation, standard deviation of relative deviation, and average CPU time. Computational experiments have indicated that the rules using ascending order of the sum of processing and setup times of the first stage (SPT1 and SPT1_ERD performed better, reaching together more than 56% of success.

  9. Higher risks when working unusual times? A cross-validation of the effects on safety, health, and work-life balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greubel, Jana; Arlinghaus, Anna; Nachreiner, Friedhelm; Lombardi, David A

    2016-11-01

    Replication and cross-validation of results on health and safety risks of work at unusual times. Data from two independent surveys (European Working Conditions Surveys 2005 and 2010; EU 2005: n = 23,934 and EU 2010: n = 35,187) were used to examine the relative risks of working at unusual times (evenings, Saturdays, and Sundays) on work-life balance, work-related health complaints, and occupational accidents using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders such as demographics, work load, and shift work. For the EU 2005 survey, evening work was significantly associated with an increased risk of poor work-life balance (OR 1.69) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.14), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.49) and occupational accidents (OR 1.34), and Sunday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.15) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.17). For EU 2010, evening work was associated with poor work-life balance (OR 1.51) and work-related health complaints (OR 1.12), Saturday work with poor work-life balance (OR 1.60) and occupational accidents (OR 1.19) but a decrease in risk for work-related health complaints (OR 0.86) and Sunday work with work-related health complaints (OR 1.13). Risk estimates in both samples yielded largely similar results with comparable ORs and overlapping confidence intervals. Work at unusual times constitutes a considerable risk to social participation and health and showed structurally consistent effects over time and across samples.

  10. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Junbo; Wang, Gaojing; Han, Xianquan; Guo, Jiming

    2017-06-12

    Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS) predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm-dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  11. Impacts of Satellite Orbit and Clock on Real-Time GPS Point and Relative Positioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junbo Shi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite orbit and clock corrections are always treated as known quantities in GPS positioning models. Therefore, any error in the satellite orbit and clock products will probably cause significant consequences for GPS positioning, especially for real-time applications. Currently three types of satellite products have been made available for real-time positioning, including the broadcast ephemeris, the International GNSS Service (IGS predicted ultra-rapid product, and the real-time product. In this study, these three predicted/real-time satellite orbit and clock products are first evaluated with respect to the post-mission IGS final product, which demonstrates cm to m level orbit accuracies and sub-ns to ns level clock accuracies. Impacts of real-time satellite orbit and clock products on GPS point and relative positioning are then investigated using the P3 and GAMIT software packages, respectively. Numerical results show that the real-time satellite clock corrections affect the point positioning more significantly than the orbit corrections. On the contrary, only the real-time orbit corrections impact the relative positioning. Compared with the positioning solution using the IGS final product with the nominal orbit accuracy of ~2.5 cm, the real-time broadcast ephemeris with ~2 m orbit accuracy provided <2 cm relative positioning error for baselines no longer than 216 km. As for the baselines ranging from 574 to 2982 km, the cm–dm level positioning error was identified for the relative positioning solution using the broadcast ephemeris. The real-time product could result in <5 mm relative positioning accuracy for baselines within 2982 km, slightly better than the predicted ultra-rapid product.

  12. Real-time object recognition in multidimensional images based on joined extended structural tensor and higher-order tensor decomposition methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyganek, Boguslaw; Smolka, Bogdan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper a system for real-time recognition of objects in multidimensional video signals is proposed. Object recognition is done by pattern projection into the tensor subspaces obtained from the factorization of the signal tensors representing the input signal. However, instead of taking only the intensity signal the novelty of this paper is first to build the Extended Structural Tensor representation from the intensity signal that conveys information on signal intensities, as well as on higher-order statistics of the input signals. This way the higher-order input pattern tensors are built from the training samples. Then, the tensor subspaces are built based on the Higher-Order Singular Value Decomposition of the prototype pattern tensors. Finally, recognition relies on measurements of the distance of a test pattern projected into the tensor subspaces obtained from the training tensors. Due to high-dimensionality of the input data, tensor based methods require high memory and computational resources. However, recent achievements in the technology of the multi-core microprocessors and graphic cards allows real-time operation of the multidimensional methods as is shown and analyzed in this paper based on real examples of object detection in digital images.

  13. Maternal employment, acculturation, and time spent in food-related behaviors among Hispanic mothers in the United States. Evidence from the American Time Use Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwa, Sarah A; Must, Aviva; Peréa, Flavia; Economos, Christina D

    2015-04-01

    Employment is a major factor underlying im/migration patterns. Unfortunately, lower diet quality and higher rates of obesity appear to be unintended consequences of moving to the US. Changes in food preparation practices may be a factor underlying dietary acculturation. The relationships between employment, acculturation, and food-related time use in Hispanic families have received relatively little attention. We used cross-sectional data collected from Hispanic mothers (ages 18-65) with at least one child employment, acculturation (US-born vs. im/migrant), and time spent in food preparation and family dinner. Regression models were estimated separately for the employed and the non-working and were adjusted for Hispanic origin group, socio-demographic and household characteristics. Working an eight-hour day was associated with spending 38 fewer minutes in food preparation (-38.0 ± SE 4.8, p < 001). Although being US-born was associated with spending fewer minutes in food preparation, this relationship varied by origin group. Acculturation did not appear to modify the relationship between hours worked and time spent in food preparation or family dinner. Mothers who worked late hours spent less time eating the evening meal with their families (-9.8 ± SE 1.3). Although an eight-hour workday was associated with a significant reduction in food preparation time, an unexpected result is that, for working mothers, additional time spent in paid work is not associated with the duration of family dinner later that day. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation of MODIS EVI and LAI across time, vegetation types and hydrological regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandridis, Thomas; Ovakoglou, George

    2015-04-01

    across time, there is an evident temporal change in all test sites. The sensitivity of EVI to LAI is smaller in periods of high biomass production. The range of fluctuation is different across sites, and is related to biomass quantity and type. Higher fluctuation is noted in the winter season in Tamega, possibly due to cloud infected pixels that the QA and compositing algorithms did not successfully detect. Finally, there was no significant difference in the R2 and EVI factor when including in the analyses pixels indicated as "low and marginal quality" by the QA layers, thus suggesting that the use of low quality pixels can be justified when good quality pixels are not enough. Future work will study the transferability of these relations across scales and sensors. This study is supported by the Research Committee of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki project "Improvement of the estimation of Leaf Area Index (LAI) at basin scale using satellite images". MODIS data are provided by USGS.

  15. Task-related increases in fatigue predict recovery time after academic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Zilic, Jelena; Frischenschlager, Oskar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the time course of recovery after an academic exam as a model of high workload and its association with stress-related fatigue. Thirty-six medical students (17 females, 19 males) filled out diaries during an exam phase, starting 2 days prior to the exam, and a control phase 4 weeks after the exam for 14 days, respectively. Fatigue, distress, quality of sleep, and health complaints were assessed. Recovery time was determined for each individual and variable by comparing the 3-day average with the confidence interval of the control phase. Recovery time was predicted by Cox regression analyses. Recovery times of all variables except health complaints were predicted by stress-related fatigue. Half of the individuals had recovered after 6 days, and 80% of the individuals had recovered after 8 days. The time necessary for recovery from work demands is determined by fatigue as a measure of resource depletion.

  16. Different Ultimate Factors Define Timing of Breeding in Two Related Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veli-Matti Pakanen

    Full Text Available Correct reproductive timing is crucial for fitness. Breeding phenology even in similar species can differ due to different selective pressures on the timing of reproduction. These selection pressures define species' responses to warming springs. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis suggests that timing of breeding in animals is selected to match with food availability (synchrony. Alternatively, time-dependent breeding success (the date hypothesis can result from other seasonally deteriorating ecological conditions such as intra- or interspecific competition or predation. We studied the effects of two ultimate factors on the timing of breeding, synchrony and other time-dependent factors (time-dependence, in sympatric populations of two related forest-dwelling passerine species, the great tit (Parus major and the willow tit (Poecile montanus by modelling recruitment with long-term capture-recapture data. We hypothesized that these two factors have different relevance for fitness in these species. We found that local recruitment in both species showed quadratic relationships with both time-dependence and synchrony. However, the importance of these factors was markedly different between the studied species. Caterpillar food played a predominant role in predicting the timing of breeding of the great tit. In contrast, for the willow tit time-dependence modelled as timing in relation to conspecifics was more important for local recruitment than synchrony. High caterpillar biomass experienced during the pre- and post-fledging periods increased local recruitment of both species. These contrasting results confirm that these species experience different selective pressures upon the timing of breeding, and hence responses to climate change may differ. Detailed information about life-history strategies is required to understand the effects of climate change, even in closely related taxa. The temporal match-mismatch hypothesis should be extended to consider

  17. Associations of sedentary time and patterns of sedentary time accumulation with health-related quality of life in colorectal cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline H. van Roekel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior (sitting/lying at low energy expenditure while awake is emerging as an important risk factor that may compromise the health-related quality of life (HRQoL of colorectal cancer (CRC survivors. We examined associations of sedentary time with HRQoL in CRC survivors, 2–10 years post-diagnosis. In a cross-sectional study, stage I–III CRC survivors (n = 145 diagnosed (2002−2010 at Maastricht University Medical Center+, the Netherlands, wore the thigh-mounted MOX activity monitor 24 h/day for seven consecutive days. HRQoL outcomes were assessed by validated questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30, WHODAS II, Checklist Individual Strength, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Confounder-adjusted linear regression models were used to estimate associations with HRQoL outcomes of MOX-derived total and prolonged sedentary time (in prolonged sedentary bouts ≥30 min, and usual sedentary bout duration, corrected for waking wear time. On average, participants spent 10.2 h/day sedentary (SD, 1.6, and 4.5 h/day in prolonged sedentary time (2.3. Mean usual sedentary bout duration was 27.3 min (SD, 16.8. Greater total and prolonged sedentary time, and longer usual sedentary bout duration were associated with significantly (P < 0.05 lower physical functioning, and higher disability and fatigue scores. Greater prolonged sedentary time and longer usual sedentary bout duration also showed significant associations with lower global quality of life and role functioning. Associations with distress and social functioning were non-significant. Sedentary time was cross-sectionally associated with poorer HRQoL outcomes in CRC survivors. Prospective studies are needed to investigate whether sedentary time reduction is a potential target for lifestyle interventions aiming to improve the HRQoL of CRC survivors.

  18. Einstein's space-time an introduction to special and general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    Einstein's Space-Time: An Introduction to Special and General Relativity is a textbook addressed to students in physics and other people interested in Relativity and a history of physics. The book contains a complete account of Special Relativity that begins with the historical analysis of the reasons that led to a change in our manner of regarding the space and time. The first chapters are aimed to afford a deep understanding of the relativistic spacetime and its consequences for Dynamics. The chapter about covariant formulation includes among its topics the concepts of volume and hypersurfaces in manifolds, energy-momentum tensor of a fluid, and prepares the language for General Relativity. The last two chapters are devoted to an introduction of General Relativity and Cosmology in a modern approach connected with the latest discoveries in these areas.

  19. Time's up. descriptive epidemiology of multi-morbidity and time spent on health related activity by older Australians: a time use survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanisha Jowsey

    Full Text Available Most Western health systems remain single illness orientated despite the growing prevalence of multi-morbidity. Identifying how much time people with multiple chronic conditions spend managing their health will help policy makers and health service providers make decisions about areas of patient need for support. This article presents findings from an Australian study concerning the time spent on health related activity by older adults (aged 50 years and over, most of whom had multiple chronic conditions. A recall questionnaire was developed, piloted, and adjusted. Sampling was undertaken through three bodies; the Lung Foundation Australia (COPD sub-sample, National Diabetes Services Scheme (Diabetes sub-sample and National Seniors Australia (Seniors sub-sample. Questionnaires were mailed out during 2011 to 10,600 older adults living in Australia. 2540 survey responses were received and analysed. Descriptive analyses were completed to obtain median values for the hours spent on each activity per month. The mean number of chronic conditions was 3.7 in the COPD sub-sample, 3.4 in the Diabetes sub-sample and 2.0 in the NSA sub-sample. The study identified a clear trend of increased time use associated with increased number of chronic conditions. Median monthly time use was 5-16 hours per month overall for our three sub-samples. For respondents in the top decile with five or more chronic conditions the median time use was equivalent to two to three hours per day, and if exercise is included in the calculations, respondents spent from between five and eight hours per day: an amount similar to full-time work. Multi-morbidity imposes considerable time burdens on patients. Ageing is associated with increasing rates of multi-morbidity. Many older adults are facing high demands on their time to manage their health in the face of decreasing energy and mobility. Their time use must be considered in health service delivery and health system reform.

  20. Faculty workload and collegial support related to proportion of part-time faculty composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, D A

    1995-10-01

    Part-time faculty use has become more prevalent in higher education in response to enrollment shifts and budgetary constraints. This descriptive, exploratory study used a mailed survey to investigate whether full-time nursing faculty perceptions of workload and collegial support differ with changes in the proportion of part-time faculty in Comprehensive I baccalaureate nursing programs. Workload was measured by Dick's Workload Instrument. Collegial support was measured by the Survey of Collegial Communication, adapted by Beyer, which was based on Likert's organizational model. Schools were partitioned into three strata based on the proportion of part-time faculty employed (low, medium, and high). A 30% sample of schools were randomly selected from each stratum (10 schools from each). Within each selected school, six full-time undergraduate faculty were chosen by their respective deans to participate. The total response rate was 89.4%. The results of this study did not support assertions about part-time faculty use in the literature and existing accreditation standards. Findings indicated that there were significant differences in reported total faculty workload when varying proportions of part-time faculty are employed. Faculty in nursing programs with medium proportions of part-time faculty reported higher average total workloads per week than faculty in programs with low and high proportions of part-timers. Another finding demonstrated that full-time faculty in nursing programs with high proportions of part-time faculty spend fewer hours in direct clinical supervision of their students when compared with faculty in the other two strata. There were, however, no differences in perceived collegial support among full-time faculty participants. It was recommended that further research be conducted to investigate specific workload differences found in this study using more precise quantitative measures. Communication and collegiality between part-time and full-time

  1. Quantum work relations and response theory in parity-time-symmetric quantum systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bo-Bo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we show that a universal quantum work relation for a quantum system driven arbitrarily far from equilibrium extends to a parity-time- (PT -) symmetric quantum system with unbroken PT symmetry, which is a consequence of microscopic reversibility. The quantum Jarzynski equality, linear response theory, and Onsager reciprocal relations for the PT -symmetric quantum system are recovered as special cases of the universal quantum work relation in a PT -symmetric quantum system. In the regime of broken PT symmetry, the universal quantum work relation does not hold because the norm is not preserved during the dynamics.

  2. Clinical usefulness and feasibility of time-frequency analysis of chemosensory event-related potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huart, C; Rombaux, Ph; Hummel, T; Mouraux, A

    2013-09-01

    The clinical usefulness of olfactory event-related brain potentials (OERPs) to assess olfactory function is limited by the relatively low signal-to-noise ratio of the responses identified using conventional time-domain averaging. Recently, it was shown that time-frequency analysis of the obtained EEG signals can markedly improve the signal-to-noise ratio of OERPs in healthy controls, because it enhances both phase-locked and non phase-locked EEG responses. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical usefulness of this approach and evaluate its feasibility in a clinical setting. We retrospectively analysed EEG recordings obtained from 45 patients (15 anosmic, 15 hyposmic and 15 normos- mic). The responses to olfactory stimulation were analysed using conventional time-domain analysis and joint time-frequency analysis. The ability of the two methods to discriminate between anosmic, hyposmic and normosmic patients was assessed using a Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis. The discrimination performance of OERPs identified using conventional time-domain averaging was poor. In contrast, the discrimination performance of the EEG response identified in the time-frequency domain was relatively high. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the magnitude of this response and the psychophysical olfactory score. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG responses to olfactory stimulation could be used as an effective and reliable diagnostic tool for the objective clinical evaluation of olfactory function in patients.

  3. Activity, inactivity, and screen time in relation to weight and fatness over adolescence in girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, Aviva; Bandini, Linda G; Tybor, David J; Phillips, Sarah M; Naumova, Elena N; Dietz, William H

    2007-07-01

    The impact of activity and inactivity on relative weight and fatness change are best evaluated longitudinally. We examined the longitudinal relationship of physical activity, inactivity, and screen time with relative weight status and percentage body fat (%BF) and explored how it differed by parental overweight status. Non-obese pre-menarcheal girls (173), 8 to 12 years old, were followed until 4 years post-menarche. %BF, BMI z-score, and time spent sleeping, sitting, standing, walking, and in vigorous activity were assessed annually. We developed a physical activity index to reflect time and intensity of activity. Inactivity was defined as the sum of time spent sleeping, sitting, and standing. Screen time was defined as time spent viewing television, videotapes, or playing video games. Parental overweight was defined as at least one parent with BMI>25. In separate linear mixed effects models, activity, inactivity, and screen time were unrelated to BMI z-score longitudinally, with and without accounting for parental overweight. After controlling for parental overweight, activity was inversely related (phistory of overweight represent a target population of high priority for interventions around physical activity and inactivity.

  4. Beyond chronological age. Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, D.T.A.M.; Lange, A.H. de; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  5. Beyond chronological age : Examining perceived future time and subjective health as age-related mediators in relation to work-related motivations and well-being

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, T.A.M.; de Lange, A.H.; Jansen, P.G.W.; Dikkers, J.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Since workforces across the world are aging, researchers and organizations need more insight into how and why occupational well-being, together with work-related attitudes and motivations, change with age. Lifespan theories point to subjective health and future time perspective (i.e. an individual's

  6. Variations with time and age in the relative risks of solid cancer incidence after radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M.P.; Muirhead, C.R.; de Vathaire, F.; Charles, M.W.

    1997-01-01

    The Japanese atomic bomb survivor cancer incidence dataset and data on five groups exposed to radiation for medical reasons in childhood are analysed and evidence found for a reduction in the radiation-induced relative risk of cancers other than leukaemia with increasing time since exposure and age at exposure. The rate of the reductions in relative risk with time since exposure are not significantly different for those exposed in childhood and for those exposed in adulthood, if adjustment is made for the effects on the relative risk of age at exposure. For those irradiated in childhood, there is a statistically significant annual reduction of 5.8% (95% Cl 2.8, 8.9) in excess relative risk, and there are no strong indications of inter-cohort heterogeniety in the speed of reduction of relative risk. After adjustment for the effects of age at exposure, there is a significant annual reduction of 3.6% (95% Cl 1.6, 5.6) in excess relative risk in all age-at-exposure groups. There are significant reductions of 5.2% (95% Cl 3.7, 6.8) in excess relative risk per year of age at exposure. There are statistically significant (P = 0.04) interactions between the exponential adjustments to the excess relative risk for age at exposure and time since exposure in the Japanese data, but no indications (P = 0.38) of such interactions when powers of time since exposure and attained age are used to adjust the excess relative risk, so that the fit of the model with power adjustments is to be preferred to that of the model with exponential adjustments. (author)

  7. Measurement of the positron-drift time relation of a high-pressure drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruefert, W.

    1989-04-01

    As a test of its performance, the measurement of the drift time versus drift distance relation of a high pressure drift chamber using cosmic rays is described. Two multiwire proportional chambers, mounted above and below the detector, are used to define the track of the cosmic particle in the drift chamber. The drift chamber is read out by FADCs (Flash Analog to Digital Converter), and the drift time is determined from the FADC signals by the DOS- (Difference Of Samples) method. The measured drift time versus drift distance relation showed good agreement with the relation, which is expected from the spatial dependence of the electric field and the dependence of the drift velocity on this field. (orig.) [de

  8. Individual differences in motor timing and its relation to cognitive and fine motor skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Lorås

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the relationship between individual differences in timing movements at the level of milliseconds and performance on selected cognitive and fine motor skills. For this purpose, young adult participants (N = 100 performed a repetitive movement task paced by an auditory metronome at different rates. Psychometric measures included the digit-span and symbol search subtasks from the Wechsler battery as well as the Raven SPM. Fine motor skills were assessed with the Purdue Pegboard test. Motor timing performance was significantly related (mean r = .3 to cognitive measures, and explained both unique and shared variance with information-processing speed of Raven's scores. No significant relations were found between motor timing measures and fine motor skills. These results show that individual differences in cognitive and motor timing performance is to some extent dependent upon shared processing not associated with individual differences in manual dexterity.

  9. Relationship Between Time Consumption and Quality of Responses to Drug-related Queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amundstuen Reppe, Linda; Lydersen, Stian; Schjøtt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    in score, –0.05 per hour of work; 95% CI, –0.08 to –0.01; P = 0.005). No such associations were found for the internal experts’ assessment. Implications To our knowledge, this is the first study of the association between time consumption and quality of responses to drug-related queries in DICs......Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the quality of responses produced by drug information centers (DICs) in Scandinavia, and to study the association between time consumption processing queries and the quality of the responses. Methods We posed six identical drug-related queries to seven...... DICs in Scandinavia, and the time consumption required for processing them was estimated. Clinical pharmacologists (internal experts) and general practitioners (external experts) reviewed responses individually. We used mixed model linear regression analyses to study the associations between time...

  10. General relation between the group delay and dwell time in multicomponent electron systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Feng; Lu, Junqiang

    2016-10-01

    For multicomponent electron scattering states, we derive a general relation between the Wigner group delay and the Bohmian dwell time. It is found that the definition of group delay should account for the phase of the spinor wave functions of propagating modes. The difference between the group delay and dwell time comes from both the interference delay and the decaying modes. For barrier tunneling of helical electrons on a surface of topological insulators, our calculations including the trigonal-warping term show that the decaying modes can contribute greatly to the group delay. The derived relation between the group delay and the dwell time is helpful to unify the two definitions of tunneling time in a quite general situation.

  11. Time to recurrence of mental health-related absence from work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norder, G; Hoedeman, R; de Bruin, J; van Rhenen, W; Roelen, C A M

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear when occupational health providers should re-evaluate workers after mental health-related absences from work. To investigate the time to recurrence of mental health-related absences, stratified by International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision (ICD-10) diagnostic categories. A 10-year observational study of workers employed at a steel mill. Sickness absence data were retrieved from an occupational health register. Mental health-related absences were defined as absence due to emotional disturbance or mental and behavioural disorders. The first mental health-related absence since baseline was called the index episode. Recurrences were defined as mental health-related absences occurring >28 days after recovery from the index episode. The frequency of recurrent mental health-related absence was assessed by the recurrence density (RD) per 1000 person-years. The time to recurrent mental health-related absence was investigated by Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Of 15461 workers, 391 had recurrent mental health-related absences. RD was 30.5, 34.3, 29.9 and 37.7 per 1000 person-years after index episodes due to emotional disturbance, mood disorders, neurotic disorders and other psychiatric disorders, respectively. RDs did not differ across ICD-10 diagnostic categories. The median time to recurrent mental health-related absence was 15.2 months [95% confidence interval (CI) 12.6-17.7] and was shortest for mood disorders (5.2, 95% CI 1.4-8.9 months) and specific psychiatric disorders (5.3, 95% CI 1.0-13.1 months). Based on this observational study, we suggest that occupational and primary health care providers consider reviewing the mental health status of workers 6 months after recovery from mental health-related absence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Work-related self-efficacy as a moderator of the impact of a worksite stress management training intervention: Intrinsic work motivation as a higher order condition of effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Joda; Bond, Frank W; Flaxman, Paul E

    2017-01-01

    Employees with low levels of work-related self-efficacy may stand to benefit more from a worksite stress management training (SMT) intervention. However, this low work-related self-efficacy/enhanced SMT benefits effect may be conditional on employees also having high levels of intrinsic work motivation. In the present study, we examined this proposition by testing three-way, or higher order, interaction effects. One hundred and fifty-three U.K. government employees were randomly assigned to a SMT intervention group (n = 68), or to a waiting list control group (n = 85). The SMT group received three half-day training sessions spread over two and a half months. Findings indicated that there were significant overall reductions in psychological strain, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization in the SMT group, in comparison to the control group. Furthermore, there were significant higher order Group (SMT vs. control) × Time 1 Work-Related Self-Efficacy × Time 1 Intrinsic Work Motivation interactions, such that reductions in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization at certain time points were experienced only by those who had low baseline levels of work-related self-efficacy and high baseline levels of intrinsic work motivation. Implications for work-related self-efficacy theory and research and SMT research and practice are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. The separating topology for the space-times of general relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem, U.

    1977-08-01

    The separating topology, first suggested by Zeeman, is defined for the space-times of general relativity. It is defined by a basis. A number of properties are derived. The topology induces the ordinary Euclidean topology on space-like hypersurfaces as well as on timelike curves and the discrete topology on null-cones. The group of auto-homeomorphisms is found to be the group of smooth conformal diffeomorphisms if the space-time is strongly causal. (author)

  14. Characterizing multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation via internal symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballar, Roland Cristopher F.; Ocampo, Leonard R.; Galapon, Eric A.

    2010-01-01

    Internal symmetries can be used to classify multiple solutions to the time-energy canonical commutation relation (TE-CCR). The dynamical behavior of solutions to the TE-CCR possessing particular internal symmetries involving time reversal differ significantly from solutions to the TE-CCR without those particular symmetries, implying a connection between the internal symmetries of a quantum system, its internal unitary dynamics, and the TE-CCR.

  15. Relative Error Model Reduction via Time-Weighted Balanced Stochastic Singular Perturbation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2012-01-01

    A new mixed method for relative error model reduction of linear time invariant (LTI) systems is proposed in this paper. This order reduction technique is mainly based upon time-weighted balanced stochastic model reduction method and singular perturbation model reduction technique. Compared...... by using the concept and properties of the reciprocal systems. The results are further illustrated by two practical numerical examples: a model of CD player and a model of the atmospheric storm track....

  16. Modification of Time-dependent Schrodinger Equation in Quantum Mechanics by Adding Derivations of Time's Flow (Relative Time) with Respect of the Both Space and Time Based on the ``Substantial Motion'' Theory of Iranian Philosopher; Mulla Sadra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholibeigian, Hassan; Gholibeigian, Kazem

    2016-03-01

    In Sadra's theory, the relative time for an atom (body) which is varying continuously becomes momentums of its involved fundamental particles (strings), (time's relativity) [Gholibeigian, APS March Meeting 2015, abstract #V1.023]. Einstein's theory of special relativity might be special form of Sadra's theory. ``The nature has two magnitudes and two elongations, the one is gradual being (wavy-like motion) which belongs to the time and dividable to the former and the next times in mind, and the other is jerky-like motion which belongs to the space and dividable to the former and the next places'' [Asfar, Mulla Sadra, (1571/2-1640)]. Sadra separated the nature of time from nature of space. Therefore we can match these two natures on wave-particle duality. It means that the nature of time might be wavy-like and the nature of space might be jerky-like. So, there are two independent variable sources for particle(s)' flow with respect of its two natures such as potential of flow and relative time which vary with respect of both space and time. Consequently we propose two additional parts to Schrodinger's equation: H⌢ Ψ +tp ∇t' = ih/2 π ∂/∂t Ψ +tp∂/∂t t' , where tp is Planck's time and t' is relative time: t' = f (m , v , t) = t +/- Δt , in which t is time, m is mass and vis speed of particle . AmirKabir University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.

  17. Teleseism-based Relative Time Corrections for Modern Analyses of Digitized Analog Seismograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T. A.; Ishii, M.

    2017-12-01

    With modern-day instruments and seismic networks timed by GPS systems, synchronization of data streams is all but a forgone conclusion. However, during the analog era, when each station had its own clock, comparing data timing from different stations was a far more daunting prospect. Today, with recently developed methods by which analog data can be digitized, having the ability to accurately reconcile the timings of two separate stations would open decades worth of data to modern analyses. For example, one possible and exciting application would be using noise interferometry with digitized analog data in order to investigate changing structural features (on a volcano for example) over a much longer timescale than was previously possible. With this in mind, we introduce a new approach to sync time between stations based on teleseismic arrivals. P-wave arrivals are identified at stations for pairs of earthquakes from the digital and analog eras that have nearly identical distances, locations, and depths. Assuming accurate timing of the modern data, relative time corrections between a pair of stations can then be inferred for the analog data. This method for time correction depends upon the analog stations having modern equivalents, and both having sufficiently long durations of operation to allow for recording of usable teleseismic events. The Hawaii Volcano Observatory (HVO) network is an especially ideal environment for this, as it not only has a large and well-preserved collection of analog seismograms, but also has a long operating history (1912 - present) with many of the older stations having modern equivalents. As such, the scope of this project is to calculate and apply relative time corrections to analog data from two HVO stations, HILB (1919-present) and UWE (1928-present)(HILB now part of Pacific Tsunami network). Further application of this method could be for investigation of the effects of relative clock-drift, that is, the determining factor for how

  18. A Spectral Analysis of Discrete-Time Quantum Walks Related to the Birth and Death Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Choon-Lin; Ide, Yusuke; Konno, Norio; Segawa, Etsuo; Takumi, Kentaro

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we consider a spectral analysis of discrete time quantum walks on the path. For isospectral coin cases, we show that the time averaged distribution and stationary distributions of the quantum walks are described by the pair of eigenvalues of the coins as well as the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the corresponding random walks which are usually referred as the birth and death chains. As an example of the results, we derive the time averaged distribution of so-called Szegedy's walk which is related to the Ehrenfest model. It is represented by Krawtchouk polynomials which is the eigenvectors of the model and includes the arcsine law.

  19. Later endogenous circadian temperature nadir relative to an earlier wake time in older people

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, J. F.; Dijk, D. J.; Klerman, E. B.; Czeisler, C. A.

    1998-01-01

    The contribution of the circadian timing system to the age-related advance of sleep-wake timing was investigated in two experiments. In a constant routine protocol, we found that the average wake time and endogenous circadian phase of 44 older subjects were earlier than that of 101 young men. However, the earlier circadian phase of the older subjects actually occurred later relative to their habitual wake time than it did in young men. These results indicate that an age-related advance of circadian phase cannot fully account for the high prevalence of early morning awakening in healthy older people. In a second study, 13 older subjects and 10 young men were scheduled to a 28-h day, such that they were scheduled to sleep at many circadian phases. Self-reported awakening from scheduled sleep episodes and cognitive throughput during the second half of the wake episode varied markedly as a function of circadian phase in both groups. The rising phase of both rhythms was advanced in the older subjects, suggesting an age-related change in the circadian regulation of sleep-wake propensity. We hypothesize that under entrained conditions, these age-related changes in the relationship between circadian phase and wake time are likely associated with self-selected light exposure at an earlier circadian phase. This earlier exposure to light could account for the earlier clock hour to which the endogenous circadian pacemaker is entrained in older people and thereby further increase their propensity to awaken at an even earlier time.

  20. Field theories on conformally related space-times: Some global considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Dowker, J.S.

    1979-01-01

    The nature of the vacua appearing in the relation between the vacuum expectation value of stress tensors in conformally flat spaces is clarified. The simple but essential point is that the relevant spaces should have conformally related global Cauchy surfaces. Some commonly occurring conformally flat space-times are divided into two families according to whether they are conformally equivalent to Minkowski space or to the Rindler wedge. Expressions, some new, are obtained for the vacuum expectation value of the stress tensor for a number of illustrative cases. It is noted that thermalization relates the Green's functions of these two families

  1. Colonic transit time is related to bacterial metabolism and mucosal turnover in the gut

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roager, Henrik Munch; Hansen, Lea Benedicte Skov; Bahl, Martin Iain

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transi...... does not per se imply a healthy gut microbial ecosystem and points at colonic transit time as a highly important factor to consider in microbiome and metabolomics studies.......Little is known about how colonic transit time relates to human colonic metabolism and its importance for host health, although a firm stool consistency, a proxy for a long colonic transit time, has recently been positively associated with gut microbial richness. Here, we show that colonic transit...... time in humans, assessed using radio-opaque markers, is associated with overall gut microbial composition, diversity and metabolism. We find that a long colonic transit time associates with high microbial richness and is accompanied by a shift in colonic metabolism from carbohydrate fermentation...

  2. Body-Related Shame and Guilt Predict Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castonguay, Andrée L; Wrosch, Carsten; Pila, Eva; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2017-07-01

    To test body-related shame and guilt as predictors of breast cancer survivors' (BCS') moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) during six months and to examine motivational regulations as mediators of this association.
. Prospective study.
. Survivors were recruited through advertisements and oncologist referrals from medical clinics and hospitals in Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
. 149 female BCS.
. Self-reports of body-related shame and guilt, motivational regulations, and MVPA were measured among BCS at baseline. MVPA was assessed a second time six months later. Residual change scores were used.
. Body-related shame and guilt; external, introjected, and autonomous (identified and intrinsic) motivational regulations; MVPA.
. In the multiple mediation models, body-related shame was associated with low levels of MVPA, as well as external, introjected, and autonomous motivational regulations. Guilt was related to high levels of MVPA and introjected and autonomous motivational regulations. Indirect effects linked shame, guilt, and MVPA via autonomous motivation. Only body-related shame was a significant predictor of six-month changes in MVPA.
. Based on these results, the specific emotions of shame and guilt contextualized to the body differentially predict BCS' health motivations and behavior over time.
. Survivorship programs may benefit from integrating intervention strategies aimed at reducing body-related shame and helping women manage feelings of guilt to improve physical activity.

  3. Time-related contact angle measurements with human plasma on biomaterial surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakhorst, G; Van der Mei, HC; van Oeveren, W; Spijker, HT; Busscher, HJ

    Axisymmetric drop shape analysis by profile (ADSA-P) was used to assess in time contact angle changes of human plasma drops placed on four different biomaterials. Results were related with conventional blood compatibility measurements: albumin adsorption, fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion.

  4. Resolving relative time expressions in Dutch text with Constraint Handling Rules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Camp, Matje; Christiansen, Henning

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated how Constraint Handling Rules can be applied for resolution of indirect and relative time expressions in text as part of a shallow analysis, following a specialized tagging phase. A method is currently under development, optimized for a particular corpus of historical biographies...

  5. On the Possibility of Instant Displacements in the Space-Time of General Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Employing the mathematical apparatus of chronometric invariants (physical observable quantities, this study finds a theoretical possibility for the instant displacement of particles in the space-time of the General Theory of Relativity. This is to date the sole theoretical explanation of the well-known phenomenon of photon teleportation, given by the purely geometrical methods of Einstein’s theory.

  6. On the Possibility of Instant Displacements in the Space-Time of General Relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Borissova L.; Rabounski D.

    2005-01-01

    Employing the mathematical apparatus of chronometric invariants (physical observable quantities), this study finds a theoretical possibility for the instant displacement of particles in the space-time of the General Theory of Relativity. This is to date the sole theoretical explanation of the well-known phenomenon of photon teleportation, given by the purely geometrical methods of Einstein’s theory.

  7. On the relation between texture perception and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Aspects of the relationship between texture perception in the mouth and fundamental mechanical parameters for liquids and time dependent solids are discussed. The emphasis is on the physical side of the relation. The importance is stressed of the incorporation of a thorough knowledge of

  8. Changes in time and frequency related aspects of motor unit action potentials during fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wallinga, W.; Bouwens, Jeroen S.; Baten, Christian T.M.

    1996-01-01

    During fatigue the shape of motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) change. Characteristics of the MUAPs described before concern several time related aspects. No attention has been given to the frequency spectrum changes of MUAPS. The median frequency of MUAPS has now been determined for motor units

  9. Relation between Euclidean and real time calculations of Green functions at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochkarev, A.

    1993-01-01

    We find a relation between the semiclassical approximation of the temperature (Matsubara) two-point correlator and the corresponding classical Green function in real time at finite temperature. The anharmonic oscillator at finite temperature is used to illustrate our statement, which is however of rather general origin

  10. A Simple Derivation of Time Dilation and Length Contraction in Special Relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozi, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate physics majors typically begin their study of modern physics with special relativity. It is here that physics students first encounter the counterintuitive concepts of time dilation and length contraction. Unfortunately, the derivations of these results are often cloaked in several layers of analysis that render them rather…

  11. Determine the need to research the time-related stability decay of bord and pillar systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oberholzer, JW

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available in decisions regarding research work that could be conducted to investigate the time related decay of bord and pillar workings. As the working consist of pillars of varying shapes and sizes the study concentrated mainly on the aspects of pillar decay...

  12. Cerebral activation related to implicit sequence learning in a Double Serial Reaction Time task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Graaf, FHCE; Maguire, RP; Leenders, KL; de Jong, BM

    2006-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the distribution of cerebral activations related to implicitly learning a series of fixed stimulus-response combinations. In a novel - bimanual - variant of the Serial Reaction Time task (SRT), simultaneous finger movements of the two

  13. Modeling rainfall infiltration on hillslopes using Flux-concentration relation and time compression approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Chen, Li; Yu, Zhongbo

    2018-02-01

    Rainfall infiltration on hillslopes is an important issue in hydrology, which is related to many environmental problems, such as flood, soil erosion, and nutrient and contaminant transport. This study aimed to improve the quantification of infiltration on hillslopes under both steady and unsteady rainfalls. Starting from Darcy's law, an analytical integral infiltrability equation was derived for hillslope infiltration by use of the flux-concentration relation. Based on this equation, a simple scaling relation linking the infiltration times on hillslopes and horizontal planes was obtained which is applicable for both small and large times and can be used to simplify the solution procedure of hillslope infiltration. The infiltrability equation also improved the estimation of ponding time for infiltration under rainfall conditions. For infiltration after ponding, the time compression approximation (TCA) was applied together with the infiltrability equation. To improve the computational efficiency, the analytical integral infiltrability equation was approximated with a two-term power-like function by nonlinear regression. Procedures of applying this approach to both steady and unsteady rainfall conditions were proposed. To evaluate the performance of the new approach, it was compared with the Green-Ampt model for sloping surfaces by Chen and Young (2006) and Richards' equation. The proposed model outperformed the sloping Green-Ampt, and both ponding time and infiltration predictions agreed well with the solutions of Richards' equation for various soil textures, slope angles, initial water contents, and rainfall intensities for both steady and unsteady rainfalls.

  14. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Vidal Pereira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital.Method: quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants - with self-confrontation - by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts - whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not.Results: time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life.Conclusion: the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  15. Nurses' daily life: gender relations from the time spent in hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Audrey Vidal

    2015-01-01

    to analyze the everyday life of nurses through the sexual work division as well as through interdependence relations and the time in hospital. quanti-qualitative study, based on the Time Use Survey and in Norbert Elias's Configuration Theory of Interdependencies. Daily shifts distribution record, directed by 42 participants--with self-confrontation--by interviews which drew dialogues on subjective aspects of the everyday experiences related to use of time, based on a job at a university hospital. The theoretical intake that founded data analysis was based on concepts of conflicts of interest, power struggles, sexual work division and polychronic-monochronic concepts--whether the work environment demands multitasking nurses or not. time records allowed to observe differences between the groups studied, useful to identify conflicts, tensions, power struggles and gender inequalities in interviewees' everyday affairs that do not only affect physical and mental health, but also their way of life. the analytical path pointed out the need for public policies that promote equity in gender relations, keeping at sight the exercise of plural discourses and tolerant stances capable to respect differences between individual and collective time.

  16. Organized Sport Participation Is Associated with Higher Levels of Overall Health-Related Physical Activity in Children (CHAMPS Study-DK)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebert, Jeffrey J.; Møller, Niels C.; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2015-01-01

    leisure-time sport participation with overall physical activity levels and health-related physical activity guideline concordance. Methods This prospective cohort study was nested in the Childhood Health, Activity, and Motor Performance School Study Denmark. Study participants were a representative sample...... of 1124 primary school students. Organized leisure-time sport participation was reported via text messaging and physical activity was objectively measured over seven days with accelerometry. Associations between sport participation and physical activity level were explored with multilevel mixed...

  17. Work-related accidents among the Iranian population: a time series analysis, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimlou, Masoud; Salehi, Masoud; Imani, Mehdi; Hosseini, Agha-Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Vahabi, Nasim; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Work-related accidents result in human suffering and economic losses and are considered as a major health problem worldwide, especially in the economically developing world. To introduce seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) models for time series analysis of work-related accident data for workers insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) between 2000 and 2011. In this retrospective study, all insured people experiencing at least one work-related accident during a 10-year period were included in the analyses. We used Box-Jenkins modeling to develop a time series model of the total number of accidents. There was an average of 1476 accidents per month (1476·05±458·77, mean±SD). The final ARIMA (p,d,q) (P,D,Q)s model for fitting to data was: ARIMA(1,1,1)×(0,1,1)12 consisting of the first ordering of the autoregressive, moving average and seasonal moving average parameters with 20·942 mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The final model showed that time series analysis of ARIMA models was useful for forecasting the number of work-related accidents in Iran. In addition, the forecasted number of work-related accidents for 2011 explained the stability of occurrence of these accidents in recent years, indicating a need for preventive occupational health and safety policies such as safety inspection.

  18. Work-related accidents among the Iranian population: a time series analysis, 2000–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimlou, Masoud; Imani, Mehdi; Hosseini, Agha-Fatemeh; Dehnad, Afsaneh; Vahabi, Nasim; Bakhtiyari, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background Work-related accidents result in human suffering and economic losses and are considered as a major health problem worldwide, especially in the economically developing world. Objectives To introduce seasonal autoregressive moving average (ARIMA) models for time series analysis of work-related accident data for workers insured by the Iranian Social Security Organization (ISSO) between 2000 and 2011. Methods In this retrospective study, all insured people experiencing at least one work-related accident during a 10-year period were included in the analyses. We used Box–Jenkins modeling to develop a time series model of the total number of accidents. Results There was an average of 1476 accidents per month (1476·05±458·77, mean±SD). The final ARIMA (p,d,q) (P,D,Q)s model for fitting to data was: ARIMA(1,1,1)×(0,1,1)12 consisting of the first ordering of the autoregressive, moving average and seasonal moving average parameters with 20·942 mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). Conclusions The final model showed that time series analysis of ARIMA models was useful for forecasting the number of work-related accidents in Iran. In addition, the forecasted number of work-related accidents for 2011 explained the stability of occurrence of these accidents in recent years, indicating a need for preventive occupational health and safety policies such as safety inspection. PMID:26119774

  19. Scaling relation between earthquake magnitude and the departure time from P wave similar growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noda, Shunta; Ellsworth, William L.

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new scaling relation between earthquake magnitude (M) and a characteristic of initial P wave displacement. By examining Japanese K-NET data averaged in bins partitioned by Mw and hypocentral distance, we demonstrate that the P wave displacement briefly displays similar growth at the onset of rupture and that the departure time (Tdp), which is defined as the time of departure from similarity of the absolute displacement after applying a band-pass filter, correlates with the final M in a range of 4.5 ≤ Mw ≤ 7. The scaling relation between Mw and Tdp implies that useful information on the final M can be derived while the event is still in progress because Tdp occurs before the completion of rupture. We conclude that the scaling relation is important not only for earthquake early warning but also for the source physics of earthquakes.

  20. Does a deformation of special relativity imply energy dependent photon time delays?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Relancio, J. J.

    2018-01-01

    Theoretical arguments in favor of energy dependent photon time delays from a modification of special relativity (SR) have met with recent gamma ray observations that put severe constraints on the scale of such deviations. We review the case of the generality of this theoretical prediction in the case of a deformation of SR and find that, at least in the simple model based on the analysis of photon worldlines which is commonly considered, there are many scenarios compatible with a relativity principle which do not contain a photon time delay. This will be the situation for any modified dispersion relation which reduces to E=\\vert p\\vert for photons, independently of the quantum structure of spacetime. This fact opens up the possibility of a phenomenologically consistent relativistic generalization of SR with a new mass scale many orders of magnitude below the Planck mass.

  1. Unitary relation for the time-dependent SU(1,1) systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Dae-Yup

    2003-01-01

    The system whose Hamiltonian is a linear combination of the generators of SU(1,1) group with time-dependent coefficients is studied. It is shown that there is a unitary relation between the system and a system whose Hamiltonian is simply proportional to the generator of the compact subgroup of SU(1,1). The unitary relation is described by the classical solutions of a time-dependent (harmonic) oscillator. Making use of the relation, the wave functions satisfying the Schroedinger equation are given, for a general unitary representation, in terms of the matrix elements of a finite group transformation (Bargmann function). The wave functions of the harmonic oscillator with an inverse-square potential is studied in detail, and it is shown that through an integral, the model provides a way of deriving the Bargmann function for the representation of positive discrete series of SU(1,1)

  2. Older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms predict the amount and severity of work-related difficulties in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raggi, Alberto; Giovannetti, Ambra Mara; Schiavolin, Silvia; Brambilla, Laura; Brenna, Greta; Confalonieri, Paolo Agostino; Cortese, Francesca; Frangiamore, Rita; Leonardi, Matilde; Mantegazza, Renato Emilio; Moscatelli, Marco; Ponzio, Michela; Torri Clerici, Valentina; Zaratin, Paola; De Torres, Laura

    2018-04-16

    This cross-sectional study aims to identify the predictors of work-related difficulties in a sample of employed persons with multiple sclerosis as addressed with the Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties. Hierarchical linear regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of work difficulties: predictors included demographic variables (age, formal education), disease duration and severity, perceived disability and psychological variables (cognitive dysfunction, depression and anxiety). The targets were the questionnaire's overall score and its six subscales. A total of 177 participants (108 females, aged 21-63) were recruited. Age, perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of the questionnaire total score, and the final model explained 43.7% of its variation. The models built on the questionnaire's subscales show that perceived disability and depression were direct and significant predictors of most of its subscales. Our results show that, among patients with multiple sclerosis, those who were older, with higher perceived disability and higher depression symptoms have more and more severe work-related difficulties. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties can be fruitfully exploited to plan tailored actions to limit the likelihood of near-future job loss in persons of working age with multiple sclerosis. Implications for rehabilitation Difficulties with work are common among people with multiple sclerosis and are usually addressed in terms of unemployment or job loss. The Multiple Sclerosis Questionnaire for Job Difficulties is a disease-specific questionnaire developed to address the amount and severity of work-related difficulties. We found that work-related difficulties were associated to older age, higher perceived disability and depressive symptoms. Mental health issues and perceived disability should be consistently included in future research targeting work-related difficulties.

  3. Time-Frequency Data Reduction for Event Related Potentials: Combining Principal Component Analysis and Matching Pursuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Aviyente

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint time-frequency representations offer a rich representation of event related potentials (ERPs that cannot be obtained through individual time or frequency domain analysis. This representation, however, comes at the expense of increased data volume and the difficulty of interpreting the resulting representations. Therefore, methods that can reduce the large amount of time-frequency data to experimentally relevant components are essential. In this paper, we present a method that reduces the large volume of ERP time-frequency data into a few significant time-frequency parameters. The proposed method is based on applying the widely used matching pursuit (MP approach, with a Gabor dictionary, to principal components extracted from the time-frequency domain. The proposed PCA-Gabor decomposition is compared with other time-frequency data reduction methods such as the time-frequency PCA approach alone and standard matching pursuit methods using a Gabor dictionary for both simulated and biological data. The results show that the proposed PCA-Gabor approach performs better than either the PCA alone or the standard MP data reduction methods, by using the smallest amount of ERP data variance to produce the strongest statistical separation between experimental conditions.

  4. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator.We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity and tonic (hair cortisol regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43 with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure.Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels.Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  5. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders.

  6. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; García-Lavandeira, José Antonio; Torres-Durán, María; Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana; Parente-Lamelas, Isaura; Leiro-Fernández, Virginia; Montero-Martínez, Carmen; González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio; Martínez, Cristina; Castro-Añón, Olalla; Mejuto-Martí, María José

    2014-01-01

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years

  7. Leisure time activities related to carcinogen exposure and lung cancer risk in never smokers. A case-control study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto, E-mail: alberto.ruano@usc.es [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiología y Salud Pública CIBERESP, Barcelona (Spain); García-Lavandeira, José Antonio [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Department of Preventive Medicine, A Coruña University Hospital Complex, Coruña (Spain); Torres-Durán, María [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Prini-Guadalupe, Luciana [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Parente-Lamelas, Isaura [Service of Neumology, Ourense Hospital Complex, Ourense (Spain); Leiro-Fernández, Virginia [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Montero-Martínez, Carmen [Service of Neumology, University Hospital Complex of A Coruña, Coruña (Spain); González-Barcala, Francisco Javier; Golpe-Gómez, Antonio [Service of Neumology, Santiago de Compostela University Clinic Hospital, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Martínez, Cristina [National Institute of Silicosis, University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Asturias (Spain); Castro-Añón, Olalla [Service of Neumology, Hospital Lucus Augusti, Lugo (Spain); Mejuto-Martí, María José [Service of Neumology, Hospital Arquitecto Marcide, Ferrol (Spain); and others

    2014-07-15

    We aim to assess the relationship between leisure time activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances and lung cancer risk in a hospital-based case-control study performed in never smokers. We included never smoking cases with anatomopathologically confirmed lung cancer and never smoking controls undergoing trivial surgery, at 8 Spanish hospitals. The study was conducted between January 2011 and June 2013. Participants were older than 30 and had no previous neoplasms. All were personally interviewed focusing on lifestyle, environmental tobacco smoke exposure, occupational history and leisure time activities (including duration of such activities). Results were analyzed through logistic regression and adjusted also by residential radon and education level. We included 513 never smokers, 191 cases and 322 controls. The OR for those performing the studied leisure time activities was 1.43 (95%CI 0.78–2.61). When we restricted the analysis to those performing do-it-yourself activities for more than 10 years the OR was 2.21 (95%CI 0.93–5.27). Environmental tobacco smoke exposure did not modify this association. The effect for the different lung cancer histological types was very close to significance for adenocarcinoma but only when these activities were performed for more than 10 years. We encourage health professionals to recommend protective measures for those individuals while performing these hobbies to reduce the risk of lung cancer. - Highlights: • Some leisure time activities are associated with the exposure to carcinogenic substances. • These activities are model-making, painting (artistic or not), furniture refinishing or wood working. • Few studies have assessed lung cancer risk due to these hobbies and none in never-smokers. • Leisure activities related to exposure to carcinogenic substances present higher lung cancer risk. • The risk is higher when these activities are performed for more than 10 years.

  8. Time Reversibility, Correlation Decay and the Steady State Fluctuation Relation for Dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis J. Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Steady state fluctuation relations for nonequilibrium systems are under intense investigation because of their important practical implications in nanotechnology and biology. However the precise conditions under which they hold need clarification. Using the dissipation function, which is related to the entropy production of linear irreversible thermodynamics, we show time reversibility, ergodic consistency and a recently introduced form of correlation decay, called T-mixing, are sufficient conditions for steady state fluctuation relations to hold. Our results are not restricted to a particular model and show that the steady state fluctuation relation for the dissipation function holds near or far from equilibrium subject to these conditions. The dissipation function thus plays a comparable role in nonequilibrium systems to thermodynamic potentials in equilibrium systems.

  9. Scale-invariant Green-Kubo relation for time-averaged diffusivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Philipp; Barkai, Eli; Kantz, Holger

    2017-12-01

    In recent years it was shown both theoretically and experimentally that in certain systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion the time- and ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacement are remarkably different. The ensemble-averaged diffusivity is obtained from a scaling Green-Kubo relation, which connects the scale-invariant nonstationary velocity correlation function with the transport coefficient. Here we obtain the relation between time-averaged diffusivity, usually recorded in single-particle tracking experiments, and the underlying scale-invariant velocity correlation function. The time-averaged mean-squared displacement is given by 〈δ2¯〉 ˜2 DνtβΔν -β , where t is the total measurement time and Δ is the lag time. Here ν is the anomalous diffusion exponent obtained from ensemble-averaged measurements 〈x2〉 ˜tν , while β ≥-1 marks the growth or decline of the kinetic energy 〈v2〉 ˜tβ . Thus, we establish a connection between exponents that can be read off the asymptotic properties of the velocity correlation function and similarly for the transport constant Dν. We demonstrate our results with nonstationary scale-invariant stochastic and deterministic models, thereby highlighting that systems with equivalent behavior in the ensemble average can differ strongly in their time average. If the averaged kinetic energy is finite, β =0 , the time scaling of 〈δ2¯〉 and 〈x2〉 are identical; however, the time-averaged transport coefficient Dν is not identical to the corresponding ensemble-averaged diffusion constant.

  10. Mortality in patients with TIMI 3 flow after PCI in relation to time delay to reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vichova, Teodora; Maly, Marek; Ulman, Jaroslav; Motovska, Zuzana

    2016-03-01

    Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed within 12 h from symptom onset enables complete blood flow restoration in infarct-related artery in 90% of patients. Nevertheless, even with complete restoration of epicardial blood flow in culprit vessel (postprocedural Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) flow grade 3), myocardial perfusion at tissue level may be insufficient. We hypothesized that the outcome of patients with STEMI/bundle branch block (BBB)-myocardial infarction and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow is related to the time to reperfusion. Observational study based on a retrospective analysis of population of 635 consecutive patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow from January 2009 to December 2011 (mean age 63 years, 69.6% males). Mortality of patients was evaluated in relation to the time from symptom onset to reperfusion. A total of 83 patients (13.07%) with postprocedural TIMI 3 flow after PCI had died at 1-year follow-up. Median TD in patients who survived was 3.92 h (iqr 5.43), in patients who died 6.0 h (iqr 11.42), P = 0.004. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified time delay ≥ 9 h as significantly related to 1-year mortality of patients with STEMI/BBB-MI and post-PCI TIMI 3 flow (OR 1.958, P = 0.026). Other significant variables associated with mortality in multivariate regression analysis were: left ventricle ejection fraction 65 years (P 2 (P PCI.

  11. Person-related determinants of TV viewing and computer time in a cohort of young Dutch adults: Who sits the most?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uijtdewilligen, L; Singh, A S; Chinapaw, M J M; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to assess the associations of person-related factors with leisure time television (TV) viewing and computer time among young adults. We analyzed self-reported TV viewing (h/week) and leisure computer time (h/week) from 475 Dutch young adults (47% male) who had participated in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study at the age of 32 and 36 years. Sociodemographic factors (i.e., marital and employment status), physical factors (i.e., skin folds, aerobic fitness, neuromotor fitness, back problems), psychological factors (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping, personality), lifestyle (i.e., alcohol consumption, smoking, energy intake, physical activity), and self-rated health (i.e., general health status, mild health complaints) were assessed. Univariable and multivariable generalized estimating equations were performed. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, lower values of aerobic fitness, higher rigidity, higher self-sufficiency/recalcitrance, and smoking were positively associated with TV time. Male gender, higher sum of skin folds, higher scores on self-esteem, low energy intake, and a not so good general health status were significantly associated with higher computer time. Determinants of TV viewing and computer time were not identical, suggesting that both behaviors (a) have different at-risk populations and (b) should be targeted differently. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. A standard curve based method for relative real time PCR data processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krause Andreas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently real time PCR is the most precise method by which to measure gene expression. The method generates a large amount of raw numerical data and processing may notably influence final results. The data processing is based either on standard curves or on PCR efficiency assessment. At the moment, the PCR efficiency approach is preferred in relative PCR whilst the standard curve is often used for absolute PCR. However, there are no barriers to employ standard curves for relative PCR. This article provides an implementation of the standard curve method and discusses its advantages and limitations in relative real time PCR. Results We designed a procedure for data processing in relative real time PCR. The procedure completely avoids PCR efficiency assessment, minimizes operator involvement and provides a statistical assessment of intra-assay variation. The procedure includes the following steps. (I Noise is filtered from raw fluorescence readings by smoothing, baseline subtraction and amplitude normalization. (II The optimal threshold is selected automatically from regression parameters of the standard curve. (III Crossing points (CPs are derived directly from coordinates of points where the threshold line crosses fluorescence plots obtained after the noise filtering. (IV The means and their variances are calculated for CPs in PCR replicas. (V The final results are derived from the CPs' means. The CPs' variances are traced to results by the law of error propagation. A detailed description and analysis of this data processing is provided. The limitations associated with the use of parametric statistical methods and amplitude normalization are specifically analyzed and found fit to the routine laboratory practice. Different options are discussed for aggregation of data obtained from multiple reference genes. Conclusion A standard curve based procedure for PCR data processing has been compiled and validated. It illustrates that

  13. Time does not heal all wounds: older adults who experienced childhood adversities have higher odds of mood, anxiety, and personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raposo, Sarah M; Mackenzie, Corey S; Henriksen, Christine A; Afifi, Tracie O

    2014-11-01

    We aimed to examine the prevalence of several types of childhood adversity across adult cohorts, whether age moderates the effect of childhood adversity on mental health, the relationship between childhood adversity and psychopathology among older adults, the dose-response relationship between number of types of childhood adversities and mental disorders in later life, and whether lifetime mental health treatment reduces the odds of psychopathology among older survivors of childhood adversity. In a population-based, cross-sectional study on a nationally representative U.S. sample, we studied 34,653 community-dwelling Americans 20 years and older, including 7,080 adults 65 years and older from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Trained lay interviewers assessed past-year mood and anxiety disorders and lifetime personality disorders. Participants self-reported childhood adversity based on questions from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Study. Childhood adversity was prevalent across five age cohorts. In our adjusted models, age did not moderate the effect of childhood adversity on mental disorders. Older adults who experienced childhood adversity had higher odds of having mood (odds ratio: 1.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.32-2.28), anxiety (odds ratio: 1.48; 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.83), and personality disorders (odds ratio: 2.11; 95% confidence interval: 1.75-2.54) after adjusting for covariates. An increasing number of types of childhood adversities was associated with higher odds of personality disorders and somewhat higher odds of anxiety disorders. Treatment-seeking was associated with a reduced likelihood of anxiety and, especially, mood disorders in older adult childhood adversity survivors. These results emphasize the importance of preventing childhood adversity and intervening once it occurs to avoid the negative mental health effects that can last into old age. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  14. Do later wake times and increased sleep duration of 12th graders result in more studying, higher grades, and improved SAT/ACT test scores?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, James S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between sleep duration, wake time, and hours studying on high school grades and performance on the Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT)/ American College Testing (ACT) college entrance exams. Data were collected from 13,071 recently graduated high school seniors who were entering college in the fall of 2014. A column proportions z test with a Bonferroni adjustment was used to analyze proportional differences. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to examine mean group differences. Students who woke up prior to 6 a.m. and got less than 8 h of sleep (27 %) were significantly more likely to report studying 11 or more hours per week (30 %), almost double the rate compared to students who got more than 8 h of sleep and woke up the latest (16 %). Post hoc results revealed students who woke up at 7 a.m. or later reported significantly higher high school grades than all other groups (p students who woke up between 6:01 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. and got eight or more hours of sleep. The highest reported SAT/ACT scores were from the group that woke up after 7 a.m. but got less than 8 h sleep (M = 1099.5). Their scores were significantly higher than all other groups. This study provides additional evidence that increased sleep and later wake time are associated with increased high school grades. However, this study also found that students who sleep the longest also reported less studying and lower SAT/ACT scores.

  15. Spectral encoding method for measuring the relative arrival time between x-ray/optical pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bionta, M. R.; Hartmann, N.; Weaver, M.; French, D.; Glownia, J. M.; Bostedt, C.; Chollet, M.; Ding, Y.; Fritz, D. M.; Fry, A. R.; Krzywinski, J.; Lemke, H. T.; Messerschmidt, M.; Schorb, S.; Zhu, D.; White, W. E.; Nicholson, D. J.; Cryan, J. P.; Baker, K.; Kane, D. J.

    2014-01-01

    The advent of few femtosecond x-ray light sources brings promise of x-ray/optical pump-probe experiments that can measure chemical and structural changes in the 10–100 fs time regime. Widely distributed timing systems used at x-ray Free-Electron Laser facilities are typically limited to above 50 fs fwhm jitter in active x-ray/optical synchronization. The approach of single-shot timing measurements is used to sort results in the event processing stage. This has seen wide use to accommodate the insufficient precision of active stabilization schemes. In this article, we review the current technique for “measure-and-sort” at the Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The relative arrival time between an x-ray pulse and an optical pulse is measured near the experimental interaction region as a spectrally encoded cross-correlation signal. The cross-correlation provides a time-stamp for filter-and-sort algorithms used for real-time sorting. Sub-10 fs rms resolution is common in this technique, placing timing precision at the same scale as the duration of the shortest achievable x-ray pulses

  16. Relative impact of human leukocyte antigen mismatching and graft ischemic time after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugière, Olivier; Thabut, Gabriel; Suberbielle, Caroline; Reynaud-Gaubert, Martine; Thomas, Pascal; Pison, Christophe; Saint Raymond, Christel; Mornex, Jean-François; Bertocchi, Michèle; Dromer, Claire; Velly, Jean-François; Stern, Marc; Philippe, Bruno; Dauriat, Gaëlle; Biondi, Giuseppina; Castier, Yves; Fournier, Michel

    2008-06-01

    Recent data strongly suggest that human leukocyte antigen (HLA) mismatching has a negative impact on development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) and survival after lung transplantation (LTx). Because HLA matching is sometimes achieved by extending ischemic time in other solid-organ transplantation models and ischemic time is a risk factor per se for death after LTx, we sought to compare the theoretical benefit of HLA matching with the negative impact of lengthened ischemic time. In this collaborative study we compared the relative impact of HLA mismatching and ischemic time on BOS and survival in 182 LTx recipients. Using multivariate analyses, we observed a lower incidence of BOS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1 to 2.7, p = 0.03) and enhanced survival (HR = 1.91, 95% CI: 1.24 to 2.92, p = 0.01) in patients with zero or one HLA-A mismatch compared with those having two HLA-A mismatches. This beneficial effect on survival was equivalent to a reduction of ischemic time of 168 minutes. We observed a reduced incidence of BOS and a better survival rate in patients well-matched at the HLA-A locus, associated with an opposite effect of an enhanced ischemic time. This suggests that graft ischemic time should be taken into account in future studies of prospective HLA matching in LTx.

  17. Time-related factors in the study of risks in animals and humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time since exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risk observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, providing information that is useful for the problems involved in extrapolating from animal studies to humans. By applying such procedures to data on exposure to the same substance in different species (including humans) or to different substances in the same species, better understanding of the relationship of risks across species and across substances can be achieved. In addition, such statistical procedures allow appropriate treatment of exposure that is accumulated over time and lead to improved understanding of patterns of risk over time. The approach is illustrated using data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled Pu

  18. Time-related factors in the study of risks in animals and man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.; Park, J.F.; Buschbom, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Data from epidemiological studies of humans exposed to potentially harmful substances are usually analyzed using methods that account for the dependence of risks on time-related factors such as age and follow-up period. Recently developed statistical procedures allow modeling of the age-specific risks as a function of dose as well as factors such as age at exposure, time from exposure, exposure duration, and dose rate. These procedures potentially allow more rigorous inferences and clearer understanding of the patterns of risks observed in epidemiological studies than has been available in the past. Statistical procedures that consider time-related factors can also be applied to laboratory animal data, and provide information that is useful for the problem of extrapolating from animal studies to humans. By applying such procedures to data on exposure to the same substance in different species (including humans) or to different substances in the same species, a better understanding of the relationship of risks across species and across substances can be achieved. In addition, such statistical procedures allow appropriate treatment of exposure that is accumulated over time and lead to improved understanding of patterns of risk over time. The approach is illustrated using data from a lifespan study of beagle dogs exposed to inhaled plutonium. 12 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Hippocampus activation related to 'real-time' processing of visuospatial change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beudel, M; Leenders, K L; de Jong, B M

    2016-12-01

    The delay associated with cerebral processing time implies a lack of real-time representation of changes in the observed environment. To bridge this gap for motor actions in a dynamical environment, the brain uses predictions of the most plausible future reality based on previously provided information. To optimise these predictions, adjustments to actual experiences are necessary. This requires a perceptual memory buffer. In our study we gained more insight how the brain treats (real-time) information by comparing cerebral activations related to judging past-, present- and future locations of a moving ball, respectively. Eighteen healthy subjects made these estimations while fMRI data was obtained. All three conditions evoked bilateral dorsal-parietal and premotor activations, while judgment of the location of the ball at the moment of judgment showed increased bilateral posterior hippocampus activation relative to making both future and past judgments at the one-second time-sale. Since the condition of such 'real-time' judgments implied undistracted observation of the ball's actual movements, the associated hippocampal activation is consistent with the concept that the hippocampus participates in a top-down exerted sensory gating mechanism. In this way, it may play a role in novelty (saliency) detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimating return periods of extreme values from relatively short time series of winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Kristjan; Agustsson, Halfdan; Rognvaldsson, Olafur; Arfeuille, Gilles

    2013-04-01

    An important factor for determining the prospect of individual wind farm sites is the frequency of extreme winds at hub height. Here, extreme winds are defined as the value of the highest 10 minutes averaged wind speed with a 50 year return period, i.e. annual exceeding probability of 2% (Rodrigo, 2010). A frequently applied method to estimate winds in the lowest few hundred meters above ground is to extrapolate observed 10-meter winds logarithmically to higher altitudes. Recent study by Drechsel et al. (2012) showed however that this methodology is not as accurate as interpolating simulated results from the global ECMWF numerical weather prediction (NWP) model to the desired height. Observations of persistent low level jets near Colima in SW-Mexico also show that the logarithmic approach can give highly inaccurate results for some regions (Arfeuille et al., 2012). To address these shortcomings of limited, and/or poorly representative, observations and extrapolations of winds one can use NWP models to dynamically scale down relatively coarse resolution atmospheric analysis. In the case of limited computing resources one has typically to make a compromise between spatial resolution and the duration of the simulated period, both of which can limit the quality of the wind farm siting. A common method to estimate maximum winds is to fit an extreme value distribution (e.g. Gumbel, gev or Pareto) to the maximum values of each year of available data, or the tail of these values. If data are only available for a short period, e.g. 10 or 15 years, then this will give a rather inaccurate estimate. It is possible to deal with this problem by utilizing monthly or weekly maxima, but this introduces new problems: seasonal variation, autocorrelation of neighboring values, and increased discrepancy between data and fitted distribution. We introduce a new method to estimate return periods of extreme values of winds at hub height from relatively short time series of winds, simulated

  1. Dissecting Time- from Tumor-Related Gene Expression Variability in Bilateral Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Callari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Metachronous (MBC and synchronous bilateral breast tumors (SBC are mostly distinct primaries, whereas paired primaries and their local recurrences (LRC share a common origin. Intra-pair gene expression variability in MBC, SBC, and LRC derives from time/tumor microenvironment-related and tumor genetic background-related factors and pairs represents an ideal model for trying to dissect tumor-related from microenvironment-related variability. Pairs of tumors derived from women with SBC (n = 18, MBC (n = 11, and LRC (n = 10 undergoing local-regional treatment were profiled for gene expression; similarity between pairs was measured using an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC computed for each gene and compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA. When considering biologically unselected genes, the highest correlations were found for primaries and paired LRC, and the lowest for MBC pairs. By instead limiting the analysis to the breast cancer intrinsic genes, correlations between primaries and paired LRC were enhanced, while lower similarities were observed for SBC and MBC. Focusing on stromal-related genes, the ICC values decreased for MBC and were significantly different from SBC. These findings indicate that it is possible to dissect intra-pair gene expression variability into components that are associated with genetic origin or with time and microenvironment by using specific gene subsets.

  2. More is not Always Better: The Relation between Item Response and Item Response Time in Raven’s Matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Goldhammer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of response time in completing an item can have very different interpretations. Responding more slowly could be positively related to success as the item is answered more carefully. However, the association may be negative if working faster indicates higher ability. The objective of this study was to clarify the validity of each assumption for reasoning items considering the mode of processing. A total of 230 persons completed a computerized version of Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices test. Results revealed that response time overall had a negative effect. However, this effect was moderated by items and persons. For easy items and able persons the effect was strongly negative, for difficult items and less able persons it was less negative or even positive. The number of rules involved in a matrix problem proved to explain item difficulty significantly. Most importantly, a positive interaction effect between the number of rules and item response time indicated that the response time effect became less negative with an increasing number of rules. Moreover, exploratory analyses suggested that the error type influenced the response time effect.

  3. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......, in the controls, Pvolume...

  4. Absorption of technetium by plants in relation to soil type contamination level and time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mousny, J.M.; Myttenaere, C. (Louvain Univ. (Belgium). Lab. de Physiologie Vegetale)

    1981-01-01

    Plants of Pisum sativum (var. Merveille de Kelvedon) were grown on seven typical european soils contaminated with different levels of /sup 99/Tc(0.17; 1.7 and 17 ..mu..Ci/kg). Added initially as pertechnetate, the technetium absorption has been studied for three successive cultures. The translocation of technetium from soil to plant leaves is high, but its transfer is reduced in soils rich in organic matter (Fen) or poorly drained (Braunerde). Aging reduces the technetium transfer and modify its relative distribution in plant (relatively more technetium is found in fruits); these results let suppose some modification of the technetium chemical form in soils with time.

  5. Time-dependent inelastic analysis of metallic media using constitutive relations with state variables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, V; Mukherjee, S [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y. (USA)

    1977-03-01

    A computational technique in terms of stress, strain and displacement rates is presented for the solution of boundary value problems for metallic structural elements at uniform elevated temperatures subjected to time varying loads. This method can accommodate any number of constitutive relations with state variables recently proposed by other researchers to model the inelastic deformation of metallic media at elevated temperatures. Numerical solutions are obtained for several structural elements subjected to steady loads. The constitutive relations used for these numerical solutions are due to Hart. The solutions are discussed in the context of the computational scheme and Hart's theory.

  6. Impact of Changes in Playing Time on Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Pain in String Music Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robitaille, Judith; Tousignant-Laflamme, Yannick; Guay, Manon

    2018-03-01

    During their training, musicians must develop good work habits that they will carry on throughout their professional career in order to avoid potential chronic health problems, such as musculoskeletal pain. The effect of sudden changes in instrument playing-time on the development of playing-related musculoskeletal pain (PRMP) has not been thoroughly investigated in music students playing bowed string instruments (BSI), even though they are regularly exposed to such changes to perfect their playing skills. To explore the association between sudden changes in instrument playing-time and changes in PRMP in BSI players. A prospective cohort study was completed with BSI students attending a summer music camp offering high-level training. Participants completed a self-administered 23-item questionnaire designed for the study upon arrival at camp (T1) and then 7 days later (T2). Ninety-three BSI students (16±4 yrs old) completed the questionnaires, for a 23% response rate. Their playing-time increased by 23±14 hrs between T1 and T2. Complaints in pain frequency (e.g., from never to most of the time) and intensity (19±24 mm on VAS) significantly increased between T1 and T2 and were correlated with an increase in playing-time. A sudden increase in playing-time, such as that experienced by elite BSI students attending an intensive music camp, was related to an increase in PRMP. However, in this study, changes in pain characteristics were only partly explained by the change in playing-time.

  7. Cerebral amyloid angiopathy-related inflammation presenting with steroid-responsive higher brain dysfunction: case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maeda Yasushi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 56-year-old man noticed discomfort in his left lower limb, followed by convulsion and numbness in the same area. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed white matter lesions in the right parietal lobe accompanied by leptomeningeal or leptomeningeal and cortical post-contrast enhancement along the parietal sulci. The patient also exhibited higher brain dysfunction corresponding with the lesions on MRI. Histological pathology disclosed β-amyloid in the blood vessels and perivascular inflammation, which highlights the diagnosis of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA-related inflammation. Pulse steroid therapy was so effective that clinical and radiological findings immediately improved. CAA-related inflammation is a rare disease, defined by the deposition of amyloid proteins within the leptomeningeal and cortical arteries associated with vasculitis or perivasculitis. Here we report a patient with CAA-related inflammation who showed higher brain dysfunction that improved with steroid therapy. In cases with atypical radiological lesions like our case, cerebral biopsy with histological confirmation remains necessary for an accurate diagnosis.

  8. The relationship between complaints of night-time heartburn and sleep-related gastroesophageal reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, W C; Goodrich, S; Estep, M E; Shepherd, K

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether the complaint of night-time heartburn (NHB) as opposed to daytime heartburn (DHB) is a reliable reflection of actual sleep-related reflux events. Three groups of individuals were studied: individuals with complaints of NHB at least twice per week (n = 24), individuals with complaints of DHB (n = 23), and normal participants without any complaints of regular heartburn during the day or night (n = 25). All three groups were studied on one occasion with combined pH monitoring and polysomnography, and subjective questionnaires about sleep disturbance and sleep quality were given to all participants. The NHB group had significantly more sleep-related reflux events compared with both DHB and control groups (P < 0.01). DHB subjects had significantly (P < 0.05) more sleep-related reflux events than normal controls. Total acid contact time (ACT) was significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with both the DHB and control group. Sleep-related ACT was also significantly (P < 0.05) elevated in the NHB group compared with the other two groups, while upright (daytime) ACT was not significantly different. The NHB group was significantly (P < 0.05) worse regarding measures of both objective and subjective sleep quality. Subjects with exclusively DHB do have sleep-related reflux that is greater than normal controls. Subjects with NHB have significantly more sleep-related reflux, and both objective and subjective sleep abnormalities compared with normal controls. Complaints of NHB reflect sleep-related reflux events and may be indicative of a more clinically significant condition. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... in cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis...

  10. Relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Gerald A.; Tiburzi, Brian C.

    2010-01-01

    The relation between equal-time and light-front wave functions is studied using models for which the four-dimensional solution of the Bethe-Salpeter wave function can be obtained. The popular prescription of defining the longitudinal momentum fraction using the instant-form free kinetic energy and third component of momentum is found to be incorrect except in the nonrelativistic limit. One may obtain light-front wave functions from rest-frame, instant-form wave functions by boosting the latter wave functions to the infinite momentum frame. Despite this difficulty, we prove a relation between certain integrals of the equal-time and light-front wave functions.

  11. Centre-containing spiral-geometric structure of the space-time and nonrelativistic relativity of the unit time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakhazizyan, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of nonrelativistic dependence of unit length and unit time on the position in the space is considered on the basis of centre-containing spiral-geometric structure of the space-time. The experimental results of variation of the unit time are analyzed which well agree with the requirements of the model proposed. 13 refs.; 12 figs

  12. Higher Education

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kunle Amuwo: Higher Education Transformation: A Paradigm Shilt in South Africa? ... ty of such skills, especially at the middle management levels within the higher ... istics and virtues of differentiation and diversity. .... may be forced to close shop for lack of capacity to attract ..... necessarily lead to racial and gender equity,.

  13. Relations between transit time, fermentation products, and hydrogen consuming flora in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Oufir, L; Flourié, B; Bruley des Varannes, S; Barry, J L; Cloarec, D; Bornet, F; Galmiche, J P

    1996-06-01

    To investigate whether transit time could influence H2 consuming flora and certain indices of colonic bacterial fermentation. Eight healthy volunteers (four methane excretors and four non-methane excretors) were studied for three, three week periods during which they received a controlled diet alone (control period), and then the same diet with cisapride or loperamide. At the end of each period, mean transit time (MTT) was estimated, an H2 lactulose breath test was performed, and stools were analysed. In the control period, transit time was inversely related to faecal weight, sulphate reducing bacteria counts, concentrations of total short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), propionic and butyric acids, and H2 excreted in breath after lactulose ingestion. Conversely, transit time was positively related to faecal pH and tended to be related to methanogen counts. Methanogenic bacteria counts were inversely related to those of sulphate reducing bacteria and methane excretors had slower MTT and lower sulphate reducing bacteria counts than non-methane excretors. Compared with the control period, MTT was significantly shortened (p < 0.05) by cisapride and prolonged (p < 0.05) by loperamide (73 (11) hours, 47 (5) hours and 147 (12) hours for control, cisapride, and loperamide, respectively, mean (SD)). Cisapride reduced transit time was associated with (a) a significant rise in faecal weight, sulphate reducing bacteria, concentrations of total SCFAs, and propionic and butyric acids and breath H2 as well as (b) a significant fall in faecal pH and breath CH4 excretion, and (c) a non-significant decrease in the counts of methanogenic bacteria. Reverse relations were roughly the same during the loperamide period including a significant rise in the counts of methanogenic bacteria and a significant fall in those of sulphate reducing bacteria. Transit time differences between healthy volunteers are associated with differences in H2 consuming flora and certain indices of colonic

  14. Catechin Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Black Teas in Relation to Brewing Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Wojciech; Kukula-Koch, Wirginia; Głowniak, Kazimierz

    2017-11-01

    Black tea infusions are one of the most popular beverages across the world. Their extract composition depends on several factors, brewing time being one of the most important determinants. The aim of the present study was to determine the catechin composition of different black tea infusions using a validated LC electrospray ionization time-of-flight MS method. Additionally, total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity of infusions were evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). An optimized LC-MS method enabled the precise identification of the studied catechins [epicatechin (EC), EC gallate (ECG), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)] and gallic acid (GA). The major catechin in all investigated teas was EGC (25.6 mg/100 cm3 after 4 min of brewing). EC was present at the lowest concentration in all extracts. TPC and antiradical scavenging activity were in a good agreement with catechins and GA content. In general, the longer the brewing time, the higher the concentration of catechin, TPC, and antioxidant activity values. However, it should be noted that after 2 min brewing, most phenolics had already been extracted, and extract composition did not significantly change at a prolonged extraction time.

  15. Evaluation of a reduced centrifugation time and higher centrifugal force on various general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes in plasma and serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, Mette F; Søndergaard, Tove R; Kristensen, Helle T; Münster, Anna-Marie B

    2017-09-01

    Background Centrifugation of blood samples is an essential preanalytical step in the clinical biochemistry laboratory. Centrifugation settings are often altered to optimize sample flow and turnaround time. Few studies have addressed the effect of altering centrifugation settings on analytical quality, and almost all studies have been done using collection tubes with gel separator. Methods In this study, we compared a centrifugation time of 5 min at 3000 ×  g to a standard protocol of 10 min at 2200 ×  g. Nine selected general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes and interference indices were studied in lithium heparin plasma tubes and serum tubes without gel separator. Results were evaluated using mean bias, difference plots and coefficient of variation, compared with maximum allowable bias and coefficient of variation used in laboratory routine quality control. Results For all analytes except lactate dehydrogenase, the results were within the predefined acceptance criteria, indicating that the analytical quality was not compromised. Lactate dehydrogenase showed higher values after centrifugation for 5 min at 3000 ×  g, mean bias was 6.3 ± 2.2% and the coefficient of variation was 5%. Conclusions We found that a centrifugation protocol of 5 min at 3000 ×  g can be used for the general chemistry and immunochemistry analytes studied, with the possible exception of lactate dehydrogenase, which requires further assessment.

  16. Informing hydrological models with ground-based time-lapse relative gravimetry: potential and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Christiansen, Lars; Rosbjerg, Dan

    2011-01-01

    parameter uncertainty decreased significantly when TLRG data was included in the inversion. The forced infiltration experiment caused changes in unsaturated zone storage, which were monitored using TLRG and ground-penetrating radar. A numerical unsaturated zone model was subsequently conditioned on both......Coupled hydrogeophysical inversion emerges as an attractive option to improve the calibration and predictive capability of hydrological models. Recently, ground-based time-lapse relative gravity (TLRG) measurements have attracted increasing interest because there is a direct relationship between...

  17. Conserved relative timing of cranial ossification patterns in early mammalian evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Goswami, Anjali; Weisbecker, Vera; Mock, Orin; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed a comprehensive data set of ossification sequences including seven marsupial, 13 placental and seven sauropsid species. Data are provided for the first time for two major mammalian clades, Chiroptera and Soricidae, and for two rodent species; the published sequences of three species were improved with additional sampling. The relative timing of the onset of ossification in 17 cranial elements was recorded, resulting in 136 event pairs, which were treated as characters for each species. Half of these characters are constant across all taxa, 30% are variable but phylogenetically uninformative, and 19% potentially deliver diagnostic features for clades of two or more taxa. Using the conservative estimate of heterochronic changes provided by the program Parsimov, only a few heterochronies were found to diagnose mammals, marsupials, or placentals. A later onset of ossification of the pterygoid with respect to six other cranial bones characterizes therian mammals. This result may relate to the relatively small size of this bone in this clade. One change in relative onset of ossification is hypothesized as a potential human autapomorphy in the context of the sampling made: the earlier onset of the ossification of the periotic with respect to the lacrimal and to three basicranial bones. Using the standard error of scaled ranks across all species as a measure of each element's lability in developmental timing, we found that ossification of early, middle, and late events are similarly labile, with basicranial traits the most labile in timing of onset of ossification. Despite marsupials and placental mammals diverging at least 130 Ma, few heterochronic shifts in cranial ossification diagnose these clades.

  18. Lung Injury; Relates to Real-Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory Health in Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0253 TITLE: Lung Injury; Relates to Real- Time Endoscopic Monitoring of Single Cells Respiratory Health in Lung...2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION ...STATEMENT: Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s

  19. Working conditions of female part-time and full-time teachers in relation to health status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Reingard; Matz, Annerose; Hegewald, Janice; Spitzer, Silvia

    2012-08-01

    Teacher's volume of employment and health status are controversially discussed in the current literature. This study focused on female teachers with part-time versus full-time jobs in association with working conditions and health status depending on age. A sample of 263 part-time and 367 full-time female teachers (average age 46.7 ± 7.8 vs. 46.0 ± 6.3) participated in an occupational health screening. Specific work conditions, stressors (job history-questionnaire) and effort-reward-imbalance ratio (ERI-Q) were measured and their relationships to mental and physical health were analysed. Health status was quantified by complaints (BFB questionnaire), general mental health status (GHQ-12) and cardiovascular risk factors. On average, teachers in part-time positions reported 36 and in full-time positions 42 h per week. The effort-reward ratios were significantly associated with the volume of employment. Teachers in part-time jobs had only a slightly lower ERI-ratio. There were no differences between full-time and part-time teachers regarding health status. Eighteen percentage of both groups reported impaired mental health (GHQ ≥ 5), 48% of part-time teachers and 53% of full-time teachers suffered from high blood pressure. Low physical fitness was observed in 12% of part-time and 6% of full-time teachers. In this study, neither the volume of employment nor working conditions were found to be significantly correlated with health status. Part-time and full-time employment status did not appear to influence health in the teaching profession. Although there are differences in quantitative working demands, while the health status does not differ between both teacher groups.

  20. Social anxiety is related to increased dwell time on socially threatening faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarov, Amit; Abend, Rany; Bar-Haim, Yair

    2016-03-15

    Identification of reliable targets for therapeutic interventions is essential for developing evidence-based therapies. Threat-related attention bias has been implicated in the etiology and maintenance of social anxiety disorder. Extant response-time-based threat bias measures have demonstrated limited reliability and internal consistency. Here, we examined gaze patterns of socially anxious and nonanxious participants in relation to social threatening and neutral stimuli using an eye-tracking task, comprised of multiple threat and neutral stimuli, presented for an extended time-period. We tested the psychometric properties of this task with the hope to provide a solid stepping-stone for future treatment development. Eye gaze was tracked while participants freely viewed 60 different matrices comprised of eight disgusted and eight neutral facial expressions, presented for 6000ms each. Gaze patterns on threat and neutral areas of interest (AOIs) of participants with SAD, high socially anxious students and nonanxious students were compared. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were evaluated. Participants did not differ on first-fixation variables. However, overall, socially anxious students and participants with SAD dwelled significantly longer on threat faces compared with nonanxious participants, with no difference between the anxious groups. Groups did not differ in overall dwell time on neutral faces. Internal consistency of total dwell time on threat and neutral AOIs was high and one-week test-retest reliability was acceptable. Only disgusted facial expressions were used. Relative small sample size. Social anxiety is associated with increased dwell time on socially threatening stimuli, presenting a potential target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.