WorldWideScience

Sample records for times evidently women

  1. Time trends in socio-economic inequalities for women and men with disabilities in Australia: evidence of persisting inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Anne M; Krnjacki, Lauren; Beer, Andrew; Lamontagne, Anthony D; Bentley, Rebecca

    2013-08-29

    The socio-economic circumstances and health of people with disabilities has been relatively ignored in public health research, policy and practice in Australia and internationally. This is despite emerging evidence that the socio-economic circumstances that people with disabilities live in contributes to their poorer health. Compared to other developed countries, Australians with disabilities are more likely to live in disadvantaged circumstances, despite being an economically prosperous country; it is therefore likely that the socio-economic disadvantage experienced by Australians with disabilities makes a significant contribution to their health. Despite the importance of this issue Australia does not routinely monitor the socio-economic inequalities for people with disabilities. This paper addresses this gap by describing time trends in socio-economic conditions for Australians with and without disabilities according to the severity of the disability and sex. Cross-sectional analyses of the Australian Bureau of Statistics Survey of Disability, Ageing and Carers were carried out at three time points (1998, 2003 and 2009) to estimate the proportions of women and men (aged between 25 and 64 years) who were living on low incomes, had not completed year 12, were not in paid work, living in private rental and experiencing multiple disadvantage (three or more of the indicators). People with disabilities are less likely to have completed year 12, be in paid work and are more likely to be living on low incomes and experiencing multiple disadvantage. These conditions worsened with increasing severity of disability and increased or persisted over time, with most of the increase between 1998 and 2003. While women with milder disabilities tended to fare worse than men, the proportions were similar for those with moderate and severe/profound disabilities. People with disabilities experience high levels of socio-economic disadvantage which has increased or persisted over time

  2. The Time Bounded Glass Ceiling and Young Women Managers: Career Progress and Career Success--Evidence from the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Ruth; Altman, Yochanan

    2000-01-01

    A study of 130 male and 91 female managers found that more younger women than men were in senior roles. Younger women achieved seniority faster than women over 35. However, once younger women have broken the glass ceiling at lower levels, they encounter new barriers at higher levels. (SK)

  3. Part-time jobs : What women want?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Part-time jobs are common among partnered women in many countries. There are two opposing views on the efficiency implications of so many women working part-time. The negative view is that part-time jobs imply wastage of resources and underutilization of investments in human capital since many

  4. Part-time Jobs : What Women Want?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, A.L.; van Ours, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Part-time jobs are popular among partnered women in many countries. In the Netherlands the majority of partnered working women have a part-time job. Our paper investigates, from a supply-side perspective, if the current situation of abundant part-time work in the Netherlands is likely to be a

  5. Life time income of men and women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens

    1992-01-01

    Life-time income is estimated here including the money value of household work. A modified opportunity principle is used, which means that non-employed women's price of time is found by calculating reservation wage rates. The overall results demonstrate that Danish women's ‘loss' of labour income...... during the child caring period is difficult for them to regain, and just to reach the same level of income as childless Danish women seems impossible; furthermore Danish men get a higher life-time income than Danish women even when we add the money value of household work...

  6. Stroke in women - from evidence to inequalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordonnier, Charlotte; Sprigg, Nikola; Sandset, Else Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Stroke is the second largest cause of disability-adjusted life-years lost worldwide. The prevalence of stroke in women is predicted to rise rapidly, owing to the increasing average age of the global female population. Vascular risk factors differ between women and men in terms of prevalence, and ...

  7. Women's experience of menopause: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoga, Luiza; Rodolpho, Juliana; Gonçalves, Bruna; Quirino, Bruna

    2015-09-16

    Evidence shows than an estimated one billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experience of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the sociocultural setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approach changes in this phase of life. Independently of the circumstances involved, women experiencing menopause need to have their care needs and corresponding support identified based on their personal and contextual perspectives. Although it is essential to provide appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews have so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide. The objective of this review is to identify the best available evidence related to how women experience menopause worldwide. This review considered studies that included menopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years, who have lived the transition from reproductive years through menopause and beyond. This review included only studies whose participants have lived the experience of natural menopause. Women who have had induced menopause, or with premature menopause were excluded from this review. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: This review considered studies that investigate women's experiences of natural menopause under the scope of different social and cultural settings. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered studies that have a descriptive and interpretive approach, conducted using qualitative methodology. Qualitative studies that focus on program evaluation were excluded from this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered for inclusion in this review. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that include the following outcome measures: all aspects related both directly and indirectly to the experience of menopause, as concretely lived

  8. Evidence for Cognitive Aging in Midlife Women: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun S Karlamangla

    Full Text Available Although cross-sectional studies suggest that cognitive aging starts in midlife, few longitudinal studies have documented within-individual declines in cognitive performance before the seventh decade. Learning from repeat testing, or practice effects, can mask the decline in younger cohorts. In women, the menopause transition also affects test performance and can confound estimates of underlying decline. We designed this study to determine if, after controlling for practice effects, the menopause transition, and the symptoms associated with it, there is evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women. We used data from a longitudinal observational study in 2,124 participants from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Outcomes examined were scores on annual tests of processing speed, verbal episodic memory (immediate and delayed, and working memory. To reduce the impact of practice effects and of the menopause transition, we used the third cognition testing visit as the baseline. Average age at this baseline was 54 years, and the majority of the women were postmenopausal; half the cohort was 2 or more years beyond the final menstrual period. There were 7,185 cognition assessments with median follow-up time of 6.5 years. In mixed effects regression, adjusted for practice effects, retention, menopause symtoms (depressive, anxiety, vasomotor, and sleep disturbance, and covariates, scores on 2 of 4 cognition tests declined. Mean decline in cognitive speed was 0.28 per year (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.20 to 0.36 or 4.9% in 10 years, and mean decline in verbal episodic memory (delayed testing was 0.02 per year (95% CI: 0.00 to 0.03 or 2% in 10 years. Our results provide strong, longitudinal evidence of cognitive aging in midlife women, with substantial within-woman declines in processing speed and memory. Further research is needed to identify factors that influence decline rates and to develop interventions that slow cognitive aging.

  9. Women in Top Management and Bank Performance: Evidence from Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunik Sri Runing Sawitri

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the impact of the presence of women in top management on bank performance controlling for bank specific factors, ownership and governance. By making use of sample of 70 Indonesian banks in a cross section study, we find strong evidence that the presence of women in the executives is negatively associated with firm performance. Moreover, we examine the moderating effect of TMT organizational tenure and TMT age. However, only little evidence is found in the effect of our moderating variables.

  10. Experimental Evidence for Quantum Tunneling Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Nicolas; Yakaboylu, Enderalp; Fechner, Lutz; Klaiber, Michael; Laux, Martin; Mi, Yonghao; Hatsagortsyan, Karen Z.; Pfeifer, Thomas; Keitel, Christoph H.; Moshammer, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The first hundred attoseconds of the electron dynamics during strong field tunneling ionization are investigated. We quantify theoretically how the electron's classical trajectories in the continuum emerge from the tunneling process and test the results with those achieved in parallel from attoclock measurements. An especially high sensitivity on the tunneling barrier is accomplished here by comparing the momentum distributions of two atomic species of slightly deviating atomic potentials (argon and krypton) being ionized under absolutely identical conditions with near-infrared laser pulses (1300 nm). The agreement between experiment and theory provides clear evidence for a nonzero tunneling time delay and a nonvanishing longitudinal momentum of the electron at the "tunnel exit."

  11. Stereotypes of childbearing women: a look at some evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J M; Kitzinger, J V; Coupland, V A

    1990-09-01

    We all use stereotypes to help us to behave in what we hope will be appropriate ways towards people that we have not met before. On the labour ward midwives are likely to use such stereotypes to make assumptions about what a particular woman is likely to want during labour and delivery. Two commonly encountered stereotypes are those of the 'well educated, middle-class NCT type' and the 'uneducated working class woman'. This paper explores evidence for these two stereotypes drawing on data from a large scale prospective survey of women's expectations of childbirth. The stereotypes were not supported in a number of important respects. In particular: women of different levels of education were equally likely to subscribe to the ideal of avoiding drugs during labour; the less educated women did not want to hand over all control to the staff; it was less educated women who had the highest expectations that birth would be a fulfilling experience.

  12. Evidence-based practice in women's health: hormone therapy for women at menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, M E

    2001-01-01

    Women's health providers, especially midwives, must take into account the known benefits and risks, as well as the "unknown," when recommending the use of hormone therapy for menopausal women, especially as it relates to heart disease, breast cancer, impaired cognition, and osteoporosis. The most recent evidence available from various studies about the benefits and risks of estrogen and hormone therapy at menopause suggests that, although hormone therapy may be protective in some women against heart disease and osteoporosis, evidence is less certain about the benefits of hormone protection against impaired cognition and the risks of breast cancer with use. The clinical approach used by midwives in which individualizing care based on each woman's health status history as well as preferences is highly appropriate for women in the perimenopausal and menopausal period.

  13. Women in the Workplace and Management Practices: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Kato, Takao; Kodama, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    We review recent studies on management practices and their consequences for women in the workplace. First, the High Performance Work System (HPWS) is associated with greater gender diversity in the workplace while there is little evidence that the HPWS reduces the gender pay gap. Second, work-life balance practices with limited face-to-face interactions with coworkers may hamper women’s career advancement. Third, individual incentive linking pay to objective performance may enhance gender div...

  14. Evidence for the perioperative care of mastectomized women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Monique Lopes Mourão

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature about the perioperative care provided to women submitted to mastectomy. An integrative review of scientific literature conducted in MEDLINE, CINAHL, LILACS, and SciELO databases, published from 2000 to 2011, using the controlled descriptors: preoperative care; preoperative period; intraoperative care; intraoperative period; postoperative care; postoperative period; perioperative care; perioperative period; and mastectomy. The sample of this review consisted of seven articles. The evidence pointed as perioperative care of mastectomy the pharmacological management of pain in different surgical periods. Despite the difficulty in presenting a consensus of evidence for perioperative care of mastectomy, there was concern on the part of professionals to minimize/prevent pre-, intra- and post-operative pain. Nursing should be aware, both of the update of pharmacological treatments in pain management and the development of future research related to nursing care in the perioperative period of mastectomy.

  15. Prime Time Power: Women Producers, Writers and Directors on TV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenland, Sally

    This report analyzes the number of women working in the following six decision making jobs in prime time television: (1) executive producer; (2) supervising producer; (3) producer; (4) co-producer; (5) writer; and (6) director. The women who hold these positions are able to influence the portrayal of women on television as well as to improve the…

  16. Why Women Sit: Determinants of Leisure Sitting Time for Working Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Shana M; Umstattd Meyer, M Renée; Stamatis, Andreas; Morgan, Grant B

    2015-01-01

    Sedentary behavior is associated with negative health consequences independent of physical activity levels. Evidence suggests the work environment promotes sedentary behavior regardless of sector, and that employees with occupations requiring longer sitting times differ only marginally in leisure sitting time from those with more active occupations. Because physical activity opportunities may be limited across many work settings, leisure sedentary time may be more easily replaced with physical activity. Understanding correlates of leisure sedentary behaviors could inform interventions, specifically for women who are among the least active in America. Female employees at two universities completed online surveys (n = 156; mean age, 45.12 [SD = 12.5]; mean BMI, 26.7 kg/m(2) [SD = 5.9]; mean work hours/week, 43.7 [SD = 9.4]). Bivariate correlations and two hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to examine personal and behavioral correlates of weekday and weekend leisure sitting time. Final regression models revealed that greater weekday leisure sitting time (R(2) = 0.307) was related with being older (p = .006), having fewer children (p = .001), self-reporting poorer health (p = .006), and greater weekend sitting time (p Physical activity was not related with weekday or weekend leisure sitting time. The most prominent correlates of leisure sitting time were other types of sedentary behaviors. This suggests that sedentary time in one segment of life predicts time spent sitting in other areas of life. Future interventions should target decreasing sedentary behaviors during leisure time specifically, in addition to increasing physical activity behavior. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Women and Part-Time Employment: The Waverley Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Judith S. Willis

    1997-01-01

    This paper contributes data about women and part-time employment in Australia. "Part-time" is defined as one or more, but less than thirty-five hours per week. Findings from a survey conducted throughout the City of Waverley, Melbourne (1977) are given against a background of similar data from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (1977-1996) and the Women and Employment Survey of Great Britain (1980). Aspects of part-time employment are reported for part-time working women and for women who ha...

  18. IDRC contributes evidence to UN panel on empowering women ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-09-15

    Sep 15, 2016 ... IDRC's Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) program is ... the productivity of women-owned enterprises, and addressing women's role ... to work together to improve economic outcomes for women and girls.

  19. Trends in Pap Testing Over Time for Women With and Without Chronic Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Kurtz, Stephen G; Rao, Sowmya R

    2016-02-01

    Data from 20 years ago--shortly after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act--showed that women with significant mobility disability had 40% lower Pap test rates than other women. To examine whether disability disparities in Pap test rates have diminished over time, this study analyzed National Health Interview Survey responses from selected years between 1998 and 2010 from women aged 21-65 years without histories of cervical cancer or hysterectomy. Seven chronic disability types were identified using self-reported functional impairments or participation limitations. Self-reported Pap testing within the previous 3 years was studied. Bivariable analyses and multivariable logistic regression analyses controlling for sociodemographic variables were conducted in 2014. Rates of all chronic disability types increased over time. Pap test rates remained relatively constant over time for all women, holding around 84%-87%. Bivariable analyses found statistically significantly lower rates of Pap testing for women with disability compared with nondisabled women. Multivariable analyses failed to find consistent evidence of lower Pap test rates among women across disability types compared with nondisabled women. In 2010, the AOR for reporting Pap testing for women noting the most severe movement difficulty compared with nondisabled women was 0.35 (95% CI=0.15, 0.79). However, the AOR for this disability type varied over time. Little has changed over time in Pap test rates for all women. Women with certain disabilities continue to experience disparities compared with nondisabled women in receipt of this important screening test. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Labour Market Dynamics in Times of Crisis: Evidence from Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... from Kenya, researchers will track how the labour trajectories for men and women change over time, and the links between firm outcomes and labour markets. ... Addressing Africa's unmet need for family planning by intensifying sexual and ...

  1. Stereotypes of women of Asian descent in midwifery: some evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, I M

    1993-03-01

    The subject of this paper is part of a larger study which investigated the delivery of maternity care to women of South Asian descent in Britain (Bowler, 1990). An ethnographic approach was used and the main method of data collection was non-participant observation in antenatal clinics, labour and postnatal wards in a teaching hospital maternity unit. These observations were supported by data from interviews with midwives. It was found that the midwives commonly use stereotypes of women in order to help them to provide care. These stereotypes are particularly likely to be used in situations where the midwife has difficulty (through pressure of time or other circumstances) in getting to know an individual woman. The stereotype of women of Asian descent contained four main themes: communication problems; failure to comply with care and service abuse; making a fuss about nothing; a lack of normal maternal instinct. Reasons for stereotyping are explored. Effects on service provision in the areas of family planning and breast feeding are highlighted.

  2. Gender-Specificity in Viewing Time Among Heterosexual Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yin; Rahman, Qazi; Zheng, Yong

    2017-07-01

    Measures of sexual interest tend to be more gender-specific in heterosexual men than in heterosexual women. Cognitive measures, such as viewing time to attractive stimuli, may also show similar patterns of gender-specificity or nonspecificity among men and women and thus serve as useful adjuncts to more direct measures of sexual interest. The objectives of the present research were to determine the extent of gender-specificity in women's viewing times for female pictures (varying in their perceived physical attractiveness) and explore the influence of social comparison of physical appearance on these patterns of responses. In Study 1, we recorded only women's viewing times for pictures of both genders, measured self-reported menstrual cycle phase, and manipulated the waist-to-hip ratio of the women in the female pictures. In Study 2, we recorded women's and men's viewing times, self-reported sexual attraction to pictures of males and females, and physical appearance social comparison. Study 1 found that heterosexual women's viewing time toward female pictures was not associated with manipulation of the perceived attractiveness of those pictures. Study 2 found that heterosexual men were more gender-specific than heterosexual women in their viewing time patterns. We also found that reported sexual attraction and physical appearance social comparison were associated with heterosexual women's viewing times for female pictures, while heterosexual men's viewing times were associated with sexual attraction only. Our results are discussed in relation to the utility of viewing time as an indicator of visual attention toward attractive or sexually appealing visual stimuli.

  3. Counseling women with early pregnancy failure: utilizing evidence, preserving preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Robin R; Goodman, Suzan; Freedman, Lori R; Dalton, Vanessa K; Harris, Lisa H

    2010-12-01

    To apply principles of shared decision-making to EPF management counseling. To present a patient treatment priority checklist developed from review of available literature on patient priorities for EPF management. Review of evidence for patient preferences; personal, emotional, physical and clinical factors that may influence patient priorities for EPF management; and the clinical factors, resources, and provider bias that may influence current practice. Women have strong and diverse preferences for EPF management and report higher satisfaction when treated according to these preferences. However, estimates of actual treatment patterns suggest that current practice does not reflect the evidence for safety and acceptability of all options, or patient preferences. Multiple practice barriers and biases exist that may be influencing provider counseling about options for EPF management. Choosing management for EPF is a preference-sensitive decision. A patient-centered approach to EPF management should incorporate counseling about all treatment options. Providers can integrate a counseling model into EPF management practice that utilizes principles of shared decision-making and an organized method for eliciting patient preferences, priorities, and concerns about treatment options. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Part-Time Pay Penalty for Women in Britain

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Alan; Petrongolo, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Women in Britain who work part-time have, on average, hourly earnings about 25% less than that of women working full-time. This gap has widened greatly over the past 30 years. This paper tries to explain this part-time pay penalty. It shows that a sizeable part of the penalty can be explained by the differing characteristics pf FT and PT women. Inclusion of standard demographics halves the estimate of the pay penalty. But inclusion of occupation makes the pay penalty very small, suggesting th...

  5. Processing implicit control: evidence from reading times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMcCourt

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Sentences such as The ship was sunk to collect the insurance exhibit an unusual form of anaphora, implicit control, where neither anaphor nor antecedent is audible. The nonfinite reason clause has an understood subject, PRO, that is anaphoric; here it may be understood as naming the agent of the event of the host clause. Yet since the host is a short passive, this agent is realized by no audible dependent. The putative antecedent to PRO is therefore implicit, which it normally cannot be. What sorts of representations subserve the comprehension of this dependency? Here we present four self-paced reading time studies directed at this question. Previous work showed no processing cost for implicit versus explicit control, and took this to support the view that PRO is linked syntactically to a silent argument in the passive. We challenge this conclusion by reporting that we also find no processing cost for remote implicit control, as in: The ship was sunk. The reason was to collect the insurance. Here the dependency crosses two independent sentences, and so cannot, we argue, be mediated by syntax. Our Experiments 1-4 examined the processing of both implicit (short passive and explicit (active or long passive control in both local and remote configurations. Experiments 3 and 4 added either three days ago or just in order to the local conditions, to control for the distance between the passive and infinitival verbs, and for the predictability of the reason clause, respectively. We replicate the finding that implicit control does not impose an additional processing cost. But critically we show that remote control does not impose a processing cost either. Reading times at the reason clause were never slower when control was remote. In fact they were always faster. Thus efficient processing of local implicit control cannot show that implicit control is mediated by syntax; nor, in turn, that there is a silent but grammatically active argument in passives.

  6. Women in nonmetropolitan areas: a time-budget survey

    OpenAIRE

    Risa Palm

    1981-01-01

    Space - time budgets for women in two isolated nonmetropolitan towns in western Colorado were compiled in order to develop a basis for analyzing the effects of these environments on activity patterns. Compared with the time budgets of women in urban US areas, these responses showed large surpluses in the categories of leisure, free time, and leisure travel, and few hours spent in full-time employment, even by those who claim a full-time job outside the home. A time-geographic interpretation o...

  7. Time discounting and pain anticipation. Experimental evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brañas Garza, Pablo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with pain anticipation experienced before medical procedures. our experimental results show that individuals with lower time discount factors are more prone to suffer pain in advance. We provide a framework to rationalize the connection between pain anticipation and impatience. in this set up, more impatient subjects, who only value very near events, mainly take into account the present negative effects of medical procedures (the costs, whereas more patient individuals have a net positive valuation of medical events, given that they are able to value both the cost incurred now and all the benefits to be accrued in the future.

    Este artículo trata de la anticipación del dolor experimentada antes de los procedimientos médicos. nuestros resultados experimentales muestran que los individuos con factor de descuento temporal más bajo son más proclives a sufrir dolor por adelantado. el artículo proporciona un marco en el que racionalizar la relación existente entre impaciencia y anticipación del dolor. en este marco, los sujetos más impacientes, que evalúan sólo los eventos muy próximos en el tiempo, focalizan su atención principalmente en los efectos negativos de los procedimientos médicos (sólo los costes, mientras que los individuos más pacientes tienen una valoración neta positiva de los actos médicos puesto que valoran tanto el coste en el que se incurre en el presente como los beneficios que se obtendrán en el futuro.

  8. Satisfaction of women urologists with maternity leave and childbirth timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, Lori B; Baltrushes, Robin J; Stolzmann, Kelly L; Garshick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Women physicians must consider many conflicting issues when timing childbirth. We characterized maternity leave, breast-feeding practices and satisfaction associated with pregnancy timing in women urologists. A 114-item anonymous survey including questions on maternity leave duration for firstborn children, workplace policies, attitudes and satisfaction was mailed to all 365 American board certified women urologists in May and July 2007. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with greater satisfaction. A total of 243 women urologists (69%) responded, of whom 158 had at least 1 biological child. Average maternal age at first birth was 32.6 years. Of the children 10%, 32% and 52% were born before, during and after residency, respectively. Only 42% of women reported the existence of a formal maternity leave policy. Of the women 70% took 8 weeks or less of leave. Those with 9 weeks or greater were 3.8 times more likely to report satisfaction (p = 0.001). Although women in practice were 2.0 times more likely to take 9 weeks or greater compared to those in training or earlier (p = 0.046), only 30% in practice took this much time. Dissatisfaction with leave was not related to birth timing (residency vs practice) or maternal age at delivery but to work/residency related issues in 69% of respondents, financial concerns in 13% and personal/other in 18%. For breast-feeding 67% of respondents were satisfied with the duration and 22% were not. Dissatisfaction was secondary to work factors. Satisfaction with leave was related to the amount of maternity leave with women with 9 weeks or greater more likely to report satisfaction. Women in practice were more likely to take 9 weeks or greater but most did not due to strong stressors related to work, partners/peers or finances. Work factors were cited for dissatisfaction with breast-feeding.

  9. Wage Offers and Full-Time and Part-Time Employment by British Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermisch, John F.; Wright, Robert E.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of British married women's employment decisions indicates that differences in wage offers between full- and part-time employment are important determinants of working full-time. Women who work despite low earning power, husbands' high income, or discouraging family circumstances tend to work part-time. (SK)

  10. Ethical considerations in developing an evidence base for pre-exposure prophylaxis in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kristen A; Lyerly, Anne D

    2017-12-14

    Though many women in need of access to HIV preventive regimes are pregnant, there is a dearth of data to guide these care decisions. While oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been shown to prevent HIV infection in numerous high-risk populations, pregnant women have been excluded from all major prospective trials. We propose for ethical examination a theoretical trial-a prospective, observational study of PrEP for pregnant women at risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa-highlighting an ethical tradeoff that characterizes issues faced for advancing research in pregnancy. On the one hand, an "opportunistic" study design has certain ethical advantages: as formally construed, the research activity usually begins after decisions to use PrEP during pregnancy are made in the clinical setting. This minimizes research risks and avoids ethical problems that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing PrEP to placebo would entail, particularly withholding care proven beneficial in other populations. On the other hand, observational studies yield less precise information than RCTs. This raises a broader question about the pace of research with pregnant women, as it typically takes many years after a drug's approval for use in the general population to determine safety of the medication in pregnancy. Such delays can have the effect of making it impossible to ethically conduct an RCT with pregnant women, reducing the likelihood that the research community is able to obtain robust, pregnancy-specific evidence. While an observational cohort is potentially the most ethically and scientifically justified research design to study PrEP in pregnancy, earlier involvement of pregnant women in studies of newer preventives may lead to evidence that is more timely and robust.

  11. WOMEN'S BARGAINING POWER IN HOUSEHOLD ECONOMIC DECISIONS: EVIDENCE FROM GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Doss, Cheryl R.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, the percentage of assets held by women within the household is used as a measure of women's bargaining power. The assets used in this paper include land, savings, and business assets. Using detailed household survey data from Ghana, I demonstrate that the share of assets owned by women has a significant impact on household expenditure decisions. This provides additional support for the notion that women's bargaining power can be measured, at least in some dimensions, and that w...

  12. Employment after childbearing and women's subsequent labour force participation: evidence from the British 1958 birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, H; Macran, S; Dex, S

    1996-01-01

    "Data on women from the British 1958 Cohort Study is used as evidence on the determinants of their labour force participation at age 33. A conventional cross-sectional model of full or part-time employment makes use of some longitudinal material not normally included in such models. Whether the woman made the hitherto customary break from employment at the time of the first maternity is included in recognition that this cohort was among the first generation to be offered Statutory Maternity Leave. Results suggest that the presence of children (still) inhibits full-time employment and raises the probability of part-time employment; that income effects on participation have continued to weaken while wage elasticity for full-time employment is high. Continuity of employment straight after childbearing raises the chances of subsequent full-time employment, but by no means guarantees it. Gains from maternity leave and other family friendly employment policies have been far from uniform." excerpt

  13. Investments, time preferences and public transfers paid to women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubalcava, Luis; Teruel, Graciela; Thomas, Duncan

    2009-04-01

    The literature suggests men and women may have different preferences. This paper exploits a social experiment in which women in treatment households were given a large public cash transfer (PROGRESA). In an effort to disentangle the effect of additional income in the household from the effect of changing the distribution of income within the household, the impact of PROGRESA income on savings and investments decisions is compared with all other income sources (after taking into account participation in the program). Additional money in the hands of women is spent on small livestock (which are traditionally managed and cared for by women), improved nutrition and on child goods (particularly clothing). Among single headed households, PROGRESA income is not treated differently from other income. Direct evidence on inter-temporal preferences gathered in the Mexican Family Live Survey indicates that women are more patient than males when thinking about the future. Taken together, the results suggest that PROGRESA income results in a shift in the balance of power within households and women allocated more resources towards investments in the future.

  14. Women's Agency and Fertility: Recent Evidence from Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samari, Goleen

    2017-08-01

    Fertility reached a two decade high of 3.5 births per woman in Egypt in 2014. Lower status of women is associated with higher fertility. Majority of the studies on women's agency and fertility rely on individual level cross-sectional data from South Asia, which limits the understanding of variation among communities and the direction of the relationship between women's agency and fertility in other global contexts. This study examines the relationship between women's agency and fertility longitudinally and among communities in the most populous country in the Middle East - Egypt. For 3,795 ever married women 15 to 49 years old in the 2006 and 2012 Egyptian Labor Market Panel Survey, multilevel models are estimated for having given birth and number of births between 2006 and 2012. Contrary to expectation, women with more agency with greater participation in household decision-making and mobility are, in fact, more likely to have had a birth and have a greater total number of births. Only women with more egalitarian attitudes are associated with fewer births. Community membership explains 5% of the variation in fertility. Since social norms in Egypt favor a higher number of births and labor market participation among women is low, women with agency could be fulfilling social expectations of having children and choosing to have more children.

  15. Is there evidence of a wage penalty to female part-time employment in South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Dorrit Posel; Colette Muller

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate female part-time employment in South Africa. Using household survey data for South Africa from 1995 to 2004, we show that women are over-represented in part-time employment, and that the growth in part-time work has been an important feature of the feminisation of the labour force. In contrast to many studies of part-time work in other countries, however, we find evidence of a significant wage premium to female part-time employment. The premium is robust also to ...

  16. Labour Market Dynamics in Times of Crisis: Evidence from Africa ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    By examining recent panel data from Ghana, Madagascar, South Africa and Uganda, plus cross-sectional data from Kenya, researchers will track how the labour trajectories for men and women change over time, and the links between firm outcomes and labour markets. It is hoped that the ... Date de début. 15 mars 2011 ...

  17. Time off work and the postpartum health of employed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P; Dowd, B; Gjerdingen, D; Moscovice, I; Kochevar, L; Lohman, W

    1997-05-01

    Parental and maternity leave policies are a popular fringe benefit among childbearing employed women and a benefit employers frequently are required to offer. However, few rigorous evaluations of the effect of maternal leave on maternal health exist. Using a hybrid of the household and health production theories of Becker and Grossman and a sample of women identified from state vital statistics records, a nonlinear relationship between maternal postpartum health and time off work after childbirth was estimated. For women taking more than 12 weeks leave, time off work had a positive effect on vitality. With more than 15 weeks leave, time off work had a positive effect on maternal, mental health, and with more than 20 weeks leave, time off work had a positive effect on role function. Subjects' mental health scores were comparable and vitality scores slightly lower than age- and gender-specific norms; 70% of women studied reported role function limitations. Findings suggest employed women experience problems in well-being at approximately seven months postpartum. Variables associated with improved health include: longer maternity leaves, fewer prenatal mental health symptoms, fewer concurrent physical symptoms, more sleep, increased social support, increased job satisfaction, less physical exertion on the job, fewer infant symptoms, and less difficulty arranging child care.

  18. Timing and Flexibility of Housework and Men and Women's wages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Datta Gupta, Nabanita

    This paper analyses the effect of housework on men and women’s wages in Denmark by estimating quantile regressions on Danish time use survey data from 1987, merged to register information on hourly wages and other labour market variables for each of the years 1987-1991. We find, as in U.S. studies......, that housework has negative effects on the wages of women and positive effects on the wages of men, except at the high end of the conditional wage distribution. At the 90th quantile, housework has a positive effect on the wages of women and a negative effect on the wages of men, and in fact, high-wage men...... receive the largest wage penalty of doing housework. Timing and flexibility of housework turn out to be more important than the level of housework, and women, particularly at the high end of the conditional wage distribution, who time their housework immediately before or after market work or engage...

  19. Experiences of early labour management from perspectives of women, labour companions and health professionals: A systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beake Rm Ma Research Associate, Sarah; Chang Ba MPhil PhD Lecturer, Yan-Shing; Cheyne Rm Rgn MSc PhD Professor Of Midwifery, Helen; Spiby MPhil Rn Rm Professor Of Midwifery, Helen; Sandall Rm MSc PhD Professor Of Social Science And Women's Health, Jane; Bick, Debra

    2018-02-01

    to examine evidence of women's, labour companions' and health professionals' experiences of management of early labour to consider how this could be enhanced to better reflect women's needs. a systematic review of qualitative evidence. women in early labour with term, low risk singleton pregnancies, not booked for a planned caesarean birth or post-dates induction of labour, their labour companions, and health professionals responsible for early labour care (e.g. midwives, nurse-midwives, obstetricians, family doctors). Studies from high and middle income country settings were considered. 21 publications were included from the UK, Ireland, Scandinavia, USA, Italy and New Zealand. Key findings included the impact of communication with health professionals (most usually midwives) on women's decision making; women wanting to be listened to by sympathetic midwives who could reassure that symptoms and signs of early labour were 'normal' and offer clear advice on what to do. Antenatal preparation which included realistic information on what to expect when labour commenced was important and appreciated by women and labour companions. Views of the optimal place for women to remain and allow early labour to progress differed and the perceived benefit of support and help offered by labour companions varied. Some were supportive and helped women to relax, while others were anxious and encouraged women to seek early admission to the planned place of birth. Web-based sources of information are increasingly used by women, with mixed views of the value of information accessed. women, labour companions and health professionals find early labour difficult to manage well, with women unsure of how decisions about admission to their planned place of birth are taken. It is unclear why women are effectively left to manage this aspect of their labour with minimal guidance or support. Tailoring management to meet individual needs, with provision of effective communication could reassure

  20. No Compelling Evidence that Preferences for Facial Masculinity Track Changes in Women's Hormonal Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Benedict C; Hahn, Amanda C; Fisher, Claire I; Wang, Hongyi; Kandrik, Michal; Han, Chengyang; Fasolt, Vanessa; Morrison, Danielle; Lee, Anthony J; Holzleitner, Iris J; O'Shea, Kieran J; Roberts, S Craig; Little, Anthony C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2018-06-01

    Although widely cited as strong evidence that sexual selection has shaped human facial-attractiveness judgments, findings suggesting that women's preferences for masculine characteristics in men's faces are related to women's hormonal status are equivocal and controversial. Consequently, we conducted the largest-ever longitudinal study of the hormonal correlates of women's preferences for facial masculinity ( N = 584). Analyses showed no compelling evidence that preferences for facial masculinity were related to changes in women's salivary steroid hormone levels. Furthermore, both within-subjects and between-subjects comparisons showed no evidence that oral contraceptive use decreased masculinity preferences. However, women generally preferred masculinized over feminized versions of men's faces, particularly when assessing men's attractiveness for short-term, rather than long-term, relationships. Our results do not support the hypothesized link between women's preferences for facial masculinity and their hormonal status.

  1. Why do women choose or reject careers in academic medicine? A narrative review of empirical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Laurel D; Ovseiko, Pavel V; Shepperd, Sasha; Greenhalgh, Trisha; Frith, Peggy; Roberts, Nia W; Pololi, Linda H; Buchan, Alastair M

    2016-12-10

    Women are under-represented in academic medicine. We reviewed the empirical evidence focusing on the reasons for women's choice or rejection of careers in academic medicine. Using a systematic search, we identified 52 studies published between 1985, and 2015. More than half had methodological limitations and most were from North America. Eight main themes were explored in these studies. There was consistent evidence for four of these themes: women are interested in teaching more than in research; participation in research can encourage women into academic medicine; women lack adequate mentors and role models; and women experience gender discrimination and bias. The evidence was conflicting on four themes: women are less interested in research than men; women lose commitment to research as their education and training progress; women are deterred from academic careers by financial considerations; and women are deterred by concerns about work-life balance. Inconsistency of findings across studies suggests significant opportunities to overcome barriers by providing a more enabling environment. We identified substantial gaps in the scientific literature that could form the focus of future research, including shifting the focus from individuals' career choices to the societal and organisational contexts and cultures within which those choices are made; extending the evidence base to include a wider range of countries and settings; and testing the efficacy of interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Recent trends in the timing of first sex and marriage among young women in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reda, A Alex; Lindstrom, David

    2014-07-01

    Ethiopia has been characterized by high population growth. Recent social and economic developments have the potential to alter reproductive patterns in the country. Some of these developments include sustained economic growth, urbanization, rapid growth in school enrollments, expansion of primary health care, and a rise in contraceptive access and use. In other national contexts, these developments have been associated with a gradual decoupling of the transition into sexual activity and marriage among young women. We investigate recent trends in the transition into first sex and marriage among three cohorts of Ethiopian women. Using data from the 2000, 2005, and 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) we estimate survival curves and discrete-time hazards models to examine recent trends in age at first sex and first marriage among women ages 20-29. Across the three survey years the median age at first sex has remained relatively stable at 17 years, although the median age at marriage has increased from 17 to 18 years between the 2005 and 2011 surveys. Net of the effects of education and place of residence, there is evidence of a slight trend away from premarital first sex to sexual initiation in the context of marriage. However, among the most educated women and women living in urban areas (who are a small minority of women), there is a much greater tendency to initiate sexual activity outside of marriage compared to women with little schooling and women living in rural areas, and once they have begun sexual activity they tend to wait longer before they get married. We also find evidence in the most recent survey that women who have first sexual intercourse before marriage are delaying marriage more than was the case among earlier cohorts.

  3. PREDICTORS OF WOMEN ACADEMICS' CAREER PROGRESSION: EVIDENCE FROM AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadrian G. Djajadikerta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of glass ceiling, invisible barriers that limit the access of women to higher level occupations and positions, continues to be of concern. Prior studies in this topic have been mostly conducted based on two perspectives: systemic and personal. However, neither of these two perspectives have managed to completely explain the glass ceiling phenomena in organizations. This paper focuses on higher education institutions in Australia. Incorporating both of these perspectives, this paper investigates the factors that influence career progression of women academics in Australian universities.

  4. Gender, Time and Inequality: Trends in Women's and Men's Paid Work, Unpaid Work and Free Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayer, Liana C.

    2005-01-01

    This analysis uses nationally representative time diary data from 1965, 1975 and 1998 to examine trends and gender differences in time use. Women continue to do more household labor than men; however, men have substantially increased time in core household activities such as cooking, cleaning and daily child care. Nonetheless, a 30-minute-per-day…

  5. Does economic empowerment protect women against domestic violence? Evidence from the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    S. Quimbo; X. Javier

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey, we ask whether women's economic empowerment -defined alternatively as having the ability to decide on (i) daily needs, (ii) major purchases, and (iii) spending own income - protects women against domestic violence. Using a simple model of choice of conflict resolution technology among spouses, we find evidence that economic empowerment protects women in a non-linear way. Low and high levels of empowerment reduce the likelihood o...

  6. Poorer mental health in UK bisexual women than lesbians: evidence from the UK 2007 Stonewall Women's Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colledge, Lisa; Hickson, Ford; Reid, David; Weatherburn, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Bisexual- and lesbian-identified women have significantly worse mental health than heterosexual women. Less evidence exists about mental health differences between lesbian and bisexual women. Self-completion survey with community-based, opportunistic sampling recruited 937 bisexual-identified and 4769 lesbian-identified women. Associations between sexual identity and mental health indicators were assessed by logistic regression, controlling for age, income, student status and employment. As a group, bisexual women were younger, poorer, and more likely to be trans-identified, minority ethnic identified and to use marijuana, compared with lesbians. Bisexuals were more likely than lesbians to report eating problems (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.64, P women attended lesbian or bisexual social events, were 'out', or had experienced any sexuality-related discrimination, compared with lesbians. More bisexual women reported poor mental health or psychological distress than did lesbians. Bisexual women may be more likely to experience social stress due to the 'double discrimination' of homophobia and biphobia. This stress, experienced mainly as internalized and felt stigma, could result in greater risk for poor mental health compared with lesbians. Addressing both biphobia and homophobia within UK society has important preventative mental health implications. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Evidence-based treatments for low sexual desire in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotto, Lori A

    2017-04-01

    Low sexual desire is the most common sexual complaint in women, with multinational studies finding that at least a third of women experience low sexual desire. No single etiology for the development of Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder, the diagnosis laid out by the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, has been established. There has been considerable interest in pharmacological approaches to improving low desire, and agents targeting a range of neurotransmitters have been examined. To date, only flibanserin, a centrally acting medication targeting the serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine systems, has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Despite statistically significant effects on sexual desire, sexual distress, and sexually satisfying events, side-effects are significant, and flibanserin is completely contraindicated with alcohol. As such, there has been renewed interest in advancing the science of psychological approaches to low desire, including cognitive behavioral and mindfulness therapies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Survival times of pre-1950 US women radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stehney, A.F.

    1994-01-01

    Survival times of US women radium dial workers to the end of 1989 were examined by life table methods. Included were 1301 women rust employed before 1930 and 1242 first employed in 1930-1949. Expected numbers of deaths were estimated from age- and time-specific death rates for US white females. In the early group, 85 deaths from the well-known radium-induced cancers - bone sarcomas and head carcinomas - were observed, but only 724 deaths from aH other causes were observed vs 755 expected. Life shortening (±S.E.) of 1.8 ±0.5 y compared to the general population of US white females was calculated from the time distribution of all deaths in the pre-1930 group. In the 1930--1949 group, 350 deaths were observed vs 343 expected and no bone sarcomas or head carcinomas occurred. Among women who survived at least 2 y after rust measurement of body radium, a significant excess of observed vs expected deaths was found only for radium intakes greater than 1.85 MBq of 226 Ra + 228 Ra, and no trend of deaths or reduction of life expectancy was found with length of employment

  9. The effect of women's decision-making power on maternal health services uptake: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiaohui; Ma, Ning

    2013-03-01

    A large body of research has explored the links between women's decision making and their uptake of maternal health services, but the evidence so far is inconclusive. This study uses the Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey to examine the influence of household decision making on women's uptake of maternal health services. We find that women's decision-making power has a significant positive correlation with maternal health services uptake and that influential males' decision-making power has the opposite effect, after controlling for socio-economic indicators and supply-side conditions. Our findings suggest that empowering women and increasing their ability to make decisions may increase their uptake of maternal health services. They also suggest that policies directed toward improving women's utilization of maternal health services in Pakistan must target men as well as women.

  10. Migration and first-time parenthood: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Andersson

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reproductive behavior of young women and men in the post-Soviet Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan, focusing on the link between migration and fertility. We employ event-history techniques to retrospective data from the 'Marriage, Fertility, and Migration' survey conducted in Northern Kyrgyzstan in 2005 to study patterns in first-time parenthood. We demonstrate the extent to which internal migration is related to family formation and to the patterns of becoming a parent after resettlement. We gain deeper insights into demographic behavior by considering information on factors such as the geographical destination of migration and retrospectively stated motives for reported moves. In addition, our study reveals clear ethno-cultural differences in the timing of entry into parenthood in Kyrgyzstan.

  11. Prevention of violence against women and girls: what does the evidence say?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellsberg, Mary; Arango, Diana J; Morton, Matthew; Gennari, Floriza; Kiplesund, Sveinung; Contreras, Manuel; Watts, Charlotte

    2015-04-18

    In this Series paper, we review evidence for interventions to reduce the prevalence and incidence of violence against women and girls. Our reviewed studies cover a broad range of intervention models, and many forms of violence--ie, intimate partner violence, non-partner sexual assault, female genital mutilation, and child marriage. Evidence is highly skewed towards that from studies from high-income countries, with these evaluations mainly focusing on responses to violence. This evidence suggests that women-centred, advocacy, and home-visitation programmes can reduce a woman's risk of further victimisation, with less conclusive evidence for the preventive effect of programmes for perpetrators. In low-income and middle-income countries, there is a greater research focus on violence prevention, with promising evidence on the effect of group training for women and men, community mobilisation interventions, and combined livelihood and training interventions for women. Despite shortcomings in the evidence base, several studies show large effects in programmatic timeframes. Across different forms of violence, effective programmes are commonly participatory, engage multiple stakeholders, support critical discussion about gender relationships and the acceptability of violence, and support greater communication and shared decision making among family members, as well as non-violent behaviour. Further investment in intervention design and assessment is needed to address evidence gaps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    To assess the barriers and facilitators to using African American churches as sites for implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions among young African American women. Mixed methods cross-sectional design. African American churches in Philadelphia, PA. 142 African American pastors, church leaders, and young adult women ages 18 to 25. Mixed methods convergent parallel design. The majority of young adult women reported engaging in high-risk HIV-related behaviors. Although church leaders reported willingness to implement HIV risk-reduction interventions, they were unsure of how to initiate this process. Key facilitators to the implementation of evidence-based interventions included the perception of the leadership and church members that HIV interventions were needed and that the church was a promising venue for them. A primary barrier to implementation in this setting is the perception that discussions of sexuality should be private. Implementation of evidence-based HIV interventions for young adult African American women in church settings is feasible and needed. Building a level of comfort in discussing matters of sexuality and adapting existing evidence-based interventions to meet the needs of young women in church settings is a viable approach for successful implementation. © 2014 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  13. Women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation: empirical evidence from Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke

    2011-10-01

    Women's autonomy is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, whereas there is no consistent empirical evidence to support this claim. This paper examines whether or not and how women's autonomy within the household affects the use of reproductive health care, using a household survey data from Tajikistan. Estimation is performed by the bivariate probit model whereby woman's use of health services and the level of women's autonomy are recursively and simultaneously determined. The data is from a sample of women aged 15-49 from the Tajikistan Living Standard Measurement Survey 2007. Women's autonomy as measured by women's decision-making on household financial matters increase the likelihood that a woman receives antenatal and delivery care, whilst it has a negative effect on the probability of attending to four or more antenatal consultations. The hypothesis that women's autonomy and reproductive health care utilisation are independently determined is rejected for most of the estimation specifications, indicating the importance of taking into account the endogenous nature of women's autonomy when assessing its effect on health care use. The empirical results reconfirm the assertion that women's status within the household is closely linked to reproductive health care utilisation in developing countries. Policymakers therefore need not only to implement not only direct health interventions but also to focus on broader social policies which address women's empowerment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A triad of evidence for care of women with genital piercings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Cathy; Armstrong, Myrna L; Roberts, Alden E; Mello, Inola; Angel, Elayne

    2010-02-01

    To add three further dimensions of evidence for the care of women with genital piercings (GPs). Following a literature review, a cross-sectional study replicated previous work, using a web-based survey. This triad of evidence provides (a) descriptive quantitative data (N = 240) about women with GPs, (b) qualitative data about women with GPs, as well as (c) clinical observations from 60 healthcare providers (HCPs) who have cared for women with GPs. Three important findings about women with GPs were validated: (a) GPs were deliberate actions, sought for personal and sexual expression; (b) women with GPs treat piercings as a normal, meaningful part of their lives which produce sexual enhancement and expression; and (c) they continue to seek information about GP care from nonhealth providers. New data indicate that they have experienced depression (47%), abuse (physical 18%; emotional, 27%; sexual, 14%), and forced sexual activity (35%) in their lives. Several unsubstantiated assumptions about women with GPs are challenged with these data. GPs should not delay important health care. Health-protective, as well as health promotion, behaviors are important to reduce risks. Nurse practitioners (NPs) can become effective and resourceful advocates in three specific areas of care: (a) responsiveness to women with GPs, (b) collaborative decision making for the removal of jewelry, and (c) promotion of applicable patient education.

  15. Screening women at high risk of breast cancer on the basis of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Ruth

    2001-01-01

    Geneticists are able to identify the risk of breast cancer. Strategies on offer include prevention, early diagnosis by screening, and prophylactic surgery. This paper analyses the evidence for offering screening. The radiation dose of mammography has been measured, but the risk is not fully known. Mammography screening of women of 40-50 years in the normal population has known effect. Little evidence is available for women under 40 years or for women with genetic susceptibility to breast cancer. Dense parenchymal pattern is associated with high grade cancers, and is both a risk factor and a reason for impaired screening sensitivity. Whether this applies to younger women or women at high risk is speculative. The pathological features of the cancers in gene carriers show differences from those occurring in normal women. This work should be correlated with imaging features. There is no literature to support the use of newer imaging methods in these women. Ultrasound and MRI avoid radiation and may be useful in dense breasts. SestaMIBI and PET scanning are not yet mature enough for screening, and may never have such a role. Any newer modality must be subjected to a formal randomised trial before being offered to screen women at high risk

  16. Professional women "rebalancing" in retirement: Time, relationships, and body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loe, Meika; Johnston, D Kay

    2016-01-01

    This is an interview-based study focused on how professional baby boomer women negotiate and narrate postretirement lives. This group came of age in the 1960s and represents a socially privileged segment of the baby boomer generation, a cohort that created new gendered pathways in employment. Today, these retired professional women are attempting to make sense of their multilayered complex and changing realities. In their accounts, the most salient themes are shifting identity, embodiment, and relationships. By using what we call a relational lens, we will show how many aspects of postretirement life, for these professional women, are mediated by changing relationships-relationships to time, work identity, friends and family, and body. Through these individual and relational contexts we see how female professional baby boomer retirees grapple with liberation and loss, autonomy and control, ongoing gendered work, and rebalancing in a new chapter of life. Perhaps most importantly, we see how learning about self in this stage of life, and perhaps across the life course, takes place largely in the context of relationships.

  17. Evidence that women meeting physical activity guidelines do not sit less: An observational inclinometry study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craft Lynette L

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The inactivity physiology paradigm proposes that sedentary behaviors, including sitting too much, are independent of the type of physical activity delineated for health in the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Thus, we hypothesized that, when accounting for behaviors across the entire day, variability in the amount of time spent sitting would be independent of the inter-and intra-individual time engaged in sustained moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA. Methods Ninety-one healthy women, aged 40–75 years, completed a demographic questionnaire and assessment of height and weight. Participants wore the activPAL activity monitor for one week and time (minutes/day spent sitting, standing, stepping, and in sustained bouts (bouts ≥10 minutes of MVPA were quantified. The women were then stratified into groups based on weekly sustained MVPA. Additionally, each day of data collection for each participant was classified as either a “sufficient” MVPA day (≥ 30 min of MVPA or an “insufficient” MVPA day for within-participant analyses. Results Time spent sitting, standing, and in incidental non-exercise stepping averaged 64, 28, and 11 hrs/week, respectively, and did not differ between groups with individuals meeting/exceeding the current exercise recommendation of 150 min/week of sustained MVPA in ≥10 minutes bouts (M = 294 min/week, SD = 22 compared to those with none or minimal levels (M= 20min/week, SD = 4. Time spent sitting (M = 9.1 hr/day, SD = 0.19 vs. M = 8.8 hr/day, SD = 0.22, standing (M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.16 vs. M = 3.9 hr/day, SD = 0.15, and in intermittent stepping (M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.07 vs. M = 1.6 hr/day, SD = 0.06 did not differ between days with (~55 min/day and without recommended MVPA. Conclusions This study provides the first objective evidence that participation in sustained MVPA is unrelated to daily sitting duration in relatively healthy, middle and older-aged women. More

  18. Age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in adolescent girls and young women: evidence from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Robin; Gregson, Simon; Eaton, Jeffrey W; Mugurungi, Owen; Rhead, Rebecca; Takaruza, Albert; Maswera, Rufurwokuda; Nyamukapa, Constance

    2017-06-19

    Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa, but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). A total of 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of intersurvey periods. Last sexual partner age difference and age-disparate relationships [intergenerational (≥10 years age difference) and intragenerational (5-9 years) versus age-homogeneous (0-4 years)] were tested for associations with HIV incidence in Cox regressions. A proximate determinants framework was used to explore factors possibly explaining variations in the contribution of age-disparate relationships to HIV incidence between populations and over time. About 126 HIV infections occurred over 8777 person-years (1.43 per 100 person-years; 95% confidence interval = 1.17-1.68). Sixty-five percent of women reported partner age differences of at least 5 years. Increasing partner age differences were associated with higher HIV incidence [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.05 (1.01-1.09)]. Intergenerational relationships tended to increase HIV incidence [aHR = 1.78 (0.96-3.29)] but not intragenerational relationships [aHR = 0.91 (0.47-1.76)]. Secondary education was associated with reductions in intergenerational relationships [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.49 (0.36-0.68)]. Intergenerational relationships were associated with partners having concurrent relationships [aOR = 2.59 (1.81-3.70)], which tended to increase HIV incidence [aHR = 1.74 (0.96-3.17)]. Associations between age disparity and HIV incidence did not change over time. Sexual relationships with older men expose young women to increased risk of HIV acquisition in Manicaland, which did not change over time, even with introduction

  19. Development of Malaysian women fertility index: Evidence from Shannon's entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Wan Aznie Fatihah Wan Abd; Sharif, Shamshuritawati

    2017-11-01

    A fertility rate is a measure of the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years. Malaysia is now facing a population crisis and the fertility rate continues to decline. This situation will have implications for the age structure of the population where percentages of senior citizens are higher than percentages of people aged below 5 years old. Malaysia is expected to reach aging population status by the year 2035. As the aging population has a very long average life expectancy, the government needs to spend a lot on medical costs for senior citizens and need to increase budgets for pensions. The government may be required to increase tax revenues to support the growing older population. The falling fertility rate requires proper control by relevant authorities, especially through planning and implementation of strategic and effective measures. Hence, this paper aims to develop a fertility index using Shannon's entropy method. The results show that Selangor, Johor, and Sarawak are among the states with the highest values of the fertility index. On the other end of the spectrum, Terengganu, W.P. Labuan, and Perlis are ranked in the last positions according to the fertility index. The information generated from the results in this study can be used as a primary source for the government to design appropriate policies to mitigate dwindling fertility rates among Malaysian women.

  20. Going Back Part-time: Family Leave Legislation and Women's Return to Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Whitney

    2012-02-01

    Using a multinomial logit model with data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, this paper tests whether the implementation of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) is associated with an increase in return to work at part-time status among first-time mothers working full-time during their pregnancy. I find a statistically significant trend of increasingly higher odds of returning to work at part-time status relative to return at full-time status, beginning in 1993 (the year in which the FMLA is implemented). Furthermore, an additional week of either state or federal leave is significantly associated with a higher odds of return at part-time status. This article provides evidence that job protection and leave legislation may help facilitate higher levels of labor force participation among women with small children, through more flexible work arrangements.

  1. Part-time vs. full-time occlusion for amblyopia: evidence for part-time patching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matta, Noelle S; Silbert, David I

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is characterized by a decreased uncorrectable visual acuity in a structurally normal eye. Occlusion therapy has been used for years to improve acuity, and, traditionally, practitioners have utilized full-time patching. This article will explore more recent research looking at using part-time patching in the treatment of amblyopia.

  2. Perceived decline in intimate partner violence against women in Bangladesh: qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Sidney Ruth; Lenzi, Rachel; Nazneen, Sohela; Bates, Lisa M

    2013-09-01

    The Bangladesh government, nongovernmental organizations, donors, and advocacy groups have attempted various interventions to promote gender equality and reduce intimate partner violence (IPV) against women, but rigorous evaluations of these interventions are rare and few published studies have yet to show that any of them has had a substantial impact. This study presents qualitative evidence from four villages in central and northern Bangladesh drawn from 11 group discussions (6 with men, 5 with women), 16 open-ended interviews with men, and 62 women's life history narratives. The findings strongly suggest that IPV is declining in these villages as women's economic roles expand and they gain a stronger sense of their rights. Periodic surveys are recommended to measure trends in the incidence of IPV in settings where transitions in gender systems are under way. © 2013 The Population Council, Inc.

  3. Women's lives in times of Zika: mosquito-controlled lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, Ana Rosa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo

    2018-05-10

    Zika virus infection during pregnancy is a cause of congenital brain abnormalities. Its consequences to pregnancies has made governments, national and international agencies issue advices and recommendations to women. There is a clear need to investigate how the Zika outbreak affects the decisions that women take concerning their lives and the life of their families, as well as how women are psychologically and emotionally dealing with the outbreak. We conducted a qualitative study to address the impact of the Zika epidemic on the family life of women living in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the US, who were affected by it to shed light on the social repercussions of Zika. Women were recruited through the snowball sampling technique and data was collected through semi-structured interviews. We describe the effects in mental health and the coping strategies that women use to deal with the Zika epidemic. Zika is taking a heavy toll on women's emotional well-being. They are coping with feelings of fear, helplessness, and uncertainty by taking drastic precautions to avoid infection that affect all areas of their lives. Coping strategies pose obstacles in professional life, lead to social isolation, including from family and partner, and threaten the emotional and physical well-being of women. Our findings suggest that the impacts of the Zika epidemic on women may be universal and global. Zika infection is a silent and heavy burden on women's shoulders.

  4. Experimental Evidence for Wigner’s Tunneling Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, N.; Yakaboylu, E.; Fechner, L.; Klaiber, M.; Laux, M.; Mi, Y.; Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.; Pfeifer, T.; Keitel, C. H.; Moshammer, R.

    2018-04-01

    Tunneling of a particle through a barrier is one of the counter-intuitive properties of quantum mechanical motion. Thanks to advances in the generation of strong laser fields, new opportunities to dynamically investigate this process have been developed. In the so-called attoclock measurements the electron’s properties after tunneling are mapped on its emission direction. We investigate the tunneling dynamics and achieve a high sensitivity thanks to two refinements of the attoclock principle. Using near-IR wavelength we place firmly the ionization process in the tunneling regime. Furthermore, we compare the electron momentum distributions of two atomic species of slightly different atomic potentials (argon and krypton) being ionized under absolutely identical conditions. Experimentally, using a reaction microscope, we succeed in measuring the 3D electron momentum distributions for both targets simultaneously. Theoretically, the time resolved description of tunneling in strong-field ionization is studied using the leading quantum-mechanical Wigner treatment. A detailed analysis of the most probable photoelectron emission for Ar and Kr allows testing the theoretical models and a sensitive check of the electron initial conditions at the tunnel exit. The agreement between experiment and theory provides a clear evidence for a non-zero tunneling time delay and a non-vanishing longitudinal momentum at this point.

  5. Is There a Time for Everything? Attitudes Related to Women's Sequencing of Career and Family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Sherry E.

    1992-01-01

    Examined business students' (n=203) attitudes relating to sequencing of career and family events for women. Results indicated gender, attitudes regarding women's timing of career and children, and women's ability to balance work and family demands were significantly related. There was a relationship between attitudes toward timing of marriage and…

  6. Evidence to suggest that copulatory vocalizations in women are not a reflexive consequence of orgasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Gayle; Hendrie, Colin A

    2011-06-01

    The current studies were conducted in order to investigate the phenomenon of copulatory vocalizations and their relationship to orgasm in women. Data were collected from 71 sexually active heterosexual women (M age = 21.68 years ± .52) recruited from the local community through opportunity sampling. The studies revealed that orgasm was most frequently reported by women following self-manipulation of the clitoris, manipulation by the partner, oral sex delivered to the woman by a man, and least frequently during vaginal penetration. More detailed examination of responses during intercourse revealed that, while female orgasms were most commonly experienced during foreplay, copulatory vocalizations were reported to be made most often before and simultaneously with male ejaculation. These data together clearly demonstrate a dissociation of the timing of women experiencing orgasm and making copulatory vocalizations and indicate that there is at least an element of these responses that are under conscious control, providing women with an opportunity to manipulate male behavior to their advantage.

  7. Current evidence on antenatal care provision for women with intellectual disabilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homeyard, Claire; Montgomery, Elsa; Chinn, Deborah; Patelarou, Evridiki

    2016-01-01

    changing attitudes, alongside integration, more independent living and recognition of rights to family life have meant a steady rise in women with intellectual disabilities becoming pregnant. However, existing evidence shows that women with intellectual disabilities are less likely to seek or attend for regular antenatal care. This population experiences poorer maternal wellbeing and worse pregnancy outcomes compared to the general population, including preterm and low-birthweight babies. to identify and review the existing evidence on the provision of antenatal care among women with intellectual disabilities. a systematic search strategy was formulated using key Medical Sub-Headings terms and related text words for pregnancy, antenatal care and intellectual disability. Comprehensive searches dating back to 1980 using pre-determined criteria followed by a hand search of reference lists and citations were undertaken. Data were extracted using a data extraction form and methodological quality assessed using the framework developed by Caldwell et al. (2011). A three stage textual narrative synthesis was used to integrate the findings from the included studies. searches identified 16 papers that met the inclusion criteria. A majority of the papers focused on women's experience of pregnancy and antenatal care with a paucity of papers identified on midwives knowledge and experience. The four broad themes of the analysis and synthesis performed included: In the Family Way ('I've a baby inside. I've got a life inside of me.׳); Knowledge and advocacy ('...everyone was looking at one another and no one was talking to me...'); Midwives educational needs ('...helpful to have guidance...') and Midwives Attitudes ('...women with [intellectual disabilities]...should not be pregnant'). significant gaps in the evidence base were apparent, however evidence was identified which showed that intellectually disabled pregnant women struggle to understand antenatal information

  8. Park availability and physical activity, TV time, and overweight and obesity among women: Findings from Australia and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitch, Jenny; Abbott, Gavin; Kaczynski, Andrew T; Wilhelm Stanis, Sonja A; Besenyi, Gina M; Lamb, Karen E

    2016-03-01

    This study examined relationships between three measures of park availability and self-reported physical activity (PA), television viewing (TV) time, and overweight/obesity among women from Australia and the United States. Having more parks near home was the only measure of park availability associated with an outcome. Australian women (n=1848) with more parks near home had higher odds of meeting PA recommendations and lower odds of being overweight/obese. In the US sample (n=489), women with more parks near home had lower odds of watching >4h TV per day. A greater number of parks near home was associated with lower BMI among both Australian and US women. Evidence across diverse contexts provides support to improve park availability to promote PA and other health behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Is the perception of time pressure a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity among women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Nicky; McNaughton, Sarah A; Hunter, Wendy; Hume, Clare; Crawford, David

    2009-07-01

    To describe the proportion of women reporting time is a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity, the characteristics of these women and the perceived causes of time pressure, and to examine associations between perceptions of time as a barrier and consumption of fruit, vegetables and fast food, and physical activity. A cross-sectional survey of food intake, physical activity and perceived causes of time pressure. A randomly selected community sample. A sample of 1580 women self-reported their food intake and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to healthy eating. An additional 1521 women self-reported their leisure-time physical activity and their perceptions of the causes of time pressure in relation to physical activity. Time pressure was reported as a barrier to healthy eating by 41% of the women and as a barrier to physical activity by 73%. Those who reported time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating were significantly less likely to meet fruit, vegetable and physical activity recommendations, and more likely to eat fast food more frequently. Women reporting time pressure as a barrier to healthy eating and physical activity are less likely to meet recommendations than are women who do not see time pressure as a barrier. Further research is required to understand the perception of time pressure issues among women and devise strategies to improve women's food and physical activity behaviours.

  10. Evidence of health care offered to women in situations of violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferreira Cortes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to analyze the scientific evidence of enhancing and limiting factors of the care rendered to women in situation of violence. Methods: integrative review developed in Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences database and Public Medline database. The corpus of the research included thirty studies. Results: the factors that enhance attention are related to services organization, conceptions and actions of professionals guided by strategies of communication and identification of violence. The limitating factores are conceptions of professionals grounded in traditional roles of genders, lack of training, protocols for the care and registration of cases, attitudes based on personal style and assistance focused in physical symptoms. Conclusion: the evidence points to the realization of screening and creation of protocols of assistance permeated by listening and guidelines directed to women ensuring the continuity of care network. There is a pressing need for investment in vocational training to provide of visibility to the theme in the health context.

  11. Women Helping Women? Evidence from Private Sector Data on Workplace Hierarchies

    OpenAIRE

    Kunze, Astrid; Miller, Amalia

    2014-01-01

    This paper studies gender spillovers in career advancement using 11 years of employer-employee matched data on the population of white-collar workers at over 4,000 private-sector establishments in Norway. Our data include unusually detailed job information for each worker, which enables us to define seven hierarchical ranks that are consistent across establishments and over time in order to measure promotions (defined as year-to-year rank increases) even for individuals who change employers. ...

  12. Endogenous Women's Autonomy and the Use of Reproductive Health Services: Empirical Evidence from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuke Kamiya

    2010-01-01

    Though gender equity is widely considered to be a key to improving maternal health in developing countries, little empirical evidence has been presented to support this claim. This paper investigates whether or not and how female autonomy within the household affects women's use of reproductive health care in Tajikistan, where the situation of maternal health and gender equity is worse compared with neighbouring countries. Estimation is performed using bivariate probit models in which woman's...

  13. Using a pedagogical approach to integrate evidence-based teaching in an undergraduate women's health course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawley, Katy; Bloch, Joan Rosen; Suplee, Patricia Dunphy; McKeever, Amy; Scherzer, Gerri

    2011-06-01

    Evidence-based practice (EBP) is promoted as a foundation for nursing practice. However, the 2005 U.S. survey of nurses revealed that they do not have requisite skills for EBP. PURPOSE AND GOALS: To evaluate a pedagogical approach aimed at (1) fostering undergraduate nursing students EBP competencies, and (2) identifying gaps in the literature to direct future women's health research. A secondary analysis of data abstracted from required EBP clinical journals for an undergraduate women's health course in which students (n = 198) were asked to find evidence to answer their clinical questions. Content analysis was used to identify main themes of the topics of inquiry. Students identified 1,808 clinical questions and 30.3% (n = 547) of these could not be answered or supported by evidence in the literature. This assignment was an important teaching and assessment tool for EBP. Questions reflected critical thinking and quest for in-depth knowledge to support nursing practice. Some students lacked skills in searching databases and a significant number of knowledge gaps were identified that can direct women's health research. Copyright ©2010 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Time consuming : women's radio and the reconstruction of national narratives in Western Germany 1945-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badenoch, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    The question of the proper place of women in German society was one of the most pressing issues of the time immediately after the Second World War. The sheer numerical disproportion of women to men in Germany, combined with the expanded public roles many women had adopted during wartime, meant that

  15. Time Consuming: Women's Radio and the Reconstruction of National Narratives in Western Germany 1945-1948

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Badenoch, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    The question of the proper place of women in German society was one of the most pressing issues of the time immediately after the Second World War. The sheer numerical disproportion of women to men in Germany, combined with the expanded public roles many women had adopted during wartime, meant that

  16. Swedish women's expectations about antenatal care and change over time - a comparative study of two cohorts of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Andersson, Ewa; Christensson, Kyllike

    2014-06-01

    A decade ago a national cohort of Swedish-speaking women were surveyed about their expectations on antenatal care. Today, antenatal care in Sweden still operates under similar circumstances while changes have occurred in society and the pregnant population. To compare expectations of antenatal care in pregnant women recruited 2009-2010 to those of pregnant women from a national cohort in 1999-2000. An additional aim was to compare antenatal expectations in women recruited to a clinical trial and subsequently received group based or standard antenatal care. A cross-sectional pre-study of 700 women recruited to a clinical trial and a historical cohort of 3061 women from a Swedish national survey. Data was collected by a questionnaire in early pregnancy for both cohorts and before the clinical trial started. In early pregnancy 79% of the women in the study sample reported a preference for the recommended number of visits, which is slightly higher than in the national cohort (70%). Continuity of the caregiver was still important with 95% vs 97% of the women rated it important to meet the same midwife at subsequent antenatal visits. The content of care rank order showed a change over time with lower expectations in health check-ups and emotional content and higher expectations in information needs, respect and partner involvement. Women approached in early pregnancy had lower expectations about medical and emotional check-ups and parent education but higher expectations regarding information, being met with respect and the involvement of the partner compared to women 10 years ago. Continuity of a midwife caregiver was still important and women seem more willing to follow the recommended number of antenatal visits. Asking women about their expectations regarding antenatal care could be a means to individualize the care. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adult women's experiences of urinary incontinence: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Adilson; Hoga, Luiza; Gonçalves, Bruna; Silva, Pâmela; Pereira, Priscilla

    2017-05-01

    Women are affected dramatically by urinary incontinence (UI). This disease is currently considered as epidemic. The objective of this review is to identify, through the best available evidence, how women experience UI worldwide. The current review included studies of adult women who had experienced UI. Women with UI from various social and cultural settings were included in this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were included in this review. All aspects related to the experience of UI endured by women were considered. An initial search of MEDLINE (PubMed) and CINAHL was done, followed by the exploration of all the databases and all identified studies, published in English, Spanish, French and Portuguese. The databases searched were CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Lilacs, Scielo, BVS, BVS-Psi, Scopus, Embase, Sociological Abstracts, Dissertation Abstracts International and the University of São Paulo Dissertations and Thesis bank and gray literature. Each primary study was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality. The Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Appraisal and Review Instrument (JBI-QARI) data extraction form for interpretive and critical research was used to appraise the methodological quality of all papers. Qualitative data were extracted using the JBI-QARI. Qualitative research findings were synthesized using the JBI-QARI. From the 28 studies were included, 189 findings were extracted and they were grouped into 25 categories and eight synthesized findings: (i) cultural and religious backgrounds and personal reluctance contribute to delays in seeking UI treatment; (ii) the inevitable and regrettable problem of UI endured silently and alone affects women's daily activities and their social roles; (iii) poor knowledge and the vague nature of the symptoms mask the fact that UI is a disease; (iv) the experiences

  18. "In our stories": The perspectives of women living with HIV on an evidence-based group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Grimes, Tiffany; Miller, Lauren; Ursillo, Alyssa; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-07-01

    A qualitative study among women living with HIV assessed the aspects of an evidence-based intervention targeting HIV transmission risk reduction (Women Involved in Life Learning from Other Women [WiLLOW]) that women valued and how their lives were impacted. Thirty-one women (80.6% African American) completed interviews. Women valued the personal stories and positive group dynamics (i.e. safety, trust, openness, getting feedback, bonding, and socializing). As a result of WiLLOW, women embraced a strong woman image, joined groups, changed behaviors, accepted their HIV status, became optimistic, and spoke up/advocated in their relationships and communities. Interventions for HIV-positive women may benefit from incorporating the sharing of stories in their curricula and factors that build positive group dynamics.

  19. Progress for Women in Academe, Yet Inequities Persist: Evidence from NSOPF:99

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toutkoushian, Robert K.; Conley, Valerie Martin

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we use data from the 1999 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:99) to measure the unexplained wage gap between men and women in academe. We pay particular attention to how these unexplained wage gaps have changed over time by comparing the results from the 1999 survey to published results from previous national surveys and…

  20. Psychogenic Explanations of Physical Illness: Time to Examine the Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilshire, Carolyn E; Ward, Tony

    2016-09-01

    In some patients with chronic physical complaints, detailed examination fails to reveal a well-recognized underlying disease process. In this situation, the physician may suspect a psychological cause. In this review, we critically evaluated the evidence for this causal claim, focusing on complaints presenting as neurological disorders. There were four main conclusions. First, patients with these complaints frequently exhibit psychopathology but not consistently more often than patients with a comparable "organic" diagnosis, so a causal role cannot be inferred. Second, these patients report a high incidence of adverse life experiences, but again, there is insufficient evidence to indicate a causal role for any particular type of experience. Third, although psychogenic illnesses are believed to be more responsive to psychological interventions than comparable "organic" illnesses, there is currently no evidence to support this claim. Finally, recent evidence suggests that biological and physical factors play a much greater causal role in these illnesses than previously believed. We conclude that there is currently little evidential support for psychogenic theories of illness in the neurological domain. In future research, researchers need to take a wider view concerning the etiology of these illnesses. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Time-Variation of Term Premia: International Evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongen, R.; Verschoor, W.F.C.; Wolff, C.C.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of the expectations hypothesis of the term structure of interest rates by means of a previously unexploited dataset of market expectations that covers a broad range of EMS versus non-EMS foreign currency deposits. Although we find strong evidence in favour of

  2. Violence against women is strongly associated with suicide attempts: evidence from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devries, Karen; Watts, Charlotte; Yoshihama, Mieko; Kiss, Ligia; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Deyessa, Negussie; Heise, Lori; Durand, Julia; Mbwambo, Jessie; Jansen, Henrica; Berhane, Yemane; Ellsberg, Mary; Garcia-Moreno, Claudia

    2011-07-01

    Suicidal behaviours are one of the most important contributors to the global burden of disease among women, but little is known about prevalence and modifiable risk factors in low and middle income countries. We use data from the WHO multi-country study on women's health and domestic violence against women to examine the prevalence of suicidal thoughts and attempts, and relationships between suicide attempts and mental health status, child sexual abuse, partner violence and other variables. Population representative cross-sectional household surveys were conducted from 2000-2003 in 13 provincial (more rural) and city (urban) sites in Brazil, Ethiopia, Japan, Namibia, Peru, Samoa, Serbia, Thailand and Tanzania. 20967 women aged 15-49 years participated. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts, lifetime suicidal thoughts, and suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks were calculated, and multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine factors associated with suicide attempts in each site. Prevalence of lifetime suicide attempts ranged from 0.8% (Tanzania) to 12.0% (Peru city); lifetime thoughts of suicide from 7.2% (Tanzania province) to 29.0% (Peru province), and thoughts in the past four weeks from 1.9% (Serbia) to 13.6% (Peru province). 25-50% of women with suicidal thoughts in the past four weeks had also visited a health worker in that time. The most consistent risk factors for suicide attempts after adjusting for probable common mental health disorders were: intimate partner violence, non-partner physical violence, ever being divorced, separated or widowed, childhood sexual abuse and having a mother who had experienced intimate partner violence. Mental health policies and services must recognise the consistent relationship between violence and suicidality in women in low and middle income countries. Training health sector workers to recognize and respond to the consequences of violence may substantially reduce the health burden associated with

  3. Trends in COPD mortality and in-patient admissions in men & women: evidence of convergence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Farrell, A

    2011-09-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the leading causes of mortality. Although more prevalent in men, it is anticipated that, due to the convergence in smoking rates, the prevalence rate in women will surpass that of men. There were 14,519 deaths attributable to COPD in the period 2000-2009. Although deaths decreased for both sexes, reduction in deaths was significantly higher among men (test for trend, p<0.01 for men vs. p=0.06 for women). Smoking rates decreased for both sexes from 1980-2009 with the percentage reduction in smoking significantly greater in men (11.5% vs. 7.0%, p<0.001). There has been a convergence in COPD deaths and COPD hospital in-patient discharges for men and women that mirrors the trend in the convergence of male and female smoking rates. This study provides evidence of the need for effective smoking cessation programmes that are targeted at women as well as men.

  4. Survival Analysis of Timing of First Marriage among Women

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Majority of the women married between ages 15-19 years (43.1%), while very few married late (2.3%) and about 27.0% ... In the past, the age at first marriage used to be influenced by .... for this paper was to raise awareness of the situation on ...

  5. Analysis of Daily Life Time in Women's Junior College Students

    OpenAIRE

    樫村, 修生

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was understand the correlationship between the energy expenditure of living activity and body structure or physical fitness in the students of a women's junior college. The resulut were as follows; It was shown that the physical activites in the daily life was necessary for prevention of obesity in the students.

  6. Time to end violence against Palestinian women and girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FMR editors

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Domestic violence is an all too common response to the pressures of life in crowded refugee camps and communities living under occupation. The Palestinian Authority (PA has failed to establish a framework to respond to violence against women and girls.

  7. Association of unipedal standing time and bone mineral density in community-dwelling Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, A; Toba, N; Takeda, M; Suzuki, M; Abe, Y; Aoyagi, K; Nakamura, T

    2009-05-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with age. In community-dwelling Japanese women, unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD while in women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is associated with BMD. The aim of this study was to clarify whether unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD in community-dwelling women. The subjects were 90 community-dwelling Japanese women aged 54.7 years. BMD of the second metacarpal bone was measured by computed X-ray densitometry. We measured unipedal standing time as well as timed up and go test to assess physical performance of the lower extremities. Unipedal standing time decreased with increased age. Timed up and go test significantly correlated with age. Low BMD was significantly associated with old age, short unipedal standing time, and long timed up and go test. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that age, unipedal standing time, and timed up and go test were significant factors associated with BMD. In 21 participants aged 70 years and over, body weight and unipedal standing time, but not age, were significantly associated with BMD. BMD and physical performance of the lower extremities decrease with older age. Unipedal standing time, timed up and go test, and age are associated with BMD in community-dwelling Japanese women. In women aged 70 years and over, unipedal standing time is significantly associated with BMD.

  8. Variation in distress among women with infertility: evidence from a population-based sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greil, Arthur L; Shreffler, Karina M; Schmidt, Lone

    2011-01-01

    with infertility with no prior pregnancies (primary infertility, n = 399). We further distinguish between women with infertility who were actually 'trying' to become pregnant (the infertile with intent) with those who met the medical definition of infertile but did not describe themselves as trying to become...... with primary infertility who were explicitly trying to become pregnant at the time of the infertility episode stand out as a particularly distressed group. Caregivers should be aware that the emotional needs of women with primary infertility may differ from those with secondary infertility....

  9. Value of Travel Time Reliability: A review of current evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrion; David Levinson

    2010-01-01

    Travel time reliability is a fundamental factor in travel behavior. It represents the temporal uncertainty experienced by users in their movement between any two nodes in a network. The importance of the time reliability depends on the penalties incurred by the users. In road networks, travelers consider the existence of a trip travel time uncertainty in different choice situations (departure time, route, mode, and others). In this paper, a systematic review of the current state of research i...

  10. No Evidence of Reaction Time Slowing in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, F. Richard

    2016-01-01

    A total of 32 studies comprising 238 simple reaction time and choice reaction time conditions were examined in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (n?=?964) and controls (n?=?1032). A Brinley plot/multiple regression analysis was performed on mean reaction times, regressing autism spectrum disorder performance onto the control performance as…

  11. Childhood stress and birth timing among African American women: Cortisol as biological mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Shannon L; Christian, Lisa M; Alston, Angela D; Salsberry, Pamela J

    2017-10-01

    Preterm birth (PTB) occurs among 1:11U.S. white women and 1:7.5 African American women and is a significant driver of racial disparities in infant mortality. Maternal stress is the most common clinical phenotype underlying spontaneous PTB. Specific patterns of stress and biological mediators driving PTB remain unclear. We examined the effect of childhood stress on birth timing among African American women and evaluated maternal cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. A prospective observational design was employed, with a single study visit at 28-32 weeks gestation and medical record review. The Stress and Adversity Inventory was administered, which provides a comprehensive estimate of childhood stress, stress in adulthood, and five core characteristic subscales (interpersonal loss, physical danger, humiliation, entrapment, role disruption). Venipuncture was performed between 11:00am and 4:00pm and plasma cortisol quantified by ELISA. Analyses controlled for stress in adulthood. Among a final sample of 89, cumulative childhood stress predicted birth timing (p=0.01). The association was driven by stress related to interpersonal loss and physical danger, with support for maternal cortisol as a biological mediator (ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.045]; ab=0.02, 95% CI [0.001, 0.043], respectively). Results were similar, overall, in sub-group analyses among spontaneously laboring women (n=53); however, role disruption arose as an additional predictor, as mediated by cortisol elevations (ab=0.03, 95% CI [0.005, 0.074]). Of note, cortisol was no longer supported as a mediator linking physical danger to birth timing after adjusting for sleep quality and hours awake prior to venipuncture (ab=0.02, 95% CI [-0.0001, 0.046]). We provide preliminary evidence that, independent of stress in adulthood, childhood stress of specific core characteristics may shape birth timing, with cortisol elevation as a biological mediator. Further investigation is warranted and may bolster the

  12. Are work demands associated with mental distress? Evidence from women in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Robin A; Nandi, Arijit; Jaswal, Surinder; Harper, Sam

    2017-12-01

    High work demands might be a determinant of poor mental health among women in low- and middle-income countries, especially in rural settings where women experience greater amounts of labor-intensive unpaid work. Research originating from such settings is lacking. We estimated the cross-sectional association between work demands and mental distress among 3177 women living in 160 predominantly tribal communities in southern Rajasthan, India. A structured questionnaire captured the number of minutes women spent on various activities in the last 24 h, and we used this information to measure women's work demands, including the total work amount, nature of work (e.g., housework), and type of work (e.g., cooking). Mental distress was measured with the Hindi version of the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. We used negative binomial regression models to estimate the association between work demands (amount, nature, and type) and mental distress. On average, women spent more than 9.5 h a day on work activities. The most time, intensive work activity was caring for children, the elderly, or disabled (149 min). In adjusted models, we found a U-shaped association between work amount and mental distress. High amounts of housework were associated with higher distress, whereas paid work and farmwork amount were not. Certain types of housework, including collecting water and cleaning, were associated with increased distress scores. We found an association between aspects of work demands and mental distress. Research in other contexts where women perform high amounts of unpaid work, particularly within the home or farm, is warranted.

  13. Contemporary Fertility Patterns and First-Birth Timing among Mexican-Origin Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batson, Christie D.

    2013-01-01

    This article examines first-birth timing among Mexican women in the United States over two birth cohorts. Currently, Mexican women are one of a small group that maintains above-replacement fertility in the United States, contributing to both Mexican population growth and overall national population growth. Yet, the fertility timing of Mexican…

  14. Evidence of estrogen modulation on memory processes for emotional content in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompili, Assunta; Arnone, Benedetto; D'Amico, Mario; Federico, Paolo; Gasbarri, Antonella

    2016-03-01

    It is well accepted that emotional content can affect memory, interacting with the encoding and consolidation processes. The aim of the present study was to verify the effects of estrogens in the interplay of cognition and emotion. Images from the International Affective Pictures System, based on valence (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral), maintaining arousal constant, were viewed passively by two groups of young women in different cycle phases: a periovulatory group (PO), characterized by high level of estrogens and low level of progesterone, and an early follicular group (EF), characterized by low levels of both estrogens and progesterone. The electrophysiological responses to images were measured, and P300 peak was considered. One week later, long-term memory was tested by means of free recall. Intra-group analysis displayed that PO woman had significantly better memory for positive images, while EF women showed significantly better memory for negative images. The comparison between groups revealed that women in the PO phase had better memory performance for positive pictures than women in the EF phase, while no significant differences were found for negative and neutral pictures. According to the free recall results, the subjects in the PO group showed greater P300 amplitude, and shorter latency, for pleasant images compared with women in the EF group. Our results showed that the physiological hormonal fluctuation of estrogens during the menstrual cycle can influence memory, at the time of encoding, during the processing of emotional information. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the Treatment of Chronic Pelvic Pain in Women: What Is the Evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Sara; Carneiro, Márcia Mendonça

    2013-01-01

    Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) is defined as pain of at least 6 months' duration that occurs in the lower abdomen or below the umbilicus and has resulted in functional or psychological disability or required intervention and treatment. Therapeutic interventions center around the treatment of CPP as a diagnosis in and of itself, and treatment of specific disorders that may be related to CPP. A multidisciplinary approach for diagnosis and treatment seems to be most effective for symptomatic relief. This paper reviews the evidence for such interventions as psychological treatments including the use of complementary and alternative medicine techniques for CPP in women. Unfortunately, finding the best evidence in this setting is difficult as only very few randomized controlled trials are available. A combination of treatments is usually required over time for the treatment of refractory CPP. The multifactorial nature of CPP needs to be discussed with the patient and a good rapport as well as a partnership needs to be developed to plan a management program with regular followup. Promotion of a multidisciplinary approach which includes complementary and alternative medicine techniques in managing CPP in women seems to yield the best results.

  16. Evidence for an alternation strategy in time-place learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzo, Matthew J; Crystal, Jonathon D

    2004-11-30

    Many different conclusions concerning what type of mechanism rats use to solve a daily time-place task have emerged in the literature. The purpose of this study was to test three competing explanations of time-place discrimination. Rats (n = 10) were tested twice daily in a T-maze, separated by approximately 7 h. Food was available at one location in the morning and another location in the afternoon. After the rats learned to visit each location at the appropriate time, tests were omitted to evaluate whether the rats were utilizing time-of-day (i.e., a circadian oscillator) or an alternation strategy (i.e., visiting a correct location is a cue to visit the next location). Performance on this test was significantly lower than chance, ruling out the use of time-of-day. A phase advance of the light cycle was conducted to test the alternation strategy and timing with respect to the light cycle (i.e., an interval timer). There was no difference between probe and baseline performance. These results suggest that the rats used an alternation strategy to meet the temporal and spatial contingencies in the time-place task.

  17. Trends in mammography over time for women with and without chronic disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Kurtz, Stephen G; Rao, Sowmya R

    2015-07-01

    Women with disabilities often receive mammograms at lower rates than do nondisabled women, although this disparity varies by disability type and severity. Given the implementation of disability civil rights laws in the early 1990s, we examined whether disability disparities in mammogram use have diminished over time. We analyzed National Health Interview Survey responses of civilian, noninstitutionalized United States female residents 50 to 74 years old from selected years between 1998 and 2010. We identified seven chronic disability types using self-reported functional impairments, activity/participation limitations, and expected duration. We conducted bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses examining associations of self-reported mammogram use within the previous two years with sociodemographic factors and disability. Most chronic disability rates rose over time. The most common disability was movement difficulties, with rates increasing from 35.6% (1998) to 39.8% (2010). Mammogram rates for all women remained relatively stable over time, ranging from 72% to 75%. Bivariable analyses generally found statistically significantly lower mammogram rates for women with disability versus nondisabled women. Over time, disparities grew significantly between women with any basic action difficulty or complex activity limitation and nondisabled women (pdisability. Little has changed since 1998 in mammogram rates for women with versus without disabilities. Women with certain disabilities continue to experience disparities in mammography testing.

  18. Litigation and the Timing of Settlement: Evidence from Commercial Disputes

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Grajzl; Katarina Zajc

    2015-01-01

    Although an overwhelming proportion of all legal disputes end in settlement, the determinants of the timing of settlement remain empirically underexplored. We draw on a novel dataset on the duration of commercial disputes in Slovenia to study how the timing of settlement is shaped by the stages and features of the litigation process. Using competing risk regression analysis, we find that events such as court-annexed mediation and the first court session, which enable the disputing parties to ...

  19. Experimental evidence of enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baraik, Abhijit; Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have studied and verified experimentally the enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading Chua's circuits. The experiments have been carried out in a one dimensional array of Chua's circuits (2 to 8) coupled unidirectionally, such that each one acts as a master for the next one. By doing so, it has been observed that the anticipation time increases with an increase in the array size. Moreover, the numerical simulations of an array of eighty Chua's circuits verify the experimental observations.

  20. Engaging multilevel stakeholders in an implementation trial of evidence-based quality improvement in VA women's health primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Alison B; Brunner, Julian; Cain, Cindy; Chuang, Emmeline; Luger, Tana M; Canelo, Ismelda; Rubenstein, Lisa; Yano, Elizabeth M

    2017-09-01

    The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) has undertaken primary care transformation based on patient-centered medical home (PCMH) tenets. VHA PCMH models are designed for the predominantly male Veteran population, and require tailoring to meet women Veterans' needs. We used evidence-based quality improvement (EBQI), a stakeholder-driven implementation strategy, in a cluster randomized controlled trial across 12 sites (eight EBQI, four control) that are members of a Practice-Based Research Network. EBQI involves engaging multilevel, inter-professional leaders and staff as stakeholders in reviewing evidence and setting QI priorities. The goal of this analysis was to examine processes of engaging stakeholders in early implementation of EBQI to tailor VHA's medical home for women. Four inter-professional regional stakeholder planning meetings were conducted; these meetings engaged stakeholders by providing regional data about gender disparities in Veterans' care experiences. Subsequent to each meeting, qualitative interviews were conducted with 87 key stakeholders (leaders and staff). Stakeholders were asked to describe QI efforts and the use of data to change aspects of care, including women's health care. Interview transcripts were summarized and coded using a hybrid deductive/inductive analytic approach. The presentation of regional-level data about gender disparities resulted in heightened awareness and stakeholder buy-in and decision-making related to women's health-focused QI. Interviews revealed that stakeholders were familiar with QI, with regional and facility leaders aware of inter-disciplinary committees and efforts to foster organizational change, including PCMH transformation. These efforts did not typically focus on women's health, though some informal efforts had been undertaken. Barriers to engaging in QI included lack of communication across clinical service lines, fluidity in staffing, and lack of protected time. Inter-professional, multilevel

  1. Putting mental health on the agenda for HIV+ women: a review of evidence from sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, René

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the scientific literature regarding mental health services for poor HIV-infected women in sub-Saharan Africa and argues that they should constitute part of the healthcare agenda for these women. Key evidence points to the growing feminization of the HIV epidemic, as well as the differential social and economic impact of HIV on women. Further, HIV and poverty, both disproportionately affecting women, contribute independently and cumulatively to the risk for poor mental health. The limited empirical evidence regarding the mental health of this population is discussed. Multi-level psychosocial services, integrated within general health provision, are required to ensure long-term psychological benefits for HIV-infected women in the region.

  2. Experimental evidence of enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baraik, Abhijit; Singh, Harpartap; Parmananda, P.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied and verified experimentally the enhancement in the anticipation time by cascading Chua's circuits. The experiments have been carried out in a one dimensional array of Chua's circuits (2 to 8) coupled unidirectionally, such that each one acts as a master for the next one. By doing so, it has been observed that the anticipation time increases with an increase in the array size. Moreover, the numerical simulations of an array of eighty Chua's circuits verify the experimental observations.

  3. Determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal: Evidence from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahabuddin, ASM; De Brouwere, Vincent; Adhikari, Ramesh; Delamou, Alexandre; Bardaj, Azucena; Delvaux, Therese

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the determinants of institutional delivery among young married women in Nepal. Design Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) data sets 2011 were analysed. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed using a subset of 1662 ever-married young women (aged 15–24 years). Outcome measure Place of delivery. Results The rate of institutional delivery among young married women was 46%, which is higher than the national average (35%) among all women of reproductive age. Young women who had more than four antenatal care (ANC) visits were three times more likely to deliver in a health institution compared with women who had no antenatal care visit (OR: 3.05; 95% CI: 2.40 to 3.87). The probability of delivering in an institution was 69% higher among young urban women than among young women who lived in rural areas. Young women who had secondary or above secondary level education were 1.63 times more likely to choose institutional delivery than young women who had no formal education (OR: 1.626; 95% CI: 1.171 to 2.258). Lower use of a health institution for delivery was also observed among poor young women. Results showed that wealthy young women were 2.12 times more likely to deliver their child in an institution compared with poor young women (OR: 2.107; 95% CI: 1.53 to 2.898). Other factors such as the age of the young woman, religion, ethnicity, and ecological zone were also associated with institutional delivery. Conclusions Maternal health programs should be designed to encourage young women to receive adequate ANC (at least four visits). Moreover, health programs should target poor, less educated, rural, young women who live in mountain regions, are of Janajati ethnicity and have at least one child as such women are less likely to choose institutional delivery in Nepal. PMID:28408543

  4. Inter-generational co-residence and women's work and leisure time in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Diamond-Smith

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Labor force participation among women in Egypt remains low, and due to falling fertility and increases life expectancy, women in Egypt in the future may spend more time co-residing with aging in-laws. Past literature has suggested that co-residence in some settings allows women to enter the labor force more, as mother-in-laws help care for their grandchildren, or inhibits labor force participation when mother-in-laws reinforce traditional values. There is little research on co-residence and labor supply, or leisure time, in Egypt. Objective: This paper examines the role of intergenerational co-residence in women's work, work time, and leisure time using data on time allocation in Egypt. Methods: Data were collected from 548 women with a living mother-in-law: 291 co-residing their mother-in-law and 257 not. Survey data included work status, a 24-hour time diary, and a health assessment of the mother-in-law. Multivariate regression models predicted work, work time, and leisure time use using standard models. Results: Co-residing with a disabled mother-in-law was associated with decreased odds of women working and fewer minutes spent working a day. Leisure time was not associated with the co-residence and disability status of a mother-in-law. Factors related to couples' relationships and the woman's views on gender norms were also associated with women working. Conclusions: Co-residence appears to be associated with women's work, depending on the disability status of the co-residing mother-in-law. If increased life expectancy is associated with more time spent in a disabled state for mothers-in-law, this could put downward pressure on women's work in this setting.

  5. Daily internet time: towards an evidence-based recommendation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, André; Akre, Christina; Barrense-Dias, Yara; Zimmermann, Grégoire; Surís, Joan-Carles

    2018-04-17

    Since 2001, a recommendation of no more than 2 h per day of screen time for children 2 years of age or older was adopted in many countries. However, this recommendation was rarely examined empirically. The goal of the present study was to question this recommendation in today's connected world. We used data from the ado@internet.ch survey (spring 2012), a representative sample of 8th graders in the Canton of Vaud, Switzerland (n = 2942, 50.6% female). Internet use, health outcomes, substance use, well-being and socio-demographic characteristics were considered. Bi-variate statistical analyses were performed. All outcomes were significantly associated with the time spent on internet, more time being associated with a higher prevalence of adverse consequences. Youth spending on average one more hour on Internet per day than the reference category (1.5-2.5 h) did not differ in terms of adverse health outcomes. Differences began to appear on sleeping problems, tobacco use, alcohol misuse, cannabis use and sport inactivity with youth spending between 3.5 h and 4.5 h per day on internet. This study demonstrates the absence of justification for setting a limit to only 2 h of screen time per day. Significant effects on health seem to appear only beyond 4 h per day and there may be benefits for those who spend less than an hour and a half on internet.

  6. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-03-27

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits related to this shorter preoperative fasting include the reduction of postoperative gastrointestinal discomfort and insulin resistance. New formulas containing amino acids such as glutamine and other peptides are being studied and are promising candidates to be used to reduce preoperative fasting time.

  7. Self-managed working time and employee effort: Microeconometric evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Beckmann, Michael; Cornelissen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Based on German individual-level panel data, this paper empirically examines the impact of self-managed working time (SMWT) on employee effort. Theoretically, workers may respond positively or negatively to having control over their own working hours, depending on whether SMWT increases work morale, induces reciprocal work intensification, or encourages employee shirking. We find that SMWT employees exert higher effort levels than employees with fixed working hours, but after accounting for o...

  8. DETERMINANTS OF LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY: EVIDENCE FROM MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    YONG KANG CHEAH; ANDREW K. G. TAN

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines how socio-demographic and health-lifestyle factors determine participation and duration of leisure-time physical activity in Malaysia. Based on the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 data, Heckman's sample selection model is employed to estimate the probability to participate and duration on physical activity. Results indicate that gender, age, years of education and family illness history are significant in explaining participation probability in leisure-tim...

  9. Reducing preoperative fasting time: A trend based on evidence

    OpenAIRE

    de Aguilar-Nascimento, José Eduardo; Dock-Nascimento, Diana Borges

    2010-01-01

    Preoperative fasting is mandatory before anesthesia to reduce the risk of aspiration. However, the prescribed 6-8 h of fasting is usually prolonged to 12-16 h for various reasons. Prolonged fasting triggers a metabolic response that precipitates gluconeogenesis and increases the organic response to trauma. Various randomized trials and meta-analyses have consistently shown that is safe to reduce the preoperative fasting time with a carbohydrate-rich drink up to 2 h before surgery. Benefits re...

  10. Elements affecting wound healing time: An evidence based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Hanan; Cullen, Marianne; Chambers, Helen; Carroll, Matthew; Walker, Judi

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the predominant client factors and comorbidities that affected the time taken for wounds to heal. A prospective study design used the Mobile Wound Care (MWC) database to capture and collate detailed medical histories, comorbidities, healing times and consumable costs for clients with wounds in Gippsland, Victoria. There were 3,726 wounds documented from 2,350 clients, so an average of 1.6 wounds per client. Half (49.6%) of all clients were females, indicating that there were no gender differences in terms of wound prevalence. The clients were primarily older people, with an average age of 64.3 years (ranging between 0.7 and 102.9 years). The majority of the wounds (56%) were acute and described as surgical, crush and trauma. The MWC database categorized the elements that influenced wound healing into 3 groups--factors affecting healing (FAH), comorbidities, and medications known to affect wound healing. While there were a multitude of significant associations, multiple linear regression identified the following key elements: age over 65 years, obesity, nonadherence to treatment plan, peripheral vascular disease, specific wounds associated with pressure/friction/shear, confirmed infection, and cerebrovascular accident (stroke). Wound healing is a complex process that requires a thorough understanding of influencing elements to improve healing times.© 2015 by the Wound Healing Society. © 2015 by the Wound Healing Society.

  11. Systematic review of the economic evidence on home visitation programmes for vulnerable pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamuli, Eugena; Richardson, Gerry; Duffy, Steven; Robling, Michael; Hood, Kerry

    2015-09-01

    A systematic review of the economic evidence on home visitation programmes for young or vulnerable pregnant women was undertaken to provide a summary of the existing literature of these interventions. Relevant studies were identified from a number of sources including large databases, free text search on Google Scholar as well as hand-searching of the obtained references. The search yielded a large number of papers, of which 12 were considered appropriate to be included in the review. These were either full or partial economic evaluations: four studies were cost-benefit analyses, three were cost-effectiveness analyses and the remaining were costing studies. The review highlighted the paucity of good quality economic evaluations in the area of home visiting programmes for young or vulnerable pregnant women. Methods varied substantially between the studies spanning from differing data sources (e.g. single randomized trials or meta-analyses) to different perspectives taken, cost items and outcomes included in the analysis. It is difficult to establish a coherent body of economic evidence for these interventions and draw a firm conclusion on their value for money. Home visiting programmes are complex interventions, with impact on the lives of mothers and their children. The funding of such interventions should be based on rigorous effectiveness and economic evidence. There is a need for well-designed economic evaluations which will follow the appropriate methodological guidelines and also take into account the complexity of such interventions. These analyses should preferably consider multiple perspectives and allow for the fact that the majority of the benefits accrue in the long-term future. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Pre- and Postnatal Women's Leisure Time Physical Activity Patterns: A Multilevel Longitudinal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G.; Bray, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine women's leisure time physical activity (LTPA) before pregnancy, during pregnancy, and through the first 7 months postnatal. Pre- and postnatal women (n = 309) completed the 12-month Modifiable Activity Questionnaire and demographic information. Multilevel modeling was used to estimate a growth curve…

  13. Time trends in births and cesarean deliveries among women with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner-Johnson, Willi; Biel, Frances M; Darney, Blair G; Caughey, Aaron B

    2017-07-01

    Although it is likely that childbearing among women with disabilities is increasing, no empirical data have been published on changes over time in the numbers of women with disabilities giving birth. Further, while it is known that women with disabilities are at increased risk of cesarean delivery, temporal trends in cesarean deliveries among women with disabilities have not been examined. To assess time trends in births by any mode and in primary cesarean deliveries among women with physical, sensory, or intellectual/developmental disabilities. We conducted a retrospective cohort study using linked vital records and hospital discharge data from all deliveries in California, 2000-2010 (n = 4,605,061). We identified women with potential disabilities using ICD-9 codes. We used descriptive statistics and visualizations to examine time patterns. Logistic regression analyses assessed the association between disability and primary cesarean delivery, stratified by year. Among all women giving birth, the proportion with a disability increased from 0.27% in 2000 to 0.80% in 2010. Women with disabilities had significantly elevated odds of primary cesarean delivery in each year, but the magnitude of the odds ratio decreased over time from 2.60 (95% CI = 2.25 = 2.99) in 2000 to 1.66 (95% CI = 1.51-1.81) in 2010. Adequate clinician training is needed to address the perinatal care needs of the increasing numbers of women with disabilities giving birth. Continued efforts to understand cesarean delivery patterns and reasons for cesarean deliveries may help guide further reductions in proportions of cesarean deliveries among women with disabilities relative to women without disabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Jumps and stochastic volatility in oil prices: Time series evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, Karl; Nossman, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine the empirical performance of affine jump diffusion models with stochastic volatility in a time series study of crude oil prices. We compare four different models and estimate them using the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method. The support for a stochastic volatility model including jumps in both prices and volatility is strong and the model clearly outperforms the others in terms of a superior fit to data. Our estimation method allows us to obtain a detailed study of oil prices during two periods of extreme market stress included in our sample; the Gulf war and the recent financial crisis. We also address the economic significance of model choice in two option pricing applications. The implied volatilities generated by the different estimated models are compared and we price a real option to develop an oil field. Our findings indicate that model choice can have a material effect on the option values.

  16. Women in post-trafficking services in moldova: diagnostic interviews over two time periods to assess returning women's mental health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorceag Lilia T

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Trafficking in women is a widespread human rights violation commonly associated with poor mental health. Yet, to date, no studies have used psychiatric diagnostic assessment to identify common forms of mental distress among survivors returning to their home country. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted of women aged 18 and over who returned to Moldova between December 2007 and December 2008 registered by the International Organisation for Migration as a survivor of human trafficking. Psychiatric diagnoses in women at a mean of 6 months after return (range 2-12 months were made by a trained Moldavian psychiatrist using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and compared with diagnoses recorded in the same women within 5 days of return. We described the socio-demographic characteristics of the women in the sample including both pre and post-trafficking information. We then described the distribution of mental health diagnoses recorded during the crisis intervention phase (1-5 days after return and the re-integration phase (2-12 months after return. We compared diagnoses at the patient level between the two time points by tabulating the diagnoses and carrying out a kappa test of agreement and the Stuart-Maxwell test for marginal homogeneity (an extension of the McNemar test to kxk table. Results 120/176 (68% eligible women participated. At 2-12 months after their return, 54% met criteria for at least one psychiatric diagnoses comprising post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD alone (16%; co-morbid PTSD (20%; other anxiety or mood disorder (18%. 85% of women who had been diagnosed in the crisis phase with co-morbid PTSD or with another anxiety or mood disorder sustained a diagnosis of any psychiatric disorder when followed up during rehabilitation. Conclusions Trafficked women returning to their country of origin are likely to suffer serious psychological distress that may endure well beyond the time they return. Women

  17. 45-Year trends in women's use of time and household management energy expenditure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Archer

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Relationships between socio-environmental factors and obesity are poorly understood due to a dearth of longitudinal population-level research. The objective of this analysis was to examine 45-year trends in time-use, household management (HM and energy expenditure in women. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Using national time-use data from women 19-64 years of age, we quantified time allocation and household management energy expenditure (HMEE from 1965 to 2010. HM was defined as the sum of time spent in food preparation, post-meal cleaning activities (e.g., dish-washing, clothing maintenance (e.g., laundry, and general housework. HMEE was calculated using body weights from national surveys and metabolic equivalents. RESULTS: The time allocated to HM by women (19-64 yrs decreased from 25.7 hr/week in 1965 to 13.3 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women decreasing by 16.6 hr/week and employed women by 6.7 hr/week (P<0.001. HMEE for non-employed women decreased 42% from 25.1 Mj/week (6004 kilocalories per week in 1965 to 14.6 Mj/week (3486 kcal/week in 2010, a decrement of 10.5 Mj/week or 1.5 Mj/day (2518 kcal/week; 360 kcal/day (P<0.001, whereas employed women demonstrated a 30% decrement of 3.9 Mj/week, 0.55 Mj/day (923 kcal/week, 132 kcal/day (P<0.001. The time women spent in screen-based media use increased from 8.3 hr/week in 1965 to 16.5 hr/week in 2010 (P<0.001, with non-employed women increasing 9.6 hr/week and employed women 7.5 hr/week (P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: From 1965 to 2010, there was a large and significant decrease in the time allocated to HM. By 2010, women allocated 25% more time to screen-based media use than HM (i.e., cooking, cleaning, and laundry combined. The reallocation of time from active pursuits (i.e., housework to sedentary pastimes (e.g., watching TV has important health consequences. These results suggest that the decrement in HMEE may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of obesity in women during

  18. The association between Vitamin D and health outcomes in women: A review on the related evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Ramezani Jolfaie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vitamin D has a wide range of physiological functions in skeletal and nonskeletal tissues which may play a role in many diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the recent evidence regarding the effects of Vitamin D on several health outcomes in women including breast cancer, ovarian and endometrial cancers, hypertension, and osteoporosis. Materials and Methods: We searched PubMed and Google Scholar databases through March 2016. We included the most current systematic reviews and meta-analyses assessing the associations of Vitamin D intake and/or serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD levels with the risk of incidence of breast cancer, ovarian and endometrial cancers, hypertension, and osteoporosis. Results: Many studies have represented that Vitamin D supplementation and high 25(OHD levels can decrease the risk of breast cancer occurrence or mortality. However, there is no strong evidence to support the existence of a relationship between Vitamin D and ovarian or endometrial cancers. Furthermore, the results regarding the effects of Vitamin D on hypertension were inconsistent. Although observational studies have shown an association between Vitamin D and hypertension, there is no evidence regarding effectiveness of Vitamin D in lowering blood pressure in several clinical trials. On the other hand, the findings associating the impact of Vitamin D on osteoporosis were more definitive and most studies have represented that Vitamin D may have beneficial effects on osteoporosis. Conclusion: Although the adequate Vitamin D level can play a protective role in the incidence and development of breast cancer, hypertension, and osteoporosis, there is limited evidence regarding ovarian and endometrial cancers.

  19. Strategies for improving the lives of US women aged 40 and above living with HIV/AIDS: an evidence map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Gaelen P; Di, Mengyang; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Halladay, Christopher; Smith, Bryant T; Iyer, Suchitra; Trikalinos, Thomas A

    2018-02-02

    While in its early years the HIV epidemic affected primarily the male and the young, nowadays, the population living with HIV/AIDS is approximately 24% women, and its age composition has shifted towards older ages. Many of the older women who live with HIV/AIDS also live with the medical and social conditions that accompany aging. This work aims to identify and characterize empirical studies of strategies for the comprehensive management of women over 40, including transgender women, who live with HIV/AIDS. Forty was chosen as an operational age cutoff to identify premenopausal women who are less likely to bear children, as well as peri- and postmenopausal women. We conducted a literature search after discussions with a diverse panel of content experts and other stakeholders and developed an evidence map that identified 890 citations that address questions having to do with programs and barriers to engaging with programs, as well as the role of insurance and comorbidities, and have enrolled older women who live with HIV/AIDS. Of these, only 37 (4%) reported results of interest for women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS, or examined interactions between gender and older age that would allow predictions in this subgroup. Few of the 37 eligible studies focused on women facing obvious challenges, such as immigrants, transgender, physically abused, or those recently released from prison. No studies focused on women caring for dependents, including children and grandchildren, or those diagnosed after age 40. The evidence base that is directly applicable to women over 40 who live with HIV/AIDS in the USA is limited, and the research need is broad. We propose research prioritization strategies for this population.

  20. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  1. Status, Caste, and the Time Allocation of Women in Rural India

    OpenAIRE

    Mukesh Eswaran; Bharat Ramaswami; Wilima Wadhwa

    2013-01-01

    We argue that women may be disinclined to participate in market work in the rural areas of India because of family status concerns in a culture that stigmatizes market work by married women. We set out a theoretical framework that offers predictions regarding the effects of caste-based status concerns on the time allocation of women. We then use the all-India National Sample Survey data for the year 2004-5 and the Time Use Survey for six states of India for the year 1998-99 to empirically tes...

  2. Psycho-social influences upon older women's decision to attend cervical screening: A review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Kirsty A; Moss, Esther; Redman, Charles W E; Sherman, Susan M

    2017-08-01

    Cervical cancer is the fourth most common cancer in women worldwide (WHO, 2016). In many developed countries the incidence of cervical cancer has been significantly reduced by the introduction of organised screening programmes however, in the UK, a fall in screening coverage is becoming a cause for concern. Much research attention has been afforded to younger women but age stratified mortality and incidence data suggest that older women's screening attendance is also worthy of study. This paper provides a review of current evidence concerning the psycho-social influences that older women experience when deciding whether to attend cervical screening. Few studies have focussed on older women and there are significant methodological issues with those that have included them in their samples. Findings from these studies indicate several barriers which may deter older women from screening, such as embarrassment and logistical issues. Drivers to screening include reassurance and a sense of obligation. Physical, social and emotional changes that occur as women age may also have an impact on attendance. This review concludes that there is a clear need for better understanding of the perceptions of older women specifically with regard to cervical cancer and screening. Future research should inform the design of targeted interventions and provision of information to enable informed decision-making regarding cervical screening among older women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Wealth in Middle and Later Life: Examining the Life Course Timing of Women's Health Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Lindsay R; Ferraro, Kenneth F; Mustillo, Sarah A

    2018-06-04

    Guided by cumulative inequality theory, this study poses two main questions: (a) Does women's poor health compromise household financial assets? (b) If yes, is wealth sensitive to the timing of women's health limitations? In addressing these questions, we consider the effect of health limitations on wealth at older ages, as well as examine how health limitations influence wealth over particular segments of the life course, giving attention to both the onset and duration of health limitations. Using 36 years of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Mature Women, piecewise growth curve and linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of life course timing and duration of health limitations on household wealth. The findings reveal that women who experienced health limitations accumulated substantially less wealth over time, especially if the health limitations were manifest during childhood or early adulthood. This study identifies how early-life health problems lead to less wealth in later life.

  4. Travel time and attrition from VHA care among women veterans: how far is too far?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sarah A; Frayne, Susan M; Berg, Eric; Hamilton, Alison B; Washington, Donna L; Saechao, Fay; Maisel, Natalya C; Lin, Julia Y; Hoggatt, Katherine J; Phibbs, Ciaran S

    2015-04-01

    Travel time, an access barrier, may contribute to attrition of women veterans from Veterans Health Administration (VHA) care. We examined whether travel time influences attrition: (a) among women veterans overall, (b) among new versus established patients, and (c) among rural versus urban patients. This retrospective cohort study used logistic regression to estimate the association between drive time and attrition, overall and for new/established and rural/urban patients. In total, 266,301 women veteran VHA outpatients in the Fiscal year 2009. An "attriter" did not return for VHA care during the second through third years after her first 2009 visit (T0). Drive time (log minutes) was between the patient's residence and her regular source of VHA care. "New" patients had no VHA visits within 3 years before T0. Models included age, service-connected disability, health status, and utilization as covariates. Overall, longer drive times were associated with higher odds of attrition: drive time adjusted odds ratio=1.11 (99% confidence interval, 1.09-1.14). The relationship between drive time and attrition was stronger among new patients but was not modified by rurality. Attrition among women veterans is sensitive to longer drive time. Linking new patients to VHA services designed to reduce distance barriers (telemedicine, community-based clinics, mobile clinics) may reduce attrition among women new to VHA.

  5. Association of the Timing of Pregnancy With Survival in Women With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javaid; Amir, Eitan; Rochon, Paula A.; Giannakeas, Vasily; Sun, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Importance Increasing numbers of women experience pregnancy around the time of, or after, a diagnosis of breast cancer. Understanding the effect of pregnancy on survival in women with breast cancer will help in the counseling and treatment of these women. Objective To compare the overall survival of women diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy or in the postpartum period with that of women who had breast cancer but did not become pregnant. Design, Setting, and Participants This population-based, retrospective cohort study linked health administrative databases in Ontario, Canada, comprising 7553 women aged 20 to 45 years at the time of diagnosis with invasive breast cancer, from January 1, 2003, to December 31, 2014. Exposures Any pregnancy in the period from 5 years before, until 5 years after, the index date of the diagnosis of breast cancer. Women were classified into the following 4 exposure groups: no pregnancy (the referent), pregnancy before breast cancer, pregnancy-associated breast cancer, and pregnancy following breast cancer. Main Outcomes and Measures Five-year actuarial survival rates for all exposure groups, age-adjusted and multivariable hazard ratios [HRs] of pregnancy for overall survival for all exposure groups, and time-dependent hazard ratios for women with pregnancy following breast cancer. Results Among the 7553 women in the study (mean age at diagnosis, 39.1 years; median, 40 years; range, 20-44 years) the 5-year actuarial survival rate was 87.5% (95% CI, 86.5%-88.4%) for women with no pregnancy, 85.3% (95% CI, 82.8%-87.8%) for women with pregnancy before breast cancer (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.85-1.27; P = .73), and 82.1% (95% CI, 78.3%-85.9%) for women with pregnancy-associated breast cancer (age-adjusted hazard ratio, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.91-1.53; P = .20). The 5-year actuarial survival rate was 96.7% (95% CI, 94.1%-99.3%) for women who had pregnancy 6 months or more after diagnosis of breast cancer, vs 87

  6. Impact of Azithromycin on Pregnancy Prolongation in Women at Risk of Preterm Labor: A Time-to-Event Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyer, Isabelle; Ferland, Gabrielle; Ruo, Ni; Morin, Caroline; Brochet, Marie-Sophie; Morin, Lucie; Ferreira, Ema

    2016-09-13

    Since 2006, the empiric use of azithromycin in women at risk of premature birth has become prevalent in our institution without any evidence of its efficacy. Although antibiotics can prolong pregnancy in preterm prolonged rupture of membranes, no published data are available for women with intact membranes. To describe the purpose of adding azithromycin to the usual treatments (cerclage, tocolysis, rest, etc.) to prolong pregnancy in women with intact membranes who are at risk of or already in preterm labour. A retrospective observational cohort study was done at a Mother-Child University Hospital Centre. Patients admitted to obstetric ward who received azithromycin between January 1 st , 2006 and August 1 st , 2010 were included. A total of 127 exposed women were matched to 127 controls through medical records and pharmacy software. A time-to-event analysis was done to compare gestational age at the time of the recorded composite event (delivery, or rupture of membranes, or second intervention to prolong pregnancy). To compare proportions of composite event at different time points, χ 2 tests were used. Patients who received azithromycin had a more severe condition at presentation. Once adjusted for confounding factors, prolongation of pregnancy (HR =1.049; CI 95%: 0.774-1.421 [p=0.758]) and gestational age at the event (HR=1.200; CI 95%: 0.894-1.609 [p=0.225]) did not differ between the groups. The proportions of women with an event ≥7 days post-diagnosis or ≥37 gestational weeks were similar. Azithromycin was added to medical therapy in a more at-risk population and no clear benefit was measured.

  7. Does Time Matter? – A Study of Participation of Women in Urban Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riya Banerjee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Time is an important aspect of present day life. Everyone tries to manage time in their daily lives, but women often face many hurdles in this respect. They work in their homes as well as in the public sphere, which doubles their actual workload. Their responsibilities increase further when women are engaged in the field of governance as local representatives. The work of a local representative is considered as a 24×7 thankless job in the Indian context, and women councillors (WCs have to work just as hard as the men. However, in the domestic sphere, because of gendered nature of household chores, women still tend to do more work than men. Due to this reason, women have to manage their time in order to provide better services to the citizens and ensure that their household duties are completed flawlessly. This paper raises the issues related to such management of time by the elected women in the urban governance of West Bengal. The issues are: first, the duration of work as a councillor and its relation with the honorarium they receive; second, the extent to which their household work hinders their path to creating their identity in urban governance; and third, the degree to which these two activities influence the quality of their leisure time. In 1995, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP developed a methodology to analyse the value of time based on the time-use activities. This research underpins this methodology to justify the unpaid and underpaid work of the WCs as well as their management of time between indoor and outdoor activities. The primary data was collected by conducting individual interviews with 38 women councillors in the four selected small cities (Darjeeling, Balurghat, Raniganj and Chinsurah of West Bengal.

  8. Time-Saving Innovations, Time Allocation, and Energy Use: Evidence from Canadian Households

    OpenAIRE

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise

    2009-01-01

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. The introduction of time-saving innovations allows households to change their activity patterns and to reallocate their time across competing activities. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to have a two-fold impact on energy use in the residential sector. Firstly, increased use of time-saving technologies for basic household chores (cooking, ...

  9. Timing of return to work and women's breastfeeding practices in urban Malaysia: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Zaharah; Liamputtong, Pranee; Amir, Lisa H

    2018-01-01

    Nearly half of the working population in Malaysia are women, and with only a short period of maternity leave, they may struggle to achieve the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. The aim of this paper was to explore the relationship between the timing of return to work and beliefs and breastfeeding practices among women in urban Malaysia. A qualitative inquiry based on a phenomenological framework and multiple methods was used: face-to-face interview, participant diary and researcher field notes. Data collection took place in Penang and the Klang Valley, Malaysia, from March to September 2011. Eligible participants were purposely identified at randomly selected recruitment sites. A thematic analysis method was used to develop the typologies and categories of the findings. A total of 40 working women with a mean age of 32 years (SD 3.4) were interviewed and 15 participated in the diary writing. Most women (75%) returned to work between 2 and 3 months. Only 10% returned to work 4 months or later postpartum, and 15% had an early return to work (defined here as less than 2 months). The women fell into three groups: Passionate women with a strong determination to breastfeed, who exclusively breastfed for 6 months; Ambivalent women, who commenced breastfeeding but were unable to sustain this after returning to work; and Equivalent women, who perceived formula feeding as equally nutritious as breast milk. Although longer maternity leave was very important for Ambivalent women to maintain breastfeeding, it was not as important for the Equivalent or Passionate women. In conclusion, returning earlier was not an absolute barrier to continuing breastfeeding. Instead, a woman's beliefs and perceptions of breastfeeding were more important than the timing of her return to work in determining her ability to maintain breastfeeding or breast milk feeding. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. EVIDENCE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN ENTREPRENEURS IN BRAZIL: AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea E. Smith-Hunter; Joshua Leone

    2010-01-01

    Interest in women entrepreneurs from various backgrounds and perspectives have led to increased publication in the literature about women entrepreneur issues. However many questions remain unanswered. This article aims to answer some of these questions by providing another perspective on women entrepreneurs. Specifically this study examines women entrepreneurs from Brasil, using a sample across racial lines. The article examines the characteristics of women entrepreneurs across three key cate...

  11. Practice of leisure-time physical activities and episodes of mood alteration amongst men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Jerônimo Costa; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean Pierre; de Mattos Souza, Luciano Dias; da Silva Alves, Giovanna Del Grande; Lara, Diogo Rizzato; da Silva, Ricardo Azevedo

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and episodes of mood alteration in a population-based sample of adults, and its relation with gender. This is a cross-sectional population-based study with young adults aged between 18 and 35 years old. Sample selection was performed by clusters. The practice of physical activity was evaluated through the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), whereas mood disorders were evaluated using a short structured diagnostic interview-the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) for DSM-IV and ICD-10 psychiatric disorders. Causal inferences are limited due the study׳s design. Sample consisted of 1953 young adults. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity and of depressive episodes in the total sample was 25.3% and 17.2%, respectively. The prevalence of activity amongst men was 1.18 (CI 95% 1.18-1.32) times higher than in the women׳s group, whereas depression was 1.87 (CI 95% 1.41-2.47) times more prevalent amongst women than men. The prevalence of physical activity was not different between women (p=0.287), nor between men (p=0.895) regarding the presence of mania/hypomania episode. The prevalence of physical activity and depression was different concerning gender. The prevalence of physical activity is lower amongst women, whereas the prevalence of depression is higher amongst women when compared to men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Links Between Education and Age at Marriage among Palestinian Women in Israel: Changes Over Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing. © 2017 The Population Council, Inc.

  13. Prospective and retrospective time perception are related to mental time travel: evidence from Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Haj, Mohamad; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine; Fasotti, Luciano; Allain, Philippe

    2013-10-01

    Unlike prospective time perception paradigms, in which participants are aware that they have to estimate forthcoming time, little is known about retrospective time perception in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our paper addresses this shortcoming by comparing prospective and retrospective time estimation in younger adults, older adults, and AD patients. In four prospective tasks (lasting 30s, 60s, 90s, or 120s) participants were asked to read a series of numbers and to provide a verbal estimation of the reading time. In four other retrospective tasks, they were not informed about time judgment until they were asked to provide a verbal estimation of four elapsed time intervals (lasting 30s, 60s, 90s, or 120s). AD participants gave shorter verbal time estimations than older adults and younger participants did, suggesting that time is perceived to pass quickly in these patients. For all participants, the duration of the retrospective tasks was underestimated as compared to the prospective tasks and both estimations were shorter than the real time interval. Prospective time estimation was further correlated with mental time travel, as measured with the Remember/Know paradigm. Mental time travel was even higher correlated with retrospective time estimation. Our findings shed light on the relationship between time perception and the ability to mentally project oneself into time, two skills contributing to human memory functioning. Finally, time perception deficits, as observed in AD patients, can be interpreted in terms of dramatic changes occurring in frontal lobes and hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Alvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-06-20

    To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Cross-sectional study. Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (-6.6 min and -7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, 30 kg/m(2); p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (pfibromyalgia.

  15. Part-time Work, Wages and Productivity:Evidence from Belgian Matched Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Garnero, Andrea; Kampelmann, Stephan; Rycx, François

    2013-01-01

    The authors use matched employer-employee panel data on Belgian private-sector firms to estimate the relationship between wage/productivity differentials and the firm’s labor composition in terms of part-time and sex. Findings suggest that the groups of women and part-timers generate employer rents, but also that the origin of these rents differs (relatively lower wages for women, relatively higher productivity for part-timers). Interactions between gender and part-time suggest that the posit...

  16. Time-saving innovations, time allocation, and energy use. Evidence from Canadian households

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brencic, Vera; Young, Denise [University of Alberta, 8-14 HM Tory, Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2009-09-15

    Time and energy are major inputs into the production of household goods and services. As a result, the market penetration of time-saving technologies for general household use is expected to affect both a household's (1) allocation of time across home production and leisure activities; and (2) energy use. For example, with a household's adoption of a microwave or a dishwasher, cooking food and washing dishes will require less time, and therefore in-home meal preparation may increase. Households with microwaves or dishwashers may also opt to spend more time undertaking other production activities, inside or outside the home, or engage in more leisure (watching TV, reading, exercising). To the extent that time is reallocated from less to more energy-intensive activities in the home, residential energy use will increase as households adopt appliances that embody time-saving technology. Furthermore, an adoption of time-saving technologies for basic household chores, such as meal preparation and laundry, can impact energy use due to the fact that many time-saving technologies are more energy intensive than alternative technologies that require larger time commitments. In this paper, we use the Canadian Survey of Household Energy Use data from 2003 to examine the extent to which ownership of products that embody time-saving innovations affects time allocation and energy use at the household level. (author)

  17. Sports and leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Ottesen, Bent; Dykes, Anna-Karin; Kjaergaard, Hanne

    2011-08-01

    To describe patterns of leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in relation to pre-pregnancy leisure time physical activity, socio-demographic characteristics, fertility history, and lifestyle factors. 4,718 nulliparous with singleton pregnancy and intended spontaneous vaginal delivery were included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity was categorised into four categories: competitive sport, moderate-to-heavy, light or sedentary. In this population of nulliparous women, 4% participated in competitive sport, 25% in moderate-to-heavy activities, 66% in light activities, and 5% in sedentary activities in the year prior to pregnancy. Physical activity before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with age, pre-pregnancy BMI, chronic diseases, number of years at school, and smoking habits. The proportion of women who took part in competitive sports, and moderate-to-heavy activities decreased over the three trimesters of pregnancy. The proportion of women with light physical activity was stable during pregnancy while the proportion of women with sedentary activity increased from 6% to 29%. During the third trimester women performing competitive sports or moderate-to-heavy activities before pregnancy continued to have a higher level of physical activity than women with light activities or sedentary activities before pregnancy. In general the intensity and time spent on exercise decreased during pregnancy. Women with the highest level of exercise prior to pregnancy continued to be the most active during pregnancy. Among women with sedentary activities before pregnancy one-fourth changed to light activity during pregnancy.

  18. Determinants of sports, cycling, walking and overall leisure-time physical activity among postmenopausal women in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steindorf, Karen; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Schmidt, Martina E

    2010-11-01

    Convincing evidence exists for a beneficial effect of physical activity (PA) on health and well-being for elderly women. Nevertheless, many women in Germany are insufficiently physically active. Activity promotion programmes should target women in particular need. Thus, we examined subject-related determinants of PA for postmenopausal women in Germany. Associations of sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health-related factors with activity since the age of 50 years were assessed with multiple linear and logistic regression models, regarding overall leisure-time PA (LPA) in metabolic equivalent hours per week, engagement in sports (ever v. never), cycling (yes v. no) and walking (≥3·5 v. sports, cycling and walking in postmenopausal years with several characteristics, among others: obese v. normal BMI (adjusted OR: ORsports = 0·73; ORcycling = 0·60; ORwalking = 0·63), tall v. short (ORsports = 1·49), worker v. medium employee (ORsports = 0·47), working full time v. unemployed/retired (ORsports = 0·80; ORwalking = 0·56), current v. non-smoker (ORsports = 0·62; ORcycling = 0·62; ORwalking = 0·82), non-German nationality (ORsports = 0·58; ORcycling = 0·41). Parity seemed more relevant than marital status for sports or cycling activity. Further, CVD, hypertension and diabetes were significantly associated with lower activity (ORsports = 0·77, 0·79 and 0·80; ORcycling = 0·80, 0·75 and 0·85, respectively). Our results suggest potential target groups for promoting sports, cycling or walking activity. Postmenopausal women with chronic diseases may need to be stronger encouraged by their physicians to engage in adequate PA for the management of their diseases.

  19. Space-time interdependence: evidence against asymmetric mapping between time and space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhenguang G; Connell, Louise

    2015-03-01

    Time and space are intimately related, but what is the real nature of this relationship? Is time mapped metaphorically onto space such that effects are always asymmetric (i.e., space affects time more than time affects space)? Or do the two domains share a common representational format and have the ability to influence each other in a flexible manner (i.e., time can sometimes affect space more than vice versa)? In three experiments, we examined whether spatial representations from haptic perception, a modality of relatively low spatial acuity, would lead the effect of time on space to be substantially stronger than the effect of space on time. Participants touched (but could not see) physical sticks while listening to an auditory note, and then reproduced either the length of the stick or the duration of the note. Judgements of length were affected by concurrent stimulus duration, but not vice versa. When participants were allowed to see as well as touch the sticks, however, the higher acuity of visuohaptic perception caused the effects to converge so length and duration influenced each other to a similar extent. These findings run counter to the spatial metaphor account of time, and rather support the spatial representation account in which time and space share a common representational format and the directionality of space-time interaction depends on the perceptual acuity of the modality used to perceive space. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Engaging Men as Social Justice Allies in Ending Violence against Women: Evidence for a Social Norms Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano, Patricia M.; Perkins, H. Wesley; Berkowitz, Alan; Linkenbach, Jeff; Stark, Christopher

    2003-01-01

    The field of sexual assault prevention is shifting attention to educational interventions that address the role of men in ending violence against women. Recent studies document the often-misperceived norms men hold about other men's endorsement of rape-supportive attitudes and behaviors. The authors provide further evidence supporting the design…

  1. Time and travel costs incurred by women attending antenatal tests: A costing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Daley, Rebecca; Vallejo-Torres, Laura; Chitty, Lyn S; Morris, Stephen

    2016-09-01

    to estimate the costs to women, their friends and family for different antenatal tests in the Down's syndrome (DS) screening pathway. questionnaire-based costing study. eight maternity clinics across the UK. pregnant women (n=574) attending an appointment for DS screening, NIPT or invasive testing between December 2013 and September 2014. using data collected from the questionnaires we calculated the total costs to women by multiplying the time spent at the hospital and travelling to and from it by the opportunity costs of the women and accompanying person and adding travel and childcare costs. Assumptions about the value of opportunity costs were tested in one-way sensitivity analyses. The main outcome measure was the mean cost to the women and friends/family for each test (DS screening, NIPT, and invasive testing). mean costs to women and their family/friend were £33.96 per visit, of which £22.47 were time costs, £9.15 were travel costs and £2.34 were childcare costs. Costs were lowest for NIPT (£22), £32 for DS screening (£44 if combined with NIPT), and highest for invasive testing (£60). Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations around the value of leisure time opportunity costs had the largest influence on the results. there are considerable costs to women, their friends and family when attending different tests in the DS screening pathway. when assessing the cost-effectiveness of changes to this pathway, costs to women should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Child Care Time, Parents’ Well-Being, and Gender: Evidence from the American Time Use Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeters, Anne; Gracia, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    This study used data from the ‘Well Being Module’ of the 2010 American Time Use Survey (N = 1699) to analyze how parents experience child care time in terms of meaning and stress levels. Multivariate multilevel regressions showed clear differences by gender and the circumstances of child care

  3. A time for psycho-spiritual transcendence: The experiences of Iranian women of pain during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizdeh, Z; Ebadi, A; Dehghani, M; Gharacheh, M; Yadollahi, P

    2017-12-01

    The description of women's experiences of childbirth improves our understandings of the nature of childbirth, women's suffering and pain during childbirth. This study aimed to explore women's experiences of pain during childbirth. A qualitative study was conducted using a conventional content analysis method proposed by Graneheim and Lundman (2004). In-depth face to face semi-structured interviews were held with 17 women who met inclusion criteria for participation in this study. The women's experiences of pain during childbirth was described as 'a time for psycho-spiritual transcendence'. Categories developed during the data analysis were 'conflicting emotions towards pain', 'new insight towards labor pain', 'self-actualization' and 'spiritual development'. Most participants had positive experiences and attitudes towards pain during childbirth influenced by cultural, context and religious factors. According to this study, 'transcendental progression' was an eminent feeling that created positive inner feelings along with self-actualization in women. This provides a new insight on labor pain and helps healthcare providers understand the effect of pain during childbirth on women's spiritual, mental and psychological needs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Running out of time: exploring women's motivations for social egg freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Kylie; Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Mitchell, Helene

    2018-04-12

    Few qualitative studies have explored women's use of social egg freezing. Derived from an interview study of 31 participants, this article explores the motivations of women using this technology. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 31 users of social egg freezing resident in UK (n = 23), USA (n = 7) and Norway (n = 1). Interviews were face to face (n = 16), through Skype and Facetime (n = 9) or by telephone (n = 6). Data were analyzed using interpretive thematic analysis. Women's use of egg freezing was shaped by fears of running out of time to form a conventional family, difficulties in finding a partner and concerns about "panic partnering", together with a desire to avoid future regrets and blame. For some women, use of egg freezing was influenced by recent fertility or health diagnoses as well as critical life events. A fifth of the participants also disclosed an underlying fertility or health issue as affecting their decision. The study provides new insights in to the complex motivations women have for banking eggs. It identifies how women's use of egg freezing was an attempt to "preserve fertility" in the absence of the particular set of "life conditions" they regarded as crucial for pursuing parenthood. It also demonstrates that few women were motivated by a desire to enhance their career and that the boundaries between egg freezing for medical and for social reasons may be more porous than first anticipated.

  5. Life events during surgical residency have different effects on women and men over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michelle M; Yeo, Heather L; Roman, Sanziana A; Bell, Richard H; Sosa, Julie A

    2013-08-01

    Women represent half of medical school graduates in the United States. Our aim was to characterize the effects of marriage and childbirth on the experiences of surgery residents. This was a prospective, longitudinal study of categorical general surgery residents between 2008 and 2010. Outcomes included changes in faculty and peer relationships, work-life balance, financial security, and career goals over time. We included 4,028 residents. Compared with men, women in postgraduate years (PGYs) 1 through 5 were less likely to be married (28.2% to 47.3% vs 49.6% to 67.6%) or have children (4.6% to 18.0% vs 19.0% to 45.8%) (P < .001). Women who married during PGY1 to PGY3 became worried about performing in front of senior residents (P = .005); men who married were more likely to be happy at work (P = .005). Women who had a first child during PGY1 to PGY3 were more likely to feel overwhelmed (P = .008) and worry about financial security (P = .03) than other women. Men who had a child were more likely to feel supported by faculty (P = .004), but they experienced more family strain (P = .008) compared to childless men. Marriage and childbirth are associated with divergent changes in career experiences for women and men. Women lag behind their male peers in these life events from start to finish of residency. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effects of Religious Beliefs on the Working Decisions of Women: Some Evidence from Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Lou O'Neil, Mary; Bilgin, Mehmet Huseyin; Lau, Chi Keung Marco

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the decision of Turkish women to participate in the labor force. We administered a original survey questionnaire in 2009 to 518 non-working women. Employing logistic regression, we found that religious belief is a crucial factor that discourages women from participating in the labor market. In particular, the regular performance of religious rituals have the greatest negative effect on labor market participation for educated women, who are the most productive human resourc...

  7. Why Should Women Get Less? : Evidence on the Gender Pay Gap from Multifactorial Survey Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Auspurg, Katrin; Hinz, Thomas; Sauer, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Gender pay gaps likely persist in Western societies because both men and women consider somewhat lower earnings for female employees than for otherwise similar male employees to be fair. Two different theoretical approaches explain “legitimate” wage gaps: same-gender referent theory and reward expectations theory. The first approach states that women compare their lower earnings primarily with that of other underpaid women; the second approach argues that both men and women value gender as a ...

  8. Life-Cycle Labor-Force Participation of Married Women: Historical Evidence and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Goldin, Claudia

    1989-01-01

    The five-fold increase in the labor force participation rate of married women over the last half century was not accompanied by a substantial increase in the average job market experience of working women. Two data sets giving life-cycle labor force histories for cohorts of women born from the 1880s to 1910s indicate substantial (unconditional) heterogeneity in labor force participation. Married women in the labor force had a high degree of attachment to it; increased participation rates brou...

  9. An empirical analysis on the incidence of part-time work among women with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagan-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2009-01-01

    To analyse the determinants of part-time employment and examine the impact of having a disability on the probability of working part-time. Our dataset allows us to take into account the heterogeneity within the disabled collective and identify the incidence of part-time work, for example, by type of disability and compare the results obtained. Using data from the ad hoc module on disability of the Spanish Labour Force Survey 2002 (which contains detailed information on key characteristics of disabled population), we used a bivariate probit model to estimate the probability of disabled women working part-time and of being employed. The results show that disabled women have a higher probability of working part-time as compared to non-disabled women, especially those with progressive illnesses, digestive and stomach disorders and chest or breathing problems. In addition, there is a positive relationship between longer disability durations and levels of part-time employment. Part-time employment can be used as a means to increase the levels of employment of disabled women, especially for those who face important barriers and difficulties as they try to enter into the labour market (e.g., those with epilepsy, mental, emotional conditions and other progressive illnesses or having long-term disabilities).

  10. Women's Representation in Science Predicts National Gender-Science Stereotypes: Evidence from 66 Nations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David I.; Eagly, Alice H.; Linn, Marcia C.

    2015-01-01

    In the past 40 years, the proportion of women in science courses and careers has dramatically increased in some nations but not in others. Our research investigated how national differences in women's science participation related to gender-science stereotypes that associate science with men more than women. Data from ~350,000 participants in 66…

  11. Marital status and HIV prevalence among women in Nigeria: Ingredients for evidence-based programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion: Being formerly married, under 15 years of age at first sex, and having engaged in transactional sex were found to be the strongest HIV risk factors among women. Besides empowering formerly married women and providing better social security, these women should be targeted in HIV programming and policies.

  12. Calibrating care in midwifery : weighing the evidence on weight and weight gain for pregnant women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darie Daemers

    2017-01-01

    At the beginning of the twenty first century obesity entered Dutch maternity care as a ‘new illness’ challenging maternity care professionals in providing optimal care for women with higher BMI’s. International research revealed that obese women had more perinatal problems than normal weight women.

  13. Adapting an Evidence-Based HIV-Prevention Intervention for Women in Domestic Violence Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Campbell, Jacquelyn; Braxton, Nikia; Harvey, Jenna; Wingood, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite the documented intersection of intimate partner violence and HIV, there is a paucity of evidence-based HIV prevention interventions for female survivors of intimate partner violence in the United States. This paper describes the adaptation of an effective HIV prevention intervention, Sisters Informing Sisters about Topics on AIDS (SISTA), for women in domestic violence shelters and the steps taken to improve the adapted intervention’s implementation. Method The adaptation process was guided by the ADAPT-ITT framework and data collected from directors, direct client service providers, and residents of two domestic violence shelters located in urban areas, as well as topical experts. Results Eleven of 12 shelter staff (92%) reported that HIV interventions had never been implemented at their shelter and 64% reported they had not provided residents with educational brochures about HIV prevention. Changes made to adapt SISTA for this population and enhance the implementation of the intervention included reducing the intervention’s duration; adding education about the intersection of intimate partner violence, substance use, and HIV; and adding an HIV risk assessment and safety plan. Conclusions Next steps will include implementing the adapted intervention and evaluating its perceived acceptability and efficacy, and assessing whether contextual factors influence the intervention’s implementation. PMID:27398257

  14. Women Favour Dyadic Relationships, but Men Prefer Clubs: Cross-Cultural Evidence from Social Networking

    Science.gov (United States)

    David-Barrett, Tamas; Rotkirch, Anna; Carney, James; Behncke Izquierdo, Isabel; Krems, Jaimie A.; Townley, Dylan; McDaniell, Elinor; Byrne-Smith, Anna; Dunbar, Robin I. M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes. PMID:25775258

  15. Women favour dyadic relationships, but men prefer clubs: cross-cultural evidence from social networking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamas David-Barrett

    Full Text Available The ability to create lasting, trust-based friendships makes it possible for humans to form large and coherent groups. The recent literature on the evolution of sociality and on the network dynamics of human societies suggests that large human groups have a layered structure generated by emotionally supported social relationships. There are also gender differences in adult social style which may involve different trade-offs between the quantity and quality of friendships. Although many have suggested that females tend to focus on intimate relations with a few other females, while males build larger, more hierarchical coalitions, the existence of such gender differences is disputed and data from adults is scarce. Here, we present cross-cultural evidence for gender differences in the preference for close friendships. We use a sample of ∼112,000 profile pictures from nine world regions posted on a popular social networking site to show that, in self-selected displays of social relationships, women favour dyadic relations, whereas men favour larger, all-male cliques. These apparently different solutions to quality-quantity trade-offs suggest a universal and fundamental difference in the function of close friendships for the two sexes.

  16. Chronic sleep restriction differentially affects implicit biases toward food among men and women: preliminary evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkozei, Anna; Killgore, William D S; Smith, Ryan; Dailey, Natalie S; Bajaj, Sahil; Raikes, Adam C; Haack, Monika

    2017-11-02

    Chronic sleep restriction and obesity are two major public health concerns. This study investigated how chronic sleep restriction changes implicit attitudes towards low- and high-calorie foods. In a randomized, counterbalanced cross-over design, 17 participants (eight females, nine males) underwent two laboratory testing sessions where they were either sleep-restricted for 3 weeks (i.e. underwent three weekly cycles of 5 nights of 4 h of sleep followed by 2 nights of 8 h of sleep opportunity) or received 3 weeks of control sleep (i.e. 8 h of sleep opportunity per night for 3 weeks). There was evidence for a significant sleep condition x sex interaction (F (1, 20)  = 4.60, P = 0.04). After chronic sleep restriction, men showed a trend towards a significant decrease in their implicit attitudes favouring low-calorie foods (P = 0.08), whereas women did not show a significant change (P = 0.16). Men may be at increased risk of weight gain when sleep-deprived due to a reduced bias towards low-calorie foods. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  17. Right Place, Right Time: Preferences of Women with Ovarian Cancer for Delivery of CAM Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbert, Judith Ann; Donovan, Kristine A; Lengacher, Cecile A; Fabri, Donna; Reich, Richard; Daley, Ellen; Thompson, Erika Lynne; Wenham, Robert M

    2015-08-31

    The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of on-site complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) education sessions to maximize quality of life for women with ovarian cancer. The pilot intervention consisted of four weekly sessions, each focusing the techniques and benefits of a particular CAM topic (e.g., nutrition, massage, relaxation). Participants were recruited from the Center for Women's Oncology at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center from 2010 to 2012. Eligible participants had an ovarian cancer diagnosis with a life expectancy of at least 12 months, and were 18 years or older. The Gynecologic Oncology research nurse invited women in the outpatient clinic who matched the eligibility criteria. The research nurse explained the study and provided an informed consent form and return envelope. Because ovarian cancer is not only a rare cancer but, also, most patients seen at Moffitt have recurrent or advanced disease, many women did not have an adequate ECOG score. Many women who consented had rapid changes in health status, with morbidity and mortality outpacing recruitment of the 20 needed to proceed with the four education sessions. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted to assess changes in QOL, knowledge, and satisfaction with the intervention. While 27 women consented and 24 women completed the baseline survey, only five women participated in the intervention. The five women who participated were all white, and at time of consenting had a mean age of 60 (SD 9.08) and an average of 102 months (SD 120.65) since diagnosis, and were all on active treatment, except for one. The intervention pilot did not encounter difficulties with regard to recruitment, but suffered problems in achieving an adequate number of women to launch the on-site sessions because of rapidly changing morbidity and significant mortality. The team recognized that a larger-scaled intervention comprised of on-site sessions was impractical and compared attendance rates with

  18. Women's autonomy and experience of physical violence within marriage in rural India: evidence from a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Santhya, K G; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J

    2014-01-01

    Evidence regarding the relationship between married women's autonomy and risk of marital violence remains mixed. Moreover, studies examining the contribution of specific aspects of women's autonomy in influencing the risk of marital violence using measures of autonomy that incorporate its dynamic nature are rare. We investigated the relationship between women's autonomy and their experience of marital violence in rural India using prospective data. We used data on 4,904 rural women drawn from two linked studies: the NFHS-2, conducted during 1998-1999 and a follow-up study for a subgroup of women carried out during 2002-2003. Three dimensions of autonomy were used: financial autonomy, freedom of movement, and household decision-making. Marital violence was measured as experience of physical violence in the year prior to the follow-up survey. Findings indicate the protective effects of financial autonomy and freedom of movement in reducing the risk of marital violence in the overall model. Furthermore, region-wise analysis revealed that in the more gender equitable settings of south India, financial autonomy exerted a protective influence on risk of marital violence. However, in the more gender-stratified settings of north India, none of the dimensions of autonomy were found to have any protective effect on women's risk of marital violence. Results argue for an increased focus on strategies aimed at improving women's financial status through livelihood skill-building opportunities, development of a strong savings orientation, and asset-building options.

  19. Sports and leisure time physical activity during pregnancy in nulliparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Damm, Peter; Hedegaard, Morten

    2011-01-01

    included in the study at gestational week 33 from May 2004 to July 2005. Information was provided by self-administered questionnaires. Leisure time physical activity was categorised into four categories: competitive sport, moderate-to-heavy, light or sedentary. In this population of nulliparous women, 4......% participated in competitive sport, 25% in moderate-to-heavy activities, 66% in light activities, and 5% in sedentary activities in the year prior to pregnancy. Physical activity before pregnancy was statistically significantly associated with age, pre-pregnancy BMI, chronic diseases, number of years at school......, and smoking habits. The proportion of women who took part in competitive sports, and moderate-to-heavy activities decreased over the three trimesters of pregnancy. The proportion of women with light physical activity was stable during pregnancy while the proportion of women with sedentary activity increased...

  20. Risk Factors for Pregnancy and Childbearing in Single Young Women: Evidence from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Lewis, Lauren R.; Wade, Tracey D.; Lee, Christina

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial predictors of early pregnancy and childbearing in single young women, consistent with the Eriksonian developmental perspective. Two mail-out surveys assessing reproductive behaviour and sociodemographic, education/competence, psychosocial well-being, and aspiration factors were completed 4 years apart by 2635…

  1. Evident?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind......Quality assurance and evidence in career guidance in Europe are often seen as self-evident approaches, but particular interests lie behind...

  2. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waidyatilaka, Indu; Lanerolle, Pulani; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha; Atukorala, Sunethra; Somasundaram, Noel; de Silva, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment), and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. 2800 urban women (30-45 years) were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week) and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week) for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week) was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  3. Sedentary behaviour and physical activity in South Asian women: time to review current recommendations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indu Waidyatilaka

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Our aims were to describe activity and sedentary behaviours in urban Asian women, with dysglycaemia (diagnosed at recruitment, and without dysglycaemia and examine the relative contribution of these parameters to their glycaemic status. METHODS: 2800 urban women (30-45 years were selected by random cluster sampling and screened for dysglycaemia for a final sample of 272 newly diagnosed, drug naive dysglycaemic and 345 normoglycaemic women. Physical activity and sedentary behaviours were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ. Demographic data, diet and anthropometry were recorded. Logistic regression analysis assessed contribution of all parameters to dysglycaemia and exposure attributable fractions were calculated. RESULTS: The mean energy expenditure on walking (2648.5±1023.7 MET-min/week and on moderate and vigorous physical activity (4342.3±1768.1 MET-min/week for normoglycemic women and dysglycaemic women (walking;1046.4±728.4 MET-min/week, moderate and vigorous physical activity; 1086.7±1184.4 MET-min/week was above the recommended amount of physical activity per week. 94.3% of women spent >1000 MET-minutes/week on activity. Mean sitting and TV time for normoglycaemic and dysglycaemic women were 154.3±62.8, 38.4±31.9, 312.6±116.7 and 140.2±56.5 minutes per day respectively. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour contributed to dysglycaemia after adjustment for family history, diet, systolic blood pressure and Body Mass Index. Exposure attributable fractions for dysglycaemia were; lower physical activity: 78%, higher waist circumference: 94%, and TV viewing time: 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Urban South Asian women are at risk of dysglycaemia at lower levels of sedentary behaviour and greater physical activity than western populations, indicating the need for re-visiting current physical activity guidelines for South Asians.

  4. Waiting for the right time: how and why young Thai women manage to avoid heterosexual intercourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supametaporn, Pinhatai; Stern, Phyllis Noerager; Rodcumdee, Branom; Chaiyawat, Waraporn

    2010-08-01

    Nineteen young Thai women were purposively selected from networks of nongovernmental organizations involving children and youths in Bangkok. Our grounded theory findings indicated that these young women used the basic social process they called "waiting for the right time" in order to maintain heterosexual abstinence. Waiting for the right time involved one overarching condition, honoring parental love, and included three overlapping properties: learning rules, planning life path, and ways of preserving virginity. The findings provide information that may lead to the development of culturally competent interventions for middle-class Thai youths to remain healthy and avoid pregnancy.

  5. Costs and benefits of flexibility and autonomy in working time: The same for women and men?

    OpenAIRE

    Lott, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP, 2003, 2005, 2007, 2009, and 2011), the author scrutinizes the relations between women´s and men´s flexibility and autonomy in working time and two central work outcomes: overtime and income. Previously, research on flexibility and autonomy in working time mostly applied crosssectional data ignoring individuals self-selection into jobs. Furthermore, the association between flexibility and autonomy in working time and income has gener...

  6. Part-time Work - A Trap for Women`s Careers? An Analysis of the Roles of Heterogeneity and State Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Mary Gregory; Sara Connolly

    2005-01-01

    Part-time work has been a major area of employment growth for women in the UK over recent decades. Almost half the women in employment now work part-time and two-thirds have worked part-time for some part of their working lives. Part-time employment is welcomed by many women as a means of maintaining labour market participation particularly during the childcare years. However many part-time jobs are low paid and offer little opportunity for career advancement. This leads to conflicting views ...

  7. Intraindividual variability in reaction time before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Christie; Rich, Jill B; Tirona, Kattleya; Bernstein, Lori J

    2017-12-01

    Women treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer experience subtle cognitive deficits. Research has focused on mean performance level, yet recent work suggests that within-person variability in reaction time performance may underlie cognitive symptoms. We examined intraindividual variability (IIV) in women diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Patients (n = 28) were assessed at baseline before chemotherapy (T1), approximately 1 month after chemotherapy but prior to surgery (T2), and after surgery about 9 months post chemotherapy (T3). Healthy women of similar age and education (n = 20) were assessed at comparable time intervals. Using a standardized regression-based approach, we examined changes in mean performance level and IIV (eg, intraindividual standard deviation) on a Stroop task and self-report measures of cognitive function from T1 to T2 and T1 to T3. At T1, women with breast cancer were more variable than controls as task complexity increased. Change scores from T1 to T2 were similar between groups on all Stroop performance measures. From T1 to T3, controls improved more than women with breast cancer. IIV was more sensitive than mean reaction time in capturing group differences. Additional analyses showed increased cognitive symptoms reported by women with breast cancer from T1 to T3. Specifically, change in language symptoms was positively correlated with change in variability. Women with breast cancer declined in attention and inhibitory control relative to pretreatment performance. Future studies should include measures of variability, because they are an important sensitive indicator of change in cognitive function. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Mobile Banking for Empowerment Muslim Women Entrepreneur: Evidence from Asia (Indonesia and Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucky Nugroho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Women entrepreneurs have positive contribution to the household economy in particular, and the sustainable economic development in general. Nevertheless, there are limitations in mobility for women entrepreneurs, especially in Muslim countries to conduct their business activities outside the home, which was due to concern, to take care of their children, and the values or customs, which is embraced by the local community, so that limited mobility of women entrepreneurs, not because of the Islamic religiosity. Therefore, is requires form of technology solutions for women entrepreneurs, which can reduce, the limitations.Methods - literature reviewResults - the role of mobile banking as well as branchless banking for women entrepreneurs has been shown to have a very important role to connect their access to financial services. The role of education for women, is also an important factor to improve the knowledge and ability to use technology, including mobile banking services. In addition to the phenomenon of the increasing number of women entrepreneurs and the growing literacy of women in developing countries such as Indonesia and Bangladesh, it will have an impact on increasing the professionalism of women entrepreneurs, and the demand for technology-based financial services such as mobile banking.Conclusions - Implementation of this program must have the support of all stakeholders, including the cooperation between the banks with microfinance institutions to expand the reach of the benefits of this technology. Keywords: Women Entrepreneur, mobile banking, branchless banking,

  9. The interplay of couple's shared time, women's intimacy, and intradyadic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milek, Anne; Butler, Emily A; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, spending time together should be central for couples to build intimacy and should be associated with less relationship stress; however, few empirical studies have examined these links. The present study used 14 days of diary data from 92 women to investigate the interplay between the amount of time they spent with their partner (shared time), intimacy, and daily stress originating inside the relationship (intradyadic stress) on a within- and between-personal level. Multilevel analyses revealed moderation patterns: For example, when women spent more time with their partners than usual on a weekday with low levels of intradyadic stress, they reported higher intimacy. These associations varied substantially between women and were weaker on the weekend or on days with high levels of intradyadic stress. At the between-person level, higher average shared time appeared to buffer the negative association between intradyadic stress and intimacy. Our results suggest that daily fluctuations in intradyadic stress, intimacy, and shared time may have different implications compared with aggregated amounts of those variables. Spending more time together on a weekday with low intimacy might be linked to more intradyadic stress, but aggregated over the long run, spending more time together may provide opportunities for stress resolution and help couples to maintain their intimacy. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Perceived and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time among South Asian women in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L; Thompson, Janice L

    2015-03-16

    Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women's understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as "keeping busy" or "being healthy", and of ST as "lazy" or "resting in old age". Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e.g., walking, housework) and reducing ST in this population.

  11. The Healthcare Improvement Scotland evidence note rapid review process: providing timely, reliable evidence to inform imperative decisions on healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Heather M; Calvert, Julie; Macpherson, Karen J; Thompson, Lorna

    2016-06-01

    Rapid review has become widely adopted by health technology assessment agencies in response to demand for evidence-based information to support imperative decisions. Concern about the credibility of rapid reviews and the reliability of their findings has prompted a call for wider publication of their methods. In publishing this overview of the accredited rapid review process developed by Healthcare Improvement Scotland, we aim to raise awareness of our methods and advance the discourse on best practice. Healthcare Improvement Scotland produces rapid reviews called evidence notes using a process that has achieved external accreditation through the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Key components include a structured approach to topic selection, initial scoping, considered stakeholder involvement, streamlined systematic review, internal quality assurance, external peer review and updating. The process was introduced in 2010 and continues to be refined over time in response to user feedback and operational experience. Decision-makers value the responsiveness of the process and perceive it as being a credible source of unbiased evidence-based information supporting advice for NHSScotland. Many agencies undertaking rapid reviews are striving to balance efficiency with methodological rigour. We agree that there is a need for methodological guidance and that it should be informed by better understanding of current approaches and the consequences of different approaches to streamlining systematic review methods. Greater transparency in the reporting of rapid review methods is essential to enable that to happen.

  12. Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder among women with vulvodynia: evidence from the population-based woman to woman health study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Rios, Lisbeth; Harlow, Siobán D; Reed, Barbara D

    2015-07-01

    Psychological disorders may affect the pain experience of women with vulvodynia, but evidence remains limited. The present study aimed to describe the magnitude of the association of depression and posttraumautic stress disorder (PTSD) with the presence of vulvodynia in a nonclinical population from southeastern Michigan. Baseline data from 1,795 women participating in the Woman to Woman Health Study, a multiethnic population-based study, was used for this analysis. Validated screening questionnaires were conducted to assess vulvodynia, depression, and PTSD. Modified Poisson regression models with a robust variance estimation were used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between vulvodynia status and two mental health conditions, depression and PTSD. In the adjusted models, women who screened positive for depression had a 53% higher prevalence of having vulvodynia (PR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.10) compared with women who screened negative for depression. Women who screened positive for PTSD had more than a two-fold increase in the prevalence of having vulvodynia (PR=2.37; 95% CI: 1.07, 5.25) compared with women who screened negative for PTSD. The increased prevalence of vulvodynia among those screening positive for depression or PTSD suggests that these disorders may contribute to the likelihood of reporting vulvodynia. Alternatively, vulvodynia, depression, and PTSD may have a common pathophysiological and risk profile. Prospective studies are needed to improve our understanding of the temporal relation between mental health conditions and vulvar pain.

  13. Birth Defects Among Fetuses and Infants of US Women With Evidence of Possible Zika Virus Infection During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honein, Margaret A; Dawson, April L; Petersen, Emily E; Jones, Abbey M; Lee, Ellen H; Yazdy, Mahsa M; Ahmad, Nina; Macdonald, Jennifer; Evert, Nicole; Bingham, Andrea; Ellington, Sascha R; Shapiro-Mendoza, Carrie K; Oduyebo, Titilope; Fine, Anne D; Brown, Catherine M; Sommer, Jamie N; Gupta, Jyoti; Cavicchia, Philip; Slavinski, Sally; White, Jennifer L; Owen, S Michele; Petersen, Lyle R; Boyle, Coleen; Meaney-Delman, Dana; Jamieson, Denise J

    2017-01-03

    Understanding the risk of birth defects associated with Zika virus infection during pregnancy may help guide communication, prevention, and planning efforts. In the absence of Zika virus, microcephaly occurs in approximately 7 per 10 000 live births. To estimate the preliminary proportion of fetuses or infants with birth defects after maternal Zika virus infection by trimester of infection and maternal symptoms. Completed pregnancies with maternal, fetal, or infant laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection and outcomes reported in the continental United States and Hawaii from January 15 to September 22, 2016, in the US Zika Pregnancy Registry, a collaboration between the CDC and state and local health departments. Laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection in a maternal, placental, fetal, or infant sample. Birth defects potentially Zika associated: brain abnormalities with or without microcephaly, neural tube defects and other early brain malformations, eye abnormalities, and other central nervous system consequences. Among 442 completed pregnancies in women (median age, 28 years; range, 15-50 years) with laboratory evidence of possible recent Zika virus infection, birth defects potentially related to Zika virus were identified in 26 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-8%) fetuses or infants. There were 21 infants with birth defects among 395 live births and 5 fetuses with birth defects among 47 pregnancy losses. Birth defects were reported for 16 of 271 (6%; 95% CI, 4%-9%) pregnant asymptomatic women and 10 of 167 (6%; 95% CI, 3%-11%) symptomatic pregnant women. Of the 26 affected fetuses or infants, 4 had microcephaly and no reported neuroimaging, 14 had microcephaly and brain abnormalities, and 4 had brain abnormalities without microcephaly; reported brain abnormalities included intracranial calcifications, corpus callosum abnormalities, abnormal cortical formation, cerebral atrophy, ventriculomegaly, hydrocephaly, and cerebellar abnormalities

  14. WOMEN LEADERSHIP AND GLOBAL POWER: EVIDENCE FROM THE UNITED STATES AND LATIN AMERICA

    OpenAIRE

    Arup K.Sen; Jessica E. Metzger

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines leadership theories along with the advancement of women within the United States as well as in Latin America. Data from an exploratory survey of 19 women executives in Latin America and 19 women executives in the United States suggest that globalization has transformed the way in which organizations perceive and carry out leadership today. Globalization has paved the way for a new type of leadership style that is more collaborative and less hierarchal, in which relationshi...

  15. Law and Financial Development: What we are learning from time-series evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, J.; Deakin, S.; Mollica, V.; Siems, M.M.

    2010-01-01

    The legal origins hypothesis is one of the most important and influential ideas to emerge in the social sciences in the past decade. However, the empirical base of the legal origins claim has always been contestable, as it largely consists of cross-sectional datasets which provide evidence on the state of the law only at limited points in time. There is now a growing body of data derived from techniques for coding cross-national legal variation over time. This time-series evidence is reviewed...

  16. Right Place, Right Time: Preferences of Women with Ovarian Cancer for Delivery of CAM Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Ann Ebbert

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the feasibility of on-site complementary and alternative medicine (CAM education sessions to maximize quality of life for women with ovarian cancer. The pilot intervention consisted of four weekly sessions, each focusing the techniques and benefits of a particular CAM topic (e.g., nutrition, massage, relaxation. Participants were recruited from the Center for Women’s Oncology at H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center from 2010 to 2012. Eligible participants had an ovarian cancer diagnosis with a life expectancy of at least 12 months, and were 18 years or older. The Gynecologic Oncology research nurse invited women in the outpatient clinic who matched the eligibility criteria. The research nurse explained the study and provided an informed consent form and return envelope. Because ovarian cancer is not only a rare cancer but, also, most patients seen at Moffitt have recurrent or advanced disease, many women did not have an adequate ECOG score. Many women who consented had rapid changes in health status, with morbidity and mortality outpacing recruitment of the 20 needed to proceed with the four education sessions. Baseline and follow-up surveys were conducted to assess changes in QOL, knowledge, and satisfaction with the intervention. While 27 women consented and 24 women completed the baseline survey, only five women participated in the intervention. The five women who participated were all white, and at time of consenting had a mean age of 60 (SD 9.08 and an average of 102 months (SD 120.65 since diagnosis, and were all on active treatment, except for one. The intervention pilot did not encounter difficulties with regard to recruitment, but suffered problems in achieving an adequate number of women to launch the on-site sessions because of rapidly changing morbidity and significant mortality. The team recognized that a larger-scaled intervention comprised of on-site sessions was impractical and compared

  17. Evidence for disruption of normal circadian cortisol rhythm in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Zain A; Polotsky, Alex; Chosich, Justin; Roth, Lauren; Allshouse, Amanda A; Bradford, Andrew P; Santoro, Nanette

    2018-04-01

    Hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may play a role in the pathogenesis of comorbidities encountered in obesity, including the relative hypogonadotropic hypogonadism that we and others have observed. We sought to examine serum cortisol profiles throughout the day and evening in a sample of normal weight women and women with obesity. In this cross-sectional study, regularly cycling obese (n = 12) and normal weight (n = 10) women were recruited. Mean serum cortisol was measured by frequent blood sampling for 16 h (8am-midnight) in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Women with obesity had significantly higher overall cortisol levels when compared to normal weight women (6.2 [4.3, 6.6] vs. 4.7 [3.7, 5.5] ug/dl, p = .04). Over the two-hour postprandial period, obese women displayed an almost two-fold greater (7.2 [6.5, 8.6] ug/dl) rise in cortisol than normal weight controls (4.4 [3.7, 6.2] ug/dl, p obese women demonstrated a sustained evening cortisol elevation compared to normal weight women, who displayed the typical decline in cortisol (3.2 [2.3, 4] vs. 2 [1.5, 3.2] ug/dl, p obesity may be related to risks of obesity-associated metabolic comorbidities and reproductive dysfunction often seen in these women.

  18. Effects of women's autonomy on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh: Evidence from a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haider, Mohammad Rifat; Qureshi, Zaina P; Khan, M Mahmud

    2017-12-01

    This study aims to construct an index of women's autonomy to analyze its effect on maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Empirical modeling of the study used instrumental variable (IV) approach to correct for possible endogeneity of women's autonomy variable. Data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) 2011 was used for the study. Women's autonomy variable was obtained through factor analysis of variables related to autonomy in decision making regarding healthcare, financial autonomy and freedom of movement. Conditional mixed process (CMP) models were fitted for three maternal healthcare indicators: at least four antenatal care (ANC) by trained personnel, institutional delivery and postnatal care (PNC) by trained personnel. Study sample consisted of 8753 women with 5.5 mean years of schooling. Women with no formal education, of Islamic faith, from poorest wealth quintile, residing in rural areas and with low autonomy used the maternal healthcare least. Marginal effect shows that if women's autonomy score is increased by one unit, probability of maternal healthcare utilization will increase by 0.14 for ANC, 0.14 for institutional delivery, and 0.13 for PNC. Women's autonomy is an important driver of maternal healthcare utilization in Bangladesh. Results suggest that women participating in social and economic activities enhances their autonomy. Other factors affecting women's autonomy are female literacy, educational attainment and households' economic status. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. TV Fights: Women and Men in Interpersonal Arguments on Prime-Time Television Dramas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinson, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    Studies the behaviors of women and men represented in interpersonal arguments in prime-time television dramas. Finds a weak link between actual argument behaviors and those on television, thereby socializing viewers in a manner inconsistent with reality. Suggests that television arguments are guided more by the needs of the medium that a need to…

  20. Big-Time Football Conferences Tried To Ignore Rule on Representation of Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naughton, Jim

    1997-01-01

    Controversy over limited representation of women on a key committee of the National Collegiate Athletic Association, the Division I Management Council, has renewed concerns that big-time football conferences are not committed to diverse membership on such panels. The division's board of directors rejected the first female nominees and suggested…

  1. Working women's choices for domestic help: the effects of financial and time resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijdens, K.; van der Lippe, T.; de Ruijter, E.

    2003-01-01

    Household services are increasing. Which households consume these services, in particular domestic help? This article tests whether time and financial resources influence the use of domestic help, performing logistic regression analyses with the WWIQ-2000/01-data (N=10,969), addressing working women

  2. High occupational physical activity and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the interplay with physical activity during leisure time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesøe, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas; Aadahl, Mette; Thomsen, Jane F; Hundrup, Yrsa A; Søgaard, Karen

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that physically demanding work is a risk factor for heart disease among men, especially those with low or moderate physical activity during leisure time. Among women, present evidence is inconclusive. The design was a prospective cohort study. This investigation in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study included 12,093 female nurses aged 45-64 years, who answered a self-report questionnaire on physical activity at work and during leisure time, known risk factors for ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and occupational factors at baseline in 1993. Information on the 15-year incidence of IHD was obtained by individual linkage in the National Register of Hospital Discharges to 2008. During follow-up 580 participants were hospitalised with IHD. A significant interaction between occupational and leisure time physical activity was found with the lowest risk of IHD among nurses with the combination of moderate physical activity at work and vigorous physical activity during leisure time. Compared to this group high physical activity at work was associated with a higher risk of IHD at all levels of physical activity during leisure time increasing from hazard ratio 1.75 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.10-2.80) among nurses with vigorous physical activity during leisure time to 2.65 (95% CI 1.44-4.88) among nurses being sedentary during leisure time. This study among Danish nurses suggests that high physical activity at work is a risk factor for IHD among women. Vigorous physical activity during leisure time lowered but did not completely counteract the adverse effect of occupational physical activity on risk of IHD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  3. Identifying subfertile ovulatory women for timely tubal patency testing: a clinical decision rule based on medical history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coppus, S. F. P. J.; Verhoeve, H. R.; Opmeer, B. C.; van der Steeg, J. W.; Steures, P.; Eijkemans, M. J. C.; Hompes, P. G. A.; Bossuyt, P. M. M.; van der Veen, F.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of tubal testing is to identify women with bilateral tubal pathology in a timely manner, so they can be treated with IVF or tubal surgery. At present, it is unclear for which women early tubal testing is indicated, and in whom it can be deferred. METHODS: Data on 3716 women who

  4. More or less unequal? Evidence on the pay of men and women from the British birth cohort studies

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, H.; Makepeace, G.; Dolton, P.

    2007-01-01

    Gender pay differences are not merely a problem for women returning to work and part-time employees, but also for those in full-time, continuous careers. In data from cohort studies, the gender wage gap for full-time workers in their early thirties fell between 1978 and 2000. This equalization reflects improvements in women's education and experience rather more than a move towards equal treatment. Indeed, had the typical woman full-timer in 2000 been paid at men's rates she would have actual...

  5. Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekele, H.

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of
    poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services,
    particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has
    been largely premised on

  6. Can women have children and a career? IV evidence from IVF treatments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lundborg, P.; Plug, E.; Rasmussen, A.W.

    This paper introduces a new IV strategy based on IVF (in vitro fertilization) induced fertility variation among childless women to estimate the causal effect of having children on their career. For this purpose, we use administrative data on IVF treated women in Denmark. Because observed chances of

  7. The Effect of a First Child on Female Labor Supply: Evidence from Women Seeking Fertility Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristia, Julian P.

    2008-01-01

    Estimating the causal effect of a first child on female labor supply is complicated by the endogeneity of fertility. This paper addresses this problem by focusing on a sample of women from the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) who sought help to become pregnant. After a certain period, only some of these women gave birth. Results using this…

  8. Why so few women on boards of directors? Empirical evidence from Danish companies 1997-2007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Nina; Parrotta, Pierpaolo

    This paper analyzes the determinants of women on the boards of directors based on a panel sample of all Danish companies in the private sector with more than 50 employees. The share of women on the boards of directors was 12 percent in 2007 and has only slowly increased during the period 1997...

  9. Religiosity and faith in relation to time to metabolic syndrome for Hispanic women in a multiethnic cohort of women-Findings from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allshouse, Amanda A; Santoro, Nanette; Green, Robin; Wong, Jason Y Y; Upchurch, Dawn M; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Thurston, Rebecca C; Derby, Carol A

    2018-06-01

    We investigated whether faith was associated with a difference in time to incident metabolic syndrome (MetS) among midlife Hispanic women vs women of other ethnicities. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a community-based, longitudinal study of a cohort of midlife women. Social, demographic, psychosocial, anthropometric, medical, and physiological measures, and incident MetS were assessed in near-annual intervals using questionnaires and assays. Each participant answered key questions related to religion and meaning in her life. Differences in time to MetS were modeled by Hispanic ethnicity (vs. otherwise) among women reporting low and high levels of faith. Incident MetS in the 7 years after the SWAN baseline assessment. Among 2371 women, average baseline age 46, Hispanic women (n = 168) were more likely to have higher perceived stress and financial strain than non-Hispanic women (n = 2203). Nevertheless, Hispanic women were far more likely than non-Hispanic women to report that faith brought them strength and comfort in times of adversity, that they prayed often, and that their faith was sustaining for them. Hispanic women had the highest incidence rate of MetS of any racial/ethnic group. However, among women with high levels of faith, the incidence rate of MetS was similar in the Hispanic and non-Hispanic groups. Conversely, among women with low levels of faith, Hispanic women had a faster progression to MetS than did non-Hispanic women. Faith might be associated with a different risk of MetS among women of Hispanic vs other ethnicities. Among women who are not part of a faith community, Hispanic ethnicity might be a risk factor for MetS. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Promiscuity is related to masculine and feminine body traits in both men and women: evidence from Brazilian and Czech samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella, Marco Antonio Correa; Valentova, Jaroslava Varella; Pereira, Kamila Janaina; Bussab, Vera Silvia Raad

    2014-11-01

    One of the possible explanations for human within-sex variation in promiscuity stems from conditional strategies dependent on the level of body sex-dimorphism. There is some evidence that masculine men and feminine women are more promiscuous than their sex-atypical counterparts, although mixed results persist. Moreover, another line of evidence shows that more promiscuous women are rather sex-atypical. We tested whether diverse sex-dimorphic body measures (2D:4D, WHR/WSR, handgrip strength, and height and weight) influence sociosexual desires, attitudes, promiscuous behavior, and age of first intercourse in a sex-typical or sex-atypical direction. Participants were 185 young adults, 51 men and 54 women from Brazil, and 40 men and 40 women from the Czech Republic. In men stronger handgrip and more feminine 2D:4D predicted higher sociosexual behaviors, desires, and lower age of the first sexual intercourse. While in women, sociosexual desires were predicted by lower handgrip strength and more feminine 2D:4D. It thus seems that it is rather a mixture of masculine and feminine traits in men, and feminine traits in women that increase their sociosexuality. Masculine traits (height) predicting female promiscuous behavior were specific for only one population. In conclusion, a mosaic combination of sex-typical but also sex-atypical independent body traits can lead to higher promiscuity, particularly in men. Limitations, implications, and future directions for research are considered. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Neotropical Behaviour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Timing of birth for women with a twin pregnancy at term: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haslam Ross R

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a well recognized risk of complications for both women and infants of a twin pregnancy, increasing beyond 37 weeks gestation. Preterm birth prior to 37 weeks gestation is a recognized complication of a twin pregnancy, however, up to 50% of twins will be born after this time. The aims of this randomised trial are to assess whether elective birth at 37 weeks gestation compared with standard care in women with a twin pregnancy affects the risk of perinatal death, and serious infant complications. Methods/Design Design: Multicentred randomised trial. Inclusion Criteria: women with a twin pregnancy at 366 weeks or more without contraindication to continuation of pregnancy. Trial Entry & Randomisation: Following written informed consent, eligible women will be randomised from 36+6 weeks gestation. The randomisation schedule uses balanced variable blocks, with stratification for centre of birth and planned mode of birth. Women will be randomised to either elective birth or standard care. Treatment Schedules: Women allocated to the elective birth group will be planned for elective birth from 37 weeks gestation. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve induction of labour. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section. For women allocated to standard care, birth will be planned for 38 weeks gestation or later. Where the plan is for vaginal birth, this will involve either awaiting the spontaneous onset of labour, or induction of labour if required. Where the plan is for caesarean birth, this will involve elective caesarean section (after 38 and as close to 39 weeks as possible. Primary Study Outcome: A composite of perinatal mortality or serious neonatal morbidity. Sample Size: 460 women with a twin pregnancy to show a reduction in the composite outcome from 16.3% to 6.7% with adjustment for the clustering of twin infants within mothers (p = 0.05, 80% power. Discussion This

  12. Disparities in abnormal mammogram follow-up time for Asian women compared with non-Hispanic white women and between Asian ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim H; Pasick, Rena J; Stewart, Susan L; Kerlikowske, Karla; Karliner, Leah S

    2017-09-15

    Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. In the current study, the authors examined differences in abnormal screening mammogram follow-up between non-Hispanic white (NHW) and Asian women. The authors used a prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging, Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) abnormal result of category 0 or 3-plus in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000 and 2010. Kaplan-Meier estimation for the median number of days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test was performed, and the authors compared the percentage of women with follow-up at 30 days, 60 days, and 90 days and no follow-up at 1 year for Asian women overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHW women. In addition, the authors assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time to follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipina women had the longest, and Japanese women the shortest, median follow-up (32 days, 28 days, and 19 days, respectively) compared with NHW women (15 days). The percentage of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians versus NHWs (57% vs 77%; PAsian ethnic groups except Japanese. Asian women had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHW women (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.72). Asian women also had a higher rate of receiving no follow-up compared with NHW women (15% vs 10%; PAsian ethnic groups, Filipinas were found to have the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Asian women, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese women, were less likely than NHW women to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. Cancer 2017;123:3468-75. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. 'Football Fitness': constraining and enabling possibilities for the management of leisure time for women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Lone Friis; Hybholt, Maria Gliemann; Jensen, Andorra Lynn

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the article is to identify constraining and enabling aspects for the management of leisure time for women participating in ‘Football Fitness’, a new ‘sport for all programme’ carried out in associative sport clubs in Denmark. The article is based on six focus group interviews with white......, middle-class female participants (N = 32, aged 27–56). An analysis combining Hochschild’s conceptualization of the second and third shift [1989. The Second Shift. New York: Avon] with Elias and Dunning’s perspective on leisure as part of the spare-time spectrum and leisure sport as a quest for excitement...... [1986. Quest for Excitement. Sport and Leisure in the Civilizing Process. New York: Basil Blackwell] demonstrates that leisure sport participation must be understood in relation to both spare time, family life, and work life, as these spheres are interrelated. According to the women, both doing...

  14. Marking Time: Women and Nazi Propaganda Art during World War II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara McCloskey

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available "Marking Time" considers the relative scarcity of woman's image in Nazi propaganda posters during World War II. This scarcity departs from the ubiquity of women in paintings and sculptures of the same period. In the fine arts, woman served to solidify the "Nazi myth" and its claim to the timeless time of an Aryan order simultaneously achieved and yet to come. Looking at poster art and using Ernst Bloch's notion of the nonsynchronous, this essay explores the extent to which women as signifiers of the modern – and thus as markers of time – threatened to expose the limits of this Nazi myth especially as the regime's war effort ground to its catastrophic end.

  15. Sex hormone manipulation slows reaction time and increases labile mood in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, D. S.; Fisher, P M; Budtz-Jørgensen, E.

    2016-01-01

    : In a randomized controlled double-blinded trial, 61 healthy women (mean age 24.3±4.9 years) were tested with measures of affective verbal memory, reaction time, mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding at baseline and at follow-up after receiving gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) or placebo...... intervention. Women also reported daily mood profiles during intervention. We tested direct effects of intervention and indirect effects through changes in serotonin transporter binding on verbal affective memory, simple reaction time and self-reported measures of mental distress, and further effects of Gn......RHa on daily mood. RESULTS: GnRHa induced an increase in simple reaction time (p=0.03) and more pronounced fluctuations in daily self-reported mood in a manner dependent on baseline mood (p=0.003). Verbal affective memory recall, overall self-perceived mental distress, and serotonin transporter binding were...

  16. Motivation and Barriers for Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Inês; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David; Teixeira, Pedro J

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between motivation and barriers for physical activity, and physical activity behavior in women living in socioeconomic disadvantage. This study also examined whether weight control intentions moderate those associations. Data from 1664 women aged 18-46 years was collected at baseline and three-year follow-up as part of the Resilience for Eating and Activity Despite Inequality study. In mail-based surveys, women reported sociodemographic and neighborhood environmental characteristics, intrinsic motivation, goals and perceived family barriers to be active, weight control intentions and leisure-time physical activity (assessed through the IPAQ-L). Linear regression models assessed the association of intrinsic motivation, goals and barriers with physical activity at baseline and follow-up, adjusting for environmental characteristics and also physical activity at baseline (for longitudinal analyses), and the moderating effects of weight control intentions were examined. Intrinsic motivation and, to a lesser extent, appearance and relaxation goals for being physically active were consistently associated with leisure-time physical activity at baseline and follow-up. Perceived family barriers, health, fitness, weight and stress relief goals were associated with leisure-time physical activity only at baseline. Moderated regression analyses revealed that weight control intentions significantly moderated the association between weight goals and leisure-time physical activity at baseline (β = 0.538, 99% CI = 0.057, 0.990) and between intrinsic motivation and leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.666, 99% CI = 0.188, 1.145). For women actively trying to control their weight, intrinsic motivation was significantly associated with leisure-time physical activity at follow-up (β = 0.184, 99% CI = 0.097, 0.313). Results suggest that, especially in women trying to control their weight

  17. Women and smoking—prices and health warning messages: evidence from Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Lacruz, Ana Isabel; Gil-Lacruz, Marta; Leeder, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    In Spain, fewer men are smoking every year yet the number of women smokers remains relatively high. This paper examines the impact of two anti-smoking policies (increased prices and obligatory pictorial health warning labels) on womens smoking decisions; generation cohorts are used to elucidate the determinants of those decisions. We have drawn 48,755 observations of women living in Spain from the Spanish National Health Surveys of 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011. Among the main results, we highlight that belonging to a particular generation modulates the manner in which individual characteristics and tobacco policies determine smoking decisions. For example, women's smoking was not considered as socially acceptable until the 1960s and therefore older women have lower smoking rates. However, for the younger female cohorts (generations X and Y) smoking was seen as an act of rebellion and modernity, so women belonging to these groups, irrespective of educational level, are more likely to smoke. The price of cigarettes and pictorial health warning labels on cigarette packets also influence the smoking behaviour of Spanish women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Gene expression profiling for guiding adjuvant chemotherapy decisions in women with early breast cancer: an evidence-based and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    -node positive:There is low quality evidence that Oncotype-DX has limited prognostic value in women who are being treated with adjuvant tamoxifen or anastrozole,There is very low quality evidence that Oncotype-DX has limited predictive value for predicting which women will benefit from adjuvant CAF chemotherapy in women who are being treated with adjuvant tamoxifen.There are methodological and statistical limitations that affect both the generalizability of the current available evidence, as well as the magnitude and statistical strength of the observed effect sizes; in particular:Of the major predictive trials, Oncotype-DX scores were only produced for a small subset of women (effects of treatment randomization and opening the possibility of selection bias;Data is not specific to HER-2/neu-negative women;There were limitations with multivariate statistical analyses.Additional trials of observational design may provide further validation of the prognostic and predictive value of Oncotype-DX; however, it is unlikely that prospective or randomized data will become available in the near future due to ethical, time and resource considerations.There is currently insufficient evidence investigating how Oncoytpe-DX compares to other known prognostic estimators of risk, such as Adjuvant! Online, and there is insufficient evidence investigating how Oncotype-DX would impact clinician/patient decision-making in a setting generalizable to Ontario.

  19. Prevalence and treatment of aerobic vaginitis among non-pregnant women: evaluation of the evidence for an underestimated clinical entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansarli, G S; Kostaras, E K; Athanasiou, S; Falagas, M E

    2013-08-01

    We sought to evaluate the evidence on the prevalence of aerobic vaginitis (AV) among symptomatic non-pregnant women, as well as the treatment administered for this clinical entity. The PubMed and Scopus databases were systematically searched. Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria, 11 of which reported on the prevalence of possible AV, two on the prevalence of diagnosed AV, and three on the treatment and outcomes of women with diagnosed AV. The prevalence of diagnosed AV varied from 5 to 10.5 %. Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most commonly identified Gram-positive pathogens among women with possible AV, with prevalences of up to 58.7, 41.7, and 37.4 %, respectively, while Escherichia coli was the most common Gram-negative pathogen identified, with a prevalence of up to 23 % among symptomatic women. Regarding antibiotic treatment for AV, the antibiotic schemes administered, which mainly consisted of suppositories of aminoglycosides, showed good effectiveness without serious adverse events provided by any of the included studies. The currently available data suggest that the prevalence of AV is not negligible, while the prevalence of possible AV is considerable. Well-designed studies comparing the prevalence of aerobic pathogens between symptomatic and asymptomatic women are warranted.

  20. Probiotics for prevention of recurrent urinary tract infections in women: a review of the evidence from microbiological and clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falagas, Matthew E; Betsi, Gregoria I; Tokas, Theodoros; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2006-01-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) afflict a great number of women around the world. The use of probiotics, especially lactobacilli, has been considered for the prevention of UTIs. Since lactobacilli dominate the urogenital flora of healthy premenopausal women, it has been suggested that restoration of the urogenital flora, which is dominated by uropathogens, with lactobacilli may protect against UTIs. This review is based on a search of PubMed for relevant articles. Many in vitro studies, animal experiments, microbiological studies in healthy women, and clinical trials in women with UTIs have been carried out to assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics for prophylaxis against uropathogens. Most of them had encouraging findings for some specific strains of lactobacilli. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 (previously called L. fermentum RC-14) seemed to be the most effective among the studied lactobacilli for the prevention of UTIs. L. casei shirota and L. crispatus CTV-05 have also shown efficacy in some studies. L. rhamnosus GG did not appear to be quite as effective in the prevention of UTIs. The evidence from the available studies suggests that probiotics can be beneficial for preventing recurrent UTIs in women; they also have a good safety profile. However, further research is needed to confirm these results before the widespread use of probiotics for this indication can be recommended.

  1. [Waiting time for the first colposcopic examination in women with abnormal Papanicolaou test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maria Isabel do; Rabelo, Irene Machado Moraes Alvarenga; Cardoso, Fabrício Seabra Polidoro; Musse, Ricardo Neif Vieira

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the waiting times before obtaining the first colposcopic examination for women with abnormal Papanicolaou smears. Retrospective cohort study conducted on patients who required a colposcopic examination to clarify an abnormal pap test, between 2002 January and 2008 August, in a metropolitan region of Brazil. The waiting times were defined as: Total Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of the first colposcopic examination); Partial A Waiting Time (interval between the date of the pap test result and the date of referral); Partial B Waiting Time (interval between the date of referral and the date of the first colposcopic examination). Means, medians, relative and absolute frequencies were calculated. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to determine statistical significance. A total of 1,544 women with mean of age of 34 years (SD=12.6 years) were analyzed. Most of them had access to colposcopic examination within 30 days (65.8%) or 60 days (92.8%) from referral. Mean Total Waiting Time, Partial A Waiting Time, and Partial B Waiting Time were 94.5 days (SD=96.8 days), 67.8 days (SD=95.3 days) and 29.2 days (SD=35.1 days), respectively. A large part of the women studied had access to colposcopic examination within 60 days after referral, but Total waiting time was long. Measures to reduce the waiting time for obtaining the first colposcopic examination can help to improve the quality of care in the context of cervical cancer control in the region, and ought to be addressed at the phase between the date of the pap test results and the date of referral to the teaching hospital.

  2. Evidence-informed decision-making by professionals working in addiction agencies serving women: a descriptive qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective approaches to the prevention and treatment of substance abuse among mothers have been developed but not widely implemented. Implementation studies suggest that the adoption of evidence-based practices in the field of addictions remains low. There is a need, therefore, to better understand decision making processes in addiction agencies in order to develop more effective approaches to promote the translation of knowledge gained from addictions research into clinical practice. Methods A descriptive qualitative study was conducted to explore: 1 the types and sources of evidence used to inform practice-related decisions within Canadian addiction agencies serving women; 2 how decision makers at different levels report using research evidence; and 3 factors that influence evidence-informed decision making. A purposeful sample of 26 decision-makers providing addiction treatment services to women completed in-depth qualitative interviews. Interview data were coded and analyzed using directed and summative content analysis strategies as well as constant comparison techniques. Results Across all groups, individuals reported locating and using multiple types of evidence to inform decisions. Some decision-makers rely on their experiential knowledge of addiction and recovery in decision-making. Research evidence is often used directly in decision-making at program management and senior administrative levels. Information for decision-making is accessed from a range of sources, including web-based resources and experts in the field. Individual and organizational facilitators and barriers to using research evidence in decision making were identified. Conclusions There is support at administrative levels for integrating EIDM in addiction agencies. Knowledge transfer and exchange strategies should be focussed towards program managers and administrators and include capacity building for locating, appraising and using research evidence

  3. Perceptions of women and men as entrepreneurs: evidence for differential effects of attributional augmenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, R A; Markman, G D; Hirsa, A

    2001-10-01

    It was hypothesized that perceptions of women who become entrepreneurs are enhanced by attributional augmenting because they adopt this role despite major obstacles to doing so. In contrast, attributional augmenting was expected to operate to a lesser degree for men who become entrepreneurs because they presumably face weaker obstacles. Three studies offered support for these hypotheses; all of these investigations used between-subjects designs in which women and men shown in standard-format photos were described to different groups of raters as being either entrepreneurs or managers. As predicted, raters assigned significantly higher scores to women, but not to men, when they were described as entrepreneurs.

  4. Empirical Evidence of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Firm Performance: A Study of Women Entrepreneurs of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Kabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of current study is to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial competencies on firm performance of businesses owned by Nigerian women entrepreneurs. The 200 respondents of this study are women entrepreneurs operating micro-business units in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Survey questions was used to collect data. The study utilises SPSS and SmartPLS 2.0 to analyse the data. The findings indicated that strategic, opportunity and organizing competencies significantly affect the firm performance of women entrepreneurs in Nigeria.

  5. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect....

  6. VALIDATING THE EVIDENCE OF VIOLENCE IN PARTNER RELATIONSHIPS WITH REGARD TO XHOSA AFRICAN WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesatywa, Nontando Jennifer

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on how African women understand the forms and meaning of violence in partner relationships. The findings suggest that many African women experience physical, emotional and economic abuse. Some of the reasons for abuse which emerged include a patriarchal system, alcohol abuse, infidelity and failure to support children financially. The influence of Xhosa African practices on violent partner relationships was explored. The study indicates a need for ethnically sensitive interdisciplinary programmes for social service practitioners, and an effective, accessible legal system for rural women to reduce incidences of abuse.

  7. Does gender inequity increase the risk of intimate partner violence among women? Evidence from a national Bangladeshi sample.

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    Mosiur Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence from developing countries regarding the association between gender inequity and intimate partner violence (IPV victimization in women has been suggestive but inconclusive. Using nationally representative population-based data from Bangladesh, we examined the association between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and the risk of IPV. METHODS: We used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic Health Survey. The analyses were based on the responses of 4,467 married women. The main explanatory variable was gender inequity, which reflects the multidimensional aspects of women's autonomy and the relationship inequality between women and their partner. The experience of physical and/or sexual IPV was the main outcome variable of interest. RESULTS: Over 53% of married Bangladeshi women experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their husbands. In the adjusted models, women who had a higher level of autonomy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.48; 99% confidence interval [CI] 0.37-0.61, a particularly high level of economic-decision-making autonomy (AOR 0.12; 99% CI 0.08-0.17, and a higher level of non-supportive attitudes towards wife beating or raping (AOR 0.61; 99% CI 0.47-0.83 were less likely to report having experienced IPV. Education level, age at marriage, and occupational discrepancy between spouses were also found to be significant predictors of IPV. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, dimensions of gender inequities were significant predictors of IPV among married women in Bangladesh. An investigation of the causal link between multidimensional aspects of gender inequity and IPV will be critical to developing interventions to reduce the risk of IPV and should be considered a public health research priority.

  8. Searching for polycystic ovary syndrome in postmenopausal women: evidence of a dose-effect association with prevalent cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Andrew J; von Mühlen, Denise; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) in older postmenopausal women. Cross-sectional study of community-dwelling non-estrogen-using postmenopausal-white women (N=713; mean+/-SD age, 73.8+/-7.9 years; mean body mass index, 24.0+/-3.5 kg/m) participating in the Rancho Bernardo Study. A putative PCOS phenotype was defined as the presence of three or more of the following features: (1) recalled history of irregular menses, (2) symptomatic premenopausal hyperandrogenism or biochemical evidence of current biochemical hyperandrogenism, (3) history of infertility or miscarriage, (4) central obesity, or (5) insulin resistance. Atherosclerotic CVD was determined from clinical history, electrocardiography, and structured interviews using validated techniques. The analysis was stratified by diabetes status, ascertained from medical history or 75-g oral glucose tolerance tests. The PCOS phenotype was present in 9.3% of the entire cohort and 5.8% of nondiabetic women. The prevalence of CVD was similar between women with the phenotype and unaffected women (27.3% vs 24.4%). Among women with intact ovaries and no diabetes, there was a stepwise graded association between an increasing number of features of the PCOS phenotype (ie, none to three or more) and prevalent CVD (P=0.02). A similar association was also observed for coronary heart disease alone (P=0.03). Among nondiabetic postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, prevalent atherosclerotic CVD is associated with features of a putative PCOS phenotype. This finding supports the thesis that PCOS increases the risk of atherosclerotic CVD after menopause.

  9. Body image mediates the depressive effects of weight gain in new mothers, particularly for women already obese: evidence from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study

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    Seung-Yong Han

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple studies show that obesity and depression tend to cluster in women. An “appearance concern” pathway has been proposed as one basic explanation of why higher weights might lead to depression. The transition to motherhood is a life phase in which women’s body image, weight, and depressive risk are in flux, with average weight increasing overall during this period. Examination of how these factors interact from pre- to post-pregnancy provides a means to test how body image plays a key role, as proposed, in causally shaping women’s depressive risk. Methods Tracking 39,915 pregnant women in the Norwegian Mother and Child (MoBA Cohort Study forward 36 months after their deliveries, we test the moderating and mediating effects of body image concerns on the emergence of new mothers’ depressive symptoms by using a binary logistic regression model with a discrete-time event history approach and mediation analysis with bootstrapping. Results For women with high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, weight gain heightens their depressive symptoms over time. Body image concerns mediate the association between weight gain and the development of depressive symptoms regardless of weight status. However, the mediation effect is more evident for women with higher pre-pregnancy BMI. Conversely, better body image is highly protective against the transition to mild or more severe depressive symptoms among new mothers, but only for women who were not classified as obese prior to their pregnancies. Conclusions These findings support a role for body image concerns in the etiology of depressive symptoms during the transition to motherhood. The findings suggest body image interventions before or during pregnancy could help reduce risks of depression in the early postpartum period and well beyond.

  10. Pandemic of Pregnant Obese Women: Is It Time to Re-Evaluate Antenatal Weight Loss?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Davis

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Obesity pandemic will afflict future generations without successful prevention, intervention and management. Attention to reducing obesity before, during and after pregnancy is essential for mothers and their offspring. Preconception weight loss is difficult given that many pregnancies are unplanned. Interventions aimed at limiting gestational weight gain have produced minimal maternal and infant outcomes. Therefore, increased research to develop evidence-based clinical practice is needed to adequately care for obese pregnant women especially during antenatal care. This review evaluates the current evidence of obesity interventions during pregnancy various including weight loss for safety and efficacy. Recommendations are provided with the end goal being a healthy pregnancy, optimal condition for breastfeeding and prevent the progression of obesity in future generations.

  11. Weighing In: The "Evidence of Experience" and Canadian Fat Women's Activism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This article adds historical dimension to the developing literature on "obesity stigma": negative treatment and discrimination experienced as a consequence of the belief that overweight people are lazy and lacking willpower and basic knowledge about nutrition. Interviews with women who identified as fat suggest that medical and cultural concern about weight was conflated in their interactions with doctors, peers, and family. Stigma was a cause of frustration and despair for those deemed obese, who felt that unfair assumptions were made about their lifestyle and their abilities. In response, the women interviewed formed organizations, exercise classes, and social activities for "fat women only." Fat activists offer unique insight, because their work sheds light not only on the impact of obesity stigma but also on how some women responded to and resisted the medicalization and objectification of their bodies.

  12. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample s...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect.......In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...

  13. Hit Twice? Danish Evidence on the Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Rosholm, Michael; Smith, Nina

    In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample s...... selection and individual specific effects. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we find that all women are affected by a substantial gender discrimination in wages, but only Pakistani women experience a double-negative effect.......In this paper, we investigate whether there is a double-negative effect on the wages of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a negative effect from both gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups correcting for sample...

  14. Targeting married women in microfinance programmes: transforming or reinforcing gender inequalities? : evidence from Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Bekele, H.

    2010-01-01

    With the expansion of microfinance programmes in the low-income countries, millions of poor women in these countries have been able to access microfinancial services, particularly microcredit and savings. The provision of microfinance services to women has been largely premised on the assumption that credit facilitates or expands women’s selfemployment opportunities, and consequently leads to their empowerment. In recent years, however, this proposition is under scrutiny and debate, as t...

  15. The influence of women's empowerment on maternal health care utilization: evidence from Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sado, Lantona; Spaho, Alma; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-08-01

    Women in Albania receive antenatal care and postnatal care at lower levels than in other countries in Europe. Moreover, there are large socio-economic and regional disparities in maternal health care use. Previous research in low- and middle-income countries has found that women's status within the household can be a powerful force for improving the health, longevity, and mental and physical capacity of mothers and the well-being of children, but there is very little research on this issue in the Balkans. The aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of women's empowerment within the household on antenatal and postnatal care utilization in Albania. The research questions are explored through the use of bivariate and multivariate analyses based on nationally representative data from the 2008-09 Albania Demographic and Health Survey. The linkages between women's empowerment and maternal health care utilization are analyzed using two types of indicators of women's empowerment: decision making power and attitudes toward domestic violence. The outcome variables are indicators of the utilization of antenatal care and postnatal care. The findings suggest that use of maternal health care services is influenced by women's roles in decision-making and the attitudes of women towards domestic violence, after controlling for a number of socio-economic and demographic factors which are organized at individual, household, and community level. The study results suggest that policy actions that increase women's empowerment at home could be effective in helping assure good maternal health. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Harnessing information technology to improve women's health information: evidence from Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Z; Qureshi, Shazia; Fischer, Florian

    2014-09-04

    More than half of Pakistani women are illiterate, marginalized, and experience myriad health problems. These women are also disadvantaged in terms of their restricted mobility and limited access to public space. Nonetheless, user-friendly information and communication technologies (ICTs) have opened up new opportunities to provide them with information that is essential for their health and well-being. We established an Information and Communication Centre (ICC) in a village in Sialkot (Pakistan) on a pilot basis in 2009. The basic philosophy of the ICC was to provide women with health-related information by exposing them to modern sources of information on their doorstep. By design, the ICC was a community-based and community-managed institution where women could access information through online (e.g., internet, mobile phone etc.) and offline (e.g., CDs, TV etc.) resources. The ICC was managed by a group of local volunteer women who had the capacity and skills to use the devices and tools of modern ICTs. We noted an overwhelming participation and interest from local women in the activities of the ICC. The women wanted to receive information on a wide range of issues, from family planning, antenatal care, and childcare to garbage disposal and prevention of domestic violence. Overall, the ICC was successful in initiating a meaningful "information dialogue" at community level, where much-needed information was retrieved, negotiated, mediated, and disseminated through intimate and trusted relations. We conclude that ICTs have the capacity to cross the barriers of illiteracy and can reach out to disadvantaged women living under a conservative patriarchal regime.

  17. Empirical Evidence of Entrepreneurial Competencies and Firm Performance: A Study of Women Entrepreneurs of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Kabir; Ibrahim Hazril Izwar; Mohammad Shah Khairul Anuar

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of current study is to investigate the effects of entrepreneurial competencies on firm performance of businesses owned by Nigerian women entrepreneurs. The 200 respondents of this study are women entrepreneurs operating micro-business units in Kaduna state, Nigeria. Survey questions was used to collect data. The study utilises SPSS and SmartPLS 2.0 to analyse the data. The findings indicated that strategic, opportunity and organizing competencies significantly affect the firm perf...

  18. Women's reproductive health in slum populations in India: evidence from NFHS-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Indrajit

    2010-03-01

    The urban population in India is one of the largest in the world. Its unprecedented growth has resulted in a large section of the population living in abject poverty in overcrowded slums. There have been limited efforts to capture the health of people in urban slums. In the present study, we have used data collected during the National Family Health Survey-3 to provide a national representation of women's reproductive health in the slum population in India. We examined a sample of 4,827 women in the age group of 15-49 years to assess the association of the variable slum with selected reproductive health services. We have also tried to identify the sociodemographic factors that influence the utilization of these services among women in the slum communities. All analyses were stratified by slum/non-slum residence, and multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the strength of association between key reproductive health services and relevant sociodemographic factors. We found that less than half of the women from the slum areas were currently using any contraceptive methods, and discontinuation rate was higher among these women. Sterilization was the most common method of contraception (25%). Use of contraceptives depended on the age, level of education, parity, and the knowledge of contraceptive methods (p women, the proportion of deliveries conducted by skilled attendants was low, and the percentage of home deliveries was high. The use of skilled delivery care was found to be significantly associated with age, level of education, economic status, parity, and prior antenatal visits (p women from slum areas depended on the government facilities for reproductive health services. Our findings suggest that significant differences in reproductive health outcomes exist among women from slum and non-slum communities in India. Efforts to progress towards the health MDGs and other national or international health targets may not be achieved without a focus on the

  19. Ideational struggles over women's part-time work in Norway: Destabilizing the gender contract

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingsæter, Anne Lise; Mosesdottir, Lilja

    2017-01-01

    High rates of part-time work have been associated with high female employment rates in the Nordic countries, except for Finland. Part-time work has played a key role in the modification of the male breadwinner gender contract by enabling women to enter paid work while continuing to take on the main domestic responsibilities. Previously tacit and little disputed, this ‘normalization’ of women’s part-time work has increasingly become a contentious issue in the public debate in Norway, both in t...

  20. Factors Associated With Increased Cesarean Risk Among African American Women: Evidence From California, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We studied if both observed and unobserved maternal health in African American women in hospitals or communities were associated with cesarean delivery of infants. Methods. We examined the relationship between African American race and cesarean delivery among 493 433 women discharged from 255 Californian hospitals in 2010 using administrative data; we adjusted for patient comorbidities and maternal, fetal, and placental risk factors, as well as clustering of patients within hospitals. Results. Cesarean rates were significantly higher overall for African American women than other women (unadjusted rate 36.8% vs 32.7%), as were both elective and emergency primary cesarean rates. Elevated risks persisted after risk adjustment (odds ratio generally > 1.27), but the prevalence of particular risk factors varied. Although African American women were clustered in some hospitals, the proportion of African Americans among all women delivering in a hospital was not related to its overall cesarean rate. Conclusions. To address the higher likelihood of elective cesarean delivery, attention needs to be given to currently unmeasured patient-level health factors, to the quality of provider–physician interactions, as well as to patient preferences. PMID:25790391

  1. [Life satisfaction and self-esteem among women in the menopausal time].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaczek, Zbigniew; Saracen, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    The period of menopause is usually a long-lasting, running process, with strong hormone changes which are manifested with somatic disorders and the lability of the emotional state. The degree of severity of the occurence of these symptoms can be variously bolstered. These changes can affect the quality of life and ones self-esteem. To assess the level of self-esteem of biopsychosocial functioning women in the menopausal time and the impact of menopause on women's quality of life. A group of 90 women in perimenopausal aged 49-61 were enrolled in the study. Standardized psychological questionnaires (Kupperman Index, SES Rosenberg and WHOQoL-BREF) were used. Additional data was collected by using a questionnaire developed by the authors. In statistical analysis χ2, analysis of variance and Spearman's rank correlation models were used. A significant correlation relationship between level of education and the sphere of psychological evaluation (p life in the social (p 25 indicating the correct (in the normal or higher range) self-esteem. In the studied group, women believe that they have the correct (in the normal or higher range) self-esteem. The surveyed women found as good their quality of life, the highest rated was social and psychological sphere, the lowest score received sphere of physical functioning (somatic). A statistically significant correlations were achieved between home and professional activity, and the assessment of the quality of life in the social and environmental sphere. The analysis showed a significant association correlation between level of education of women and the sphere of psychological evaluation.

  2. Time to guide: evidence for delayed attentional guidance in contextual cueing \\ud

    OpenAIRE

    Kunar, Melina A.; Flusberg, Stephen J.; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that, when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when the observers are not aware of the repetition. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit in standard contextual cueing tasks is not likely to be due to an improvement in attentional guidance (Kunar, Flusberg, Horowitz, & Wolfe, 2007). Nevertheless, we ask whether guidance can help participants find the target in a repeated display, if they are given sufficie...

  3. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-13

    Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003-2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log 10 -transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log 10 -unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-5.86% (95% CI: -9.91%, -1.63%) and percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=-4.75% (95% CI: -8.16%, -0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log 10 -unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data ( n =640). Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this study suggest that PFAS exposures during pregnancy may

  4. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matilla-Santander, Nuria; Valvi, Damaskini; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B.; Ballester, Ferran; Ibarluzea, Jesús; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Schettgen, Thomas; Guxens, Mònica; Sunyer, Jordi

    2017-01-01

    Background: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS exposure susceptibility. Objective: We evaluated the associations between PFAS exposures and metabolic outcomes in pregnant women. Methods: We analyzed 1,240 pregnant women from the Spanish INMA [Environment and Childhood Project (INfancia y Medio Ambiente)] birth cohort study (recruitment period: 2003–2008) with measured first pregnancy trimester plasma concentrations of four PFASs (in nanograms/milliliter). We used logistic regression models to estimate associations of PFASs (log10-transformed and categorized into quartiles) with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and we used linear regression models to estimate associations with first-trimester serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Results: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) were positively associated with IGT (137 cases) [OR per log10-unit increase=1.99 (95% CI: 1.06, 3.78) and OR=1.65 ( 95% CI: 0.99, 2.76), respectively]. PFOS and PFHxS associations with GDM (53 cases) were in a similar direction, but less precise. PFOS and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) were negatively associated with triglyceride levels [percent median change per log10-unit increase=−5.86% (95% CI: −9.91%, −1.63%) and percent median change per log10-unit increase=−4.75% (95% CI: −8.16%, −0.61%, respectively], whereas perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was positively associated with total cholesterol [percent median change per log10-unit increase=1.26% (95% CI: 0.01%, 2.54%)]. PFASs were not associated with CRP in the subset of the population with available data (n=640). Conclusions: Although further confirmation is required, the findings from this

  5. Diverse impacts of aging on insulin resistance in lean and obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome: evidence from 1345 women with the syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livadas, Sarantis; Kollias, Anastasios; Panidis, Dimitrios; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2014-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents a moving spectrum of hormonal to metabolic abnormalities, as women with the syndrome are aging. Hormonal abnormalities, anovulation, and hyperandrogenic signs were predominant during the early years of PCOS and fade away with the years. Metabolic abnormalities and insulin resistance (IR) remain throughout the PCOS life cycle; however, it is unclear as to how they change, as women with the syndrome are aging. To evaluate the changes in IR and its associations with clinical, biochemical, hormonal, and ultrasound findings in a large cohort of women with PCOS and controls, as they are aging. A cross-sectional study was carried out to evaluate the diverse impacts of aging on IR. An outpatient clinic was chosen for the study. A total of 1345 women with PCOS (Rotterdam criteria) and 302 controls of Caucasian origin and Greek ethnicity comprised the study group. The impact of age on IR, as calculated using homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR) index, and several PCOS characteristics were evaluated. In PCOS, age (-0.045±0.008) was negatively, and BMI positively (0.18±0.007) associated with HOMA-IR (R(2)=0.36). When data were stratified with regard to the BMI status, a negative association of age with HOMA-IR was found in lean, normal, and overweight patients (r: -0.266, -0.233, -0.192, Pwomen (P: 0.202) across age quartiles. Aging increases IR in obese but not in lean and overweight women with PCOS. As BMI and androgens are positively associated with HOMA-IR and androgens decline through time, it appears that if women with PCOS do not become obese they may exhibit a better metabolic profile during their reproductive years. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  6. Collective violence and attitudes of women toward intimate partner violence: Evidence from the Niger Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antai Diddy

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has been undergoing collective violence for over 25 years, which has constituted a major public health problem. The objectives of this study were to investigate the predictors of women's attitudes toward intimate partner violence in the Niger Delta in comparison to that of women in other parts of Nigeria. Methods The 2003 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey was used for this study. Respondents were selected using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling procedure through which 3725 women were selected and interviewed. These women contributed 6029 live born children born to the survey. Internal consistency of the measure of the women's attitudes towards intimate partner violence against a woman was assessed using Cronbach's alpha (α. Percentage distributions of the relevant characteristics of the respondents were carried out, and multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to measure the magnitude and direction of the relationship between the outcome and predictor variables were expressed as odds ratios (OR and statistical significance was determined at the 95 percent confident interval level (CI. Results Tolerance for intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger delta (47 percent was higher than that of women from the rest of the country (42 percent. Rural residence, lower household wealth, lower status occupations, and media access (newspaper and radio were associated with lower risk of justifying IPV among the women in the Niger Delta. In contrast full or partial autonomy in household decisions regarding food to be cooked, and access to television were associated with a lower risk of justifying violence. Conclusion The increased justification of intimate partner violence among the women in the Niger Delta could be explained by a combination of factors, among which are cognitive dissonance theory (attitudes that do not fit with other opinions they hold as a means of

  7. Socio-sexuality and episodic memory function in women: further evidence of an adaptive "mating mode".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David S; Jones, Benedict C; Allan, Kevin

    2013-08-01

    The functionalist memory perspective predicts that information of adaptive value may trigger specific processing modes. It was recently demonstrated that women's memory is sensitive to cues of male sexual dimorphism (i.e., masculinity) that convey information of adaptive value for mate choice because they signal health and genetic quality, as well as personality traits important in relationship contexts. Here, we show that individual differences in women's mating strategies predict the effect of facial masculinity cues upon memory, strengthening the case for functional design within memory. Using the revised socio-sexual orientation inventory, Experiment 1 demonstrates that women pursuing a short-term, uncommitted mating strategy have enhanced source memory for men with exaggerated versus reduced masculine facial features, an effect that reverses in women who favor long-term committed relationships. The reversal in the direction of the effect indicates that it does not reflect the sex typicality of male faces per se. The same pattern occurred within women's source memory for women's faces, implying that the memory bias does not reflect the perceived attractiveness of faces per se. In Experiment 2, we reran the experiment using men's faces to establish the reliability of the core finding and replicated Experiment 1's results. Masculinity cues may therefore trigger a specific mode within women's episodic memory. We discuss why this mode may be triggered by female faces and its possible role in mate choice. In so doing, we draw upon the encoding specificity principle and the idea that episodic memory limits the scope of stereotypical inferences about male behavior.

  8. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: evidence from a large survey of Nordic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Bo T; Kjær, Susanne K; Arnheim-Dahlström, Lisen; Liaw, Kai-Li; Jensen, Kirsten E; Thomsen, Louise T; Munk, Christian; Nygård, Mari

    2014-09-03

    To assess whether recipients and non-recipients of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine subsequently differ in terms of sexual risk taking behaviour. Cross-sectional survey. Sequential analyses constructed from self-reported age at vaccination, age at first intercourse and age at response. A random selection of women aged 18-46 years living in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in 2011-2012, eligible for opportunistic or organized catch-up HPV vaccination. A total of 3805 women reported to have received the HPV vaccine and 40,247 reported not to have received it. Among vaccinees, 1539 received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut, of which 476 and 1063 were eligible for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccination, respectively. Self-reported sexual behaviour, compared by hazard ratios and odds ratios for women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut versus women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. HPV vaccination did not result in younger age at first intercourse. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not have more sexual partners than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut did not subsequently engage more in sexual risk taking behaviour than women who did not receive the HPV vaccine. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinically evident fat necrosis in women treated with high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone for early-stage breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wazer, David E.; Lowther, David; Boyle, Teresa; Ulin, Kenneth; Neuschatz, Andrew; Ruthazer, Robin; DiPetrillo, Thomas A.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of and variables associated with clinically evident fat necrosis in women treated on a protocol of high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone without external-beam whole-breast irradiation for early-stage breast carcinoma. Methods and Materials: From 6/1997 until 8/1999, 30 women diagnosed with Stage I or II breast carcinoma underwent surgical excision and postoperative irradiation via HDR brachytherapy implant as part of a multi-institutional clinical Phase I/II protocol. Patients eligible included those with T1, T2, N0, N1 (≤3 nodes positive), M0 tumors of nonlobular histology with negative surgical margins, no extracapsular lymph-node extension, and a negative postexcision mammogram. Brachytherapy catheters were placed at the initial excision, re-excision, or at the time of axillary sampling. Direct visualization, surgical clips, ultrasound, or CT scans assisted in delineating the target volume defined as the excision cavity plus 2-cm margin. High activity 192 Ir (3-10 Ci) was used to deliver 340 cGy per fraction, 2 fractions per day, for 5 consecutive days to a total dose of 34 Gy to the target volume. Source position and dwell times were calculated using standard volume optimization techniques. Dosimetric analyses were performed with three-dimensional postimplant dose and volume reconstructions. The median follow-up of all patients was 24 months (range, 12-36 months). Results: Eight patients (crude incidence of 27%) developed clinically evident fat necrosis postimplant in the treated breast. Fat necrosis was determined by clinical presentation including pain and swelling in the treated volume, computed tomography, and/or biopsy. All symptomatic patients (7 of 8 cases) were successfully treated with 3 to 12 months of conservative management. Continuous variables that were found to be associated significantly with fat necrosis included the number of source dwell positions (p=0.04), and the volume of tissue which received

  10. Moving attention - Evidence for time-invariant shifts of visual selective attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remington, R.; Pierce, L.

    1984-01-01

    Two experiments measured the time to shift spatial selective attention across the visual field to targets 2 or 10 deg from central fixation. A central arrow cued the most likely target location. The direction of attention was inferred from reaction times to expected, unexpected, and neutral locations. The development of a spatial attentional set with time was examined by presenting target probes at varying times after the cue. There were no effects of distance on the time course of the attentional set. Reaction times for far locations were slower than for near, but the effects of attention were evident by 150 msec in both cases. Spatial attention does not shift with a characteristic, fixed velocity. Rather, velocity is proportional to distance, resulting in a movement time that is invariant over the distances tested.

  11. The effects of women's education on maternal health: Evidence from Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Abigail

    2017-05-01

    This article examines the causal effect of women's education on maternal health in Peru, a country where maternal mortality has declined by more than 70% in the last two and a half decades. To isolate the effects of education, the author employs an instrumented regression discontinuity that takes advantage of an exogenous source of variation-an amendment to compulsory schooling laws in 1993. The results indicate that extending women's years of schooling reduced the probability of several maternal health complications at last pregnancy/birth, sometimes by as much as 29%. Underlying these effects, increasing women's education is found to decrease the probability of short birth intervals and unwanted pregnancies (which may result in unsafe abortions) and to increase antenatal healthcare use, potentially owing to changes in women's cognitive skills, economic resources, and autonomy. These findings underscore the influential role of education in reducing maternal morbidity and highlight the contributions of women's education to population health and health transitions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Is gender mainstreaming helping women scientists? Evidences from research policies in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Alonso

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Literature has repeatedly shown that gender mainstreaming is far from being transformative and smoothly introduced. It is rather a contested strategy, leading to steady impacts on changing routines and gendering policy outcomes. However, research policies have appeared to be one of the issues areas where a gender perspective has been introduced. This is the case for Spanish research policies, which have been assessed to promote the inclusion of women in the R&D system. This article explores these emerging shifts in order to explore the problem for women in science and the solutions proposed to solve it. In addition, it seeks to examine whether these measures can potentially help women to get an equal position in science or whether they are addressing the wrong targets. To do so, this work draws on a survey of doctoral and postdoctoral researchers carried out in Spain, covering 350 respondents. It captures the necessities, wills and obstacles for women scientists, and while doing that, it allows us to assess whether gender mainstreaming is likely to be effective for bringing more women to the academia.

  13. Economic crisis and women's labor force return after childbirth: Evidence from South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Most research on women's labor force return after childbirth concentrates on industrialized countries in the West; the link between economic swings and mothers' work-return behavior is rarely addressed. This study closes these gaps by focusing on South Korea, a developed society in East Asia that has in recent decades witnessed increases in female labor force participation and dramatic economic ups and downs. This is the first relevant study on South Korea. Objective: This study examines how women's labor force return after childbirth (with and without career interruption and their career prospects upon work return varied before, during, and after the Asian financial crisis in South Korea. Methods: Logistic and hazard regression models were applied to the Korea Labor and Income Panel Study (KLIPS waves 1-10. Results: The study reveals an increase in women's immediate work return after childbirth without career interruption since the 1980s. The Asian financial crisis boosted this immediate return pattern. The implementation of job-protected maternity leave further contributed to this pattern. Women who underwent career interruption at first birth were also more likely to re-enter the labor market during and after the crisis than before. Downward occupational moves were especially common during the period of financial crisis. Conclusions: The results suggest that the Asian financial crisis triggered a noticeable change in women's post-birth work-return behavior. The economic volatility pushed mothers to hold onto their role in the labor force more strongly than before.

  14. NGO-promoted microcredit programs and women's empowerment in rural Bangladesh: quantitative and qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, R; Becker, S; Bayes, A

    1998-01-01

    Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in rural Bangladesh are reaching out to poor women with collateral-free credit programs aimed at both alleviating poverty and increasing women's status. The present study investigated the hypothesis that participation in credit-related activities by NGO credit members leads to greater empowerment of credit members compared to nonmembers. The sample was comprised of 1164 loanees and 1200 nonloanees from the five NGO areas in Bangladesh and of 1200 nonloanees from non-program areas of rural Bangladesh with no significant NGO presence. NGO credit members had significantly higher scores on all three indices of female empowerment: inter-spouse consultation, autonomy, and authority. Moreover, nonmembers within NGO program areas had higher autonomy and authority scores than nonmembers within the comparison areas. Even after background variables were controlled in the multivariate analysis, NGO credit membership and residence in an NGO program area remained significantly and positively associated with both the autonomy and authority indices. Other variables that exerted a significant positive effect on women's empowerment were concrete or corrugated buildings, area of residence outside the southern or eastern regions, nonagricultural occupation, respondent's education, and age. In focus group discussions, NGO credit loanees reported that the program made them more confident, assertive, intelligent, self-reliant, and aware of their rights. NGO credit programs that target poor women are likely to produce substantial improvements in women's social and economic status, without the long delays associated with education or employment opportunities in the formal sector.

  15. Changes in physical activity, sedentary time, and risk of falling: The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bea, Jennifer W; Thomson, Cynthia A; Wallace, Robert B; Wu, Chunyuan; Seguin, Rebecca A; Going, Scott B; LaCroix, Andrea; Eaton, Charles; Ockene, Judith K; LaMonte, Michael J; Jackson, Rebecca; Jerry Mysiw, W; Wactawski-Wende, Jean

    2017-02-01

    Falling significantly affects quality of life, morbidity, and mortality among older adults. We sought to evaluate the prospective association between sedentary time, physical activity, and falling among post-menopausal women aged 50-79years recruited to the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998 from 40 clinical centers across the United States. Baseline (B) and change in each of the following were evaluated at year 3 (Y3) and year 6 (Y6; baseline n=93,676; Y3 n=76,598; Y6 n=75,428): recreational physical activity (MET-h/wk), sitting, sleeping (min/day), and lean body mass by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (subset N=6475). Falls per year (0, 1, 2, ≥3) were assessed annually by self-report questionnaire and then dichotomized as ≤1 and ≥2falls/year. Logistic regression models were adjusted for demographics, body mass index, fall history, tobacco and alcohol use, medical conditions, and medications. Higher baseline activity was associated with greater risk of falling at Y6 (18%; p for trend falling (1% Y3; 2% Y6; pfalling at Y3 and Y6 (p for trend falling among post-menopausal women. Additional fall prevention strategies, such as balance and resistance training, should be evaluated to assist post-menopausal women in reaching or maintaining levels of aerobic activity known to prevent and manage several chronic diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sequencing the real time of the elderly: Evidence from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erofili Grapsa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding how the elderly in developing countries spend their time has received little attention. Moreover, the potential of time use data to discern variation in activity patterns has not been fully realized by methods which use a mean added time approach. Objective: To uncover patterns of time use among the elderly (60 years and older in South Africa by applying an innovative methodology that incorporates the timing, duration, and frequency of activities in the analysis. Methods: We use sequence analysis, which treats the daily series of activities of each individual as a sequence, and cluster analysis, to group these sequences into common clusters of time use behaviour. We then estimate multinomial logit regressions to identify the characteristics of the elderly which predict cluster membership. Results: We find that the time use behaviour of the elderly in South Africa can be divided into five distinct clusters, according to the relative importance in their day of personal care, household maintenance, work, mass media, and social or cultural activities. In comparison to men, women are overrepresented in the cluster where household work dominates, while they are underrepresented in the cluster of the elderly who engage in production work. A range of other individual and household characteristics are also important in predicting cluster membership. Contribution: Sequence and cluster analysis permit a nuanced examination of the differences and commonalities in time use patterns among the elderly in South Africa. There is considerable potential to extend these methods to other studies of time use behaviour.

  17. Physical strength and dance attractiveness: Further evidence for an association in men, but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weege, Bettina; Pham, Michael N; Shackelford, Todd K; Fink, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Physical strength provides information about male quality and can be assessed from facial and body morphology. Research on perception of dance movements indicates that body movement also provides information about male physical strength. These relationships have not been investigated for women. We investigated relationships of handgrip strength (HGS) and dance attractiveness perception in 75 men and 84 women. We identified positive relationships between HGS and opposite-sex assessments of dance attractiveness for men but not women. The replication of previous research investigating relationships between dance attractiveness and physical strength in men corroborates the hypothesis that dance movements provide information about male quality. We argue that these relationships are interpretable in contexts of inter- and intra-sexual selection. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whigham, Leah D.; Butz, Daniel E.; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Cook, Mark E.; Porter, Warren P.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Markley, John L.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Abbott, David H.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (pglucose tolerance test showed that a transient elevation in blood glucose levels decreased circulating levels of lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolic intermediates (acetone, 2-oxocaporate, 2-aminobutyrate, pyruvate, formate, and sarcosine) in PCOS women, whereas the 2 h glucose challenge led to increases in the same intermediates in normal women. These pilot data suggest that PCOS-related inflexibility in fasting-related switching between lipid and carbohydrate/protein utilization for carbon metabolism may contribute to enhanced weight gain. PMID:24765590

  19. Timing of first sex before marriage and its correlates: evidence from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhya, K G; Acharya, Rajib; Jejeebhoy, Shireen J; Ram, Usha

    2011-03-01

    While several studies have documented the extent of pre-marital sexual experience among young people in India, little work has been done to explore the factors that are correlated with the timing of pre-marital sexual initiation. This paper examines age at initiation of pre-marital sex, circumstances in which first sex was experienced, nature of first sexual experience and correlates of age at initiation of pre-marital sex. Life table estimates suggest that pre-marital sexual initiation occurred in adolescence for 1 in 20 young women and 1 in 10 young men. For the majority of these young people, their first sex was with an opposite-sex romantic partner. First sex, moreover, was unprotected for the majority and forced for sizeable proportion of young women. A number of individual, family-, peer- and community-level factors were correlated with age at first pre-marital sex. Moreover, considerable gender differences were apparent in the correlates of age at first pre-marital sex, with peer- and parent-level factors found more often to be significant for young women than men.

  20. Treadmill exercise testing of asymptomatic men and women without evidence of heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.A. Chalela

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis of differences in performance including differences in ST-T wave changes between healthy men and women submitted to an exercise stress test. Two hundred (45.4% men and 241 (54.6% women (mean age: 38.7 ± 11.0 years were submitted to an exercise stress test. Physiologic and electrocardiographic variables were compared by the Student t-test and the chi-square test. To test the hypothesis of differences in ST-segment changes, data were ranked with functional models based on weighted least squares. To evaluate the influence of gender and age on the diagnosis of ST-segment abnormality, a logistic model was adjusted; P < 0.05 was considered to be significant. Rate-pressure product, duration of exercise and estimated functional capacity were higher in men (P < 0.05. Sixteen (6.7% women and 9 (4.5% men demonstrated ST-segment upslope ≥0.15 mV or downslope ≥0.10 mV; the difference was not statistically significant. Age increase of one year added 4% to the chance of upsloping of segment ST ≥0.15 mV or downsloping of segment ST ≥0.1 mV (P = 0.03; risk ratio = 1.040, 95% confidence interval (CI = 1.002-1.080. Heart rate recovery was higher in women (P < 0.05. The chance of women showing an increase of systolic blood pressure ≤30 mmHg was 85% higher (P = 0.01; risk ratio = 1.85, 95%CI = 1.1-3.05. No significant difference in the frequency of ST-T wave changes was observed between men and women. Other differences may be related to different physical conditioning.

  1. WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT AND GENDER INEQUALITY IN ADOLESCENT NUTRITIONAL STATUS: EVIDENCE FROM THE INDONESIAN FAMILY LIFE SURVEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunto, Yohanes Sondang; Bras, Hilde

    2017-11-23

    In contrast to the extensive knowledge on the association between women's empowerment and the nutritional status of children under the age of five, relatively little is known about the influence of women's empowerment on adolescents' nutritional status. This study aimed to assess the association between women's empowerment and gender inequalities in adolescent nutritional status. Data were from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) covering the period 1997 to 2015, and consisted of 16,683 observations from 13,396 adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19 years born in 6781 families. Three indicators of women's empowerment were used: mother's education, mother's bargaining power and mother's working status. Multivariate linear regression with robust standard errors was used to examine whether and how these indicators of women's empowerment influenced adolescent nutritional status. Interaction terms were added to analyse how the association between women's empowerment and adolescent nutritional status differed by gender. The results showed that mother's education and mother's working status were significantly associated with adolescent nutritional status, particularly with height-for-age. Adolescents of well-educated mothers had a higher height-for-age while those who were raised by mothers with a blue-collar job had a lower height-for-age. Although no gender differences were found for height-for-age, gender differences for BMI-for-age were obvious, with boys having a lower BMI-for-age than girls. Interactions between indicators of mother's empowerment and gender showed that the gender gap in BMI-for-age was smaller for adolescents of more educated mothers. However, further analyses of food consumption patterns showed that boys whose mothers were more educated consumed more fast food and had higher instant noodle consumption than girls, thus suggesting gender bias in new disguise.

  2. U.S. Migration and Reproductive Health among Mexican Women: Assessing the Evidence for Health Selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra M. Minnis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Health selectivity posits that individuals who practice preventive health behaviors are more likely to migrate to the United States, and this has been proposed as one explanation of the Latino Paradox. This paper examines evidence for health selection in the context of reproductive health using national survey data from Mexico (the longitudinal Mexico Family Life Survey [MxFLS], 2002 and 2005 waves and the United States (the National Survey of Family Growth [NSFG], 2002. We compared sexual behaviors and contraceptive practices of Mexican women residing in Mexico who subsequently migrated to the United States with those who remained in Mexico and with Mexican immigrants in the United States. MxFLS respondents who migrated to the United States had a younger mean age, and a larger proportion had no children compared to MxFLS nonmigrants. Within the MxFLS sample, a smaller proportion of women who migrated had ever had vaginal sex, though this difference was nonsignificant with adjustment for sociodemographic factors. No sexual behavior or contraceptive use measures varied between Mexican migrants and nonmigrants within the MxFLS. The mean lifetime number of sexual partners was lower for MxFLS respondents than for Mexican immigrants in the NSFG. Smaller proportions of MxFLS respondents reported using hormonal methods or condoms relative to NSFG respondents. We found no evidence for health selectivity with regard to sexual behaviors or contraceptive practices, underscoring the importance of continued attention to the factors that influence the adaptation trajectories following U.S. migration.L’hypothèse de la sélection par la santé selon laquelle les individus qui adoptent des comportements de prévention sont plus susceptibles d’immigrer aux Etats-Unis, a été proposée comme une explication au paradoxe latino. Cet article examine les signes de sélection par la santé dans le contexte de la santé en matière de procréation sur la base des

  3. Wage Differences Between Men and Women in Austria: Evidence from 1983 and 1997

    OpenAIRE

    Böheim, René; Hofer, Helmut; Zulehner, Christine

    2005-01-01

    In most OECD countries the wage gap between men and women has declined during the past two decades. Developments of the last 20 years, e.g. increased labour market attachment of women, changes in the bargaining structure, and the introduction of equal pay laws, may have reduced the gender wage gap. We investigate the extent, persistence, and socio-economic determinants of the gender wage gap in Austria, for the years 1983 and 1997. Using wage decomposition techniques, we find that the average...

  4. Elastic scattering dynamics of cavity polaritons: Evidence for time-energy uncertainty and polariton localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langbein, Wolfgang Werner; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2002-01-01

    The directional dynamics of the resonant Rayleigh scattering from a semiconductor microcavity is investigated. When optically exciting the lower polariton branch, the strong dispersion results in a directional emission on a ring. The coherent emission ring shows a reduction of its angular width...... for increasing time after excitation, giving direct evidence for the time-energy uncertainty in the dynamics of the scattering by disorder. The ring width converges with time to a finite value, a direct measure of an intrinsic momentum broadening of the polariton states localized by multiple disorder scattering....

  5. [原著]Effect of Meal-Timing on Body Weight Gain in Young Women

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ming-Fu; Huang, Sheng-Chi; Chung, Hei-Mei; Lo, Shuen-Fang; Haeno, Fumiyo; Nomura, Satomi; Ikemiyasiro, Midori; Shinjo, Sumie; Asato, Liu; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Department of Food and Nutrition, Providence University, Taichung, Taiwan; Research Center of Comprehensive Medicine. Faculty of Medicine, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa, Japan

    1993-01-01

    This study was designed to find when to eat for better weight control. Five experiments of 10 days duration were done with 7 young women volunteers. The daily energy intake was 33 kcal/kg in all the experiments but the time or size of meals was different in each experiment. We observed that the later the time of dinner, the more the weight gain; breakfast did not have any effect on the weight gain and an evening snack before dinner prevented weight gain due to a late dinner. These results sug...

  6. Women

    OpenAIRE

    Annesley, Claire; Himmelweit, Susan

    2011-01-01

    This chapter examines the government's approach to fairness in its Comprehensive Spending Review and shows that it fails to acknowledge that men and women start from unequal positions, and that there are many barriers to social mobility other than lack of educational qualifications.\\ud Unequal employment opportunities and unpaid caring responsibilities are given as two examples. As a result women rely on public services to be able to combine care with employment and so cuts in public services...

  7. Time Seizures and the Self: Institutional Temporalities and Self Preservation among Homeless Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Amy

    2014-01-01

    This article documents temporalities of homelessness as experienced by many homeless people today, those living in the midst of an urban “services ghetto”—where social service organizations abound, but such organizations fail to coordinate the provision or timing of services, producing an incoherent multiplicity of offerings and schedules. I analyzed distinct but related temporal modes by which institutional timetables controlled homeless women’s existence, what I call empty time and overscheduled time. The paradoxes of institutionalized waiting and strict yet inconsistent timetables exacted profound material and psychological tolls. For homeless women in Chicago, many of whom experienced symptoms of severe mental illness, simply securing their daily needs was such a time-consuming endeavor that they had to focus on short-term self-preservation rather than seeking stable employment or housing. Using anthropological theories of self and subjectivity, I argue that what was at stake for many women was more than the exhaustion of shelter life—negotiating institutional timetables also threatened their sense of dignity and humanity. Through the everyday patterning of women’s time, nonprofit agencies whose stated aim was to eliminate homelessness paradoxically frustrated women’s efforts to escape life on the streets. I conclude the analysis with policy suggestions to address these problems. PMID:25287573

  8. Perceived and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among South Asian Women in the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitney Babakus Curry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA women fail to meet physical activity (PA recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST. There is limited research on SA women’s understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. Methods: 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Results: Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as “keeping busy” or “being healthy”, and of ST as “lazy” or “resting in old age”. Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity, with none able to estimate duration of ST. Discussion: Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily

  9. Sexual Assault Prevention for Women with Intellectual Disabilities: A Critical Review of the Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barger, Erin; Wacker, Julia; Macy, Rebecca; Parish, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Although research has indicated that women with intellectual disabilities are significantly burdened with sexual violence, there is a dearth of sexual assault prevention research for them. To help address this serious knowledge gap, the authors summarize the findings of general sexual assault prevention research and discuss its implications for…

  10. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and subsequent sexual behaviour: Evidence from a large survey of Nordic women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bo T.; Kjaer, Susanne K.; Arnheim-Dahlstrom, Lisen

    2014-01-01

    than did non-vaccinees. Non-use of contraception during first intercourse was more common among non-vaccinees than among HPV vaccinees. The results were similar for organized catch-up and opportunistic vaccinees. CONCLUSION: Women who received the HPV vaccine before or at the same age as sexual debut...

  11. Do women give up Competing more easily? Evidence from the Lab and the Dutch Math Olympiad

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buser, T.; Yuan, H.

    2016-01-01

    We conduct three lab experiments and use field data from the Dutch Math Olympiad to study how the gender gap in willingness to compete evolves in response to experience. The main result is that women are more likely than men to stop competing if they lose. In the Dutch Math Olympiad, this means that

  12. Why should women get less? Evidence on the gender pay gap from multifactorial survey experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auspurg, K.; Hinz, T.; Sauer, C.G.

    2017-01-01

    Gender pay gaps likely persist in Western societies because both men and women consider somewhat lower earnings for female employees than for otherwise similar male employees to be fair. Two different theoretical approaches explain "legitimate" wage gaps: same-gender referent theory and reward

  13. Evidence for Stress-like Alterations in the HPA-Axis in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Johannes; König, Johanna; Homuth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Using oral contraceptives has been implicated in the aetiology of stress-related disorders like depression. Here, we followed the hypothesis that oral contraceptives deregulate the HPA-axis by elevating circulating cortisol levels. We report for a sample of 233 pre-menopausal women increased...

  14. Child Care and the Labor Supply of Married Women: Reduced Form Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribar, David C.

    1992-01-01

    With data from the Survey of Income Program Participation, a three-equation, reduced-form econometric model is used to generate estimates revealing that the cost of market child care decreases the labor force participation of married women. High wages increase likelihood of working and use of paid child care. (SK)

  15. Evidence of Syndemics and Sexuality-Related Discrimination Among Young Sexual-Minority Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulter, Robert W S; Kinsky, Suzanne M; Herrick, Amy L; Stall, Ron D; Bauermeister, José A

    2015-09-01

    Syndemics, or the co-occurrence and interaction of health problems, have been examined extensively among young men who have sex with men, but their existence remain unexamined, to our knowledge, among sexual-minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) women. Thus, we investigated if syndemics were present among young sexual-minority women, and if sexual-orientation discrimination was an independent variable of syndemic production. A total of 467 sexual-minority women between the ages of 18 and 24 completed a cross-sectional online survey regarding their substance use, mental health, sexual behaviors, height, weight, and experiences of discrimination. We used structural equation modeling to investigate the presence of syndemics and their relationship to sexual-orientation discrimination. Heavy episodic drinking, marijuana use, ecstasy use, hallucinogen use, depressive symptoms, multiple sexual partners, and history of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) comprised syndemics in this population (chi-square=24.989, P=.201; comparative fit index [CFI]=0.946; root mean square error of approximation [RMSEA]=0.023). Sexual-orientation discrimination is significantly and positively associated with the latent syndemic variable (unstandardized coefficient=0.095, Pdiscrimination (unstandardized coefficient=0.602, P>.05). Syndemics appear to be present and associated with sexual-orientation discrimination among young sexual-minority women. Interventions aimed at reducing discrimination or increasing healthy coping may help reduce substance use, depressive symptoms, and sexual risk behaviors in this population.

  16. Women's maternity care needs and related service models in rural areas: A comprehensive systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Ha; Le, Quynh; Ogden, Kathryn

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the needs of rural women in maternity care and service models available to them is significant for the development of effective policies and the sustainability of rural communities. Nevertheless, no systematic review of studies addressing these needs has been conducted. To synthesise the best available evidence on the experiences of women's needs in maternity care and existing service models in rural areas. Literature search of ten electronic databases, digital theses, and reference lists of relevant studies applying inclusion/exclusion criteria was conducted. Selected papers were assessed using standardised critical appraisal instruments from JBI-QARI. Data extracted from these studies were synthesised using thematic synthesis. 12 studies met the inclusion criteria. There were three main themes and several sub-themes identified. A comprehensive set of the maternity care expectations of rural women was reported in this review including safety (7), continuity of care (6) and quality of care (6), and informed choices needs (4). In addition, challenges in accessing maternity services also emerged from the literature such as access (6), risk of travelling (9) and associated cost of travel (9). Four models of maternity care examined in the literature were medically led care (5), GP-led care (4), midwifery-led care (7) and home birth (6). The systematic review demonstrates the importance of including well-conducted qualitative studies in informing the development of evidence-based policies to address women's maternity care needs and inform service models. Synthesising the findings from qualitative studies offers important insight for informing effective public health policy. Copyright © 2014 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evidence of a higher prevalence of HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Sampaio Lôpo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION:HTLV-1 infection increases susceptibility to other infections. Few studies have addressed the co-infection between HPV and HTLV-1 and the immune response involved in this interaction. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of cervical HPV infection in HTLV-1-infected women and to establish the risk factors involved in this co-infection. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out in Salvador, Brazil, between September 2005 and December 2008, involving 50 HTLV-1-infected women from the HTLV Reference Center and 40 uninfected patients from gynecological clinic, both at the Bahiana School of Medicine. HPV infection was assessed using hybrid capture. HTLV-1 proviral load was quantified using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR. RESULTS: The mean age of HTLV-1-infected women (38 ± 10 years was similar to that of the control group (36 ± 13 years. The prevalence of HPV infection was 44% in the HTLV-1-infected group and 22.5% in uninfected women (p = 0.03. HTLV-1-infected women had lower mean age at onset of sexual life (17 ± 3 years versus 19 ± 3 years; p = 0.03 and greater number of lifetime partners compared with the control group (4 ± 3 versus 2 ± 1; p < 0.01. In the group of HTLV-1-infected patients, there was neither difference in HTLV-1 proviral load between HPV-infected women and the uninfected. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of HPV infection was higher in HTLV-1-infected women. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the progression of this co-infection.

  18. Levels of Evidence in the Clinical Sports Medicine Literature: Are We Getting Better Over Time?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Heather M; Tjoumakaris, Fotios P; Maltenfort, Mitchell G; Freedman, Kevin B

    2014-07-01

    There has been an increased emphasis on improving the level of evidence used as the basis for clinical treatment decisions. Several journals now require a statement of the level of evidence as a basic gauge of the study's strength. To review the levels of evidence in published articles in the clinical sports medicine literature and to determine if there has been an improvement in the levels of evidence published over the past 15 years. Systematic review. All articles from the years 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 in The American Journal of Sports Medicine (AJSM), Arthroscopy, and sports medicine-related articles from The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery-American (JBJS-A) were analyzed. Articles were categorized by type and ranked for level of evidence according to guidelines from the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine. Excluded were animal, cadaveric, and basic science articles; editorials; surveys; special topics; letters to the editor; and correspondence. Statistical analysis was performed with chi-square. A total of 1580 articles over the 4 periods met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of level 1 and 2 studies increased from 6.8% to 12.6%, 22.9%, and 23.5%, respectively (P studies decreased from 78.9% to 72.4%, 63.9%, and 53.0% (P studies (4.1%, 5.1%, 28.2%, 27.8%; P studies all showed significant increases in level 1 and 2 studies over time (P studies published in the sports medicine literature over the past 15 years, particularly in JBJS-A and AJSM. The largest increase was seen in diagnostic studies, while therapeutic and prognostic studies demonstrated modest improvement. The emphasis on increasing levels of evidence to guide treatment decisions for sports medicine patients may be taking effect. © 2014 The Author(s).

  19. Sexual function, incontinence, and wellbeing in women after rectal cancer--a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panjari, Mary; Bell, Robin J; Burney, Susan; Bell, Stephen; McMurrick, Paul J; Davis, Susan R

    2012-11-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer. One-third of these cancers occur in the rectum. Treatment of rectal cancer involves surgery with/without radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Surgery is undertaken to prevent damage to the nerves controlling bladder, bowel, and sexual organs, whether this translates into preservation of urinary and fecal continence and sexual function and, ultimately, quality of life (QoL) is not known. The aim of this review was to summarize the literature regarding the impact of treatment for rectal cancer on bladder and bowel continence, sexual function and QoL in women. A comprehensive review of the current literature on sexual function, incontinence and wellbeing in women after treatment for rectal cancer highlighting prevalence rates, trial design, and patient population. We conducted a systematic search of the literature using A systematic search of the literature using Medline (Ovid, 1946-present) and PubMed (1966-2011) for English-language studies that included the following search terms: "colorectal cancer," or "rectal cancer," or "rectal neoplasm," and "sexual function," or "sexual dysfunction," or "wellbeing," or "QoL," or "urinary or fecal incontinence." Although around 1/3 of women aged 50 to 70 years report lack of sexual desire, sexual function problems after treatment for rectal cancer are in the order of 60% among women. QoL improves with length of survival. Urinary and fecal incontinence are ongoing concerns for many women after treatment with rates up to 60%. There is a gap in our knowledge of the effects of rectal cancer and its treatment on urinary and fecal continence, sexual function and QoL in women. There is a need for studies of sufficient size and duration to gain a better understanding of the disease and its management and the long-term effects on these parameters. This information is needed to develop preventative health care plans for women treated for rectal cancer that target those most at risk for

  20. Effect of an evidence-based website on healthcare usage: an interrupted time-series study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Wouter A; Bonten, Tobias N; de Waal, Margot W M; Drenthen, Ton; Smeele, Ivo J M; Nielen, Markus M J; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Healthcare costs and usage are rising. Evidence-based online health information may reduce healthcare usage, but the evidence is scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether the release of a nationwide evidence-based health website was associated with a reduction in healthcare usage. Design Interrupted time series analysis of observational primary care data of healthcare use in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2014. Setting General community primary care. Population 912 000 patients who visited their general practitioners 18.1 million times during the study period. Intervention In March 2012, an evidence-based health information website was launched by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. It was easily accessible and understandable using plain language. At the end of the study period, the website had 2.9 million unique page views per month. Main outcomes measures Primary outcome was the change in consultation rate (consultations/1000 patients/month) before and after the release of the website. Additionally, a reference group was created by including consultations about topics not being viewed at the website. Subgroup analyses were performed for type of consultations, sex, age and socioeconomic status. Results After launch of the website, the trend in consultation rate decreased with 1.620 consultations/1000 patients/month (p<0.001). This corresponds to a 12% decline in consultations 2 years after launch of the website. The trend in consultation rate of the reference group showed no change. The subgroup analyses showed a specific decline for consultations by phone and were significant for all other subgroups, except for the youngest age group. Conclusions Healthcare usage decreased by 12% after providing high-quality evidence-based online health information. These findings show that e-Health can be effective to improve self-management and reduce healthcare usage in times of increasing healthcare costs. PMID:28186945

  1. Effect of an evidence-based website on healthcare usage: an interrupted time-series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoelman, Wouter A; Bonten, Tobias N; de Waal, Margot W M; Drenthen, Ton; Smeele, Ivo J M; Nielen, Markus M J; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-11-09

    Healthcare costs and usage are rising. Evidence-based online health information may reduce healthcare usage, but the evidence is scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether the release of a nationwide evidence-based health website was associated with a reduction in healthcare usage. Interrupted time series analysis of observational primary care data of healthcare use in the Netherlands from 2009 to 2014. General community primary care. 912 000 patients who visited their general practitioners 18.1 million times during the study period. In March 2012, an evidence-based health information website was launched by the Dutch College of General Practitioners. It was easily accessible and understandable using plain language. At the end of the study period, the website had 2.9 million unique page views per month. Primary outcome was the change in consultation rate (consultations/1000 patients/month) before and after the release of the website. Additionally, a reference group was created by including consultations about topics not being viewed at the website. Subgroup analyses were performed for type of consultations, sex, age and socioeconomic status. After launch of the website, the trend in consultation rate decreased with 1.620 consultations/1000 patients/month (pHealthcare usage decreased by 12% after providing high-quality evidence-based online health information. These findings show that e-Health can be effective to improve self-management and reduce healthcare usage in times of increasing healthcare costs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  2. Time to Thrive, Not Just Survive: Accumulating Advantage for Women in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolison, Debra

    2005-04-01

    Our departments of science, technology, mathematics, and engineering (STEM) need more women as faculty, and not only to show their undergraduates that a career in academia is a viable path. Their absence warns us that an unhealthy environment exists: unhealthy to those scientists who want fulfilling lives beyond academe and unhealthy to those women, who once they demonstrate productivity, scholarship, and mentorship, still reap less respect, space, salary, funding, and awards than their male colleagues. The recalcitrance of too many of our research universities toward diversifying their faculty is a national disgrace in that these universities covet a diversified student body, but do not reflect that pool of talent onto their faculty. Similar difficulties are apparent among the staff of National and Federal laboratories. Self-reform is not getting it done, and is especially frustrating in light of the historic opportunity to change the demographics as scientists and engineers hired in the 1960s retire. Is it time to apply the logic of Title IX--the loss of Federal funds--for the entrenched inability to increase the number of women represented on STEM faculties? Such a threat may be the impetus necessary for university administrators to create departmental environments that women are willing to call home. The July 2004 release of the GAO report on Women's Participation in the Sciences (which also surveyed DOE facilities) reminded those Federal agencies that fund scientific research that Title IX is the law and that these agencies must begin Title IX assessments of compliance in the STEM departments and institutions they fund. It is past time that women thrive, not just survive in their career homes. Using the mechanistic philosophy of Title IX--denial of resources to recalacitrant departments and laboratories--may be the start of a truly inclusive scientific enterprise in the United States. We must accept this opportunity to redirect the nature of the research

  3. What messages can foster safer sex among young women? Experimental evidence concerning the role of emotions and moral norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Camilla; Nerini, Amanda; Baroni, Duccio; Stefanile, Cristina

    2018-07-01

    Through a 2 × 2 × 2 quasi experimental design (N = 254), this research investigated if a social campaign eliciting positive emotions and activating moral norms might enhance condom negotiation skills, intended and estimated condom among young women with or without past sexual experience with casual partners. Emotions had a main effect on one of the six condom negotiation strategies we considered; for most of the other variables an interaction effect with moral norms and/or past behaviour emerged. Concerning estimated condom use, positive emotions worked better than negative ones when moral norms were salient. With respect to negotiations skills, positive rather than negative emotions seemed more effective for women with past causal sexual experience. In women without this kind of experience, positive emotions seemed to work better when moral norms were salient. Moral norms had a main effect on negotiation self-efficacy, but not in the predicted direction: when moral norms were more salient women were found to be less confident about their negotiation ability. These results suggest that a message which makes moral norms salient should at the same time elicit positive emotions in order to be effective; moreover, messages should be carefully tailored according to women's past behaviour.

  4. Electronic Media Use and Sleep Among Preschoolers: Evidence for Time-Shifted and Less Consolidated Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyens, Ine; Nathanson, Amy I

    2018-01-11

    This study examined the association between electronic media use and sleep among preschoolers, using a national sample of 402 mothers of 3- to 5-year-olds. Participants completed an online survey assessing preschoolers' electronic media use, bedtime and wake time, sleep time, napping behaviors, and sleep consolidation. Results showed that heavier television use and tablet use, both overall and in the evening, were associated with later bedtimes and later wake times, but not with fewer hours of sleep, providing evidence for a time-shifting process. In addition, heavier daily television use and evening smartphone use were associated with increased daytime napping. Moreover, heavier daily television use, daily and evening smartphone use, and evening tablet use were associated with poorer sleep consolidation, suggesting less mature sleep patterns. These findings indicate that media effects on the timing of sleep and the proportion of sleep that occurs at night are important to consider when assessing the health risks of electronic media on children.

  5. Delayed school start times and adolescent sleep: A systematic review of the experimental evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minges, Karl E; Redeker, Nancy S

    2016-08-01

    Many schools have instituted later morning start times to improve sleep, academic, and other outcomes in response to the mismatch between youth circadian rhythms and early morning start times. However, there has been no systematic synthesis of the evidence on the effects of this practice. To examine the impact of delayed school start time on students' sleep, health, and academic outcomes, electronic databases were systematically searched and data were extracted using the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Six studies satisfied selection criteria and used pre-post, no control (n = 3), randomized controlled trial (n = 2), and quasi-experimental (n = 1) designs. School start times were delayed 25-60 min, and correspondingly, total sleep time increased from 25 to 77 min per weeknight. Some studies revealed reduced daytime sleepiness, depression, caffeine use, tardiness to class, and trouble staying awake. Overall, the evidence supports recent non-experimental study findings and calls for policy that advocates for delayed school start time to improve sleep. This presents a potential long-term solution to chronic sleep restriction during adolescence. However, there is a need for rigorous randomized study designs and reporting of consistent outcomes, including objective sleep measures and consistent measures of health and academic performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The physical capabilities underlying timed "Up and Go" test are time-dependent in community-dwelling older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Junior, Hélio José; Rodrigues, Bruno; Gonçalves, Ivan de Oliveira; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-04-01

    Timed 'Up and Go' (TUG) has been widely used in research and clinical practice to evaluate physical function and mobility in older adults. However, the physical capabilities underlying TUG performance are not well elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating a selection of physical capacities underlying TUG performance in community-dwelling older women. Four hundred and sixty-eight apparently healthy older women independent to perform the activities of daily living (mean age: 65.8 ± 6.0 years) were recruited from two specialized healthcare centers for older adults to participate in the study. Volunteers had their medical books reviewed and underwent evaluations of anthropometric data as well as physical and functional capacities. Pearson's correlation results indicate that TUG performance was significantly associated with upper (i.e., handgrip strength) and lower (i.e., sit-to-stand) limb muscle strength, balance (i.e., one-leg stand), lower limb muscle power (i.e., countermovement jump), aerobic capacity (i.e., 6-minute walk test), and mobility (i.e., usual and maximal walking speeds). When the analyses were performed based on TUG quartiles, a larger number of physical capabilities were associated with TUG >75% in comparison with TUG <25%. Multiple linear regression results indicate that the variability in TUG (~20%) was explained by lower limb muscle strength (13%) and power (1%), balance (4%), mobility (2%), and aerobic capacity (<1%), even after adjusted by age and age plus body mass index (BMI). However, when TUG results were added as quartiles, a decrease in the impact of physical capacities on TUG performance was determined. As a whole, our findings indicate that the contribution of physical capabilities to TUG performance is altered according to the time taken to perform the test, so that older women in the lower quartiles - indicating a higher performance - have an important contribution of lower limb muscle strength, while

  7. Durations and domains of daily aerobic activity: evidence from the 2010 Canadian time-use survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millward, Hugh; Spinney J, E L; Scott, Darren

    2014-07-01

    This study employs national time-diary data to evaluate how much aerobic activity Canadians engage in on a daily basis, how that activity is apportioned by activity domain, and how subgroups within the population vary in their aerobic attainment. The study employs time-use data from the 2010 General Social Survey of Canada, for 15,390 respondents aged 15 and older. To estimate effort levels, the authors harmonized survey codes with those in the Compendium of Physical Activities. Aerobic activity was defined as moderate or vigorous effort at 3.5 Metabolic Equivalent of Task (MET) or higher. Among the 4 activity domains, aerobic participation is highest in leisure activities, followed by chores, paid work, and active transportation (AT). Only a minority (42%) of respondents recorded at least 20 mins/day of aerobic activity. Aerobic totals were particularly low for women and those in poor or fair health, and low for students, 15- to 24-year-olds, and those residing in Quebec, Ontario, and larger cities. The majority of Canadian adults are failing to meet recommended aerobic activity levels. However, there is considerable opportunity to increase aerobic participation for some groups, particularly women and young adults, especially in the leisure and AT domains.

  8. The globalization of behavioral science evidence about battered women: a theory of production and diffusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatowski, S I; Dobbin, S A; Richardson, J T; Ginsburg, G P

    1997-01-01

    A theoretical framework is proposed for understanding how the innovative use of behavioral science evidence is both produced and diffused among members of the global legal community. Using case law analyses and interviews with key individuals involved in selected cases, we examine how battered woman syndrome (BWS) is produced and diffused between and among Australia, Canada, England, and the United States. The following diffusion mechanisms are proposed: (1) The availability and accessibility of credible dissemination sources; (2) characteristics of the overall practice environment operating in each legal culture; (3) the attitudes and knowledge of attorneys and judges about the use of scientific evidence; (4) political and social support for the use of the evidence in the legal culture; and (5) the level of structural equivalence, communication, and "neighbor effects" between and among legal cultures. Each mechanism is discussed and supplemented with information from interviews with individuals involved in key cases involving BWS evidence.

  9. Physiological demands of women's rugby union: time-motion analysis and heart rate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virr, Jody Lynn; Game, Alex; Bell, Gordon John; Syrotuik, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the physical demands of women's rugby union match play using time-motion analysis and heart rate (HR) response. Thirty-eight premier club level female rugby players, ages 18-34 years were videotaped and HRs monitored for a full match. Performances were coded into 12 different movement categories: 5 speeds of locomotion (standing, walking, jogging, striding, sprinting), 4 forms of intensive non-running exertion (ruck/maul/tackle, pack down, scrum, lift) and 3 discrete activities (kick, jump, open field tackle). The main results revealed that backs spend significantly more time sprinting and walking whereas forwards spend more time in intensive non-running exertion and jogging. Forwards also had a significantly higher total work frequency compared to the backs, but a higher total rest frequency compared to the backs. In terms of HR responses, forwards displayed higher mean HRs throughout the match and more time above 80% of their maximum HR than backs. In summary, women's rugby union is characterised by intermittent bursts of high-intensity activity, where forwards and backs have similar anaerobic energy demands, but different specific match demands.

  10. Spontaneous Time Symmetry Breaking in System with Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibrium: Evidences in Experimental Economics Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhijian; Xu, Bin; Zhejiang Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    In social science, laboratory experiment with human subjects' interaction is a standard test-bed for studying social processes in micro level. Usually, as in physics, the processes near equilibrium are suggested as stochastic processes with time-reversal symmetry (TRS). To the best of our knowledge, near equilibrium, the breaking time symmetry, as well as the existence of robust time anti-symmetry processes, has not been reported clearly in experimental economics till now. By employing Markov transition method to analysis the data from human subject 2x2 Games with wide parameters and mixed Nash equilibrium, we study the time symmetry of the social interaction process near Nash equilibrium. We find that, the time symmetry is broken, and there exists a robust time anti-symmetry processes. We also report the weight of the time anti-symmetry processes in the total processes of each the games. Evidences in laboratory marketing experiments, at the same time, are provided as one-dimension cases. In these cases, time anti-symmetry cycles can also be captured. The proposition of time anti-symmetry processes is small, but the cycles are distinguishable.

  11. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianglong Xu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error (SE = 0.016, p < 0.001 and computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.053, SE = 0.022, p = 0.015. Pregnant women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p < 0.001 and long computer viewing times (Estimate = 0.049, SE = 0.020, p = 0.015 were likely have long mobile phone viewing times. Pregnant women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = −0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035, and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = −0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI 0.42–0.74. Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (OR 1.25, 95

  12. Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanni Yaya

    Full Text Available Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia.Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population.Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of delayed

  13. Informal Care and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence From Chinese Married Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lu; Zhao, Na; Fan, Hongli; Coyte, Peter C

    2015-10-16

    Data were used from the 1991-2009 China Health and Nutrition Survey to examine the influence of informal care on labor market outcomes for married women of working aged, with emphasis on caregiving intensity. After accounting for potential endogeneity between caregiving and labor force participation (LFP) through simultaneous equations modeling, caregivers who provided more than 15 or 20 hr of caregiving per week were 4.5-7.7% less likely to be LFPs. Intensive caregivers who remained working had significantly lower (4.97-7.20) weekly hours of work. The significant positive effect of informal care on LFP only existed in the rural sample, and these women also had much lower hours of work than their urban counterparts. Opportunities exist for policy interventions that target intensive caregivers in order to allow them to balance both work and caregiving. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The Experience of Pregnancy in Women Living With HIV: A Meta-Synthesis of Qualitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Moral, Juan M; Piscoya-Angeles, Patricia N; Edwards, Joan E; Palmieri, Patrick A

    The lived experience of pregnancy from the perspectives of women living with HIV (WLWH) is not well understood. We aimed to understand the meaning of pregnancy for WLWH. A meta-synthesis was conducted to review and integrate qualitative studies about the phenomena; 12 databases were used to perform the search in English, Spanish, and Portuguese. Articles using qualitative methods published in peer-reviewed journals were included. Data were analyzed using the meta-synthesis method. We found that, for pregnant WLWH, pregnancy evolved as a mediated experience of commitment and dedication. The vital life experience of pregnancy was defined as an interplay of emotions, coping strategies, and feelings of satisfaction. Pregnancy in WLWH was experienced and impacted by societal beliefs, as the women focused all their efforts to take care of themselves and their babies. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Laser-assisted hair removal for facial hirsutism in women: A review of evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Man

    2018-06-01

    Poly cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been described as the common diagnosis for hirsutism in women. Facial hirsutism is by far the most distressing symptom of hyperandrogenism in women with PCOS. A statistically significant improvement in psychological well-being has been reported in patients with PCOS allocated for laser-assisted hair removal. The theory of selective photothermolysis has revolutionized laser hair removal in that it is effective and safe, when operated by sufficiently trained and experienced professionals. Long-pulsed ruby (694 nm), long-pulsed alexandrite (755 nm), diode (800-980 nm), and long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) are commercially available laser devices for hair removal most widely studied. This article will introduce the fundamentals and mechanism of action of lasers in hair removal, in a contemporary literature review looking at medium to long term efficacy and safety profiles of various laser hair removal modalities most widely commercially available to date.

  16. Gender wage gap when women are highly inactive: Evidence from repeated imputations with Macedonian data

    OpenAIRE

    Petreski, Marjan; Mojsoska-Blazevski, Nikica; Petreski, Blagica

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research is to understand if large gender employment and participation gaps in Macedonia can shed some light on the gender wage gap. A large contingent of inactive women in Macedonia including long-term unemployed due to the transition process, female remittance receivers from the male migrant, unpaid family workers in agriculture and so on, is outside employment, but is not necessarily having the worst labour-market characteristics. In addition, both gender wage gap and...

  17. Metabolic Evidence of Diminished Lipid Oxidation in Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Whigham, Leah D.; Butz, Daniel E.; Dashti, Hesam; Tonelli, Marco; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Cook, Mark E.; Porter, Warren P.; Eghbalnia, Hamid R.; Markley, John L.; Lindheim, Steven R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Abbott, David H.; Assadi-Porter, Fariba M.

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common female endocrinopathy, is a complex metabolic syndrome of enhanced weight gain. The goal of this pilot study was to evaluate metabolic differences between normal (n=10) and PCOS (n=10) women via breath carbon isotope ratio, urinary nitrogen and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-determined serum metabolites. Breath carbon stable isotopes measured by cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRDS) indicated diminished (p

  18. Marital violence and women's employment and property status: evidence from North Indian villages

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharya, Manasi; Bedi, Arjun S.; Chhachhi, Amrita

    2009-01-01

    textabstractDominant development policy approaches recommend women’s employment on the grounds that it facilitates their empowerment, which in turn is believed to be instrumental in enhancing women’s well-being. However, empirical work on the relationship between women’s employment status and their well-being as measured by freedom from marital violence yields an ambiguous picture. Motivated by this ambiguity, this paper draws on testimonies of men and women and data gathered from rural Uttar...

  19. Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry for analysis of sexual assault evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musah, Rabi A; Cody, Robert B; Dane, A John; Vuong, Angela L; Shepard, Jason R E

    2012-05-15

    Sexual assault crimes are vastly underreported and suffer from alarmingly low prosecution and conviction rates. The key scientific method to aid in prosecution of such cases is forensic DNA analysis, where biological evidence such as semen collected using a rape test kit is used to determine a suspect's DNA profile. However, the growing awareness by criminals of the importance of DNA in the prosecution of sexual assaults has resulted in increased condom use by assailants as a means to avoid leaving behind their DNA. Thus, other types of trace evidence are important to help corroborate victims' accounts, exonerate the innocent, link suspects to the crime, or confirm penetration. Direct Analysis in Real Time Mass Spectrometry (DART-MS) was employed for the comprehensive characterization of non-DNA trace evidence associated with sexual assault. The ambient ionization method associated with DART-MS is extremely rapid and samples are processed instantaneously, without the need for extraction, sample preparation, or other means that might compromise forensic evidence for future analyses. In a single assay, we demonstrated the ability to identify lubricant formulations associated with sexual assault, such as the spermicide nonoxynol-9, compounds used in condom manufacture, and numerous other trace components as probative evidence. In addition, the method can also serve to identify compounds within trace biological residues, such as fatty acids commonly identified in latent fingerprints. Characterization of lubricant residues as probative evidence serves to establish a connection between the victim and the perpetrator, and the availability of these details may lead to higher rates of prosecution and conviction, as well as more severe penalties. The methodology described here opens the way for the adoption of a comprehensive, rapid, and sensitive analysis for use in crime labs, while providing knowledge that can inform and guide criminal justice policy and practice

  20. Determinants of Modern Contraceptive Uptake among Nigerian Women: Evidence from the National Demographic and Health Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ofonime E

    2017-09-01

    Family planning is a key strategy in the control of fertility among women. This study sought to determine various factors that influence modern family planning use in Nigeria. The study used data from Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) 2013. Analysis was carried out using Stata version 12.1. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine association between various factors and use of modern family planning methods. A total of 119,386 women aged 15-49 years participated in the study. The mean age of respondents was 35.9 ± 8.1 years. Overall, contraceptive prevalence rate of modern methods was 10.3%. The highest proportion of use was 26.7% in the South West, while the lowest was 2.7% in the North West. Predictors of modern family planning use were higher education (OR=4.49, 95% CI: 4.10-4.92), richest wealth quintile (OR=3.71 CI: 3.29-4.19), being from South West (OR=3.42, 95% CI: 3.15-3.70), age 25-49 years (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 1.42-1.69) and urban residence (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.13) (p contraceptive use were education and wealth index. These indices were poorest in North Western Nigeria. Measures should be taken to improve female literacy and employment as these will most likely improve uptake of modern contraceptives among women in Nigeria.

  1. Parkinson’s - is time on your side? Evidence for difficulties with sensorimotor synchronisation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBieńkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There is lack of consistent evidence as to how well PD patients are able to accurately time their movements across space with an external acoustic signal. For years, research based on the finger-tapping paradigm, the most popular paradigm for exploring the brain’s ability to time movement, has provided strong evidence that patients are not able to accurately reproduce an isochronous interval (i.e. Harrington, Haaland, & Knight, 1998. This was undermined by Spencer and Ivry (2005 who suggested a specific deficit in temporal control linked to emergent, rhythmical movement not event-based actions, which primarily involve the cerebellum. In this study we investigated motor timing of seven idiopathic PD participants in event-based sensorimotor synchronisation task. Participants were asked to move their finger horizontally between two predefined target zones to synchronise with the occurrence of two sound events at two time intervals (1.5 and 2.5 seconds. The width of the targets and the distance between them were manipulated to investigate impact of accuracy demands and movement amplitude on timing performance. The results showed that participants with PD demonstrated specific difficulties when trying to accurately synchronise their movements to a beat. The extent to which their ability to synchronise movement was compromised was found to be related to the severity of PD, but independent of the spatial constraints of the task.

  2. Correlates of prolonged television viewing time in older Japanese men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville; Oka, Koichiro; Shimomitsu, Teruichi

    2013-03-09

    In addition to insufficient moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), prolonged sitting time is also a health risk for older adults. An understanding of population subgroups who have prolonged television viewing (TV) time, a predominant sedentary behavior, can aid in the development of relevant health promotion initiatives; however, few such studies have focused on older adults, the most sedentary segment of the population as a whole. The aim of this study is to examine the socio-demographic attributes associated with TV time among community-dwelling Japanese older men and women. A population-based, cross-sectional mail survey was used to collect data on TV time, MVPA, and socio-demographic characteristics. The survey was conducted from February through March 2010. Participants were 2700 community-dwelling older adults (aged 65-74 years, 50% men) who were randomly selected from the registry of residential addresses of three cities in Japan. Data from 1665 participants (mean age: 69.5 years, 52% men) who completed all variables for the present study were analyzed. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) of prolonged TV time (>2 hours/day) for each socio-demographic attribute, stratified by gender. Of the 1665 participants, 810 (48.6%) watched TV for more than 2 hours/day. The median television viewing time (25th, 75th percentile) was 2.00 (1.07, 3.50) hours/day. Prolonged TV time was associated with not in full-time employment, lower educational attainment, weight status, living in regional areas and low MVPA for the whole sample. For men, prolonged TV time was associated with lower educational attainment; (OR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.12-2.07), underweight (OR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.02-2.60), overweight (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.11-2.21), and low MVPA (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 1.02-2.02). For women, living in regional areas (OR = 2.02, 95% CI: 1.33-3.08), living alone (OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.03-2.49), not driving

  3. More or less unequal? Evidence on the pay of men and women from the British Birth Cohort Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Heather; Makepeace, Gerry; Dolton, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Gender pay differences are not merely a problem for women returning to work and part-time employees, but also for those in full-time, continuous careers. In data from cohort studies, the gender wage gap for full time workers in their early thirties fell between 1978 and 2000. This equalisation reflects improvements in women’s education and experience, rather more than a move towards equal treatment. Indeed, had the typical woman full-timer in 2000 been paid at men’s rates she would have actua...

  4. Identifying subfertile ovulatory women for timely tubal patency testing: A clinical decision rule based on medical history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.F.P.J. Coppus; H.R. Verhoeve (Harold); B.C. Opmeer (Brent); J.W. van der Steeg (Jan Willem); P. Steures (Pieternel); M.J.C. Eijkemans (René); P.G. Hompes (Peter); P.M.M. Bossuyt (Patrick); F. Veen (Fulco); B.W.J. Mol (Ben)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The aim of tubal testing is to identify women with bilateral tubal pathology in a timely manner, so they can be treated with IVF or tubal surgery. At present, it is unclear for which women early tubal testing is indicated, and in whom it can be deferred. Methods: Data on 3716

  5. The color red distorts time perception for men, but not for women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Masahiro; Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-07-31

    We investigated the effect of the color red on time perception using a temporal bisection task with human adults. The results showed that the perceived duration of a red screen was longer than was that of a blue screen. However, the results reflected sex differences; men, but not women, overestimated the duration of the red screen. Additionally, the reaction times to a red screen were faster than those to a blue screen, and we found a significant correlation between reaction time and the tendency to overestimate the duration of a red screen. Participants who reacted quickly to a red screen overestimated its duration. These results are discussed within the context of recent studies indicating that the color red exerts certain special psychological effects on human behavior.

  6. TIME SPAN AND CRITERIA FOR WOMEN ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT APPLICABLE FOR TURKISH GRAMEEN MICROCREDIT PROJECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemin Ashrafi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkish Grameen Micro Credit Project (TGMP is quite new in Turkey which started from 2003, works as a part of Grameen Bank Bangladesh replication program. Through this female based micro credit services women can be self sufficient, empowered and raise their family's socio economic condition at the same time. As a whole TGMP is a big scope for the poorest part in the society to gain economic empowerment. This paper analyzes the relationship and association of loans in form of amount and number with membership time period for the achievement of economic empowerment and graduation of a member. An analysis is made on the basis of a regression model where economic graduaiton and empowerment of a member is quantified interms of time after which they cease to take the loans even still be the members of TGMP. Using some poverty free indicators declared by TGMP, this study also examines how the members can achieve socio-economic empowerment gradually.

  7. Patient satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy in women with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Secher, A L; Madsen, A B; Nielsen, Lene Ringholm

    2012-01-01

    of initial monitoring). Ten women (15%) did not wish to use continuous glucose monitoring again in pregnancy. Main causes behind early removal of continuous glucose monitoring were self-reported skin irritation, technical problems and continuous glucose monitoring inaccuracy. No differences were found......Aim: To evaluate self-reported satisfaction and barriers to initiating real-time continuous glucose monitoring in early pregnancy among women with pregestational diabetes. Methods: Fifty-four women with Type 1 diabetes and 14 women with Type 2 diabetes were offered continuous glucose monitoring...

  8. A Randomized Controlled Trial Provides Evidence to Support Aromatherapy to Minimize Anxiety in Women Undergoing Breast Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trambert, Renee; Kowalski, Mildred Ortu; Wu, Betty; Mehta, Nimisha; Friedman, Paul

    2017-10-01

    Aromatherapy has been used to reduce anxiety in a variety of settings, but usefulness associated with breast biopsies has not been documented. This study was conducted in women undergoing image-guided breast biopsy. We explored the use of two different aromatherapy scents, compared to placebo, aimed at reducing anxiety with the intent of generating new knowledge. This was a randomized, placebo-controlled study of two different types of external aromatherapy tabs (lavender-sandalwood and orange-peppermint) compared with a matched placebo-control delivery system. Anxiety was self-reported before and after undergoing a breast biopsy using the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory Scale. Eighty-seven women participated in this study. There was a statistically significant reduction in self-reported anxiety with the use of the lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy tab compared with the placebo group (p = .032). Aromatherapy tabs reduced anxiety during image-guided breast biopsy. The completion of the biopsy provided some relief from anxiety in all groups. The use of aromatherapy tabs offers an evidence-based nursing intervention to improve adaptation and reduce anxiety for women undergoing breast biopsy. Lavender-sandalwood aromatherapy reduced anxiety and promoted adaptation more than orange-peppermint aromatherapy or placebo. © 2017 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. Prolonged Screen Viewing Times and Sociodemographic Factors among Pregnant Women: A Cross-Sectional Survey in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianglong; Liu, Dengyuan; Rao, Yunshuang; Zeng, Huan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Lu; Xie, Yaojie; Sharma, Manoj; Zhao, Yong

    2018-02-27

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the prevalence of prolonged television, computer, and mobile phone viewing times and examined related sociodemographic factors among Chinese pregnant women. Methods: In this study, a cross-sectional survey was implemented among 2400 Chinese pregnant women in 16 hospitals of 5 provinces from June to August in 2015, and the response rate of 97.76%. We excluded women with serious complications and cognitive disorders. The women were asked about their television, computer, and mobile phone viewing during pregnancy. Prolonged television watching or computer viewing was defined as spending more than two hours on television or computer viewing per day. Prolonged mobile phone viewing was watching more than one hour on mobile phone per day. Results: Among 2345 pregnant women, about 25.1% reported prolonged television viewing, 20.6% reported prolonged computer viewing, and 62.6% reported prolonged mobile phone viewing. Pregnant women with long mobile phone viewing times were likely have long TV (Estimate = 0.080, Standard Error ( SE ) = 0.016, p women with long TV (Estimate = 0.134, SE = 0.027, p women with long TV viewing times were less likely to have long computer viewing times (Estimate = -0.032, SE = 0.015, p = 0.035), and pregnant women with long computer viewing times were less likely have long TV viewing times (Estimate = -0.059, SE = 0.028, p = 0.035). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy had lower prolonged computer viewing times than those in their first pregnancy (Odds Ratio (OR) 0.56, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.42-0.74). Pregnant women in their second pregnancy were more likely have longer prolonged mobile phone viewing times than those in their first pregnancy ( OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.55). Conclusions: The high prevalence rate of prolonged TV, computer, and mobile phone viewing times was common for pregnant women in their first and second pregnancy. This study preliminarily explored the relationship between

  10. Talk, trust and time: a longitudinal study evaluating knowledge translation and exchange processes for research on violence against women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Violence against women (VAW) is a major public health problem. Translation of VAW research to policy and practice is an area that remains understudied, but provides the opportunity to examine knowledge translation and exchange (KTE) processes in a complex, multi-stakeholder context. In a series of studies including two randomized trials, the McMaster University VAW Research Program studied one key research gap: evidence about the effectiveness of screening women for exposure to intimate partner violence. This project developed and evaluated KTE strategies to share research findings with policymakers, health and community service providers, and women's advocates. Methods A longitudinal cross-sectional design, applying concurrent mixed data collection methods (surveys, interviews, and focus groups), was used to evaluate the utility of specific KTE strategies, including a series of workshops and a day-long Family Violence Knowledge Exchange Forum, on research sharing, uptake, and use. Results Participants valued the opportunity to meet with researchers, provide feedback on key messages, and make personal connections with other stakeholders. A number of factors specific to the knowledge itself, stakeholders' contexts, and the nature of the knowledge gap being addressed influenced the uptake, sharing, and use of the research. The types of knowledge use changed across time, and were specifically related to both the types of decisions being made, and to stage of decision making; most reported use was conceptual or symbolic, with few examples of instrumental use. Participants did report actively sharing the research findings with their own networks. Further examination of these second-order knowledge-sharing processes is required, including development of appropriate methods and measures for its assessment. Some participants reported that they would not use the research evidence in their decision making when it contradicted professional experiences, while others

  11. Talk, trust and time: a longitudinal study evaluating knowledge translation and exchange processes for research on violence against women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack Susan M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Violence against women (VAW is a major public health problem. Translation of VAW research to policy and practice is an area that remains understudied, but provides the opportunity to examine knowledge translation and exchange (KTE processes in a complex, multi-stakeholder context. In a series of studies including two randomized trials, the McMaster University VAW Research Program studied one key research gap: evidence about the effectiveness of screening women for exposure to intimate partner violence. This project developed and evaluated KTE strategies to share research findings with policymakers, health and community service providers, and women's advocates. Methods A longitudinal cross-sectional design, applying concurrent mixed data collection methods (surveys, interviews, and focus groups, was used to evaluate the utility of specific KTE strategies, including a series of workshops and a day-long Family Violence Knowledge Exchange Forum, on research sharing, uptake, and use. Results Participants valued the opportunity to meet with researchers, provide feedback on key messages, and make personal connections with other stakeholders. A number of factors specific to the knowledge itself, stakeholders' contexts, and the nature of the knowledge gap being addressed influenced the uptake, sharing, and use of the research. The types of knowledge use changed across time, and were specifically related to both the types of decisions being made, and to stage of decision making; most reported use was conceptual or symbolic, with few examples of instrumental use. Participants did report actively sharing the research findings with their own networks. Further examination of these second-order knowledge-sharing processes is required, including development of appropriate methods and measures for its assessment. Some participants reported that they would not use the research evidence in their decision making when it contradicted professional

  12. Ignorance- versus evidence-based decision making: a decision time analysis of the recognition heuristic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbig, Benjamin E; Pohl, Rüdiger F

    2009-09-01

    According to part of the adaptive toolbox notion of decision making known as the recognition heuristic (RH), the decision process in comparative judgments-and its duration-is determined by whether recognition discriminates between objects. By contrast, some recently proposed alternative models predict that choices largely depend on the amount of evidence speaking for each of the objects and that decision times thus depend on the evidential difference between objects, or the degree of conflict between options. This article presents 3 experiments that tested predictions derived from the RH against those from alternative models. All experiments used naturally recognized objects without teaching participants any information and thus provided optimal conditions for application of the RH. However, results supported the alternative, evidence-based models and often conflicted with the RH. Recognition was not the key determinant of decision times, whereas differences between objects with respect to (both positive and negative) evidence predicted effects well. In sum, alternative models that allow for the integration of different pieces of information may well provide a better account of comparative judgments. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  13. Women in Chemistry: Their Changing Roles from Alchemical Times to the Mid-Twentieth Century (by Marelene Rayner-Canham and Geoffrey Rayner-Canham)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserio, Marjorie C.

    1999-07-01

    working environment in which women felt welcome and in which they could flourish. The early success of women in crystallography, radioactivity, and biochemistry encouraged other women to follow. There also seems to have been more opportunity for women in emerging fields than in more established but more competitive areas of science. The biographies of the women chemists featured are poignant accounts of their lives, their work, and the recognition they received for it. Though short, the biographies have been well researched and are well referenced, which should enable interested readers to delve more deeply into the subject if they wish. There are common threads that run through all the accounts, which the authors point to as important factors in determining success. These include encouragement in early years, particularly through sympathetic parents or close relatives; access to formal education; and family values that stress education. The encouragement of mentors is a recurrent theme, as is a hospitable working environment. Mentoring recognized as important not only for individual success but also in creating and sustaining whole areas of research (as we see in crystallography and radioactivity). Each biography documents an impressive record of achievement even when the obstacles encountered in the woman's personal as well as professional life were almost overwhelming. Regrettably, as the authors point out, most women left no personal records (or they have since been lost or destroyed), so we are denied their perspective on their life and times. Evidently, women did not feel sufficient self-worth to record their autobiographies. In fact, a feature that appears in several of the biographies is the "awful self-doubt" about their own abilities. But it is apparent that success increased self-esteem, which fueled further achievement. Other attributes necessary for success included great determination, incredible tenacity, and almost obsessive enthusiasm for chemistry. The

  14. Contraceptive practices among married women of reproductive age in Bangladesh: a review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huda, Fauzia Akhter; Robertson, Yolande; Chowdhuri, Sabiha; Sarker, Bidhan Krishna; Reichenbach, Laura; Somrongthong, Ratana

    2017-06-06

    Bangladesh has experienced a sevenfold increase in its contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) in less than forty years from 8% in 1975 to 62% in 2014. However, despite this progress, almost one-third of pregnancies are still unintended which may be attributed to unmet need for family planning and discontinuation and switching of methods after initiation of their use. We conducted an extensive literature review on contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age (MWRA) in Bangladesh. A total of 263 articles were identified through database search and after final screening ten articles were included in this synthesis. Findings showed that method discontinuation and switching, method failure, and method mix may offset achievements in the CPR. Most of the women know of at least one contraceptive method. Oral pill is the most widely used (27%) method, followed by injectables (12.4%), condoms (6.4%), female sterilization (4.6%), male sterilization (1.2%), implants (1.7%), and IUDs (0.6%). There has been a decline in the use of long acting and permanent methods over the last two decades. Within 12 months of initiation, the rate of method discontinuation particularly the short-acting methods remain high at 36%. It is important to recognize the trends as married Bangladeshi women, on average, wanted 1.6 children, but the rate of actual children was 2.3. A renewed commitment from government bodies and independent organizations is needed to implement and monitor family planning strategies in order to ensure the adherence to and provision of the most appropriate contraceptive method for couples.

  15. A Double-Negative Effect on the Earnings of Immigrant Women? Evidence from Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Husted, L.; Rosholm, Michael

    In this paper we investigate whether there exists a double-negative effect on the earnings of immigrant women in Denmark stemming from a combined negative effect of gender and foreign country of origin. We estimate separate wage equations for Danes and a number of immigrant groups allowing...... for individual specific effects. Considering females, correcting for possible sample selection bias due to the participation decision is essential. Based on a Danish panel of register data, we identify some groups of immigrant females that experience a strong and persistent double-negative effect on wages even...

  16. Plasticity resembling spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity: the evidence in human cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Müller-Dahlhaus

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Spike-timing dependent plasticity (STDP has been studied extensively in a variety of animal models during the past decade but whether it can be studied at the systems level of the human cortex has been a matter of debate. Only recently newly developed non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS have made it possible to induce and assess timing dependent plasticity in conscious human subjects. This review will present a critical synopsis of these experiments, which suggest that several of the principal characteristics and molecular mechanisms of TMS-induced plasticity correspond to those of STDP as studied at a cellular level. TMS combined with a second phasic stimulation modality can induce bidirectional long-lasting changes in the excitability of the stimulated cortex, whose polarity depends on the order of the associated stimulus-evoked events within a critical time window of tens of milliseconds. Pharmacological evidence suggests an NMDA receptor mediated form of synaptic plasticity. Studies in human motor cortex demonstrated that motor learning significantly modulates TMS-induced timing dependent plasticity, and, conversely, may be modulated bidirectionally by prior TMS-induced plasticity, providing circumstantial evidence that long-term potentiation-like mechanisms may be involved in motor learning. In summary, convergent evidence is being accumulated for the contention that it is now possible to induce STDP-like changes in the intact human central nervous system by means of TMS to study and interfere with synaptic plasticity in neural circuits in the context of behaviour such as learning and memory.

  17. Understanding exercise self-efficacy and barriers to leisure-time physical activity among postnatal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramp, Anita G; Bray, Steven R

    2011-07-01

    Studies have demonstrated that postnatal women are at high risk for physical inactivity and generally show lower levels of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) compared to prepregnancy. The overall purpose of the current study was to investigate social cognitive correlates of LTPA among postnatal women during a 6-month period following childbirth. A total of 230 women (mean age = 30.9) provided descriptive data regarding barriers to LTPA and completed measures of LTPA and self-efficacy (exercise and barrier) for at least one of the study data collection periods. A total of 1,520 barriers were content analyzed. Both exercise and barrier self-efficacy were positively associated with subsequent LTPA. Exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 12 predicted LTPA from postnatal weeks 12 to 18 (β = .40, R (2) = .18) and exercise self-efficacy at postnatal week 24 predicted LTPA during weeks 24-30 (β = .49, R (2) = .30). Barrier self-efficacy at week 18 predicted LTPA from weeks 18 to 24 (β = .33, R (2) = .13). The results of the study identify a number of barriers to LTPA at multiple time points closely following childbirth which may hinder initiation, resumption or maintenance of LTPA. The results also suggest that higher levels of exercise and barrier self-efficacy are prospectively associated with higher levels of LTPA in the early postnatal period. Future interventions should be designed to investigate causal effects of developing participants' exercise and barrier self-efficacy for promoting and maintaining LTPA during the postnatal period.

  18. [Time perception, maternal tasks, and maternal role behavior among pregnant Japanese women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, A

    1996-01-01

    The relationship of time perception, maternal tasks, and maternal role behavior was examined in 140 pregnant Japanese women with a short-term longitudinal design. A model developed by Rubin provided the conceptual framework for this research. The Time Perception Scale. Time Production Method, and the Prefatory Maternal Response measured the study variables. Study results revealed significant differences in duration of time, time production, maternal-fetal attachment, and maternal role behavior before and after quickening(fetal movement)occurred. Medium to strong positive relationships among time orientation, maternal-fetal attachment, gratification, and maternal role behavior were found before and after movement. After quickening, a weak relationship between time orientation and duration was found. After controlling maternal-fetal attachment and gratification in pregnancy and maternal role, orientation in time perception accounted for significant amounts of variance in maternal role behavior before and after fetal movement. Results show that the process of becoming a mother, which started before quickening, increased in magnitude after fetal movement. The function of fetal movement is important in developing motherhood. In the process of becoming a mother, cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects in becoming a mother are inseparable from each other. Future orientation of time perception contributes to development of maternal role behavior. Having a future orientation during pregnancy may indicate hope or positive expectation. Based on these findings, several recommendations were proposed: (a)to study further the general process of becoming a mother and the role of time perception in developing motherhood, (b)to disseminate information to the general public about the process in development of motherhood, (c)to construct theory to explain the process of becoming a mother, and(d)to conduct future research to clarify the construct of time perception and attachment.

  19. Bidirectional relationship between time preference and adolescent smoking and alcohol use: Evidence from longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Young Kyung; Shin, Eunhae

    2017-07-01

    Scholarly interest in time preference as a potential predictor of risky health behaviors in adolescents has increased in recent years. However, most of the existing literature is limited due to the exclusive reliance on cross-sectional data, precluding the possibility of establishing the direction of causality. Using longitudinal data from the Korea Youth Panel Survey (2003-7), which followed up a nationally representative sample of 3449 adolescents aged 14years for five years, this study examines a bidirectional relationship between time preference and smoking and drinking behaviors among adolescents. We used discrete time hazard models of smoking and drinking initiation as a function of time preference measured at the baseline and fixed-effects ordered logit model of time preference, respectively. Our measure of time preference was derived from the survey question on a hypothetical choice between immediate enjoyment today and likely higher scores on an exam tomorrow. The overall results provide evidence on the bidirectional relationship; that is, higher time discounting (i.e., greater relative preference for present utility over future utility) results in an increased risk of engaging in smoking and drinking, and conversely, adopting such behaviors leads to a higher discount rate. The bidirectional relationship may function as a mechanism for adolescents to engage in increased smoking and drinking or additional negative health behaviors via gateway effects, strengthening the case for preventing the initiation of risky health behaviors among adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Women's asset ownership and children's nutritional status: Evidence from Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen Rodgers, Yana; Kassens, Alice Louise

    2018-05-01

    This study examines how women's asset ownership is associated with children's nutritional status in Papua New Guinea, a country with some of the most severe child malnutrition in the world. The 2009-2010 Household Income and Expenditure Survey is employed, but restricted to children under the age of 72 months living with married mothers, leaving a final analytic sample of 1651. Asset ownership is expected to strengthen mothers' income-generating capacity and their bargaining power within the home, which increases investments in children's health. Women's ownership of fishing and agricultural equipment (important for meeting subsistence needs and for generating cash earnings) appears to be driving most of the results. OLS regression results point to beneficial effects of maternal asset ownership for children's height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age Z-scores, and results from detailed quantile regressions indicate that these effects occur at various parts of the distribution, especially for children's WAZ scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2012-01-01

    Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents. To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women. Women (N = 410) completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors. Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (psattractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (psrelationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  2. Neighborhood street scale elements, sedentary time and cardiometabolic risk factors in inactive ethnic minority women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca E Lee

    Full Text Available Cardiometabolic risk factors such as obesity, excess percent body fat, high blood pressure, elevated resting heart rate and sedentary behavior have increased in recent decades due to changes in the environment and lifestyle. Neighborhood micro-environmental, street scale elements may contribute to health above and beyond individual characteristics of residents.To investigate the relationship between neighborhood street scale elements and cardiometabolic risk factors among inactive ethnic minority women.Women (N = 410 completed measures of BMI, percent body fat, blood pressure, resting heart rate, sedentary behavior and demographics. Trained field assessors completed the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan in participants' neighborhoods. Data were collected from 2006-2008. Multiple regression models were conducted in 2011 to estimate the effect of environmental factors on cardiometabolic risk factors.Adjusted regression models found an inverse association between sidewalk buffers and blood pressure, between traffic control devices and resting heart rate, and a positive association between presence of pedestrian crossing aids and BMI (ps<.05. Neighborhood attractiveness and safety for walking and cycling were related to more time spent in a motor vehicle (ps<.05.Findings suggest complex relationships among micro-environmental, street scale elements that may confer important cardiometabolic benefits and risks for residents. Living in the most attractive and safe neighborhoods for physical activity may be associated with longer times spent sitting in the car.

  3. Timing and adequate attendance of antenatal care visits among women in Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishwajit, Ghose; Ekholuenetale, Michael; Shah, Vaibhav; Kadio, Bernard; Udenigwe, Ogochukwu

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Although ANC services are increasingly available to women in low and middle-income countries, their inadequate use persists. This suggests a misalignment between aims of the services and maternal beliefs and circumstances. Owing to the dearth of studies examining the timing and adequacy of content of care, this current study aims to investigate the timing and frequency of ANC visits in Ethiopia. Methods Data was obtained from the nationally representative 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS) which used a two-stage cluster sampling design to provide estimates for the health and demographic variables of interest for the country. Our study focused on a sample of 10,896 women with history of at least one childbirth event. Percentages of timing and adequacy of ANC visits were conducted across the levels of selected factors. Variables which were associated at 5% significance level were examined in the multivariable logistic regression model for association between timing and frequency of ANC visits and the explanatory variables while controlling for covariates. Furthermore, we presented the approach to estimate marginal effects involving covariate-adjusted logistic regression with corresponding 95%CI of delayed initiation of ANC visits and inadequate ANC attendance. The method used involved predicted probabilities added up to a weighted average showing the covariate distribution in the population. Results Results indicate that 66.3% of women did not use ANC at first trimester and 22.3% had ANC less than 4 visits. The results of this study were unique in that the association between delayed ANC visits and adequacy of ANC visits were examined using multivariable logistic model and the marginal effects using predicted probabilities. Results revealed that older age interval has higher odds of inadequate ANC visits. More so, type of place of residence was associated with delayed initiation of ANC visits, with rural women having the higher odds of

  4. Timing of hormone therapy, type of menopause, and coronary disease in women: data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra L; Johnson, B Delia; Berga, Sarah L; Braunstein, Glenn D; Reis, Steven E; Bittner, Vera; Yang, YuChing; Pepine, Carl J; Sharaf, Barry L; Sopko, George; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the timing of hormone therapy (HT) use with angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in women with natural versus surgical menopause. We studied 654 postmenopausal women undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of suspected ischemia. Timing and type of menopause, HT use, and quantitative angiographic evaluations were obtained at baseline, and the women were followed for a median of 6 years for CVD events. Ever users of HT had a significantly lower prevalence of obstructive CAD compared with never users (age-adjusted odds ratio, 0.41 [0.28-0.60]). Women with natural menopause initiating HT before age 55 years had lower CAD severity compared with never users (age-adjusted β [SE] = -6.23 [1.50], P menopause group (hazard ratio [95% CI], 0.60 [0.41-0.88]; P = 0.009) but became nonsignificant when adjusted for the presence or severity of obstructive CAD. Using the quantitative measurements of the timing and type of menopause and HT use, earlier initiation of HT was associated with less angiographic CAD in women with natural but not surgical menopause. Our data suggest that the effect of HT use on reduced cardiovascular event rates is mediated by the presence or absence of angiographic obstructive atherosclerosis.

  5. Counterbalancing patient demands with evidence: results from a pan-Canadian randomized clinical trial of brief supportive-expressive group psychotherapy for women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobkin, Patricia L; Da Costa, Deborah; Joseph, Lawrence; Fortin, Paul R; Edworthy, Steven; Barr, Susan; Ensworth, Stephanie; Esdaile, John M; Beaulieu, André; Zummer, Michel; Senécal, Jean-Luc; Goulet, Jean-Richard; Choquette, Denis; Rich, Eric; Smith, Doug; Cividino, Alfred; Gladman, Dafna; St-Pierre, Yvan; Clarke, Ann E

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of Brief Supportive-Expressive Group Psychotherapy as an adjunct to standard medical care in reducing psychological distress, medical symptoms, and health care costs and improving quality of life in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomized clinical trial was conducted with 133 SLE female patients from 9 clinics across Canada. Clinical and psychosocial measures were taken at baseline, posttreatment, and 6 and 12 months posttreatment. Outcomes assessed were psychological distress, quality of life, disease activity, health service utilization, and diminished productivity. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that there were no clinically important group differences on any of the outcome measures. Although both groups improved over time on several measures (e.g., decreases in psychological distress, stress, and emotion-oriented coping), these changes could not be attributed to the psychotherapeutic intervention. Thus, evidence does not support the referral of these patients to this type of intervention.

  6. Does extending daylight saving time save energy? Evidence from an Australian experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kellogg, R. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics; Wolff, H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Agricultural and Resource Economics]|[Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (IZA), Bonn (Germany)

    2007-03-15

    Several countries are considering extending Daylight Saving Time (DST) in order to conserve energy, and the U.S. will extend DST by one month beginning in 2007. However, projections that these extensions will reduce electricity consumption rely on extrapolations and simulations rather than empirical evidence. This paper, in contrast, examines a quasiexperiment in which parts of Australia extended DST in 2000 to facilitate the Sydney Olympics. Using detailed panel data and a triple differences specification, we show that the extension did not conserve electricity, and that a prominent simulation model overstates electricity savings when it is applied to Australia. (orig.)

  7. Puberty timing associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and also diverse health outcomes in men and women: the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Felix R; Elks, Cathy E; Murray, Anna; Ong, Ken K; Perry, John R B

    2015-06-18

    Early puberty timing is associated with higher risks for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease in women and therefore represents a potential target for early preventive interventions. We characterised the range of diseases and other adverse health outcomes associated with early or late puberty timing in men and women in the very large UK Biobank study. Recalled puberty timing and past/current diseases were self-reported by questionnaire. We limited analyses to individuals of White ethnicity (250,037 women; 197,714 men) and to disease outcomes with at least 500 cases (~ 0.2% prevalence) and we applied stringent correction for multiple testing (corrected threshold P puberty timing was associated with higher risks for angina, hypertension and T2D. Furthermore, compared to the median/average group, earlier or later puberty timing in women or men was associated with higher risks for 48 adverse outcomes, across a range of cancers, cardio-metabolic, gynaecological/obstetric, gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neuro-cognitive categories. Notably, both early and late menarche were associated with higher risks for early natural menopause in women. Puberty timing in both men and women appears to have a profound impact on later health.

  8. MRI and mammography surveillance of women at increased risk for breast cancer: recommendations using an evidence-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granader, Elon J; Dwamena, Ben; Carlos, Ruth C

    2008-12-01

    To evaluate breast cancer screening with mammography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in high-risk populations, including women with the BRCA mutation, using an evidence-based approach. The MEDLINE, PubMed, EBM Reviews, ACP Journal Club, Cochrane Database MEDSEARCH, and SCOPUS databases were accessed and searched for articles up to August 2007. Articles were collected using the following terms and medical subject headings (MeSH) that applied to the focused clinical question: "BRCA1" and "BRCA2" with "mammography," "MRI," "prevention," "screening," and "surveillance." References from retrieved articles were also used to identify relevant papers. Abstracts were screened and relevant papers retrieved. Retrieved papers were graded for quality. Summary performance measures were obtained by random effects modeling of study-specific performance estimates and standard errors derived from the multiple 2 x 2 tables. Additionally, studies meeting the Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine level 2b quality were reviewed. In women with an increased risk without the BRCA gene, cancer detection rates by MRI were 0.011 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.003-0.019), by mammography 0.005 (95% CI 0.002-0.008), and by a combination of both, 0.012 (95% CI 0.004-0.020). False-positive rates by MRI, mammography, or a combination of both were 0.10 (95% CI 0.03-0.18), 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.06), and 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.24). In BRCA positive women, cancer detection rates by MRI were 0.027 (95% CI 0.015-0.040), by mammography 0.010 (95% CI 0.005-0.016), and by a combination of both 0.031 (95% CI 0.018-0.045). False-positive rates by MRI, mammography, or a combination of both were 0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.19), 0.05 (95% CI 0.03-0.07), and 0.14 (95% CI 0.04-0.24), respectively. The data support an essential role for screening MRI in women with an increased risk for breast cancer.

  9. Evidence-based obstetrics in four hospitals in China: An observational study to explore clinical practice, women's preferences and provider's views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Ji

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence-based obstetric care is widely promoted in developing countries, but the success of implementation is not known. Using selected childbirth care procedures in four hospitals in Shanghai, we compared practice against evidence-based information, and explored user and provider views about each procedure. Methods Observational study. Using the Cochrane Library, we identified six procedures that should be avoided as routine and two that should be encouraged. Procedure rate determined by exit interviews with women, verified using hospital notes. Views of women and providers explored with in depth interviews. The study sites were three hospitals in Shanghai and one in neighbouring province of Jiangsu. 150 women at each centre for procedure rate, and 48 in-depth interviews with women and providers. Results Vaginal births were 50% (303/599 of the total. Of the six practices where evidence suggests they should be avoided as routine, three were performed with rates above 70%: pubic shaving (3 hospitals, rectal examination (3 hospitals, and episiotomy (3 hospitals. Most women delivered lying down, pain relief was rarely given, and only in the urban district hospital did women routinely have a companion. Most women wanted support or companionship during labour and to be given pain relief; but current practice is insufficient to meet women's needs. Conclusion Obstetric practice is not following best available evidence in the hospitals studied. There is a need to adjust hospital policy to support the use of interventions proven to be of benefit to women during childbirth, and develop approaches that ensure clinical practice changes.

  10. Pituitary response to a dopamine antagonist at different times of the day in normal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-López, F R; González-Moreno, C M; Abós, M D; Andonegui, J A; Corvo, R H

    1982-08-01

    In order to determine whether or not pituitary responsiveness to the dopaminergic antagonist clebopride changes during the nyctohemeral cycle, 10 healthy women with regular cycles were given 1 mg of clebopride orally at 09.00 h and 24.00 h with at least a 5 day interval between each test. In addition, 5 of the women were given a placebo instead of clebopride at midnight to evaluate the spontaneous hormonal changes. During the 24.00 h test the women had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) mean TSH basal levels. Serum prolactin (Prl) increased significantly (P less than 0.001) after clebopride administration while these changes did not occur when placebo was used instead of clebopride at midnight. The Prl response to clebopride was qualitatively similar at 09.00 h and at 24.00 h. Clebopride given at midnight induced a significant increase (P less than 0.05) in serum TSH while this change did not occur when the drug was given at 09.00 h or when placebo was given at midnight. The administration of clebopride resulted in no discernible alternations in serum LH, FSH or GH in either the 09.00 h or the 24.00 h tests. Thus, Prl responses to clebopride were similar in the morning and at midnight, TSH significantly increased after clebopride at midnight whereas this did not occur when the drug was given in the morning, and no significant changes were induced in LH, FSH or GH at the times studied.

  11. European Working Time Directive and doctors' health: a systematic review of the available epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Jareño, Maria Cruz; Demou, Evangelia; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Sanati, Kaveh A; Skerjanc, Alenka; Reis, Pedro G; Helimäki-Aro, Ritva; Macdonald, Ewan B; Serra, Consol

    2014-07-07

    To summarise the available scientific evidence on the health effects of exposure to working beyond the limit number of hours established by the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) on physicians. A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out by independent pairs of researchers using pre-established criteria. Physicians of any medical, surgical or community specialty, working in any possible setting (hospitals, primary healthcare, etc), as well as trainees, residents, junior house officers or postgraduate interns, were included. The total number of participants was 14 338. Health effects classified under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Over 3000 citations and 110 full articles were reviewed. From these, 11 studies of high or intermediate quality carried out in North America, Europe and Japan met the inclusion criteria. Six studies included medical residents, junior doctors or house officers and the five others included medical specialists or consultants, medical, dental, and general practitioners and hospital physicians. Evidence of an association was found between percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents with extended long working hours (LWH)/days or very LWH/weeks. The evidence was insufficient for mood disorders and general health. No studies on other health outcomes were identified. LWH could increase the risk of percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents, and possibly other incidents at work through the same pathway. While associations are clear, the existing evidence does not allow for an established causal or 'dose-response' relationship between LWH and incidents at work, or for a threshold number of extended hours above which there is a significantly higher risk and the hours physicians could work and remain safe and healthy. Policymakers should consider safety issues when working on relaxing EWTD for doctors. Published by the

  12. European Working Time Directive and doctors’ health: a systematic review of the available epidemiological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Jareño, Maria Cruz; Demou, Evangelia; Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Sanati, Kaveh A; Škerjanc, Alenka; Reis, Pedro G; Helimäki-Aro, Ritva; Macdonald, Ewan B; Serra, Consol

    2014-01-01

    Objective To summarise the available scientific evidence on the health effects of exposure to working beyond the limit number of hours established by the European Working Time Directive (EWTD) on physicians. Design A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed and EMBASE. Study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction were carried out by independent pairs of researchers using pre-established criteria. Setting Physicians of any medical, surgical or community specialty, working in any possible setting (hospitals, primary healthcare, etc), as well as trainees, residents, junior house officers or postgraduate interns, were included. Participants The total number of participants was 14 338. Primary and secondary outcome measures Health effects classified under the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Results Over 3000 citations and 110 full articles were reviewed. From these, 11 studies of high or intermediate quality carried out in North America, Europe and Japan met the inclusion criteria. Six studies included medical residents, junior doctors or house officers and the five others included medical specialists or consultants, medical, dental, and general practitioners and hospital physicians. Evidence of an association was found between percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents with extended long working hours (LWH)/days or very LWH/weeks. The evidence was insufficient for mood disorders and general health. No studies on other health outcomes were identified. Conclusions LWH could increase the risk of percutaneous injuries and road traffic accidents, and possibly other incidents at work through the same pathway. While associations are clear, the existing evidence does not allow for an established causal or ‘dose–response’ relationship between LWH and incidents at work, or for a threshold number of extended hours above which there is a significantly higher risk and the hours physicians could work and remain safe and healthy

  13. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rooney, James P.K., E-mail: jrooney@rcsi.ie

    2014-02-01

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for

  14. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rooney, James P.K.

    2014-01-01

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for

  15. Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Metabolic Outcomes in Pregnant Women: Evidence from the Spanish INMA Birth Cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matilla-Santander, N. (Nuria); D. Valvi (Damaskini); M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa (Maria-Jose); Manzano-Salgado, C.B. (Cyntia B.); F. Ballester (Ferran); J. Ibarluzea (Jesús); L. Santa-Marina (Loreto); T. Schettgen (Thomas); M. Guxens Junyent (Mònica); J. Sunyer (Jordi); M. Vrijheid (Martine)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may increase risk for metabolic diseases; however, epidemiologic evidence is lacking at the present time. Pregnancy is a period of enhanced tissue plasticity for the fetus and the mother and may be a critical window of PFAS

  16. Age and education influence the performance of elderly women on the dual-task Timed Up and Go test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele de Cássia Gomes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Gait variability is related to functional decline in the elderly. The dual-task Timed Up and Go Test (TUG-DT reflects the performance in daily activities. Objective To evaluate the differences in time to perform the TUG with and without DT in elderly women with different ages and levels of education and physical activity. Method Ninety-two elderly women perfomed the TUG at usual and fast speeds, with and without motor and cognitive DT. Results Increases in the time to perform the TUG-DT were observed at older ages and lower educational levels, but not at different levels of physical activity. More educated women performed the test faster with and without DT at both speeds. When age was considered, significant differences were found only for the TUG-DT at both speeds. Conclusion Younger women with higher education levels demonstrated better performances on the TUG-DT.

  17. Grading Gradients: Evaluating Evidence for Time-dependent Memory Reorganization in Experimental Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine G. Akers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In humans, hippocampal damage typically produces temporally graded retrograde amnesia, with relative sparing of remote memories compared to recent memories. This observation led to the idea that as memories age, they are reorganized in a time-dependent manner. Here, we evaluate evidence for time-dependent memory reorganization in animal models. We conclude that, although hippocampal lesions may not always produce temporal gradients under all conditions, studies using alternate experimental approaches consistently support the idea that memories reorganize over time—becoming less dependent on the hippocampus and more dependent on a cortical network. We further speculate on the processes that drive memory reorganization such as sleep, memory reactivation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis.

  18. Time to Guide: Evidence for Delayed Attentional Guidance in Contextual Cueing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunar, Melina A; Flusberg, Stephen J; Wolfe, Jeremy M

    2008-01-01

    Contextual cueing experiments show that, when displays are repeated, reaction times (RTs) to find a target decrease over time even when the observers are not aware of the repetition. Recent evidence suggests that this benefit in standard contextual cueing tasks is not likely to be due to an improvement in attentional guidance (Kunar, Flusberg, Horowitz & Wolfe, 2007). Nevertheless, we ask whether guidance can help participants find the target in a repeated display, if they are given sufficient time to encode the display. In Experiment 1 we increased the display complexity so that it took participants longer to find the target. Here we found a larger effect of guidance than in a condition with shorter RTs. Experiment 2 gave participants prior exposure to the display context. The data again showed that with more time participants could implement guidance to help find the target, provided that there was something in the search stimuli locations to guide attention to. The data suggest that although the benefit in a standard contextual cueing task is unlikely to be a result of guidance, guidance can play a role if it is given time to develop.

  19. Quotas and women's substantive representation: Evidence from a content analysis of Ugandan plenary debates

    OpenAIRE

    Clayton, Amanda; Josefsson, Cecilia; Wang, Vibeke

    2017-01-01

    Despite the popularity of electoral gender quotas, the substantive impact of quotas on the plenary behavior of members of parliament (MPs) has yet to be thoroughly empirically explored, and in particular, there is a dearth of evidence from non-Western cases. Here we create a unique content analysis dataset from 14 years (1998–2011) of plenary debates, including the contents of more than 150,000 unique MP speeches recorded in some 40,000 pages of the Ugandan parliamentary Hansard to test how M...

  20. Evidence for Genetic Overlap Between Schizophrenia and Age at First Birth in Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehta, Divya; Tropf, Felix C; Gratten, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: A recently published study of national data by McGrath et al in 2014 showed increased risk of schizophrenia (SCZ) in offspring associated with both early and delayed parental age, consistent with a U-shaped relationship. However, it remains unclear if the risk to the child is due......), reflecting the published relationship between maternal age and SCZ risk in offspring by McGrath et al in 2014. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: This study provides evidence for a significant overlap between genetic factors associated with risk of SCZ and genetic factors associated with AFB. It has been reported...

  1. The right care, every time: improving adherence to evidence-based guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnacles, Jane; Roueché, Alice; Lachman, Peter

    2018-02-01

    Guidelines are integral to reducing variation in paediatric care by ensuring that children receive the right care, every time. However, for reasons discussed in this paper, clinicians do not always follow evidence-based guidelines. Strategies to improve guideline usage tend to focus on dissemination and education. These approaches, however, do not address some of the more complex factors that influence whether a guideline is used in clinical practice. In this article, part of the Equipped Quality Improvement series, we outline the literature on barriers to guideline adherence and present practical solutions to address these barriers. Examples outlined include the use of care bundles, integrated care pathways and quality improvement collaboratives. A sophisticated information technology system can improve the use of evidence-based guidelines and provide organisations with valuable data for learning and improvement. Key to success is the support of an organisation that places reliability of service delivery as the way business is done. To do this requires leadership from clinicians in multidisciplinary teams and a system of continual improvement. By learning from successful approaches, we believe that all healthcare organisations can ensure the right care for each patient, every time. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. "I Wish We Had More Time to Spend Together...": The Distribution and Predictors of Perceived Family Time Pressures among Married Men and Women in the Paid Labor Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roxburgh, Susan

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I examine the distribution of time pressure associated with the roles of marital partner and parent using data from a telephone survey. Results of an analysis of open-ended responses indicate that less than a quarter of respondents are satisfied with the time they spend with their children and spouses. Women are more likely to…

  3. Genome-wide association study of anthropometric traits and evidence of interactions with age and study year in Filipino women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croteau-Chonka, Damien C; Marvelle, Amanda F; Lange, Ethan M; Lee, Nanette R; Adair, Linda S; Lange, Leslie A; Mohlke, Karen L

    2011-05-01

    Increased values of multiple adiposity-related anthropometric traits are important risk factors for many common complex diseases. We performed a genome-wide association (GWA) study for four quantitative traits related to body size and adiposity (BMI, weight, waist circumference, and height) in a cohort of 1,792 adult Filipino women from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey (CLHNS). This is the first GWA study of anthropometric traits in Filipinos, a population experiencing a rapid transition into a more obesogenic environment. In addition to identifying suggestive evidence of additional single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) association signals (P Filipinos and provide further insight into the effects of BDNF, FTO, and MC4R on BMI.

  4. Contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Ghanaian women: evidence from the Ghana Demographic and Health Survey, 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modey, Emefa J; Aryeetey, Richmond; Adanu, Richard

    2014-03-01

    This study identifies factors associated with contraceptive discontinuation and switching among Ghanaian women of reproductive age, using data from 1,378 female respondents of the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. Logistic regression models were used to determine relationships between key socio-demographic factors and user status. Discontinued use occurred among 56% of ever users and switching among 55% of current users. The IUD was most abandoned (70%) and its use was associated with almost twice the odds of discontinuation (OR = 1.97; 95% CI (1.04, 3.75)). Having a history of terminated pregnancy significantly predicted both discontinuation (OR = 1.36; 95% CI (1.03, 1.79) and switching (OR = 1.78; 95% CI (1.16, 2.73)) and intention to limit births significantly predicted lower discontinuation (OR = 0.71; 95% CI (0.52, 0.96)). Counseling services emphasizing contraceptive options and reinforcing switching are critically needed to reduce unwanted pregnancies that may result from poor method use and discontinuation especially among post-abortion clients and IUD users.

  5. Women's Land Tenure Security and Household Human Capital: Evidence from Ethiopia's Land Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muchomba, Felix M

    2017-10-01

    This paper examines the impact of Ethiopia's gendered land certification programs on household consumption of healthcare, food, education, and clothing. Ethiopia embarked on a land tenure reform program in 1998, after years of communism during which all land was nationalized. The reform began in Tigray region where land certificates were issued to household heads, who were primarily male. In a second phase carried out in 2003-2005, three other regions issued land certificates jointly to household heads and spouses, presenting variation in land tenure security by gender. Results using household panel data show that joint land certification to spouses was accompanied by increased household consumption of healthcare and homegrown food and decreased education expenditure, compared to household-head land certification. Joint land certification was also accompanied by increased consumption of women's and girls' clothing, and decreased men's clothing expenditures indicating results may be explained by a shift in the gender balance of power within households. Analysis on the incidence and duration of illness indicates that increased healthcare expenditures after joint land certification may be due to joint certification households seeking more effective treatment than head-only certification households for household members who fell ill or suffered injuries.

  6. Geographical variation and factors influencing modern contraceptive use among married women in Ethiopia: evidence from a national population based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakew, Yihunie; Reda, Ayalu A; Tamene, Habtamu; Benedict, Susan; Deribe, Kebede

    2013-09-26

    Modern contraceptive use persists to be low in most African countries where fertility, population growth, and unmet need for family planning are high. Though there is an evidence of increased overall contraceptive prevalence, a substantial effort remains behind in Ethiopia. This study aimed to identify factors associated with modern contraceptive use and to examine its geographical variations among 15-49 married women in Ethiopia. We conducted secondary analysis of 10,204 reproductive age women included in the 2011 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The survey sample was designed to provide national, urban/rural, and regional representative estimates for key health and demographic indicators. The sample was selected using a two-stage stratified sampling process. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were applied to determine the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors in Ethiopia. Being wealthy, more educated, being employed, higher number of living children, being in a monogamous relationship, attending community conversation, being visited by health worker at home strongly predicted use of modern contraception. While living in rural areas, older age, being in polygamous relationship, and witnessing one's own child's death were found negatively influence modern contraceptive use. The spatial analysis of contraceptive use revealed that the central and southwestern parts of the country had higher prevalence of modern contraceptive use than that of the eastern and western parts. The findings indicate significant socio-economic, urban-rural and regional variation in modern contraceptive use among reproductive age women in Ethiopia. Strengthening community conversation programs and female education should be given top priority.

  7. Perceived benefits and barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy in previously inactive and active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Deborah; Ireland, Kierla

    2013-01-01

    This study compared perceived benefits and barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy among women who were insufficiently active or inactive before pregnancy. Eighty-two pregnant women completed questionnaires assessing leisure-time physical activity benefits/barriers, exercise self-efficacy, social support, depressed mood, pre-pregnancy and current physical activity and fatigue. Multivariable regression analyses identified factors associated with exercise benefits/barriers for the two pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity groups. Both pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity groups reported more benefits than barriers to exercise during pregnancy. Previously inactive women reported fewer perceived benefits and greater perceived barriers to leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy. Higher self-efficacy for exercise during pregnancy was significantly associated with greater benefits of leisure-time physical activity during pregnancy for both groups. Less family support for exercise and lower self-efficacy for exercise were significantly related to greater leisure-time physical activity barriers during pregnancy for previously inactive women. Lower self-efficacy for exercise, higher depressed mood scores, and younger age were associated with greater leisure-time physical activity barriers for active women. Findings suggest that the intensities of perceived leisure-time physical activity benefits and barriers during pregnancy differ for women, depending on their pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity status. Consideration of pre-pregnancy leisure-time physical activity status may thus be important when tailoring strategies to overcome barriers to promote initiation and maintenance of physical activity during pregnancy.

  8. Hard Times, Expedient Measures: Women Teachers in Queensland Rural Schools, 1920-50.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadmore, Peter

    1999-01-01

    Examines women teachers who taught in one-teacher schools in Queensland, Australia, from 1920-50. Discusses the research and provides a historical context. Focuses on topics such as teaching as a career, women teachers and marriage, unequal pay, and living conditions of women teachers. (CMK)

  9. Telling Tales out of School: Women and Literacy in "New Times."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Lesley; Kamler, Barbara; Threadgold, Terry

    2000-01-01

    Three personal stories illustrate how dominant narratives deny women's voices: (1) women silenced the literacies of the changing workplace; (2) writing workshops in which older women describe age stereotypes; and (3) a courtroom in which a rape victim is silenced. Ways to intervene in prevailing literacy practices must stem from policy as well as…

  10. Timing of surgery with regard to the menstrual cycle in women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badwe, R A; Mittra, I; Havaldar, R

    1999-10-01

    There is sufficient evidence to support both the hormonal influence on the outcome of breast cancer surgery and the SDA hypothesis. The SDA model produces a paradigm shift in the understanding of the natural history of breast cancer. It offers opportunities to try modifying a tumor's biological potential for metastasis (e.g., by tamoxifen, progesterone, antiprotease, or angiostatin) in the neoadjuvant setting. It continues to support the beneficial effects of detection and surgery early in the natural history of disease. It would be worthwhile to plan a trial comparing standard practice (unplanned surgery as the patient enrolls) with surgery during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in premenopausal women. Another possibility, based on studies of circulating progesterone, would be to compare primary progesterone treatment (for 4 to 10 days before surgery) with standard practice. Such a trial of primary progesterone is already under way, conducted by the Indian Breast Group. More than 200 patients have enrolled so far. The details of the trial are available from Clinical Research Secretariat, Tata Memorial Centre, Parel, Mumbai, India (e mail: tmho3@bom2.vsnl.in).

  11. The experiences of and meaning for women living and coping with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li Jie; Drury, Vicki Blair; Taylor, Beverley Joan

    Effective management of diabetes not only relies on lifestyle modification and adherence to a treatment regime, but also the ability to cope with the impact of the disease on daily activities. Stress associated with the multi-caregiver role of women may affect the ability to manage the disease effectively. To explore the experience of women living and coping with type 2 diabetes. Adult women aged 18 years and above diagnosed with type 2 diabetes.The meaning of living and coping with type 2 diabetes.Qualitative studies, including designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research. The search strategy used sought only to identify published English research papers from the year 1990 to 2010. A three-step search strategy was undertaken. The retrieved papers were assessed for methodological quality by two independent reviewers using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument. Data was extracted using the Joanna Briggs Institute Qualitative Assessment and Review data extraction tool. The data were synthesised using the Joanna Briggs Institute approach of meta-synthesis by meta-aggregation. Nine studies were included in the review. Forty-one findings were obtained and then grouped into 11 categories which were then aggregated into four synthesised findings: "Living with type 2 diabetes is emotionally and mentally challenging", "Support (of self, by others, spiritual) provides the ability to cope with diabetes", "Women see their personal responsibility in the management of diabetes and try to maintain their autonomy. Despite this, women place the needs of the family over their own needs thereby resulting in ineffective management" and "Effective management of diabetes is hindered by role duties of women as well as their attitudes and the attitudes of the healthcare providers". Women are challenged by their multi-caregiving roles and the complexities of managing their diabetes simultaneously

  12. Transformation and time-out: the role of alcohol in identity construction among Scottish women in early midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Carol; Hunt, Kate; Lyons, Antonia

    2015-05-01

    Despite the increase in drinking by women in early midlife, little alcohol research has focused on this group. We explore how alcohol is associated with the construction of gender identities among women aged 30-50 years in the west of Scotland, United Kingdom. We draw on qualitative data from 11 focus groups (five all-female, six mixed-sex) with pre-existing groups of friends and work colleagues in which women and men discuss their drinking behaviours. Analysis demonstrated how alcohol represented a time and space away from paid and unpaid work for women in a range of domestic circumstances, allowing them to relax and unwind. While women used alcohol to construct a range of identities, traditional notions of femininity remained salient (e.g. attention to appearance, drinking 'girly' drinks). Drinking enabled women to assert their identity beyond the roles and responsibilities often associated with being a woman in early midlife. For example, some respondents with young children described the transformative effects of excessive drinking which allowed them to return temporarily to a younger, carefree version of themselves. Thus, our data suggest that women's drinking in early midlife revolves around notions of 'idealised' femininity but simultaneously represents a way of achieving 'time out' from traditional female responsibilities such as caring for others. We consider these findings within a broader social and cultural context including alcohol marketing, domestic roles and motherhood and their implications for health promotion. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Leisure time physical activity of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical.

  14. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity.

  15. Bone remodeling and regulating biomarkers in women at the time of breast cancer diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Song; Zhang, Yali; Tang, Li; Roh, Janise M; Laurent, Cecile A; Hong, Chi-Chen; Hahn, Theresa; Lo, Joan C; Ambrosone, Christine B; Kushi, Lawrence H; Kwan, Marilyn L

    2017-02-01

    The majority of breast cancer patients receive endocrine therapy, including aromatase inhibitors known to cause increased bone resorption. Bone-related biomarkers at the time of breast cancer diagnosis may predict future risk of osteoporosis and fracture after endocrine therapy. In a large population of 2,401 female breast cancer patients who later underwent endocrine therapy, we measured two bone remodeling biomarkers, TRAP5b and BAP, and two bone regulating biomarkers, RANKL and OPG, in serum samples collected at the time of breast cancer diagnosis. We analyzed these biomarkers and their ratios with patients' demographic, lifestyle, clinical tumor characteristics, as well as bone health history. The presence of bone metastases, prior bisphosphonate (BP) treatment, and blood collection after chemotherapy had a significant impact on biomarker levels. After excluding these cases and controlling for blood collection time, several factors, including age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, physical activity, alcohol consumption, smoking, and hormonal replacement therapy, were significantly associated with bone biomarkers, while vitamin D or calcium supplements and tumor characteristics were not. When prior BP users were included in, recent history of osteoporosis and fracture was also associated. Our findings support further investigation of these biomarkers with bone health outcomes after endocrine therapy initiation in women with breast cancer.

  16. Risk aversion, time preference and health production: theory and empirical evidence from Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieger, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    This paper quantifies the relationship between risk aversion and discount rates on the one hand and height and weight on the other. It studies this link in the context of poor households in Cambodia. Evidence is based on an original dataset that contains both experimental measures of risk taking and impatience along with anthropometric measurements of children and adults. The aim of the paper is to (i) explore the importance of risk and time preferences in explaining undernutrition and (ii) compare the evidence stemming from poor households to strikingly similar findings from industrialized countries. It uses an inter-generational approach to explain observed correlations in adults and children that is inspired by the height premium on labor markets. Parents can invest in the health capital of their child to increase future earnings and their consumption when old: better nutrition during infancy translates into better human capital and better wages, and ultimately better financial means to take care of elderly parents. However this investment is subject to considerable uncertainty, since parents neither perfectly foresee economic conditions when the child starts earning nor fully observe the ability to transform nutritional investments into long-term health capital. As a result, risk taking households have taller and heavier children. Conversely, impatience does not affect child health. In the case of adults, only weight and the body mass index (BMI), but not height, are positively and moderately correlated with risk taking and impatience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Direct real-time neural evidence for task-set inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Lisa H; Herron, Jane E; Wilding, Edward L

    2015-03-01

    One influential explanation for the costs incurred when switching between tasks is that they reflect interference arising from completing the previous task-known as task-set inertia. We report a novel approach for assessing task-set inertia in a memory experiment using event-related potentials (ERPs). After a study phase, participants completed a test block in which they switched between a memory task (retrieving information from the study phase) and a perceptual task. These tasks alternated every two trials. An ERP index of the retrieval of study information was evident in the memory task. It was also present on the first trial of the perceptual task but was markedly attenuated on the second. Moreover, this task-irrelevant ERP activity was positively correlated with a behavioral cost associated with switching between tasks. This real-time measure of neural activity thus provides direct evidence of task-set inertia, its duration, and the functional role it plays in switch costs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  18. Strengthening the enabling environment for women and girls: what is the evidence in social and structural approaches in the HIV response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardee, Karen; Gay, Jill; Croce-Galis, Melanie; Peltz, Amelia

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in expanding public health approaches that address social and structural drivers that affect the environment in which behaviour occurs. Half of those living with HIV infection are women. The sociocultural and political environment in which women live can enable or inhibit their ability to protect themselves from acquiring HIV. This paper examines the evidence related to six key social and structural drivers of HIV for women: transforming gender norms; addressing violence against women; transforming legal norms to empower women; promoting women's employment, income and livelihood opportunities; advancing education for girls and reducing stigma and discrimination. The paper reviews the evidence for successful and promising social and structural interventions related to each driver. This analysis contains peer-reviewed published research and study reports with clear and transparent data on the effectiveness of interventions. Structural interventions to address these key social and structural drivers have led to increasing HIV-protective behaviours, creating more gender-equitable relationships and decreasing violence, improving services for women, increasing widows' ability to cope with HIV and reducing behaviour that increases HIV risk, particularly among young people.

  19. Hip Dislocation and Dystocia in Early Medieval Times: Possible Evidence of Labor Maneuver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malgosa, Assumpció; Carrascal, Susana; Piga, Giampaolo; Isidro, Albert

    2016-12-01

    In ancient times, maternal mortality would occur frequently, particularly during labor. Evidence of dystocia resulting in the death of a pregnant woman is very infrequent in paleopathologic literature, with only a few cases being demonstrated. In the early medieval site of Casserres, the skeleton of a young woman with a fetus in the pelvic region was found. Some abnormal findings of the maternal skeleton were evaluated, including a sacral anomaly, femoral head wound, the rare position of the lower left limb with the femoral head dislodged anteriorly and cephalad from the socket, and a fibular fracture. Examining the anomalies all together, a case of anterior hip dislocation related to a McRoberts-like maneuver performed during labor is a plausible explanation of the findings.

  20. Personality and Political Preferences Over Time: Evidence From a Multi-Wave Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrom, Pierce D; Federico, Christopher M

    2018-05-27

    To investigate how the relations between the Big Five personality traits and political preferences develop over a campaign. We rely on a 6-wave nationwide longitudinal survey from the 2008 U.S. election that included 20,000 respondents. Mean age: 49 (SD=15). 53% of respondents were women, 47% men. 82% were White, 8% Black, 6% Hispanic/Latino, 1% Asian, 1% Native American, and 2% other. Survey weights were applied to approximate a representative sample of the U.S. Ns for reported analyses range from 5,160 to 12,535. First, conscientiousness and openness to experience were significantly associated with changes in outcomes over time, such that individuals higher in conscientiousness and lower in openness tended to become more conservative, identify as more Republican, and evaluate John McCain more favorably relative to Barack Obama. Second, the effects of personality on candidate evaluations were mediated by partisanship and ideology. Finally, we find that the relations between traits and late-campaign candidate evaluations are stronger than those between traits and early-campaign candidate evaluations. Personality plays an important and dynamic role in the formation and change of political preferences over the course of political campaigns-a role which is not entirely visible in cross-sectional analyses. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Shorter Ground Contact Time and Better Running Economy: Evidence From Female Kenyan Runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooses, Martin; Haile, Diresibachew W; Ojiambo, Robert; Sang, Meshack; Mooses, Kerli; Lane, Amy R; Hackney, Anthony C

    2018-06-25

    Mooses, M, Haile, DW, Ojiambo, R, Sang, M, Mooses, K, Lane, AR, and Hackney, AC. Shorter ground contact time and better running economy: evidence from female Kenyan runners. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-Previously, it has been concluded that the improvement in running economy (RE) might be considered as a key to the continued improvement in performance when no further increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max is observed. To date, RE has been extensively studied among male East African distance runners. By contrast, there is a paucity of data on the RE of female East African runners. A total of 10 female Kenyan runners performed 3 × 1,600-m steady-state run trials on a flat outdoor clay track (400-m lap) at the intensities that corresponded to their everyday training intensities for easy, moderate, and fast running. Running economy together with gait characteristics was determined. Participants showed moderate to very good RE at the first (202 ± 26 ml·kg·km) and second (188 ± 12 ml·kg·km) run trials, respectively. Correlation analysis revealed significant relationship between ground contact time (GCT) and RE at the second run (r = 0.782; p = 0.022), which represented the intensity of anaerobic threshold. This study is the first to report the RE and gait characteristics of East African female athletes measured under everyday training settings. We provided the evidence that GCT is associated with the superior RE of the female Kenyan runners.

  2. Discounting of Various Types of Rewards by Women with and without Binge Eating Disorder: Evidence for General Rather than Specific Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwaring, Jamie L.; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Strube, Michael J.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2011-01-01

    The present study compared the extent to which obese women with binge eating disorder (BED), obese women without BED, and controls discounted delayed and probabilistic money and directly consumable rewards: food, massage time, and preferred sedentary activity. Of special interest was whether the BED group differed from the other groups in terms of…

  3. Coming of age in Roman Britain: Osteological evidence for pubertal timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Nichola A; Gowland, Rebecca L; Redfern, Rebecca C

    2016-04-01

    Puberty is a key transitional phase of the human life course, with important biological and social connotations. Novel methods for the identification of the pubertal growth spurt and menarche in skeletal remains have recently been proposed (Shapland and Lewis, 2013, 2014). In this study we applied the methods to two Romano-British cemetery samples (1st-early 5th centuries AD) in order to investigate the timing of puberty during this period and further assess the veracity of the methods. Shapland and Lewis' methods (2013, 2014) were applied to 38 adolescents (aged 8-20 years) from the British cemetery sites of Roman London (1st-early 5th centuries AD) and Queenford Farm, Oxfordshire (4th-early 5th centuries AD). Overall, the Romano-British males and females experienced the onset of puberty at similar ages to modern European adolescents, but subsequently experienced a longer period of pubertal development. Menarche occurred between the ages of 15 and 17 years for these Romano-British females, around 2 to 4 years later than for present-day European females. The observed Romano-British pattern of pubertal timing has various possible explanations, including exposure to environmental stressors in early urban environments. The pattern of pubertal timing is largely congruent with social age transitions alluded to in ancient texts and funerary evidence for this period. While there are limitations to the application of these techniques to archaeological samples, they were successfully applied in this study, and may have important implications for understandings of past life courses, as well as providing a long-term perspective on pubertal timing and biocultural interactions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition: evidence from ERP analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingjing; Guo, Jingjing; Zhou, Fengying; Shu, Hua

    2011-06-01

    Evidence from event-related potential (ERP) analyses of English spoken words suggests that the time course of English word recognition in monosyllables is cumulative. Different types of phonological competitors (i.e., rhymes and cohorts) modulate the temporal grain of ERP components differentially (Desroches, Newman, & Joanisse, 2009). The time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition could be different from that of English due to the differences in syllable structure between the two languages (e.g., lexical tones). The present study investigated the time course of Chinese monosyllabic spoken word recognition using ERPs to record brain responses online while subjects listened to spoken words. During the experiment, participants were asked to compare a target picture with a subsequent picture by judging whether or not these two pictures belonged to the same semantic category. The spoken word was presented between the two pictures, and participants were not required to respond during its presentation. We manipulated phonological competition by presenting spoken words that either matched or mismatched the target picture in one of the following four ways: onset mismatch, rime mismatch, tone mismatch, or syllable mismatch. In contrast to the English findings, our findings showed that the three partial mismatches (onset, rime, and tone mismatches) equally modulated the amplitudes and time courses of the N400 (a negative component that peaks about 400ms after the spoken word), whereas, the syllable mismatched words elicited an earlier and stronger N400 than the three partial mismatched words. The results shed light on the important role of syllable-level awareness in Chinese spoken word recognition and also imply that the recognition of Chinese monosyllabic words might rely more on global similarity of the whole syllable structure or syllable-based holistic processing rather than phonemic segment-based processing. We interpret the differences in spoken word

  5. Content analysis of UK newspaper and online news representations of women's and men's 'binge' drinking: a challenge for communicating evidence-based messages about single-episodic drinking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, C; Emslie, C; Mason, O; Fergie, G; Hilton, S

    2016-12-27

    In the UK, men's alcohol-related morbidity and mortality still greatly exceeds women's, despite an increase in women's alcohol consumption in recent decades. New UK alcohol guidelines introduce gender-neutral low-risk alcohol consumption guidance. This study explores how UK newspaper and online news represent women's and men's 'binge' drinking to identify opportunities to better align reporting of harmful drinking with evidence. Quantitative and qualitative content analysis of 308 articles published in 7 UK national newspapers and the BBC News website between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2013. Articles associated women with 'binge' drinking more frequently than men, and presented women's drinking as more problematic. Men were more frequently characterised as violent or disorderly, while women were characterised as out of control, putting themselves in danger, harming their physical appearance and burdening men. Descriptions of female 'binge' drinkers' clothing and appearance were typically moralistic. The UK news media's disproportionate focus on women's 'binge' drinking is at odds with epidemiological evidence, may reproduce harmful gender stereotypes and may obstruct public understandings of the gender-neutral weekly consumption limits in newly proposed alcohol guidelines. In order to better align reporting of harmful drinking with current evidence, public health advocates may engage with the media with a view to shifting media framing of 'binge' drinking away from specific groups (young people; women) and contexts (public drinking) and towards the health risks of specific drinking behaviours, which affect all groups regardless of context. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Nursing intervention to enhance acceptance of pregnancy in first-time mothers: focusing on the comfortable experiences of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yasuka

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to describe effective nursing care through evaluation of a nursing intervention that enhanced acceptance of pregnancy and focused on a comfortable experience for pregnant women. Thirty-two subjects who were expected to have a normal pregnancy were assigned into either the intervention or the control group. The nursing intervention consisted of the use of a pregnancy diary and four interviews, two of which were held in the first trimester, one in the second and one in the third trimester. The nursing care given was recorded in tapes and field notes. The data were analyzed using a qualitative content analysis method. As a result of analyzing the nursing care of 13 women pregnant for the first time who were provided with nursing intervention, the following seven categories of nursing care were extracted for the intervention: encouragement of women to record their experiences using a pregnancy diary; recognizing and acknowledging negative feelings; reducing the negative aspects of pregnancy and reframing; expression and reinforcement of positive feelings; clarification and reinforcement of positive meanings; awareness of own comfortable experiences; promotion of diverse comfortable aspects and continuation of comfortable experiences. The seven nursing care interventions were effective in increasing the comfortable experiences of pregnant women and enhancing a positive attitude towards pregnancy. Nursing intervention can aid in enhancing positivity and comfort in pregnant women. Furthermore, this nursing intervention can be applied to adolescents, socially disadvantaged pregnant women, and hospitalized women.

  7. Sleep duration, nightshift work, and the timing of meals and urinary levels of 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin in Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Chisato; Tamura, Takashi; Wada, Keiko; Konishi, Kie; Goto, Yuko; Nagao, Yasuko; Ishihara, Kazuhiro; Yamamoto, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that disruption of circadian rhythms affects human health. Shift work and sleep deprivation are thought to disrupt the normal light-dark cycle, although the disruption due to shiftwork may be dependent on sleep deprivation. Both conditions have been suggested to be associated with an increased risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Non-photic environmental factors, such as the timing of eating, are also thought to regulate circadian rhythm and thus, may have effects on health, but the evidence from human studies is scarce. Oxidative stress is a risk factor of cardiometabolic disorders. Some laboratory studies suggest an involvement of circadian clock genes in the regulation of the redox system. The present study aimed to examine the association of sleeping habits, nightshift work, and the timing of meals with urinary levels of 8-isoprostane, a marker of oxidative stress, and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, the principal metabolite of melatonin. Study subjects were 542 women who had previously attended a breast cancer mass screening in a community in Japan. Information on bedtimes and wake-up times, history of nightshift work, and the timing of meals was obtained by a self-administered questionnaire. The 8-isoprostane and 6-sulfatoxymelatonin were measured using the first morning void of urine and expressed per mg of creatinine. The geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels was 12.1% higher in women with ≤6 hours of sleep than that in those with >8 hours of sleep on weekdays, and longer sleep duration on weekdays was significantly associated with lower urinary levels of 8-isoprostane after controlling for covariates (p for trend = 0.04). Women who were currently working the nightshift had a 33.3% higher geometric mean of 8-isoprostane levels than those who were not working nightshift (p = 0.03). Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin levels were unrelated to sleep habits or nightshift work. Women who ate breakfast at irregular times had a 19.8% higher

  8. Effect of an evidence-based website on healthcare usage: an interrupted time-series study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoelman, W.A.; Bonten, T.N.; Waal, M.W.M. de; Drenthen, T.; Smeele, I.J.M.; Nielen, M.M.; Chavannes, N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Healthcare costs and usage are rising. Evidence-based online health information may reduce healthcare usage, but the evidence is scarce. The objective of this study was to determine whether the release of a nationwide evidence-based health website was associated with a reduction in

  9. Disparities in breast cancer tumor characteristics, treatment, time to treatment, and survival probability among African American and white women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Kevin Chu; Fisher, James L; Lustberg, Maryam B; Gray, Darrell M; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R; Paskett, Electra D

    2018-01-01

    African American (AA) women have a 42% higher breast cancer death rate compared to white women despite recent advancements in management of the disease. We examined racial differences in clinical and tumor characteristics, treatment and survival in patients diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2014 at a single institution, the James Cancer Hospital, and who were included in the Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute Cancer Registry in Columbus OH. Statistical analyses included likelihood ratio chi-square tests for differences in proportions, as well as univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regressions to examine associations between race and overall and progression-free survival probabilities. AA women made up 10.2% (469 of 4593) the sample. Average time to onset of treatment after diagnosis was almost two times longer in AA women compared to white women (62.0 days vs 35.5 days, p  triple negative and late stage breast cancer, and were less likely to receive surgery, especially mastectomy and reconstruction following mastectomy. After adjustment for confounding factors (age, grade, and surgery), overall survival probability was significantly associated with race (HR = 1.33; 95% CI 1.03-1.72). These findings highlight the need for efforts focused on screening and receipt of prompt treatment among AA women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  10. Time-dependent relation between smoking cessation and improved exercise tolerance in apparently healthy middle-age men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch, Anat; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yechezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and correlates with reduced exercise tolerance. However, data on the time dependent effect of smoking cessation on exercise tolerance are limited. We investigated 17,115 men and women who were annually screened at the Institute for Medical Screening of the Chaim Sheba Medical Centre. All subjects had their smoking status documented and performed an exercise stress testing (EST) according to Bruce protocol at each visit. Subjects were divided at baseline into four groups: active smokers (N = 2858), recent quitters (smoking cessation ≤2 years before baseline EST; N = 861), remote quitters (smoking cessation >2 years before the baseline EST; N = 3856) and never smokers (N = 9810). Baseline and follow up EST duration were compared among the four groups. Recent quitters demonstrated a 2.4-fold improvement in their EST duration compared with active smokers (improvement of 24 ± 157 vs. 10 ± 157 s, respectively, p = 0.02). Multivariate logistic regression showed that recent quitters were 26% more likely to improve their exercise tolerance compared with active smokers (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.47, p = 0.003). Assessing smoking status as a time-dependent covariate during four consecutive visits demonstrated that recent quitters were 17% more likely to improve their exercise tolerance compared with active smokers (95% CI 1.02-1.34, p = 0.02), with a less pronounced benefit among remote quitters (hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; p = 0.01). Smoking cessation is independently associated with improved exercise tolerance. The benefits of smoking cessation are evident within the first two years of abstinence. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  11. Time trends for alendronate prescription practices in women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and women exposed to systemic glucocorticoids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brask-Lindemann, Dorthe; Eiken, P; Eskildsen, P

    2013-01-01

    Summary Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis. We evaluated alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and exposure to systemic corticosteroids from 1996 to 2008 and showed an increasing targeting...... of alendronate treatment in patients with COPD and patients with systemic corticosteroid exposure. Introduction COPD and systemic glucocorticoid exposure are well-known risk factors of osteoporosis and fragility fracture, but osteoporosis is often underdiagnosed and undertreated in these patients. This study...... aims to evaluate alendronate prescription practices related to COPD and/or to exposure to systemic glucocorticoids among Danish women. Methods A total of 388,314 female subjects >50 years old, 64,719 of whom initiated treatment with alendronate, and 323,595 age- and gender-matched controls were...

  12. Not enough time? Individual and environmental implications for workplace physical activity programming among women with and without young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Leonor S; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2008-03-01

    This study sets out to determine the main issues employed women with and without young children voice as influencing their physical activity behaviors, and to identify the environmental dimensions (e.g., physical, social, cultural, organizational, policy) within and outside of the workplace surrounding physical activity promotion that are most pertinent to employed women in Canada. Thirty employed women participated in focus groups, and four senior personnel were interviewed. Worksite observations were carried out and a Workplace Physical Activity Audit Tool was administered. Results indicate that time constraints and demands of personal and work life are barriers to achieving more activity. The issues surrounding family obligations and pressures for women with young children illustrate the main differences between groups. Key environmental factors are addressed and considered for future workplace physical activity programming goals.

  13. Multiple goals and time constraints: perceived impact on physicians' performance of evidence-based behaviours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Jillian J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behavioural approaches to knowledge translation inform interventions to improve healthcare. However, such approaches often focus on a single behaviour without considering that health professionals perform multiple behaviours in pursuit of multiple goals in a given clinical context. In resource-limited consultations, performing these other goal-directed behaviours may influence optimal performance of a particular evidence-based behaviour. This study aimed to investigate whether a multiple goal-directed behaviour perspective might inform implementation research beyond single-behaviour approaches. Methods We conducted theory-based semi-structured interviews with 12 general medical practitioners (GPs in Scotland on their views regarding two focal clinical behaviours--providing physical activity (PA advice and prescribing to reduce blood pressure (BP to Results Most GPs reported strong intention to prescribe to reduce BP but expressed reasons why they would not. Intention to provide PA advice was variable. Most GPs reported that time constraints and patient preference detrimentally affected their control over providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP, respectively. Most GPs perceived many of their other goal-directed behaviours as interfering with providing PA advice, while fewer GPs reported goal-directed behaviours that interfere with prescribing to reduce BP. Providing PA advice and prescribing to reduce BP were perceived to be facilitated by similar diabetes-related behaviours (e.g., discussing cholesterol. While providing PA advice was perceived to be mainly facilitated by providing other lifestyle-related clinical advice (e.g., talking about weight, BP prescribing was reported as facilitated by pursuing ongoing standard consultation-related goals (e.g., clearly structuring the consultation. Conclusion GPs readily relate their other goal-directed behaviours with having a facilitating and interfering influence on their

  14. Socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time in German men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit; Bucksch, Jens; Schneider, Sven; Froboese, Ingo

    2014-12-11

    Sitting time is ubiquitous for most adults in developed countries and is most prevalent in three domains: in the workplace, during transport and during leisure time. The correlates of prolonged sitting time in workplace settings are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the gender-specific associations between the socio-demographic, behavioural and cognitive correlates of work-related sitting time. A cross-sectional sample of working German adults (n = 1515; 747 men; 43.5 ± 11.0 years) completed questionnaires regarding domain-specific sitting times and physical activity (PA) and answered statements concerning beliefs about sitting. To identify gender-specific correlates of work-related sitting time, we used a series of linear regressions. The overall median was 2 hours of work-related sitting time/day. Regression analyses showed for men (β = -.43) and for women (β = -.32) that work-related PA was negatively associated with work-related sitting time, but leisure-related PA was not a significant correlate. For women only, transport-related PA (β = -.07) was a negative correlate of work-related sitting time, suggesting increased sitting times during work with decreased PA in transport. Education and income levels were positively associated, and in women only, age (β = -.14) had a negative correlation with work-related sitting time. For both genders, TV-related sitting time was negatively associated with work-related sitting time. The only association with cognitive correlates was found in men for the belief 'Sitting for long periods does not matter to me' (β = .10) expressing a more positive attitude towards sitting with increasing sitting durations. The present findings show that in particular, higher educated men and women as well as young women are high-risk groups to target for reducing prolonged work-related sitting time. In addition, our findings propose considering increasing transport-related PA, especially in women, as

  15. Evaluating wait times from screening to breast cancer diagnosis among women undergoing organised assessment vs usual care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarelli, Anna M; Muradali, Derek; Blackmore, Kristina M; Smith, Courtney R; Mirea, Lucia; Majpruz, Vicky; O'Malley, Frances P; Quan, May Lynn; Holloway, Claire Mb

    2017-05-09

    Timely coordinated diagnostic assessment following an abnormal screening mammogram reduces patient anxiety and may optimise breast cancer prognosis. Since 1998, the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP) has offered organised assessment through Breast Assessment Centres (BACs). For OBSP women seen at a BAC, an abnormal mammogram is followed by coordinated referrals through the use of navigators for further imaging, biopsy, and surgical consultation as indicated. For OBSP women seen through usual care (UC), further diagnostic imaging is arranged directly from the screening centre and/or through their physician; results must be communicated to the physician who is then responsible for arranging any necessary biopsy and/or surgical consultation. This study aims to evaluate factors associated with diagnostic wait times for women undergoing assessment through BAC and UC. Of the 2 147 257 women aged 50-69 years screened in the OBSP between 1 January 2002 and 31 December 2009, 155 866 (7.3%) had an abnormal mammogram. A retrospective design identified two concurrent cohorts of women diagnosed with screen-detected breast cancer at a BAC (n=4217; 47%) and UC (n=4827; 53%). Multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between wait times and assessment and prognostic characteristics by pathway. A two-sided 5% significance level was used. Screened women with breast cancer were two times more likely to be diagnosed within 7 weeks when assessed through a BAC vs UC (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.73-2.10). In addition, compared with UC, women assessed through a BAC were significantly more likely to have their first assessment procedure within 3 weeks of their abnormal mammogram (OR=1.25, 95% CI=1.12-1.39), ⩽3 assessment procedures (OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.41-1.69), ⩽2 assessment visits (OR=1.86, 95% CI=1.70-2.05), and ⩾2 procedures per visit (OR=1.41, 95% CI=1.28-1.55). Women diagnosed through a BAC were also more likely than those in UC to have imaging (OR=1.99, 95

  16. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hedau, Suresh; Mir, Mohammad Muzaffar; Chakraborty, Sekhar; Singh, Y Mohan; Kumar, Rakesh; Somasundaram, Kumaravel; Bharti, Alok C; Das, Bhudev C; Kumar, Umesh; Hussain, Showket; Shukla, Shirish; Pande, Shailja; Jain, Neeraj; Tyagi, Abhishek; Deshpande, Trivikram; Bhat, Dilafroze

    2011-01-01

    Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i) conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+) or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii) highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women

  17. Intensive follow-up for women with breast cancer: review of clinical, economic and patient's preference domains through evidence to decision framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafranconi, Alessandra; Pylkkänen, Liisa; Deandrea, Silvia; Bramesfeld, Anke; Lerda, Donata; Neamțiu, Luciana; Saz-Parkinson, Zuleika; Posso, Margarita; Rigau, David; Sola, Ivan; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Martinez-Zapata, Maria José

    2017-10-19

    Women treated for breast cancer are followed-up for monitoring of treatment effectiveness and for detecting recurrences at an early stage. The type of follow-up received may affect women's reassurance and impact on their quality of life. Anxiety and depression among women with breast cancer has been described, but little is known about how the intensity of the follow-up can affect women's psychological status. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of intensive vs. less-intensive follow-up on different health outcomes, to determine what are women's preferences and values regarding the follow-up received, and also assess the costs of these different types of follow-up. A systematic review following standard Cochrane Collaboration methods was carried out to assess the efficacy of intensive follow-up versus non-intensive follow-up in breast cancer patients. Two additional reviews on women's preferences and economic evidence were also carried out. The search was performed up to January 2016 in: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PDQ, McMaster Health Systems Evidence, CENTRAL, and NHS EED (through The Cochrane Library). The quality of evidence was assessed by GRADE (for quantitative studies) and CerQUAL (for qualitative studies). Several outcomes including mortality, breast cancer recurrences, quality of life, and patient satisfaction were evaluated. Six randomised trials (corresponding to 3534 women) were included for the evaluation of health outcomes; three studies were included for women's values and preferences and four for an economic assessment. There is moderate certainty of evidence showing that intensive follow-up, including more frequent diagnostic tests or visits, does not have effects on 5- or 10-year overall mortality and recurrences in women with breast cancer, compared with less intensive follow-up. Regarding women's preferences and values, there was important variability among studies and within studies (low confidence due to risk of bias and inconsistency

  18. Embedded in social cleavages: An explanation of the variation in timing of women's suffrage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palm, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Under which conditions did introduction of women's suffrage occur before the First World War (early), and when only after the Second World War (late)? This article analyses necessary and sufficient conditions to explain both early and late introduction of women's suffrage in 14 Western European

  19. Leisure time physical activity participation in women (30-65 years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The number of health risk indicators can be reduced by increasing LTPA, thus contributing to the management of the women's general health. Women should be encouraged to take responsibility for managing their own health by engaging in a healthy lifestyle in order to manage their health risks properly. This may require ...

  20. Social Support and Leisure Time Physical Activity in Young Black Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jasel

    2018-01-01

    Problem: Compared with other ethnic groups, Black women are the least likely group to engage in the recommended amount of physical activity. However, few studies have specifically identified or addressed barriers to physical activity in Black college-aged women. Method: This cross-sectional study analyzed data from the 2013 National Health…

  1. Time for My Life Now: Early Boomer Women's Anticipation of Volunteering in Retirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Patricia M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored to what extent early Boomer women who work for pay will be interested in and committed to formal volunteering during retirement. Method: Data for this hermeneutic study were gathered through 2 in-depth conversational interviews of 19 English-speaking early Boomer women living in New Brunswick, Canada. Results:…

  2. Women's experiences of their osteoporosis diagnosis at the time of diagnosis and 6 months later

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carrinna; Konradsen, Hanne; Abrahamsen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a phenomenological hermeneutic study of experiences of women who were recently diagnosed with osteoporosis. The research objective was to investigate women's experiences of living with osteoporosis during the first 6 months after diagnosis when treatment was first prescribed...

  3. Reliability of the Timed Up and Go test and Ten-Metre Timed Walk Test in Pregnant Women with Pelvic Girdle Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evensen, Natalie M; Kvåle, Alice; Braekken, Ingeborg H

    2015-09-01

    There is a lack of functional objective tests available to measure functional status in women with pelvic girdle pain (PGP). The purpose of this study was to establish test-retest and intertester reliability of the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test and Ten-metre Timed Walk Test (10mTWT) in pregnant women with PGP. A convenience sample of women was recruited over a 4-month period and tested on two occasions, 1 week apart to determine test-retest reliability. Intertester reliability was established between two assessors at the first testing session. Subjects were instructed to undertake the TUG and 10mTWT at maximum speed. One practise trial and two timed trials for each walking test was undertaken on Day 1 and one practise trial and one timed trial on Day 2. Seventeen women with PGP aged 31.1 years (SD [standard deviation] = 2.3) and 28.7 weeks pregnant (SD = 7.4) completed gait testing. Test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was excellent for the TUG (0.88) and good for the 10mTWT (0.74). Intertester reliability was determined in the first 13 participants with excellent ICC values being found for both walking tests (TUG: 0.95; 10mTWT: 0.94). This study demonstrated that the TUG and 10mTWT undertaken at fast pace are reliable, objective functional tests in pregnant women with PGP. While both tests are suitable for use in the clinical and research settings, we would recommend the TUG given the findings of higher test-retest reliability and as this test requires less space and time to set up and score. Future studies in a larger sample size are warranted to confirm the results of this study. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Socio-demographic correlates of prolonged television viewing time in Australian men and women: the AusDiab study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bronwyn Kay; Sugiyama, Takemi; Healy, Genevieve N; Salmon, Jo; Dunstan, David W; Shaw, Jonathan E; Zimmet, Paul Z; Owen, Neville

    2010-09-01

    Sedentary behaviors, particularly television viewing (TV) time, are associated with adverse health outcomes in adults, independent of physical activity levels. These associations are stronger and more consistent for women than for men. Multivariate regression models examined the sociodemographic correlates of 2 categories of TV time (≥ 2 hours/day and ≥ 4 hours/day); in a large, population-based sample of Australian adults (4950 men, 6001 women; mean age 48.1 years, range 25-91) who participated in the 1999/2000 Australian Diabetes, Obesity, and Lifestyle (AusDiab) study. Some 46% of men and 40% of women watched ≥ 2 hours TV/day; 9% and 6% respectively watched ≥ 4 hours/day. For both men and women, ≥ 2 hours TV/day was associated with less than tertiary education, living outside of state capital cities, and having no paid employment. For women, mid and older age (45-64 and 65+) were also significant correlates of ≥ 2 hours TV/day. Similar patterns of association were observed in those viewing ≥ 4 hours/day. Prolonged TV time is associated with indices of social disadvantage and older age. These findings can inform the understanding of potential contextual influences and guide preventive initiatives.

  5. Hyperfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in women with polycystic ovarian disease: indirect evidence for partial gonadotroph desensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldstreicher, J; Santoro, N F; Hall, J E; Filicori, M; Crowley, W F

    1988-01-01

    To examine gonadotropin secretory frequency as a component of the disordered neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion in women with polycystic ovarian disease (PCOD), we measured serum gonadotropin concentrations in 12 women with PCOD at 10-min intervals for periods of 12-24 h. The patterns of LH and FSH release in these patients were compared to the findings of 24 studies in 21 age-matched normal women during the early, mid- and late follicular phases (EFP, MFP and LFP) of their cycles. Serum sex steroid levels during the 12-24 h of study in the women with PCOD were compared to those in normal women studied during the follicular phase. The mean serum estradiol (E2) level in the women with PCOD was similar to that in normal women studied in the EFP, but lower than those in normal women in the MFP (P less than 0.05) and LFP (P less than 0.01). Mean serum estrone, however, was significantly higher in women with PCOD than in women in the EFP and MFP (P less than 0.05 and P less than 0.02, respectively), but lower than that in women in the LFP (P less than 0.02). Total and unbound testosterone (T) levels were significantly elevated in women with PCOD compared to those in normal women at all stages of the follicular phase (P less than 0.001). The mean serum LH concentration and LH pulse amplitude were markedly elevated in the women with PCOD compared to normal women at all three stages of the follicular phase (P less than 0.05 or less). In addition, LH pulse frequency was faster in women with PCOD [24.8 +/- 0.9 ( +/- SE) pulses/24 h] than that in women in the EFP (15.6 +/- 0.7; P less than 0.01), MFP (22.2 +/- 1.1; P less than 0.05) and LFP (20.8 +/- 1.2; P less than 0.01). This increased LH pulse frequency in women with PCOD correlated with ambient serum E2 levels on the day of study (r = 0.84; P less than 0.001), but not with serum estrone, T, or unbound T. Repeat studies in four women with PCOD demonstrated a similarly abnormal gonadotropin secretory

  6. Preliminary findings of an adapted evidence-based woman-focused HIV intervention on condom use and negotiation among at-risk women in Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Luseno, Winnie K; Kline, Tracy L; Browne, Felicia A; Zule, William A

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a randomized trial in South Africa of an adapted evidence-based Woman-Focused intervention on condom use with primary sex partners. The preliminary findings show that regardless of HIV status, condom negotiation was significantly associated with condom use at the 3- and 6-month follow-ups. By intervention group, significant intervention effects were found at 6-month follow-up for HIV-positive and HIV-unknown status women in the Woman-Focused intervention who were more likely than women in the Standard intervention to report condom use with a primary male partner. Among HIV-positive women, those in the Woman-Focused group and those with greater sexual control were more likely to report condom use at the 6-month follow-up. The findings indicate that gender-based interventions for women may result in increased condom negotiation skills.

  7. Evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of autistic disorder diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Cooper, Matthew N; Bebbington, Keely; Alvares, Gail; Lin, Ashleigh; Wray, John; Glasson, Emma J

    2017-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may in part be due to a shift in the diagnostic threshold that has led to individuals with a less severe behavioral phenotype receiving a clinical diagnosis. This study examined whether there were changes over time in the qualitative and quantitative phenotype of individuals who received the diagnosis of Autistic Disorder. Data were from a prospective register of new diagnoses in Western Australia (n = 1252). From 2000 to 2006, we examined differences in both the percentage of newly diagnosed cases that met each criterion as well as severity ratings of the behaviors observed (not met, partially met, mild/moderate and extreme). Linear regression determined there was a statistically significant reduction from 2000 to 2006 in the percentage of new diagnoses meeting two of 12 criteria. There was also a reduction across the study period in the proportion of new cases rated as having extreme severity on six criteria. There was a reduction in the proportion of individuals with three or more criteria rated as extreme from 2000 (16.0%) to 2006 (1.6%), while percentage of new cases with no "extreme" rating on any criteria increased from 58.5% to 86.6% across the same period. This study provides the first clear evidence of a reduction over time in the behavioral severity of individuals diagnosed with Autistic Disorder during a period of stability in diagnostic criteria. A shift toward diagnosing individuals with less severe behavioral symptoms may have contributed to the increasing prevalence of Autistic Disorder diagnoses. Autism Res 2017, 10: 179-187. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. The Influence of Education and Family Background on Women's Earnings in Midlife: Evidence from a British National Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuh, Diana; Head, Fenny; Hardy, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Observes that research on the influence of education on adult earnings hasn't focused on differences between women. Looks at British women born immediately after World War Two. Shows that women who were able to take advantage of expanded educational opportunities and achieve high educational qualifications earned significantly more than less…

  9. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Highfield

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI. We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt to increase an intervention’s fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI’s essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness. We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1 assess needs and organizational capacity; (2 find EBIs; (3 plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4 make adaptations; (5 plan for implementation; and (6 plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.

  10. Intervention Mapping to Adapt Evidence-Based Interventions for Use in Practice: Increasing Mammography among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highfield, Linda; Hartman, Marieke A; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Rodriguez, Serena A; Fernandez, Maria E; Bartholomew, L Kay

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates the use of the systematic planning process, Intervention Mapping, to adapt an evidence-based public health intervention (EBI). We used a simplified version of Intervention Mapping (IM Adapt) to increase an intervention's fit with a new setting and population. IM Adapt guides researchers and practitioners in selecting an EBI, making decisions about whether and what to adapt, and executing the adaptation while guarding the EBI's essential elements (those responsible for effectiveness). We present a case study of a project in which we used IM Adapt to find, adapt, implement, and evaluate an EBI to improve mammography adherence for African American women in a new practice setting in Houston, Texas. IM Adapt includes the following (1) assess needs and organizational capacity; (2) find EBIs; (3) plan adaptations based on fit assessments; (4) make adaptations; (5) plan for implementation; and (6) plan for evaluation of the adapted EBI. The case study shows an example of how public health researchers and practitioners can use the tool to make it easier to find and use EBIs, thus encouraging greater uptake. IM Adapt adds to existing dissemination and adaptation models by providing detailed guidance on how to decide on effective adaptation, while maintaining the essential elements of the EBI.

  11. Sex-related time-dependent variations in post-stroke survival-evidence of a female stroke survival advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Dehlendorff, Christian; Andersen, Klaus Kaae

    2007-01-01

    the influence of gender on post-stroke mortality, from the time of admission through the subsequent years until death or censoring ( mean follow-up time: 538 days). All patients underwent an evaluation including stroke severity, computed tomography and cardiovascular risk factors. Independent predictors......Background: Women live longer than men, yet most studies show that gender has no influence on survival after stroke. Methods: A registry was started in 2001, with the aim of registering all hospitalized stroke patients in Denmark, and it now holds 39,484 patients of which 48% are female. We studied...... of death were identified by means of a survival model based on 22,222 individuals with a complete data set. Results: Females were older and had severer stroke. Interestingly, the risk of death between genders was time dependent. The female/male stroke mortality rate favoured women from the first day...

  12. Diagnostic efficacy of a real time-PCR assay for Chlamydia trachomatis infection in infertile women in north India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benu Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Little is known about the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Indian women with infertility. To improve the diagnosis of C. trachomatis infection in developing countries, there is an urgent need to establish cost-effective molecular test with high sensitivity and specificity. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic utility of a real time-PCR assay for detention of C. trachomatis infection in infertile women attending an infertility clinic in north India. The in house real time-PCR assay was also compared with a commercial real-time PCR based detection system. Methods: Endocervical swabs, collected from 200 infertile women were tested for C. trachomatis by three different PCR assays viz. in-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid using published primers, along with omp1 gene and cryptic plasmid based conventional PCR assays. Specimens were also subjected to direct fluorescence assay (DFA and enzyme immunoassay (EIA Performance of in-house real time-PCR was compared with that of COBAS Taqman C. trachomatis Test, version 2.0 on all in-house real time-PCR positive sample and 30 consecutive negative samples. Results: C. trachomatis infection was found in 13.5 per cent (27/200 infertile women by in-house real time-PCR, 11.5 per cent (23/200 by cryptic plasmid and/or omp1 gene based conventional PCR, 9 per cent (18/200 by DFA and 6.5 per cent (7/200 by EIA. The in-house real time-PCR exhibited a sensitivity and specificity of 100 per cent, considering COBAS Taqman CT Test as the gold standard. The negative and positive predictive values of the in-house real time-PCR were 100 per cent. The in-house real time-PCR could detect as low as 10 copies of C. trachomatis DNA per reaction. Interpretation & conclusions: In-house real time-PCR targeting the cryptic plasmid of C. trachomatis exhibited an excellent sensitivity and specificity similar to that of COBAS Taqman CT Test, v2.0 for detection of C

  13. Time cost of child rearing and its effect on women's uptake of free health checkups in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anezaki, Hisataka; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2018-05-01

    Women of child-rearing age have the lowest uptake rates for health checkups in several developed countries. The time cost incurred by conflicting child-rearing roles may contribute to this gap in access to health checkups. We estimated the time cost of child rearing empirically, and analyzed its potential impact on uptake of free health checkups based on a sample of 1606 women with a spouse/partner from the dataset of a population-based survey conducted in the greater Tokyo metropolitan area in 2010. We used a selection model to estimate the counterfactual wage of non-working mothers, and estimated the number of children using a simultaneous equation model to account for the endogeneity between job participation and child rearing. The time cost of child rearing was obtained based on the estimated effects of women's wages and number of children on job participation. We estimated the time cost to mothers of rearing a child aged 0-3 years as 16.9 USD per hour, and the cost for a child aged 4-5 years as 15.0 USD per hour. Based on this estimation, the predicted uptake rate of women who did not have a child was 61.7%, while the predicted uptake rates for women with a child aged 0-3 and 4-5 were 54.2% and 58.6%, respectively. These results suggest that, although Japanese central/local governments provide free health checkup services, this policy does not fully compensate for the time cost of child rearing. It is strongly recommended that policies should be developed to address the time cost of child rearing, with the aim of closing the gender gap and securing universal access to preventive healthcare services in Japan. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    OpenAIRE

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE (African Women Leaders in Agriculture and Environment) Project. The AWLAE project addresses the theme of the role of women in food systems and effects of HIV and AIDS on rural livelihoods. Microfi...

  15. Travel time from home to hospital and adverse perinatal outcomes in women at term in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravelli, A. C. J.; Jager, K. J.; de Groot, M. H.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Rijninks-van Driel, G. C.; Tromp, M.; Eskes, M.; Abu-Hanna, A.; Mol, B. W. J.

    Objective To study the effect of travel time, at the start or during labour, from home to hospital on mortality and adverse outcomes in pregnant women at term in primary and secondary care. Design Population-based cohort study from 2000 up to and including 2006. Setting The Netherlands Perinatal

  16. Does leisure time physical activity in early pregnancy protect against pre-eclampsia? Prospective cohort in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerdal, M L; Strøm, M; Klemmensen, A K

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between physical activity in early pregnancy and risk of pre-eclampsia. DESIGN: Prospective cohort. SETTING: Denmark. POPULATION: A total of 85,139 pregnant Danish women, recruited between 1996 and 2002. METHODS: The authors assessed leisure time physical...

  17. Leisure time physical activity among employed and unemployed women in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Biernat

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Polish women nowadays (regardless of whether they are employed or not still do not engage in a sufficient amount of LTPA to maintain their health. Intervention programme in both groups is needed.

  18. Women physicists in Russia: Problems and solutions at a time of fiscal crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didenko, Nelli; Ermolaeva, Elena; Kunitsyna, Ekaterina; Kratasyuk, Valentina; Vitman, Renata

    2013-03-01

    Recently Russia has been affected by the global financial crisis, which has had both positive and negative effects on women physicists. The feminization of science and the stratification that characterize the Russian scientific community in general also affect the field of physics. This paper discusses the proportion of women in leadership and managerial positions in different areas of science and education and highlights the differences between women and men in their careers in physics and defense of their theses. Lomonosov Moscow State University is used to demonstrate the dynamics of gender in different academic positions. The professional activity of young women physicists is illustrated by their participation in all-Russian scientific forums, demonstrating their commitment to remain active in their careers despite the challenges of the current economic conditions.

  19. The effects of meritocracy beliefs on women's well-being after first-time gender discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mindi D; Tsarfati, E Micha

    2005-12-01

    This study examined how meritocracy beliefs may buffer women from the negative psychological effects of an acute situation of gender discrimination. Although some research indirectly suggests that believing that meritocracy exists may increase wellbeing, group consciousness theories suggest that disbelieving that meritocracy exists will enhance psychological adjustment to gender discrimination. Women who reported little past experience with discrimination, and either believed or disbelieved that meritocracy exists, were exposed to either a laboratory situation of discrimination or a nondiscrimination failure (control) condition. Consistent with group consciousness theories, women experiencing discrimination reported greater well-being if they disbelieved that meritocracy exists than if they were believers. In contrast, women in the control condition reported greater wellbeing if they believed that meritocracy exists than if they were disbelievers. Implications for coping with discrimination are discussed.

  20. Detection of HPV and co-infecting pathogens in healthy Italian women by multiplex real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporiondo, Maria Pia; Farchi, Francesca; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Denaro, Aurelia; Gallone, Domenica; Maracchioni, Fabio; Favalli, Cartesio; Ciotti, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Several pathogens can be transmitted sexually and are an important cause of morbidity among sexually active women. The aim of the study was to detect the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV), Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Trichomonas vaginalis (TV), Mycoplasma hominis (MH), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU), and Ureaplasma parvum (UP) in a group of 309 healthy women enrolled at the San Camillo - Forlanini hospital of Rome by using two multiplex real-time PCR assays based on TOCE® technology. The women's ages ranged from 34 to 60 years, median 49 [IQR 45-54]. Of the 309 women tested, HPV DNA was detected in 77/309 (24.9%) patients. Of these, 44 (14.2%) harboured a single infection while 33 (10.7%) were infected by multiple genotypes. Prevalence of HPV infection was highest among females aged 40-50 years (15.2%). Of the other pathogens sought, CT, MG and NG were not detected while positive results were found for MH (12/309, 3.9%), TV (4/309, 1.3%), UP (89/309, 28.8%) and UU (14/309, 4.5%). Co-infections were as follows: 5 MH/HPV, 4 TV/HPV, 34 UP/HPV and 9 UU/HPV. In HPV-positive women, the probability of being infected by UP and UU was 2.5 (p=0.00045) and 6 fold higher (p=0.0016) than in HPV-negative women. The study supports the use of multiplex real-time PCR assays in a routine diagnostic setting. The high sensitivity and specificity of these assays along with the simultaneous detection of the most common sexually transmitted pathogens confers an advantage with respect to more obsolete methods reducing costs and time to diagnosis.

  1. Effects of caloric intake timing on insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in lean women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakubowicz, Daniela; Barnea, Maayan; Wainstein, Julio; Froy, Oren

    2013-11-01

    In women with PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome), hyperinsulinaemia stimulates ovarian cytochrome P450c17α activity that, in turn, stimulates ovarian androgen production. Our objective was to compare whether timed caloric intake differentially influences insulin resistance and hyperandrogenism in lean PCOS women. A total of 60 lean PCOS women [BMI (body mass index), 23.7±0.2 kg/m²] were randomized into two isocaloric (~1800 kcal; where 1 kcal≈4.184 J) maintenance diets with different meal timing distribution: a BF (breakfast diet) (980 kcal breakfast, 640 kcal lunch and 190 kcal dinner) or a D (dinner diet) group (190 kcal breakfast, 640 kcal lunch and 980 kcal dinner) for 90 days. In the BF group, a significant decrease was observed in both AUC(glucose) (glucose area under the curve) and AUC(insulin) (insulin area under the curve) by 7 and 54% respectively. In the BF group, free testosterone decreased by 50% and SHBG (sex hormone-binding globulin) increased by 105%. GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)-stimulated peak serum 17OHP (17α-hydroxyprogesterone) decreased by 39%. No change in these parameters was observed in the D group. In addition, women in the BF group had an increased ovulation rate. In lean PCOS women, a high caloric intake at breakfast with reduced intake at dinner results in improved insulin sensitivity indices and reduced cytochrome P450c17α activity, which ameliorates hyperandrogenism and improves ovulation rate. Meal timing and distribution should be considered as a therapeutic option for women with PCOS.

  2. There is not yet strong evidence that exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training can reduce stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bø, Kari; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    What evidence is there for alternative exercises to specific pelvic floor muscle training for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women? A systematic review was conducted with searches of PubMed and PEDro to January 2013. The quality of randomised trials was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Each type of exercise was classified as being in a Development Phase, Testing Phase, or Refinement and Dissemination Phase. Women with stress or mixed urinary incontinence with predominantly stress urinary incontinence. Exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training. The primary outcome was urinary leakage. Seven randomised controlled trials were found: three on abdominal training, two on the Paula method, and two on Pilates exercise. The methodological quality score ranged between 4 and 8 with a mean of 5.7. There was no convincing evidence for the effect of these exercise regimens so they remain in the Testing Phase. Because no randomised trials were found for posture correction, breathing exercise, yoga, Tai Chi, and general fitness training, these were classified as being in the Development Phase. There is not yet strong evidence that alternative exercise regimens can reduce urinary leakage in women with stress urinary incontinence. Alternative exercise regimens should not yet be recommended for use in clinical practice for women with stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  3. Descriptive Epidemiology of Sitting Time in Omani Men and Women: A Known Risk Factor for Non-Communicable Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth M. Mabry

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Sedentary behaviors (too much sitting as distinct from too little exercise are associated with increased risk of non-communicable diseases. Identifying the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of sitting time can inform public health policy and prevention strategies. Methods: A population-based national survey was carried out among Omani adults in 2008 (n = 2 977 using the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, which included a measure of total sitting time. Bivariate and regression analyses examined the associations of total sitting time with sociodemographic correlates (gender, age, education, work status, marital status, place of residence, and wealth. Results: The proportion who sat for ≥ 7 hours/day was significantly higher in older than in younger adults (men: 22.0% vs. 14.6%, p < 0.010; women: 26.9% vs. 15.2%, p < 0.001, respectively. The odds ratio (OR for prolonged sitting was half for men who were not working compared to those who were (p < 0.050. For younger women, the OR for sitting ≥ 7 hours/day was nearly a third for educated women compared to least educated (p = 0.035. For older women, the OR for prolonged sitting was more than double for married women compared to unmarried (p < 0.001. Conclusions: One in five Omani adults was identified as sitting for prolonged periods, at levels understood to have deleterious health consequences. Higher-risk groups include older adults and working men. With sitting time identified as a key behavioral risk to be targeted for the prevention of non-communicable diseases, further research is needed to understand the factors associated with domain-specific sitting time in order to guide prevention programs and broader public health approaches.

  4. Time for Men to Catch up on Women? A Study of the Swedish Gender Wage Gap 1973-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Löfström, Åsa

    2014-01-01

    The Swedish gender wage gap decreased substantially from the 1960s until the beginning of the 1980s. At the same time women had been narrowing men in employment experience and education. While women continued to catch up on men the average wage gap remained almost the same as in the 1980s. The catch-up hypothesis was obviously not the sole answer to the wage-gap. The purpose here was to discuss other factors of relevance for the evolution of the average pay gap. Data for the period 1972-2012 ...

  5. Molar microwear in Praeanthropus afarensis: evidence for dietary stasis through time and under diverse paleoecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grine, Frederick E; Ungar, Peter S; Teaford, Mark F; El-Zaatari, Sireen

    2006-09-01

    Molar microwear fabrics in extant mammals vary with diet and, more particularly, the physical properties of the items that are consumed. Praeanthropus afarensis is well represented in the fossil record over a prolonged and radiometrically controlled temporal span, and reasonably robust paleoecological reconstructions are available for the various localities from which it is known. We therefore examined molar microwear in this species to determine whether diet varied in relation to time or in response to different ecological conditions. Of more than 70 specimens of Pr. afarensis that contain one or more worn permanent molars, only 19 were found to be suitable for microwear analysis. These derive from eight temporal horizons in the Laetolil Beds and Hadar Formation spanning approximately 400kyr (3.6-3.2Ma). Six paleoecological categories have been reconstructed for these horizons, and these were ranked on the basis of floral cover. None of the microwear variables observed for Pr. afarensis is significantly associated with either temporal or paleoecological rank. Thus, microwear and, by extension, diet does not appear to have altered significantly in Pr. afarensis through time or in response to different paleoecological circumstances. The wear pattern that appears to have characterized Pr. afarensis overlaps extensively that of Gorilla gorilla beringei and differs notably from the fabrics of extant primates (e.g., Cebus apella and Cercocebus albigena) that consume hard objects. The high proportion of scratches on Pr. afarensis molars suggests the inclusion of fine abrasives in or on the food items consumed by those individuals sampled in this study. Although Pr. afarensis may have been morphologically equipped to process hard, brittle items, the microwear data suggest that it did not necessarily do so, even in the face of varying environmental circumstances. Explanatory scenarios that describe Pr. afarensis as part of an evolutionary trajectory involving a more

  6. Breast cancer and human papillomavirus infection: No evidence of HPV etiology of breast cancer in Indian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Y Mohan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two clinically relevant high-risk HPV (HR-HPV types 16 and 18 are etiologically associated with the development of cervical carcinoma and are also reported to be present in many other carcinomas in extra-genital organ sites. Presence of HPV has been reported in breast carcinoma which is the second most common cancer in India and is showing a fast rising trend in urban population. The two early genes E6 and E7 of HPV type 16 have been shown to immortalize breast epithelial cells in vitro, but the role of HPV infection in breast carcinogenesis is highly controversial. Present study has therefore been undertaken to analyze the prevalence of HPV infection in both breast cancer tissues and blood samples from a large number of Indian women with breast cancer from different geographic regions. Methods The presence of all mucosal HPVs and the most common high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 DNA was detected by two different PCR methods - (i conventional PCR assays using consensus primers (MY09/11, or GP5+/GP6+ or HPV16 E6/E7 primers and (ii highly sensitive Real-Time PCR. A total of 228 biopsies and corresponding 142 blood samples collected prospectively from 252 patients from four different regions of India with significant socio-cultural, ethnic and demographic variations were tested. Results All biopsies and blood samples of breast cancer patients tested by PCR methods did not show positivity for HPV DNA sequences in conventional PCRs either by MY09/11 or by GP5+/GP6+/HPV16 E6/E7 primers. Further testing of these samples by real time PCR also failed to detect HPV DNA sequences. Conclusions Lack of detection of HPV DNA either in the tumor or in the blood DNA of breast cancer patients by both conventional and real time PCR does not support a role of genital HPV in the pathogenesis of breast cancer in Indian women.

  7. Onset timing, thoughts of self-harm, and diagnoses in postpartum women with screen-positive depression findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L; Sit, Dorothy K Y; McShea, Mary C; Rizzo, David M; Zoretich, Rebecca A; Hughes, Carolyn L; Eng, Heather F; Luther, James F; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Costantino, Michelle L; Confer, Andrea L; Moses-Kolko, Eydie L; Famy, Christopher S; Hanusa, Barbara H

    2013-05-01

    The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Urban academic women's hospital. During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post partum by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: "The thought of harming myself has occurred to me" (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had comorbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. The most common diagnosis in screen-positive women was major depressive disorder with comorbid generalized anxiety disorder. Strategies to differentiate

  8. Female sexuality and historical time: a comparison of sexual biographies of German women born between 1895 and 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Sydow, K

    1996-10-01

    Ninety-one German women ages 50 to 91 years (birth cohorts: 1895 to 1936) were interviewed in-depth about their sexual development through the life span. This article presents the results on the historical change in female sexuality during childhood, puberty, and young marriage. The sample was divided into four subgroups, according to the year of birth, which were compared to each other. In contrast to the older groups, a higher percentage of women in the younger cohorts had experience in childhood sexual play, masturbation, "real" and faked orgasm, with historical time only having a slight influence on marital sexuality and fertility experiences. Data indicate that subjects born later were not only more experienced sexually but changed intraindividually more often in sexual matters, whereas the older women mostly "conserved" the sexual morals and habits learned in youth. Subjective sexual experience of the interviewees is illustrated by quotations.

  9. Time to transient and stable reductions in hot flush frequency in postmenopausal women using conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, JoAnn V; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Abraham, Lucy; Komm, Barry S; Bobula, Joel

    2017-09-01

    This post hoc analysis estimates time to transient and stable reductions in hot flush frequency in postmenopausal women using conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene. In the 12-week Selective estrogens, Menopause, And Response to Therapy (SMART)-2 trial of conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene 0.45 mg/20 mg and 0.625 mg/20 mg, women with at least seven moderate/severe hot flushes per day or 50 per week at screening recorded frequency of moderate/severe hot flushes in diaries. Nonparametric models and SAS Proc Lifetest were used to estimate median times to various degrees of transient reductions (first day with improvement) and stable reductions (first day with improvement maintained through study's end) in hot flush frequency. Treatment produced transient hot flush reductions of 40% to 100% and stable reductions of 30% to 100% significantly faster than placebo. Median time to a transient 50% reduction was 8 days for conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene 0.45 mg/20 mg, 9.5 for 0.625 mg/20 mg, and 10 for placebo; median time to a stable 50% reduction was 9, 10, and 38 days. Median time to a transient 90% reduction was 32 and 22.5 days for 0.45 mg/20 mg and 0.625 mg/20 mg, and median time to a stable 90% reduction was 83 and 29 days, respectively; median times to transient/stable 90% reductions were not reached during the 12-week study in the placebo group. Although not all women using conjugated estrogens/bazedoxifene achieve permanent elimination of hot flushes, the frequency is likely to be substantially reduced during the first week to month. Women can expect approximately 50% reduction in hot flush frequency after about 8 to 10 days, and sustained improvement with continued treatment.

  10. Occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity in relation to heart failure among finnish men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yujie; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Jousilahti, Pekka; Antikainen, Riitta; Mähönen, Markku; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Hu, Gang

    2010-09-28

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association of different levels of occupational, commuting, and leisure-time physical activity and heart failure (HF) risk. The role of different types of physical activity in explaining the risk of HF is not properly established. Study cohorts included 28,334 Finnish men and 29,874 women who were 25 to 74 years of age and free of HF at baseline. Baseline measurement of different types of physical activity was used to predict incident HF. During a mean follow-up of 18.4 years, HF developed in 1,868 men and 1,640 women. The multivariate adjusted (age; smoking; education; alcohol consumption; body mass index; systolic blood pressure; total cholesterol; history of myocardial infarction, valvular heart disease, diabetes, lung disease, and use of antihypertensive drugs; and other types of physical activity) hazard ratios of HF associated with light, moderate, and active occupational activity were 1.00, 0.90, and 0.83 (p = 0.005, for trend) for men and 1.00, 0.80, and 0.92 (p = 0.007, for trend) for women, respectively. The multivariate adjusted hazard ratios of HF associated with low, moderate, and high leisure-time physical activity were 1.00, 0.83, and 0.65 (p men and 1.00, 0.84, and 0.75 (p women, respectively. Active commuting had a significant inverse association with HF risk in women, but not in men, before adjustment for occupational and leisure-time physical activity. The joint effects of any 2 types of physical activity on HF risk were even greater. Moderate and high levels of occupational or leisure-time physical activity are associated with a reduced risk of HF. Copyright © 2010 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Contents of toxic elements in biological environment of pregnant women of all reproductive age give birth first time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markevych V.V.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to investigate the toxic contents of microelements in serum and erythrocytes of pregnant women in the early, middle and old reproductive age in the case of the first delivery. Patients and methods. The study was conducted in the third trimester of pregnancy on 36.08±0.59 weeks of gestation. Reproductive age of pregnant women was 16.33±0.21, 24.67±0.37 and 36.14±0.77 years respectively. The content of toxic ME (chromium, nickel, lead and cobalt in the biological substrates was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer C — 115 MI. Results. We found that pregnant women regardless of reproductive age who gave birth for the first time had high level of nickel both in serum and in red blood cells. With the growth of reproductive age we saw accumulation of toxic chromium in serum. Much less content of cadmium in red blood cells and possibly other tissues in pregnant women of older reproductive age apparently linked to the more conscious and responsible attitude to their health condition, the process of pregnancy and a healthy lifestyle and above except the main source of cadmium — smoking. The lowest content of lead in red blood cells is determined in the women of middle reproductive age. At the same time serum and erythrocytic content of lead in any group was not higher its level in healthy pregnant women. Conclusion. Nowadays very actual is researching of placenta as a body that provides trace element balance in system «mother—placenta—fetus». To determine the role of placenta in protecting the fetus from exposure of toxic elements reasonable is investigation of their content in the placenta and its functions — barrier penetration, depositing of essential and toxic elements.

  12. Timing of pregnancy, postpartum risk of virologic failure and loss to follow-up among HIV-positive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onoya, Dorina; Sineke, Tembeka; Brennan, Alana T; Long, Lawrence; Fox, Matthew P

    2017-07-17

    We assessed the association between the timing of pregnancy with the risk of postpartum virologic failure and loss from HIV care in South Africa. This is a retrospective cohort study of 6306 HIV-positive women aged 15-49 at antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation, initiated on ART between January 2004 and December 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa. The incidence of virologic failure (two consecutive viral load measurements of >1000 copies/ml) and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for a visit) during 24 months postpartum were assessed using Cox proportional hazards modelling. The rate of postpartum virologic failure was higher following an incident pregnancy on ART [adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.1-2.7] than among women who initiated ART during pregnancy. This difference was sustained among women with CD4 cell count less than 350 cells/μl at delivery (adjusted hazard ratio 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.0). Predictors of postpartum virologic failure were being viremic, longer time on ART, being 25 or less years old and low CD4 cell count and anaemia at delivery, as well as initiating ART on stavudine-containing or abacavir-containing regimen. There was no difference postpartum loss to follow-up rates between the incident pregnancies group (hazard ratio 0.9, 95% CI: 0.7-1.1) and those who initiated ART in pregnancy. The risk of virologic failure remains high among postpartum women, particularly those who conceive on ART. The results highlight the need to provide adequate support for HIV-positive women with fertility intention after ART initiation and to strengthen monitoring and retention efforts for postpartum women to sustain the benefits of ART.

  13. Refusal of recommended maternity care: Time to make a pact with women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Bec; Kruske, Sue; Kildea, Sue

    2018-03-28

    The right to refuse medical treatment can be contentious in maternity care. Professional guidance for midwives and obstetricians emphasises informed consent and respect for patient autonomy, but there is little guidance available to clinicians about the appropriate clinical responses when women decline recommended care. We propose a comprehensive, woman-centred, systems-level framework for documentation and communication with the goal of supporting women, clinicians and health services in situations of maternal refusal. We term this the Personalised Alternative Care and Treatment framework. The Personalised Alternative Care and Treatment framework addresses Australian policy, practice, education and professional issues to underpin woman-centred care in the context of maternal refusal. It embeds Respectful Maternity Care in system-level maternity care policy; highlights the woman's role as decision maker about her maternity care; documents information exchanged with women; creates a 'living' plan that respects the woman's birth intentions and can be reviewed as circumstances change; enables communication between clinicians; permits flexible initiation pathways; provides for professional education for clinicians, and incorporates a mediation role to act as a failsafe. The Personalised Alternative Care and Treatment framework has the potential to meet the needs of women, clinicians and health services when pregnant women decline recommended maternity care. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Gendered childcare norms - evidence from rural Swaziland to inform innovative structural HIV prevention approaches for young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabangu, Pinky N; Brear, Michelle R

    2017-12-01

    Addressing discriminatory gender norms is a prerequisite for preventing HIV in women, including young women. However, the gendered expectation that women will perform unpaid childcare-related labour is rarely conceptualised as influencing their HIV risk. Our aim was to learn from members of a rural Swazi community about how gendered childcare norms. We performed sequential, interpretive analysis of focus group discussion and demographic survey data, generated through participatory action research. The results showed that gendered childcare norms were firmly entrenched and intertwined with discriminatory norms regarding sexual behaviour. Participants perceived that caring for children constrained young women's educational opportunities and providing for children's material needs increased their economic requirements. Some young women were perceived to engage in "transactional sex" and depend financially on men, including "sugar daddies", to provide basic necessities like food for the children they cared for. Our results suggested that men were no longer fulfilling their traditional role of caring for children's material needs, despite women's traditional role of caring for their physical and emotional needs remaining firmly entrenched. The results indicate that innovative approaches to prevent HIV in young women should incorporate structural approaches that aim to transform gendered norms, economically empower women and implement policies guaranteeing women equal rights.

  15. A Study of Individual and Family Barriers to Women's Political and Social Participation: Evidence from Shirez District in Harsin City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossaein Agahi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Today, in many countries of the world, in some cases women are barred from interfering in politics and social roles. Thus, still it is necessary to place women in political, social, economic and cultural activities. The purpose of this study is to examine individual and family barriers to women's political and social participation of the Shirez District in the city of Harsin. The research methodology used is descriptive-correlation and it is carried out by using a survey. The statistical population included the women older than 6 years in the Shirez District. A sample size of 333 person was determined by using the Kerejcie and Morgan table. They have been selected using the convenience sampling method with proportional assignment. Data analysis was done by using the Spearman coefficient and multiple regression analysis. The results showed that the political participation of women is in the medium level and their social participation is in the high level. Also, the results indicated that women believe that they are not able to participate in political affairs. The inability to communicate with others, the physical weakness and other problems, high volume of activities of women at home, high volume of activities in the agricultural sector and livestock, accepting dominance, lack of experience in political and administrative affairs and unwillingness of women compared to men in management are the main barriers of the political and social participation of rural women.

  16. HIV Risk Among Adolescent Girls and Young Women in Age-Disparate Partnerships: Evidence From KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan-Brown, Brendan; George, Gavin; Beckett, Sean; Evans, Meredith; Lewis, Lara; Cawood, Cherie; Khanyile, David; Kharsany, Ayesha B M

    2018-06-01

    Evidence on the role of age-disparate partnerships in high HIV-infection rates among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains inconclusive. This study examined the HIV-infection risk associated with age-disparate partnerships among 15- to 24-year-old women in a hyperendemic setting in South Africa. Face-to-face questionnaire, and laboratory HIV and viral load data were collected during 2014-2015 among a representative sample (15-49 years old) in KwaZulu-Natal. The association between age-disparate partnerships (age difference ≥5 years) and HIV status among 15- to 24-year-old women (N = 1459) was assessed using multiple logistic regression analyses. Data from the male sample on all on-going partnerships (N = 1229) involving 15- to 24-year-old women were used to assess whether young women's age-disparate male partners were more likely to have a viral load ≥1000 copies per milliliter, a marker of HIV-infection risk. Women reporting an age disparity in any of their 3 most recent partnerships were more likely to test HIV positive compared to women with only age-similar partners [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 1.58, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20 to 2.09, P < 0.01]. Among partnerships men reported with 15- to 24-year-old women, the age-disparate male partners were more likely to be HIV positive and have a viral load ≥1000 copies per milliliter (aOR: 2.05, 95% CI: 1.30 to 3.24, P < 0.01) compared with age-similar partners. Results were similar for each category of age disparity: partners 5-9 years older (aOR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.18 to 3.43, P = 0.010) and those ≥10 years older (aOR: 2.17, 95% CI: 1.01-4.66, P = 0.048). Results indicate that age-disparate partnerships increase young women's HIV risk, although conclusive evidence was not ascertained. Interventions addressing risk from age-disparate sexual partnering, including expanding antiretroviral treatment among older partners, may help to reduce HIV incidence among young women.

  17. Effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quist, J S; Rosenkilde, M; Petersen, M B

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aerobic exercise is recommended for weight management but energy balance is often less negative than predicted from exercise energy expenditure (ExEE). OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of active commuting and leisure-time exercise on fat loss in women and men with overweight and obesity...... is an alternative to leisure-time exercise in the management of overweight and obesity. The trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01962259 (main trial) and NCT01973686 (energy metabolism sub-study).International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 5 December 2017; doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.253........ METHODS: We randomized 130 younger, physically inactive women and men with overweight and obesity (body mass index: 25-35 kg m-2) to 6 months of habitual lifestyle (control; CON, n=18), active commuting (BIKE, n=35) or leisure-time exercise of moderate (MOD, 50% VO2peak reserve, n=39) or vigorous...

  18. Incident pregnancy and time to death or AIDS among HIV-positive women receiving antiretroviral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on clinical response to HAART. METHODS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women initiating HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2011, and followed up until an event, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 30 September 2011. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study. Main exposure was having experienced pregnancy after HAART initiation; main outcome was death and (separately death or new AIDS event. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios (HRs and 95% confidence limits (CL using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: The study included 7,534 women, and 20,813 person-years of follow-up; 918 women had at least one recognized pregnancy during follow-up. For death alone, the weighted (adjusted HR was 0.84 (95% CL 0.44, 1.60. Sensitivity analyses confirmed main results, and results were similar for analysis of death or new AIDS event. Incident pregnancy was associated with a substantially reduced hazard of drop-out (HR = 0.62, 95% CL 0.51, 0.75. CONCLUSIONS: Recognized incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was not associated with increases in hazard of clinical events, but was associated with a decreased hazard of drop-out. High rates of pregnancy after initiation of HAART may point to a need to better integrate family planning services into clinical care for HIV-infected women.

  19. Educational inequalities in obesity among Mexican women: time-trends from 1988 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A; Brunner, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend pwomen with higher education in the period 1988-2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys.

  20. Socioeconomic Inequalities in Oral Health Among Unmarried and Married Women: Evidence From a Population-Based Study in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2018-03-24

    Socioeconomic inequalities in oral health have been reported in developed countries, but the influence of marital status has rarely been considered. Our aim was to examine marital status differentials in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and oral health among community-dwelling Japanese women. From 2010 to 2011, a questionnaire survey was conducted among residents aged 25-50 years in Japanese metropolitan areas. Valid responses were received from 626 unmarried women and 1,620 married women. Women's own and husbands' educational attainment and equivalent income were used to assess SES. Self-rated "fair" or "poor" oral health was defined as poor oral health. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine which SES indicators were associated with oral health. The prevalence of poor oral health was 21.1% among unmarried women and 23.8% among married women. Among unmarried women, equivalent income was not associated with oral health, but women's own education was significantly associated with oral health; the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of poor oral health among those with high school education or lower compared to those with university education or higher was 2.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.19-3.87). Among married women, neither women's own nor husbands' education was associated with oral health, but equivalent income was significantly associated with oral health, particularly among housewives; the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio of poor oral health among those in the lowest compared with highest income quartile was 1.57 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.27). These findings indicate that marital status should be considered when examining associations between SES and oral health among Japanese women.

  1. As time goes by we improve a little more: relationship expectations of young women in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belknap, Ruth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this qualitative narrative study I explore expectations regarding male-female relationships and perceptions about intimate partner violence (IPV) with young urban women in the state of Veracruz, Mexico. Carol Gilligan's work informed the analysis of the narratives. Themes identified follow: violence at home, resistance, and relational autonomy. The collective story these women tell is that they are familiar with violence in the home, they resist violence and gender inequality, they seek equality in intimate partner relationships, and they plan for futures where the centrality of family is valued in combination with a strong commitment to their own autonomy.

  2. Onset Timing, Thoughts of Self-harm, and Diagnoses in Postpartum Women With Screen-Positive Depression Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisner, Katherine L.; Sit, Dorothy K. Y.; McShea, Mary C.; Rizzo, David M.; Zoretich, Rebecca A.; Hughes, Carolyn L.; Eng, Heather F.; Luther, James F.; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Costantino, Michelle L.; Confer, Andrea L.; Moses-Kolko, Eyclie L.; Famy, Christopher S.; Hanusa, Barbara H.

    2015-01-01

    Importance The period prevalence of depression among women is 21.9% during the first postpartum year; however, questions remain about the value of screening for depression. Objectives To screen for depression in postpartum women and evaluate positive screen findings to determine the timing of episode onset, rate and intensity of self-harm ideation, and primary and secondary DSM-IV disorders to inform treatment and policy decisions. Design Sequential case series of women who recently gave birth. Setting Urban academic women’s hospital. Participants During the maternity hospitalization, women were offered screening at 4 to 6 weeks post parturn by telephone. Screen-positive women were invited to undergo psychiatric evaluations in their homes. Main Outcomes and Measures A positive screen finding was an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 10 or higher. Self-harm ideation was assessed on EPDS item 10: “The thought of harming myself has occurred to me” (yes, quite often; sometimes; hardly ever; never). Screen-positive women underwent evaluation with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV for Axis I primary and secondary diagnoses. Results Ten thousand mothers underwent screening, with positive findings in 1396 (14.0%); of these, 826 (59.2%) completed the home visits and 147 (10.5%) completed a telephone diagnostic interview. Screen-positive women were more likely to be younger, African American, publicly insured, single, and less well educated. More episodes began post partum (40.1%), followed by during pregnancy (33.4%) and before pregnancy (26.5%). In this population, 19.3% had self-harm ideation. All mothers with the highest intensity of self-harm ideation were identified with the EPDS score of 10 or higher. The most common primary diagnoses were unipolar depressive disorders (68.5%), and almost two-thirds had co-morbid anxiety disorders. A striking 22.6% had bipolar disorders. Conclusions and Relevance The most common diagnosis in screen

  3. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forbes, L. J. L.; Forster, A. S.; Dodd, R. H.; Tucker, L.; Laming, R.; Ramirez, A. J.; Sellars, S.; Patnick, J.

    2012-01-01

    Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ∼70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women.

  4. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsay J. L.; Forster, Alice S.; Dodd, Rachael H.; Tucker, Lorraine; Laming, Rachel; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta; Ramirez, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women. PMID:23213334

  5. Pelvic floor muscle training in the prevention and treatment of urinary incontinence in women - what is the evidence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brostrøm, Søren; Lose, G.

    2008-01-01

    Many women suffer from urinary incontinence (UI). During and after pregnancy, women are advised to perform pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) to prevent the development of UI. In established UI, PFMT is prescribed routinely as first-line treatment. Published studies are small, underpowered...

  6. Politics and the Glass Cliff: Evidence that Women Are Preferentially Selected to Contest Hard-to-Win Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michelle K.; Haslam, S. Alexander; Kulich, Clara

    2010-01-01

    Recent archival and experimental research has revealed that women are more likely than men to be appointed to leadership positions when an organization is in crisis. As a result, women often confront a "glass cliff" in which their position as leader is precarious. Our first archival study examined the 2005 UK general election and found…

  7. Physical activity and not sedentary time per se influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly community-dwelling women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Nilsson

    Full Text Available Whether amount of time spent in sedentary activities influences on clustered metabolic risk in elderly, and to what extent such an influence is independent of physical activity behavior, remain unclear. Therefore, the aim of the study was to examine cross-sectional associations of objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes in a sample of elderly community-dwelling women.Metabolic risk outcomes including waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting levels of plasma glucose, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed in 120 community-dwelling older women (65-70 yrs. Accelerometers were used to retrieve daily sedentary time, breaks in sedentary time, daily time in light (LPA and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, and total amount of accelerometer counts. Multivariate regression models were used to examine influence of physical activity and sedentary behavior on metabolic risk outcomes including a clustered metabolic risk score.When based on isotemporal substitution modeling, replacement of a 10-min time block of MVPA with a corresponding time block of either LPA or sedentary activities was associated with an increase in clustered metabolic risk score (β = 0.06 to 0.08, p < 0.05, and an increase in waist circumference (β = 1.78 to 2.19 p < 0.01. All associations indicated between sedentary time and metabolic risk outcomes were lost once variation in total accelerometer counts was adjusted for.Detrimental influence of a sedentary lifestyle on metabolic health is likely explained by variations in amounts of physical activity rather than amount of sedentary time per se. Given our findings, increased amounts of physical activity with an emphasis on increased time in MVPA should be recommended in order to promote a favorable metabolic health profile in older women.

  8. Does timing and sequencing of transitions to adulthood make a difference? Stress, smoking, and physical activity among young Australian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Sandra; Lee, Christina

    2006-01-01

    The major changes of the transition to adulthood are argued to be stressful, and health-related behaviors such as smoking and physical activity may be adopted, consolidated, or abandoned at this time. On the other hand, research has suggested that the normative transitions of emerging adulthood, although involving considerable change, may be associated with low stress because they are perceived as both positive and normal at this life stage. This article examines relations between the timing and sequencing of life transitions and stress and health-related behaviors, focusing on the transition to young adulthood among Australian women. A total of 853 women aged 22 to 27 provided information about the timing and sequencing of 6 life transitions: moving out of home, stopping full-time education, starting full-time work, having the first live-in relationship, marriage, and motherhood-and stress, smoking, and physical activity. Most had moved out of home, stopped full-time education, and started full-time work, but only 14% had undertaken all 6 transitions. Overall, 70% of participants had made transitions "in order." Overall, the findings suggest that the relations between timing and sequencing of transitions, and indicators of health, are moderate for smoking, but small for stress and for physical activity. These effects remained after controlling for socioeconomic status of the participants' families of origin. Matching current social norms for the timing and sequencing of life changes may be of less importance for women's well-being than is commonly believed. Although the significant relations between early or "out of order" transitions and smoking are of concern, the smaller relations with stress and with sedentariness suggest that such transitions may have limited negative consequences, and support the view that individuals are active in choosing the life path that is appropriate for them and their circumstances.

  9. A Time-Space Domain Information Fusion Method for Specific Emitter Identification Based on Dempster-Shafer Evidence Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen; Cao, Ying; Yang, Lin; He, Zichang

    2017-08-28

    Specific emitter identification plays an important role in contemporary military affairs. However, most of the existing specific emitter identification methods haven't taken into account the processing of uncertain information. Therefore, this paper proposes a time-space domain information fusion method based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, which has the ability to deal with uncertain information in the process of specific emitter identification. In this paper, radars will generate a group of evidence respectively based on the information they obtained, and our main task is to fuse the multiple groups of evidence to get a reasonable result. Within the framework of recursive centralized fusion model, the proposed method incorporates a correlation coefficient, which measures the relevance between evidence and a quantum mechanical approach, which is based on the parameters of radar itself. The simulation results of an illustrative example demonstrate that the proposed method can effectively deal with uncertain information and get a reasonable recognition result.

  10. Depression and body mass index, differences by education: Evidence from a population-based study of adult women in the U.S. Buffalo-Niagara region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley Wendell; Nie, Jing; Trevisan, Maurizio; Freudenheim, Jo L

    The relationship between obesity and depression is well described. However, the evidence linking depression and body mass index (BMI) across the broad range of body size is less consistent. We examined the association between depressive symptoms and BMI in a sample of adult women in the Buffalo-Niagara region between 1997 and 2001. Using logistic regression, we investigated whether increased weight status beyond normal-weight was associated with a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms, and if educational attainment modified the association between obesity and depression. There was a trend for increased weight status to be associated with higher depressive symptoms (obese II/III, OR 1.57, 95% CI 1.03-2.41), whereas higher education was associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms, in an adjusted model including BMI (more than 12 but less than 16 years, OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.49-0.98; 16 or more years of education, OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.40-0.93). The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more educated (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.27-3.62) compared to less educated women (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.50-1.62); the sample was larger for the more educated women and reached statistical significance. There were no differences in the association for obese II/III women in strata of education. There was evidence of risk-difference heterogeneity (0.88, 95% CI 0.84-0.93). In this population-based sample of women in western New York state, increased weight was negligibly associated with depressive symptoms. The association of being obese I with depressive symptoms was different for more compared to less educated women. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Educational Inequalities in Obesity among Mexican Women: Time-Trends from 1988 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Ferrer, Carolina; McMunn, Anne; Rivera Dommarco, Juan A.; Brunner, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is one of the leading causes of global morbidity and mortality. Trends in educational inequalities in obesity prevalence among Mexican women have not been analysed systematically to date. Methods Data came from four nationally representative surveys (1988, 1999, 2006, and 2012) of a total of 51 220 non-pregnant women aged 20 to 49. Weight and height were measured during home visits. Education level (higher education, high school, secondary, primary or less) was self-reported. We analysed trends in relative and absolute educational inequalities in obesity prevalence separately for urban and rural areas. Results Nationally, age-standardised obesity prevalence increased from 9.3% to 33.7% over 25 years to 2012. Obesity prevalence was inversely associated with education level in urban areas at all survey waves. In rural areas, obesity prevalence increased markedly but there was no gradient with education level at any survey. The relative index of inequality in urban areas declined over the period (2.87 (95%CI: 1.94, 4.25) in 1988, 1.55 (95%CI: 1.33, 1.80) in 2012, trend pObesity increased 5.92 fold (95%CI: 4.03, 8.70) among urban women with higher education in the period 1988–2012 compared to 3.23 fold (95%CI: 2.88, 3.63) for urban women with primary or no education. The slope index of inequality increased in urban areas from 1988 to 2012. Over 0.5 M cases would be avoided if the obesity prevalence of women with primary or less education was the same as for women with higher education. Conclusions The expected inverse association between education and obesity was observed in urban areas of Mexico. The declining trend in relative educational inequalities in obesity was due to a greater increase in obesity prevalence among higher educated women. In rural areas there was no social gradient in the association between education level and obesity across the four surveys. PMID:24599098

  12. Timing of Early Aptian demise of northern Tethyan carbonate platforms - chemostratigraphic versus biostratigraphic evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, Stefan; Immenhauser, Adrian; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Rameil, Niels

    2010-05-01

    A lively controversy still exists between different authors dealing with the timing of northern Tethyan platform drowning and the Early Aptian oceanic anoxic event (OAE 1a). To the present day, there is no consensus if the OAE 1a black shales must be attributed to the Deshayesites weissi or the Deshayesites deshayesi zone (see discussion in Moreno-Bedmar et al., 2009). OAE 1a black shale deposition has been traditionally attributed to the Deshayesites weissi zone (Gradstein et al., 2004). Despite this disagreement about the biostratigraphic timing, several authors postulate a relation between biotic perturbations and environmental changes linked to OAE 1a, e. g. the disappearance of coral-rudist reefs related with the demise of the northern Tethyan Urgonian platforms in the Helvetic Alps (Weissert et al., 1998; Föllmi et al., 2008). In the central and southern Tethyan realm (Istria, Oman), OAE 1a is likely expressed as the transient mass occurrence of microencrusters (Lithocodium-Bacinella) and the coeval demise of the characteristic mid-Cretaceous framework-builders (rudists, corals). Chemostratigraphic data indicate that these microbial blooms coincide with the Deshayesites weissi zone (Huck et al., 2010, Rameil et al, 2010). These observations raise the question whether northern Tethyan platform drowning is coeval to microbial bloom periods in the central and southern Tethys? The analysis of all available literature and unpublished evidence demonstrates that well constrained age data are surprisingly scarce and controversial. The goal of the present research project is to compile a chemostratigraphic framework for the northern Tethyan platform drowning (Haute-Savoie, SE France) in order to shed light on the temporal constraints of platform drowning versus pelagic black shale deposition versus microbial blooms. Two Barremian to Aptian shoalwater sections (Cluses section, Grande Forclaz section) in the Subalpine Chains were investigated applying chemostratigraphy

  13. Pioneer Times: The Memoirs of the First City of Women Festival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilijana Stepančič

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The City of Women was conceived in 1995 as a high-budget thematic international festival, specialized in the promotion of women’s contemporary art. It was organized by the Office for Women’s Politics of the Republic of Slovenia. This institutional framework structurally marked the festival with a reliance on the Western culture, a move away from the local history of socialism, and the moderation of the radical nature of feminism. The festival unfolded as a product of cultural industries: leading events were highlighted in a complex program, contemporary art was promoted with populist phrasing, and the festival took on the catchy slogan “Let’s be hysterical!”, which de-stigmatized hysteria as an immanent feature of women as well as deconstructing the negative role of mothers and wives present in the then-popular treatment of alcoholics and non-selfrealized people, as carried out by the psychiatrist Janez Rugelj. The festival tried to establish the levers for the construction of new national collective myths of which women would be a part, but was unsuccessful. Even though more women did enter the world of art and remain in it, the festival could not draw on the local feminist art production as this was either too weak or too radical. Within the then-conservative climate of the independent state of Slovenia, which questioned rights already gained by women and was well characterized by the promotional campaign “Each [Woman] Has Her Own [Sun Protection] Factor”, the festival positioned itself as a promoter of progressive social thought. As it believed in art as an agent of social change, the Office for Women’s Politics played an exceptional avant-garde social role in all this.

  14. Nutrition-related information-seeking behaviours of women trying to conceive and pregnant women: evidence for the life course perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwajcer, E.M.; Hiddink, G.J.; Maas, L.C.; Koelen, M.A.; Woerkum, van C.M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. To examine whether preconception and pregnancy could be an occasion triggering women's interest, search and need for both general and pregnancy-specific nutrition-related information, in order to: (i) provide a greater understanding of the life course perspective (in this case on

  15. Efficacy of micro-financing women's activities in Côte d'Ivoire : evidence from rural areas and HIV/AIDS-affected women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binaté Fofana, N.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis deals with the effectiveness and the capability of microfinance institutions in enhancing women’s livelihood and empowerment, and mitigating the effects of HIV and AIDS on affected women and their households in Côte d’Ivoire. This study was carried out within the framework of the AWLAE

  16. Public mental health: the time is ripe for translation of evidence into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlbeck, Kristian

    2015-02-01

    Public mental health deals with mental health promotion, prevention of mental disorders and suicide, reducing mental health inequalities, and governance and organization of mental health service provision. The full impact of mental health is largely unrecognized within the public health sphere, despite the increasing burden of disease attributable to mental and behavioral disorders. Modern public mental health policies aim at improving psychosocial health by addressing determinants of mental health in all public policy areas. Stigmatization of mental disorders is a widespread phenomenon that constitutes a barrier for help-seeking and for the development of health care services, and is thus a core issue in public mental health actions. Lately, there has been heightened interest in the promotion of positive mental health and wellbeing. Effective programmes have been developed for promoting mental health in everyday settings such as families, schools and workplaces. New evidence indicates that many mental disorders and suicides are preventable by public mental health interventions. Available evidence favours the population approach over high-risk approaches. Public mental health emphasizes the role of primary care in the provision of mental health services to the population. The convincing evidence base for population-based mental health interventions asks for actions for putting evidence into practice. © 2015 World Psychiatric Association.

  17. An In-Group Becomes Part of the Self: Response Time Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eliot; Henry, Susan

    1996-01-01

    Social identity theory holds that social group memberships become part of the psychological self, affecting thoughts, feelings, and behavior. However, tests of this hypothesis have mainly involved judgmental dependent measures. A method is suggested that can provide more direct evidence. Discusses use of that method. (KW)

  18. Gender Differences in Cognition in China and Reasons for Change over Time: Evidence from CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Xiaoyan; Smith, James P; Sun, Xiaoting; Zhao, Yaohui

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, we model gender differences in cognitive ability in China using a new sample of middle-aged and older Chinese respondents. Modeled after the American Health and Retirement Survey (HRS), CHARLS respondents are 45 years and older and are nationally representative of the Chinese population in this age span. Our measures of cognition in CHARLS rely on two measures that proxy for different dimensions of adult cognition-episodic memory and intact mental status. We relate these cognitive measures to adult health and SES outcomes during the adult years. We find large cognitive differences to the detriment of women that were mitigated by large gender differences in education among these generations of Chinese people. These gender differences in cognition are especially concentrated in the older age groups and poorer communities within the sample. We also investigated historical, geographical, and cultural characteristics of communities to understand how they impact cognition. Economic development and environmental improvement such as having electricity, increases in wage per capita and green coverage ratio generally contribute to higher cognition ability. Women benefit more from the fruits of development -electricity and growth of green coverage ratio are conducive to lessening female disadvantage in cognition.

  19. What Are the Causes of Educational Inequality and of Its Evolution over Time in Europe? Evidence from PISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppedisano, Veruska; Turati, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides evidence on the sources of differences in inequality in educational scores and their evolution over time in four European countries. Using Programme for International Student Assessment data from the 2000 and the 2006 waves, the paper shows that inequality decreased in Germany and Spain (two "decentralised" schooling…

  20. Epidemiology of Shoe Wearing Patterns Over Time in Older Women: Associations With Foot Pain and Hallux Valgus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Roddy, Edward; Marshall, Michelle; Thomas, Martin J; Rathod, Trishna; Peat, George M; Croft, Peter R

    2016-12-01

    Foot problems are prevalent in older women and are thought to be associated with footwear. This study examined women's shoe wearing patterns over time and evaluated associations between footwear characteristics and foot pain and hallux valgus. Women aged 50-89 years (n = 2,627) completed a survey that included drawings of four toe-box shapes and four heel heights. For each life decade, participants indicated which footwear style they wore most of the time. Foot pain in the past 12 months and hallux valgus were documented by self-report. Logistic regression examined associations between heel height, toe-box shape, foot pain and hallux valgus. Wearing shoes with a high heel and very narrow toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 was common, but decreased to less than 10% by the age of 40. Compared with women who had worn shoes with a very wide toe box, the likelihood of hallux valgus increased in those who had worn shoes with a wide (odds ratio [OR] 1.96, 95% CI 1.03-3.71), narrow (2.39, 1.29-4.42) and very narrow (2.70, 1.46-5.00) toe box between the ages of 20 and 29 and those who wore shoes with a very narrow toe box (1.93, 1.10-3.39) between the ages of 30 and 39. Women wear shoes with a lower heel and broader toe box as they age. Wearing constrictive footwear between the ages of 20 and 39 may be critical for developing hallux valgus in later life. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America.

  1. Wealth and under-nourishment among married women in two impoverished nations: evidence from Burkina Faso and Congo Democratic Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebowale, Ayo Stephen; Palamuleni, Martin Enoch; Odimegwu, Clifford Obby

    2015-02-08

    Burkina Faso (BF) and Congo Democratic Republic (CDR) are among the top-ten poverty and hunger stricken countries globally. The influence of poverty and hunger on health is enormous. The objectives of the study are to; examine the association between poverty and nutritional status, it also identified socio-demographic and health related mediating factors that contribute to the relationship between poverty and poor nutritional status. The study focused on married or cohabiting women aged 15-49 years and utilized 2010 and 2007 DHS dataset from BF and CDR respectively. Mean age of the women in BF and CDR were 34.4 ± 9.3 and 34.7 ± 9.0 years respectively. About 19.4% and 18.4% of the poor were malnourished as against 7.7% and 9.7% of the rich women in BF and CDR respectively. Obesity and overweight were more prominent among the rich than the poor. Higher prevalence of under-nourish women was found among the older than the younger women in BF. In the countries, the prevalence of malnutrition was significantly higher among women; in the rural areas, with no formal education, anaemic and those who are not working. Multivariate analysis revealed that in the countries, the risk of under-nourishment was significantly higher among poor and middle class than the rich women despite controlling for confounding variables. Undernourished women were more common among the poor and those with no formal education. Programs that target nutrition of women of reproductive age should be strengthened in BF and CDR.

  2. Media Effects on the New York Times' “the Women's March in Washington” Video News Coverage on Facebook

    OpenAIRE

    AGRIPHINA, ALMIRA

    2017-01-01

    The reliance towards Facebook in regard to obtaining information becomes a news habit among the society. Considerable number of news coverage from media is accessible to Facebook which creates effects on the audience on account of the media exposure. The study is conducted for the purposes of analyzing news elements which are embedded in The New York Times' “The Women's March in Wahsington”video news coverage on Facebook and discovering the effects of the coverage towards media audience. This...

  3. Gender and time allocation of cohabiting and married women and men in France, Italy, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Suzanne; Lesnard, Laurent; Nazio, Tiziana; Raley, Sara

    2014-07-11

    Women, who generally do more unpaid and less paid work than men, have greater incentives to stay in marriages than cohabiting unions, which generally carry fewer legal protections for individuals that wish to dissolve their relationship. The extent to which cohabitation is institutionalized, however, is a matter of policy and varies substantially by country. The gender gap in paid and unpaid work between married and cohabiting individuals should be larger in countries where cohabitation is less institutionalized and where those in cohabiting relationships have relatively fewer legal protections should the relationship dissolve, yet few studies have explored this variation. Using time diary data from France, Italy, and the United States, we assess the time men and women devote to paid and unpaid work in cohabiting and married couples. These three countries provide a useful diversity in marital regimes for examining these expectations: France, where cohabitation is most "marriage like" and where partnerships can be registered and carry legal rights; the United States, where cohabitation is common but is short-lived and unstable and where legal protections vary across states; and Italy, where cohabitation is not common and where such unions are not legally acknowledged and less socially approved than in either France or the United States. Cohabitating men's and women's time allocated to market and nonmarket work is generally more similar than married men and women. Our expectations about country differences are only partially borne out by the findings. Greater gender differences in the time allocated to market and nonmarket work are found in Italy relative to either France or the U.S.

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and food addiction in women by timing and type of trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Susan M; Flint, Alan J; Roberts, Andrea L; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Koenen, Karestan C; Rich-Edwards, Janet W

    2014-11-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) appears to increase obesity risk but the pathways by which PTSD leads to weight gain are not known. Identification of the links between PTSD and obesogenic eating behaviors is necessary to clarify this pathway and inform development of obesity prevention strategies in PTSD-affected populations. To determine whether women with PTSD symptoms are more likely to report food addiction, a measure of perceived dependence on food, than women without PTSD symptoms. Also, to determine whether age at PTSD symptom onset and type of trauma influence the PTSD-food addiction association. Cross-sectional analysis of 49,408 participants in the Nurses' Health Study II, a cohort comprising women nurses who were aged 25 to 42 years at the 1989 recruitment from 14 US states. The Nurses' Health Study II ascertained lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms in 2008 and current food addiction in 2009. Food addiction was defined as 3 or more clinically significant symptoms on a modified version of the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Confounder-adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% CIs were estimated using modified Poisson regression. Approximately 80% of the study sample reported some type of trauma exposure, with 66% of the trauma-exposed participants reporting at least 1 lifetime PTSD symptom. Eight percent of the cohort met the criteria for food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction increased with the number of lifetime PTSD symptoms, and women with the greatest number of PTSD symptoms (6-7 symptoms) had more than twice the prevalence of food addiction as women with neither PTSD symptoms nor trauma histories (prevalence ratio, 2.68; 95% CI, 2.41-2.97). Symptoms of PTSD were more strongly related to food addiction when symptom onset occurred at an earlier age. The PTSD-food addiction association did not differ substantially by trauma type. Symptoms of PTSD were associated with increased food addiction prevalence in this cohort of women. Strategies to

  5. Blood donor deferral: time for change? An evidence-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borra V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Vere Borra,1 Giovani Vandewalle,1 Hans Van Remoortel,1 Veerle Compernolle,1,2 Emmy De Buck,1 Philippe Vandekerckhove1–31Belgian Red Cross-Flanders, Mechelen, 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Ghent, Ghent, 3Department of Public Health and Primary Care, Faculty of Medicine, KU Leuven, Leuven, BelgiumAbstract: Donor selection remains an important part in the safety of the blood supply all over the world. Yet, donor deferral criteria seem to be strongly based on the precautionary principle protecting safety and quality, and on supply and expense considerations. This review therefore provides an overview of the available evidence on donor exclusion criteria, as well as on their cost-effectiveness, for the most frequent reasons of donor deferral in our region. PubMed was queried to retrieve primary research studies, systematic reviews, and health technology assessments (HTAs concerning donor exclusion criteria. With a similar approach, HTAs about the different blood-banking safety interventions were included. Reasons for donor deferral were recorded via the blood bank information system of the Belgian Red Cross-Flanders. Seven systematic reviews were identified: four on donor safety (hypotension, hypertension/type 2 diabetes, epilepsy, and higher age and three on recipient safety (hemochromatosis, men who have sex with men, and endoscopy. Forty-three low-quality observational studies were included, as well as 16 HTAs: three about donor exclusion criteria and 13 cost-utility analyses about blood-banking safety interventions. In general, the available evidence for deferral reasons was of low quality, and for 60% of the top 30 reasons for excluding donors, no evidence was found. Blood banking shows its unique position as many safety measures far exceed the normally accepted cost of €50,000/quality-adjusted life-years. The historical model based on the precautionary principle and on supply and expense considerations provides adequate supplies of

  6. Trust-Based Working Time and Organizational Performance: Evidence from German Establishment-Level Panel Data

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Beckmann; Istvàn Hegedüs

    2011-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the impact of trust-based working time on firm performance using panel data from German establishments. Trust-based working time is a human resource management practice that involves a high degree of worker autonomy in terms of scheduling individual working time. From the theoretical viewpoint, trust-based working time may affect worker motivation positively as well as negatively. Therefore, at the establishment level the performance effects of trust-based work...

  7. Marine Microbial Mats and the Search for Evidence of Life in Deep Time and Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Des Marais, David J.

    2011-01-01

    Cyanobacterial mats in extensive seawater evaporation ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico, have been excellent subjects for microbial ecology research. The studies reviewed here have documented the steep and rapidly changing environmental gradients experienced by mat microorganisms and the very high rates of biogeochemical processes that they maintained. Recent genetic studies have revealed an enormous diversity of bacteria as well as the spatial distribution of Bacteria, Archaea and Eukarya. These findings, together with emerging insights into the intimate interactions between these diverse populations, have contributed substantially to our understanding of the origins, environmental impacts, and biosignatures of photosynthetic microbial mats. The biosignatures (preservable cells, sedimentary fabrics, organic compounds, minerals, stable isotope patterns, etc.) potentially can serve as indicators of past life on early Earth. They also can inform our search for evidence of any life on Mars. Mars exploration has revealed evidence of evaporite deposits and thermal spring deposits; similar deposits on Earth once hosted ancient microbial mat ecosystems.

  8. Little Evidence That Time in Child Care Causes Externalizing Problems During Early Childhood in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachrisson, Henrik Daae; Dearing, Eric; Lekhal, Ratib; Toppelberg, Claudio O.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between maternal reports of hours in child care and children’s externalizing problems at 18 and 36 months of age were examined in a population-based Norwegian sample (n = 75,271). Within a sociopolitical context of homogenously high-quality child care, there was little evidence that high quantity of care causes externalizing problems. Using conventional approaches to handling selection bias and listwise deletion for substantial attrition in this sample, more hours in care predicted higher problem levels, yet with small effect sizes. The finding, however, was not robust to using multiple imputation for missing values. Moreover, when sibling and individual fixed-effects models for handling selection bias were used, no relation between hours and problems was evident. PMID:23311645

  9. Influence of evidence, time, source and interferents in the observation of biological fluids with forensic lights

    OpenAIRE

    Laverde-Angarita, Lilia Judith; Clavijo-Bolívar, Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The laboratory receives different evidence for analysis, which maycontain fluids such as blood, semen, saliva or urine. A support tool in identifying nonvisible biological stains is observation with forensic lights. At present, there have been research advances in reference to wavelength and combination of different filters for the observation of biological fluids. Methodology: For this research, the alternate lights equipment Polilight® Flare with blue light was used, along wit...

  10. Experimental evidence for amplitude death induced by a time-varying interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, K. [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India); Shrimali, M.D. [Department of Physics, Central University of Rajasthan, NH-8, Bandar Sindri, Ajmer 305 801 (India); Prasad, Awadhesh [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007 (India); Thamilmaran, K., E-mail: maran.cnld@gmail.com [Centre for Nonlinear Dynamics, School of Physics, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli 620024, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we study the time-varying interaction in coupled oscillatory systems. For this purpose, we have designed a novel time-varying resistive network using an analog switch and inverter circuits. We have applied this time-varying resistive network to mutually coupled identical Chua's oscillators. When the resistances are varied in time, we find that amplitude death arises in coupled identical oscillators. This has been observed numerically as well as verified through hardware experiments. - Highlights: • We have implemented the time-varying interaction in coupled oscillatory systems. • We have designed a novel time-varying resistive network using an analog switch and inverter circuits. • When the resistances are varied in time, we find that amplitude death arises in coupled identical oscillators.

  11. Suppression of natural killer cell cytotoxicity in postpartum women: time course and potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groer, Maureen W; El-Badri, Nagwa; Djeu, Julie; Williams, S Nicole; Kane, Bradley; Szekeres, Karoly

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the recovery of the immune system from normal pregnancy and whether the postpartum period is a uniquely adapted immune state. This report extends previous observations from our group of decreased natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity in the postpartum period. NK cytotoxicity was measured from 1 week through 9 months postpartum. In addition, NK cytotoxicity was assayed in the presence or absence of pooled plasmas collected from either postpartum or nonpostpartum women. Samples of cells were stained for inhibitory receptors and analyzed by flow cytometry. NK cytotoxicity remained decreased in postpartum women compared to controls through the first 6 postpartum months, returned to normal levels by 9 months, and remained normal at 12 months. NK cytotoxicity during the first 6 months was further inhibited by the addition of pooled plasma to NK cultures from postpartum women, but the addition of pooled plasma from the control group did not affect that group's NK cultures. There were differences in inhibitory receptor staining between the two groups, with decreased CD158a and CD158b and increased NKG2A expression on postpartum NK cells during the first 3 postpartum months. These data suggest that NK cytotoxicity postpartum inhibition lasts 6 months and is influenced by unidentified postpartum plasma components. The effect may also involve receptors on NK cells. © The Author(s) 2013.

  12. The impact of criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on the healthcare engagement of women living with HIV in Canada: a comprehensive review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sophie E; Milloy, M-J; Ogilvie, Gina; Greene, Saara; Nicholson, Valerie; Vonn, Micheal; Hogg, Robert; Kaida, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, the Supreme Court of Canada ruled that people living with HIV (PLWH) must disclose their HIV status to sexual partners prior to sexual activity that poses a "realistic possibility" of HIV transmission for consent to sex to be valid. The Supreme Court deemed that the duty to disclose could be averted if a person living with HIV both uses a condom and has a low plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load during vaginal sex. This is one of the strictest legal standards criminalizing HIV non-disclosure worldwide and has resulted in a high rate of prosecutions of PLWH in Canada. Public health advocates argue that the overly broad use of the criminal law against PLWH undermines efforts to engage individuals in healthcare and complicates gendered barriers to linkage and retention in care experienced by women living with HIV (WLWH). We conducted a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed evidence published between 1998 and 2015 evaluating the impact of the criminalization of HIV non-disclosure on healthcare engagement of WLWH in Canada across key stages of the cascade of HIV care, specifically: HIV testing and diagnosis, linkage and retention in care, and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Where available, evidence pertaining specifically to women was examined. Where these data were lacking, evidence relating to all PLWH in Canada or other international jurisdictions were included. Evidence suggests that criminalization of HIV non-disclosure may create barriers to engagement and retention within the cascade of HIV care for PLWH in Canada, discouraging access to HIV testing for some people due to fears of legal implications following a positive diagnosis, and compromising linkage and retention in healthcare through concerns of exposure of confidential medical information. There is a lack of published empirical evidence focused specifically on women, which is a concern given the growing population of WLWH in Canada, among whom marginalized and vulnerable women

  13. The management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: an analysis of the evidence to support the development of global WHO guidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balen, Adam H; Morley, Lara C; Misso, Marie; Franks, Stephen; Legro, Richard S; Wijeyaratne, Chandrika N; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Fauser, Bart C J M; Norman, Robert J; Teede, Helena

    2016-11-01

    Here we describe the consensus guideline methodology, summarise the evidence-based recommendations we provided to the World Health Organisation (WHO) for their consideration in the development of global guidance and present a narrative review on the management of anovulatory infertility in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this paper was to present an evidence base for the management of anovulatory PCOS. The evidence to support providing recommendations involved a collaborative process for: (i) identification of priority questions and critical outcomes, (ii) retrieval of up-to-date evidence and exiting guidelines, (iii) assessment and synthesis of the evidence and (iv) the formulation of draft recommendations to be used for reaching consensus with a wide range of global stakeholders. For each draft recommendation, the methodologist evaluated the quality of the supporting evidence that was then graded as very low, low, moderate or high for consideration during consensus. Evidence was synthesized and we made recommendations across the definition of PCOS including hyperandrogenism, menstrual cycle regulation and ovarian assessment. Metabolic features and the impact of ethnicity were covered. Management includes lifestyle changes, bariatric surgery, pharmacotherapy (including clomiphene citrate (CC), aromatase inhibitors, metformin and gonadotropins), as well as laparoscopic surgery. In-vitro fertilization (IVF) was considered as were the risks of ovulation induction and of pregnancy in PCOS. Approximately 80% of women who suffer from anovulatory infertility have PCOS. Lifestyle intervention is recommended first in women who are obese largely on the basis of general health benefits. Bariatric surgery can be considered where the body mass index (BMI) is ≥35 kg/m 2 and lifestyle therapy has failed. Carefully conducted and monitored pharmacological ovulation induction can achieve good cumulative pregnancy rates and multiple pregnancy rates can be

  14. Did the Great Recession increase suicides in the USA? Evidence from an interrupted time-series analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sam; Bruckner, Tim A

    2017-07-01

    Research suggests that the Great Recession of 2007-2009 led to nearly 5000 excess suicides in the United States. However, prior work has not accounted for seasonal patterning and unique suicide trends by age and gender. We calculated monthly suicide rates from 1999 to 2013 for men and women aged 15 and above. Suicide rates before the Great Recession were used to predict the rate during and after the Great Recession. Death rates for each age-gender group were modeled using Poisson regression with robust variance, accounting for seasonal and nonlinear suicide trajectories. There were 56,658 suicide deaths during the Great Recession. Age- and gender-specific suicide trends before the recession demonstrated clear seasonal and nonlinear trajectories. Our models predicted 57,140 expected suicide deaths, leading to 482 fewer observed than expected suicides (95% confidence interval -2079, 943). We found little evidence to suggest that the Great Recession interrupted existing trajectories of suicide rates. Suicide rates were already increasing before the Great Recession for middle-aged men and women. Future studies estimating the impact of recessions on suicide should account for the diverse and unique suicide trajectories of different social groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Do smoking habits differ between women and men in contemporary Western populations? Evidence from half a million people in the UK Biobank study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Huxley, Rachel R; Woodward, Mark

    2014-12-30

    Several studies have shown that smoking may confer a greater excess risk for chronic diseases in women compared with men. The reasons for this excess risk of smoking in women are unclear, yet sex differences in smoking habits may play a role. We, thus, characterised sex differences in smoking habits in a contemporary Western population. Cross-sectional population-based study. UK Biobank Resource. 499,797 (54% women) individuals with data on smoking habits. Women-to-men prevalence ratios in smoking status, and the women-minus-men mean difference in age at smoking initiation, number of cigarettes smoked daily and age at smoking cessation in 5-year birth cohort bands. The women-to-men ever-smoking ratio ranged from 0.57 in the oldest to 0.87 in the youngest birth cohort. In the oldest cohort, born 1935-1939, women started smoking 1.9 years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.1) later than did men, but in those born after 1959 there was no difference in the age at initiation. The oldest women smoked 5.3 (95% CI 4.7 to 5.9) cigarettes per day fewer than did the oldest men, compared with 2.0 (95% CI 1.7 to 2.3) fewer cigarettes smoked per day in the youngest, born 1965-1969. Among quitters, women born before 1945 were, on average, 1.5 years older than their male contemporaries, but this differential was 1 year or less among people born after 1949. Differences in smoking behaviour between women and men have decreased over time. Even past differentials are unlikely to explain the increased susceptibility to smoking-related chronic disease in women compared with men that has previously been observed. Future studies are required to determine whether sex differences in the physiological and biological effects of smoking are responsible for the differential impact of smoking on health in women and men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Optimizing HIV prevention for women: a review of evidence from microbicide studies and considerations for gender-sensitive microbicide introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggett, Elizabeth G; Lanham, Michele; Wilcher, Rose; Gafos, Mitzy; Karim, Quarraisha A; Heise, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Microbicides were conceptualized as a product that could give women increased agency over HIV prevention. However, gender-related norms and inequalities that place women and girls at risk of acquiring HIV are also likely to affect their ability to use microbicides. Understanding how gendered norms and inequalities may pose obstacles to women's microbicide use is important to inform product design, microbicide trial implementation and eventually microbicide and other antiretroviral-based prevention programmes. We reviewed published vaginal microbicide studies to identify gender-related factors that are likely to affect microbicide acceptability, access and adherence. We make recommendations on product design, trial implementation, positioning, marketing and delivery of microbicides in a way that takes into account the gender-related norms and inequalities identified in the review. We conducted PubMed searches for microbicide studies published in journals between 2000 and 2013. Search terms included trial names (e.g. "MDP301"), microbicide product names (e.g. "BufferGel"), researchers' names (e.g. "van der Straten") and other relevant terms (e.g. "microbicide"). We included microbicide clinical trials; surrogate studies in which a vaginal gel, ring or diaphragm was used without an active ingredient; and hypothetical studies in which no product was used. Social and behavioural studies implemented in conjunction with clinical trials and surrogate studies were also included. Although we recognize the importance of rectal microbicides to women, we did not include studies of rectal microbicides, as most of them focused on men who have sex with men. Using a standardized review template, three reviewers read the articles and looked for gender-related findings in key domains (e.g. product acceptability, sexual pleasure, partner communication, microbicide access and adherence). The gendered norms, roles and relations that will likely affect women's ability to access and use

  17. The effect of waiting times on demand and supply for elective surgery: Evidence from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riganti, Andrea; Siciliani, Luigi; Fiorio, Carlo V

    2017-09-01

    Waiting times are a major policy concern in publicly funded health systems across OECD countries. Economists have argued that, in the presence of excess demand, waiting times act as nonmonetary prices to bring demand for and supply of health care in equilibrium. Using administrative data disaggregated by region and surgical procedure over 2010-2014 in Italy, we estimate demand and supply elasticities with respect to waiting times. We employ linear regression models with first differences and instrumental variables to deal with endogeneity of waiting times. We find that demand is inelastic to waiting times while supply is more elastic. Estimates of demand elasticity are between -0.15 to -0.24. Our results have implications on the effectiveness of policies aimed at increasing supply and their ability to reduce waiting times. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Part-time wage-gap in Germany: Evidence across the wage distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Tõnurist, Piret; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses insights from labour-market segmentation theory to investigate the wage differences between part-time and full-time workers in Germany at different parts of the wage distribution. This is accomplished with the use of a quintile regression and panel data from the SOEP (1991-2008). To get more insight on the part-time wage-gap, we apply a counterfactual wage decomposition analysis. The results show that, in the lower end of the wage distribution, part-time workers receive lower ...

  19. Inclusive and Women-friendly in a time of Diversity? The Scandinavian citizenship regime – the ‘childcare lesson’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Thun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I ask: Is the Scandinavian citizenship regime inclusive and women-friendly in a time of diversity? I approach this question by addressing the intersection of gender and ethnicity in relation to social citizenship with the main concern being childcare. I emphasize Norway as a case but also see Norway in comparison with Sweden and Denmark. In comparative studies, the Scandinavian citizenship regime is presented as being the most ‘women-friendly’. However, faced with an increasingly multicultural population, a pertinent question is whether this citizenship model is able to accommodate diversity. I explore two tensions that are basic to the inclusiveness and women-friendliness of the Scandinavian citizenship regime in diverse societies: 1 The tension between principles of gender equality and cultural diversity, and 2 the tension between liberating and controlling aspects of the welfare state. This article discusses the Norwegian family policy ‘hybrid’, which combines dual-earner support with traditional breadwinner elements. One might say that the Norwegian family ‘hybrid’ can be a solution to the tension between, on the one hand, a specific gender-equality family norm, and, on the other hand, the respect for other family norms. However, I argue that there is a double standard with regard to minority women, and it can be understood in light of a discourse about Norwegianness. Parental choice is considered a good thing – as long as the mother in question is considered ‘fully’ Norwegian. However, assumed cultural and ethnic differences – often based on stereotypical collective categories of difference – are used as boundary-markers between the majority and minorities. I conclude that, despite variations, all the Scandinavian countries grapple with the same tensions, and that there is a Scandinavian double standard regarding minority women.

  20. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien F. M. Chastin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in a group of community dwelling older women (N = 11, age 65 and over. Older women expressed the view that their sedentary behavior is mostly determined by pain which acts both as an incentive to sit and a motivator to stand up, lack of energy in the afternoon, pressure from direct social circle to sit and rest, societal and environmental typecasting that older adult are meant to sit, lack of environmental facilities to allow activity pacing. This qualitative investigation highlighted some factors that older adults consider determinants of their sedentary behavior. Some are identical to those affecting physical activity (self-efficacy, functional limitations, ageist stereotyping but some appear specific to sedentary behavior (locus of control, pain and should be further investigated and considered during intervention design. Tailored interventions that pay attention to the pattern of sedentary behavior of individuals appear to be supported by the views of older women on their sedentary behavior.

  1. Evidence that a Motor Timing Deficit Is a Factor in the Development of Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olander, Lindsey; Smith, Anne; Zelaznik, Howard N.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether young children who stutter have a basic motor timing and/or a coordination deficit. Method: Between-hands coordination and variability of rhythmic motor timing were assessed in 17 children who stutter (4-6 years of age) and 13 age-matched controls. Children clapped in rhythm with a metronome with a 600-ms interbeat…

  2. Does Home Visiting Benefit Only First-Time Mothers?: Evidence from Healthy Families Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, Lee; Galano, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    It is a common assumption that mothers who have had previous births would participate less fully and have poorer outcomes from early home visitation programs than would first-time mothers. The authors conducted a qualitative and quantitative study to test that assumption by measuring three aspects of participation: time in the program, the number…

  3. Evidence-based guidelines, time-based health outcomes, and the Matthew effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L.E. Essink-Bot (Marie-Louise); M.E. Kruijshaar (Michelle); J.J.M. Barendregt (Jan); L.G.A. Bonneux (Luc)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cardiovascular risk management guidelines are 'risk based'; health economists' practice is 'time based'. The 'medical' risk-based allocation model maximises numbers of deaths prevented by targeting subjects at high risk, for example, elderly and smokers. The time-based model

  4. Evidence-based guidelines, time-based health outcomes, and the Matthew effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Kruijshaar, Michelle E.; Barendregt, Jan J.; Bonneux, Luc G. A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular risk management guidelines are 'risk based'; health economists' practice is 'time based'. The 'medical' risk-based allocation model maximises numbers of deaths prevented by targeting subjects at high risk, for example, elderly and smokers. The time-based model maximises

  5. Part-time wage-gap in Germany: Evidence across the wage distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tõnurist, Piret; Pavlopoulos, D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses insights from labour-market segmentation theory to investigate the wage differences between part-time and full-time workers in Germany at different parts of the wage distribution. This is accomplished with the use of a quintile regression and panel data from the SOEP (1991-2008). To

  6. DOES MARKET TIMING DRIVE CAPITAL STRUCTURE? EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE FROM AN EMERGING MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel Çelik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to test how equity market timing affects capital structure from the perspective of IPO (Initial Public Offering event in ISE for the period between 1999-2008. Our dataset comprises of all firms (75 firms that went public from the period of January 1999 to December 2008 in Turkey that are available in ISE database. We analyse the market timing theory by applying cross sectional regression method. For this purpose, first, we test the impact of market timing on the amount of equity issued by IPO firms. Second we examine the impact of market timing on capital structure. We conclude that market timing theory is not valid for Turkey.

  7. Promoting healthy timing and spacing of pregnancy with young married women in Northern Nigeria: a short report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Cate; Joof, Yaikah M; Hassan, Aisha Ahmed; Pryor, Shannon

    2012-06-01

    The persistence of early and closely spaced pregnancies in Northern Nigeria contributes to maternal and child morbidity and mortality. A technical working group to WHO recommended that following a birth, a woman should space her next pregnancy by at least 24 months, and following a miscarriage or abortion, a woman space her next pregnancy by at least six months. UNICEF, UNFPA and WHO also recommend that a woman delay her first pregnancy until 18. These recommendations comprise the concept of Healthy Timing and Spacing of Pregnancy. The Extending Service Delivery Project (ESD) partnered with the Federation of Muslim Women Association of Nigeria and religious leaders to educate communities about the benefits of using family planning to practice HTSP in five local government areas. Informal discussions with 148 women and 28 men found high recall of the HTSP recommendations and favorable attitudes toward spacing and family planning although many remain concerned about the side effects of contraceptive methods.

  8. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Ghouri, Nazim; Celis-Morales, Carlos A; Sattar, Naveed; Lumsden, Mary Ann; Gill, Jason M R

    2016-01-01

    International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI) undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268) min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  9. Should Physical Activity Recommendations for South Asian Adults Be Ethnicity-Specific? Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study of South Asian and White European Men and Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatina Iliodromiti

    Full Text Available International public health guidelines recommend that adults undertake at least 150 min.week-1 of moderate-intensity physical activity. However, the underpinning evidence has largely been obtained from studies of populations of white European descent. It is unclear whether these recommendations are appropriate for other ethnic groups, particularly South Asians, who have greater cardio-metabolic risk than white Europeans. The objective of our study was to determine the level of moderate-intensity physical activity required in South Asians adults to confer a similar cardio-metabolic risk profile to that observed in Europeans of similar age and body mass index (BMI undertaking the currently recommended levels of 150 min.week-1. 148 South Asians and 163 white Europeans aged 18 to 70 years were recruited. Physical activity was measured objectively via vertical axis accelerations from hip-worn accelerometers. Factor analysis was used to summarize the measured risk biomarkers into a single underlying latent "factor" describing overall cardio-metabolic risk. Sex did not modify the association between physical activity and the cardio-metabolic risk factor, so data for both sexes were combined and models adjusted for age, sex, BMI and accelerometer wear time. We estimated that South Asian adults needed to undertake 232 (95% Confidence interval: 200 to 268 min.week-1 in order to obtain the same cardio-metabolic risk factor score as a white European undertaking 150 minutes of moderate-equivalent physical activity per week. The present findings suggest that South Asian men and women need to undertake ~230 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per week. This equates to South Asians undertaking an extra 10-15 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity per day on top of existing recommendations.

  10. Informal support networks of low-income senior women living alone: evidence from Fort St. John, BC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Laura; Halseth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Within the context of an aging Canadian rural and small-town landscape, there is a growing trend of low-income senior women living alone. While there is a perception that rural seniors have well-developed social networks to meet their daily needs, some research suggests that economic and social restructuring processes have impacted the stability of seniors' support networks in small places. While much of the research on seniors' informal networks focuses upon small towns in decline, booming resource economies can also produce challenges for low-income senior women living alone due to both a higher cost of living and the retrenchment of government and service supports. Under such circumstances, an absence of informal supports can impact seniors' health and quality of life and may lead to premature institutionalization. Drawing upon a household survey in Fort St. John, British Columbia, we explore informal supports used by low-income senior women living alone in this different context of the Canadian landscape. Our findings indicate that these women not only have a support network that is comparable to other groups, but that they are also more likely to draw upon such supports to meet their independent-living needs. These women rely heavily on family support, however, and greater efforts are needed to diversify both their formal and informal sources of support as small family networks can quickly become overwhelmed.

  11. Part-Time Employment and Problem Behaviors: Evidence From Adolescents in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moosung; Oi-Yeung Lam, Beatrice; Ju, Eunsu; Dean, Jenny

    2017-03-01

    This study explores the impact of adolescent part-time work experience on problem behaviors in the South Korean context. To achieve this, propensity score matching (PSM) analyses were employed based on data from the Korean Education Employment Panel (KEEP). Results indicate that adolescents' part-time employment during their secondary school years had significantly undesirable effects on drinking and smoking, even after preexisting differences between the two groups (i.e., those adolescents who participated in part-time work and those who did not) were controlled by PSM. However, an insignificant difference was detected in the likelihood of running away from home. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of changes in the meanings of adolescence and of participating in part-time work in South Korea. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.

  12. How have inflation dynamics changed over time? Evidence from the euro area and USA

    OpenAIRE

    Oinonen, Sami; Paloviita, Maritta; Vilmi , Lauri

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes euro area and U.S. inflation dynamics since the beginning of the 1990s by estimating New Keynesian hybrid Phillips curves with time-varying parameters. We measure inflation expectations by subjective forecasts from Consensus Economics survey and so do not assume rational expectations. Both rolling regressions and state-space models are employed. The results indicate that in both economic areas the inflation dynamics have steadily become more forward-looking over time. We a...

  13. The need for time management training is universal: evidence from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisa, Adnan; Ersoy, Korkut

    2005-01-01

    In many developing countries, healthcare administrators are currently facing challenges that are representative of those in the United States. Most healthcare administrators here are physicians with no formal training in healthcare administration, and this is perhaps most apparent in their difficulties with time management. The authors' purpose in this study was to characterize the time management difficulties of administrators working in primary healthcare facilities of the Ministry of Healthcare. In the study, 67 healthcare administrators each completed a 31-item time management questionnaire. Of the participants, 79.1% reported that they have never attended time management courses or workshops. Although 76.1% said they were free to choose the priority of their daily tasks, only 44.8% felt they knew how much time they should allow for each activity in their daily life. These and other findings in the study suggest that the need for time management education is a well-defined target for intervention, both in university-based programs for future healthcare administrators and in workplace-based programs, such as in-service training for healthcare administrators who are already working.

  14. A model of sexually and physically victimized women's process of attaining effective formal help over time: the role of social location, context, and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Angie C; Adams, Adrienne; Bybee, Deborah; Campbell, Rebecca; Kubiak, Sheryl Pimlott; Sullivan, Cris

    2012-09-01

    As empirical evidence has demonstrated the pervasiveness of sexual assault and intimate partner violence in the lives of women, and the links to poor mental health outcomes, attention has turned to examining how women seek and access formal help. We present a conceptual model that addresses prior limitations and makes three key contributions: It foregrounds the influence of social location and multiple contextual factors; emphasizes the importance of the attainment of effective formal help that meets women's needs and leads to positive mental health outcomes; and highlights the role of interventions in facilitating help attainment. We conclude with research and practice implications.

  15. High HIV prevalence and incidence among women in Southern Mozambique: Evidence from the MDP microbicide feasibility study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibone Mocumbi

    Full Text Available The study aimed to assess the feasibility of conducting large scale HIV prevention clinical trials in Mozambique by measuring HIV prevalence and incidence among women of reproductive age. This paper describes the baseline socio-demographic characteristics of the Mozambique Microbicides Development Programme (MDP feasibility cohort, baseline prevalence of HIV and other STIs, and HIV incidence.The Mozambique MDP feasibility study was conducted from September 2007 to August 2009 in urban Mavalane and rural Manhiça, in Southern Mozambique. Sexually active, HIV negative women aged 18 years and above were recruited to attend the study clinic every 4 weeks for a total of 40 weeks. At baseline, we collected demographic and sexual behaviour data, samples to test for sexually transmitted infections (STI and conducted HIV rapid testing. STI and HIV testing were repeated at clinical follow-up visits. We describe HIV prevalence of women at screening, the demographic, behavioural and clinical characteristics of women at enrolment, and HIV incidence during follow-up.We screened 793 women (369 at Mavalane and 424 at Manhiça and enrolled 505 eligible women (254 at Mavalane and 251 at Manhiça. Overall HIV prevalence at screening was 17%; 10% at Mavalane and 22% at Manhiça. Women screened at Manhiça were twice as likely as women screened at Mavalane to be HIV positive and HIV positive status was associated with younger age (18-34, lower educational level, not using a reliable method of contraception and being Zionist compared to other Christian religions. At enrolment contraceptive use was low in both clinics at 19% in Mavalane and 21% in Manhiça, as was reported condom use at last sex act at 48% in Mavalane and 25% in Manhiça. At enrolment, 8% of women tested positive for Trichomonas vaginalis, 2% for Neisseria gonorrhoeae, 4% for Chlamydia trachomatis and 46% for bacterial vaginosis. In Manhiça, 8% of women had active syphilis at screening. HIV incidence

  16. Electrophysiological evidence of the time course of attentional bias in nonpatients reporting symptoms of depression with and without co-occurring anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Sass

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety is characterized by attentional biases to threat, but findings are inconsistent for depression. To address this inconsistency, the present study systematically assessed the role of co-occurring anxiety in attentional bias in depression. In addition, the role of emotional valence, arousal, and gender was explored. Ninety-two nonpatients completed the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ; Meyer et al., 1990; Molina & Borkovec, 1994 and portions of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire (MASQ; Watson, Clark, et al., 1995; Watson, Weber, et al., 1995. Individuals reporting high levels of depression and low levels of anxiety (depression only, high levels of depression and anxiety (combined, or low levels of both (control completed an emotion-word Stroop task during event-related brain potential (ERP recording. Pleasant and unpleasant words were matched on emotional arousal level. An attentional bias was not evident in the depression-only group. Women in the combined group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, and the combined group as a whole had larger right-lateralized P300 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early and later attentional bias that is specific to unpleasant valence in the combined group. Men in the control group had larger N200 amplitude for pleasant than unpleasant stimuli, consistent with an early attentional bias that is specific to pleasant valence. The present study indicates that the nature and time course of attention prompted by emotional valence and not arousal differentiates depression with and without anxiety, with some evidence of gender moderating early effects. Overall, results suggest that co-occurring anxiety is more important than previously acknowledged in demonstrating evidence of attentional biases in depression.

  17. Time to viral load suppression in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy: implications for pregnant women presenting late in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N; Sokoloff, A; Kornak, J; Leva, N V; Mendiola, M L; Levison, J; Feakins, C; Shannon, M; Cohan, D

    2013-11-01

    To compare time to achieve viral load HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV) -naive versus ARV-experienced pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective cohort study. Three university medical centers, USA. HIV-infected pregnant women initiated or restarted on HAART during pregnancy. We calculated time to viral load HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART who reported at least 50% adherence, stratifying based on previous ARV exposure history. Time to HIV viral load HIV-infected pregnant women, comprising 76 ARV-naive and 62 ARV-experienced. Ninety-three percent of ARV-naive women achieved a viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a later time of achieving viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a longer time of achieving viral load Pregnant women with ≥50% adherence, whether ARV-naive or ARV-experienced, on average achieve a viral load HIV log10 viral load were all statistically significant predictors of earlier time to achieve viral load <400 copies/ml and <1000 copies/ml. Increased CD4 count was statistically significant as a predictor of earlier time to achieve viral load <1000 copies/ml. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  18. Forecasting Inflation Using Interest-Rate and Time-Series Models: Some International Evidence.

    OpenAIRE

    Hafer, R W; Hein, Scott E

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that inflation forecasts derived from short-term interest rates are as accurate as time-series forecasts. Previous analyses of this notion have focused on U.S. data, providing mixed results. In this article, the authors extend previous work by testing the hypothesis using data taken from the United States and five other countries. Using monthly Eurocurrency rates and the consumer price index for the period 1967-86, their results indicate that time-series forecasts of inf...

  19. The role of traditional confinement practices in determining postpartum depression in women in Chinese cultures: a systematic review of the English language evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Josephine; Fisher, Jane

    2009-08-01

    The Chinese postpartum custom of "confinement" or "doing-the-month" involves formalised social support and recognition of the status of motherhood and has been presumed in anthropological literature to protect mothers of newborns from postpartum depression. The aim of this review was to examine systematically the evidence about the relationship between confinement practices and postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. A systematic search of the English-language literature. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. It was found that the role of confinement in postpartum depression is complex: eight studies concluded that it had a protective role; four that it increased risk of postpartum mood disturbance and four studies had inconclusive findings. Aspects of the confinement practice that could contribute to or fail to protect against postpartum depression include the generally diminished social support in contemporary society, conflict with a mother-in-law and the tension experienced by modern women as they work to balance traditional with contemporary values. Methodological differences limit meaningful comparisons between the reviewed studies and generalizations from them. There is little consistent evidence that confinement practices reduce postpartum depression in Chinese cultures. Specific components of confinement practices might reduce psychological distress in Chinese mothers of newborns, but these cannot be discerned from the existing evidence. Confinement cannot be presumed to be available to, welcomed by or effective for all Chinese women or to be a substitute for health service provision.

  20. Leisure time sedentary behavior, occupational/domestic physical activity, and metabolic syndrome in U.S. men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisson, Susan B; Camhi, Sarah M; Church, Timothy S; Martin, Corby K; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Bouchard, Claude; Earnest, Conrad P; Smith, Steven R; Newton, Robert L; Rankinen, Tuomo; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2009-12-01

    This study examines leisure time sedentary behavior (LTSB) and usual occupational/domestic activity (UODA) and their relationship with metabolic syndrome and individual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, independent of physical activity level. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2006 data from men (n = 1868) and women (n = 1688) with fasting measures were classified as having metabolic syndrome by the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (AHA/NHLBI) definition. LTSB was determined from self-reported television viewing and computer usage. UODA was self-reported daily behavior (sitting, standing, walking, carrying loads). LTSB >or=4 hours/day was associated with odds of having metabolic syndrome of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24, 3.03) in men compared to or=4 hour/day was also associated with higher odds of elevated waist circumference (1.88, CI, 1.03, 3.41), low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (1.84, CI, 1.35, 2.51), and high blood pressure (1.55, CI, 1.07, 2.24) in men. LTSB 2-3 hours/day was associated with higher odds of elevated glucose (1.32, CI, 1.00, 1.75) in men. In women, odds of metabolic syndrome were 1.54 (CI, 1.00, 2.37) with >or=4 hours/day LTSB, but LTSB was not associated with risk of the individual CVD risk factors. Higher LTSB was associated with metabolic syndrome in inactive men (1.50, CI, 1.07, 2.09), active men (1.74, CI, 1.11, 2.71), inactive women (1.69, CI, 1.24, 2.33), but not active women (1.62, CI, 0.87,3.01). UODA was not strongly associated with metabolic syndrome or CVD risk factors in either men or women. In men, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome and individual CVD risk factors regardless of meeting physical activity recommendations. In women, high LTSB is associated with higher odds of metabolic syndrome only in those not meeting the physical activity recommendations.

  1. Elevated total plasma-adiponectin is stable over time in young women with bulimia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syk, M; Ramklint, M; Fredriksson, R; Ekselius, L; Cunningham, J L

    2017-03-01

    Bulimia nervosa (BN) is characterized by dysregulated eating behaviour and present data suggest adipokines may regulate food intake. We investigated a possible association between BN and adipokine levels and hypothesized that plasma (P)-adiponectin would be elevated and P-leptin and P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio would be reduced in women with BN. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with a longitudinal arm for patients with BN. Plasma-adiponectin and leptin was measured in 148 female patients seeking psychiatric ambulatory care and 45 female controls. Fifteen patients were diagnosed with BN and the remaining with other affective and anxiety disorders. P-adiponectin and P-leptin levels were compared between patients with BN, patients without BN and controls. At follow-up 1-2years later, adipokines were reassessed in patients with BN and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess symptom severity. P-adiponectin was elevated in patients with BN at baseline and at follow-up when compared to patients without BN and controls (P<0.004 and <0.008 respectively). The difference remained significant after controlling for body mass index. P-adiponectin was correlated to symptom severity at follow-up in patients with BN without morbid obesity (ρ=0.72, P<0.04). P-leptin-adiponectin-ratio was significantly lower in patients with BN compared to controls (P<0.04) and P-leptin non-significantly lower. Findings indicate a stable elevation of P-adiponectin in women with BN. P-adiponectin at follow-up correlates to eating disorder symptom severity in patients without morbid obesity, indicating that P-adiponectin should be further investigated as a possible potential prognostic biomarker for BN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Women on the Edge of Time: Representations of revolutionary motherhood in the NEP-era Soviet Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Proctor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the October revolution of 1917 the fledgling Soviet government legalized divorce and abortion, secularized marriage, and decriminalized homosexuality. Utopians dreamed of the withering away of the family and the transformation of women's roles in the home and the workplace. But at least for the time being, only some bodies were capable of bearing children. Women's bodies became contested territory, a site of paradox. On the one hand the image of woman was re-imagined as a de-libidinalized fellow comrade, but this was combined with a continued emphasis on women's biological role as the privileged carriers of the future generation. Rather than circumventing this seeming contradiction, Soviet artworks of the 1920s confronted it, depicting motherhood as an emancipatory and revolutionary act. And this crucially does not only relate to bodies but to emotions. Revolutionary maternal love has a positive, affective dimension that provides an alternative to sexual love. The figure of the revolutionary mother prefigures the still hazily defined qualitative richness of the communist future. This article examines the figure of the revolutionary mother through a discussion of key artworks from the NEP era (1921-1928 concluding by considering how the representation of motherhood shifted in the Stalin era. The article asks what these historical ideas might still teach us today.

  3. Evidence That Bimanual Motor Timing Performance Is Not a Significant Factor in Developmental Stuttering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Allison I.; Zelaznik, Howard; Smith, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Stuttering involves a breakdown in the speech motor system. We address whether stuttering in its early stage is specific to the speech motor system or whether its impact is observable across motor systems. Method: As an extension of Olander, Smith, and Zelaznik (2010), we measured bimanual motor timing performance in 115 children: 70…

  4. Auditory Imagery Shapes Movement Timing and Kinematics: Evidence from a Musical Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter E.; Dalla Bella, Simone; Koch, Iring

    2010-01-01

    The role of anticipatory auditory imagery in music-like sequential action was investigated by examining timing accuracy and kinematics using a motion capture system. Musicians responded to metronomic pacing signals by producing three unpaced taps on three vertically aligned keys at the given tempo. Taps triggered tones in two out of three blocked…

  5. Experimental Evidence of the Knowledge Gap: Message Arousal, Motivation, and Time Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabe, Maria Elizabeth; Yegiyan, Narine; Kamhawi, Rasha

    2008-01-01

    This study experimentally tested the knowledge gap from an information processing perspective. Specifically, knowledge acquisition was investigated under conditions of medium and low news message arousal, with time delay. Results show the persistence of a knowledge gap, particularly for low arousing messages. In fact, at low levels of message…

  6. Auditory imagery shapes movement timing and kinematics: evidence from a musical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter E; Dalla Bella, Simone; Koch, Iring

    2010-04-01

    The role of anticipatory auditory imagery in music-like sequential action was investigated by examining timing accuracy and kinematics using a motion capture system. Musicians responded to metronomic pacing signals by producing three unpaced taps on three vertically aligned keys at the given tempo. Taps triggered tones in two out of three blocked feedback conditions, where key-to-tone mappings were compatible or incompatible in terms of spatial and pitch height. Results indicate that, while timing was most accurate without tones, movements were smaller in amplitude and less forceful (i.e., acceleration prior to impact was lowest) when tones were present. Moreover, timing was more accurate and movements were less forceful with compatible than with incompatible auditory feedback. Observing these effects at the first tap (before tone onset) suggests that anticipatory auditory imagery modulates the temporal kinematics of regularly timed auditory action sequences, like those found in music. Such cross-modal ideomotor processes may function to facilitate planning efficiency and biomechanical economy in voluntary action. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Mediated priming in the lexical decision task : Evidence from event-related potentials and reaction time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chwilla, DJ; Kolk, HHJ; Mulder, G

    Mediated priming (e.g., from LION to STRIPES vis TIGER) is predicted by spreading activation models hut only by some integration model. The goal of the present research was to localize mediated priming by assessing two-step priming effects on N400 and reaction times (RT). We propose that the N400

  8. Examining the Physical Self in Adolescent Girls Over Time: Further Evidence against the Hierarchical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Kent C.; Crocker, Peter R. E.; Kowalski, Nanette P.; Chad, Karen E.; Humbert, M. Louise

    2003-01-01

    Examined the direction of causal flow between global and specific dimensions of self-concept. Adolescent girls completed the Physical Self-Perception Profile and a global self-esteem scale in 9th and 10th grade. Results showed little support for top-down or bottom-up effects over the year. When self-concept was examined over time, there was…

  9. RD networks and regional knowledge production in Europe : Evidence from a space-time model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wanzenböck, Iris; Piribauer, Philipp

    2018-01-01

    In this study we estimate space-time impacts of the embeddedness in R&D networks on regional knowledge production using a dynamic spatial panel data model with non-linear effects for 229 European NUTS 2 regions in the period 1998–2010. Embeddedness refers to the positioning in networks where nodes

  10. Processing of Emotion Words by Patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evidence from Reaction Times and EEG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartseva, Alina; Dijkstra, Ton; Kan, Cornelis C.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated processing of emotion words in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) using reaction times and event-related potentials (ERP). Adults with (n = 21) and without (n = 20) ASD performed a lexical decision task on emotion and neutral words while their brain activity was recorded. Both groups showed faster responses to emotion words…

  11. Tuition Fees and the Time to Graduation: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckmeier, Kerstin; Fischer, Georg-Benedikt; Wigger, Berthold U.

    2015-01-01

    We used the recent introduction of general tuition fees at public universities in several of the German federal states as a natural experiment to identify whether tuition fees reduce the time to graduation and the extent to which they do so. We employed a difference-in-differences approach with the states that introduced fees as the treatment…

  12. Trace Fossil Evidence of Trematode-Bivalve Parasite-Host Interactions in Deep Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, John Warren; De Baets, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Parasitism is one of the most pervasive phenomena amongst modern eukaryotic life and yet, relative to other biotic interactions, almost nothing is known about its history in deep time. Digenean trematodes (Platyhelminthes) are complex life cycle parasites, which have practically no body fossil record, but induce the growth of characteristic malformations in the shells of their bivalve hosts. These malformations are readily preserved in the fossil record, but, until recently, have largely been overlooked by students of the fossil record. In this review, we present the various malformations induced by trematodes in bivalves, evaluate their distribution through deep time in the phylogenetic and ecological contexts of their bivalve hosts and explore how various taphonomic processes have likely biased our understanding of trematodes in deep time. Trematodes are known to negatively affect their bivalve hosts in a number of ways including castration, modifying growth rates, causing immobilization and, in some cases, altering host behaviour making the host more susceptible to their own predators. Digeneans are expected to be significant agents of natural selection. To that end, we discuss how bivalves may have adapted to their parasites via heterochrony and suggest a practical methodology for testing such hypotheses in deep time. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATIONS: ARE WOMEN DRIVEN BY DIFFERENT MOTIVATORS THAN MEN? (II SOME EVIDENCE FOR EU AND ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Badulescu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The present article has the goal to reveal the (eventually differences between entrepreneurial motivations between men and women, in the case of EU and Romania. In the first part, we make a brief research into the literature related to this subject, and in the second part we shall reveal the facts and figures in the EU and Romania.

  14. Evidence-based (S3) guideline for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in women and in men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blumeyer, Anja; Tosti, Antonella; Messenger, Andrew; Reygagne, Pascal; del Marmol, Veronique; Spuls, Phyllis I.; Trakatelli, Myrto; Finner, Andreas; Kiesewetter, Franklin; Trüeb, Ralph; Rzany, Berthold; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike

    2011-01-01

    Androgenetic alopecia is the most common hair loss disorder, affecting both men and women. Initial signs of androgenetic alopecia usually develop during teenage years leading to progressive hair loss with a pattern distribution. Moreover, its frequency increases with age and affects up to 80 %

  15. Cross-cultural differences in mental representations of time: evidence from an implicit nonlinguistic task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Orly; Boroditsky, Lera

    2010-11-01

    Across cultures people construct spatial representations of time. However, the particular spatial layouts created to represent time may differ across cultures. This paper examines whether people automatically access and use culturally specific spatial representations when reasoning about time. In Experiment 1, we asked Hebrew and English speakers to arrange pictures depicting temporal sequences of natural events, and to point to the hypothesized location of events relative to a reference point. In both tasks, English speakers (who read left to right) arranged temporal sequences to progress from left to right, whereas Hebrew speakers (who read right to left) arranged them from right to left, replicating previous work. In Experiments 2 and 3, we asked the participants to make rapid temporal order judgments about pairs of pictures presented one after the other (i.e., to decide whether the second picture showed a conceptually earlier or later time-point of an event than the first picture). Participants made responses using two adjacent keyboard keys. English speakers were faster to make "earlier" judgments when the "earlier" response needed to be made with the left response key than with the right response key. Hebrew speakers showed exactly the reverse pattern. Asking participants to use a space-time mapping inconsistent with the one suggested by writing direction in their language created interference, suggesting that participants were automatically creating writing-direction consistent spatial representations in the course of their normal temporal reasoning. It appears that people automatically access culturally specific spatial representations when making temporal judgments even in nonlinguistic tasks. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids: The Way Forward in Times of Mixed Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weylandt, Karsten H.; Serini, Simona; Chen, Yong Q.; Su, Hui-Min; Lim, Kyu; Calviello, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Almost forty years ago, it was first hypothesized that an increased dietary intake of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) from fish fat could exert protective effects against several pathologies. Decades of intense preclinical investigation have supported this hypothesis in a variety of model systems. Several clinical cardiovascular studies demonstrated the beneficial health effects of omega-3 PUFA, leading medical institutions worldwide to publish recommendations for their increased intake. However, particularly in recent years, contradictory results have been obtained in human studies focusing on cardiovascular disease and the clinical evidence in other diseases, particularly chronic inflammatory and neoplastic diseases, was never established to a degree that led to clear approval of treatment with omega-3 PUFA. Recent data not in line with the previous findings have sparked a debate on the health efficacy of omega-3 PUFA and the usefulness of increasing their intake for the prevention of a number of pathologies. In this review, we aim to examine the controversies on the possible use of these fatty acids as preventive/curative tools against the development of cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory diseases, as well as several kinds of cancer. PMID:26301240

  17. Books and reading: evidence-based standard of care whose time has come.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Barry; Augustyn, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Reach Out and Read (ROR) is the only systematically evaluated clinical activity to promote child development in primary care used throughout the United States. The ROR intervention is straightforward: clinicians provide advice about the benefits of reading aloud, as well as directly giving books to high-risk children and parents to take home at each pediatric visit of children aged 6 months to 5 years. ROR builds upon a significant evidence base of the value of reading aloud to young children. The studies evaluating ROR from different sites from subjects from different racial backgrounds and numerous outcome measures are consistently positive. From its initial single site at Boston City Hospital in 1989, to over 4600 clinical sites in 2010, over 30 000 clinicians distributed over 6.2 million books a year to 3.9 million children across the United States. The future efforts for ROR include integrating mental health competencies found in American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines as part of residency and clinician training into the ROR paradigm, quality improvement to ensure fidelity to the intervention, and expanded pediatric clinician involvement in local early childhood/school readiness community efforts. Finally, the most important future goal is the adoption of giving advice about reading aloud and giving developmentally appropriate books to high-risk families as best practice by official bodies. Copyright © 2011 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Evidence for storm-time ionospheric ion precipitation in the cusp with magnetosheath energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Stenuit

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available We present evidence for a sporadic precipitation into the north polar cusp of ionospheric O+ and He+ ions accelerated up to the magnetosheath flow speed during a magnetic storm. This is deduced from data obtained on board the Interball-Auroral satellite showing that the energy/charge ratios of the H+, He++, He+ and O+ populations are similar to those of ion masses. These measurements pertain to a very disturbed magnetic period. A storm was in progress with a Dst reaching -149nT during the cusp measurements, while the AE index reached values higher than 1000nT. This result is discussed in terms of ion circulation from the magnetosphere to the magnetosheath and back to the magnetosphere. We suggest that the acceleration of O+ and He+ ions up to a magnetosheath-like velocity is directly linked to the large By component of the IMF.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosheath; storms and substorms

  19. [Factors associated with the anxiety level and knowledge about childcare and lactation in first-time pregnant women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo-García, Ana; Fuente-González, Paloma; Chudáčik, Michal; Fernández-Fernández, Ana; Suárez-Gil, Patricio; Suárez Martínez, Venancio

    2018-05-23

    To know the level of anxiety and knowledge of childcare and lactation of the current pregnant women, and the clinical-demographic variables with which they are related. Cross-sectional study. Seven health centers of Area V (Asturias). First-time pregnant women who completed preparatory courses from 01.06.2015 to 31.10.2015, excluding multiple gestation, risk pregnancy, contraindicated breastfeeding and language problems. Sociodemographic variables questionnaire, STAI state anxiety questionnaire and 23 questions about childcare and lactation. We performed descriptive and multivariate analysis (program R) of the variables of the questionnaire. We captured 104 pregnant women; average age 34.2(SD: 4.5), 94.2% Spanish, 61.5% university, 17.3% smokers in pregnancy, 23.1% with psychopathological antecedents; 88.4% planned to give breastfeeding. The mean STAI-S was 18.1(SD: 7.4) and scored 4.5(SD: 2.3) mean errors. The most faulty ones were on causes of fever (56.7%), fever measurement (54.8%) and physiological stools (55.7%). The multivariate analysis between knowledge and profile showed statistically significant associations with: being foreign, university, pregnancy planning and matron. In relation to the STAI-S was significant for being a smoker, receiving breastfeeding, psychopathological antecedents and matron. The current pregnant women who complete preparatory courses are mainly mature, university and Spanish. They have good concepts about breastfeeding but many are unaware of basic concepts of fever and stool of the infant. Foreign mothers with unwanted pregnancy and primary education seem to have more confusing concepts. Smoking mothers with psychopathological antecedents and who have not received breastfeeding present more anxiety. The matron significantly influences anxiety and acquired concepts. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Long-Term Correlates of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time in Norwegian Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solbraa, Ane Kristiansen; Ekelund, Ulf; Holme, Ingar M; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Aadland, Eivind; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred

    2015-11-01

    Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), perceived health and health behavior are correlates known to affect physical activity and sedentary time. However, studies have often been cross-sectional, and less is known about long-term correlates. Thus, the aims were to investigate 1) the associations between a set of characteristics (demographic, biological, psychological, and behavioral) and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time at 13-year follow-up, and 2) the association between changes in these characteristics over time and physical activity and sedentary time. Baseline characteristics were collected in 40-year-olds in 1996, and follow-up data on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time were obtained in 2009 (n = 240). Data were analyzed by multiple linear regressions. Self-reported physical activity (P physical activity (MVPA) whereas BMI (P = .034) and increased BMI (P = .014) were negatively associated with MVPA at follow-up. Women spent less time being sedentary than men (P = .019). Education (P < .001) was positively associated and improved perceived health (P = .010) was negatively associated with sedentary time at follow-up. MVPA and sedentary time at follow-up were associated with behavioral, biological and demographic correlates. However, the nature of our analyses prevents us from inferring causality.

  1. Big Data impacts on stochastic Forecast Models: Evidence from FX time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Dietz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rise of the Big Data paradigm new tasks for prediction models appeared. In addition to the volume problem of such data sets nonlinearity becomes important, as the more detailed data sets contain also more comprehensive information, e.g. about non regular seasonal or cyclical movements as well as jumps in time series. This essay compares two nonlinear methods for predicting a high frequency time series, the USD/Euro exchange rate. The first method investigated is Autoregressive Neural Network Processes (ARNN, a neural network based nonlinear extension of classical autoregressive process models from time series analysis (see Dietz 2011. Its advantage is its simple but scalable time series process model architecture, which is able to include all kinds of nonlinearities based on the universal approximation theorem of Hornik, Stinchcombe and White 1989 and the extensions of Hornik 1993. However, restrictions related to the numeric estimation procedures limit the flexibility of the model. The alternative is a Support Vector Machine Model (SVM, Vapnik 1995. The two methods compared have different approaches of error minimization (Empirical error minimization at the ARNN vs. structural error minimization at the SVM. Our new finding is, that time series data classified as “Big Data” need new methods for prediction. Estimation and prediction was performed using the statistical programming language R. Besides prediction results we will also discuss the impact of Big Data on data preparation and model validation steps. Normal 0 21 false false false DE X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normale Tabelle"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";}

  2. Accuracy and reading time for six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliafico, Alberto Stefano; Calabrese, Massimo; Bignotti, Bianca; Signori, Alessio; Fisci, Erica; Rossi, Federica; Valdora, Francesca; Houssami, Nehmat

    2017-12-01

    To compare six strategies using digital breast tomosynthesis in women with mammographically negative dense breasts. This is a substudy of the 'ASTOUND' trial. 163 women who underwent tomosynthesis with synthetically reconstructed projection images (S-2D) inclusive of 13 (7.9%) cases diagnosed with breast cancer at histopathology after surgery were evaluated. Accuracy measures and screen-reading time of six reading strategies were assessed: (A) Single reading of S-2D alone, (B) single reading of tomosynthesis alone, (C) single reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D, (D) double-reading of S-2D alone, (E) double reading of tomosynthesis alone, (F) double reading of joint interpretation of tomosynthesis + S-2D. The median age of the patients was 53 years (range, 36-88 years). The highest global accuracy was obtained with double reading of tomosynthesis + S2D (F) with an AUC of 0.979 (ptomosynthesis+ S2D had the best accuracy of six screen-reading strategies although it had the longest reading time. • Tomosynthesis acquisitions are progressively implemented with reconstructed synthesized 2D images • Double reading using S-2D plus tomosynthesis had the highest global accuracy (ptomosynthesis increased reading time.

  3. Behavioral and multimodal neuroimaging evidence for a deficit in brain timing networks in stuttering: A hypothesis and theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Etchell

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The fluent production of speech requires accurately timed movements. In this article, we propose that a deficit in brain timing networks is the core neurophysiological deficit in stuttering. We first discuss the experimental evidence supporting the involvement of the basal ganglia and supplementary motor area in stuttering and the involvement of the cerebellum as a mechanism for compensating for the neural deficits that underlie stuttering. Next, we outline the involvement of the right inferior frontal gyrus as another putative compensatory locus in stuttering and suggest a role for this structure in an expanded core timing-network. Subsequently, we review behavioral studies of timing in people who stutter and examine their behavioral performance as compared to people who do not stutter. Finally, we highlight challenges to existing research and provide avenues for future research with specific hypotheses.

  4. Determinants Of Foreign Direct Investment In Mauritius Evidence From Time Series Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medha Kisto

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades Foreign Direct Investment FDI claimed an impressive economic record as it enables economy to transit from an agrarian to knowledge based economy. This paper focuses on the determinants and impact of FDI in Mauritius using annual time series data from 1975 through 2015. The Vector Error Correction Model VECM analysis reveals that macroeconomic variables namely inflation rates and exchange rate are among the major and important factor that affect FDI in Mauritius over this period of time. Exchange rate exhibited negative significant influence on FDI while interest rate affects FDI positively. The study therefore recommends that government should continue to diversify the export and tourism markets ensure stable macroeconomic policies implement reforms on doing business increase its expenditure in the area of infrastructural development and redirect FDI in productive sector of the economy as ways to accelerate the growth of Mauritian economy.

  5. Effects of the Affordable Care Act on part-time employment: Early evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dillender, Marcus; Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Houseman, Susan N.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers with at least 50 full-time-equivalent employees to offer "affordable" health insurance to employees working 30 or more hours per week. If employers do not comply with the mandate, they may face substantial financial penalties. Employers can potentially circumvent the mandate by reducing weekly hours below the 30-hour threshold or by using other nonstandard employment arrangements (direct-hire temporaries, agency temporaries, small contractors, ...

  6. Evidence of time symmetry violation in the interaction of nuclear particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slobodrian, R.J.; Rioux, C.; Roy, R.; Conzett, H.E.; von Rossen, P.; Hinterberger, F.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of the proton polarization in the reactions 7 Li( 3 He,p/sub pol/) 9 Be and 9 Be( 3 He,p/sub pol/) 11 B and of the analyzing powers of the inverse reactions, initiated by polarized protons at the same c.m. energies, show significant differences which imply the failure of the polarization--analyzing-power theorem and, prima facie, of time-reversal invariance in these reactions

  7. Using the Life Satisfaction Approach to Value Daylight Savings Time Transitions: Evidence from Britain and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Kuehnle; Christoph Wunder

    2015-01-01

    Daylight savings time (DST) represents a public good with costs and benefits. We provide the first comprehensive examination of the welfare effects of the spring and autumn transitions for the UK and Germany. Using individual-level data and a regression discontinuity design, we estimate the effect of the transitions on life satisfaction. Our results show that individuals in both the UK and Germany experience deteriorations in life satisfaction in the first week after the spring transition. We...

  8. Observational evidence of seasonality in the timing of loop current eddy separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Cody A.; Leben, Robert R.

    2016-12-01

    Observational datasets, reports and analyses over the time period from 1978 through 1992 are reviewed to derive pre-altimetry Loop Current (LC) eddy separation dates. The reanalysis identified 20 separation events in the 15-year record. Separation dates are estimated to be accurate to approximately ± 1.5 months and sufficient to detect statistically significant LC eddy separation seasonality, which was not the case for previously published records because of the misidentification of separation events and their timing. The reanalysis indicates that previously reported LC eddy separation dates, determined for the time period before the advent of continuous altimetric monitoring in the early 1990s, are inaccurate because of extensive reliance on satellite sea surface temperature (SST) imagery. Automated LC tracking techniques are used to derive LC eddy separation dates in three different altimetry-based sea surface height (SSH) datasets over the time period from 1993 through 2012. A total of 28-30 LC eddy separation events were identified in the 20-year record. Variations in the number and dates of eddy separation events are attributed to the different mean sea surfaces and objective-analysis smoothing procedures used to produce the SSH datasets. Significance tests on various altimetry and pre-altimetry/altimetry combined date lists consistently show that the seasonal distribution of separation events is not uniform at the 95% confidence level. Randomization tests further show that the seasonal peak in LC eddy separation events in August and September is highly unlikely to have occurred by chance. The other seasonal peak in February and March is less significant, but possibly indicates two seasons of enhanced probability of eddy sep