WorldWideScience

Sample records for time-stratified case-crossover analysis

  1. Air Pollution and Suicide in 10 Cities in Northeast Asia: A Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonhee; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Chung, Yeonseung; Kim, Ho; Honda, Yasushi; Guo, Yue Leon; Lim, Youn-Hee; Chen, Bing-Yu; Page, Lisa A; Hashizume, Masahiro

    2018-03-06

    There is growing evidence suggesting an association between air pollution and suicide. However, previous findings varied depending on the type of air pollutant and study location. We examined the association between air pollutants and suicide in 10 large cities in South Korea, Japan, and Taiwan. We used a two-stage meta-analysis. First, we conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to estimate the short-term association between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), and particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤10μm (PM 10 ), aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5μm (PM 2.5 ), and PM 10–2.5 ] and suicide, adjusted for weather factors, day-of-week, long-term time trends, and season. Then, we conducted a meta-analysis to combine the city-specific effect estimates for NO 2 , SO 2 , and PM 10 across 10 cities and for PM 2.5 and PM 10–2.5 across 3 cities. We first fitted single-pollutant models, followed by two-pollutant models to examine the robustness of the associations. Higher risk of suicide was associated with higher levels of NO 2 , SO 2 , PM 10 , and PM 10–2.5 over multiple days. The combined relative risks (RRs) were 1.019 for NO 2 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999, 1.039), 1.020 for SO 2 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.036), 1.016 for PM 10 (95% CI: 1.004, 1.029), and 1.019 for PM 10–2.5 (95% CI: 1.005, 1.033) per interquartile range (IQR) increase in the 0-1 d average level of each pollutant. We found no evidence of an association for PM 2.5 . Some of the associations, particularly for SO 2 and NO 2 , were attenuated after adjusting for a second pollutant. Our findings suggest that higher levels of air pollution may be associated with suicide, and further research is merited to understand the underlying mechanisms. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP2223.

  2. Gaseous air pollution and emergency hospital visits for hypertension in Beijing, China: a time-stratified case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yanshen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of epidemiological studies have been conducted to research the adverse effects of air pollution on mortality and morbidity. Hypertension is the most important risk factor for cardiovascular mortality. However, few previous studies have examined the relationship between gaseous air pollution and morbidity for hypertension. Methods Daily data on emergency hospital visits (EHVs for hypertension were collected from the Peking University Third Hospital. Daily data on gaseous air pollutants (sulfur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10 were collected from the Beijing Municipal Environmental Monitoring Center. A time-stratified case-crossover design was conducted to evaluate the relationship between urban gaseous air pollution and EHVs for hypertension. Temperature and relative humidity were controlled for. Results In the single air pollutant models, a 10 μg/m3 increase in SO2 and NO2 were significantly associated with EHVs for hypertension. The odds ratios (ORs were 1.037 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.004-1.071 for SO2 at lag 0 day, and 1.101 (95% CI: 1.038-1.168 for NO2 at lag 3 day. After controlling for PM10, the ORs associated with SO2 and NO2 were 1.025 (95% CI: 0.987-1.065 and 1.114 (95% CI: 1.037-1.195, respectively. Conclusion Elevated urban gaseous air pollution was associated with increased EHVs for hypertension in Beijing, China.

  3. Short-term effects of floods on Japanese encephalitis in Nanchong, China, 2007-2012: A time-stratified case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feifei; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Caixia; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-09-01

    This time-stratified case-crossover study aimed to quantify the impact of floods on daily Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases from 2007 to 2012 in Nanchong city of Sichuan Province, China. Using conditional logistic regression analysis, we calculated the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) at different lagged days, adjusting for daily average temperature (AT) and daily average relative humidity (ARH). A total of 370 JE cases were notified during the study period, with the median patient age being 4.2years. The seasonal pattern of JE cases clustered in July and August during the study period. Floods were significantly associated with an increased number of JE cases from lag 23 to lag 24, with the strongest lag effect at lag 23 (OR=2.00, 95% CI: 1.14-3.52). Similarly, AT and ARH were positively associated with daily JE cases from lag 0 to lag 8 and from lag 0 to lag 9, respectively. Floods, with AT and ARH, can be used to forecast JE outbreaks in the study area. Based on the results of this study, recommendations include undertaking control measures before the number of cases increases, especially for regions with similar geographic, climatic, and socio-economic conditions as those in the study area. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Hourly differences in air pollution and risk of respiratory disease in the elderly: a time-stratified case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Suzuki, Etsuji; Kashima, Saori

    2014-08-13

    Epidemiological studies have shown adverse effects of short-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory disease outcomes; however, few studies examined this association on an hourly time scale. We evaluated the associations between hourly changes in air pollution and the risk of respiratory disease in the elderly, using the time of the emergency call as the disease onset for each case. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design. Study participants were 6,925 residents of the city of Okayama, Japan, aged 65 or above who were taken to hospital emergency rooms between January 2006 and December 2010 for onset of respiratory disease. We calculated city-representative hourly average concentrations of air pollutants from several monitoring stations. By using conditional logistic regression models, we estimated odds ratios per interquartile-range increase in each pollutant by exposure period prior to emergency call, adjusting for hourly ambient temperature, hourly relative humidity, and weekly numbers of reported influenza cases aged ≥60. Suspended particulate matter (SPM) exposure 24 to respiratory disease. For example, following one interquartile-range increase, odds ratios were 1.05 (95% confidence interval: 1.01, 1.09) for SPM exposure 24 to respiratory disease of SPM or ozone. Overall, the effect estimates for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and allied conditions were equivocal. This study provides further evidence that hourly changes in air pollution exposure increase the risks of respiratory disease, and that SO2 may be related with more immediate onset of the disease than other pollutants.

  5. Application of a Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Design to Explore the Effects of Air Pollution and Season on Childhood Asthma Hospitalization in Cities of Differing Urban Patterns: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ching-Yen; Pan, Ren-Hao; Chan, Chin-Kan; Wu, Chiung-Yi; Phan, Dinh-Van; Chan, Chien-Lung

    2018-03-31

    Few studies have assessed the lagged effects of levels of different urban city air pollutants and seasons on asthma hospitalization in children. This study used big data analysis to explore the effects of daily changes in air pollution and season on childhood asthma hospitalization from 2001 to 2010 in Taipei and Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover study and conditional logistic regression analysis were employed to identify associations between the risk of hospitalization due to asthma in children and the levels of air pollutants (PM 2.5 , PM 10 , O₃, SO₂, and NO₂) in the days preceding hospitalization. During the study period, 2900 children in Taipei and 1337 in Kaohsiung aged ≤15 years were hospitalized due to asthma for the first time. The results indicated that the levels of air pollutants were significantly associated with the risk of asthma hospitalization in children, and seasonal effects were observed. High levels of air pollution in Kaohsiung had greater effects than in Taipei after adjusting for seasonal variation. The most important factor was O₃ in spring in Taipei. In children aged 0-6 years, asthma was associated with O₃ in Taipei and SO₂ in Kaohsiung, after controlling for the daily mean temperature and relative humidity.

  6. Application of a Time-Stratified Case-Crossover Design to Explore the Effects of Air Pollution and Season on Childhood Asthma Hospitalization in Cities of Differing Urban Patterns: Big Data Analytics of Government Open Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yen Kuo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the lagged effects of levels of different urban city air pollutants and seasons on asthma hospitalization in children. This study used big data analysis to explore the effects of daily changes in air pollution and season on childhood asthma hospitalization from 2001 to 2010 in Taipei and Kaohsiung City, Taiwan. A time-stratified case-crossover study and conditional logistic regression analysis were employed to identify associations between the risk of hospitalization due to asthma in children and the levels of air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, O3, SO2, and NO2 in the days preceding hospitalization. During the study period, 2900 children in Taipei and 1337 in Kaohsiung aged ≤15 years were hospitalized due to asthma for the first time. The results indicated that the levels of air pollutants were significantly associated with the risk of asthma hospitalization in children, and seasonal effects were observed. High levels of air pollution in Kaohsiung had greater effects than in Taipei after adjusting for seasonal variation. The most important factor was O3 in spring in Taipei. In children aged 0–6 years, asthma was associated with O3 in Taipei and SO2 in Kaohsiung, after controlling for the daily mean temperature and relative humidity.

  7. Case-Crossover Analysis of Air Pollution Health Effects: A Systematic Review of Methodology and Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo-Martínez, Eduardo; Taracido, Margarita; Tobias, Aurelio; Saez, Marc; Figueiras, Adolfo

    2010-01-01

    Background Case-crossover is one of the most used designs for analyzing the health-related effects of air pollution. Nevertheless, no one has reviewed its application and methodology in this context. Objective We conducted a systematic review of case-crossover (CCO) designs used to study the relationship between air pollution and morbidity and mortality, from the standpoint of methodology and application. Data sources and extraction A search was made of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. Reports were classified as methodologic or applied. From the latter, the following information was extracted: author, study location, year, type of population (general or patients), dependent variable(s), independent variable(s), type of CCO design, and whether effect modification was analyzed for variables at the individual level. Data synthesis The review covered 105 reports that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Of these, 24 addressed methodological aspects, and the remainder involved the design’s application. In the methodological reports, the designs that yielded the best results in simulation were symmetric bidirectional CCO and time-stratified CCO. Furthermore, we observed an increase across time in the use of certain CCO designs, mainly symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. The dependent variables most frequently analyzed were those relating to hospital morbidity; the pollutants most often studied were those linked to particulate matter. Among the CCO-application reports, 13.6% studied effect modification for variables at the individual level. Conclusions The use of CCO designs has undergone considerable growth; the most widely used designs were those that yielded better results in simulation studies: symmetric bidirectional and time-stratified CCO. However, the advantages of CCO as a method of analysis of variables at the individual level are put to little use. PMID:20356818

  8. Intracerebral haemorrhage associated with hourly concentration of ambient particulate matter: case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Nitta, H; Ono, M; Green, J; Fukuhara, S

    2007-01-01

    To examine the association of hourly time lagged concentration of ambient particulate matter and death due to stroke. Mortality data for five years (January 1990 to December 1994) were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. Data were used only if the deceased was 65 years old or older at the time of death, if death was attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, and if the deceased lived in one of 13 major urban areas. Hourly mean concentrations of PM7, NO2, and photochemical oxidants were measured at monitoring stations in the 13 areas. Time stratified case-crossover analysis was used to examine the data for evidence of triggering stroke mortality. The 1-hour mean concentration of PM7 measured about 2 hours before death was associated with the risk of death due to intracerebral haemorrhage from April to September (odds ratio = 2.40, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.89, for exposure to PM7 of more than 200 microg/m3 (threshold)). The higher risk was independent of the 24-hour mean concentration of PM7. PM7 was not associated with death due to ischaemic stroke. Transiently high concentrations of PM7 are associated with death due to intracerebral haemorrhage. Air quality standards or guidelines for particulate matter should be based not only on 24-hour mean concentrations, but also on hourly data.

  9. The impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in the Greater Metropolitan Sydney Region: a case crossover analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Leigh Ann; Gerard Morgan, Geoffrey; Hanigan, Ivan Charles; Johnston, Fay H; Abu-Rayya, Hisham; Broome, Richard; Gaskin, Clive; Jalaludin, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the association between unusually high temperature and daily mortality (1997?2007) and hospital admissions (1997?2010) in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) to assist in the development of targeted health programs designed to minimise the public health impact of extreme heat. Methods Sydney GMR was categorized into five climate zones. Heat-events were defined as severe or extreme. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional logisti...

  10. A case-crossover analysis of forest fire haze events and mortality in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, Mazrura; Zainon, Nurul Ashikin; Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Latif, Mohd Talib; Hod, Rozita; Khan, Md Firoz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd; Chan, Chang-Chuan

    2014-10-01

    The Southeast Asian (SEA) haze events due to forest fires are recurrent and affect Malaysia, particularly the Klang Valley region. The aim of this study is to examine the risk of haze days due to biomass burning in Southeast Asia on daily mortality in the Klang Valley region between 2000 and 2007. We used a case-crossover study design to model the effect of haze based on PM10 concentration to the daily mortality. The time-stratified control sampling approach was used, adjusted for particulate matter (PM10) concentrations, time trends and meteorological influences. Based on time series analysis of PM10 and backward trajectory analysis, haze days were defined when daily PM10 concentration exceeded 100 μg/m3. The results showed a total of 88 haze days were identified in the Klang Valley region during the study period. A total of 126,822 cases of death were recorded for natural mortality where respiratory mortality represented 8.56% (N = 10,854). Haze events were found to be significantly associated with natural and respiratory mortality at various lags. For natural mortality, haze events at lagged 2 showed significant association with children less than 14 years old (Odd Ratio (OR) = 1.41; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.01-1.99). Respiratory mortality was significantly associated with haze events for all ages at lagged 0 (OR = 1.19; 95% CI = 1.02-1.40). Age-and-gender-specific analysis showed an incremental risk of respiratory mortality among all males and elderly males above 60 years old at lagged 0 (OR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.09-1.64 and OR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.09-1.84 respectively). Adult females aged 15-59 years old were found to be at highest risk of respiratory mortality at lagged 5 (OR = 1.66; 95% CI = 1.03-1.99). This study clearly indicates that exposure to haze events showed immediate and delayed effects on mortality.

  11. Air pollution and asthma attacks in children: A case-crossover analysis in the city of Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ling; Zhu, Daojuan; Peng, Donghong; Zhao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Data on particulate matter of diameter <2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) in the city of Chongqing were first announced in 2013. We wished to assess the effects of pollutants on asthmatic children in Chongqing, China. Daily numbers of hospital visits because of asthma attacks in children aged 0-18 years in 2013 were collected from the Children's Hospital of Chongqing Medical University. Data on pollutants were accessed from the nine air quality-monitoring stations in Chongqing. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied and conditional logistic regression was undertaken to analyze the data. We found that short-term exposure to PM 10 , PM 2.5 , sodium dioxide, nitrogen and carbon monoxide could trigger hospital visits for asthma in children. Nitrogen dioxide had an important role, whereas ozone had no effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Does air pollution trigger suicide? A case-crossover analysis of suicide deaths over the life span.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Lidia; Cox, Bianca; Bauwelinck, Mariska; Nemery, Benoit; Deboosere, Patrick; Nawrot, Tim Steve

    2017-11-01

    In addition to underlying health disorders and socio-economic or community factors, air pollution may trigger suicide mortality. This study evaluates the association between short-term variation in air pollution and 10 years of suicide mortality in Belgium. In a bidirectional time-stratified case-crossover design, 20,533 suicide deaths registered between January 1st 2002 and December 31st 2011 were matched by temperature with control days from the same month and year. We used municipality-level air pollution [particulate matter (PM 10 ) and O 3 concentrations] data and meteorology data. We applied conditional logistic regression models adjusted for duration of sunshine and day of the week to obtain odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI for an increase of 10 µg/m 3 in pollutant concentrations over different lag periods (lag 0, 0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 0-4, 0-5, and 0-6 days). Effect modification by season and age was investigated by including interaction terms. We observed significant associations of PM 10 and O 3 with suicide during summer (OR ranging from 1.02 to 1.07, p-values suicide, particularly during warm periods, even at concentrations below the European thresholds. Furthermore, PM 10 may have strong trigger effects among children and elderly population.

  13. Atmospheric Pressure and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture: Results From a Time Series Analysis and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penning de Vries, Bas B L; Kolkert, Joé L P; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Groenwold, Rolf H H

    2017-10-01

    Associations between atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk have been reported, but empirical evidence is inconclusive and largely derived from studies that did not account for possible nonlinearity, seasonality, and confounding by temperature. Associations between atmospheric pressure and AAA rupture risk were investigated using local meteorological data and a case series of 358 patients admitted to hospital for ruptured AAA during the study period, January 2002 to December 2012. Two analyses were performed-a time series analysis and a case-crossover study. Results from the 2 analyses were similar; neither the time series analysis nor the case-crossover study showed a significant association between atmospheric pressure ( P = .627 and P = .625, respectively, for mean daily atmospheric pressure) or atmospheric pressure variation ( P = .464 and P = .816, respectively, for 24-hour change in mean daily atmospheric pressure) and AAA rupture risk. This study failed to support claims that atmospheric pressure causally affects AAA rupture risk. In interpreting our results, one should be aware that the range of atmospheric pressure observed in this study is not representative of the atmospheric pressure to which patients with AAA may be exposed, for example, during air travel or travel to high altitudes in the mountains. Making firm claims regarding these conditions in relation to AAA rupture risk is difficult at best. Furthermore, despite the fact that we used one of the largest case series to date to investigate the effect of atmospheric pressure on AAA rupture risk, it is possible that this study is simply too small to demonstrate a causal link.

  14. The impact of heat on mortality and morbidity in the Greater Metropolitan Sydney Region: a case crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Leigh Ann; Morgan, Geoffrey Gerard; Hanigan, Ivan Charles; Johnston, Fay H; Abu-Rayya, Hisham; Broome, Richard; Gaskin, Clive; Jalaludin, Bin

    2013-11-15

    This study examined the association between unusually high temperature and daily mortality (1997-2007) and hospital admissions (1997-2010) in the Sydney Greater Metropolitan Region (GMR) to assist in the development of targeted health programs designed to minimise the public health impact of extreme heat. Sydney GMR was categorized into five climate zones. Heat-events were defined as severe or extreme. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional logistic regression model we adjusted for influenza epidemics, public holidays, and climate zone. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for associations between daily mortality and hospital admissions with heat-event days compared to non-heat event days for single and three day heat-events. All-cause mortality overall had similar magnitude associations with single day and three day extreme and severe events as did all cardiovascular mortality. Respiratory mortality was associated with single day and three day severe events (95th percentile, lag0: OR = 1.14; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.24). Diabetes mortality had similar magnitude associations with single day and three day severe events (95th percentile, lag0: OR = 1.22; 95%CI: 1.03 to 1.46) but was not associated with extreme events. Hospital admissions for heat related injuries, dehydration, and other fluid disorders were associated with single day and three day extreme and severe events. Contrary to our findings for mortality, we found inconsistent and sometimes inverse associations for extreme and severe events with cardiovascular disease and respiratory disease hospital admissions. Controlling for air pollutants did not influence the mortality associations but reduced the magnitude of the associations with hospital admissions particularly for ozone and respiratory disease. Single and three day events of unusually high temperatures in Sydney are associated with similar magnitude increases in mortality and hospital admissions. The trend

  15. Association between emergency admission for peptic ulcer bleeding and air pollution: a case-crossover analysis in Hong Kong's elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Linwei; Qiu, Hong; Sun, Shengzhi; Tsang, Hilda; Chan, King-Pan; Leung, Wai K

    2017-05-01

    Air pollution increases intestinal permeability, alters the gut microbiome, and promotes inflammation, which might contribute towards gastrointestinal bleeding. In the present study, we aim to examine whether short-term elevations in air pollution are associated with increased numbers of emergency hospital admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in Hong Kong. Daily air pollution (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than 2·5 μm [PM 2·5 ], nitric oxide [NO 2 ], sulpher dioxide [SO 2 ], and ozone [O 3 ]) data during 2005-10 were collected from the Environmental Protection Department and emergency admission data for peptic ulcer bleeding in elderly people (aged 65 years or older) from the Hospital Authority of Hong Kong. A time stratified case-crossover analysis with conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the excess risk of peptic ulcer bleeding associated with each air pollutant, in single-pollutant and multi-pollutant models. Cardiorespiratory diseases were used as positive controls. 8566 emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding were recorded among Hong Kong's elderly population during 2005-10; the daily number of admissions ranged from 0 to 13. An IQR increment of 5-day moving average (lag 04 ) of NO 2 concentration (25·8 μg/m 3 ) was associated with a 7·6% (95% CI 2·2-13·2) increase in emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding. Multi-pollutant models confirmed the robustness of the risk estimates for NO 2 . Other pollutants (PM 2·5 , SO 2 , and O 3 ) were not associated with peptic ulcer bleeding admissions. Short-term elevation in ambient NO 2 might trigger peptic ulcer bleeding events and increase the risk of emergency admissions for peptic ulcer bleeding in Hong Kong's elderly population. These findings strengthen the hypothesis that air pollution affects not just cardiopulmonary diseases, but also certain diseases of the digestive system. None. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an

  16. The effect of ambient temperature on type-2-diabetes: case-crossover analysis of 4+ million GP consultations across England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajat, S; Haines, A; Sarran, C; Sharma, A; Bates, C; Fleming, L E

    2017-07-12

    Given the double jeopardy of global increases in rates of obesity and climate change, it is increasingly important to recognise the dangers posed to diabetic patients during periods of extreme weather. We aimed to characterise the associations between ambient temperature and general medical practitioner consultations made by a cohort of type-2 diabetic patients. Evidence on the effects of temperature variation in the primary care setting is currently limited. Case-crossover analysis of 4,474,943 consultations in England during 2012-2014, linked to localised temperature at place of residence for each patient. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess associations between each temperature-related consultation and control days matched on day-of-week. There was an increased odds of seeking medical consultation associated with high temperatures: Odds ratio (OR) = 1.097 (95% confidence interval = 1.041, 1.156) per 1 °C increase above 22 °C. Odds during low temperatures below 0 °C were also significantly raised: OR = 1.024 (1.019, 1.030). Heat-related consultations were particularly high among diabetics with cardiovascular comorbidities: OR = 1.171 (1.031, 1.331), but there was no heightened risk with renal failure or neuropathy comorbidities. Surprisingly, lower odds of heat-related consultation were associated with the use of diuretics, anticholinergics, antipsychotics or antidepressants compared to non-use, especially among those with cardiovascular comorbidities, although differences were not statistically significant. Type-2 diabetic patients are at increased odds of medical consultation during days of temperature extremes, especially during hot weather. The common assumption that certain medication use heightens the risk of heat illness was not borne-out by our study on diabetics in a primary care setting and such advice may need to be reconsidered in heat protection plans.

  17. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Meng; Li, Na; Wang, Zhan; Liu, Yisi; Chen, Xi; Chu, Yuanyuan; Li, Xiangyu; Zhu, Zhongmin; Tian, Liqiao; Xiang, Hao

    2017-01-13

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified-case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified analyses were performed by age, sex, and diseases. A 10 μg/m 3 increment in SO 2 level was associated with an increase in relative risk for all respiratory disease mortality of 2.4% and 1.9% in the case-crossover and time-series analyses in single pollutant models, respectively. Strong evidence of an association between NO 2 and daily respiratory disease mortality among men or people older than 65 years was found in the case-crossover study. There was a positive association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. Both time-series and case-crossover analyses consistently reveal the association between three air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality. The estimates of association between air pollution and respiratory disease mortality from the case-crossover analysis displayed greater variation than that from the time-series analysis.

  18. Sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction. A case-crossover analysis in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, J; Ahlbom, A; Hulting, J

    2001-01-01

    .9). CONCLUSIONS: The increased risk of myocardial infarction after sexual activity and the further increase in risk among the less physically fit support the hypothesis of causal triggering by sexual activity. However, the absolute risk per hour is very low, and exposure is relatively infrequent. Thus having sex......OBJECTIVE: To investigate sexual activity as a trigger of myocardial infarction and the potential effect modification of physical fitness. DESIGN: A case-crossover study nested in the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Programme (SHEEP). SETTING: Stockholm County from April 1993 to December 1994...... once a week only increases the annual risk of myocardial infarction slightly. Counselling should focus on encouraging patients to live a physically active life and not on abstaining from sexual activity....

  19. Air pollution events from forest fires and emergency department attendances in Sydney, Australia 1996-2007: a case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Fay H; Purdie, Stuart; Jalaludin, Bin; Martin, Kara L; Henderson, Sarah B; Morgan, Geoffrey G

    2014-12-10

    Severe air pollution generated by forest fires is becoming an increasingly frequent public health management problem. We measured the association between forest fire smoke events and hospital emergency department (ED) attendances in Sydney from 1996-2007. A smoke event occurred when forest fires caused the daily citywide average concentration of particulate matter (PM10 or PM2.5) to exceed the 99th percentile of the entire study period. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression models adjusted for meteorology, influenza epidemics, and holidays to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ED attendances on event days compared with non-event days for all non-trauma ED attendances and selected cardiorespiratory conditions. The 46 validated fire smoke event days during the study period were associated with same day increases in ED attendances for all non-trauma conditions (1.03, 95% CI 1.02, 1.04), respiratory conditions (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.04, 1.10), asthma (OR 1.23, 95% CI 1.15, 1.30), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.02, 1.24). Positive associations persisted for one to three days after the event. Ischaemic heart disease ED attendances were increased at a lag of two days (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.01, 1.15) while arrhythmias had an inverse association at a lag of two days (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.83, 0.99). In age-specific analyses, no associations present in children less than 15 years of age for any outcome, although a non-significant trend towards a positive association was seen with childhood asthma. A further association between smoke event and heart failure attendances was present for the 15-65 year age group, but not older adults at a lag of two days (OR 1.37 95% CI 1.05, 1.78). Smoke events were associated with an immediate increase in presentations for respiratory conditions and a lagged increase in attendances for ischaemic heart disease and heart failure. Respiratory impacts were

  20. Potentially disruptive life events: what are the immediate impacts on chronic disease management? A case-crossover analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauffenburger, Julie C; Gagne, Joshua J; Song, Zirui; Brill, Gregory; Choudhry, Niteesh K

    2016-08-04

    To explore the association between unexpected potentially disruptive life events in a patient or family member that may challenge an individual's ability to take medications as prescribed and the discontinuation of evidence-based medications for common, chronic conditions. Understanding the relationship between medication adherence and life stressors, especially those that can be identified using administrative data, may help identify patients at risk of non-adherence. Observational self-controlled case-crossover design. Individuals in a nationally representative US commercial health insurance database. Adult individuals who initiated an oral hypoglycaemic, antihypertensive and/or statin and subsequently stopped the medication for ≥90 days. Potentially disruptive life events among patients and their family members measured in the 30 days just before the medication was discontinued ('hazard period') compared with the 30 days before this period ('control period'). These events included personal injury, hospitalisation, emergency room visits, changes in insurance coverage, acute stress or acute anxiety. Among the 326 519 patients meeting study criteria who discontinued their chronic disease medications, 88 896 (27.2%) experienced at least one potentially disruptive life event. Newly experiencing an injury (OR: 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.42), an emergency room visit (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.26) and acute stress (OR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.31) were associated with discontinuation. Life events among patients' family members did not appear to be associated with medication discontinuation or occurred less frequently just prior to discontinuation. Potentially disruptive life events among individuals identified using routinely collected claims data are associated with discontinuation of chronic disease medications. Awareness of these events may help providers or payers identify patients at risk of non-adherence to maximise patient outcomes. Published by the BMJ

  1. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan

    OpenAIRE

    Santus Pierachille; Russo Antonio; Madonini Enzo; Allegra Luigi; Blasi Francesco; Centanni Stefano; Miadonna Antonio; Schiraldi Gianfranco; Amaducci Sandro

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. Methods We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association bet...

  2. Modifiers of short-term effects of ozone on mortality in eastern Massachusetts - A case-crossover analysis at individual level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Joel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substantial epidemiological studies demonstrate associations between exposure to ambient ozone and mortality. A few studies simply examine the modification of this ozone effect by individual characteristics and socioeconomic status, but socioeconomic status was usually coded at the city level. Methods This study used a case-crossover design to examine whether impacts of ozone on mortality were modified by socioeconomic status coded at the tract or characteristics at an individual level in eastern Massachusetts, US for a period May-September, 1995-2002, with a total of 157,197 non-accident deaths aging 35 years or older. We used moving averages of maximal 8-hour concentrations of ozone monitored at 8 stationary stations as personal exposure. Results A 10 ppb increase in the four-day moving average of maximal 8-hour ozone was associated with 1.68% (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.51%, 2.87%, 1.96% (95% CI: -1.83%, 5.90%, 8.28% (95% CI: 0.66%, 16.48%, 0.44% (95% CI: -1.45%, 2.37%, -0.83% (95% CI: -2.94%, 1.32%, -1.09% (95% CI: -4.27%, 2.19% and 6.5% (95% CI: 1.74%, 11.49% changes in all natural deaths, respiratory disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, heart diseases, acute myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively. We did not find any evidence that the associations were significantly modified by socioeconomic status or individual characteristics although small differences of estimates across subpopulations were demonstrated. Conclusions Exposure to ozone was associated with specific cause mortality in Eastern Massachusetts during May-September, 1995-2002. There was no evidence that effects of ozone on mortality were significantly modified by socioeconomic status and individual characteristics.

  3. Short-term effects of air pollution on a range of cardiovascular events in England and Wales: case-crossover analysis of the MINAP database, hospital admissions and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milojevic, Ai; Wilkinson, Paul; Armstrong, Ben; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Smeeth, Liam; Hajat, Shakoor

    2014-07-01

    To inform potential pathophysiological mechanisms of air pollution effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD), we investigated short-term associations between ambient air pollution and a range of cardiovascular events from three national databases in England and Wales. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design, over 400,000 myocardial infarction (MI) events from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project (MINAP) database, over 2 million CVD emergency hospital admissions and over 600,000 CVD deaths were linked with daily mean concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10), particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) and sulfur dioxide (SO2), and daily maximum of 8-hourly running mean of O3 measured at the nearest air pollution monitoring site to the place of residence. Pollutant effects were modelled using lags up to 4 days and adjusted for ambient temperature and day of week. For mortality, no CVD outcome analysed was clearly associated with any pollutant, except for PM2.5 with arrhythmias, atrial fibrillation and pulmonary embolism. With hospital admissions, only NO2 was associated with a raised risk: CVD 1.7% (95% CI 0.9 to 2.6), non-MI CVD 2.0% (1.1 to 2.9), arrhythmias 2.9% (0.6 to 5.2), atrial fibrillation 2.8% (0.3 to 5.4) and heart failure 4.4% (2.0 to 6.8) for a 10th-90th centile increase. With MINAP, only NO2 was associated with an increased risk of MI, which was specific to non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (non-STEMIs): 3.6% (95% CI 0.4 to 6.9). This study found no clear evidence for pollution effects on STEMIs and stroke, which ultimately represent thrombogenic processes, though it did for pulmonary embolism. The strongest associations with air pollution were observed with selected non-MI outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Short-term association between ambient air pollution and pneumonia in children: A systematic review and meta-analysis of time-series and case-crossover studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhung, Nguyen Thi Trang; Amini, Heresh; Schindler, Christian; Kutlar Joss, Meltem; Dien, Tran Minh; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Perez, Laura; Künzli, Nino

    2017-11-01

    Ambient air pollution has been associated with respiratory diseases in children. However, its effects on pediatric pneumonia have not been meta-analyzed. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the short-term association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. We searched the Web of Science and PubMed for indexed publications up to January 2017. Pollutant-specific excess risk percentage (ER%) and confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using random effect models for particulate matter (PM) with diameter ≤ 10 (PM 10 ) and ≤2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), and carbon monoxide (CO). Results were further stratified by subgroups (children under five, emergency visits versus hospital admissions, income level of study location, and exposure period). Seventeen studies were included in the meta-analysis. The ER% per 10 μg/m 3 increase of pollutants was 1.5% (95% CI: 0.6%-2.4%) for PM 10 and 1.8% (95% CI: 0.5%-3.1%) for PM 2.5 . The corresponding values per 10 ppb increment of gaseous pollutants were 2.9% (95% CI: 0.4%-5.3%) for SO 2 , 1.7% (95% CI: 0.5%-2.8%) for O 3 , and 1.4% (95% CI: 0.4%-2.4%) for NO 2 . ER% per 1000 ppb increment of CO was 0.9% (95% CI: 0.0%-1.9%). Associations were not substantially different between subgroups. This meta-analysis shows a positive association between daily levels of ambient air pollution markers and hospitalization of children due to pneumonia. However, lack of studies from low-and middle-income countries limits the quantitative generalizability given that susceptibilities to the adverse effects of air pollution may be different in those populations. The meta-regression in our analysis further demonstrated a strong effect of country income level on heterogeneity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China: comparison of time-series and case-crossover analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Meng Ren; Na Li; Zhan Wang; Yisi Liu; Xi Chen; Yuanyuan Chu; Xiangyu Li; Zhongmin Zhu; Liqiao Tian; Hao Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have compared different methods when exploring the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality in Wuhan, China. This study assesses the association between air pollutants and respiratory disease mortality with both time-series and time-stratified?case-crossover designs. The generalized additive model (GAM) and the conditional logistic regression model were used to assess the short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory disease mortality. Stratified...

  6. Air pollution and emergency department visits for conjunctivitis: A case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieczysław Szyszkowicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between emergency department (ED visits for conjunctivitis and ambient air pollution levels in urban regions across the province of Ontario, Canada. Material and Methods: Information from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System was used to create time-series records, for the period of April 2004 to December 2011, on emergency department visits of patients suffering from conjunctivitis. A total of 77 439 emergency department visits for conjunctivitis were analyzed. A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied, completed with meta-analysis in order to pool inter-city results. Odds ratio (OR for an emergency department visit was calculated in different population strata per one-unit increase (one interquartile range – IQR increase in a pollutant’s daily level while controlling for the impacts of temperature and relative humidity. Results: Statistically significant positive results were observed in the female population sample, for nitrogen dioxide (NO2 exposure lagged 5–8 days, with the highest result for the 7-day lag (OR = 1.035, 95% CI: 1.018–1.052 and for fine particulate matter with a median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5, for lags 6 and 7 days, with the highest result for lag 7 (OR = 1.017, 95% CI: 1.003–1.031. In the male population sample, statistically significant positive results were observed for NO2 at lag 5 days (OR = 1.024, 95% CI: 1.004–1.045 and for ozone (O3, at lags 0–3 and 7 days, with the highest result for lag 0 (OR = 1.038, 95% CI: 1.012–1.056. Also for males, statistically significant results were observed in the case of PM2.5 exposure lagged by 5 days (OR = 1.003, 95% CI: 1.000–1.038 and sulfur dioxide (SO2 exposure lagged by 1 and 2 days (OR = 1.016, 95% CI: 1.000–1.031 and OR = 1.018, 95% CI: 1.002–1.033. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that there are associations between levels of air

  7. Association between ambient air pollution and hospitalization for ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in China: A multicity case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Tian, Yaohua; Xu, Yan; Huang, Zhe; Huang, Chao; Hu, Yonghua; Zhang, Jun

    2017-11-01

    There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and stroke, but few studies have investigated the association in developing countries. The primary objective of this study was to examine the association between levels of ambient air pollutants and hospital admission for stroke in China. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in 14 large Chinese cities among 200,958 ischemic stroke and 41,746 hemorrhagic stroke hospitalizations. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate the percentage changes in stroke admissions in relation to interquartile range increases in air pollutants. Air pollution was positively associated with ischemic stroke. A difference of an interquartile range of the 6-day average for particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone corresponded to 0.7% (95% CI: 0%, 1.4%), 1.6% (95% CI: 1.0%, 2.3%), 2.6% (95% CI: 1.8%, 3.5%), 0.5% (95% CI: -0.2%, 1.1%), and 1.3% (95% CI: 0.3%, 2.3%) increases in ischemic stroke admissions, respectively. For hemorrhagic stroke, we observed the only significant association in relation to nitrogen dioxide on the current day (percentage change: 1.6%; 95% CI: 0.3%, 2.9%). Our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the effect of ambient air pollution on stroke in developing countries. Our findings may have significant public health implications for primary prevention of stroke in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Ambient Ozone Concentrations and the Risk of Perforated and Nonperforated Appendicitis: A Multicity Case-Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanyingoh, Divine; Dixon, Elijah; Johnson, Markey; Wheeler, Amanda J.; Myers, Robert P.; Bertazzon, Stefania; Saini, Vineet; Madsen, Karen; Ghosh, Subrata; Villeneuve, Paul J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Environmental determinants of appendicitis are poorly understood. Past work suggests that air pollution may increase the risk of appendicitis. Objectives: We investigated whether ambient ground-level ozone (O3) concentrations were associated with appendicitis and whether these associations varied between perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Methods: We based this time-stratified case-crossover study on 35,811 patients hospitalized with appendicitis from 2004 to 2008 in 12 Canadian cities. Data from a national network of fixed-site monitors were used to calculate daily maximum O3 concentrations for each city. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate city-specific odds ratios (ORs) relative to an interquartile range (IQR) increase in O3 adjusted for temperature and relative humidity. A random-effects meta-analysis was used to derive a pooled risk estimate. Stratified analyses were used to estimate associations separately for perforated and nonperforated appendicitis. Results: Overall, a 16-ppb increase in the 7-day cumulative average daily maximum O3 concentration was associated with all appendicitis cases across the 12 cities (pooled OR = 1.07; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.13). The association was stronger among patients presenting with perforated appendicitis for the 7-day average (pooled OR = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09, 1.36) when compared with the corresponding estimate for nonperforated appendicitis [7-day average (pooled OR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.09)]. Heterogeneity was not statistically significant across cities for either perforated or nonperforated appendicitis (p > 0.20). Conclusions: Higher levels of ambient O3 exposure may increase the risk of perforated appendicitis. PMID:23842601

  9. The Effects of Coarse Particles on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Hsuan Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have examined the effects of air pollution on daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of coarse particles (PM2.5–10 and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to the limited availability of monitoring data. Furthermore, the results are inconsistent. In the current study, the association between coarse particle levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan’s largest city, which has a subtropical climate, was undertaken for the period 2006–2008 using a time-stratified case-crossover analysis. For the single pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants, PM2.5–10 showed statistically significant association with total mortality both on warm and cool days, with an interquartile range increase associated with a 11% (95% CI = 6%–17% and 4% (95% CI = 1%–7% rise in number of total deaths, respectively. In two-pollutant models, PM2.5–10 remained significant effects on total mortality after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. We observed no significant associations between PM2.5–10 and daily mortality from respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. For daily mortality from circulatory diseases, the effect of PM2.5–10 remained significant when SO2 or O3 was added in the regression model both on warm and cool days. Future studies of this type in cities with varying climates and cultures are needed.

  10. Persistent User Bias in Case-Crossover Studies in Pharmacoepidemiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Pottegård, Anton; Wang, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    Studying the effect of chronic medication exposure by means of a case-crossover design may result in an upward-biased odds ratio. In this study, our aim was to assess the occurrence of this bias and to evaluate whether it is remedied by including a control group (the case-time-control design...... for the retinal detachment controls were similar, leading to near-null case-time-control estimates for all 3 medication classes. For wrist fracture and stroke, the odds ratios were higher for cases than for controls, and case-time-control odds ratios were consistently above unity, thus implying significant...... residual bias. In case-crossover studies of medications, contamination by persistent users confers a moderate bias upward, which is partly remedied by using a control group. The optimal strategy for dealing with this problem is currently unknown....

  11. How air pollution influences clinical management of respiratory diseases. A case-crossover study in Milan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santus, Pierachille; Russo, Antonio; Madonini, Enzo; Allegra, Luigi; Blasi, Francesco; Centanni, Stefano; Miadonna, Antonio; Schiraldi, Gianfranco; Amaducci, Sandro

    2012-10-18

    Environmental pollution is a known risk factor for multiple diseases and furthermore increases rate of hospitalisations. We investigated the correlation between emergency room admissions (ERAs) of the general population for respiratory diseases and the environmental pollutant levels in Milan, a metropolis in northern Italy. We collected data from 45770 ERAs for respiratory diseases. A time-stratified case-crossover design was used to investigate the association between air pollution levels and ERAs for acute respiratory conditions. The effects of air pollutants were investigated at lag 0 to lag 5, lag 0-2 and lag 3-5 in both single and multi-pollutant models, adjusted for daily weather variables. An increase in ozone (O(3)) levels at lag 3-5 was associated with a 78% increase in the number of ERAs for asthma, especially during the warm season. Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) proved to be a risk factor for pneumonia at lag 0-2 and in the warm season increased the risk of ERA by 66%. A significant association was found between ERAs for COPD exacerbation and levels of sulphur dioxide (SO(2)), CO, nitrate dioxide (NO(2)), and particulate matter (PM(10) and PM(2.5)). The multipollutant model that includes all pollutants showed a significant association between CO (26%) and ERA for upper respiratory tract diseases at lag 0-2. For chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations, only CO (OR 1.19) showed a significant association. Exposure to environmental pollution, even at typical low levels, can increase the risk of ERA for acute respiratory diseases and exacerbation of obstructive lung diseases in the general population.

  12. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Bonauto, David K; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers' compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25-29, 30-33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion.

  13. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June T Spector

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations.To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data.A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers' compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories.The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22, 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25, and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20 for daily maximum Humidex of 25-29, 30-33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period.Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion.

  14. Exposure to air pollutants and mortality in hypertensive patients according to demography: a 10 year case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Martin C S; Tam, Wilson W S; Wang, Harry H X; Lao, X Q; Zhang, Daisy Dexing; Chan, Sky W M; Kwan, Mandy W M; Fan, Carmen K M; Cheung, Clement S K; Tong, Ellen L H; Cheung, N T; Tse, L A; Yu, Ignatius T S

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated whether short term exposures to NO2, O3, particulate matter <10 mm in diameter (PM10) were associated with higher risk of mortality. A total of 223,287 hypertensive patients attended public health-care services and newly prescribed at least 1 antihypertensive agent were followed-up for up to 5 years. A time-stratified, bi-directional case-crossover design was adopted. For all-cause mortality, significant positive associations were observed for NO2 and PM10 at lag 0-3 days per 10 μg/m(3) increase in concentration (excess risks 1.187%-2.501%). Significant positive associations were found for O3 at lag 1 and 2 days and the excess risks were 1.654% and 1.207%, respectively. We found similarly positive associations between these pollutants and respiratory disease mortality. These results were significant among those aged ≥65 years and in cold seasons only. Older hypertensive patients are susceptible to all-cause and respiratory disease-specific deaths from these air pollutants in cold weather. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Case-crossover study of Burkholderia cepacia complex bloodstream infection associated with contaminated intravenous bromopride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Ianick Souto; Pellegrino, Flávia Lúcia Piffano Costa; Freitas, Andrea d'Avila; Santos, Marisa da Silva; Ferraiuoli, Giovanna Ianini d'Alemeida; Vasques, Márcia Regina Guimarães; Amorim, Efigenia Lourdes Teixeira; Oliveira, Sandra; Nouér, Simone Aranha; Cardoso, Fernando Luiz Lopes; Mascarenhas, Luiz Affonso; Magalhães, Ana Cristina Gouveia; Cleinman, Isabella Barbosa; Figueiredo, Agnes Marie Sá; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer

    2010-05-01

    To investigate an outbreak of healthcare-associated Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) primary bloodstream infections (BCC-BSI). Case-crossover study in a public hospital, a university hospital and a private hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from March 2006 to May 2006. Twenty-five patients with BCC-BSI. After determining the date BCC-BSI symptoms started for each patient, 3 time intervals of data collection were defined, each one with a duration of 3 days: the case period, starting just before BCC-BSI symptoms onset; the control period, starting 6 days before BCC-BSI symptoms onset; and the washout period, comprising the 3 days between the case period and the control period. Exposures evaluated were intravascular solutions and invasive devices and procedures. Potential risk factors were identified by using the McNemar chi(2) adjusted test. Cultures of samples of potentially contaminated solutions were performed. BCC strain typing was performed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using SpeI. The statistical analysis revealed that the use of bromopride and dipyrone was associated with BCC-BSI. A total of 21 clinical isolates from 17 (68%) of the 25 patients and an isolate obtained from the bromopride vial were available for strain typing. Six pulsotypes were detected. A predominant pulsotype (A) accounted for 11 isolates obtained from 11 patients (65%) in the 3 study hospitals. Our investigation, using a case-crossover design, of an outbreak of BCC-BSI infections concluded it was polyclonal but likely caused by infusion of contaminated bromopride. The epidemiological finding was validated by microbiological analysis. After recall of contaminated bromopride vials by the manufacturer, the outbreak was controlled.

  16. Flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in Massachusetts: a case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy J Wade

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Floods and other severe weather events are anticipated to increase as a result of global climate change. Floods can lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases due to disruption of sewage and water infrastructure and impacts on sanitation and hygiene. Floods have also been indirectly associated with outbreaks through population displacement and crowding. METHODS: We conducted a case-crossover study to investigate the association between flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness (ER-GI in Massachusetts for the years 2003 through 2007. We obtained ER-GI visits from the State of Massachusetts and records of floods from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association's Storm Events Database. ER-GI visits were considered exposed if a flood occurred in the town of residence within three hazard periods of the visit: 0-4 days; 5-9 days; and 10-14 days. A time-stratified bi-directional design was used for control selection, matching on day of the week with two weeks lead or lag time from the ER-GI visit. Fixed effect logistic regression models were used to estimate the risk of ER-GI visits following the flood. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: A total of 270,457 ER-GI visits and 129 floods occurred in Massachusetts over the study period. Across all counties, flooding was associated with an increased risk for ER-GI in the 0-4 day period after flooding (Odds Ratio: 1.08; 95% Confidence Interval: 1.03-1.12; but not the 5-9 days (Odds Ratio: 0.995; 95% Confidence Interval: 0.955-1.04 or the 10-14 days after (Odds Ratio: 0.966, 95% Confidence Interval: 0.927-1.01. Similar results were observed for different definitions of ER-GI. The effect differed across counties, suggesting local differences in the risk and impact of flooding. Statewide, across the study period, an estimated 7% of ER-GI visits in the 0-4 days after a flood event were attributable to flooding.

  17. A case-crossover study on transient risk factors of work-related eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-Y; Fong, P-C; Lin, S-F; Chang, C-H; Chan, C-C

    2009-08-01

    To investigate modifiable risk and preventive factors of work-related eye injuries. A case-crossover study conducted to explore the associations between transient risk factors and work-related eye injuries. Patients seen at seven medical centres in Taiwan with work-related eye injuries over a 4-year period were enrolled in the study. Clinical information was collected from medical charts and detailed information on exposure to eight potentially modifiable factors during the 60 minutes prior to the occurrence of each injury, as well as during the same time interval on the last work day prior to the injury, were obtained using questionnaire surveys. Matched-pair interval analysis was adopted to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for work-related eye injuries given exposure to the eight modifiable factors. A total of 283 subjects were interviewed. Most of these injured workers were young, male, and self-employed or small enterprise workers. The most common injury type was photokeratitis (33.2%), mainly caused by welding (30.4%). The OR for a work-related eye injury was increased with the performance of an unfamiliar task (57.0), operation of a faulty tool or piece of equipment (48.5), distractions (24.0), being rushed (13.0), or fatigued (10.0), and a poor work environment (4.3). Wearing eye protection devices was found to have a significant protective effect on workers who might otherwise have been exposed to eye injuries (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7). Potential modifiable risk and preventive factors for work-related eye injuries were identified using a case-crossover study. This information should be helpful in the development of preventive strategies.

  18. Triggers for Preeclampsia Onset: a Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Jane B; Schemann, Kathrin; Patterson, Jillian A; Morris, Jonathan; Herbert, Robert D; Roberts, Christine L

    2016-11-01

    Risk factors for preeclampsia are well established, whereas, the triggers associated with timing of preeclampsia onset are not. The aim of this study was to establish whether recent infection or other triggers were associated with timing of preeclampsia onset. We used a case-crossover design with preeclampsia cases serving as their own controls. Women with singleton pregnancies of ≥20 weeks gestation presenting at three hospitals were eligible for inclusion. Exposures to potential triggers were identified via guided questionnaire. Infective episodes included symptoms lasting >24 h. Preeclampsia was defined as hypertension (BP ≥140 mmHg and/or ≥90 mmHg) and proteinuria (protein/creatinine ratio ≥30 mg/mmol). Conditional logistic regression was used to compare the odds of exposure to potential triggers in the case windows (1-7 days preceding diagnosis of preeclampsia) and control windows (8-14 days prior to diagnosis); unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) are reported. Among 286 recruited women, 25 (8.7%) reported a new infection in the 7 days prior to preeclampsia onset and 21 (7.3%) in the 8-14 days prior. There was no significant association between onset of infection in the 7 days prior and preeclampsia diagnosis (OR 1.24, 95% CI 0.65, 2.34). Consumption of caffeine (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.33, 0.77), spicy food (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.30, 0.81), and alcohol (OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.10, 0.71) were strongly inversely associated with preeclampsia onset. Recent infection does not appear to trigger preeclampsia. Decreased consumption of caffeine, spicy food, and alcohol may be prodromal markers. Such behaviours may be early markers of imminent preeclampsia. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Fundamentos y aplicaciones del diseño de casos cruzados Case-crossover design: Basic essentials and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Carracedo-Martínez

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El diseño de casos cruzados es un diseño epidemiológico observacional propuesto por Maclure en 1991 para valorar si alguna exposición intermitente o inusual ha desencadenado un evento agudo a muy corto plazo. En este trabajo se presentan los fundamentos de los diseños de casos cruzados, con sus aplicaciones y limitaciones. El diseño de casos cruzados se basa en seleccionar sólo sujetos caso. Para calcular el riesgo relativo se compara la exposición durante el periodo de tiempo previo al evento (periodo caso con la exposición del mismo sujeto en uno o varios periodos control. Este método únicamente es adecuado cuando las exposiciones son cambiantes en el tiempo, con efectos a corto plazo, y el efecto es agudo. Para exposiciones en que no existe tendencia, el planteamiento unidireccional es el más frecuente, y consiste en seleccionar uno o varios periodos control previos al momento caso. Cuando la exposición tiene una tendencia temporal (por ejemplo las de contaminación atmosférica, el planteamiento unidireccional proporciona estimaciones sesgadas, por lo que se utilizan diseños de casos cruzados bidireccionales, que seleccionan periodos de tiempo control anteriores y posteriores al del evento. Es un método que cuenta con una creciente utilización en amplios campos: desencadenantes de accidentes de tráfico, laborales y domésticos, o de infarto agudo de miocardio, contaminación atmosférica y salud, farmacoepidemiología, etc. Para el análisis de datos, generalmente se pueden considerar los diseños de casos cruzados como estudios de casos y controles emparejados, por lo que se aplica regresión logística condicional. Finalmente, en este trabajo se analizan ejemplos prácticos de diferentes aplicaciones del diseño de casos cruzados.Case-crossover analysis is an observational epidemiological design that was proposed by Maclure in 1991 to assess whether a given intermittent or unusual exposure may have triggered an immediate

  20. Flooding and Clostridium difficile infection: a case-crossover analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water. It often causes acute gastrointestinal illness in older adults who are hospttalized and/or receiving antibiotics; however, community­ associated infections affecting otherwise healthy individuals have become more comm...

  1. IT-CARES: an interactive tool for case-crossover analyses of electronic medical records for patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexandre; Chazard, Emmanuel; Muller, Joris; Perichon, Renaud; Ferret, Laurie; Koutkias, Vassilis; Beuscart, Régis; Beuscart, Jean-Baptiste; Ficheur, Grégoire

    2017-03-01

    The significant risk of adverse events following medical procedures supports a clinical epidemiological approach based on the analyses of collections of electronic medical records. Data analytical tools might help clinical epidemiologists develop more appropriate case-crossover designs for monitoring patient safety. To develop and assess the methodological quality of an interactive tool for use by clinical epidemiologists to systematically design case-crossover analyses of large electronic medical records databases. We developed IT-CARES, an analytical tool implementing case-crossover design, to explore the association between exposures and outcomes. The exposures and outcomes are defined by clinical epidemiologists via lists of codes entered via a user interface screen. We tested IT-CARES on data from the French national inpatient stay database, which documents diagnoses and medical procedures for 170 million inpatient stays between 2007 and 2013. We compared the results of our analysis with reference data from the literature on thromboembolic risk after delivery and bleeding risk after total hip replacement. IT-CARES provides a user interface with 3 columns: (i) the outcome criteria in the left-hand column, (ii) the exposure criteria in the right-hand column, and (iii) the estimated risk (odds ratios, presented in both graphical and tabular formats) in the middle column. The estimated odds ratios were consistent with the reference literature data. IT-CARES may enhance patient safety by facilitating clinical epidemiological studies of adverse events following medical procedures. The tool's usability must be evaluated and improved in further research. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association.

  2. Psychological Factors and Pain Exacerbation in Knee Osteoarthritis : A Web Based Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erfani, Tahereh; Keefe, Francis; Bennell, Kim; Chen, J; Makovey, J; Metcalf, B; Williams, A.D.; Zhang, Y; Hunter, David

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The pain experienced by osteoarthritis (OA) patients is neither constant nor unchanging and patients experience episodes of pain exacerbations. Using an innovative web based case-crossover design, we evaluated whether psychological factors are risk factors for pain exacerbations in

  3. Antipsychotic medications and stroke in schizophrenia: A case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yin Chen

    Full Text Available The association between antipsychotic use and the risk of stroke in schizophrenic patients is controversial. We sought to study the association in a nationwide cohort with schizophrenia.Using a retrospective cohort of patients with schizophrenia (N = 31,976 derived from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, 802 new-onset cases of stroke were identified within 10 years of follow-up (from 2000 through 2010. We designed a case-crossover study using 14-day windows to explore the risk factors of stroke and the association between antipsychotic drugs and the risk of stroke. We analyzed the risks of individual antipsychotics on various subgroups of stroke including ischemic, hemorrhagic, and other strokes, and the risks based on the antipsychotic receptor-binding profile of each drug.Use of any second-generation antipsychotic was associated with an increased risk of stroke (adjusted risk ratio = 1.45, P = .009 within 14 days while the use of any first-generation antipsychotic was not. Intriguingly, the use of any second-generation antipsychotic was associated with ischemic stroke but not hemorrhagic stroke. The antipsychotic receptor-binding profile analysis showed that the antihistamine 1 receptor was significantly associated with ischemic stroke (adjusted risk ratio = 1.72, P = .037, and the sensitivity analysis based on the 7-day window of exposure validated the association (adjusted risk ratio = 1.87, P = .015.Use of second-generation antipsychotic drugs appeared to be associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke in the patients studied, possibly mediated by high affinity for histamine-1 receptor blockade. Further research regarding the underlying biological mechanism and drug safety is suggested.

  4. Outdoor air pollution and emergency department visits for asthma among children and adults: A case-crossover study in northern Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowe Brian H

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have observed positive associations between outdoor air pollution and emergency department (ED visits for asthma. However, few have examined the possible confounding influence of aeroallergens, or reported findings among very young children. Methods A time stratified case-crossover design was used to examine 57,912 ED asthma visits among individuals two years of age and older in the census metropolitan area of Edmonton, Canada between April 1, 1992 and March 31, 2002. Daily air pollution levels for the entire region were estimated from three fixed-site monitoring stations. Similarly, daily levels of aeroallergens were estimated using rotational impaction sampling methods for the period between 1996 and 2002. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression with adjustment for temperature, relative humidity and seasonal epidemics of viral related respiratory disease. Results Positive associations for asthma visits with outdoor air pollution levels were observed between April and September, but were absent during the remainder of the year. Effects were strongest among young children. Namely, an increase in the interquartile range of the 5-day average for NO2 and CO levels between April and September was associated with a 50% and 48% increase, respectively, in the number of ED visits among children 2 – 4 years of age (p Conclusion Our findings, taken together, suggest that exposure to ambient levels of air pollution is an important determinant of ED visits for asthma, particularly among young children and the elderly.

  5. The Effects of Fine Particulate Air Pollution on Daily Mortality: A Case-Crossover Study in a Subtropical City, Taipei, Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Shyue Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between PM2.5 levels and daily mortality in Taipei, Taiwan, the largest metropolitan city with a subtropical climate. Daily mortality, air pollution, and weather data for Taipei were obtained for the period from 2006–2008. The relative risk of daily mortality was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for weather variables, day of the week, seasonality, and long-term time trends. For the single pollutant model, PM2.5 showed association with total mortality both on warm (>23 °C and cool days (<23 °C. There is no indication of an association between PM2.5 and risk of death due to respiratory diseases both on warm and cool days. PM2.5 had effects on the risk of death from cardiovascular diseases only on cool days. In the two-pollutant models, PM2.5 remained effects on the risk of mortality for all cause and cardiovascular disease after the inclusion of SO2 and O3 both on warm and cool days. This study provides evidence that short-term exposure to PM2.5 increased the risk of death for all cause and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Short-term nighttime wind turbine noise and cardiovascular events: A nationwide case-crossover study from Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Peña, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N; Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Ketzel, Matthias; Brandt, Jørgen; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    The number of people exposed to wind turbine noise (WTN) is increasing. WTN is reported as more annoying than traffic noise at similar levels. Long-term exposure to traffic noise has consistently been associated with cardiovascular disease, whereas effects of short-term exposure are much less investigated due to little day-to-day variation of e.g. road traffic noise. WTN varies considerably due to changing weather conditions allowing investigation of short-term effects of WTN on cardiovascular events. We identified all hospitalisations and deaths from stroke (16,913 cases) and myocardial infarction (MI) (17,559 cases) among Danes exposed to WTN between 1982 and 2013. We applied a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Using detailed data on wind turbine type and hourly wind data at each wind turbine, we simulated mean nighttime outdoor (10-10,000 Hz) and nighttime low frequency (LF) indoor WTN (10-160 Hz) over the 4 days preceding diagnosis and reference days. For indoor LF WTN between 10 and 15 dB(A) and above 15 dB(A), odds ratios (ORs) for MI were 1.27 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.97-1.67; cases = 198) and 1.62 (95% CI: 0.76-3.45; cases = 21), respectively, when compared to indoor LF WTN below 5 dB(A). For stroke, corresponding ORs were 1.17 (95% CI: 0.95-1.69; cases = 166) and 2.30 (95% CI: 0.96-5.50; cases = 15). The elevated ORs above 15 dB(A) persisted across sensitivity analyses. When looking at specific lag times, noise exposure one day before MI events and three days before stroke events were associated with the highest ORs. For outdoor WTN at night, we observed both increased and decreased risk estimates. This study did not provide conclusive evidence of an association between WTN and MI or stroke. It does however suggest that indoor LF WTN at night may trigger cardiovascular events, whereas these events seemed largely unaffected by nighttime outdoor WTN. These findings need reproduction, as they were based on few cases

  7. Risk of injury after alcohol consumption from case-crossover studies in five countries from the America’s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Guilherme; Orozco, Ricardo; Monteiro, Maristela; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Then, Eddy Pérez; López, Víctor A.; Bassier-Paltoo, Marcia; Weil A., Donald; de Bradshaw, Aldacira M

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to: 1) provide relative risk (RR) estimates between acute alcohol use and injuries from emergency departments in the Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Guyana, Nicaragua and Panama, and 2) test whether the RR differs if two control periods for the estimates were used. Design Case-crossover methodology was used to obtain estimates of the RR of having an injury within six hours after drinking alcohol, using a pair-matching design with control periods of the same time of day the day prior to injury, and the same time of day and day of week the week prior to injury. Setting Emergency departments(EDs). Participants 2,503 injured patients from EDs were interviewed between 2010–2011, with a response rate of 92.6%. Measurements Number of drinks consumed within six hours prior to the injury and in the two control periods. Findings The RR of injury after drinking alcohol was 4.38 (95% confidence interval CI= 3.29–5.84) using as the control period the prior week, and 5.35 (CI=3.50–8.17) using as a control period the prior day. The RR was 5.08 (CI=4.15–6.23) in multiple matching. Those drinking 1–2 drinks had a RR of 4.85 (CI=3.12–7.54); those drinking 3–5 a RR of 5.00 (CI =3.47–7.18); those drinking 6–15 a RR of 4.54 (CI=3.36–6.14); and those drinking 16 or more a RR of 10.42 (CI=4.38–24.79). Conclusions As in other countries, alcohol drinking is a trigger for an injury in all five countries. The use of more than one control period give further strength to these findings from case-crossover analysis. PMID:22775508

  8. A case-crossover study of transient risk factors influence on occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oesterlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Lauritsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    questionnaire will be used to collect basic demographic data and information on eight transient risk factors. Based on previous studies and knowledge on occupational injuries the transient risk factors we chose to examine were: time pressure, performing a task with a different method/using unaccustomed......, but so far no relevant research has been conducted in Europe. METHOD: Case-crossover studies of occupational injuries were collected from PubMed and Embase and read through. Previous experiences concerning method, exposure and outcome, time-related measurements and construction of the questionnaire were...

  9. Short-term effect of fine particulate air pollution on daily mortality: a case-crossover study in a tropical city, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have examined the short-term effects of air pollution on frequency of daily mortality over the past two decades. However, information on the relationship between levels of fine particles (PM(2.5)) and daily mortality is relatively sparse due to limited availability of monitoring data. Further the results are inconsistent. This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an association between PM(2.5) levels and daily mortality rate in Kaohsiung, Taiwan, a large industrial city with a tropical climate. Daily mortality rate, air pollution parameters, and weather data for Kaohsiung were obtained for the period from 2006 through 2008. The relative risk of daily mortality occurrence was estimated using a time-stratified case-crossover approach, controlling for (1) weather variables, (2) day of the week, (3) seasonality, and (4) long-term time trends. For the single-pollutant model (without adjustment for other pollutants), no significant effects were found between PM(2.5) and frequency of daily mortality on warm days (≥25°C). On cool days, PM(2.5) showed significant correlation with increased risk of mortality rate for all causes and circulatory diseases in single-pollutant model. There was no indication of an association between PM(2.5) and deaths due to respiratory diseases. The relationship appeared to be stronger on cool days. This study provided evidence of associations between short-term exposure to PM(2.5) and elevated risk of death for all cause and circulatory diseases.

  10. Cognition and sensation in very high static magnetic fields: a randomized case-crossover study with different field strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Angela; Szostek, Anne; Meyer, Patric; Nees, Frauke; Rauschenberg, Jaane; Gröbner, Jens; Gilles, Maria; Paslakis, Georgios; Deuschle, Michael; Semmler, Wolfhard; Flor, Herta

    2013-01-01

    To establish the extent to which representative cognitive functions in subjects undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are acutely impaired by static magnetic fields of varying field strengths. This study was approved by the local ethics committee, and informed consent was obtained from all subjects. In this single-blind case-crossover study, 41 healthy subjects underwent an extensive neuropsychologic examination while in MR units of differing field strengths (1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T), including a mock imager with no magnetic field as a control condition. Subjects were blinded to field strength. Tests were performed while subjects were lying still in the MR unit and while the examination table was moved. The tests covered a representative set of cognitive functions, such as memory, eye-hand coordination, attention, reaction time, and visual discrimination. Subjective sensory perceptions were also assessed. Effects were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance; the within-subject factors were field strength (0, 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T) and state (static, dynamic). Static magnetic fields were not found to have a significant effect on cognitive function at any field strength. However, sensory perceptions did vary according to field strength. Dizziness, nystagmus, phosphenes, and head ringing were related to the strength of the static magnetic field. Static magnetic fields as high as 7.0 T did not have a significant effect on cognition. RSNA, 2012

  11. The effect of long working hours on cerebrovascular and cardiovascular disease; A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kyong-Sok; Chung, Yun Kyung; Kwon, Young-Jun; Son, Jun-Seok; Lee, Se-Hoon

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated the relationship between weekly working hours and the occurrence of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases using a case-crossover study design. We investigated average working hours during the 7 days before the onset of illness (hazard period) and average weekly working hours between 8 days and 3 months before the onset of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases (control period) for 1,042 cases from the workers' compensation database for 2009. Among all subjects, the odds ratio by conditional logistic regression for the risk of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases with a 10 hr increase in average weekly working hours was 1.45 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-1.72), a significant association. An increase in average weekly working hours may trigger the onset of cerebro-cardiovascular disease. Am. J. Ind. Med. 60:753-761, 2017. © 2017. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Prescription medicine use by pedestrians and the risk of injurious road traffic crashes: A case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Née

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available While some medicinal drugs have been found to affect driving ability, no study has investigated whether a relationship exists between these medicines and crashes involving pedestrians. The aim of this study was to explore the association between the use of medicinal drugs and the risk of being involved in a road traffic crash as a pedestrian.Data from 3 French nationwide databases were matched. We used the case-crossover design to control for time-invariant factors by using each case as its own control. To perform multivariable analysis and limit false-positive results, we implemented a bootstrap version of Lasso. To avoid the effect of unmeasured time-varying factors, we varied the length of the washout period from 30 to 119 days before the crash. The matching procedure led to the inclusion of 16,458 pedestrians involved in an injurious road traffic crash from 1 July 2005 to 31 December 2011. We found 48 medicine classes with a positive association with the risk of crash, with median odds ratios ranging from 1.12 to 2.98. Among these, benzodiazepines and benzodiazepine-related drugs, antihistamines, and anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs were among the 10 medicines most consumed by the 16,458 pedestrians. Study limitations included slight overrepresentation of pedestrians injured in more severe crashes, lack of information about self-medication and the use of over-the-counter drugs, and lack of data on amount of walking.Therapeutic classes already identified as impacting the ability to drive, such as benzodiazepines and antihistamines, are also associated with an increased risk of pedestrians being involved in a road traffic crash. This study on pedestrians highlights the necessity of improving awareness of the effect of these medicines on this category of road user.

  13. Acute Low Back Pain? Do Not Blame the Weather-A Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilken, Keira; Hancock, Mark J; Maher, Chris G; Li, Qiang; Steffens, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of various weather parameters on the risk of developing a low back pain (LBP) episode. Case-crossover study. Primary care clinics in Sydney, Australia. 981 participants with a new episode of acute LBP. Weather parameters were obtained from the Australian Bureau of Meteorology. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were derived comparing two exposure variables in the case window-(1) the average of the weather variable for the day prior to pain onset and (2) the change in the weather variable from 2 days prior to 1 day prior to pain onset-with exposures in two control windows (1 week and 1 month before the case window). The weather parameters of precipitation, humidity, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, and air pressure were not associated with the onset of acute LBP. For one of the four analyses, higher temperature slightly increased the odds of pain onset. Common weather parameters that had been previously linked to musculoskeletal pain, such as precipitation, humidity, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, and air pressure, do not increase the risk of onset for LBP. © 2016 American Academy of Pain Medicine. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  14. Anatomy of the epidemiological literature on the 2003 SARS outbreaks in Hong Kong and Toronto: a time-stratified review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weijia Xing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases, especially those of a global nature, require rapid epidemiological analysis and information dissemination. The final products of those activities usually comprise internal memoranda and briefs within public health authorities and original research published in peer-reviewed journals. Using the 2003 severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS epidemic as an example, we conducted a comprehensive time-stratified review of the published literature to describe the different types of epidemiological outputs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We identified and analyzed all published articles on the epidemiology of the SARS outbreak in Hong Kong or Toronto. The analysis was stratified by study design, research domain, data collection, and analytical technique. We compared the SARS-case and matched-control non-SARS articles published according to the timeline of submission, acceptance, and publication. The impact factors of the publishing journals were examined according to the time of publication of SARS articles, and the numbers of citations received by SARS-case and matched-control articles submitted during and after the epidemic were compared. Descriptive, analytical, theoretical, and experimental epidemiology concerned, respectively, 54%, 30%, 11%, and 6% of the studies. Only 22% of the studies were submitted, 8% accepted, and 7% published during the epidemic. The submission-to-acceptance and acceptance-to-publication intervals of the SARS articles submitted during the epidemic period were significantly shorter than the corresponding intervals of matched-control non-SARS articles published in the same journal issues (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively. The differences of median submission-to-acceptance intervals and median acceptance-to-publication intervals between SARS articles and their corresponding control articles were 106.5 d (95% confidence interval [CI] 55.0-140.1 and 63.5 d (95% CI 18

  15. Impaired alcohol metabolism after gastric bypass surgery: a case-crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Downey, John; Hernandez-Boussard, Tina; Morton, John M

    2011-02-01

    Severe obesity remains the leading public health crisis of the industrialized world, with bariatric surgery the only effective and enduring treatment. Poor psychological adjustment has been occasionally reported postoperatively. In addition, evidence suggests that patients can metabolize alcohol differently after gastric bypass. Preoperatively and at 3 and 6 months postoperatively, 19 Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) patients' breath alcohol content (BAC) was measured every 5 minutes after drinking 5 oz red wine to determine peak BAC and time until sober in a case-crossover design preoperatively and at 6 months postoperatively. Patients reported symptoms experienced when intoxicated and answered a questionnaire of drinking habits. The peak BAC in patients after RYGB was considerably higher at 3 months (0.059%) and 6 months (0.088%) postoperatively than matched preoperative levels (0.024%). Patients also took considerably more time to return to sober at 3 months (61 minutes) and 6 months (88 minutes) than preoperatively (49 minutes). Postoperative intoxication was associated with lower levels of diaphoresis, flushing, and hyperactivity and higher levels of dizziness, warmth, and double vision. Postoperative patients reported drinking considerably less alcohol, fewer preferred beer, and more preferred wine than before surgery. This is the first study to match preoperative and postoperative alcohol metabolism in gastric bypass patients. Post-RYGB patients have much higher peak BAC after ingesting alcohol and require more time to become sober. Patients who drink alcohol after gastric bypass surgery should exercise caution. Copyright © 2011 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Weather as a risk factor for epileptic seizures: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakers, Florian; Walther, Mario; Schiffner, Rene; Rupprecht, Sven; Rasche, Marius; Kockler, Michael; Witte, Otto W; Schlattmann, Peter; Schwab, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Most epileptic seizures occur unexpectedly and independently of known risk factors. We aimed to evaluate the clinical significance of patients' perception that weather is a risk factor for epileptic seizures. Using a hospital-based, bidirectional case-crossover study, 604 adult patients admitted to a large university hospital in Central Germany for an unprovoked epileptic seizure between 2003 and 2010 were recruited. The effect of atmospheric pressure, relative air humidity, and ambient temperature on the onset of epileptic seizures under temperate climate conditions was estimated. We found a close-to-linear negative correlation between atmospheric pressure and seizure risk. For every 10.7 hPa lower atmospheric pressure, seizure risk increased in the entire study population by 14% (odds ratio [OR] 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.28). In patients with less severe epilepsy treated with one antiepileptic medication, seizure risk increased by 36% (1.36, 1.09-1.67). A high relative air humidity of >80% increased seizure risk in the entire study population by up to 48% (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.11-1.96) 3 days after exposure in a J-shaped association. High ambient temperatures of >20°C decreased seizure risk by 46% in the overall study population (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.32-0.90) and in subgroups, with the greatest effects observed in male patients (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.14-0.74). Low atmospheric pressure and high relative air humidity are associated with an increased risk for epileptic seizures, whereas high ambient temperatures seem to decrease seizure risk. Weather-dependent seizure risk may be accentuated in patients with less severe epilepsy. Our results require further replication across different climate regions and cohorts before reliable clinical recommendations can be made. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  17. Air pollution and emergency department visits for respiratory diseases: A multi-city case crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszkowicz, Mieczysław; Kousha, Termeh; Castner, Jessica; Dales, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that ambient air pollution is a major risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory disease exacerbations and emergencies. The objective of this study was to determine the association between ambient air pollutants and emergency department (ED) visits for respiratory conditions in nine districts across the province of Ontario in Canada. Health, air pollutant (PM 2.5 , NO 2 , O 3 , and SO 2 ), and meteorological data were retrieved from April 2004 to December 2011. Respiratory diseases were categorized as: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, including bronchiectasis) and acute upper respiratory diseases. A case-crossover design was used to test the associations between ED visits and ambient air pollutants, stratified by sex and season. For COPD among males, positive results were observed for NO 2 with lags of 3-6 days, for PM 2.5 with lags 1-8, and for SO 2 with lags of 4-8 days. For COPD among females, positive results were observed for O 3 with lags 2-4 days, and for SO 2 among lags of 3-6 days. For upper respiratory disease emergencies among males, positive results were observed for NO 2 (lags 5-8 days), for O 3 , (lags 0-6 days), PM 2.5 (all lags), and SO 2 (lag 8), and among females, positive results were observed for NO 2 for lag 8 days, for O 3 , PM 2.5 among all lags. Our study provides evidence of the associations between short-term exposure to air pollution and increased risk of ED visits for upper and lower respiratory diseases in an environment where air pollutant concentrations are relatively low. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Changes in drinking as predictors of changes in sickness absence: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ervasti, Jenni; Kivimäki, Mika; Pentti, Jaana; Halonen, Jaana I; Vahtera, Jussi; Virtanen, Marianna

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in alcohol use predict changes in the risk of sickness absence in a case-crossover design. Finnish public sector employees were surveyed in 2000, 2004 and 2008 on alcohol use and covariates. Heavy drinking was defined as either a weekly intake that exceeded recommendations (12 units for women; 23 for men) or having an extreme drinking session. The responses were linked to national sickness absence registers. We analysed the within-person relative risk of change in the risk of sickness absence in relation to change in drinking. Case period refers to being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey and control period refers to not being sickness absent within 1 year of the survey. Periods of heavy drinking were associated with increased odds of self-certified short-term (1-3 days) sickness absence (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.38 for all participants; 1.62, 95% CI 1.19 to 2.21 for men and 1.15, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.33 for women). A higher risk of short-term sickness absence was also observed after increase in drinking (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.52) and a lower risk was observed after decrease in drinking (OR=0.83, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.00). Both increase (OR=1.38, 95% CI 1.21 to 1.57) and decrease (OR=1.27, 95% CI 1.19 to 1.43) in drinking were associated with increased risk of long-term (>9 days) medically certified all-cause sickness absence. Increase in drinking was related to increases in short-term and long-term sickness absences. Men and employees with a low socioeconomic position in particular seemed to be at risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Flooding and Health Care Visits for Clostridium Difficile Infection: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floods can contaminate potable water and other resources, thus increasing the potential for fecal-oral transmission of pathogens. Clostridium difficile is a bacterium that can spread by water and cause acute gastrointestinal illness. It often affects older adults who are hospital...

  20. Apparent temperature and cause-specific mortality in copenhagen, denmark: a case-crossover analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wichmann, Janine; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Ketzel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Temperature, a key climate change indicator, is expected to increase substantially in the Northern Hemisphere, with potentially grave implications for human health. This study is the first to investigate the association between the daily 3-hour maximum apparent temperature (Tapp...

  1. Extreme Precipitation and Emergency Room Visits for Influenza in Massachusetts: A Case-Crossover Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Influenza peaks during the wintertime in temperate regions and during the annual rainy season in tropical regions – however reasons for the observed differences in disease ecology are poorly understood. We hypothesize that episodes of extreme precipitation also result...

  2. Case-crossover analysis of heat-coded deaths and vulnerable subpopulations: Oklahoma, 1990-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Brianna F.; Brooke Anderson, G.; Johnson, Matthew G.; Brown, Sheryll; Bradley, Kristy K.; Magzamen, Sheryl

    2017-11-01

    The extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths, for which heat is the primary cause of death, remains largely unknown. We explored the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and potential interactions with various demographic and environmental factors. A total of 335 heat-coded deaths that occurred in Oklahoma from 1990 through 2011 were identified using heat-related International Classification of Diseases codes, cause-of-death nomenclature, and narrative descriptions. Conditional logistic regression models examined the association between temperature and heat index on heat-coded deaths. Interaction by demographic factors (age, sex, marital status, living alone, outdoor/heavy labor occupations) and environmental factors (ozone, PM10, PM2.5) was also explored. Temperatures ≥99 °F (the median value) were associated with approximately five times higher odds of a heat-coded death as compared to temperatures effect estimates were attenuated when exposure to heat was characterized by heat index. The interaction results suggest that effect of temperature on heat-coded deaths may depend on sex and occupation. For example, the odds of a heat-coded death among outdoor/heavy labor workers exposed to temperatures ≥99 °F was greater than expected based on the sum of the individual effects (observed OR = 14.0, 95% CI 2.7, 72.0; expected OR = 4.1 [2.8 + 2.3-1.0]). Our results highlight the extent of the association between temperature and heat-coded deaths and emphasize the need for a comprehensive, multisource definition of heat-coded deaths. Furthermore, based on the interaction results, we recommend that states implement or expand heat safety programs to protect vulnerable subpopulations, such as outdoor workers.

  3. The Association Between Urban Tree Cover and Gun Assault: A Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Michelle C; South, Eugenia C; Branas, Charles C; Richmond, Therese S; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2017-08-01

    Green space and vegetation may play a protective role against urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities was related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted geographic information systems-assisted interviews with boys and men aged 10-24 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, including 135 patients who had been shot with a firearm and 274 community controls, during 2008-2011. Each subject reported a step-by-step mapped account of where and with whom they traveled over a full day from waking until being assaulted or going to bed. Geocoded path points were overlaid on mapped layers representing tree locations and place-specific characteristics. Conditional logistic regressions were used to compare case subjects versus controls (case-control) and case subjects at the time of injury versus times earlier that day (case-crossover). When comparing cases at the time of assault to controls matched at the same time of day, being under tree cover was inversely associated with gunshot assault (odds ratio (OR) = 0.70, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.55, 0.88), especially in low-income areas (OR = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.54, 0.87). Case-crossover models confirmed this inverse association overall (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.89) and in low-income areas (OR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.33, 0.88). Urban greening and tree cover may hold promise as proactive strategies to decrease urban violence. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  4. Associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality in a cohort of congestive heart failure: Case-crossover and nested case-control analyses using a distributed lag nonlinear model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buteau, Stephane; Goldberg, Mark S; Burnett, Richard T; Gasparrini, Antonio; Valois, Marie-France; Brophy, James M; Crouse, Dan L; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2018-04-01

    Persons with congestive heart failure may be at higher risk of the acute effects related to daily fluctuations in ambient air pollution. To meet some of the limitations of previous studies using grouped-analysis, we developed a cohort study of persons with congestive heart failure to estimate whether daily non-accidental mortality were associated with spatially-resolved, daily exposures to ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and ozone (O 3 ), and whether these associations were modified according to a series of indicators potentially reflecting complications or worsening of health. We constructed the cohort from the linkage of administrative health databases. Daily exposure was assigned from different methods we developed previously to predict spatially-resolved, time-dependent concentrations of ambient NO 2 (all year) and O 3 (warm season) at participants' residences. We performed two distinct types of analyses: a case-crossover that contrasts the same person at different times, and a nested case-control that contrasts different persons at similar times. We modelled the effects of air pollution and weather (case-crossover only) on mortality using distributed lag nonlinear models over lags 0 to 3 days. We developed from administrative health data a series of indicators that may reflect the underlying construct of "declining health", and used interactions between these indicators and the cross-basis function for air pollutant to assess potential effect modification. The magnitude of the cumulative as well as the lag-specific estimates of association differed in many instances according to the metric of exposure. Using the back-extrapolation method, which is our preferred exposure model, we found for the case-crossover design a cumulative mean percentage changes (MPC) in daily mortality per interquartile increment in NO 2 (8.8 ppb) of 3.0% (95% CI: -0.9, 6.9%) and for O 3 (16.5 ppb) 3.5% (95% CI: -4.5, 12.1). For O 3 there was strong confounding by weather

  5. Associations between ozone, PM2.5, and four pollen types on emergency department pediatric asthma events during the warm season in New Jersey: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Jessie A; Bielory, Leonard; Fagliano, Jerald A

    2014-07-01

    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases among school-aged children in the United States. Environmental respiratory irritants exacerbate asthma among children. Understanding the impact of a variety of known and biologically plausible environmental irritants and triggers among children in New Jersey - ozone, fine particulate matter (PM2.5), tree pollen, weed pollen, grass pollen and ragweed - would allow for informed public health interventions. Time-stratified case-crossover design was used to study the transient impact of ozone, PM2.5 and pollen on the acute onset of pediatric asthma. Daily emergency department visits were obtained for children aged 3-17 years with a primary diagnosis of asthma during the warm season (April through September), 2004-2007 (inclusive). Bi-directional control sampling was used to select two control periods for each case for a total of 65,562 inclusion days. Since the period of exposure prior to emergency department visit may be the most clinically relevant, lag exposures were investigated (same day (lag0), 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 as well as 3-day and 5-day moving averages). Multivariable conditional logistic regression controlling for holiday, school-in-session indicator, and 3-day moving average for temperature and relative humidity was used to examine the associations. Odds ratios are based on interquartile range (IQR) increases or 10 unit increases when IQR ranges were narrow. Single-pollutant models as well as multipollutant models were examined. Stratification on gender, race, ethnicity and socioeconomic status was explored. The associations with ozone and PM2.5 were strongest on the same day (lag0) of the emergency department visit (RR IQR=1.05, 95% CI 1.04-1.06) and (RR IQR=1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.04), respectively, with a decreasing lag effect. Tree and weed pollen were associated with pediatric ED visits; the largest magnitudes of association was with the 5-day average (RR IQR=1.23, 95% CI 1.21-1.25) and (RR 10=1.13, 95% CI 1

  6. Lack of adjustment latitude at work as a trigger of taking sick leave-a Swedish case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Hultin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Research has shown that individuals reporting a low level of adjustment latitude, defined as having few possibilities to temporarily adjust work demands to illness, have a higher risk of sick leave. To what extent lack of adjustment latitude influences the individual when making the decision to take sick leave is unknown. We hypothesize that ill individuals are more likely to take sick leave on days when they experience a lack of adjustment latitude at work than on days with access to adjustment latitude. METHODS: A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a cohort of 1 430 employees at six Swedish workplaces, with a 3-12 month follow-up of all new sick-leave spells. Exposure to lack of adjustment latitude on the first sick-leave day was compared with exposure during several types of control periods sampled from the previous two months for the same individual. RESULTS: Only 35% of the respondents reported variations in access to adjustment latitude, and 19% reported a constant lack of adjustment latitude during the two weeks prior to the sick-leave spell. Among those that did report variation, the risk of sick leave was lower on days with lack of adjustment latitude, than on days with access (Odds Ratio 0.36, 95% Confidence Interval 0.25-0.52. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to show the influence of adjustment latitude on the decision to take sick leave. Among those with variations in exposure, lack of adjustment latitude was a deterrent of sick leave, which is contrary to the à priori hypothesis. These results indicate that adjustment latitude may not only capture long-lasting effects of a flexible working environment, but also temporary possibilities to adjust work to being absent. Further studies are needed to disentangle the causal mechanisms of adjustment latitude on sick-leave.

  7. The association between home care visits and same-day emergency department use: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Aaron; Schumacher, Connie; Bronskill, Susan E; Campitelli, Michael A; Poss, Jeffrey W; Seow, Hsien; Costa, Andrew P

    2018-04-30

    The extent to which home care visits contribute to the delay or avoidance of emergency department use is poorly characterized. We examined the association between home care visits and same-day emergency department use among patients receiving publicly funded home care. We conducted a population-based case-crossover study among patients receiving publicly funded home care in the Hamilton-Niagara-Haldimand-Brant region of Ontario between January and December 2015. Within individuals, all days with emergency department visits after 5 pm were selected as cases and matched with control days from the previous week. The cohort was stratified according to whether patients had ongoing home care needs ("long stay") or short-term home care needs ("short stay"). We used conditional logistical regression to estimate the association between receiving a home care visit during the day and visiting the emergency department after 5 pm on the same day. A total of 4429 long-stay patients contributed 5893 emergency department visits, and 2836 short-stay patients contributed 3476 visits. Receiving a home care nursing visit was associated with an increased likelihood of visiting the emergency department after 5 pm on the same day in both long-stay (odds ratio [OR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-1.48) and short-stay patients (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.07-1.39). Stronger associations were observed for less acute visits to the emergency department. No associations were observed for other types of home care visits. Patients receiving home care were more likely to visit the emergency department during the evening on days they received a nursing visit. The mechanism of the association between home care visits and same-day emergency department use and the extent to which same-day emergency department visits could be prevented or diverted require additional investigation. © 2018 Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  8. Association between mobile phone traffic volume and road crash fatalities: A population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariazzo, Claudio; Stafoggia, Massimo; Bruzzone, Silvia; Pelliccioni, Armando; Forastiere, Francesco

    2018-06-01

    Use of mobile phones while driving is known to cause crashes with possible fatalities. Different habits of mobile phone use might be distracting forces and display differential impacts on accident risk; the assessment of the relative importance is relevant to implement prevention, mitigation, and control measures. This study aimed to assess the relationship between the use of mobile phones at population level and road crash fatalities in large urban areas. Data on road crashes with fatalities were collected from seven Italian metropolitan areas and matched in time and space with high resolution mobile phone traffic volume data about calls, texts, Internet connections and upload/download data. A case-crossover study design was applied to estimate the relative risks of road accident for increases in each type of mobile phone traffic volumes in underlying population present in the small areas where accidents occurred. Effect modification was evaluated by weekday/weekend, hour of the day, meteorological conditions, and street densities. Positive associations between road crashes rates and the number of calls, texts, and Internet connections were found, with incremental risks of 17.2% (95% Confidence Interval [CI] 7.7, 27.6), 8.4% (CI 0.7, 16.8), and 54.6% (CI 34.0, 78.5) per increases (at 15 min intervals) of 5 calls/100 people, 3 text/100 people, and 40 connections/100 people, respectively. Small differences across cities were detected. Working days, nighttime and morning hours were associated with greater phone use and more road accidents. The relationship between mobile phone use and road fatalities at population level is strong. Strict controls on cellular phone in the vehicle may results in a large health benefit. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Work-related psychosocial events as triggers of sick leave - results from a Swedish case-crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindholm Christina

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although illness is an important cause of sick leave, it has also been suggested that non-medical risk factors may influence this association. If such factors impact on the period of decision making, they should be considered as triggers. Yet, there is no empirical support available. The aim was to investigate whether recent exposure to work-related psychosocial events can trigger the decision to report sick when ill. Methods A case-crossover design was applied to 546 sick-leave spells, extracted from a Swedish cohort of 1 430 employees with a 3-12 month follow-up of new sick-leave spells. Exposure in a case period corresponding to an induction period of one or two days was compared with exposure during control periods sampled from workdays during a two-week period prior to sick leave for the same individual. This was done according to the matched-pair interval and the usual frequency approaches. Results are presented as odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results Most sick-leave spells happened in relation to acute, minor illnesses that substantially reduced work ability. The risk of taking sick leave was increased when individuals had recently been exposed to problems in their relationship with a superior (OR 3.63; CI 1.44-9.14 or colleagues (OR 4.68; CI 1.43-15.29. Individuals were also more inclined to report sick on days when they expected a very stressful work situation than on a day when they were not under such stress (OR 2.27; CI 1.40-3.70. Conclusions Exposure to problems in workplace relationships or a stressful work situation seems to be able to trigger reporting sick. Psychosocial work-environmental factors appear to have a short-term effect on individuals when deciding to report sick.

  10. An association between initiation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and suicide - a nationwide register-based case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Björkenstam

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI is one of the most common treatments for depression. It is however not clear whether or not there is an increased short-term suicide risk during initiation with SSRI. METHODS: A register-based nationwide case-crossover study including 5,866 suicides, 1,698 women and 4,168 men, from the Death Register 2007-2010 in Sweden. SSRI initiation was defined as a dispensed prescription of SSRI within 28 days prior to the date of suicide with no previous dispensed prescription of SSRI within 4 months prior that prescription. The control period took place one year earlier. Odds ratio (OR was estimated using conditional logistic regression. RESULT: During the 28 day period prior to suicide 48 women and 138 men were exposed to SSRI initiation (while not being exposed in the control period and 22 women and 43 men were exposed in the control period (while not being exposed in the case period. The OR for suicide after initiation with SSRI was 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-44 for women, and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.0-6.1 for men. The highest OR was found 8-11 days after initiation with SSRI 9.7 (95% CI: 3.0-31.7 for women and men combined. CONCLUSION: The main limitation in this study is confounding by indication, but the descriptive question is however not confounded by indication. Together with plausible biological mechanisms and previous clinical and epidemiological observations our findings, linking initiation of SSRI to increased short-term suicide risk, deserve further attention specifically in the clinical setting.

  11. The association between daily concentrations of air pollution and visits to a psychiatric emergency unit: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudin, Anna; Åström, Daniel Oudin; Asplund, Peter; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Szabo, Zoltan; Carlsen, Hanne Krage

    2018-01-10

    Air pollution is one of the leading causes of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Experimental studies, and a few epidemiological studies, suggest that air pollution may cause acute exacerbation of psychiatric disorders, and even increase the rate of suicide attempts, but epidemiological studies on air pollution in association with psychiatric disorders are still few. Our aim was to investigate associations between daily fluctuations in air pollution concentrations and the daily number of visits to a psychiatric emergency unit. Data from Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden, on the daily number of visits to the Psychiatric emergency unit were combined with daily data on monitored concentrations of respirable particulate matter(PM 10 ), ozone(O 3 ), nitrogen dioxides(NO 2 ) and temperature between 1st July 2012 and 31st December 2016. We used a case-crossover design to analyze data with conditional Poisson regression models allowing for over-dispersion. We stratified data on season. Visits increased with increasing PM 10 levels during the warmer season (April to September) in both single-pollutant and two-pollutant models. For example, an increase of 3.6% (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.4-7.0%) was observed with a 10 μg/m3 increase in PM 10 adjusted for NO 2 . In the three-pollutant models (adjusting for NO 2 and O 3 simultaneously) the increase was 3.3% (95% CI, -0.2-6.9). There were no clear associations between the outcome and NO 2 , O 3 , or PM 10 during the colder season (October to March). Ambient air particle concentrations were associated with the number of visits to the Psychiatric emergency unit in the warm season. The results were only borderline statistically significant in the fully adjusted (three-pollutant) models in this small study. The observation could be interpreted as indicative of air pollution as either exacerbating an underlying psychiatric disorder, or increasing mental distress, even in areas with comparatively low levels of

  12. Forest Fire Smoke Exposures and Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests in Melbourne, Australia: A Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennekamp, Martine; Straney, Lahn D; Erbas, Bircan; Abramson, Michael J; Keywood, Melita; Smith, Karen; Sim, Malcolm R; Glass, Deborah C; Del Monaco, Anthony; Haikerwal, Anjali; Tonkin, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Millions of people can potentially be exposed to smoke from forest fires, making this an important public health problem in many countries. In this study we aimed to measure the association between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) and forest fire smoke exposures in a large city during a severe forest fire season, and estimate the number of excess OHCAs due to the fire smoke. We investigated the association between particulate matter (PM) and other air pollutants and OHCA using a case-crossover study of adults (≥ 35 years of age) in Melbourne, Australia. Conditional logistic regression models were used to derive estimates of the percent change in the rate of OHCA associated with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in exposure. From July 2006 through June 2007, OHCA data were collected from the Victorian Ambulance Cardiac Arrest Registry. Hourly air pollution concentrations and meteorological data were obtained from a central monitoring site. There were 2,046 OHCAs with presumed cardiac etiology during our study period. Among men during the fire season, greater increases in OHCA were observed with IQR increases in the 48-hr lagged PM with diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM2.5) (8.05%; 95% CI: 2.30, 14.13%; IQR = 6.1 μg/m(3)) or ≤ 10 μm (PM10) (11.1%; 95% CI: 1.55, 21.48%; IQR = 13.7 μg/m(3)) and carbon monoxide (35.7%; 95% CI: 8.98, 68.92%; IQR = 0.3 ppm). There was no significant association between the rate of OHCA and air pollutants among women. One hundred seventy-four "fire-hours" (i.e., hours in which Melbourne's air quality was affected by forest fire smoke) were identified during 12 days of the 2006/2007 fire season, and 23.9 (95% CI: 3.1, 40.2) excess OHCAs were estimated to occur due to elevations in PM2.5 during these fire-hours. This study found an association between exposure to forest fire smoke and an increase in the rate of OHCA. These findings have implications for public health messages to raise community awareness and for planning of emergency

  13. Flooding and intestinal illness due to Clostridium difficile infection: a case-crossover analysis of Massachusetts data, 2003-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Climate change has contributed to a rise in extreme weather events, including heavier rainfalls. Floods can cause water bodies to overflow, damage water treatment and drinking water infrastructure, overwhelm sewage treatment facilities, and result in discharges of un...

  14. Atmospheric Pressure and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture : Results from a Time Series Analysis and Case-Crossover Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penning De Vries, Bas B.L.; Kolkert, Joé L.P.; Meerwaldt, Robbert; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Associations between atmospheric pressure and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk have been reported, but empirical evidence is inconclusive and largely derived from studies that did not account for possible nonlinearity, seasonality, and confounding by temperature. Methods:

  15. Conditional Poisson models: a flexible alternative to conditional logistic case cross-over analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Ben G; Gasparrini, Antonio; Tobias, Aurelio

    2014-11-24

    The time stratified case cross-over approach is a popular alternative to conventional time series regression for analysing associations between time series of environmental exposures (air pollution, weather) and counts of health outcomes. These are almost always analyzed using conditional logistic regression on data expanded to case-control (case crossover) format, but this has some limitations. In particular adjusting for overdispersion and auto-correlation in the counts is not possible. It has been established that a Poisson model for counts with stratum indicators gives identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression and does not have these limitations, but it is little used, probably because of the overheads in estimating many stratum parameters. The conditional Poisson model avoids estimating stratum parameters by conditioning on the total event count in each stratum, thus simplifying the computing and increasing the number of strata for which fitting is feasible compared with the standard unconditional Poisson model. Unlike the conditional logistic model, the conditional Poisson model does not require expanding the data, and can adjust for overdispersion and auto-correlation. It is available in Stata, R, and other packages. By applying to some real data and using simulations, we demonstrate that conditional Poisson models were simpler to code and shorter to run than are conditional logistic analyses and can be fitted to larger data sets than possible with standard Poisson models. Allowing for overdispersion or autocorrelation was possible with the conditional Poisson model but when not required this model gave identical estimates to those from conditional logistic regression. Conditional Poisson regression models provide an alternative to case crossover analysis of stratified time series data with some advantages. The conditional Poisson model can also be used in other contexts in which primary control for confounding is by fine

  16. Use of a prescribed ephedrine/caffeine combination and the risk of serious cardiovascular events: a registry-based case-crossover study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Jesper; Bjerrum, Lars; Støvring, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Ephedrine and herbal ephedra preparations have been shown to induce a small-to-moderate weight loss. Owing to reports on serious cardiovascular events, they were banned from the US market in 2004. There have been no large controlled studies on the possible association between prescribed ephedrine/caffeine...... and cardiovascular events in general. The authors linked data from four different sources within Statistics Denmark, using data on 257,364 users of prescribed ephedrine/caffeine for the period 1995-2002. The data were analyzed using a case-crossover technique with a composite endpoint: death outside of a hospital......, myocardial infarction, or stroke. To account for effects of chronic exposure and effects in naïve users, the authors performed a secondary case-control study nested within the cohort of ephedrine/caffeine ever users. Among 2,316 case subjects, 282 (12.2%) were current users of ephedrine/caffeine. The case...

  17. Air pollution and mortality in São Paulo, Brazil: Effects of multiple pollutants and analysis of susceptible populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Mercedes A; Son, Jiyoung; de Freitas, Clarice Umbelino; Gouveia, Nelson; Bell, Michelle L

    2016-01-01

    Health impacts of air pollution may differ depending on sex, education, socioeconomic status (SES), location at time of death, and other factors. In São Paulo, Brazil, questions remain regarding roles of individual and community characteristics. We estimate susceptibility to air pollution based on individual characteristics, residential SES, and location at time of death (May 1996-December 2010). Exposures for particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤ 10 μm (PM10), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone (O3) were estimated using ambient monitors. Time-stratified case-crossover analysis was used with individual-level health data. Increased risk of non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality were associated with all pollutants (P effect estimates for those with > 11 years education were lower than estimates for those with 0 years education for NO2, SO2, and CO (1.66% (95% confidence interval: 0.23%, 3.08%); 1.51% (0.51%, 2.51%); and 2.82% (0.23%, 5.35%), respectively). PM10 cardiovascular mortality effects were (3.74% (0.044%, 7.30%)) lower for the high education group (> 11 years) compared with the no education group. Positive, significant associations between pollutants and mortality were observed for in-hospital deaths, but evidence of differences in air pollution-related mortality risk by location at time of death was not strong.

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and the Onset of Myocardial Infarction: Disclosing Benzene as a Trigger? A Small-Area Case-Crossover Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bard, Denis; Kihal, Wahida; Schillinger, Charles; Fermanian, Christophe; Ségala, Claire; Glorion, Sophie; Arveiler, Dominique; Weber, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Exposure to traffic is an established risk factor for the triggering of myocardial infarction (MI). Particulate matter, mainly emitted by diesel vehicles, appears to be the most important stressor. However, the possible influence of benzene from gasoline-fueled cars has not been explored so far. Methods and Results We conducted a case-crossover study from 2,134 MI cases recorded by the local Coronary Heart Disease Registry (2000–2007) in the Strasbourg Metropolitan Area (France). Available individual data were age, gender, previous history of ischemic heart disease and address of residence at the time of the event. Nitrogen dioxide, particles of median aerodynamic diameter pollution measurements, and meteorological data. We have found a positive, statistically significant association between concentrations of benzene and the onset of MI: per cent increase in risk for a 1 µg/m3 increase in benzene concentration in the previous 0, 0–1 and 1 day was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 3–18.2), 10.7 (2.7–19.2) and 7.2 (0.3–14.5), respectively. The associations between the other pollutants and outcome were much lower and in accordance with the literature. Conclusion We have observed that benzene in ambient air is strongly associated with the triggering of MI. This novel finding needs confirmation. If so, this would mean that not only diesel vehicles, the main particulate matter emitters, but also gasoline-fueled cars –main benzene emitters–, should be taken into account for public health action. PMID:24932584

  19. Traffic-related air pollution and the onset of myocardial infarction: disclosing benzene as a trigger? A small-area case-crossover study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Bard

    Full Text Available Exposure to traffic is an established risk factor for the triggering of myocardial infarction (MI. Particulate matter, mainly emitted by diesel vehicles, appears to be the most important stressor. However, the possible influence of benzene from gasoline-fueled cars has not been explored so far.We conducted a case-crossover study from 2,134 MI cases recorded by the local Coronary Heart Disease Registry (2000-2007 in the Strasbourg Metropolitan Area (France. Available individual data were age, gender, previous history of ischemic heart disease and address of residence at the time of the event. Nitrogen dioxide, particles of median aerodynamic diameter <10 µm (PM10, ozone, carbon monoxide and benzene air concentrations were modeled on an hourly basis at the census block level over the study period using the deterministic ADMS-Urban air dispersion model. Model input data were emissions inventories, background pollution measurements, and meteorological data. We have found a positive, statistically significant association between concentrations of benzene and the onset of MI: per cent increase in risk for a 1 µg/m3 increase in benzene concentration in the previous 0, 0-1 and 1 day was 10.4 (95% confidence interval 3-18.2, 10.7 (2.7-19.2 and 7.2 (0.3-14.5, respectively. The associations between the other pollutants and outcome were much lower and in accordance with the literature.We have observed that benzene in ambient air is strongly associated with the triggering of MI. This novel finding needs confirmation. If so, this would mean that not only diesel vehicles, the main particulate matter emitters, but also gasoline-fueled cars--main benzene emitters-, should be taken into account for public health action.

  20. Socioenvironmental factors associated with heat and cold-related mortality in Vadu HDSS, western India: a population-based case-crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingole, Vijendra; Kovats, Sari; Schumann, Barbara; Hajat, Shakoor; Rocklöv, Joacim; Juvekar, Sanjay; Armstrong, Ben

    2017-10-01

    Ambient temperatures (heat and cold) are associated with mortality, but limited research is available about groups most vulnerable to these effects in rural populations. We estimated the effects of heat and cold on daily mortality among different sociodemographic groups in the Vadu HDSS area, western India. We studied all deaths in the Vadu HDSS area during 2004-2013. A conditional logistic regression model in a case-crossover design was used. Separate analyses were carried out for summer and winter season. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for total mortality and population subgroups. Temperature above a threshold of 31 °C was associated with total mortality (OR 1.48, CI = 1.05-2.09) per 1 °C increase in daily mean temperature. Odds ratios were higher among females (OR 1.93; CI = 1.07-3.47), those with low education (OR 1.65; CI = 1.00-2.75), those owing larger agricultural land (OR 2.18; CI = 0.99-4.79), and farmers (OR 1.70; CI = 1.02-2.81). In winter, per 1 °C decrease in mean temperature, OR for total mortality was 1.06 (CI = 1.00-1.12) in lag 0-13 days. High risk of cold-related mortality was observed among people occupied in housework (OR = 1.09; CI = 1.00-1.19). Our study suggests that both heat and cold have an impact on mortality particularly heat, but also, to a smaller degree, cold have an impact. The effects may differ partly by sex, education, and occupation. These findings might have important policy implications in preventing heat and cold effects on particularly vulnerable groups of the rural populations in low and middle-income countries with hot semi-arid climate.

  1. Short-term use of glucocorticoids and risk of peptic ulcer bleeding: a nationwide population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, C-L; Chen, Y-T; Huang, C-J; Luo, J-C; Peng, Y-L; Huang, D-F; Hou, M-C; Lin, H-C; Lee, F-Y

    2015-09-01

    Controversy exists regarding glucocorticoids therapy and the risk of peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB). The present study was undertaken to determine whether short-term use of glucocorticoids is associated with the occurrence of peptic ulcer bleeding. The records of adult patients hospitalised for newly diagnosed peptic ulcer bleeding from 2000 to 2012 were retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database, a nationwide population-based registry system. The association between systemic glucocorticoids usage and peptic ulcer bleeding was determined with a conditional logistic regression model comparing cases and controls during time windows of 7, 14 and 28 days using a case-crossover design. Of the 8894 enrolled patients, the adjusted self-matched odds ratios for peptic ulcer bleeding after exposure to the glucocorticoids were 1.37 (95% CI: 1.12-1.68, P = 0.003) for the 7-day window, 1.66 (95% CI: 1.38-2.00, P peptic ulcer bleeding. Concomitant use of a nonselective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) or aspirin further elevated the risk. However, it does not eliminate the effect of underlying diseases flare-up that may have placed the patients at risk for peptic ulcer bleeding in this kind of study design. Short-term (7-28 days) exposure to glucocorticoids is significantly associated with peptic ulcer bleeding; this risk seems dose-dependent and is higher when nonselective NSAIDs or aspirin are used concurrently. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Death of a Close Relative and the Risk of Suicide in Sweden-A Large Scale Register-Based Case-Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Mogensen

    Full Text Available Bereavement is thought to be a risk factor for suicide but the association has not been thoroughly investigated according to specific sensitive time periods and risk groups using a self-matched design. We aimed to 1 determine the risk of suicide within the first year after death of a close relative, 2 investigate if and how the risk changes within this time window and 3 determine if sex, age, and type of relationship, affect this association.A self-matched, case-crossover study was performed by linking Swedish registers. In total, 31 059 individuals with suicide between 1990 and 2011 were included. Different periods within the year prior to the suicide were compared with corresponding periods one year earlier in the same individual's life. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for suicide after death of a close relative.Increased ORs of suicide were seen during the first month, OR 1·77 (95% CI 1·35-2·34, and the first half-year, 1·27 (1·13-1·43. An even higher OR was found within the first week, 3·43 (1·89-6·22. Patterns were similar for women and men and across age groups. Death of a partner or child but not death of a sibling or parent was associated with a significantly increased suicide risk. The strongest association was seen after death of a partner in individuals aged 45 and older.These findings provide knowledge of sensitive time periods and at-risk groups in the early period of bereavement. Due to the use of a self-matched study design, methodological challenges of unmeasured residual confounding could be overcome.

  3. The impact of airborne particulate matter on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia among children in Jinan, China: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chenguang; Wang, Xianfeng; Pang, Na; Wang, Lanzhong; Wang, Yuping; Xu, Tengfei; Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Tianran; Li, Wei

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to examine the effect of short-term changes in the concentration of particulate matter of diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM 2.5 ) and ≤10 µm (PM 10 ) on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. It explores confoundings factors of weather, season, and chemical pollutants. Information on pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in 2014 was extracted from the database of Jinan Qilu Hospital. The relative risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was assessed using a case-crossover approach, controlling weather variables, day of the week, and seasonality. The single-pollutant model demonstrated that increased risk of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia was significantly associated with elevated PM 2.5 concentrations the day before hospital admission and elevated PM 10 concentrations 2 days before hospital admission. An increment of 10 μg/m 3 in PM 2.5 and PM 10 was correlated with a 6% (95% CI 1.02--1.10) and 4% (95% CI 1.00-1.08) rise in number of admissions for pneumonia, respectively. In two pollutant models, PM 2.5 and PM 10 remained significant after inclusion of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen dioxide but not carbon monoxide. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM 2.5 /PM 10 ) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China. This study demonstrated that short-term exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM 2.5 /PM 10 ) may be an important determinant of pediatric hospital admissions for pneumonia in Jinan, China, and suggested the relevance of pollutant exposure levels and their effects. As a specific group, children are sensitive to airborne particulate matter. This study estimated the short-term effects attribute to other air pollutants to provide references for relevant studies.

  4. Brand name to generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs does not lead to seizure-related hospitalization: a population-based case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polard, Elisabeth; Nowak, Emmanuel; Happe, André; Biraben, Arnaud; Oger, Emmanuel

    2015-11-01

    There is still controversy on brand-to-generic (B-G) antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) substitution. To assess association between B-G AED substitution and seizure-related hospitalization, we designed a case crossover using the French National Health Insurance Database. We identified a cohort of adult patients who filled a prescription in 2009-2011 for AEDs with at least one brand name and one generic form. The outcome date was defined as the date of hospitalization, coded G40.x or G41.x, with a G40/G41 hospitalization-free period of at least 1 year. Patients with a medical history of cancer and women who gave birth in 2009-2011 were excluded. We required individuals to have regular dispensations of AEDs within the year preceding the outcome date. Free patients were defined as patients who had only brand name dispensations before the control period. Eight thousand three hundred seventy nine patients (mean age ± standard deviation, 52.7 ± 18.8 years; sex ratio male/female, 1.27) were analyzed. Discordant pairs were 491 with B-G substitution in the control period only and 478 with B-G substitution in the case period only; odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.97 (0.86-1.10). No statistically significant interaction was detected among the four prespecified subgroup analyses (gender, age strata, free or non-free, and strict AED monotherapy or not). Controlling for non-seizure-related hospitalizations made no material difference. Sensitivity analyses yielded similar results. Brand-to-generic AED substitution was not associated with an elevated risk of seizure-related hospitalization. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Exposure to air pollution and meteorological factors associated with children's primary care visits at night due to asthma attack: case-crossover design for 3-year pooled patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Shin; Shima, Masayuki; Yoda, Yoshiko; Oka, Katsumi; Kurosaka, Fumitake; Shimizu, Shigeta; Takahashi, Hironobu; Nakatani, Yuji; Nishikawa, Jittoku; Fujiwara, Katsuhiko; Mizumori, Yasuyuki; Mogami, Akira; Yamada, Taku; Yamamoto, Nobuharu

    2015-05-03

    We examined the association of outdoor air pollution and meteorological parameters with primary care visits (PCVs) at night due to asthma attack. A case-crossover study was conducted in a primary care clinic in Himeji City, Japan. Participants were 1447 children aged 0-14 years who visited the clinic with an asthma attack from April 2010 until March 2013. Daily concentrations of air pollutants and meteorological parameters were measured. PCVs at night due to asthma attack. A conditional logistic regression model was used to estimate ORs of PCVs per unit increment of air pollutants or meteorological parameters (the per-unit increments of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 µm (PM₂.₅) and ozone were 10 μg/m(3) and 10 ppb, respectively). Analyses took into consideration the effects of seasonality. We noted an association between PCVs and daily ozone levels on the day before a PCV (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.35; p=0.04), as well as between PCVs and 3-day mean ozone levels before a PCV (OR=1.29; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46; p=0.04), from April until June. We also observed an association between PCVs and daily PM₂.₅ levels on the day before a PCV from December until March (OR=1.16; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.33; p=0.05). Meteorological parameters, such as hours of sunshine from September until November, atmospheric pressure from April until June, and temperature from April until August, were also found to be associated with PCVs. The findings in the present study supported an association between ozone and PCVs and suggest that certain meteorological items may be associated with PCVs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Spatial variability of excess mortality during prolonged dust events in a high-density city: a time-stratified spatial regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Man Sing; Ho, Hung Chak; Yang, Lin; Shi, Wenzhong; Yang, Jinxin; Chan, Ta-Chien

    2017-07-24

    Dust events have long been recognized to be associated with a higher mortality risk. However, no study has investigated how prolonged dust events affect the spatial variability of mortality across districts in a downwind city. In this study, we applied a spatial regression approach to estimate the district-level mortality during two extreme dust events in Hong Kong. We compared spatial and non-spatial models to evaluate the ability of each regression to estimate mortality. We also compared prolonged dust events with non-dust events to determine the influences of community factors on mortality across the city. The density of a built environment (estimated by the sky view factor) had positive association with excess mortality in each district, while socioeconomic deprivation contributed by lower income and lower education induced higher mortality impact in each territory planning unit during a prolonged dust event. Based on the model comparison, spatial error modelling with the 1st order of queen contiguity consistently outperformed other models. The high-risk areas with higher increase in mortality were located in an urban high-density environment with higher socioeconomic deprivation. Our model design shows the ability to predict spatial variability of mortality risk during an extreme weather event that is not able to be estimated based on traditional time-series analysis or ecological studies. Our spatial protocol can be used for public health surveillance, sustainable planning and disaster preparation when relevant data are available.

  7. New, Occasional, and Frequent Use of Zolpidem or Zopiclone (Alone and in Combination) and the Risk of Injurious Road Traffic Crashes in Older Adult Drivers: A Population-Based Case-Control and Case-Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevriana, Alicia; Möller, Jette; Laflamme, Lucie; Monárrez-Espino, Joel

    2017-08-01

    Previous studies on the effect of zolpidem or zopiclone use on the risk of road traffic crashes (RTCs) have shown mixed results. Our objective was to determine the association between zolpidem or zopiclone use (as separate drugs or combined) and the occurrence of injurious RTCs among older adult drivers. This was a population-based matched case-control and case-crossover study based on secondary data linked together from Swedish national registers. Cases were drivers aged 50-80 years involved in a vehicle crash resulting in injuries between January 2006 and December 2009 for the case-control study (n = 27,096) and from February 2006 to December 2009 for the case-crossover study (n = 26,586). For the first design, four controls were matched to each case by sex, age, and residential area, and exposure was categorized into new, occasional, and frequent use of zolpidem only, zopiclone only, and combined zolpidem and zopiclone. For the case-crossover study, newly dispensed zolpidem or zopiclone users were assessed during the 28 days prior to the crash and compared with an equally long control period using a 12-week washout period. Matched adjusted odds ratios (OR) were computed using conditional logistic regression. Increased ORs for all users were observed. In the case-control study, the highest odds were seen among newly initiated zolpidem-only users involved in single-vehicle crashes (adjusted OR 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.21-4.24), followed by frequent combined zolpidem and zopiclone users [adjusted OR 2.20; CI 1.21-4.00]. In the case-crossover, newly initiated treatment with zolpidem or zopiclone showed an increased risk that was highest in the 2 weeks after the start of the treatment (OR 2.66; 95% CI 1.04-6.81). These results provide more compelling evidence for the role of zolpidem or zopiclone in the occurrence of RTCs among older adults, not only in frequent users, but also at the beginning of treatment.

  8. Quantitative analysis of burden of infectious diarrhea associated with floods in northwest of anhui province, china: a mixed method evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Guoyong; Zhang, Ying; Gao, Lu; Ma, Wei; Li, Xiujun; Liu, Jing; Liu, Qiyong; Jiang, Baofa

    2013-01-01

    Persistent and heavy rainfall in the upper and middle Huaihe River of China brought about severe floods during the end of June and July 2007. However, there has been no assessment on the association between the floods and infectious diarrhea. This study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods in 2007 on the burden of disease due to infectious diarrhea in northwest of Anhui Province. A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was firstly conducted to examine the relationship between daily cases of infectious diarrhea and the 2007 floods in Fuyang and Bozhou of Anhui Province. Odds ratios (ORs) of the flood risk were quantified by conditional logistic regression. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of infectious diarrhea attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework of the calculating potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. A total of 197 infectious diarrheas were notified during the exposure and control periods in the two study areas. The strongest effect was shown with a 2-day lag in Fuyang and a 5-day lag in Bozhou. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number cases of infectious diarrhea (OR = 3.175, 95%CI: 1.126-8.954 in Fuyang; OR = 6.754, 95%CI: 1.954-23.344 in Bozhou). Attributable YLD per 1000 of infectious diarrhea resulting from the floods was 0.0081 in Fuyang and 0.0209 in Bozhou. Our findings confirm that floods have significantly increased the risks of infectious diarrhea in the study areas. In addition, prolonged moderate flood may cause more burdens of infectious diarrheas than severe flood with a shorter duration. More attention should be paid to particular vulnerable groups, including younger children and elderly, in developing public health preparation and intervention programs. Findings have significant implications for developing strategies to prevent and reduce health impact of floods.

  9. ACE-Inhibitors and the Risk of Urinary Tract Infections : Comparison of a Case-Crossover and Prescription Sequence Symmetry Design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouwels, Koen B.; Bos, Jens H.J.; Hak, Eelko

    2014-01-01

    Background: In a post-hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) (HR 1.82, 95%CI, 1.16-2.88) and a prescription sequence symmetry analysis (PSSA) (SR 1.56, 95%CI 1.11-2.20), we observed that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) use was associated with an increased risk of urinary

  10. A case-crossover study of sleep, fatigue, and other transient exposures at workplace and the risk of non-fatal occupational injuries among the employees of an Italian academic hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Valent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Transient exposure with acute effect has been shown to affect the risk of occupational injuries in various industrial settings and at the healthcare workplace. The objective of this study has been to identify transient exposures related to occupational injury risk in an Italian teaching hospital. Material and Methods: A case-crossover study was conducted among the employees of the University Hospital of Udine who reported an occupational injury, commuting accident, or incident involving biological risk in a 15-month period in the years 2013 and 2014. The matched-pair interval approach was used to assess the role of acute sleep deprivation whereas the usual frequency approach was used for other 13 transient exposures. Results: Sleep hours were not associated with the risk of injuries whereas a significant risk increase was associated with fatigue, rush, distraction, emergency situations, teaching to or being taught by someone, non-compliant patients, bloody operative/work field, excess noise, complex procedures, and anger. Conclusions: We identified transient exposures that increased the risk of occupational injuries in an Italian teaching hospital, providing indications for interventions to increase workers’ safety at the healthcare workplace. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2016;29(6:1001–1009

  11. Risk of new acute myocardial infarction hospitalization associated with use of oral and parenteral non-steroidal anti-inflammation drugs (NSAIDs: a case-crossover study of Taiwan's National Health Insurance claims database and review of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shau Wen-Yi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have documented the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the use of some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Despite this, many old NSAIDs are still prescribed worldwide. Most of the studies to date have been focused on specific oral drugs or limited by the number of cases examined. We studied the risk of new acute myocardial infarction (AMI hospitalization with current use of a variety of oral and parenteral NSAIDs in a nationwide population, and compared our results with existing evidence. Methods We conducted a case-crossover study using the Taiwan's National Health Insurance claim database, identifying patients with new AMI hospitalized in 2006. The 1-30 days and 91-120 days prior to the admission were defined as case and matched control period for each patient, respectively. Uses of NSAIDs during the respective periods were compared using conditional logistic regression and adjusted for use of co-medications. Results 8354 new AMI hospitalization patients fulfilled the study criteria. 14 oral and 3 parenteral NSAIDs were selected based on drug utilization profile among 13.7 million NSAID users. The adjusted odds ratio, aOR (95% confidence interval, for risk of AMI and use of oral and parenteral non-selective NSAIDs were 1.42 (1.29, 1.56 and 3.35 (2.50, 4.47, respectively, and significantly greater for parenteral than oral drugs (p for interaction Conclusions The collective evidence revealed the tendency of increased AMI risk with current use of some NSAIDs. A higher AMI risk associated with use of parenteral NSAIDs was observed in the present study. Ketorolac had the highest associated risk in both oral and parenteral NSAIDs studied. Though further investigation to confirm the association is warranted, prescribing physicians and the general public should be cautious about the potential risk of AMI when using NSAIDs.

  12. Emotional stress as a trigger of falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture. Results from the ToFa study – a case-crossover study among elderly people in Stockholm, Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Laflamme, Lucie; Mattsson, Fredrik; Ponzer, Sari; Sadigh, Siv; Engström, Karin

    2009-01-01

    Background Sudden emotions may interfere with mechanisms for keeping balance among the elderly. The aim of this study is to analyse if emotional stress and specifically feelings of anger, sadness, worries, anxiety or stress, can trigger falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture among autonomous older people. Methods The study applied the case-crossover design and was based on data gathered by face to face interviews carried out in Stockholm between November 2004 and January 2006 at the emergency wards of two hospitals. Cases (n = 137) were defined as persons aged 65 and older admitted for at least one night due to a fall-related hip or pelvic fracture (ICD10: S72 or S32) and meeting a series of selection criteria. Results are presented as relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Results There was an increased risk for fall and subsequent hip or pelvic fracture for up to one hour after emotional stress. For anger there was an increased relative risk of 12.2 (95% CI 2.7–54.7), for sadness of 5.7 (95% CI 1.1–28.7), and for stress 20.6 (95% CI 4.5–93.5) compared to periods with no such feelings. Conclusion Emotional stress seems to have the potential to trigger falls and subsequent hip or pelvic fracture among autonomous older people. Further studies are needed to clarify how robust the findings are – as the number of exposed cases is small – and the mechanisms behind them – presumably balance and vision impairment in stress situation. PMID:19203356

  13. Emotional stress as a trigger of falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture. Results from the ToFa study - a case-crossover study among elderly people in Stockholm, Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, Jette; Hallqvist, Johan; Laflamme, Lucie; Mattsson, Fredrik; Ponzer, Sari; Sadigh, Siv; Engström, Karin

    2009-02-09

    Sudden emotions may interfere with mechanisms for keeping balance among the elderly. The aim of this study is to analyse if emotional stress and specifically feelings of anger, sadness, worries, anxiety or stress, can trigger falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture among autonomous older people. The study applied the case-crossover design and was based on data gathered by face to face interviews carried out in Stockholm between November 2004 and January 2006 at the emergency wards of two hospitals. Cases (n = 137) were defined as persons aged 65 and older admitted for at least one night due to a fall-related hip or pelvic fracture (ICD10: S72 or S32) and meeting a series of selection criteria. Results are presented as relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. There was an increased risk for fall and subsequent hip or pelvic fracture for up to one hour after emotional stress. For anger there was an increased relative risk of 12.2 (95% CI 2.7-54.7), for sadness of 5.7 (95% CI 1.1-28.7), and for stress 20.6 (95% CI 4.5-93.5) compared to periods with no such feelings. Emotional stress seems to have the potential to trigger falls and subsequent hip or pelvic fracture among autonomous older people. Further studies are needed to clarify how robust the findings are - as the number of exposed cases is small - and the mechanisms behind them - presumably balance and vision impairment in stress situation.

  14. Emotional stress as a trigger of falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture. Results from the ToFa study – a case-crossover study among elderly people in Stockholm, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponzer Sari

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden emotions may interfere with mechanisms for keeping balance among the elderly. The aim of this study is to analyse if emotional stress and specifically feelings of anger, sadness, worries, anxiety or stress, can trigger falls leading to hip or pelvic fracture among autonomous older people. Methods The study applied the case-crossover design and was based on data gathered by face to face interviews carried out in Stockholm between November 2004 and January 2006 at the emergency wards of two hospitals. Cases (n = 137 were defined as persons aged 65 and older admitted for at least one night due to a fall-related hip or pelvic fracture (ICD10: S72 or S32 and meeting a series of selection criteria. Results are presented as relative risks with 95% confidence intervals. Results There was an increased risk for fall and subsequent hip or pelvic fracture for up to one hour after emotional stress. For anger there was an increased relative risk of 12.2 (95% CI 2.7–54.7, for sadness of 5.7 (95% CI 1.1–28.7, and for stress 20.6 (95% CI 4.5–93.5 compared to periods with no such feelings. Conclusion Emotional stress seems to have the potential to trigger falls and subsequent hip or pelvic fracture among autonomous older people. Further studies are needed to clarify how robust the findings are – as the number of exposed cases is small – and the mechanisms behind them – presumably balance and vision impairment in stress situation.

  15. Flooding and emergency room visits for gastrointestinal illness in Massachusetts: A case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Floods and other severe weather events are anticipated to increase as a result of global climate change. Floods can lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis and other infectious diseases due to disruption of sewage and water infrastructure and impacts on san...

  16. A case-crossover analyses of fine particulate matter and out-of-hospital sudden unexpected death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out-of-hospital sudden unexpected deaths (OHSUD) are natural deaths that occur without obvious underlying causes and account for nearly 1 in 6 deaths in the United States. Ambient air pollution is known to be causally related to overall mortality, therefore, we hypothesized that ...

  17. Objective assessment of drowsiness and reaction time during intermittent Ramadan fasting in young men: a case-crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahammam, Ahmed S; Nashwan, Samar; Hammad, Omeima; Sharif, Munir M; Pandi-Perumal, Seithikurippu R

    2013-08-12

    Ramadan fasting and its attendant lifestyle changes induce changes in the circadian rhythm and in associated physiological and metabolic functions. Previous studies that have assessed psychomotor performance during Ramadan fasting have reported conflicting results. Therefore, we designed this study to objectively assess the effects of intermittent fasting during and outside Ramadan (to control for lifestyle changes) on drowsiness, blink total duration and mean reaction time (MRT) test while controlling for potential confounders. Eight healthy volunteers with a mean age of 25.3 ± 2.9 years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 23.4 ± 3.2 kg/m2 reported to the sleep laboratory on four occasions for polysomnography (PSG) and drowsiness and psychomotor assessments as follows: 1) adaptation; 2) 4 weeks before Ramadan while performing the Islamic fasting for 1 week (baseline fasting) (BLF); 3) 1 week before Ramadan (non-fasting baseline) (BL); and 4) during the second week of Ramadan while fasting (Ramadan). OPTALERT™ was used to objectively assess daytime drowsiness using the Johns Drowsiness Scale (JDS), and blink total duration and a visual reaction time test were used to assess MRT. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly lower at BLF (17.7 ± 8.1%) and at Ramadan (18.6 ± 10.7%) compared with BL (25.6 ± 4.8%) (p intermittent fasting has no impact on drowsiness and vigilance as measured by the JDS, total blink duration and MRT.

  18. The association between urban tree cover and gun assault: A case-control and case-crossover study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle C. Kondo; Eugenia C. South; Charles C. Branas; Therese S. Richmond; Douglas J. Wiebe

    2017-01-01

    Green space and vegetation may play a protective role against urban violence. We investigated whether being near urban tree cover during outdoor activities was related to being assaulted with a gun. We conducted geographic information systems–assisted interviews with boys andmen aged 10–24 years in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, including 135 patients who had been shot...

  19. Ambient particulate matter as a risk factor for suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changsoo; Jung, Sang Hyuk; Kang, Dae Ryong; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Moon, Ki Tae; Hur, Nam Wook; Shin, Dong Chun; Suh, Il

    2010-09-01

    The authors assessed the relationship between exposure to ambient particulate matter and suicide in urban settings during a 1-year period. The association between particulate matter and suicide was determined using a time-stratified case-crossover approach in which subjects served as their own controls. All suicide cases (4,341) in 2004 that occurred in seven cities in the Republic of Korea were included. Hourly mean concentrations of particulate matter suicide risk associated with an interquartile range increase in particulate matter was determined by conditional logistic regression analysis after adjusting for national holidays and meteorological factors. Subgroup analysis was performed after stratification by underlying disease (cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and psychiatric illness). The largest associations were a 9.0% increase (95% CI=2.4-16.1) and a 10.1% (95% CI=2.0-19.0) increase in suicide risk related to an interquartile range increase in particulate matter suicide) and particulate matter suicide), respectively. Among individuals with cardiovascular disease, a significant association between particulate matter suicide) and suicide was observed (18.9%; 95% CI=3.2-37.0). Conclusions: A transient increase in particulate matter was associated with increased suicide risk, especially for individuals with preexisting cardiovascular disease.

  20. Short-term relationship between meteorological variables and hip fractures: an analysis carried out in a health area of the Autonomous Region of Valencia, Spain (1996-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenías, José María; Estarlich, Marisa; Fuentes-Leonarte, Virginia; Iñiguez, Carmen; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-10-01

    Diverse studies have shown a seasonal influence on the incidence of hip fracture (HF), possibly associated with adverse meteorological conditions. In this paper, we present an analysis of the short-term relationship between meteorological conditions and the incidence of HF in people over 45 years of age living in a Mediterranean climate zone. HF cases admitted to the two reference hospitals in the health area were selected. The meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, rain, wind, and other conditions) were obtained from a weather station centrally located within the area under study. The trend and seasonality of the time series were analyzed with the aid of Poisson regression modeling. The relationship between the incidence of a hip fracture and the meteorological conditions, both on the same day and on the day previous to the patient's admission to the hospital were correlated in a case-crossover analysis with the control periods selected in accordance with two different methods of approximation (symmetric and semi-metric). The results were analyzed for different subgroups defined by age (older or younger than 75 years of age) and sex of subject and by type of fracture (cervical or pertrochanteric). 2121 patients admitted for HF were selected. Of these, 1598 (75.3%) were women and 523 (24.7%) were men. The average age of the subjects was 80, with patients ranging from 45-99 years of age. The time/weather series showed a positive tendency, with a greater occurrence of cases in the autumn and winter months. The case-crossover analysis showed a significant relationship between the daily duration of wind and the incidence of HFs. Divided into quartiles, the windiest days (quartile 4) were associated with a 32% increased risk of HF (OR 1.32 CI 95% 1.10-1.58) with respect to the calmest days (quartile 1), especially in patients under 75 (OR 1.53; CI 95% 1.02-2.29). The remaining meteorological variables were not associated in any significant fashion

  1. Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Liu, Wen; Zhang, Xiliang

    2014-01-01

    three major technological changes: energy savings on the demand side, efficiency improvements in energy production, and the replacement of fossil fuels by various sources of renewable energy. Consequently, the analysis of these systems must include strategies for integrating renewable sources...

  2. Precipitation increases the occurrence of sporadic legionnaires' disease in Taiwan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Tzu Chen

    Full Text Available Legionnaires' disease (LD is an acute form of pneumonia, and changing weather is considered a plausible risk factor. Yet, the relationship between weather and LD has rarely been investigated, especially using long-term daily data. In this study, daily data was used to evaluate the impacts of precipitation, temperature, and relative humidity on LD occurrence in Taiwan from 1995-2011. A time-stratified 2:1 matched-period case-crossover design was used to compare each case with self-controlled data using a conditional logistic regression analysis, and odds ratios (ORs for LD occurrence was estimated. The city, gender and age were defined as a stratum for each matched set to modify the effects. For lag day- 0 to 15, the precipitation at lag day-11 significantly affected LD occurrence (p0.05. In conclusion, in warm, humid regions, an increase of daily precipitation is likely to be a critical weather factor triggering LD occurrence where the risk is found particularly significant at an 11-day lag. Additionally, precipitation at 21-40 and 61-80 mm might make LD occurrence more likely.

  3. Impact of varying control moment selection in a case-crossover (CCO) study on antidepressant drug (AD) use and hip/femur fracture (HFF) in protect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Mark C.H.; Belitser, Svetlana V.; Souverein, Patrick C.; Groenwold, Rolf H.H.; Candore, Gianmario; Alvarez, Yolanda; Schlienger, Raymond G.; Reynolds, Robert; Klungel, Olaf H.; Gardarsdottir, Helga

    2014-01-01

    Background: The CCO design is appealing because it eliminates time-invariant person related confounding. A prerequisite is that exposure in real life drug use is sufficiently transient to allow for independence of exposure states. The impact of variation in time of control moment selection is

  4. Use of acid-suppressive drugs in pregnancy and the risk of childhood asthma : Bidirectional case-crossover study using the general practice research database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hak, Eelko; Mulder, Bianca; Schuiling-Veninga, Nynke C. M.; De Vries, Tjalling W.; Jick, Susan S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have reported an association between maternal use of gastric acid-suppressive drugs during pregnancy and asthma in the offspring, but the association could have been confounded by unmeasured risk factors. Objectives: To assess the association between the use of

  5. Quantitative analysis of burden of bacillary dysentery associated with floods in Hunan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xuena; Liu, Zhidong; Zhang, Ying; Jiang, Baofa

    2016-03-15

    Jishou and Huaihua, two cities in the west of Hunan Province, had suffered from severe floods because of long-lasting and heavy rainfall during the end of June and July 2012. However, the Disability Adjusted of Life Years (DALYs) of bacillary dysentery caused by the floods have not been examined before. The study aimed to quantify the impact of the floods on the burden of bacillary dysentery in Hunan, China. A unidirectional case-crossover study was firstly conducted to determine the relationship between daily cases of bacillary dysentery and the floods in Jishou and Huaihua of Hunan Province in 2012. Odds ratios (ORs) estimated by conditional logistic regression were used to quantify the risk of the floods on the disease. The years lived with disability (YLDs) of bacillary dysentery attributable to floods were then estimated based on the WHO framework to calculate potential impact fraction in the Burden of Disease study. Multivariable analysis showed that floods were significantly associated with an increased risk of the number of cases of bacillary dysentery (OR=3.270, 95% CI: 1.299-8.228 in Jishou; OR=2.212, 95% CI: 1.052-4.650 in Huaihua). The strongest effect was shown with a 1-day lag in Jishou and a 4-day lag in Huaihua. Attributable YLD per 1000 of bacillary dysentery due to the floods was 0.0296 in Jishou and 0.0157 in Huaihua. Our study confirms that floods have significantly increased the risks of bacillary dysentery in the study areas. In addition, a sudden and severe flooding with a shorter duration may cause more burdens of bacillary dysentery than a persistent and moderate flooding. Public health preparation and intervention programs should be taken to reduce and prevent a potential risk of bacillary dysentery epidemics after floods. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Analysis of correlation between pediatric asthma exacerbation and exposure to pollutant mixtures with association rule mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toti, Giulia; Vilalta, Ricardo; Lindner, Peggy; Lefer, Barry; Macias, Charles; Price, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Traditional studies on effects of outdoor pollution on asthma have been criticized for questionable statistical validity and inefficacy in exploring the effects of multiple air pollutants, alone and in combination. Association rule mining (ARM), a method easily interpretable and suitable for the analysis of the effects of multiple exposures, could be of use, but the traditional interest metrics of support and confidence need to be substituted with metrics that focus on risk variations caused by different exposures. We present an ARM-based methodology that produces rules associated with relevant odds ratios and limits the number of final rules even at very low support levels (0.5%), thanks to post-pruning criteria that limit rule redundancy and control for statistical significance. The methodology has been applied to a case-crossover study to explore the effects of multiple air pollutants on risk of asthma in pediatric subjects. We identified 27 rules with interesting odds ratio among more than 10,000 having the required support. The only rule including only one chemical is exposure to ozone on the previous day of the reported asthma attack (OR=1.14). 26 combinatory rules highlight the limitations of air quality policies based on single pollutant thresholds and suggest that exposure to mixtures of chemicals is more harmful, with odds ratio as high as 1.54 (associated with the combination day0 SO 2 , day0 NO, day0 NO 2 , day1 PM). The proposed method can be used to analyze risk variations caused by single and multiple exposures. The method is reliable and requires fewer assumptions on the data than parametric approaches. Rules including more than one pollutant highlight interactions that deserve further investigation, while helping to limit the search field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Occupational Noise Exposure and the Risk for Work-Related Injury: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzhambov, Angel; Dimitrova, Donka

    2017-11-10

    Occupational noise exposure has been linked to work-related injuries. Strategies to control occupational hazards often rely on dose-response relationships needed to inform policy, but quantitative synthesis of the relevant literature has not been done so far. This study aimed to systematically review the epidemiological literature and to perform meta-analysis of the risk for work-related injury due to occupational noise exposure. PRISMA and MOOSE guidelines were followed. PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar were searched up until 15 December 2016 in English, Russian, and Spanish. Reference lists, grey literature, and expert archives were searched as well. The risk of bias was assessed for each study and incorporated into the meta-analysis weights using the quality effects model. Overall, 21 studies were included at the qualitative review stage: 9 cross-sectional, 6 case-control, 4 cohort, 1 case-crossover, and 1 ecological. Noise exposure was assessed objectively in 13 studies. Information on occupational injuries was elicited from medical records/registry in 13 studies. Meta-analyses showed RR = 1.22 (95% CI: 1.15, 1.29) (n = 59028) per 5 dB increase in noise exposure (Cochran's Q = 27.26, P 90-95 dB) compared with the least exposed group (Cochran's Q = 180.46, P work-related injury risk. However, the quality of evidence is 'very low'; therefore, the magnitude of this association should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  8. Differences on the effect of heat waves on mortality by sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yihan; Dadvand, Payam; Barrera-Gómez, Jose; Sartini, Claudio; Marí-Dell'Olmo, Marc; Borrell, Carme; Medina-Ramón, Mercè; Sunyer, Jordi; Basagaña, Xavier

    2013-06-01

    Mortality increases during heat waves have been reported worldwide. The magnitude of these increases can vary within regions according to sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics. The objectives of this study were to explore this variation and its determinants, and to identify the most heat-vulnerable areas by mapping heat vulnerability. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover analysis using daily mortality in the Barcelona metropolitan area during the warm seasons of 1999-2006. Temperature data on the date of death were assigned to each individual, which were assigned to their census tract of residence. Eight census tract-level variables on socioeconomic or built environment characteristics were obtained from the census. Residence surrounding greenness was obtained from satellite data. The relative risk (RR) of mortality after three consecutive hot days (defined as those exceeding the 95th percentile of maximum temperature) was calculated via conditional logistic regression. Effect modification was examined by including interaction terms. Analyses were based on 52 806 deaths. The effect of three consecutive hot days was a 30% increase in all-cause mortality (RR=1.30, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.38). Heterogeneity of this effect was observed across census tracts. The effect of heat on mortality was higher in the census tracts with a large percentage of old buildings (RR=1.21, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.46), manual workers (RR=1.25, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.64) and residents perceiving little surrounding greenness (RR=1.29, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.65). After three consecutive hot days, mortality doubled in the most heat-vulnerable census tracts. Sociodemographic and urban landscape characteristics are associated to mortality risk during heat waves and are useful to build heat vulnerability maps.

  9. Associations of PM2.5 and Black Carbon with Hospital Emergency Room Visits during Heavy Haze Events: A Case Study in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fengchao; Tian, Lin; Guo, Qun; Westerdahl, Dane; Liu, Yang; Jin, Xiaobin; Li, Guoxing; Pan, Xiaochuan

    2017-07-05

    In January 2013, severe haze events over northeastern China sparked substantial health concerns. This study explores the associations of fine particulate matter less than 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) and black carbon (BC) with hospital emergency room visits (ERVs) during a haze season in Beijing. During that period, daily counts of ERVs for respiratory, cardiovascular and ocular diseases were obtained from a Level-3A hospital in Beijing from 1 December 2012 to 28 February 2013, and associations of which with PM 2.5 and BC were estimated by time-stratified case-crossover analysis in single- and two-pollutant models. We found a 27.5% (95% confidence interval (CI): 13.0, 43.9%) increase in respiratory ERV (lag02), a 19.4% (95% CI: 2.5, 39.0%) increase in cardiovascular ERV (lag0), and a 12.6% (95% CI: 0.0, 26.7%) increase in ocular ERV (lag0) along with an interquartile range (IQR) increase in the PM 2.5 . An IQR increase of BC was associated with 27.6% (95% CI: 9.6, 48.6%) (lag02), 18.8% (95% CI: 1.4, 39.2%) (lag0) and 11.8% (95% CI: -1.4, 26.8%) (lag0) increases for changes in these same health outcomes respectively. Estimated associations were consistent after adjusting SO₂ or NO₂ in two-pollutant models. This study provides evidence that improving air quality and reducing haze days would greatly benefit the population health.

  10. Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrests During the Japanese Professional Baseball Championship Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Daisuke; Hagihara, Akihito

    2018-03-14

    Because the Japan Professional Baseball Championship Series (Japan Series) is a stressful sports event, it is possible that watching Japan Series matches may increase the risk of cardiovascular events. Therefore, we investigated the potential association between the Japan Series and the incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) events. National registry data for all cases of OHCA between 2005 and 2014 from 47 prefectures of Japan were obtained. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design with a conditional Poisson regression model to compare OHCA events during the Japan Series with those events that occurred during the periods except for dates of the Japan Series. The estimated associations for each prefecture were pooled at the nationwide level using a random-effects meta-analysis. In total, 666,020 OHCAs of presumed cardiac origin were reported during the study period. On days of Japan Series matches, the pooled relative risk of OHCA was 1.033 (95% confidence interval 1.012 to 1.055; p = 0.002; I 2  = 3.5%, P for heterogeneity = 0.405). Stratified analyses by gender revealed that the substantial increase in OHCA during the events was observed for men, whereas we found no significant increase for women. We also found a considerable rise in OHCA among patients aged ≥65 years; however, there was no significant evidence of increased risk in those aged 18 to 64 years. In conclusion, stressful baseball match is associated with an increased risk of OHCA. Prevention measures for severe emotional stress-related OHCA should be implemented, particularly for elderly men. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguen, Séverine; Petit, Claire; Delbarre, Angélique; Kihal, Wahida; Padilla, Cindy; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1) socioeconomic status, 2) long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3) both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France). A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866). The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER) was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], ppollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels.

  12. Intracerebral haemorrhage associated with hourly concentration of ambient particulate matter: case‐crossover analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, S; Nitta, H; Ono, M; Green, J; Fukuhara, S

    2007-01-01

    Aims To examine the association of hourly time lagged concentration of ambient particulate matter and death due to stroke. Methods Mortality data for five years (January 1990 to December 1994) were obtained from the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare of Japan. Data were used only if the deceased was 65 years old or older at the time of death, if death was attributed to intracerebral haemorrhage or ischaemic stroke, and if the deceased lived in one of 13 major urban areas. Hourly mean concentrations of PM7, NO2, and photochemical oxidants were measured at monitoring stations in the 13 areas. Time stratified case‐crossover analysis was used to examine the data for evidence of triggering stroke mortality. Results The 1‐hour mean concentration of PM7 measured about 2 hours before death was associated with the risk of death due to intracerebral haemorrhage from April to September (odds ratio = 2.40, 95% CI 1.48 to 3.89, for exposure to PM7 of more than 200 μg/m3 (threshold)). The higher risk was independent of the 24‐hour mean concentration of PM7. PM7 was not associated with death due to ischaemic stroke. Conclusions Transiently high concentrations of PM7 are associated with death due to intracerebral haemorrhage. Air quality standards or guidelines for particulate matter should be based not only on 24‐hour mean concentrations, but also on hourly data. PMID:16847037

  13. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Labrèche, France; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Brand, Allan; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers' Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers.

  14. Recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification predicts survival in patients with brain metastases from sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Rachel; Ram, Zvi

    2014-12-01

    Sarcoma rarely metastasizes to the brain, and there are no specific treatment guidelines for these tumors. The recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) classification is a well-established prognostic scale used in many malignancies. In this study we assessed the clinical characteristics of metastatic sarcoma to the brain and the validity of the RPA classification system in a subset of 21 patients who underwent surgical resection of metastatic sarcoma to the brain We retrospectively analyzed the medical, radiological, surgical, pathological, and follow-up clinical records of 21 patients who were operated for metastatic sarcoma to the brain between 1996 and 2012. Gliosarcomas, sarcomas of the head and neck with local extension into the brain, and metastatic sarcomas to the spine were excluded from this reported series. The patients' mean age was 49.6 ± 14.2 years (range, 25-75 years) at the time of diagnosis. Sixteen patients had a known history of systemic sarcoma, mostly in the extremities, and had previously received systemic chemotherapy and radiation therapy for their primary tumor. The mean maximal tumor diameter in the brain was 4.9 ± 1.7 cm (range 1.7-7.2 cm). The group's median preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale was 80, with 14 patients presenting with Karnofsky Performance Scale of 70 or greater. The median overall survival was 7 months (range 0.2-204 months). The median survival time stratified by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RPA classes were 31, 7, and 2 months for RPA class I, II, and III, respectively (P = 0.0001). This analysis is the first to support the prognostic utility of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group RPA classification for sarcoma brain metastases and may be used as a treatment guideline tool in this rare disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Neurobehavioral effects among subjects exposed to high static and gradient magnetic fields from a 1.5 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system--a case-crossover pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, Frank; van-Wendel-de-Joode, Berna; Engels, Hans; Kromhout, Hans

    2003-10-01

    The interactive use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques is increasing in operating theaters. A study was performed on 17 male company volunteers to assess the neurobehavioral effects of exposure to magnetic fields from a 1.5 Tesla MRI system. The subjects' neurobehavioral performances on a neurobehavioral test battery were compared in four 1-hr sessions with and without exposure to magnetic fields, and with and without additional movements. Adverse effects were found for hand coordination (-4%, P Tesla MRI system may lead to neurobehavioral effects. Further research is recommended, especially in members of operating teams using interactive MRI systems. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...

  17. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séverine Deguen

    Full Text Available While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1 socioeconomic status, 2 long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3 both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France.A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866.The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001. Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution: ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02.Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels.

  18. Decision analysis multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis

  19. Large-scale STI services in Avahan improve utilization and treatment seeking behaviour amongst high-risk groups in India: an analysis of clinical records from six states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurung Anup

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avahan, the India AIDS Initiative, implemented a large HIV prevention programme across six high HIV prevalence states amongst high risk groups consisting of female sex workers, high risk men who have sex with men, transgenders and injecting drug users in India. Utilization of the clinical services, health seeking behaviour and trends in syndromic diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections amongst these populations were measured using the individual tracking data. Methods The Avahan clinical monitoring system included individual tracking data pertaining to clinical services amongst high risk groups. All clinic visits were recorded in the routine clinical monitoring system using unique identification numbers at the NGO-level. Visits by individual clinic attendees were tracked from January 2005 to December 2009. An analysis examining the limited variables over time, stratified by risk group, was performed. Results A total of 431,434 individuals including 331,533 female sex workers, 10,280 injecting drug users, 82,293 men who have sex with men, and 7,328 transgenders visited the clinics with a total of 2,700,192 visits. Individuals made an average of 6.2 visits to the clinics during the study period. The number of visits per person increased annually from 1.2 in 2005 to 8.3 in 2009. The proportion of attendees visiting clinics more than four times a year increased from 4% in 2005 to 26% in 2009 (p Conclusions The programme demonstrated that acceptable and accessible services with marginalised and often difficult–to-reach populations can be brought to a very large scale using standardized approaches. Utilization of these services can dramatically improve health seeking behaviour and reduce STI prevalence.

  20. Performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-05-01

    This book introduces energy and resource technology development business with performance analysis, which has business division and definition, analysis of current situation of support, substance of basic plan of national energy, resource technique development, selection of analysis index, result of performance analysis by index, performance result of investigation, analysis and appraisal of energy and resource technology development business in 2007.

  1. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jae, Myeong Gi; Lee, Won Seong; Kim, Ha Hyeok

    1989-02-01

    This book give description of electronic engineering such as circuit element and device, circuit analysis and logic digital circuit, the method of electrochemistry like conductometry, potentiometry and current measuring, spectro chemical analysis with electromagnetic radiant rays, optical components, absorption spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and reference, chromatography like gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography and automated analysis on control system evaluation of automated analysis and automated analysis system and reference.

  2. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jae, Myeong Gi; Lee, Won Seong; Kim, Ha Hyeok

    1989-02-15

    This book give description of electronic engineering such as circuit element and device, circuit analysis and logic digital circuit, the method of electrochemistry like conductometry, potentiometry and current measuring, spectro chemical analysis with electromagnetic radiant rays, optical components, absorption spectroscopy, X-ray analysis, atomic absorption spectrometry and reference, chromatography like gas-chromatography and liquid-chromatography and automated analysis on control system evaluation of automated analysis and automated analysis system and reference.

  3. Instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-15

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  4. Instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Jae; Seo, Seong Gyu

    1995-03-01

    This textbook deals with instrumental analysis, which consists of nine chapters. It has Introduction of analysis chemistry, the process of analysis and types and form of the analysis, Electrochemistry on basic theory, potentiometry and conductometry, electromagnetic radiant rays and optical components on introduction and application, Ultraviolet rays and Visible spectrophotometry, Atomic absorption spectrophotometry on introduction, flame emission spectrometry and plasma emission spectrometry. The others like infrared spectrophotometry, X-rays spectrophotometry and mass spectrometry, chromatography and the other instrumental analysis like radiochemistry.

  5. Sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003741.htm Sensitivity analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Sensitivity analysis determines the effectiveness of antibiotics against microorganisms (germs) ...

  6. Real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    McShane, Edward James

    2013-01-01

    This text surveys practical elements of real function theory, general topology, and functional analysis. Discusses the maximality principle, the notion of convergence, the Lebesgue-Stieltjes integral, function spaces and harmonic analysis. Includes exercises. 1959 edition.

  7. CSF analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebrospinal fluid analysis ... Analysis of CSF can help detect certain conditions and diseases. All of the following can be, but ... An abnormal CSF analysis result may be due to many different causes, ... Encephalitis (such as West Nile and Eastern Equine) Hepatic ...

  8. Semen analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... analysis URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003627.htm Semen analysis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Semen analysis measures the amount and quality of a man's semen and sperm. Semen is ...

  9. Functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kantorovich, L V

    1982-01-01

    Functional Analysis examines trends in functional analysis as a mathematical discipline and the ever-increasing role played by its techniques in applications. The theory of topological vector spaces is emphasized, along with the applications of functional analysis to applied analysis. Some topics of functional analysis connected with applications to mathematical economics and control theory are also discussed. Comprised of 18 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the elements of the theory of topological spaces, the theory of metric spaces, and the theory of abstract measure space

  10. Image analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berman, M.; Bischof, L.M.; Breen, E.J.; Peden, G.M.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of modern image analysis techniques pertinent to materials science. The usual approach in image analysis contains two basic steps: first, the image is segmented into its constituent components (e.g. individual grains), and second, measurement and quantitative analysis are performed. Usually, the segmentation part of the process is the harder of the two. Consequently, much of the paper concentrates on this aspect, reviewing both fundamental segmentation tools (commonly found in commercial image analysis packages) and more advanced segmentation tools. There is also a review of the most widely used quantitative analysis methods for measuring the size, shape and spatial arrangements of objects. Many of the segmentation and analysis methods are demonstrated using complex real-world examples. Finally, there is a discussion of hardware and software issues. 42 refs., 17 figs

  11. Semiotic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Francis C.

    Semiotic analysis is a method of analyzing signs (e.g., words) to reduce non-numeric data to their component parts without losing essential meanings. Semiotics dates back to Aristotle's analysis of language; it was much advanced by nineteenth-century analyses of style and logic and by Whitehead and Russell's description in this century of the role…

  12. Dimensional Analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dimensional analysis is a useful tool which finds important applications in physics and engineering. It is most effective when there exist a maximal number of dimensionless quantities constructed out of the relevant physical variables. Though a complete theory of dimen- sional analysis was developed way back in 1914 in a.

  13. Job Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bravená, Helena

    2009-01-01

    This bacherlor thesis deals with the importance of job analysis for personnel activities in the company. The aim of this work is to find the most suitable method of job analysis in a particular enterprise, and continues creating descriptions and specifications of each job.

  14. Incidents analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, P.

    1996-01-01

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs

  15. Incidents analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francois, P

    1997-12-31

    We undertook a study programme at the end of 1991. To start with, we performed some exploratory studies aimed at learning some preliminary lessons on this type of analysis: Assessment of the interest of probabilistic incident analysis; possibility of using PSA scenarios; skills and resources required. At the same time, EPN created a working group whose assignment was to define a new approach for analysis of incidents on NPPs. This working group gave thought to both aspects of Operating Feedback that EPN wished to improve: Analysis of significant incidents; analysis of potential consequences. We took part in the work of this group, and for the second aspects, we proposed a method based on an adaptation of the event-tree method in order to establish a link between existing PSA models and actual incidents. Since PSA provides an exhaustive database of accident scenarios applicable to the two most common types of units in France, they are obviously of interest for this sort of analysis. With this method we performed some incident analyses, and at the same time explores some methods employed abroad, particularly ASP (Accident Sequence Precursor, a method used by the NRC). Early in 1994 EDF began a systematic analysis programme. The first, transient phase will set up methods and an organizational structure. 7 figs.

  16. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Khabaza, I M

    1960-01-01

    Numerical Analysis is an elementary introduction to numerical analysis, its applications, limitations, and pitfalls. Methods suitable for digital computers are emphasized, but some desk computations are also described. Topics covered range from the use of digital computers in numerical work to errors in computations using desk machines, finite difference methods, and numerical solution of ordinary differential equations. This book is comprised of eight chapters and begins with an overview of the importance of digital computers in numerical analysis, followed by a discussion on errors in comput

  17. Trace analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, M.

    1987-01-01

    What is the current state of quantitative trace analytical chemistry? What are today's research efforts? And what challenges does the future hold? These are some of the questions addressed at a recent four-day symposium sponsored by the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) entitled Accuracy in Trace Analysis - Accomplishments, Goals, Challenges. The two plenary sessions held on the first day of the symposium reviewed the history of quantitative trace analysis, discussed the present situation from academic and industrial perspectives, and summarized future needs. The remaining three days of the symposium consisted of parallel sessions dealing with the measurement process; quantitation in materials; environmental, clinical, and nutrient analysis; and advances in analytical techniques

  18. Recursive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    2010-01-01

    Recursive analysis develops natural number computations into a framework appropriate for real numbers. This text is based upon primary recursive arithmetic and presents a unique combination of classical analysis and intuitional analysis. Written by a master in the field, it is suitable for graduate students of mathematics and computer science and can be read without a detailed knowledge of recursive arithmetic.Introductory chapters on recursive convergence and recursive and relative continuity are succeeded by explorations of recursive and relative differentiability, the relative integral, and

  19. Analysis I

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This is part one of a two-volume book on real analysis and is intended for senior undergraduate students of mathematics who have already been exposed to calculus. The emphasis is on rigour and foundations of analysis. Beginning with the construction of the number systems and set theory, the book discusses the basics of analysis (limits, series, continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration), through to power series, several variable calculus and Fourier analysis, and then finally the Lebesgue integral. These are almost entirely set in the concrete setting of the real line and Euclidean spaces, although there is some material on abstract metric and topological spaces. The book also has appendices on mathematical logic and the decimal system. The entire text (omitting some less central topics) can be taught in two quarters of 25–30 lectures each. The course material is deeply intertwined with the exercises, as it is intended that the student actively learn the material (and practice thinking and writing ri...

  20. Analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Tao, Terence

    2016-01-01

    This is part two of a two-volume book on real analysis and is intended for senior undergraduate students of mathematics who have already been exposed to calculus. The emphasis is on rigour and foundations of analysis. Beginning with the construction of the number systems and set theory, the book discusses the basics of analysis (limits, series, continuity, differentiation, Riemann integration), through to power series, several variable calculus and Fourier analysis, and then finally the Lebesgue integral. These are almost entirely set in the concrete setting of the real line and Euclidean spaces, although there is some material on abstract metric and topological spaces. The book also has appendices on mathematical logic and the decimal system. The entire text (omitting some less central topics) can be taught in two quarters of 25–30 lectures each. The course material is deeply intertwined with the exercises, as it is intended that the student actively learn the material (and practice thinking and writing ri...

  1. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Basic studies in nuclear analytical techniques include the examination of underlying assumptions and the development and extention of techniques involving the use of ion beams for elemental and mass analysis. 1 ref., 1 tab

  2. Biorefinery Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    Fact sheet summarizing NREL's techno-economic analysis and life-cycle assessment capabilities to connect research with future commercial process integration, a critical step in the scale-up of biomass conversion technologies.

  3. Nonlinear analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gasinski, Leszek

    2005-01-01

    Hausdorff Measures and Capacity. Lebesgue-Bochner and Sobolev Spaces. Nonlinear Operators and Young Measures. Smooth and Nonsmooth Analysis and Variational Principles. Critical Point Theory. Eigenvalue Problems and Maximum Principles. Fixed Point Theory.

  4. Hydroeconomic analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Riegels, Niels; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Hydroeconomic analysis and modeling provides a consistent and quantitative framework to assess the links between water resources systems and economic activities related to water use, simultaneously modeling water supply and water demand. It supports water managers and decision makers in assessing...... trade-offs between different water uses, different geographic regions, and various economic sectors and between the present and the future. Hydroeconomic analysis provides consistent economic performance criteria for infrastructure development and institutional reform in water policies and management...... organizations. This chapter presents an introduction to hydroeconomic analysis and modeling, and reviews the state of the art in the field. We review available economic water-valuation techniques and summarize the main types of decision problems encountered in hydroeconomic analysis. Popular solution strategies...

  5. Conversation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffrin, Deborah

    1990-01-01

    Summarizes the current state of research in conversation analysis, referring primarily to six different perspectives that have developed from the philosophy, sociology, anthropology, and linguistics disciplines. These include pragmatics; speech act theory; interactional sociolinguistics; ethnomethodology; ethnography of communication; and…

  6. Factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Gorsuch, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive and comprehensible, this classic covers the basic and advanced topics essential for using factor analysis as a scientific tool in psychology, education, sociology, and related areas. Emphasizing the usefulness of the techniques, it presents sufficient mathematical background for understanding and sufficient discussion of applications for effective use. This includes not only theory but also the empirical evaluations of the importance of mathematical distinctions for applied scientific analysis.

  7. Radioactivation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1959-01-01

    Radioactivation analysis is the technique of radioactivation analysis of the constituents of a very small sample of matter by making the sample artificially radioactive. The first stage is to make the sample radioactive by artificial means, e.g. subject it to neutron bombardment. Once the sample has been activated, or made radioactive, the next task is to analyze the radiations given off by the sample. This analysis would indicate the nature and quantities of the various elements present in the sample. The reason is that the radiation from a particular radioisotope. In 1959 a symposium on 'Radioactivation Analysis' was organized in Vienna by the IAEA and the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity (ICSU). It was pointed out that there are certain factors creating uncertainties and elaborated how to overcome them. Attention was drawn to the fact that radioactivation analysis had proven a powerful tool tackling fundamental problems in geo- and cosmochemistry, and a review was given of the recent work in this field. Because of its extreme sensitivity radioactivation analysis had been principally employed for trace detection and its most extensive use has been in control of semiconductors and very pure metals. An account of the experience gained in the USA was given, where radioactivation analysis was being used by many investigators in various scientific fields as a practical and useful tool for elemental analyses. Much of this work had been concerned with determining sub microgramme and microgramme concentration of many different elements in samples of biological materials, drugs, fertilizers, fine chemicals, foods, fuels, glass, ceramic materials, metals, minerals, paints, petroleum products, resinous materials, soils, toxicants, water and other materials. In addition to these studies, radioactivation analysis had been used by other investigators to determine isotopic ratios of the stable isotopes of some of the elements. Another paper dealt with radioactivation

  8. Radioactivation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1959-07-15

    Radioactivation analysis is the technique of radioactivation analysis of the constituents of a very small sample of matter by making the sample artificially radioactive. The first stage is to make the sample radioactive by artificial means, e.g. subject it to neutron bombardment. Once the sample has been activated, or made radioactive, the next task is to analyze the radiations given off by the sample. This analysis would indicate the nature and quantities of the various elements present in the sample. The reason is that the radiation from a particular radioisotope. In 1959 a symposium on 'Radioactivation Analysis' was organized in Vienna by the IAEA and the Joint Commission on Applied Radioactivity (ICSU). It was pointed out that there are certain factors creating uncertainties and elaborated how to overcome them. Attention was drawn to the fact that radioactivation analysis had proven a powerful tool tackling fundamental problems in geo- and cosmochemistry, and a review was given of the recent work in this field. Because of its extreme sensitivity radioactivation analysis had been principally employed for trace detection and its most extensive use has been in control of semiconductors and very pure metals. An account of the experience gained in the USA was given, where radioactivation analysis was being used by many investigators in various scientific fields as a practical and useful tool for elemental analyses. Much of this work had been concerned with determining sub microgramme and microgramme concentration of many different elements in samples of biological materials, drugs, fertilizers, fine chemicals, foods, fuels, glass, ceramic materials, metals, minerals, paints, petroleum products, resinous materials, soils, toxicants, water and other materials. In addition to these studies, radioactivation analysis had been used by other investigators to determine isotopic ratios of the stable isotopes of some of the elements. Another paper dealt with radioactivation

  9. Panel Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brænder, Morten; Andersen, Lotte Bøgh

    2014-01-01

    Based on our 2013-article, ”Does Deployment to War Affect Soldiers' Public Service Motivation – A Panel Study of Soldiers Before and After their Service in Afghanistan”, we present Panel Analysis as a methodological discipline. Panels consist of multiple units of analysis, observed at two or more...... in research settings where it is not possible to distribute units of analysis randomly or where the independent variables cannot be manipulated. The greatest disadvantage in regard to using panel studies is that data may be difficult to obtain. This is most clearly vivid in regard to the use of panel surveys...... points in time. In comparison with traditional cross-sectional studies, the advantage of using panel studies is that the time dimension enables us to study effects. Whereas experimental designs may have a clear advantage in regard to causal inference, the strength of panel studies is difficult to match...

  10. Real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    This textbook is designed for a year-long course in real analysis taken by beginning graduate and advanced undergraduate students in mathematics and other areas such as statistics, engineering, and economics. Written by one of the leading scholars in the field, it elegantly explores the core concepts in real analysis and introduces new, accessible methods for both students and instructors. The first half of the book develops both Lebesgue measure and, with essentially no additional work for the student, general Borel measures for the real line. Notation indicates when a result holds only for Lebesgue measure. Differentiation and absolute continuity are presented using a local maximal function, resulting in an exposition that is both simpler and more general than the traditional approach. The second half deals with general measures and functional analysis, including Hilbert spaces, Fourier series, and the Riesz representation theorem for positive linear functionals on continuous functions with compact support....

  11. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, L Ridgway

    2011-01-01

    Computational science is fundamentally changing how technological questions are addressed. The design of aircraft, automobiles, and even racing sailboats is now done by computational simulation. The mathematical foundation of this new approach is numerical analysis, which studies algorithms for computing expressions defined with real numbers. Emphasizing the theory behind the computation, this book provides a rigorous and self-contained introduction to numerical analysis and presents the advanced mathematics that underpin industrial software, including complete details that are missing from most textbooks. Using an inquiry-based learning approach, Numerical Analysis is written in a narrative style, provides historical background, and includes many of the proofs and technical details in exercises. Students will be able to go beyond an elementary understanding of numerical simulation and develop deep insights into the foundations of the subject. They will no longer have to accept the mathematical gaps that ex...

  12. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, G Shanker

    2006-01-01

    About the Book: This book provides an introduction to Numerical Analysis for the students of Mathematics and Engineering. The book is designed in accordance with the common core syllabus of Numerical Analysis of Universities of Andhra Pradesh and also the syllabus prescribed in most of the Indian Universities. Salient features: Approximate and Numerical Solutions of Algebraic and Transcendental Equation Interpolation of Functions Numerical Differentiation and Integration and Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations The last three chapters deal with Curve Fitting, Eigen Values and Eigen Vectors of a Matrix and Regression Analysis. Each chapter is supplemented with a number of worked-out examples as well as number of problems to be solved by the students. This would help in the better understanding of the subject. Contents: Errors Solution of Algebraic and Transcendental Equations Finite Differences Interpolation with Equal Intervals Interpolation with Unequal Int...

  13. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jacques, Ian

    1987-01-01

    This book is primarily intended for undergraduates in mathematics, the physical sciences and engineering. It introduces students to most of the techniques forming the core component of courses in numerical analysis. The text is divided into eight chapters which are largely self-contained. However, with a subject as intricately woven as mathematics, there is inevitably some interdependence between them. The level of difficulty varies and, although emphasis is firmly placed on the methods themselves rather than their analysis, we have not hesitated to include theoretical material when we consider it to be sufficiently interesting. However, it should be possible to omit those parts that do seem daunting while still being able to follow the worked examples and to tackle the exercises accompanying each section. Familiarity with the basic results of analysis and linear algebra is assumed since these are normally taught in first courses on mathematical methods. For reference purposes a list of theorems used in the t...

  14. Real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DiBenedetto, Emmanuele

    2016-01-01

    The second edition of this classic textbook presents a rigorous and self-contained introduction to real analysis with the goal of providing a solid foundation for future coursework and research in applied mathematics. Written in a clear and concise style, it covers all of the necessary subjects as well as those often absent from standard introductory texts. Each chapter features a “Problems and Complements” section that includes additional material that briefly expands on certain topics within the chapter and numerous exercises for practicing the key concepts. The first eight chapters explore all of the basic topics for training in real analysis, beginning with a review of countable sets before moving on to detailed discussions of measure theory, Lebesgue integration, Banach spaces, functional analysis, and weakly differentiable functions. More topical applications are discussed in the remaining chapters, such as maximal functions, functions of bounded mean oscillation, rearrangements, potential theory, a...

  15. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  16. Convex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rockafellar, Ralph Tyrell

    2015-01-01

    Available for the first time in paperback, R. Tyrrell Rockafellar's classic study presents readers with a coherent branch of nonlinear mathematical analysis that is especially suited to the study of optimization problems. Rockafellar's theory differs from classical analysis in that differentiability assumptions are replaced by convexity assumptions. The topics treated in this volume include: systems of inequalities, the minimum or maximum of a convex function over a convex set, Lagrange multipliers, minimax theorems and duality, as well as basic results about the structure of convex sets and

  17. Numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brezinski, C

    2012-01-01

    Numerical analysis has witnessed many significant developments in the 20th century. This book brings together 16 papers dealing with historical developments, survey papers and papers on recent trends in selected areas of numerical analysis, such as: approximation and interpolation, solution of linear systems and eigenvalue problems, iterative methods, quadrature rules, solution of ordinary-, partial- and integral equations. The papers are reprinted from the 7-volume project of the Journal of Computational and Applied Mathematics on '/homepage/sac/cam/na2000/index.html<

  18. Reentry analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biehl, F.A.

    1984-05-01

    This paper presents the criteria, previous nuclear experience in space, analysis techniques, and possible breakup enhancement devices applicable to an acceptable SP-100 reentry from space. Reactor operation in nuclear-safe orbit will minimize the radiological risk; the remaining safeguards criteria need to be defined. A simple analytical point mass reentry technique and a more comprehensive analysis method that considers vehicle dynamics and orbit insertion malfunctions are presented. Vehicle trajectory, attitude, and possible breakup enhancement devices will be integrated in the simulation as required to ensure an adequate representation of the reentry process

  19. Outlier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aggarwal, Charu C

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing advances in hardware technology for data collection, and advances in software technology (databases) for data organization, computer scientists have increasingly participated in the latest advancements of the outlier analysis field. Computer scientists, specifically, approach this field based on their practical experiences in managing large amounts of data, and with far fewer assumptions- the data can be of any type, structured or unstructured, and may be extremely large.Outlier Analysis is a comprehensive exposition, as understood by data mining experts, statisticians and

  20. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  1. Elementary analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Snell, K S; Langford, W J; Maxwell, E A

    1966-01-01

    Elementary Analysis, Volume 2 introduces several of the ideas of modern mathematics in a casual manner and provides the practical experience in algebraic and analytic operations that lays a sound foundation of basic skills. This book focuses on the nature of number, algebraic and logical structure, groups, rings, fields, vector spaces, matrices, sequences, limits, functions and inverse functions, complex numbers, and probability. The logical structure of analysis given through the treatment of differentiation and integration, with applications to the trigonometric and logarithmic functions, is

  2. Risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.H.; Nunez McLeod, J.; Rivera, S.S.

    1997-01-01

    This book contains a selection of research works performed in the CEDIAC Institute (Cuyo National University) in the area of Risk Analysis, with specific orientations to the subjects of uncertainty and sensitivity studies, software reliability, severe accident modeling, etc. This volume presents important material for all those researches who want to have an insight in the risk analysis field, as a tool to solution several problems frequently found in the engineering and applied sciences field, as well as for the academic teachers who want to keep up to date, including the new developments and improvements continuously arising in this field [es

  3. Watershed analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan Gallegos

    2002-01-01

    Watershed analyses and assessments for the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project were done on about 33,000 acres of the 45,500-acre Big Creek watershed and 32,000 acres of the 85,100-acre Dinkey Creek watershed. Following procedures developed for analysis of cumulative watershed effects (CWE) in the Pacific Northwest Region of the USDA Forest Service, the...

  4. Regression Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freund, Rudolf J; Sa, Ping

    2006-01-01

    The book provides complete coverage of the classical methods of statistical analysis. It is designed to give students an understanding of the purpose of statistical analyses, to allow the student to determine, at least to some degree, the correct type of statistical analyses to be performed in a given situation, and have some appreciation of what constitutes good experimental design

  5. Relativistic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberger, A.

    1987-01-01

    We study the Klein-Gordon symbolic calculus of operators acting on solutions of the free Klein-Gordon equation. It contracts to the Weyl calculus as c→∞. Mathematically, it may also be considered as a pseudodifferential analysis on the unit ball of R n [fr

  6. Consequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodard, K.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives of this paper are to: Provide a realistic assessment of consequences; Account for plant and site-specific characteristics; Adjust accident release characteristics to account for results of plant-containment analysis; Produce conditional risk curves for each of five health effects; and Estimate uncertainties

  7. Domain analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2017-01-01

    The domain-analytic approach to knowledge organization (KO) (and to the broader field of library and information science, LIS) is outlined. The article reviews the discussions and proposals on the definition of domains, and provides an example of a domain-analytic study in the field of art studies....... Varieties of domain analysis as well as criticism and controversies are presented and discussed....

  8. IWS analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhoades, W.A.; Dray, B.J.

    1970-01-01

    The effect of Gadolinium-155 on the prompt kinetic behavior of a zirconium hydride reactor has been deduced, using experimental data from the SNAPTRAN machine. The poison material makes the temperature coefficient more positive, and the Type IV sleeves were deduced to give a positive coefficient above 1100 0 F. A thorough discussion of the data and analysis is included. (U.S.)

  9. Analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saadi, Radouan; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to Tritium analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal, within the framework of the RAF7011 project. It describes analytical method and instrumentation including general uncertainty estimation: Electrolytic enrichment and liquid scintillation counting; The results are expressed in Tritium Unit (TU); Low Limit Detection: 0.02 TU

  10. Survival Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Rupert G

    2011-01-01

    A concise summary of the statistical methods used in the analysis of survival data with censoring. Emphasizes recently developed nonparametric techniques. Outlines methods in detail and illustrates them with actual data. Discusses the theory behind each method. Includes numerous worked problems and numerical exercises.

  11. Genetic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koornneef, M.; Alonso-Blanco, C.; Stam, P.

    2006-01-01

    The Mendelian analysis of genetic variation, available as induced mutants or as natural variation, requires a number of steps that are described in this chapter. These include the determination of the number of genes involved in the observed trait's variation, the determination of dominance

  12. Poetic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirsten

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this article presents the characteristics of Hebrew poetry: features associated with rhythm and phonology, grammatical features, structural elements like parallelism, and imagery and intertextuality. The second part consists of an analysis of Psalm 121. It is argued that assonan...

  13. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  14. Trend analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.; Jones, D.R.

    1991-01-01

    The goal of exploration is to find reserves that will earn an adequate rate of return on the capital invested. Neither exploration nor economics is an exact science. The authors must therefore explore in those trends (plays) that have the highest probability of achieving this goal. Trend analysis is a technique for organizing the available data to make these strategic exploration decisions objectively and is in conformance with their goals and risk attitudes. Trend analysis differs from resource estimation in its purpose. It seeks to determine the probability of economic success for an exploration program, not the ultimate results of the total industry effort. Thus the recent past is assumed to be the best estimate of the exploration probabilities for the near future. This information is combined with economic forecasts. The computer software tools necessary for trend analysis are (1) Information data base - requirements and sources. (2) Data conditioning program - assignment to trends, correction of errors, and conversion into usable form. (3) Statistical processing program - calculation of probability of success and discovery size probability distribution. (4) Analytical processing - Monte Carlo simulation to develop the probability distribution of the economic return/investment ratio for a trend. Limited capital (short-run) effects are analyzed using the Gambler's Ruin concept in the Monte Carlo simulation and by a short-cut method. Multiple trend analysis is concerned with comparing and ranking trends, allocating funds among acceptable trends, and characterizing program risk by using risk profiles. In summary, trend analysis is a reality check for long-range exploration planning

  15. Influence of Urbanicity and County Characteristics on the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Air pollution epidemiology studies, often conducted in large metropolitan areas due to proximity to regulatory monitors, are limited in their ability to examine potential associations between air pollution exposures and health effects in rural locations. Methods: In a time-stratified case-crossover framework, we examined associations between asthma emergency department (ED) visits in North Carolina (2006-2008) collected by a surveillance system, and short-term ozone exposures using predicted concentrations from the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. Associations were estimated by county groupings based on four urbanicity classifications (representative of county size and urban proximity) and county health. Results: Ozone was associated with asthma ED visits in all-year and warm season (April-October) analyses [Odds Ratio (OR) =1.019; 95% CI: 0.998, 1.040; OR=1.020; 95% CI: 0.997, 1.044, respectively, for a 20 ppb increase in lag 0-2 days ozone]. The association was strongest in Less Urbanized counties, with no evidence of a positive association in Rural counties. Associations were similar when adjusted for fine particulate matter in copolluant models. Associations were stronger for children (5-17 years of age) compared with other age groups, and for individuals living in counties with poorer health status compared with counties that had the highest health rankings, although estimated associations for these subgroups were imprecise. Conclu

  16. Air pollution and multiple acute respiratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faustini, Annunziata; Stafoggia, Massimo; Colais, Paola; Berti, Giovanna; Bisanti, Luigi; Cadum, Ennio; Cernigliaro, Achille; Mallone, Sandra; Scarnato, Corrado; Forastiere, Francesco

    2013-08-01

    Short-term effects of air pollutants on respiratory mortality and morbidity have been consistently reported but usually studied separately. To more completely assess air pollution effects, we studied hospitalisations for respiratory diseases together with out-of-hospital respiratory deaths. A time-stratified case-crossover study was carried out in six Italian cities from 2001 to 2005. Daily particulate matter (particles with a 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm (PM10)) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) associations with hospitalisations for respiratory diseases (n = 100 690), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 38 577), lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) among COPD patients (n = 9886) and out-of-hospital respiratory deaths (n = 5490) were estimated for residents aged ≥35 years. For an increase of 10 μg·m(-3) in PM10, we found an immediate 0.59% (lag 0-1 days) increase in hospitalisations for respiratory diseases and a 0.67% increase for COPD; the 1.91% increase in LRTI hospitalisations lasted longer (lag 0-3 days) and the 3.95% increase in respiratory mortality lasted 6 days. Effects of NO2 were stronger and lasted longer (lag 0-5 days). Age, sex and previous ischaemic heart disease acted as effect modifiers for different outcomes. Analysing multiple rather than single respiratory events shows stronger air pollution effects. The temporal relationship between the pollutant increases and hospitalisations or mortality for respiratory diseases differs.

  17. Image Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The 19th Scandinavian Conference on Image Analysis was held at the IT University of Copenhagen in Denmark during June 15-17, 2015. The SCIA conference series has been an ongoing biannual event for more than 30 years and over the years it has nurtured a world-class regional research and development...... area within the four participating Nordic countries. It is a regional meeting of the International Association for Pattern Recognition (IAPR). We would like to thank all authors who submitted works to this year’s SCIA, the invited speakers, and our Program Committee. In total 67 papers were submitted....... The topics of the accepted papers range from novel applications of vision systems, pattern recognition, machine learning, feature extraction, segmentation, 3D vision, to medical and biomedical image analysis. The papers originate from all the Scandinavian countries and several other European countries...

  18. Harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Helson, Henry

    2010-01-01

    This second edition has been enlarged and considerably rewritten. Among the new topics are infinite product spaces with applications to probability, disintegration of measures on product spaces, positive definite functions on the line, and additional information about Weyl's theorems on equidistribution. Topics that have continued from the first edition include Minkowski's theorem, measures with bounded powers, idempotent measures, spectral sets of bounded functions and a theorem of Szego, and the Wiener Tauberian theorem. Readers of the book should have studied the Lebesgue integral, the elementary theory of analytic and harmonic functions, and the basic theory of Banach spaces. The treatment is classical and as simple as possible. This is an instructional book, not a treatise. Mathematics students interested in analysis will find here what they need to know about Fourier analysis. Physicists and others can use the book as a reference for more advanced topics.

  19. Geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bray, Hubert L; Mazzeo, Rafe; Sesum, Natasa

    2015-01-01

    This volume includes expanded versions of the lectures delivered in the Graduate Minicourse portion of the 2013 Park City Mathematics Institute session on Geometric Analysis. The papers give excellent high-level introductions, suitable for graduate students wishing to enter the field and experienced researchers alike, to a range of the most important areas of geometric analysis. These include: the general issue of geometric evolution, with more detailed lectures on Ricci flow and Kähler-Ricci flow, new progress on the analytic aspects of the Willmore equation as well as an introduction to the recent proof of the Willmore conjecture and new directions in min-max theory for geometric variational problems, the current state of the art regarding minimal surfaces in R^3, the role of critical metrics in Riemannian geometry, and the modern perspective on the study of eigenfunctions and eigenvalues for Laplace-Beltrami operators.

  20. Complex analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Freitag, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The guiding principle of this presentation of ``Classical Complex Analysis'' is to proceed as quickly as possible to the central results while using a small number of notions and concepts from other fields. Thus the prerequisites for understanding this book are minimal; only elementary facts of calculus and algebra are required. The first four chapters cover the essential core of complex analysis: - differentiation in C (including elementary facts about conformal mappings) - integration in C (including complex line integrals, Cauchy's Integral Theorem, and the Integral Formulas) - sequences and series of analytic functions, (isolated) singularities, Laurent series, calculus of residues - construction of analytic functions: the gamma function, Weierstrass' Factorization Theorem, Mittag-Leffler Partial Fraction Decomposition, and -as a particular highlight- the Riemann Mapping Theorem, which characterizes the simply connected domains in C. Further topics included are: - the theory of elliptic functions based on...

  1. Spectrographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The article deals with spectrographic analysis and the analytical methods based on it. The theory of spectrographic analysis is discussed as well as the layout of a spectrometer system. The infrared absorption spectrum of a compound is probably its most unique property. The absorption of infrared radiation depends on increasing the energy of vibration and rotation associated with a covalent bond. The infrared region is intrinsically low in energy thus the design of infrared spectrometers is always directed toward maximising energy throughput. The article also considers atomic absorption - flame atomizers, non-flame atomizers and the source of radiation. Under the section an emission spectroscopy non-electrical energy sources, electrical energy sources and electrical flames are discussed. Digital computers form a part of the development on spectrographic instrumentation

  2. Wavelet analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cheng, Lizhi; Luo, Yong; Chen, Bo

    2014-01-01

    This book could be divided into two parts i.e. fundamental wavelet transform theory and method and some important applications of wavelet transform. In the first part, as preliminary knowledge, the Fourier analysis, inner product space, the characteristics of Haar functions, and concepts of multi-resolution analysis, are introduced followed by a description on how to construct wavelet functions both multi-band and multi wavelets, and finally introduces the design of integer wavelets via lifting schemes and its application to integer transform algorithm. In the second part, many applications are discussed in the field of image and signal processing by introducing other wavelet variants such as complex wavelets, ridgelets, and curvelets. Important application examples include image compression, image denoising/restoration, image enhancement, digital watermarking, numerical solution of partial differential equations, and solving ill-conditioned Toeplitz system. The book is intended for senior undergraduate stude...

  3. Electrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hun

    2007-02-01

    This book explains potentiometry, voltametry, amperometry and basic conception of conductometry with eleven chapters. It gives the specific descriptions on electrochemical cell and its mode, basic conception of electrochemical analysis on oxidation-reduction reaction, standard electrode potential, formal potential, faradaic current and faradaic process, mass transfer and overvoltage, potentiometry and indirect potentiometry, polarography with TAST, normal pulse and deferential pulse, voltammetry, conductometry and conductometric titration.

  4. Survival analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badwe, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The primary endpoint in the majority of the studies has been either disease recurrence or death. This kind of analysis requires a special method since all patients in the study experience the endpoint. The standard method for estimating such survival distribution is Kaplan Meier method. The survival function is defined as the proportion of individuals who survive beyond certain time. Multi-variate comparison for survival has been carried out with Cox's proportional hazard model

  5. Elastodynamic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars

    This book contains the lecture notes for the 9th semester course on elastodynamics. The first chapter gives an overview of the basic theory of stress waves propagating in viscoelastic media. In particular, the effect of surfaces and interfaces in a viscoelastic material is studied, and different....... Thus, in Chapter 3, an alternative semi-analytic method is derived, which may be applied for the analysis of layered half-spaces subject to moving or stationary loads....

  6. Cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Hans-Joachim; Sofyan, Hizir

    2000-01-01

    As an explorative technique, duster analysis provides a description or a reduction in the dimension of the data. It classifies a set of observations into two or more mutually exclusive unknown groups based on combinations of many variables. Its aim is to construct groups in such a way that the profiles of objects in the same groups are relatively homogenous whereas the profiles of objects in different groups are relatively heterogeneous. Clustering is distinct from classification techniques, ...

  7. Water analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbarino, J.R.; Steinheimer, T.R.; Taylor, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    This is the twenty-first biennial review of the inorganic and organic analytical chemistry of water. The format of this review differs somewhat from previous reviews in this series - the most recent of which appeared in Analytical Chemistry in April 1983. Changes in format have occurred in the presentation of material concerning review articles and the inorganic analysis of water sections. Organic analysis of water sections are organized as in previous reviews. Review articles have been compiled and tabulated in an Appendix with respect to subject, title, author(s), citation, and number of references cited. The inorganic water analysis sections are now grouped by constituent using the periodic chart; for example, alkali, alkaline earth, 1st series transition metals, etc. Within these groupings the references are roughly grouped by instrumental technique; for example, spectrophotometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, etc. Multiconstituent methods for determining analytes that cannot be grouped in this manner are compiled into a separate section sorted by instrumental technique. References used in preparing this review were compiled from nearly 60 major journals published during the period from October 1982 through September 1984. Conference proceedings, most foreign journals, most trade journals, and most government publications are excluded. References cited were obtained using the American Chemical Society's Chemical Abstracts for sections on inorganic analytical chemistry, organic analytical chemistry, water, and sewage waste. Cross-references of these sections were also included. 860 references

  8. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  9. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  10. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  11. Understanding analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abbott, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    This lively introductory text exposes the student to the rewards of a rigorous study of functions of a real variable. In each chapter, informal discussions of questions that give analysis its inherent fascination are followed by precise, but not overly formal, developments of the techniques needed to make sense of them. By focusing on the unifying themes of approximation and the resolution of paradoxes that arise in the transition from the finite to the infinite, the text turns what could be a daunting cascade of definitions and theorems into a coherent and engaging progression of ideas. Acutely aware of the need for rigor, the student is much better prepared to understand what constitutes a proper mathematical proof and how to write one. Fifteen years of classroom experience with the first edition of Understanding Analysis have solidified and refined the central narrative of the second edition. Roughly 150 new exercises join a selection of the best exercises from the first edition, and three more project-sty...

  12. Consensus analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moore, R; Brødsgaard, I; Miller, ML

    1997-01-01

    A quantitative method for validating qualitative interview results and checking sample parameters is described and illustrated using common pain descriptions among a sample of Anglo-American and mandarin Chinese patients and dentists matched by age and gender. Assumptions were that subjects were ...... of covalidating questionnaires that reflect results of qualitative interviews are recommended in order to estimate sample parameters such as intersubject agreement, individual subject accuracy, and minimum required sample sizes.......A quantitative method for validating qualitative interview results and checking sample parameters is described and illustrated using common pain descriptions among a sample of Anglo-American and mandarin Chinese patients and dentists matched by age and gender. Assumptions were that subjects were...... of consistency in use of descriptors within groups, validity of description, accuracy of individuals compared with others in their group, and minimum required sample size were calculated using Cronbach's alpha, factor analysis, and Bayesian probability. Ethnic and professional differences within and across...

  13. Failure Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iorio, A.F.; Crespi, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    After ten years of operation at the Atucha I Nuclear Power Station a gear belonging to a pressurized heavy water reactor refuelling machine, failed. The gear box was used to operate the inlet-outlet heavy-water valve of the machine. Visual examination of the gear device showed an absence of lubricant and that several gear teeth were broken at the root. Motion was transmitted with a speed-reducing device with controlled adjustable times in order to produce a proper fitness of the valve closure. The aim of this paper is to discuss the results of the gear failure analysis in order to recommend the proper solution to prevent further failures. (Author)

  14. Nuclear analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In a search for correlations between the elemental composition of trace elements in human stones and the stone types with relation to their growth pattern, a combined PIXE and x-ray diffraction spectrometry approach was implemented. The combination of scanning PIXE and XRD has proved to be an advance in the methodology of stone analysis and may point to the growth pattern in the body. The exact role of trace elements in the formation and growth of urinary stones is not fully understood. Efforts are thus continuing firstly to solve the analytical problems concerned and secondly to design suitable experiments that would provide information about the occurrence and distribution of trace elements in urine. 1 fig., 1 ref

  15. Ferrous analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, W.A.

    1987-01-01

    This review is the seventh in the series compiled by using the Dialog on-line CA Search facilities at the Information Resource Center of USS Technical Center covering the period from Oct. 1984 to Nov. 1, 1986. The quest for better surface properties, through the application of various electrochemical and other coating techniques, seems to have increased and reinforces the notion that only through the value added to a steel by proper finishing steps can a major supplier hope to compete profitably. The detection, determination, and control of microalloying constituents has also been generating a lot of interest as evidenced by the number of publications devoted to this subject in the last few years. Several recent review articles amplify on the recent trends in the application of modern analytical technology to steelmaking. Another review has been devoted to the determination of trace elements and the simultaneous determination of elements in metals by mass spectrometry, atomic absorption spectrometry, and multielement emission spectrometry. Problems associated with the analysis of electroplating wastewaters have been reviewed in a recent publication that has described the use of various spectrophotometric methods for this purpose. The collection and treatment of analytical data in the modern steel making environment have been extensively reviewed emphasis on the interaction of the providers and users of the analytical data, its quality, and the cost of its collection. Raw material treatment and beneficiation was the dominant theme

  16. Matrix analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    1997-01-01

    A good part of matrix theory is functional analytic in spirit. This statement can be turned around. There are many problems in operator theory, where most of the complexities and subtleties are present in the finite-dimensional case. My purpose in writing this book is to present a systematic treatment of methods that are useful in the study of such problems. This book is intended for use as a text for upper division and gradu­ ate courses. Courses based on parts of the material have been given by me at the Indian Statistical Institute and at the University of Toronto (in collaboration with Chandler Davis). The book should also be useful as a reference for research workers in linear algebra, operator theory, mathe­ matical physics and numerical analysis. A possible subtitle of this book could be Matrix Inequalities. A reader who works through the book should expect to become proficient in the art of deriving such inequalities. Other authors have compared this art to that of cutting diamonds. One first has to...

  17. Uncertainty analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, R.E.

    1982-03-01

    An evaluation is made of the suitability of analytical and statistical sampling methods for making uncertainty analyses. The adjoint method is found to be well-suited for obtaining sensitivity coefficients for computer programs involving large numbers of equations and input parameters. For this purpose the Latin Hypercube Sampling method is found to be inferior to conventional experimental designs. The Latin hypercube method can be used to estimate output probability density functions, but requires supplementary rank transformations followed by stepwise regression to obtain uncertainty information on individual input parameters. A simple Cork and Bottle problem is used to illustrate the efficiency of the adjoint method relative to certain statistical sampling methods. For linear models of the form Ax=b it is shown that a complete adjoint sensitivity analysis can be made without formulating and solving the adjoint problem. This can be done either by using a special type of statistical sampling or by reformulating the primal problem and using suitable linear programming software

  18. Experimental modal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, M.

    2006-12-15

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software, general digital analysis, basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis and system identification. (au)

  19. Theoretical numerical analysis a functional analysis framework

    CERN Document Server

    Atkinson, Kendall

    2005-01-01

    This textbook prepares graduate students for research in numerical analysis/computational mathematics by giving to them a mathematical framework embedded in functional analysis and focused on numerical analysis. This helps the student to move rapidly into a research program. The text covers basic results of functional analysis, approximation theory, Fourier analysis and wavelets, iteration methods for nonlinear equations, finite difference methods, Sobolev spaces and weak formulations of boundary value problems, finite element methods, elliptic variational inequalities and their numerical solu

  20. Analysis of Heat Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-08-01

    This book deals with analysis of heat transfer which includes nonlinear analysis examples, radiation heat transfer, analysis of heat transfer in ANSYS, verification of analysis result, analysis of heat transfer of transition with automatic time stepping and open control, analysis of heat transfer using arrangement of ANSYS, resistance of thermal contact, coupled field analysis such as of thermal-structural interaction, cases of coupled field analysis, and phase change.

  1. Information security risk analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2001-01-01

    Effective Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk AnalysisValue AnalysisOther Qualitative MethodsFacilitated Risk Analysis Process (FRAP)Other Uses of Qualitative Risk AnalysisCase StudyAppendix A: QuestionnaireAppendix B: Facilitated Risk Analysis Process FormsAppendix C: Business Impact Analysis FormsAppendix D: Sample of ReportAppendix E: Threat DefinitionsAppendix F: Other Risk Analysis OpinionsIndex

  2. System analysis and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Seung Hui

    2004-02-01

    This book deals with information technology and business process, information system architecture, methods of system development, plan on system development like problem analysis and feasibility analysis, cases for system development, comprehension of analysis of users demands, analysis of users demands using traditional analysis, users demands analysis using integrated information system architecture, system design using integrated information system architecture, system implementation, and system maintenance.

  3. Analysis of Project Finance | Energy Analysis | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Analysis of Project Finance Analysis of Project Finance NREL analysis helps potential renewable energy developers and investors gain insights into the complex world of project finance. Renewable energy project finance is complex, requiring knowledge of federal tax credits, state-level incentives, renewable

  4. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella

    2014-12-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter mortality of individuals > 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  5. Isolated and synergistic effects of PM10 and average temperature on cardiovascular and respiratory mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of

  6. Safety analysis fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.C.D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the safety analysis fundamentals in reactor design. This study includes safety analysis done to show consequences of postulated accidents are acceptable. Safety analysis is also used to set design of special safety systems and includes design assist analysis to support conceptual design. safety analysis is necessary for licensing a reactor, to maintain an operating license, support changes in plant operations

  7. An example of multidimensional analysis: Discriminant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, P.

    1990-01-01

    Among the approaches on the data multi-dimensional analysis, lectures on the discriminant analysis including theoretical and practical aspects are presented. The discrimination problem, the analysis steps and the discrimination categories are stressed. Examples on the descriptive historical analysis, the discrimination for decision making, the demonstration and separation of the top quark are given. In the linear discriminant analysis the following subjects are discussed: Huyghens theorem, projection, discriminant variable, geometrical interpretation, case for g=2, classification method, separation of the top events. Criteria allowing the obtention of relevant results are included [fr

  8. Semen Analysis Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sources Ask Us Also Known As Sperm Analysis Sperm Count Seminal Fluid Analysis Formal Name Semen Analysis This ... semen Viscosity—consistency or thickness of the semen Sperm count—total number of sperm Sperm concentration (density)—number ...

  9. Handbook of Applied Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Papageorgiou, Nikolaos S

    2009-01-01

    Offers an examination of important theoretical methods and procedures in applied analysis. This book details the important theoretical trends in nonlinear analysis and applications to different fields. It is suitable for those working on nonlinear analysis.

  10. Shape analysis in medical image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João

    2014-01-01

    This book contains thirteen contributions from invited experts of international recognition addressing important issues in shape analysis in medical image analysis, including techniques for image segmentation, registration, modelling and classification, and applications in biology, as well as in cardiac, brain, spine, chest, lung and clinical practice. This volume treats topics such as, anatomic and functional shape representation and matching; shape-based medical image segmentation; shape registration; statistical shape analysis; shape deformation; shape-based abnormity detection; shape tracking and longitudinal shape analysis; machine learning for shape modeling and analysis; shape-based computer-aided-diagnosis; shape-based medical navigation; benchmark and validation of shape representation, analysis and modeling algorithms. This work will be of interest to researchers, students, and manufacturers in the fields of artificial intelligence, bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computationa...

  11. Antiepileptic drugs and risk of suicide: a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jonas Bjerring; Hansen, Peter Riis; Erdal, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    . The case-crossover analysis estimated AED treatment initiation to increase the risk of suicide (odds ratio (OR): 1.84, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.36-2.49). Clonazepam (OR: 2.01, CI: 1.25-3.25), valproate (OR: 2.08, CI: 1.01-4.16), lamotrigine (OR: 3.15, CI: 1.35-7.34) and phenobarbital (OR: 1.96, CI...... that clonazepam, valproate, lamotrigine and phenobarbital relatively shortly after treatment initiation may increase the risk of suicide. The increased risk of suicide associated with these AEDs appears to be a consistent finding. Copyright (C) 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  12. NCEP SST Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization Search Go Search Polar Go MMAB SST Analysis Main page About MMAB Our Mission Our Personnel EMC Branches Global Climate & Weather Modeling Mesoscale Modeling Marine Modeling and Analysis Contact EMC (RTG_SST_HR) analysis For a regional map, click the desired area in the global SST analysis and anomaly maps

  13. Foundations of factor analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mulaik, Stanley A

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Factor Analysis and Structural Theories Brief History of Factor Analysis as a Linear Model Example of Factor AnalysisMathematical Foundations for Factor Analysis Introduction Scalar AlgebraVectorsMatrix AlgebraDeterminants Treatment of Variables as Vectors Maxima and Minima of FunctionsComposite Variables and Linear Transformations Introduction Composite Variables Unweighted Composite VariablesDifferentially Weighted Composites Matrix EquationsMulti

  14. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  15. Quantitative analysis chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Wansuk; Lee, Choongyoung; Jun, Kwangsik; Hwang, Taeksung

    1995-02-01

    This book is about quantitative analysis chemistry. It is divided into ten chapters, which deal with the basic conception of material with the meaning of analysis chemistry and SI units, chemical equilibrium, basic preparation for quantitative analysis, introduction of volumetric analysis, acid-base titration of outline and experiment examples, chelate titration, oxidation-reduction titration with introduction, titration curve, and diazotization titration, precipitation titration, electrometric titration and quantitative analysis.

  16. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  17. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062/Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report

  18. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Mayring

    2000-01-01

    The article describes an approach of systematic, rule guided qualitative text analysis, which tries to preserve some methodological strengths of quantitative content analysis and widen them to a concept of qualitative procedure. First the development of content analysis is delineated and the basic principles are explained (units of analysis, step models, working with categories, validity and reliability). Then the central procedures of qualitative content analysis, inductive development of ca...

  19. RELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF BENDING ELIABILITY ANALYSIS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Reliability analysis of the safety levels of the criteria slabs, have been .... was also noted [2] that if the risk level or β < 3.1), the ... reliability analysis. A study [6] has shown that all geometric variables, ..... Germany, 1988. 12. Hasofer, A. M and ...

  20. DTI analysis methods : Voxel-based analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hecke, Wim; Leemans, Alexander; Emsell, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Voxel-based analysis (VBA) of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data permits the investigation of voxel-wise differences or changes in DTI metrics in every voxel of a brain dataset. It is applied primarily in the exploratory analysis of hypothesized group-level alterations in DTI parameters, as it does

  1. Analysis of Precision of Activation Analysis Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, Kaj; Nørgaard, K.

    1973-01-01

    The precision of an activation-analysis method prescribes the estimation of the precision of a single analytical result. The adequacy of these estimates to account for the observed variation between duplicate results from the analysis of different samples and materials, is tested by the statistic T...

  2. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    CERN Document Server

    Grams, W H

    2000-01-01

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from t...

  3. Circuit analysis for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Santiago, John

    2013-01-01

    Circuits overloaded from electric circuit analysis? Many universities require that students pursuing a degree in electrical or computer engineering take an Electric Circuit Analysis course to determine who will ""make the cut"" and continue in the degree program. Circuit Analysis For Dummies will help these students to better understand electric circuit analysis by presenting the information in an effective and straightforward manner. Circuit Analysis For Dummies gives you clear-cut information about the topics covered in an electric circuit analysis courses to help

  4. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  5. Activation analysis in food analysis. Pt. 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabo, S.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview is presented on the application of activation analysis (AA) techniques for food analysis, as reflected at a recent international conference titled Activation Analysis and its Applications. The most popular analytical techniques include instrumental neutron AA, (INAA or NAA), radiochemical NAA (RNAA), X-ray fluorescence analysis and mass spectrometry. Data are presented for the multielemental NAA of instant soups, for elemental composition of drinking water in Iraq, for Na, K, Mn contents of various Indian rices, for As, Hg, Sb and Se determination in various seafoods, for daily microelement takeup in China, for the elemental composition of Chinese teas. Expected development trends in AA are outlined. (R.P.) 24 refs.; 8 tabs

  6. Synovial fluid analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint fluid analysis; Joint fluid aspiration ... El-Gabalawy HS. Synovial fluid analysis, synovial biopsy, and synovial pathology. In: Firestein GS, Budd RC, Gabriel SE, McInnes IB, O'Dell JR, eds. Kelly's Textbook of ...

  7. Ecosystem Analysis Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research programs: analysis and modeling of ecosystems; EDFB/IBP data center; biome analysis studies; land/water interaction studies; and computer programs for development of models

  8. Confirmatory Composite Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuberth, Florian; Henseler, Jörg; Dijkstra, Theo K.

    2018-01-01

    We introduce confirmatory composite analysis (CCA) as a structural equation modeling technique that aims at testing composite models. CCA entails the same steps as confirmatory factor analysis: model specification, model identification, model estimation, and model testing. Composite models are

  9. Introductory numerical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2006-01-01

    Written for undergraduates who require a familiarity with the principles behind numerical analysis, this classical treatment encompasses finite differences, least squares theory, and harmonic analysis. Over 70 examples and 280 exercises. 1967 edition.

  10. Gap Analysis: Application to Earned Value Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Gary O.; Franck, Raymond (Chip)

    2008-01-01

    Sponsored Report (for Acquisition Research Program) Earned Value is regarded as a useful tool to monitor commercial and defense system acquisitions. This paper applies the theoretical foundations and systematics of Gap Analysis to improve Earned Value Management. As currently implemented, Earned Value inaccurately provides a higher value for the work performed. This preliminary research indicates that Earned Value calculations can be corrected. Value Analysis, properly defined and enacted,...

  11. Importance-performance analysis based SWOT analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Phadermrod, Boonyarat; Crowder, Richard M.; Wills, Gary B.

    2016-01-01

    SWOT analysis, a commonly used tool for strategic planning, is traditionally a form of brainstorming. Hence, it has been criticised that it is likely to hold subjective views of the individuals who participate in a brainstorming session and that SWOT factors are not prioritized by their significance thus it may result in an improper strategic action. While most studies of SWOT analysis have only focused on solving these shortcomings separately, this study offers an approach to diminish both s...

  12. Discourse analysis and Foucault's

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen I.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Discourse analysis is a method with up to now was less recognized in nursing science, althoughmore recently nursing scientists are discovering it for their purposes. However, several authors have criticized thatdiscourse analysis is often misinterpreted because of a lack of understanding of its theoretical backgrounds. In thisarticle, I reconstruct Foucault’s writings in his “Archaeology of Knowledge” to provide a theoretical base for futurearchaeological discourse analysis, which can be categorized as a socio-linguistic discourse analysis.

  13. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared to conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian mediation analysis, inference is straightforward and exact, which makes it appealing for studies with small samples. Third, the Bayesian approach is conceptua...

  14. Applied longitudinal analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzmaurice, Garrett M; Ware, James H

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition "". . . [this book] should be on the shelf of everyone interested in . . . longitudinal data analysis.""-Journal of the American Statistical Association   Features newly developed topics and applications of the analysis of longitudinal data Applied Longitudinal Analysis, Second Edition presents modern methods for analyzing data from longitudinal studies and now features the latest state-of-the-art techniques. The book emphasizes practical, rather than theoretical, aspects of methods for the analysis of diverse types of lo

  15. Regression analysis by example

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Samprit

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Fourth Edition: ""This book is . . . an excellent source of examples for regression analysis. It has been and still is readily readable and understandable."" -Journal of the American Statistical Association Regression analysis is a conceptually simple method for investigating relationships among variables. Carrying out a successful application of regression analysis, however, requires a balance of theoretical results, empirical rules, and subjective judgment. Regression Analysis by Example, Fifth Edition has been expanded

  16. Wind energy analysis system

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    M.Ing. (Electrical & Electronic Engineering) One of the most important steps to be taken before a site is to be selected for the extraction of wind energy is the analysis of the energy within the wind on that particular site. No wind energy analysis system exists for the measurement and analysis of wind power. This dissertation documents the design and development of a Wind Energy Analysis System (WEAS). Using a micro-controller based design in conjunction with sensors, WEAS measure, calcu...

  17. Slice hyperholomorphic Schur analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alpay, Daniel; Sabadini, Irene

    2016-01-01

    This book defines and examines the counterpart of Schur functions and Schur analysis in the slice hyperholomorphic setting. It is organized into three parts: the first introduces readers to classical Schur analysis, while the second offers background material on quaternions, slice hyperholomorphic functions, and quaternionic functional analysis. The third part represents the core of the book and explores quaternionic Schur analysis and its various applications. The book includes previously unpublished results and provides the basis for new directions of research.

  18. Computational movement analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Laube, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This SpringerBrief discusses the characteristics of spatiotemporal movement data, including uncertainty and scale. It investigates three core aspects of Computational Movement Analysis: Conceptual modeling of movement and movement spaces, spatiotemporal analysis methods aiming at a better understanding of movement processes (with a focus on data mining for movement patterns), and using decentralized spatial computing methods in movement analysis. The author presents Computational Movement Analysis as an interdisciplinary umbrella for analyzing movement processes with methods from a range of fi

  19. Descriptive data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cheryl Bagley

    2009-01-01

    This 13th article of the Basics of Research series is first in a short series on statistical analysis. These articles will discuss creating your statistical analysis plan, levels of measurement, descriptive statistics, probability theory, inferential statistics, and general considerations for interpretation of the results of a statistical analysis.

  20. Trend Analysis Using Microcomputers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Carl F.

    A trend analysis statistical package and additional programs for the Apple microcomputer are presented. They illustrate strategies of data analysis suitable to the graphics and processing capabilities of the microcomputer. The programs analyze data sets using examples of: (1) analysis of variance with multiple linear regression; (2) exponential…

  1. Bayesian Mediation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; MacKinnon, David P.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we propose Bayesian analysis of mediation effects. Compared with conventional frequentist mediation analysis, the Bayesian approach has several advantages. First, it allows researchers to incorporate prior information into the mediation analysis, thus potentially improving the efficiency of estimates. Second, under the Bayesian…

  2. Automation of activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, I.N.; Ivanets, V.N.; Filippov, V.V.

    1985-01-01

    The basic data on the methods and equipment of activation analysis are presented. Recommendations on the selection of activation analysis techniques, and especially the technique envisaging the use of short-lived isotopes, are given. The equipment possibilities to increase dataway carrying capacity, using modern computers for the automation of the analysis and data processing procedure, are shown

  3. Practical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cuesta, Hector

    2013-01-01

    Each chapter of the book quickly introduces a key 'theme' of Data Analysis, before immersing you in the practical aspects of each theme. You'll learn quickly how to perform all aspects of Data Analysis.Practical Data Analysis is a book ideal for home and small business users who want to slice & dice the data they have on hand with minimum hassle.

  4. Mathematical analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Bashirov, Agamirza

    2014-01-01

    The author's goal is a rigorous presentation of the fundamentals of analysis, starting from elementary level and moving to the advanced coursework. The curriculum of all mathematics (pure or applied) and physics programs include a compulsory course in mathematical analysis. This book will serve as can serve a main textbook of such (one semester) courses. The book can also serve as additional reading for such courses as real analysis, functional analysis, harmonic analysis etc. For non-math major students requiring math beyond calculus, this is a more friendly approach than many math-centric o

  5. Foundations of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Johnsonbaugh, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This classroom-tested volume offers a definitive look at modern analysis, with views of applications to statistics, numerical analysis, Fourier series, differential equations, mathematical analysis, and functional analysis. Upper-level undergraduate students with a background in calculus will benefit from its teachings, along with beginning graduate students seeking a firm grounding in modern analysis. A self-contained text, it presents the necessary background on the limit concept, and the first seven chapters could constitute a one-semester introduction to limits. Subsequent chapters discuss

  6. Analysis in usability evaluations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Følstad, Asbjørn; Lai-Chong Law, Effie; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2010-01-01

    While the planning and implementation of usability evaluations are well described in the literature, the analysis of the evaluation data is not. We present interviews with 11 usability professionals on how they conduct analysis, describing the resources, collaboration, creation of recommendations......, and prioritization involved. The interviews indicate a lack of structure in the analysis process and suggest activities, such as generating recommendations, that are unsupported by existing methods. We discuss how to better support analysis, and propose four themes for future research on analysis in usability...

  7. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data...

  8. The ATLAS Analysis Model

    CERN Multimedia

    Amir Farbin

    The ATLAS Analysis Model is a continually developing vision of how to reconcile physics analysis requirements with the ATLAS offline software and computing model constraints. In the past year this vision has influenced the evolution of the ATLAS Event Data Model, the Athena software framework, and physics analysis tools. These developments, along with the October Analysis Model Workshop and the planning for CSC analyses have led to a rapid refinement of the ATLAS Analysis Model in the past few months. This article introduces some of the relevant issues and presents the current vision of the future ATLAS Analysis Model. Event Data Model The ATLAS Event Data Model (EDM) consists of several levels of details, each targeted for a specific set of tasks. For example the Event Summary Data (ESD) stores calorimeter cells and tracking system hits thereby permitting many calibration and alignment tasks, but will be only accessible at particular computing sites with potentially large latency. In contrast, the Analysis...

  9. Multivariate analysis with LISREL

    CERN Document Server

    Jöreskog, Karl G; Y Wallentin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    This book traces the theory and methodology of multivariate statistical analysis and shows how it can be conducted in practice using the LISREL computer program. It presents not only the typical uses of LISREL, such as confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation models, but also several other multivariate analysis topics, including regression (univariate, multivariate, censored, logistic, and probit), generalized linear models, multilevel analysis, and principal component analysis. It provides numerous examples from several disciplines and discusses and interprets the results, illustrated with sections of output from the LISREL program, in the context of the example. The book is intended for masters and PhD students and researchers in the social, behavioral, economic and many other sciences who require a basic understanding of multivariate statistical theory and methods for their analysis of multivariate data. It can also be used as a textbook on various topics of multivariate statistical analysis.

  10. Visual physics analysis VISPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Actis, Oxana; Brodski, Michael; Erdmann, Martin; Fischer, Robert; Hinzmann, Andreas; Mueller, Gero; Muenzer, Thomas; Plum, Matthias; Steggemann, Jan; Winchen, Tobias; Klimkovich, Tatsiana

    2010-01-01

    VISPA is a development environment for high energy physics analyses which enables physicists to combine graphical and textual work. A physics analysis cycle consists of prototyping, performing, and verifying the analysis. The main feature of VISPA is a multipurpose window for visual steering of analysis steps, creation of analysis templates, and browsing physics event data at different steps of an analysis. VISPA follows an experiment-independent approach and incorporates various tools for steering and controlling required in a typical analysis. Connection to different frameworks of high energy physics experiments is achieved by using different types of interfaces. We present the look-and-feel for an example physics analysis at the LHC and explain the underlying software concepts of VISPA.

  11. Risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns during extreme cold weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoub, Aimina; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey; Bilodeau-Bertrand, Marianne; Auger, Nathalie

    2017-10-01

    Environmental factors are important predictors of fires, but no study has examined the association between outdoor temperature and fire-related burn injuries. We sought to investigate the relationship between extremely cold outdoor temperatures and the risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. We carried out a time-stratified case-crossover study of 2470 patients hospitalized for fire-related burn injuries during cold months between 1989 and 2014 in Quebec, Canada. The main exposure was the minimum outdoor temperature on the day of and the day before the burn. We computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to evaluate the relationship between minimum temperature and fire-related burns, and assessed how associations varied across sex and age. Exposure to extreme cold temperature was associated with a significantly higher risk of hospitalization for fire-related burns. Compared with 0°C, exposure to a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR of 1.51 (95% CI 1.22-1.87) for hospitalization for fire-related burns. The associations were somewhat stronger for women, youth, and the elderly. Compared with 0°C, a minimum temperature of -30°C was associated with an OR for fire-related burn hospitalization of 1.65 for women (95% CI 1.13-2.40), 1.60 for age fire-related burns. Measures to prevent fires should be implemented prior to the winter season, and enhanced during extreme cold. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and infant mortality in Tokyo, Japan (2002-2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-05-01

    Few studies have evaluated the effect of short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) less than 2.5μm in diameter (PM2.5) or to coarse particles on infant mortality. We evaluated the association between short-term exposure to PM and infant mortality in Japan and assessed whether adverse health effects were observable at PM concentrations below Japanese air quality guidelines. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. The participants included 2086 infants who died in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained measures of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM. We then used conditional logistic regression to analyze the data. Same-day PM2.5 was associated with increased risks of infant and postneonatal mortality, especially for mortality related to respiratory causes. For a 10μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5, the odds ratios were 1.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.12) for infant mortality and 1.10 (1.02-1.19) for postneonatal mortality. PM7-2.5 was also associated with an increased risk of postneonatal mortality, independent of PM2.5. Even when PM2.5 and SPM concentrations were below Japanese air quality guidelines, we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles (PM7-2.5) is associated with an increased risk of infant mortality. Further, rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Associations of acute exposure to fine and coarse particulate matter and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Kashima, Saori; Doi, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have reported adverse health effects of short-term exposure to coarse particles independent of particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5), but evidence in Asian countries is limited. We therefore evaluated associations between short-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and mortality among older people in Tokyo, Japan. We used a time-stratified, case-crossover design. Study participants included 664,509 older people (≥65 years old) in the 23 urbanized wards of the Tokyo Metropolitan Government, who died between January 2002 and December 2013. We obtained PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM; PMPM7-2.5 by subtracting PM2.5 from SPM to account for coarse particles. We then used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95 confidence intervals (CIs). Same-day PM2.5 and PM7-2.5 were independently associated with all-cause and cause-specific mortality related to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases; for example, both pollutants were positively associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality even after simultaneous adjustment for each pollutant: OR of 1.006 (95% CI: 1.003, 1.009) for PM2.5 and 1.016 (95% CI: 1.011, 1.022) for PM7-2.5. Even below concentrations stipulated by the Japanese air quality guidelines for PM2.5 and SPM (PM7), we observed adverse health effects. This study provides further evidence that acute exposure to PM2.5 and coarse particles is associated with increased risk of mortality among older people. Rigorous evaluation of air quality guidelines for daily average PM2.5 and larger particles should be continued. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Relation of temperature and humidity to the risk of recurrent gout attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Tuhina; Chen, Clara; Niu, Jingbo; Chaisson, Christine; Hunter, David J; Choi, Hyon; Zhang, Yuqing

    2014-08-15

    Gout attack risk may be affected by weather (e.g., because of volume depletion). We therefore examined the association of temperature and humidity with the risk of recurrent gout attacks by conducting an internet-based case-crossover study in the United States (in 2003-2010) among subjects with a diagnosis of gout who had 1 or more attacks during 1 year of follow-up. We examined the association of temperature and humidity over the prior 48 hours with the risk of gout attacks using a time-stratified approach and conditional logistic regression. Among 632 subjects with gout, there was a significant dose-response relationship between mean temperature in the prior 48 hours and the risk of subsequent gout attack (P = 0.01 for linear trend). Higher temperatures were associated with approximately 40% higher risk of gout attack compared with moderate temperatures. There was a reverse J-shaped relationship between mean relative humidity and the risk of gout attacks (P = 0.03 for quadratic trend). The combination of high temperature and low humidity had the greatest association (odds ratio = 2.04, 95% confidence interval: 1.26, 3.30) compared with moderate temperature and relative humidity. Thus, high ambient temperature and possibly extremes of humidity were associated with an increased risk of gout attack, despite the likelihood that individuals are often in climate-controlled indoor environments. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Exposure to extreme heat and precipitation events associated with increased risk of hospitalization for asthma in Maryland, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneja, Sutyajeet; Jiang, Chengsheng; Fisher, Jared; Upperman, Crystal Romeo; Mitchell, Clifford; Sapkota, Amir

    2016-04-27

    Several studies have investigated the association between asthma exacerbations and exposures to ambient temperature and precipitation. However, limited data exists regarding how extreme events, projected to grow in frequency, intensity, and duration in the future in response to our changing climate, will impact the risk of hospitalization for asthma. The objective of our study was to quantify the association between frequency of extreme heat and precipitation events and increased risk of hospitalization for asthma in Maryland between 2000 and 2012. We used a time-stratified case-crossover design to examine the association between exposure to extreme heat and precipitation events and risk of hospitalization for asthma (ICD-9 code 493, n = 115,923). Occurrence of extreme heat events in Maryland increased the risk of same day hospitalization for asthma (lag 0) by 3 % (Odds Ratio (OR): 1.03, 95 % Confidence Interval (CI): 1.00, 1.07), with a considerably higher risk observed for extreme heat events that occur during summer months (OR: 1.23, 95 % CI: 1.15, 1.33). Likewise, summertime extreme precipitation events increased the risk of hospitalization for asthma by 11 % in Maryland (OR: 1.11, 95 % CI: 1.06, 1.17). Across age groups, increase in risk for asthma hospitalization from exposure to extreme heat event during the summer months was most pronounced among youth and adults, while those related to extreme precipitation event was highest among ≤4 year olds. Exposure to extreme heat and extreme precipitation events, particularly during summertime, is associated with increased risk of hospitalization for asthma in Maryland. Our results suggest that projected increases in frequency of extreme heat and precipitation event will have significant impact on public health.

  16. Susceptibility to mortality related to temperature and heat and cold wave duration in the population of Stockholm County, Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joacim Rocklöv

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ambient temperatures can cause an increase in mortality. A better understanding is needed of how health status and other factors modify the risk associated with high and low temperatures, to improve the basis of preventive measures. Differences in susceptibility to temperature and to heat and cold wave duration are relatively unexplored. Objectives: We studied the associations between mortality and temperature and heat and cold wave duration, stratified by age and individual and medical factors. Methods: Deaths among all residents of Stockholm County between 1990 and 2002 were linked to discharge diagnosis data from hospital admissions, and associations were examined using the time stratified case-crossover design. Analyses were stratified by gender, age, pre-existing disease, country of origin, and municipality level wealth, and adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results: The effect on mortality by heat wave duration was higher for lower ages, in areas with lower wealth, for hospitalized patients younger than age 65. Odds were elevated among females younger than age 65, in groups with a previous hospital admission for mental disorders, and in persons with previous cardiovascular disease. Gradual increases in summer temperatures were associated with mortality in people older than 80 years, and with mortality in groups with a previous myocardial infarction and with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD in the population younger than 65 years. During winter, mortality was associated with a decrease in temperature particularly in men and with the duration of cold spells for the population older than 80. A history of hospitalization for myocardial infarction increased the odds associated with cold temperatures among the population older than 65. Previous mental disease or substance abuse increased the odds of death among the population younger than 65. Conclusion: To increase effectiveness, we suggest preventive efforts

  17. Effect of Ambient Air Pollution on Hospitalization for Heart Failure in 26 of China's Largest Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Tian, Yaohua; Song, Jing; Cao, Yaying; Xiang, Xiao; Huang, Chao; Li, Man; Hu, Yonghua

    2018-03-01

    There is growing interest in the association between ambient air pollution and congestive heart failure (CHF), but research data from developing countries are very limited. The primary aim of this study was to examine the association between short-term exposure to air pollution and hospital admission for CHF in China. A time-stratified case-crossover study was conducted between 2014 and 2015 in 26 large Chinese cities among 105,501 CHF hospitalizations. Conditional logistic regression models were applied to estimate the percentage changes in CHF admissions in relation to per interquartile range increases in air pollutant concentrations. Air pollution was positively associated with CHF hospitalizations. An interquartile range increase in fine particulate, particulate matter less than 10 µm in aerodynamic diameter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and ozone concentrations on the current day corresponded to 1.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5%, 1.8%), 1.3% (95% CI 0.5%, 2.0%), 1.0% (95% CI 0.2%, 1.7%), 1.6% (95% CI 0.6%, 2.5%), 1.2% (95% CI 0.5%, 1.9%), and 0.4% (95% CI -0.9%, 1.7%) increases in CHF admissions, respectively. In conclusion, our findings contribute to the limited scientific literature concerning the effects of air pollution on CHF risk for high-exposure settings typical in developing countries, which may have significant public health implications for prevention of CHF in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost benefit analysis cost effectiveness analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1986-09-01

    The comparison of various protection options in order to determine which is the best compromise between cost of protection and residual risk is the purpose of the ALARA procedure. The use of decision-aiding techniques is valuable as an aid to selection procedures. The purpose of this study is to introduce two rather simple and well known decision aiding techniques: the cost-effectiveness analysis and the cost-benefit analysis. These two techniques are relevant for the great part of ALARA decisions which need the use of a quantitative technique. The study is based on an hypothetical case of 10 protection options. Four methods are applied to the data

  19. HAZARD ANALYSIS SOFTWARE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, S; Tinh Tran, T.

    2008-01-01

    Washington Safety Management Solutions, LLC developed web-based software to improve the efficiency and consistency of hazard identification and analysis, control selection and classification, and to standardize analysis reporting at Savannah River Site. In the new nuclear age, information technology provides methods to improve the efficiency of the documented safety analysis development process which includes hazard analysis activities. This software provides a web interface that interacts with a relational database to support analysis, record data, and to ensure reporting consistency. A team of subject matter experts participated in a series of meetings to review the associated processes and procedures for requirements and standard practices. Through these meetings, a set of software requirements were developed and compiled into a requirements traceability matrix from which software could be developed. The software was tested to ensure compliance with the requirements. Training was provided to the hazard analysis leads. Hazard analysis teams using the software have verified its operability. The software has been classified as NQA-1, Level D, as it supports the analysis team but does not perform the analysis. The software can be transported to other sites with alternate risk schemes. The software is being used to support the development of 14 hazard analyses. User responses have been positive with a number of suggestions for improvement which are being incorporated as time permits. The software has enforced a uniform implementation of the site procedures. The software has significantly improved the efficiency and standardization of the hazard analysis process

  20. Functional analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Siddiqi, Abul Hasan

    2018-01-01

    This self-contained textbook discusses all major topics in functional analysis. Combining classical materials with new methods, it supplies numerous relevant solved examples and problems and discusses the applications of functional analysis in diverse fields. The book is unique in its scope, and a variety of applications of functional analysis and operator-theoretic methods are devoted to each area of application. Each chapter includes a set of problems, some of which are routine and elementary, and some of which are more advanced. The book is primarily intended as a textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate students in applied mathematics and engineering. It offers several attractive features making it ideally suited for courses on functional analysis intended to provide a basic introduction to the subject and the impact of functional analysis on applied and computational mathematics, nonlinear functional analysis and optimization. It introduces emerging topics like wavelets, Gabor system, inverse pro...

  1. From analysis to surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    it with a “ground truth” analysis of the same music pro- duced by a human expert (see, in particular, [5]). In this paper, we explore the problem of generating an encoding of the musical surface of a work automatically from a systematic encoding of an analysis. The ability to do this depends on one having...... an effective (i.e., comput- able), correct and complete description of some aspect of the structure of the music. Generating the surface struc- ture of a piece from an analysis in this manner serves as a proof of the analysis' correctness, effectiveness and com- pleteness. We present a reductive analysis......In recent years, a significant body of research has focused on developing algorithms for computing analyses of mu- sical works automatically from encodings of these works' surfaces [3,4,7,10,11]. The quality of the output of such analysis algorithms is typically evaluated by comparing...

  2. Fundamentals of functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Farenick, Douglas

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique path for graduate or advanced undergraduate students to begin studying the rich subject of functional analysis with fewer prerequisites than is normally required. The text begins with a self-contained and highly efficient introduction to topology and measure theory, which focuses on the essential notions required for the study of functional analysis, and which are often buried within full-length overviews of the subjects. This is particularly useful for those in applied mathematics, engineering, or physics who need to have a firm grasp of functional analysis, but not necessarily some of the more abstruse aspects of topology and measure theory normally encountered. The reader is assumed to only have knowledge of basic real analysis, complex analysis, and algebra. The latter part of the text provides an outstanding treatment of Banach space theory and operator theory, covering topics not usually found together in other books on functional analysis. Written in a clear, concise manner,...

  3. Computational Music Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book provides an in-depth introduction and overview of current research in computational music analysis. Its seventeen chapters, written by leading researchers, collectively represent the diversity as well as the technical and philosophical sophistication of the work being done today...... on well-established theories in music theory and analysis, such as Forte's pitch-class set theory, Schenkerian analysis, the methods of semiotic analysis developed by Ruwet and Nattiez, and Lerdahl and Jackendoff's Generative Theory of Tonal Music. The book is divided into six parts, covering...... music analysis, the book provides an invaluable resource for researchers, teachers and students in music theory and analysis, computer science, music information retrieval and related disciplines. It also provides a state-of-the-art reference for practitioners in the music technology industry....

  4. Analysis apparatus and method of analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    A continuous streaming method developed for the excution of immunoassays is described in this patent. In addition, a suitable apparatus for the method was developed whereby magnetic particles are automatically employed for the consecutive analysis of a series of liquid samples via the RIA technique

  5. Human reliability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dougherty, E.M.; Fragola, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors present a treatment of human reliability analysis incorporating an introduction to probabilistic risk assessment for nuclear power generating stations. They treat the subject according to the framework established for general systems theory. Draws upon reliability analysis, psychology, human factors engineering, and statistics, integrating elements of these fields within a systems framework. Provides a history of human reliability analysis, and includes examples of the application of the systems approach

  6. Emission spectrochemical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rives, R.D.; Bruks, R.R.

    1983-01-01

    The emission spectrochemical method of analysis based on the fact that atoms of elements can be excited in the electric arc or in the laser beam and will emit radiation with characteristic wave lengths is considered. The review contains the data on spectrochemical analysis, of liquids geological materials, scheme of laser microprobe. The main characteristics of emission spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy and X-ray fluorescent analysis, are aeneralized

  7. LULU analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, H.J.; Lindstrom, P.J.

    1983-06-01

    Our analysis program LULU has proven very useful in all stages of experiment analysis, from prerun detector debugging through final data reduction. It has solved our problem of having arbitrary word length events and is easy enough to use that many separate experimenters are now analyzing with LULU. The ability to use the same software for all stages of experiment analysis greatly eases the programming burden. We may even get around to making the graphics elegant someday

  8. Mastering Clojure data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rochester, Eric

    2014-01-01

    This book consists of a practical, example-oriented approach that aims to help you learn how to use Clojure for data analysis quickly and efficiently.This book is great for those who have experience with Clojure and who need to use it to perform data analysis. This book will also be hugely beneficial for readers with basic experience in data analysis and statistics.

  9. Fast neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepelnik, R.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1981 numerous 14 MeV neutron activation analyses were performed at Korona. On the basis of that work the advantages of this analysis technique and therewith obtained results are compared with other analytical methods. The procedure of activation analysis, the characteristics of Korona, some analytical investigations in environmental research and material physics, as well as sources of systematic errors in trace analysis are described. (orig.) [de

  10. Stochastic Analysis 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Crisan, Dan

    2011-01-01

    "Stochastic Analysis" aims to provide mathematical tools to describe and model high dimensional random systems. Such tools arise in the study of Stochastic Differential Equations and Stochastic Partial Differential Equations, Infinite Dimensional Stochastic Geometry, Random Media and Interacting Particle Systems, Super-processes, Stochastic Filtering, Mathematical Finance, etc. Stochastic Analysis has emerged as a core area of late 20th century Mathematics and is currently undergoing a rapid scientific development. The special volume "Stochastic Analysis 2010" provides a sa

  11. The ATLAS Analysis Architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranmer, K.S.

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of the ATLAS analysis architecture including the relevant aspects of the computing model and the major architectural aspects of the Athena framework. Emphasis will be given to the interplay between the analysis use cases and the technical aspects of the architecture including the design of the event data model, transient-persistent separation, data reduction strategies, analysis tools, and ROOT interoperability

  12. Circuit analysis with Multisim

    CERN Document Server

    Baez-Lopez, David

    2011-01-01

    This book is concerned with circuit simulation using National Instruments Multisim. It focuses on the use and comprehension of the working techniques for electrical and electronic circuit simulation. The first chapters are devoted to basic circuit analysis.It starts by describing in detail how to perform a DC analysis using only resistors and independent and controlled sources. Then, it introduces capacitors and inductors to make a transient analysis. In the case of transient analysis, it is possible to have an initial condition either in the capacitor voltage or in the inductor current, or bo

  13. Textile Technology Analysis Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Textile Analysis Labis built for evaluating and characterizing the physical properties of an array of textile materials, but specifically those used in aircrew...

  14. International Market Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the book International Market Analysis: Theories and Methods, written by John Kuiada, professor at Centre of International Business, Department of Business Studies, Aalborg University. The book is refreshingly new in its way of looking at a classical problem. It looks at market...... analysis from the point of vie of ways of thinking about markets. Furthermore, the book includes the concept of learning in the analysis of markets og how the way we understand business reality influneces our choice of methodology for market analysis....

  15. Chemical Security Analysis Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2006, by Presidential Directive, DHS established the Chemical Security Analysis Center (CSAC) to identify and assess chemical threats and vulnerabilities in the...

  16. Geospatial Data Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Geospatial application development, location-based services, spatial modeling, and spatial analysis are examples of the many research applications that this facility...

  17. Analysis of food contaminants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilbert, John

    1984-01-01

    ... quantification methods used in the analysis of mycotoxins in foods - Confirmation and quantification of trace organic food contaminants by mass spectrometry-selected ion monitoring - Chemiluminescence...

  18. Chemical Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Uses state-of-the-art instrumentation for qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic and inorganic compounds, and biomolecules from gas, liquid, and...

  19. Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Thermogravimetric Analysis Laboratory in Morgantown, WV, researchers study how chemical looping combustion (CLC) can be applied to fossil energy systems....

  20. Sensitivity and uncertainty analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cacuci, Dan G; Navon, Ionel Michael

    2005-01-01

    As computer-assisted modeling and analysis of physical processes have continued to grow and diversify, sensitivity and uncertainty analyses have become indispensable scientific tools. Sensitivity and Uncertainty Analysis. Volume I: Theory focused on the mathematical underpinnings of two important methods for such analyses: the Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure and the Global Adjoint Sensitivity Analysis Procedure. This volume concentrates on the practical aspects of performing these analyses for large-scale systems. The applications addressed include two-phase flow problems, a radiative c

  1. Longitudinal Meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, J.J.; Maas, C.J.M.; Lensvelt-Mulders, G.J.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The goal of meta-analysis is to integrate the research results of a number of studies on a specific topic. Characteristic for meta-analysis is that in general only the summary statistics of the studies are used and not the original data. When the published research results to be integrated

  2. Statistical data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, A.A.

    1994-11-01

    The complexity of instrumentation sometimes requires data analysis to be done before the result is presented to the control room. This tutorial reviews some of the theoretical assumptions underlying the more popular forms of data analysis and presents simple examples to illuminate the advantages and hazards of different techniques

  3. Activation analysis. Detection limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Revel, G.

    1999-01-01

    Numerical data and limits of detection related to the four irradiation modes, often used in activation analysis (reactor neutrons, 14 MeV neutrons, photon gamma and charged particles) are presented here. The technical presentation of the activation analysis is detailed in the paper P 2565 of Techniques de l'Ingenieur. (A.L.B.)

  4. SMART performance analysis methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, H. S.; Kim, H. C.; Lee, D. J.

    2001-04-01

    To ensure the required and desired operation over the plant lifetime, the performance analysis for the SMART NSSS design is done by means of the specified analysis methodologies for the performance related design basis events(PRDBE). The PRDBE is an occurrence(event) that shall be accommodated in the design of the plant and whose consequence would be no more severe than normal service effects of the plant equipment. The performance analysis methodology which systematizes the methods and procedures to analyze the PRDBEs is as follows. Based on the operation mode suitable to the characteristics of the SMART NSSS, the corresponding PRDBEs and allowable range of process parameters for these events are deduced. With the developed control logic for each operation mode, the system thermalhydraulics are analyzed for the chosen PRDBEs using the system analysis code. Particularly, because of different system characteristics of SMART from the existing commercial nuclear power plants, the operation mode, PRDBEs, control logic, and analysis code should be consistent with the SMART design. This report presents the categories of the PRDBEs chosen based on each operation mode and the transition among these and the acceptance criteria for each PRDBE. It also includes the analysis methods and procedures for each PRDBE and the concept of the control logic for each operation mode. Therefore this report in which the overall details for SMART performance analysis are specified based on the current SMART design, would be utilized as a guide for the detailed performance analysis

  5. Contrast analysis : A tutorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haans, A.

    2018-01-01

    Contrast analysis is a relatively simple but effective statistical method for testing theoretical predictions about differences between group means against the empirical data. Despite its advantages, contrast analysis is hardly used to date, perhaps because it is not implemented in a convenient

  6. Interactive Controls Analysis (INCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H.

    1989-01-01

    Version 3.12 of INCA provides user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems. System configuration and parameters easily adjusted, enabling INCA user to create compensation networks and perform sensitivity analysis in convenient manner. Full complement of graphical routines makes output easy to understand. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  7. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  8. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlan Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article was written in early December 2013,combined with the historical development andthe latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOT- analysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factorssuch as the political environment and the marketsupply and demand, conducted a comprehensiveand profound analysis.

  9. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roon, F.A.; Nijman, T.E.; Ter Horst, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis.The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions.Such mimicking portfolios can be used, e.g., to construct efficient portfolios of mutual

  10. Evaluating Style Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.A. de Roon (Frans); T.E. Nijman (Theo); B.J.M. Werker

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we evaluate applications of (return based) style analysis. The portfolio and positivity constraints imposed by style analysis are useful in constructing mimicking portfolios without short positions. Such mimicking portfolios can be used e.g. to construct efficient

  11. Qualitative Content Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satu Elo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studies, our own experiences, and methodological textbooks. Trustworthiness was described for the main qualitative content analysis phases from data collection to reporting of the results. We concluded that it is important to scrutinize the trustworthiness of every phase of the analysis process, including the preparation, organization, and reporting of results. Together, these phases should give a reader a clear indication of the overall trustworthiness of the study. Based on our findings, we compiled a checklist for researchers attempting to improve the trustworthiness of a content analysis study. The discussion in this article helps to clarify how content analysis should be reported in a valid and understandable manner, which would be of particular benefit to reviewers of scientific articles. Furthermore, we discuss that it is often difficult to evaluate the trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis studies because of defective data collection method description and/or analysis description.

  12. Cognitive task analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Cognitive task analysis is defined as the extension of traditional task analysis techniques to yield information about the knowledge, thought processes and goal structures that underlie observable task performance. Cognitive task analyses are conducted for a wide variety of purposes, including the

  13. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysis...... also enabled engineers to solve practical problems within reinforced concrete, steel structures and geotechnics....

  14. Isogeometric failure analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoosel, C.V.; Scott, M.A.; Borden, M.J.; Borst, de R.; Hughes, T.J.R.; Mueller-Hoeppe, D.; Loehnert, S.; Reese, S.

    2011-01-01

    Isogeometric analysis is a versatile tool for failure analysis. On the one hand, the excellent control over the inter-element continuity conditions enables a natural incorporation of continuum constitutive relations that incorporate higher-order strain gradients, as in gradient plasticity or damage.

  15. Biological sequence analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durbin, Richard; Eddy, Sean; Krogh, Anders Stærmose

    This book provides an up-to-date and tutorial-level overview of sequence analysis methods, with particular emphasis on probabilistic modelling. Discussed methods include pairwise alignment, hidden Markov models, multiple alignment, profile searches, RNA secondary structure analysis, and phylogene...

  16. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of two main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  17. Factorial Analysis of Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Georgeta VINTILA; Ilie GHEORGHE; Ioana Mihaela POCAN; Madalina Gabriela ANGHEL

    2012-01-01

    The DuPont analysis system is based on decomposing the profitability ratio in factors of influence. This paper describes the factorial analysis of profitability based on the DuPont system. Significant importance is given to the impact on various indicators on the shares value and profitability.

  18. Spool assembly support analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the pump pit spool assemblies. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. UBC, AISC, and load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  19. Amplitude and Ascoli analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    This article discusses the partial wave analysis of two, three and four meson systems. The difference between the two approaches, referred to as amplitude and Ascoli analysis is discussed. Some of the results obtained with these methods are shown. (B.R.H.)

  20. Enabling interdisciplinary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. M. Reid

    1996-01-01

    'New requirements for evaluating environmental conditions in the Pacific Northwest have led to increased demands for interdisciplinary analysis of complex environmental problems. Procedures for watershed analysis have been developed for use on public and private lands in Washington State (Washington Forest Practices Board 1993) and for federal lands in the Pacific...

  1. Shot loading platform analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, B.F.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides the wind/seismic analysis and evaluation for the shot loading platform. Hand calculations were used for the analysis. AISC and UBC load factors were used in this evaluation. The results show that the actual loads are under the allowable loads and all requirements are met

  2. Marketing research cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  3. Towards Cognitive Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Kai; Ahrendt, Peter; Larsen, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive component analysis (COCA) is here defined as the process of unsupervised grouping of data such that the ensuing group structure is well-aligned with that resulting from human cognitive activity. We have earlier demonstrated that independent components analysis is relevant for representing...

  4. Qualitative Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Satu Elo; Maria Kääriäinen; Outi Kanste; Tarja Pölkki; Kati Utriainen; Helvi Kyngäs

    2014-01-01

    Qualitative content analysis is commonly used for analyzing qualitative data. However, few articles have examined the trustworthiness of its use in nursing science studies. The trustworthiness of qualitative content analysis is often presented by using terms such as credibility, dependability, conformability, transferability, and authenticity. This article focuses on trustworthiness based on a review of previous studie...

  5. Interaction Analysis and Supervision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amidon, Edmund

    This paper describes a model that uses interaction analysis as a tool to provide feedback to a teacher in a microteaching situation. The author explains how interaction analysis can be used for teacher improvement, describes the category system used in the model, the data collection methods used, and the feedback techniques found in the model. (JF)

  6. Activation analysis. Chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The principle, sample and calibration standard preparation, activation by neutrons, charged particles and gamma radiation, sample transport after activation, activity measurement, and chemical sample processing are described for activation analysis. Possible applications are shown of nondestructive activation analysis. (J.P.)

  7. Proximate Analysis of Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Rais, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This lab experiment illustrates the use of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) to perform proximate analysis on a series of coal samples of different rank. Peat and coke are also examined. A total of four exercises are described. These are dry exercises as students interpret previously recorded scans. The weight percent moisture, volatile matter,…

  8. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Ian M. Franks; Mike Hughes

    2004-01-01

    This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition

  9. NOTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF SPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Franks

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This book addresses and appropriately explains the notational analysis of technique, tactics, individual athlete/team exercise and work-rate in sport. The book offers guidance in: developing a system, analyzes of data, effective coaching using notational performance analysis and modeling sport behaviors. It updates and improves the 1997 edition

  10. Physics and Video Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, Rhett

    2016-05-01

    We currently live in a world filled with videos. There are videos on YouTube, feature movies and even videos recorded with our own cameras and smartphones. These videos present an excellent opportunity to not only explore physical concepts, but also inspire others to investigate physics ideas. With video analysis, we can explore the fantasy world in science-fiction films. We can also look at online videos to determine if they are genuine or fake. Video analysis can be used in the introductory physics lab and it can even be used to explore the make-believe physics embedded in video games. This book covers the basic ideas behind video analysis along with the fundamental physics principles used in video analysis. The book also includes several examples of the unique situations in which video analysis can be used.

  11. Functional data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, J O

    1997-01-01

    Scientists today collect samples of curves and other functional observations. This monograph presents many ideas and techniques for such data. Included are expressions in the functional domain of such classics as linear regression, principal components analysis, linear modelling, and canonical correlation analysis, as well as specifically functional techniques such as curve registration and principal differential analysis. Data arising in real applications are used throughout for both motivation and illustration, showing how functional approaches allow us to see new things, especially by exploiting the smoothness of the processes generating the data. The data sets exemplify the wide scope of functional data analysis; they are drwan from growth analysis, meterology, biomechanics, equine science, economics, and medicine. The book presents novel statistical technology while keeping the mathematical level widely accessible. It is designed to appeal to students, to applied data analysts, and to experienced researc...

  12. Systems engineering and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchard, Benjamin S

    2010-01-01

    For senior-level undergraduate and first and second year graduate systems engineering and related courses. A total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. This practical introduction to systems engineering and analysis provides the concepts, methodologies, models, and tools needed to understand and implement a total life-cycle approach to systems and their analysis. The authors focus first on the process of bringing systems into being--beginning with the identification of a need and extending that need through requirements determination, functional analysis and allocation, design synthesis, evaluation, and validation, operation and support, phase-out, and disposal. Next, the authors discuss the improvement of systems currently in being, showing that by employing the iterative process of analysis, evaluation, feedback, and modification, most systems in existence can be improved in their affordability, effectiveness, and stakeholder satisfaction.

  13. Fundamentals of PIXE analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keizo

    1997-01-01

    Elemental analysis based on the particle induced x-ray emission (PIXE) is a novel technique to analyze trace elements. It is a very simple method, its sensitivity is very high, multiple elements in a sample can be simultaneously analyzed and a few 10 μg of a sample is enough to be analyzed. Owing to these characteristics, the PIXE analysis is now used in many fields (e.g. biology, medicine, dentistry, environmental pollution, archaeology, culture assets etc.). Fundamentals of the PIXE analysis are described here: the production of characteristic x-rays and inner shell ionization by heavy charged particles, the continuous background in PIXE spectrum, quantitative formulae of the PIXE analysis, the detection limit of PIXE analysis, etc. (author)

  14. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  15. Data analysis workbench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, A.; Gerring, M.; Svensson, O.; Brockhauser, S.

    2012-01-01

    Data Analysis Workbench (DAWB) is a new software tool being developed at the ESRF. Its goal is to provide a tool for both online data analysis which can be used on the beamlines and for offline data analysis which users can use during experiments or take home. The tool includes support for data visualization and work-flows. work-flows allow algorithms which exploit parallel architectures to be designed from existing high level modules for data analysis in combination with data collection. The workbench uses Passerelle as the work-flow engine and EDNA plug-ins for data analysis. Actors talking to Tango are used for sending commands to a limited set of hardware to start existing data collection algorithms. A Tango server allows work-flows to be executed from existing applications. There are scripting interfaces to Python, Javascript and SPEC. The current state at the ESRF is the workbench is in test on a selected number of beamlines. (authors)

  16. Robust multivariate analysis

    CERN Document Server

    J Olive, David

    2017-01-01

    This text presents methods that are robust to the assumption of a multivariate normal distribution or methods that are robust to certain types of outliers. Instead of using exact theory based on the multivariate normal distribution, the simpler and more applicable large sample theory is given.  The text develops among the first practical robust regression and robust multivariate location and dispersion estimators backed by theory.   The robust techniques  are illustrated for methods such as principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, and factor analysis.  A simple way to bootstrap confidence regions is also provided. Much of the research on robust multivariate analysis in this book is being published for the first time. The text is suitable for a first course in Multivariate Statistical Analysis or a first course in Robust Statistics. This graduate text is also useful for people who are familiar with the traditional multivariate topics, but want to know more about handling data sets with...

  17. Essential real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Michael

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a rigorous introduction to the techniques and results of real analysis, metric spaces and multivariate differentiation, suitable for undergraduate courses. Starting from the very foundations of analysis, it offers a complete first course in real analysis, including topics rarely found in such detail in an undergraduate textbook such as the construction of non-analytic smooth functions, applications of the Euler-Maclaurin formula to estimates, and fractal geometry.  Drawing on the author’s extensive teaching and research experience, the exposition is guided by carefully chosen examples and counter-examples, with the emphasis placed on the key ideas underlying the theory. Much of the content is informed by its applicability: Fourier analysis is developed to the point where it can be rigorously applied to partial differential equations or computation, and the theory of metric spaces includes applications to ordinary differential equations and fractals. Essential Real Analysis will appeal t...

  18. Real analysis and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Botelho, Fabio Silva

    2018-01-01

    This textbook introduces readers to real analysis in one and n dimensions. It is divided into two parts: Part I explores real analysis in one variable, starting with key concepts such as the construction of the real number system, metric spaces, and real sequences and series. In turn, Part II addresses the multi-variable aspects of real analysis. Further, the book presents detailed, rigorous proofs of the implicit theorem for the vectorial case by applying the Banach fixed-point theorem and the differential forms concept to surfaces in Rn. It also provides a brief introduction to Riemannian geometry. With its rigorous, elegant proofs, this self-contained work is easy to read, making it suitable for undergraduate and beginning graduate students seeking a deeper understanding of real analysis and applications, and for all those looking for a well-founded, detailed approach to real analysis.

  19. Nonactivation interaction analysis. Chapter 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    Analyses are described including the alpha scattering analysis, beta absorption and scattering analysis, gamma and X-ray absorption and scattering analysis, X-ray fluorescence analysis, neutron absorption and scattering analysis, Moessbauer effect application and an analysis based on the application of radiation ionizing effects. (J.P.)

  20. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  1. A PROOF Analysis Framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Caballero, I; Cuesta Noriega, A; Rodríguez Marrero, A; Fernández del Castillo, E

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the complex LHC data usually follows a standard path that aims at minimizing not only the amount of data but also the number of observables used. After a number of steps of slimming and skimming the data, the remaining few terabytes of ROOT files hold a selection of the events and a flat structure for the variables needed that can be more easily inspected and traversed in the final stages of the analysis. PROOF arises at this point as an efficient mechanism to distribute the analysis load by taking advantage of all the cores in modern CPUs through PROOF Lite, or by using PROOF Cluster or PROOF on Demand tools to build dynamic PROOF cluster on computing facilities with spare CPUs. However using PROOF at the level required for a serious analysis introduces some difficulties that may scare new adopters. We have developed the PROOF Analysis Framework (PAF) to facilitate the development of new analysis by uniformly exposing the PROOF related configurations across technologies and by taking care of the routine tasks as much as possible. We describe the details of the PAF implementation as well as how we succeeded in engaging a group of CMS physicists to use PAF as their daily analysis framework.

  2. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  3. Containment vessel stability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harstead, G.A.; Morris, N.F.; Unsal, A.I.

    1983-01-01

    The stability analysis for a steel containment shell is presented herein. The containment is a freestanding shell consisting of a vertical cylinder with a hemispherical dome. It is stiffened by large ring stiffeners and relatively small longitudinal stiffeners. The containment vessel is subjected to both static and dynamic loads which can cause buckling. These loads must be combined prior to their use in a stability analysis. The buckling loads were computed with the aid of the ASME Code case N-284 used in conjunction with general purpose computer codes and in-house programs. The equations contained in the Code case were used to compute the knockdown factors due to shell imperfections. After these knockdown factors were applied to the critical stress states determined by freezing the maximum dynamic stresses and combining them with other static stresses, a linear bifurcation analysis was carried out with the aid of the BOSOR4 program. Since the containment shell contained large penetrations, the Code case had to be supplemented by a local buckling analysis of the shell area surrounding the largest penetration. This analysis was carried out with the aid of the NASTRAN program. Although the factor of safety against buckling obtained in this analysis was satisfactory, it is claimed that the use of the Code case knockdown factors are unduly conservative when applied to the analysis of buckling around penetrations. (orig.)

  4. Observations on risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.A. Jr.

    1979-11-01

    This paper briefly describes WASH 1400 and the Lewis report. It attempts to define basic concepts such as risk and risk analysis, common mode failure, and rare event. Several probabilistic models which go beyond the WASH 1400 methodology are introduced; the common characteristic of these models is that they recognize explicitly that risk analysis is time dependent whereas WASH 1400 takes a per demand failure rate approach which obscures the important fact that accidents are time related. Further, the presentation of a realistic risk analysis should recognize that there are various risks which compete with one another for the lives of the individuals at risk. A way of doing this is suggested

  5. Analysis of monazite samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kartiwa Sumadi; Yayah Rohayati

    1996-01-01

    The 'monazit' analytical program has been set up for routine work of Rare Earth Elements analysis in the monazite and xenotime minerals samples. Total relative error of the analysis is very low, less than 2.50%, and the reproducibility of counting statistic and stability of the instrument were very excellent. The precision and accuracy of the analytical program are very good with the maximum percentage relative are 5.22% and 1.61%, respectively. The mineral compositions of the 30 monazite samples have been also calculated using their chemical constituents, and the results were compared to the grain counting microscopic analysis

  6. Methods of Multivariate Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rencher, Alvin C

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Second Edition "This book is a systematic, well-written, well-organized text on multivariate analysis packed with intuition and insight . . . There is much practical wisdom in this book that is hard to find elsewhere."-IIE Transactions Filled with new and timely content, Methods of Multivariate Analysis, Third Edition provides examples and exercises based on more than sixty real data sets from a wide variety of scientific fields. It takes a "methods" approach to the subject, placing an emphasis on how students and practitioners can employ multivariate analysis in real-life sit

  7. Android malware and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Ken

    2014-01-01

    The rapid growth and development of Android-based devices has resulted in a wealth of sensitive information on mobile devices that offer minimal malware protection. This has created an immediate demand for security professionals that understand how to best approach the subject of Android malware threats and analysis.In Android Malware and Analysis, Ken Dunham, renowned global malware expert and author, teams up with international experts to document the best tools and tactics available for analyzing Android malware. The book covers both methods of malware analysis: dynamic and static.This tact

  8. Foundations of Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Aven, Terje

    2012-01-01

    Foundations of Risk Analysis presents the issues core to risk analysis - understanding what risk means, expressing risk, building risk models, addressing uncertainty, and applying probability models to real problems. The author provides the readers with the knowledge and basic thinking they require to successfully manage risk and uncertainty to support decision making. This updated edition reflects recent developments on risk and uncertainty concepts, representations and treatment. New material in Foundations of Risk Analysis includes:An up to date presentation of how to understand, define and

  9. Easy instrumental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-01

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  10. Distributed analysis at LHCb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, Mike; Egede, Ulrik; Paterson, Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The distributed analysis experience to date at LHCb has been positive: job success rates are high and wait times for high-priority jobs are low. LHCb users access the grid using the GANGA job-management package, while the LHCb virtual organization manages its resources using the DIRAC package. This clear division of labor has benefitted LHCb and its users greatly; it is a major reason why distributed analysis at LHCb has been so successful. The newly formed LHCb distributed analysis support team has also proved to be a success.

  11. Factor analysis and scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Paola, R.; Penel, C.; Bazin, J.P.; Berche, C.

    1976-01-01

    The goal of factor analysis is usually to achieve reduction of a large set of data, extracting essential features without previous hypothesis. Due to the development of computerized systems, the use of largest sampling, the possibility of sequential data acquisition and the increase of dynamic studies, the problem of data compression can be encountered now in routine. Thus, results obtained for compression of scintigraphic images were first presented. Then possibilities given by factor analysis for scan processing were discussed. At last, use of this analysis for multidimensional studies and specially dynamic studies were considered for compression and processing [fr

  12. Easy instrumental analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Myeong Su; Kim, Tae Hwa; Park, Gyu Hyeon; Yang, Jong Beom; Oh, Chang Hwan; Lee, Kyoung Hye

    2010-04-15

    This textbook describes instrument analysis in easy way with twelve chapters. The contents of the book are pH measurement on principle, pH meter, pH measurement, examples of the experiments, centrifugation, Absorptiometry, Fluorescent method, Atomic absorption analysis, Gas-chromatography, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography liquid chromatograph-mass spectrometry, Electrophoresis on practical case and analysis of the result and examples, PCR on principle, device, application and examples and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with indirect ELISA, sandwich ELISA and ELISA reader.

  13. Functional Object Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raket, Lars Lau

    We propose a direction it the field of statistics which we will call functional object analysis. This subfields considers the analysis of functional objects defined on continuous domains. In this setting we will focus on model-based statistics, with a particularly emphasis on mixed......-effect formulations, where the observed functional signal is assumed to consist of both fixed and random functional effects. This thesis takes the initial steps toward the development of likelihood-based methodology for functional objects. We first consider analysis of functional data defined on high...

  14. Bayesian nonparametric data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, Peter; Jara, Alejandro; Hanson, Tim

    2015-01-01

    This book reviews nonparametric Bayesian methods and models that have proven useful in the context of data analysis. Rather than providing an encyclopedic review of probability models, the book’s structure follows a data analysis perspective. As such, the chapters are organized by traditional data analysis problems. In selecting specific nonparametric models, simpler and more traditional models are favored over specialized ones. The discussed methods are illustrated with a wealth of examples, including applications ranging from stylized examples to case studies from recent literature. The book also includes an extensive discussion of computational methods and details on their implementation. R code for many examples is included in on-line software pages.

  15. Analysis of metal samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez T, J.J.; Lopez M, J.; Sandoval J, A.R.; Villasenor S, P.; Aspiazu F, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    An elemental analysis, metallographic and of phases was realized in order to determine the oxidation states of Fe contained in three metallic pieces: block, plate and cylinder of unknown material. Results are presented from the elemental analysis which was carried out in the Tandem Accelerator of ININ by Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE). The phase analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction which allowed to know the type of alloy or alloys formed. The combined application of nuclear techniques with metallographic techniques allows the integral characterization of industrial metals. (Author)

  16. Real analysis and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Ash, Robert B; Lukacs, E

    1972-01-01

    Real Analysis and Probability provides the background in real analysis needed for the study of probability. Topics covered range from measure and integration theory to functional analysis and basic concepts of probability. The interplay between measure theory and topology is also discussed, along with conditional probability and expectation, the central limit theorem, and strong laws of large numbers with respect to martingale theory.Comprised of eight chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic concepts of the theory of measure and integration, followed by a presentation of var

  17. Basic stress analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Iremonger, M J

    1982-01-01

    BASIC Stress Analysis aims to help students to become proficient at BASIC programming by actually using it in an important engineering subject. It also enables the student to use computing as a means of learning stress analysis because writing a program is analogous to teaching-it is necessary to understand the subject matter. The book begins by introducing the BASIC approach and the concept of stress analysis at first- and second-year undergraduate level. Subsequent chapters contain a summary of relevant theory, worked examples containing computer programs, and a set of problems. Topics c

  18. Fundamentals of mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Paul J Sally, Jr

    2013-01-01

    This is a textbook for a course in Honors Analysis (for freshman/sophomore undergraduates) or Real Analysis (for junior/senior undergraduates) or Analysis-I (beginning graduates). It is intended for students who completed a course in "AP Calculus", possibly followed by a routine course in multivariable calculus and a computational course in linear algebra. There are three features that distinguish this book from many other books of a similar nature and which are important for the use of this book as a text. The first, and most important, feature is the collection of exercises. These are spread

  19. Systems analysis-independent analysis and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badin, J.S.; DiPietro, J.P. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The DOE Hydrogen Program is supporting research, development, and demonstration activities to overcome the barriers to the integration of hydrogen into the Nation`s energy infrastructure. Much work is required to gain acceptance of hydrogen energy system concepts and to develop them for implementation. A systems analysis database has been created that includes a formal documentation of technology characterization profiles and cost and performance information. Through a systematic and quantitative approach, system developers can understand and address important issues and thereby assure effective and timely commercial implementation. This project builds upon and expands the previously developed and tested pathway model and provides the basis for a consistent and objective analysis of all hydrogen energy concepts considered by the DOE Hydrogen Program Manager. This project can greatly accelerate the development of a system by minimizing the risk of costly design evolutions, and by stimulating discussions, feedback, and coordination of key players and allows them to assess the analysis, evaluate the trade-offs, and to address any emerging problem areas. Specific analytical studies will result in the validation of the competitive feasibility of the proposed system and identify system development needs. Systems that are investigated include hydrogen bromine electrolysis, municipal solid waste gasification, electro-farming (biomass gasifier and PEM fuel cell), wind/hydrogen hybrid system for remote sites, home electrolysis and alternate infrastructure options, renewable-based electrolysis to fuel PEM fuel cell vehicle fleet, and geothermal energy used to produce hydrogen. These systems are compared to conventional and benchmark technologies. Interim results and findings are presented. Independent analyses emphasize quality, integrity, objectivity, a long-term perspective, corporate memory, and the merging of technical, economic, operational, and programmatic expertise.

  20. Plasma data analysis using statistical analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Z.; Iwata, Y.; Fukuda, Y.; Inoue, N.

    1987-01-01

    Multivariate factor analysis has been applied to a plasma data base of REPUTE-1. The characteristics of the reverse field pinch plasma in REPUTE-1 are shown to be explained by four independent parameters which are described in the report. The well known scaling laws F/sub chi/ proportional to I/sub p/, T/sub e/ proportional to I/sub p/, and tau/sub E/ proportional to N/sub e/ are also confirmed. 4 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  1. Summary Analysis: Hanford Site Composite Analysis Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States); Lehman, L. L. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-06-05

    The Hanford Site’s currently maintained Composite Analysis, originally completed in 1998, requires an update. A previous update effort was undertaken by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) in 2001-2005, but was ended before completion to allow the Tank Closure & Waste Management Environmental Impact Statement (TC&WM EIS) (DOE/EIS-0391) to be prepared without potential for conflicting sitewide models. This EIS was issued in 2012, and the deferral was ended with guidance in memorandum “Modeling to Support Regulatory Decision Making at Hanford” (Williams, 2012) provided with the aim of ensuring subsequent modeling is consistent with the EIS.

  2. Analysis of rare categories

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jingrui

    2012-01-01

    This book focuses on rare category analysis where the majority classes have smooth distributions and the minority classes exhibit the compactness property. It focuses on challenging cases where the support regions of the majority and minority classes overlap.

  3. Longitudinal categorical data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sutradhar, Brajendra C

    2014-01-01

    This is the first book in longitudinal categorical data analysis with parametric correlation models developed based on dynamic relationships among repeated categorical responses. This book is a natural generalization of the longitudinal binary data analysis to the multinomial data setup with more than two categories. Thus, unlike the existing books on cross-sectional categorical data analysis using log linear models, this book uses multinomial probability models both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. A theoretical foundation is provided for the analysis of univariate multinomial responses, by developing models systematically for the cases with no covariates as well as categorical covariates, both in cross-sectional and longitudinal setups. In the longitudinal setup, both stationary and non-stationary covariates are considered. These models have also been extended to the bivariate multinomial setup along with suitable covariates. For the inferences, the book uses the generalized quasi-likelihood as w...

  4. Fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-09-01

    Suggestion are made concerning the method of the fault tree analysis, the use of certain symbols in the examination of system failures. This purpose of the fault free analysis is to find logical connections of component or subsystem failures leading to undesirable occurrances. The results of these examinations are part of the system assessment concerning operation and safety. The objectives of the analysis are: systematical identification of all possible failure combinations (causes) leading to a specific undesirable occurrance, finding of reliability parameters such as frequency of failure combinations, frequency of the undesirable occurrance or non-availability of the system when required. The fault tree analysis provides a near and reconstructable documentation of the examination. (orig./HP) [de

  5. Materials analysis fast ions

    CERN Document Server

    Denker, A; Rauschenberg, J; Röhrich, J; Strub, E

    2006-01-01

    Materials analysis with ion beams exploits the interaction of ions with the electrons and nuclei in the sample. Among the vast variety of possible analytical techniques available with ion beams we will restrain to ion beam analysis with ion beams in the energy range from one to several MeV per mass unit. It is possible to use either the back-scattered projectiles (RBS – Rutherford Back Scattering) or the recoiled atoms itself (ERDA – Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis) from the elastic scattering processes. These techniques allow the simultaneous and absolute determination of stoichiometry and depth profiles of the detected elements. The interaction of the ions with the electrons in the sample produces holes in the inner electronic shells of the sample atoms, which recombine and emit X-rays characteristic for the element in question. Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) has shown to be a fast technique for the analysis of elements with an atomic number above 11.

  6. Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Mukkamala, Raghava Rao; Hussain, Abid

    2016-01-01

    , conceptual and formal models of social data, and an analytical framework for combining big social data sets with organizational and societal data sets. Three empirical studies of big social data are presented to illustrate and demonstrate social set analysis in terms of fuzzy set-theoretical sentiment...... automata and agent-based modeling). However, when it comes to organizational and societal units of analysis, there exists no approach to conceptualize, model, analyze, explain, and predict social media interactions as individuals' associations with ideas, values, identities, and so on. To address...... analysis, crisp set-theoretical interaction analysis, and event-studies-oriented set-theoretical visualizations. Implications for big data analytics, current limitations of the set-theoretical approach, and future directions are outlined....

  7. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  8. Full closure strategic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The full closure strategic analysis was conducted to create a decision process whereby full roadway : closures for construction and maintenance activities can be evaluated and approved or denied by CDOT : Traffic personnel. The study reviewed current...

  9. Electrical Subsurface Grounding Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.M. Calle

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and objective of this analysis is to determine the present grounding requirements of the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) subsurface electrical system and to verify that the actual grounding system and devices satisfy the requirements

  10. Pathway analysis of IMC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrypnyuk, Nataliya; Nielson, Flemming; Pilegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced into the...... into the syntax of IMC in order to make our analysis feasible. Finally we describe the analysis itself together with several theoretical results that we have proved for it.......We present the ongoing work on the pathway analysis of a stochastic calculus. Firstly we present a particular stochastic calculus that we have chosen for our modeling - the Interactive Markov Chains calculus, IMC for short. After that we specify a few restrictions that we have introduced...

  11. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    is replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator......Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in optical...

  12. Qualitative Data Analysis Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Greaves, Kristoffer

    2014-01-01

    A set of concept maps for qualitative data analysis strategies, inspired by Corbin, JM & Strauss, AL 2008, Basics of qualitative research: Techniques and procedures for developing grounded theory, 3rd edn, Sage Publications, Inc, Thousand Oaks, California.

  13. Statistical data analysis handbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wall, Francis J

    1986-01-01

    It must be emphasized that this is not a text book on statistics. Instead it is a working tool that presents data analysis in clear, concise terms which can be readily understood even by those without formal training in statistics...

  14. Distributed Analysis in CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Fanfani, Alessandra; Sanches, Jose Afonso; Andreeva, Julia; Bagliesi, Giusepppe; Bauerdick, Lothar; Belforte, Stefano; Bittencourt Sampaio, Patricia; Bloom, Ken; Blumenfeld, Barry; Bonacorsi, Daniele; Brew, Chris; Calloni, Marco; Cesini, Daniele; Cinquilli, Mattia; Codispoti, Giuseppe; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Dong, Liang; Dongiovanni, Danilo; Donvito, Giacinto; Dykstra, David; Edelmann, Erik; Egeland, Ricky; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Evans, Dave; Fanzago, Federica; Farina, Fabio; Feichtinger, Derek; Fisk, Ian; Flix, Josep; Grandi, Claudio; Guo, Yuyi; Happonen, Kalle; Hernandez, Jose M; Huang, Chih-Hao; Kang, Kejing; Karavakis, Edward; Kasemann, Matthias; Kavka, Carlos; Khan, Akram; Kim, Bockjoo; Klem, Jukka; Koivumaki, Jesper; Kress, Thomas; Kreuzer, Peter; Kurca, Tibor; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lacaprara, Stefano; Lassila-Perini, Kati; Letts, James; Linden, Tomas; Lueking, Lee; Maes, Joris; Magini, Nicolo; Maier, Gerhild; McBride, Patricia; Metson, Simon; Miccio, Vincenzo; Padhi, Sanjay; Pi, Haifeng; Riahi, Hassen; Riley, Daniel; Rossman, Paul; Saiz, Pablo; Sartirana, Andrea; Sciaba, Andrea; Sekhri, Vijay; Spiga, Daniele; Tuura, Lassi; Vaandering, Eric; Vanelderen, Lukas; Van Mulders, Petra; Vedaee, Aresh; Villella, Ilaria; Wicklund, Eric; Wildish, Tony; Wissing, Christoph; Wurthwein, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment expects to manage several Pbytes of data each year during the LHC programme, distributing them over many computing sites around the world and enabling data access at those centers for analysis. CMS has identified the distributed sites as the primary location for physics analysis to support a wide community with thousands potential users. This represents an unprecedented experimental challenge in terms of the scale of distributed computing resources and number of user. An overview of the computing architecture, the software tools and the distributed infrastructure is reported. Summaries of the experience in establishing efficient and scalable operations to get prepared for CMS distributed analysis are presented, followed by the user experience in their current analysis activities.

  15. NOAA's Inundation Analysis Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Coastal storms and other meteorological phenomenon can have a significant impact on how high water levels rise and how often. The inundation analysis program is...

  16. Multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Nishisato, Shizuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of categorical, or non-numerical, data is a problem that scientists face across a wide range of disciplines. Exploring data analysis in various areas of research, such as the social sciences and biology, Multidimensional Nonlinear Descriptive Analysis presents methods for analyzing categorical data that are not necessarily sampled randomly from a normal population and often involve nonlinear relations. This reference not only provides an overview of multidimensional nonlinear descriptive analysis (MUNDA) of discrete data, it also offers new results in a variety of fields. The first part of the book covers conceptual and technical preliminaries needed to understand the data analysis in subsequent chapters. The next two parts contain applications of MUNDA to diverse data types, with each chapter devoted to one type of categorical data, a brief historical comment, and basic skills peculiar to the data types. The final part examines several problems and then concludes with suggestions for futu...

  17. Building energy analysis tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackney, Larry; Parker, Andrew; Long, Nicholas; Metzger, Ian; Dean, Jesse; Lisell, Lars

    2016-04-12

    A building energy analysis system includes a building component library configured to store a plurality of building components, a modeling tool configured to access the building component library and create a building model of a building under analysis using building spatial data and using selected building components of the plurality of building components stored in the building component library, a building analysis engine configured to operate the building model and generate a baseline energy model of the building under analysis and further configured to apply one or more energy conservation measures to the baseline energy model in order to generate one or more corresponding optimized energy models, and a recommendation tool configured to assess the one or more optimized energy models against the baseline energy model and generate recommendations for substitute building components or modifications.

  18. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural phenomena and man-made pollution for variious pollution management decisions.

  19. Synovial Fluid Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Plasma Free Metanephrines Platelet Count Platelet Function Tests Pleural Fluid Analysis PML-RARA Porphyrin Tests Potassium Prealbumin ... is being tested? Synovial fluid is a thick liquid that acts as a lubricant for the body's ...

  20. Analysis in Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Hytönen, Tuomas; Veraar, Mark; Weis, Lutz

    The present volume develops the theory of integration in Banach spaces, martingales and UMD spaces, and culminates in a treatment of the Hilbert transform, Littlewood-Paley theory and the vector-valued Mihlin multiplier theorem. Over the past fifteen years, motivated by regularity problems in evolution equations, there has been tremendous progress in the analysis of Banach space-valued functions and processes. The contents of this extensive and powerful toolbox have been mostly scattered around in research papers and lecture notes. Collecting this diverse body of material into a unified and accessible presentation fills a gap in the existing literature. The principal audience that we have in mind consists of researchers who need and use Analysis in Banach Spaces as a tool for studying problems in partial differential equations, harmonic analysis, and stochastic analysis. Self-contained and offering complete proofs, this work is accessible to graduate students and researchers with a background in functional an...

  1. Analysis Streamlining in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Lukas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    We present recent work within the ATLAS collaboration centrally provide tools to facilitate analysis management and highly automated container-based analysis execution in order to both enable non-experts to benefit from these best practices as well as the collaboration to track and re-execute analyses indpendently, e.g. during their review phase. Through integration with the ATLAS GLANCE system, users can request a pre-configured, but customizable version control setup, including continuous integration for automated build and testing as well as continuous Linux Container image building for software preservation purposes. As analyses typically require many individual steps, analysis workflow pipelines can then be defined using such images and the yadage workflow description language. The integration into the workflow exection service REANA allows the interactive or automated reproduction of the main analysis results by orchestrating a large number of container jobs using the Kubernetes. For long-term archival,...

  2. Lectures on harmonic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wolff, Thomas H; Shubin, Carol

    2003-01-01

    This book demonstrates how harmonic analysis can provide penetrating insights into deep aspects of modern analysis. It is both an introduction to the subject as a whole and an overview of those branches of harmonic analysis that are relevant to the Kakeya conjecture. The usual background material is covered in the first few chapters: the Fourier transform, convolution, the inversion theorem, the uncertainty principle and the method of stationary phase. However, the choice of topics is highly selective, with emphasis on those frequently used in research inspired by the problems discussed in the later chapters. These include questions related to the restriction conjecture and the Kakeya conjecture, distance sets, and Fourier transforms of singular measures. These problems are diverse, but often interconnected; they all combine sophisticated Fourier analysis with intriguing links to other areas of mathematics and they continue to stimulate first-rate work. The book focuses on laying out a solid foundation for fu...

  3. Water Quality Analysis Simulation

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Water Quality analysis simulation Program, an enhancement of the original WASP. This model helps users interpret and predict water quality responses to natural...

  4. Design and Analysis Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides engineering design of aircraft components, subsystems and installations using Pro/E, Anvil 1000, CADKEY 97, AutoCAD 13. Engineering analysis tools include...

  5. Analysis of extreme events

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Khuluse, S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ) determination of the distribution of the damage and (iii) preparation of products that enable prediction of future risk events. The methodology provided by extreme value theory can also be a powerful tool in risk analysis...

  6. Modern real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ziemer, William P

    2017-01-01

    This first year graduate text is a comprehensive resource in real analysis based on a modern treatment of measure and integration. Presented in a definitive and self-contained manner, it features a natural progression of concepts from simple to difficult. Several innovative topics are featured, including differentiation of measures, elements of Functional Analysis, the Riesz Representation Theorem, Schwartz distributions, the area formula, Sobolev functions and applications to harmonic functions. Together, the selection of topics forms a sound foundation in real analysis that is particularly suited to students going on to further study in partial differential equations. This second edition of Modern Real Analysis contains many substantial improvements, including the addition of problems for practicing techniques, and an entirely new section devoted to the relationship between Lebesgue and improper integrals. Aimed at graduate students with an understanding of advanced calculus, the text will also appeal to mo...

  7. Visual time series analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a platform which supplies an easy-to-handle, interactive, extendable, and fast analysis tool for time series analysis. In contrast to other software suits like Maple, Matlab, or R, which use a command-line-like interface and where the user has to memorize/look-up the appropriate...... commands, our application is select-and-click-driven. It allows to derive many different sequences of deviations for a given time series and to visualize them in different ways in order to judge their expressive power and to reuse the procedure found. For many transformations or model-ts, the user may...... choose between manual and automated parameter selection. The user can dene new transformations and add them to the system. The application contains efficient implementations of advanced and recent techniques for time series analysis including techniques related to extreme value analysis and filtering...

  8. B-10 analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holland, W.E.

    1980-02-01

    A method was developed to determine if boron-loaded polymeric material contained enriched boron or natural boron. A prototype analyzer was constructed, and initial planning was done for an actual analysis facility

  9. Stakeholder Analysis Worksheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakeholder Analysis WorksheetA worksheet that can be used to document potential stakeholder groups, the information or expertise they hold, the role that they can play, their interests or concerns about the HIA

  10. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  11. Principles of Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Howell, Kenneth B

    2001-01-01

    Fourier analysis is one of the most useful and widely employed sets of tools for the engineer, the scientist, and the applied mathematician. As such, students and practitioners in these disciplines need a practical and mathematically solid introduction to its principles. They need straightforward verifications of its results and formulas, and they need clear indications of the limitations of those results and formulas.Principles of Fourier Analysis furnishes all this and more. It provides a comprehensive overview of the mathematical theory of Fourier analysis, including the development of Fourier series, "classical" Fourier transforms, generalized Fourier transforms and analysis, and the discrete theory. Much of the author''s development is strikingly different from typical presentations. His approach to defining the classical Fourier transform results in a much cleaner, more coherent theory that leads naturally to a starting point for the generalized theory. He also introduces a new generalized theory based ...

  12. Quantitative investment analysis

    CERN Document Server

    DeFusco, Richard

    2007-01-01

    In the "Second Edition" of "Quantitative Investment Analysis," financial experts Richard DeFusco, Dennis McLeavey, Jerald Pinto, and David Runkle outline the tools and techniques needed to understand and apply quantitative methods to today's investment process.

  13. Errors from Image Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, William Monford [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Presenting a systematic study of the standard analysis of rod-pinch radiographs for obtaining quantitative measurements of areal mass densities, and making suggestions for improving the methodology of obtaining quantitative information from radiographed objects.

  14. Biodiesel Emissions Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using existing data, the EPA's biodiesel emissions analysis program sought to quantify the air pollution emission effects of biodiesel for diesel engines that have not been specifically modified to operate on biodiesel.

  15. Introduction to global analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kahn, Donald W

    2007-01-01

    This text introduces the methods of mathematical analysis as applied to manifolds, including the roles of differentiation and integration, infinite dimensions, Morse theory, Lie groups, and dynamical systems. 1980 edition.

  16. Biorefinery Sustainability Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. S. M. Silva, Carla; Prunescu, Remus Mihail; Gernaey, Krist

    2017-01-01

    This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system and of t......This chapter deals with sustainability analysis of biorefinery systems in terms of environmental and socio-economic indicators . Life cycle analysis has methodological issues related to the functional unit (FU), allocation , land use and biogenic carbon neutrality of the reference system...... and of the biorefinery-based system. Socio-economic criteria and indicators used in sustainability frameworks assessment are presented and discussed. There is not one single methodology that can aptly cover the synergies of environmental, economic, social and governance issues required to assess the sustainable...

  17. Pesticide Instrumental Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samir, E.; Fonseca, E.; Baldyga, N.; Acosta, A.; Gonzalez, F.; Felicita, F.; Tomasso, M.; Esquivel, D.; Parada, A.; Enriquez, P.; Amilibia, M.

    2012-01-01

    This workshop was the evaluation of the pesticides impact on the vegetable matrix with the purpose to determine the analysis by GC / M S. The working material were lettuce matrix, chard and a mix of green leaves and pesticides.

  18. GAP Analysis Program (GAP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas GAP Analysis Land Cover database depicts 43 land cover classes for the state of Kansas. The database was generated using a two-stage hybrid classification...

  19. Perspectives in shape analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckstein, Alfred; Maragos, Petros; Wuhrer, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    This book presents recent advances in the field of shape analysis. Written by experts in the fields of continuous-scale shape analysis, discrete shape analysis and sparsity, and numerical computing who hail from different communities, it provides a unique view of the topic from a broad range of perspectives. Over the last decade, it has become increasingly affordable to digitize shape information at high resolution. Yet analyzing and processing this data remains challenging because of the large amount of data involved, and because modern applications such as human-computer interaction require real-time processing. Meeting these challenges requires interdisciplinary approaches that combine concepts from a variety of research areas, including numerical computing, differential geometry, deformable shape modeling, sparse data representation, and machine learning. On the algorithmic side, many shape analysis tasks are modeled using partial differential equations, which can be solved using tools from the field of n...

  20. Job Hazard Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1998-01-01

    .... Establishing proper job procedures is one of the benefits of conducting a job hazard analysis carefully studying and recording each step of a job, identifying existing or potential job hazards...

  1. Main: Nucleotide Analysis [KOME

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Nucleotide Analysis Japonica genome blast search result Result of blastn search against jap...onica genome sequence kome_japonica_genome_blast_search_result.zip kome_japonica_genome_blast_search_result ...

  2. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  3. Scientific stream pollution analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nemerow, Nelson Leonard

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive description of the analysis of water pollution that presents a careful balance of the biological,hydrological, chemical and mathematical concepts involved in the evaluation of stream...

  4. CMS analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeva, J; Maier, G; Spiga, D; Calloni, M; Colling, D; Fanzago, F; D'Hondt, J; Maes, J; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Klem, J; Letts, J; Padhi, S; Sarkar, S

    2010-01-01

    During normal data taking CMS expects to support potentially as many as 2000 analysis users. Since the beginning of 2008 there have been more than 800 individuals who submitted a remote analysis job to the CMS computing infrastructure. The bulk of these users will be supported at the over 40 CMS Tier-2 centres. Supporting a globally distributed community of users on a globally distributed set of computing clusters is a task that requires reconsidering the normal methods of user support for Analysis Operations. In 2008 CMS formed an Analysis Support Task Force in preparation for large-scale physics analysis activities. The charge of the task force was to evaluate the available support tools, the user support techniques, and the direct feedback of users with the goal of improving the success rate and user experience when utilizing the distributed computing environment. The task force determined the tools needed to assess and reduce the number of non-zero exit code applications submitted through the grid interfaces and worked with the CMS experiment dashboard developers to obtain the necessary information to quickly and proactively identify issues with user jobs and data sets hosted at various sites. Results of the analysis group surveys were compiled. Reference platforms for testing and debugging problems were established in various geographic regions. The task force also assessed the resources needed to make the transition to a permanent Analysis Operations task. In this presentation the results of the task force will be discussed as well as the CMS Analysis Operations plans for the start of data taking.

  5. Invitation to classical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Duren, Peter

    2012-01-01

    This book gives a rigorous treatment of selected topics in classical analysis, with many applications and examples. The exposition is at the undergraduate level, building on basic principles of advanced calculus without appeal to more sophisticated techniques of complex analysis and Lebesgue integration. Among the topics covered are Fourier series and integrals, approximation theory, Stirling's formula, the gamma function, Bernoulli numbers and polynomials, the Riemann zeta function, Tauberian theorems, elliptic integrals, ramifications of the Cantor set, and a theoretical discussion of differ

  6. Analysis of irradiated materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamy, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Papers presented at the UKAEA Conference on Materials Analysis by Physical Techniques (1987) covered a wide range of techniques as applied to the analysis of irradiated materials. These varied from reactor component materials, materials associated with the Authority's radwaste disposal programme, fission products and products associated with the decommissioning of nuclear reactors. An invited paper giving a very comprehensive review of Laser Ablation Microprobe Mass Spectroscopy (LAMMS) was included in the programme. (author)

  7. Cuckoo malware analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oktavianto, Digit

    2013-01-01

    This book is a step-by-step, practical tutorial for analyzing and detecting malware and performing digital investigations. This book features clear and concise guidance in an easily accessible format.Cuckoo Malware Analysis is great for anyone who wants to analyze malware through programming, networking, disassembling, forensics, and virtualization. Whether you are new to malware analysis or have some experience, this book will help you get started with Cuckoo Sandbox so you can start analysing malware effectively and efficiently.

  8. Comparative risk analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niehaus, F.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, the risks of various energy systems are discussed considering severe accidents analysis, particularly the probabilistic safety analysis, and probabilistic safety criteria, and the applications of these criteria and analysis. The comparative risk analysis has demonstrated that the largest source of risk in every society is from daily small accidents. Nevertheless, we have to be more concerned about severe accidents. The comparative risk analysis of five different energy systems (coal, oil, gas, LWR and STEC (Solar)) for the public has shown that the main sources of risks are coal and oil. The latest comparative risk study of various energy has been conducted in the USA and has revealed that the number of victims from coal is 42 as many than victims from nuclear. A study for severe accidents from hydro-dams in United States has estimated the probability of dam failures at 1 in 10,000 years and the number of victims between 11,000 and 260,000. The average occupational risk from coal is one fatal accident in 1,000 workers/year. The probabilistic safety analysis is a method that can be used to assess nuclear energy risks, and to analyze the severe accidents, and to model all possible accident sequences and consequences. The 'Fault tree' analysis is used to know the probability of failure of the different systems at each point of accident sequences and to calculate the probability of risks. After calculating the probability of failure, the criteria for judging the numerical results have to be developed, that is the quantitative and qualitative goals. To achieve these goals, several systems have been devised by various countries members of AIEA. The probabilistic safety ana-lysis method has been developed by establishing a computer program permit-ting to know different categories of safety related information. 19 tabs. (author)

  9. Reactor Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on reactor safety is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The research programme consists of four main activities, in particular the development of software for reliability analysis of large systems and participation in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents, the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; the development and application of a probabilistic reactor dynamics method. Main achievements in 1999 are reported

  10. Oncological image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Sir Michael; Highnam, Ralph; Irving, Benjamin; Schnabel, Julia A

    2016-10-01

    Cancer is one of the world's major healthcare challenges and, as such, an important application of medical image analysis. After a brief introduction to cancer, we summarise some of the major developments in oncological image analysis over the past 20 years, but concentrating those in the authors' laboratories, and then outline opportunities and challenges for the next decade. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tibari, Elghali; Taous, Fouad; Marah, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results related to stable isotopes analysis carried out at the CNESTEN DASTE in Rabat (Morocco), on behalf of Senegal. These analyzes cover 127 samples. These results demonstrate that Oxygen-18 and Deuterium in water analysis were performed by infrared Laser spectroscopy using a LGR / DLT-100 with Autosampler. Also, the results are expressed in δ values (‰) relative to V-SMOW to ± 0.3 ‰ for oxygen-18 and ± 1 ‰ for deuterium.

  12. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Oden, J Tinsley

    2010-01-01

    The textbook is designed to drive a crash course for beginning graduate students majoring in something besides mathematics, introducing mathematical foundations that lead to classical results in functional analysis. More specifically, Oden and Demkowicz want to prepare students to learn the variational theory of partial differential equations, distributions, and Sobolev spaces and numerical analysis with an emphasis on finite element methods. The 1996 first edition has been used in a rather intensive two-semester course. -Book News, June 2010

  13. Applied functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Griffel, DH

    2002-01-01

    A stimulating introductory text, this volume examines many important applications of functional analysis to mechanics, fluid mechanics, diffusive growth, and approximation. Detailed enough to impart a thorough understanding, the text is also sufficiently straightforward for those unfamiliar with abstract analysis. Its four-part treatment begins with distribution theory and discussions of Green's functions. Essentially independent of the preceding material, the second and third parts deal with Banach spaces, Hilbert space, spectral theory, and variational techniques. The final part outlines the

  14. PEST Analysis of Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Stosic; Drasko Nikolic; Aleksandar Zdravkovic

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of the current Serbian macro-environment on the businesses through the implementation of PEST analysis as a framework for assessing general or macro environment in which companies are operating. The authors argue the elements in presented PEST analysis indicate that the current macro-environment is characterized by the dominance of threats and weaknesses with few opportunities and strengths. Consequently, there is a strong need for faste...

  15. Forensic neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, T.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of forensic neutron activation analysis (FNAA) in Japan is described. FNAA began in 1965 and during the past 20 years many cases have been handled; these include determination of toxic materials, comparison examination of physical evidences (e.g., paints, metal fragments, plastics and inks) and drug sample differentiation. Neutron activation analysis is applied routinely to the scientific criminal investigation as one of multielement analytical techniques. This paper also discusses these routine works. (author) 14 refs

  16. Probabilistic Structural Analysis Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Shantaram S.; Chamis, Christos C.; Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Stefko, George L.; Riha, David S.; Thacker, Ben H.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2010-01-01

    NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is a general-purpose, probabilistic analysis program that computes probability of failure and probabilistic sensitivity measures of engineered systems. Because NASA/NESSUS uses highly computationally efficient and accurate analysis techniques, probabilistic solutions can be obtained even for extremely large and complex models. Once the probabilistic response is quantified, the results can be used to support risk-informed decisions regarding reliability for safety-critical and one-of-a-kind systems, as well as for maintaining a level of quality while reducing manufacturing costs for larger-quantity products. NASA/NESSUS has been successfully applied to a diverse range of problems in aerospace, gas turbine engines, biomechanics, pipelines, defense, weaponry, and infrastructure. This program combines state-of-the-art probabilistic algorithms with general-purpose structural analysis and lifting methods to compute the probabilistic response and reliability of engineered structures. Uncertainties in load, material properties, geometry, boundary conditions, and initial conditions can be simulated. The structural analysis methods include non-linear finite-element methods, heat-transfer analysis, polymer/ceramic matrix composite analysis, monolithic (conventional metallic) materials life-prediction methodologies, boundary element methods, and user-written subroutines. Several probabilistic algorithms are available such as the advanced mean value method and the adaptive importance sampling method. NASA/NESSUS 6.2c is structured in a modular format with 15 elements.

  17. WHAT IF (Sensitivity Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian N. BUJOREANU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensitivity analysis represents such a well known and deeply analyzed subject that anyone to enter the field feels like not being able to add anything new. Still, there are so many facets to be taken into consideration.The paper introduces the reader to the various ways sensitivity analysis is implemented and the reasons for which it has to be implemented in most analyses in the decision making processes. Risk analysis is of outmost importance in dealing with resource allocation and is presented at the beginning of the paper as the initial cause to implement sensitivity analysis. Different views and approaches are added during the discussion about sensitivity analysis so that the reader develops an as thoroughly as possible opinion on the use and UTILITY of the sensitivity analysis. Finally, a round-up conclusion brings us to the question of the possibility of generating the future and analyzing it before it unfolds so that, when it happens it brings less uncertainty.

  18. Activation analysis in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimanis, A.P.

    1985-01-01

    A review of research and development on NAA as well as examples of applications of this method are presented, taken from work carried out over the last 21 years at the Radioanalytical Laboratory of the Department of Chemistry in the Greek Nuclear Research Center ''Demokritos''. Improved and faster radiochemical NAA methods have been developed for the determination of Au, Ni, Cl, As, Cu, U, Cr, Eu, Hg and Mo in several materials, for the simultaneous determination of Br and I; Mg, Sr and Ni; As and Cu; As, Sb and Hg; Mn, Sr and Ba; Cd and Zn; Se and As; Mo and Cr in biological materials. Instrumental NAA methods have also been developed for the determination of Ag, Cl and Na in lake waters, Al, Ca, Mg and V in wines, 7 trace elements in biological materials, 17 trace elements in sediments and 20 minor and trace elements in ceramics. A comprehensive computer program for routine activation analysis using Ge(Li) detectors have been worked out. A rather extended charged-particle activation analysis program is carried out for the last 10 years, including particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis, particle induced prompt gamma-ray emission analysis (PIGE), other nuclear reactions and proton activation analysis. A special neutron activation method, the delayed fission neutron counting method is used for the analysis of fissionable elements, as U, Th, Pu, in samples of the whole nuclear fuel cycle including geological, enriched and nuclear safeguards samples

  19. Integrated genetic analysis microsystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagally, Eric T; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    With the completion of the Human Genome Project and the ongoing DNA sequencing of the genomes of other animals, bacteria, plants and others, a wealth of new information about the genetic composition of organisms has become available. However, as the demand for sequence information grows, so does the workload required both to generate this sequence and to use it for targeted genetic analysis. Microfabricated genetic analysis systems are well poised to assist in the collection and use of these data through increased analysis speed, lower analysis cost and higher parallelism leading to increased assay throughput. In addition, such integrated microsystems may point the way to targeted genetic experiments on single cells and in other areas that are otherwise very difficult. Concomitant with these advantages, such systems, when fully integrated, should be capable of forming portable systems for high-speed in situ analyses, enabling a new standard in disciplines such as clinical chemistry, forensics, biowarfare detection and epidemiology. This review will discuss the various technologies available for genetic analysis on the microscale, and efforts to integrate them to form fully functional robust analysis devices. (topical review)

  20. INTERNAL ENVIRONMENT ANALYSIS TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caescu Stefan Claudiu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Theme The situation analysis, as a separate component of the strategic planning, involves collecting and analysing relevant types of information on the components of the marketing environment and their evolution on the one hand and also on the organization’s resources and capabilities on the other. Objectives of the Research The main purpose of the study of the analysis techniques of the internal environment is to provide insight on those aspects that are of strategic importance to the organization. Literature Review The marketing environment consists of two distinct components, the internal environment that is made from specific variables within the organization and the external environment that is made from variables external to the organization. Although analysing the external environment is essential for corporate success, it is not enough unless it is backed by a detailed analysis of the internal environment of the organization. The internal environment includes all elements that are endogenous to the organization, which are influenced to a great extent and totally controlled by it. The study of the internal environment must answer all resource related questions, solve all resource management issues and represents the first step in drawing up the marketing strategy. Research Methodology The present paper accomplished a documentary study of the main techniques used for the analysis of the internal environment. Results The special literature emphasizes that the differences in performance from one organization to another is primarily dependant not on the differences between the fields of activity, but especially on the differences between the resources and capabilities and the ways these are capitalized on. The main methods of analysing the internal environment addressed in this paper are: the analysis of the organizational resources, the performance analysis, the value chain analysis and the functional analysis. Implications Basically such

  1. Professionalizing Intelligence Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B. Bruce

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the current state of professionalism in national security intelligence analysis in the U.S. Government. Since the introduction of major intelligence reforms directed by the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act (IRTPA in December, 2004, we have seen notable strides in many aspects of intelligence professionalization, including in analysis. But progress is halting, uneven, and by no means permanent. To consolidate its gains, and if it is to continue improving, the U.S. intelligence community (IC should commit itself to accomplishing a new program of further professionalization of analysis to ensure that it will develop an analytic cadre that is fully prepared to deal with the complexities of an emerging multipolar and highly dynamic world that the IC itself is forecasting. Some recent reforms in intelligence analysis can be assessed against established standards of more fully developed professions; these may well fall short of moving the IC closer to the more fully professionalized analytical capability required for producing the kind of analysis needed now by the United States.

  2. Harmonic and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Citti, Giovanna; Pérez, Carlos; Sarti, Alessandro; Zhong, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    This book presents an expanded version of four series of lectures delivered by the authors at the CRM. Harmonic analysis, understood in a broad sense, has a very wide interplay with partial differential equations and in particular with the theory of quasiconformal mappings and its applications. Some areas in which real analysis has been extremely influential are PDE's and geometric analysis. Their foundations and subsequent developments made extensive use of the Calderón–Zygmund theory, especially the Lp inequalities for Calderón–Zygmund operators (Beurling transform and Riesz transform, among others) and the theory of Muckenhoupt weights.  The first chapter is an application of harmonic analysis and the Heisenberg group to understanding human vision, while the second and third chapters cover some of the main topics on linear and multilinear harmonic analysis. The last serves as a comprehensive introduction to a deep result from De Giorgi, Moser and Nash on the regularity of elliptic partial differen...

  3. Is risk analysis scientific?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Sven Ove; Aven, Terje

    2014-07-01

    This article discusses to what extent risk analysis is scientific in view of a set of commonly used definitions and criteria. We consider scientific knowledge to be characterized by its subject matter, its success in developing the best available knowledge in its fields of study, and the epistemic norms and values that guide scientific investigations. We proceed to assess the field of risk analysis according to these criteria. For this purpose, we use a model for risk analysis in which science is used as a base for decision making on risks, which covers the five elements evidence, knowledge base, broad risk evaluation, managerial review and judgment, and the decision; and that relates these elements to the domains experts and decisionmakers, and to the domains fact-based or value-based. We conclude that risk analysis is a scientific field of study, when understood as consisting primarily of (i) knowledge about risk-related phenomena, processes, events, etc., and (ii) concepts, theories, frameworks, approaches, principles, methods and models to understand, assess, characterize, communicate, and manage risk, in general and for specific applications (the instrumental part). © 2014 Society for Risk Analysis.

  4. Biosensors for Cell Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qing; Son, Kyungjin; Liu, Ying; Revzin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Biosensors first appeared several decades ago to address the need for monitoring physiological parameters such as oxygen or glucose in biological fluids such as blood. More recently, a new wave of biosensors has emerged in order to provide more nuanced and granular information about the composition and function of living cells. Such biosensors exist at the confluence of technology and medicine and often strive to connect cell phenotype or function to physiological or pathophysiological processes. Our review aims to describe some of the key technological aspects of biosensors being developed for cell analysis. The technological aspects covered in our review include biorecognition elements used for biosensor construction, methods for integrating cells with biosensors, approaches to single-cell analysis, and the use of nanostructured biosensors for cell analysis. Our hope is that the spectrum of possibilities for cell analysis described in this review may pique the interest of biomedical scientists and engineers and may spur new collaborations in the area of using biosensors for cell analysis.

  5. Clinical reasoning: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Barbara

    2010-05-01

    This paper is a report of a concept analysis of clinical reasoning in nursing. Clinical reasoning is an ambiguous term that is often used synonymously with decision-making and clinical judgment. Clinical reasoning has not been clearly defined in the literature. Healthcare settings are increasingly filled with uncertainty, risk and complexity due to increased patient acuity, multiple comorbidities, and enhanced use of technology, all of which require clinical reasoning. Data sources. Literature for this concept analysis was retrieved from several databases, including CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, ERIC and OvidMEDLINE, for the years 1980 to 2008. Rodgers's evolutionary method of concept analysis was used because of its applicability to concepts that are still evolving. Multiple terms have been used synonymously to describe the thinking skills that nurses use. Research in the past 20 years has elucidated differences among these terms and identified the cognitive processes that precede judgment and decision-making. Our concept analysis defines one of these terms, 'clinical reasoning,' as a complex process that uses cognition, metacognition, and discipline-specific knowledge to gather and analyse patient information, evaluate its significance, and weigh alternative actions. This concept analysis provides a middle-range descriptive theory of clinical reasoning in nursing that helps clarify meaning and gives direction for future research. Appropriate instruments to operationalize the concept need to be developed. Research is needed to identify additional variables that have an impact on clinical reasoning and what are the consequences of clinical reasoning in specific situations.

  6. Kosice meteorite analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J.; Degmova, J.; Dekan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Meteorite Kosice fell down 28 th of February 2010 near the Kosice and represents an unique find, because the last fall of meteorite was observed in Slovakia at the year 1895. It supposes that for this kind of meteorite the orbit in cosmic space could be calculated. This is one of most important part because until now 13 places of meteorite find are known in the world of which cosmic orbit in space have been calculated. Slovakia is member of international bolide net, dealing with meteorite analysis in Middle Europe .Analysis of Kosice meteorite will also concern at the long live and short live nuclides. Results should be a contribution to determination of radiation and formative ages. From structural analysis of meteorite it will be possible to compare it with similar types of meteorites. In this work Moessbauer spectroscopy will be used for phase analysis from point of view iron contain components with the aim to identify magnetic and non magnetic fractions. From the analysis of magnetic part we can find that the first sextet with hyperfine magnetic field 33.5 T corresponds to bcc Fe-Ni alloy (kamacite) and second with field 31.5 T to FeS (triolite). Meteorites with mentioned composition belong to the mineral group of chondrites. Comparing our parameters with results of measurements at the similar meteorites we can conclude that Kosice meteorite contains the same components. According all Moessbauer parameters we can also include this meteorite in the mineral group of chondrites. (authors)

  7. Foundations of VISAR analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolan, Daniel H.

    2006-06-01

    The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is a widely used diagnostic at Sandia National Laboratories. Although the operating principles of the VISAR are well established, recently deployed systems (such as the fast push-pull and air delay VISAR) require more careful consideration, and many common assumptions about VISAR are coming into question. This report presents a comprehensive review of VISAR analysis to address these issues. Detailed treatment of several interferometer configurations is given to identify important aspects of the operation and characterization of VISAR systems. The calculation of velocity from interferometer measurements is also described. The goal is to derive the standard VISAR analysis relationships, indicate when these relationships are valid, and provide alternative methods when the standard analysis fails.

  8. Real mathematical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Pugh, Charles C

    2015-01-01

    Based on an honors course taught by the author at UC Berkeley, this introduction to undergraduate real analysis gives a different emphasis by stressing the importance of pictures and hard problems. Topics include: a natural construction of the real numbers, four-dimensional visualization, basic point-set topology, function spaces, multivariable calculus via differential forms (leading to a simple proof of the Brouwer Fixed Point Theorem), and a pictorial treatment of Lebesgue theory. Over 150 detailed illustrations elucidate abstract concepts and salient points in proofs. The exposition is informal and relaxed, with many helpful asides, examples, some jokes, and occasional comments from mathematicians, such as Littlewood, Dieudonné, and Osserman. This book thus succeeds in being more comprehensive, more comprehensible, and more enjoyable, than standard introductions to analysis. New to the second edition of Real Mathematical Analysis is a presentation of Lebesgue integration done almost entirely using the un...

  9. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kido, Ken'iti

    2015-01-01

    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  10. The data analysis handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, IE

    1994-01-01

    Analyzing observed or measured data is an important step in applied sciences. The recent increase in computer capacity has resulted in a revolution both in data collection and data analysis. An increasing number of scientists, researchers and students are venturing into statistical data analysis; hence the need for more guidance in this field, which was previously dominated mainly by statisticians. This handbook fills the gap in the range of textbooks on data analysis. Written in a dictionary format, it will serve as a comprehensive reference book in a rapidly growing field. However, this book is more structured than an ordinary dictionary, where each entry is a separate, self-contained entity. The authors provide not only definitions and short descriptions, but also offer an overview of the different topics. Therefore, the handbook can also be used as a companion to textbooks for undergraduate or graduate courses. 1700 entries are given in alphabetical order grouped into 20 topics and each topic is organized...

  11. Reactor safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arien, B.

    1998-01-01

    Risk assessments of nuclear installations require accurate safety and reliability analyses to estimate the consequences of accidental events and their probability of occurrence. The objective of the work performed in this field at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre SCK-CEN is to develop expertise in probabilistic and deterministic reactor safety analysis. The four main activities of the research project on reactor safety analysis are: (1) the development of software for the reliable analysis of large systems; (2) the development of an expert system for the aid to diagnosis; (3) the development and the application of a probabilistic reactor-dynamics method, and (4) to participate in the international PHEBUS-FP programme for severe accidents. Progress in research during 1997 is described

  12. Badge Office Process Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haurykiewicz, John Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dinehart, Timothy Grant [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Parker, Robert Young [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The purpose of this process analysis was to analyze the Badge Offices’ current processes from a systems perspective and consider ways of pursuing objectives set forth by SEC-PS, namely increased customer flow (throughput) and reduced customer wait times. Information for the analysis was gathered for the project primarily through Badge Office Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and in-person observation of prevailing processes. Using the information gathered, a process simulation model was constructed to represent current operations and allow assessment of potential process changes relative to factors mentioned previously. The overall purpose of the analysis was to provide SEC-PS management with information and recommendations to serve as a basis for additional focused study and areas for potential process improvements in the future.

  13. The surface analysis methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deville, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Nowadays, there are a lot of surfaces analysis methods, each having its specificity, its qualities, its constraints (for instance vacuum) and its limits. Expensive in time and in investment, these methods have to be used deliberately. This article appeals to non specialists. It gives some elements of choice according to the studied information, the sensitivity, the use constraints or the answer to a precise question. After having recalled the fundamental principles which govern these analysis methods, based on the interaction between radiations (ultraviolet, X) or particles (ions, electrons) with matter, two methods will be more particularly described: the Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and x-rays photoemission spectroscopy (ESCA or XPS). Indeed, they are the most widespread methods in laboratories, the easier for use and probably the most productive for the analysis of surface of industrial materials or samples submitted to treatments in aggressive media. (O.M.)

  14. Power electronics reliability analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, Mark A.; Atcitty, Stanley

    2009-12-01

    This report provides the DOE and industry with a general process for analyzing power electronics reliability. The analysis can help with understanding the main causes of failures, downtime, and cost and how to reduce them. One approach is to collect field maintenance data and use it directly to calculate reliability metrics related to each cause. Another approach is to model the functional structure of the equipment using a fault tree to derive system reliability from component reliability. Analysis of a fictitious device demonstrates the latter process. Optimization can use the resulting baseline model to decide how to improve reliability and/or lower costs. It is recommended that both electric utilities and equipment manufacturers make provisions to collect and share data in order to lay the groundwork for improving reliability into the future. Reliability analysis helps guide reliability improvements in hardware and software technology including condition monitoring and prognostics and health management.

  15. Contamination analysis unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregg, H.R.; Meltzer, M.P.

    1996-01-01

    The portable Contamination Analysis Unit (CAU) measures trace quantities of surface contamination in real time. The detector head of the portable contamination analysis unit has an opening with an O-ring seal, one or more vacuum valves and a small mass spectrometer. With the valve closed, the mass spectrometer is evacuated with one or more pumps. The O-ring seal is placed against a surface to be tested and the vacuum valve is opened. Data is collected from the mass spectrometer and a portable computer provides contamination analysis. The CAU can be used to decontaminate and decommission hazardous and radioactive surfaces by measuring residual hazardous surface contamination, such as tritium and trace organics. It provides surface contamination data for research and development applications as well as real-time process control feedback for industrial cleaning operations and can be used to determine the readiness of a surface to accept bonding or coatings. 1 fig

  16. Non-commutative analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, Palle

    2017-01-01

    The book features new directions in analysis, with an emphasis on Hilbert space, mathematical physics, and stochastic processes. We interpret 'non-commutative analysis' broadly to include representations of non-Abelian groups, and non-Abelian algebras; emphasis on Lie groups and operator algebras (C* algebras and von Neumann algebras.)A second theme is commutative and non-commutative harmonic analysis, spectral theory, operator theory and their applications. The list of topics includes shift invariant spaces, group action in differential geometry, and frame theory (over-complete bases) and their applications to engineering (signal processing and multiplexing), projective multi-resolutions, and free probability algebras.The book serves as an accessible introduction, offering a timeless presentation, attractive and accessible to students, both in mathematics and in neighboring fields.

  17. Analysis of Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Peter; Andersen, Thomas Lykke

    The present book describes the most important aspects of wave analysis techniques applied to physical model tests. Moreover, the book serves as technical documentation for the wave analysis software WaveLab 3, cf. Aalborg University (2012). In that respect it should be mentioned that supplementary...... to the present technical documentation exists also the online help document describing the WaveLab software in detail including all the inputs and output fields. In addition to the two main authors also Tue Hald, Jacob Helm-Petersen and Morten Møller Jakobsen have contributed to the note. Their input is highly...... acknowledged. The outline of the book is as follows: • Chapter 2 and 3 describes analysis of waves in time and frequency domain. • Chapter 4 and 5 describes the separation of incident and reflected waves for the two-dimensional case. • Chapter 6 describes the estimation of the directional spectra which also...

  18. Mathematical analysis II

    CERN Document Server

    Canuto, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the volume is to provide a support textbook for a second lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The contents are organised to suit, in particular, students of Engineering, Computer Science and Physics, all areas in which mathematical tools play a crucial role. The basic notions and methods concerning integral and differential calculus for multivariable functions, series of functions and ordinary differential equations are presented in a manner that elicits critical reading and prompts a hands-on approach to concrete applications. The pedagogical layout echoes the one used in the companion text Mathematical Analysis I. The book’s structure has a specifically-designed modular nature, which allows for great flexibility in the preparation of a lecture course on Mathematical Analysis. The style privileges clarity in the exposition and a linear progression through the theory. The material is organised on two levels. The first, reflected in this book, allows students to grasp the essential ideas, ...

  19. Fuzzy data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bandemer, Hans

    1992-01-01

    Fuzzy data such as marks, scores, verbal evaluations, imprecise observations, experts' opinions and grey tone pictures, are quite common. In Fuzzy Data Analysis the authors collect their recent results providing the reader with ideas, approaches and methods for processing such data when looking for sub-structures in knowledge bases for an evaluation of functional relationship, e.g. in order to specify diagnostic or control systems. The modelling presented uses ideas from fuzzy set theory and the suggested methods solve problems usually tackled by data analysis if the data are real numbers. Fuzzy Data Analysis is self-contained and is addressed to mathematicians oriented towards applications and to practitioners in any field of application who have some background in mathematics and statistics.

  20. Mathematical analysis I

    CERN Document Server

    Zorich, Vladimir A

    2015-01-01

    VLADIMIR A. ZORICH is professor of mathematics at Moscow State University. His areas of specialization are analysis, conformal geometry, quasiconformal mappings, and mathematical aspects of thermodynamics. He solved the problem of global homeomorphism for space quasiconformal mappings. He holds a patent in the technology of mechanical engineering, and he is also known by his book Mathematical Analysis of Problems in the Natural Sciences . This second English edition of a very popular two-volume work presents a thorough first course in analysis, leading from real numbers to such advanced topics as differential forms on manifolds; asymptotic methods; Fourier, Laplace, and Legendre transforms; elliptic functions; and distributions. Especially notable in this course are the clearly expressed orientation toward the natural sciences and the informal exploration of the essence and the roots of the basic concepts and theorems of calculus. Clarity of exposition is matched by a wealth of instructive exercises, problems...

  1. Gabor Analysis for Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Feichtinger, Hans G.; Paukner, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    , it characterizes a function by its transform over phase space, which is the time–frequency plane (TF-plane) in a musical context or the location–wave-number domain in the context of image processing. Since the transition from the signal domain to the phase space domain introduces an enormous amount of data...... of the generalities relevant for an understanding of Gabor analysis of functions on Rd. We pay special attention to the case d = 2, which is the most important case for image processing and image analysis applications. The chapter is organized as follows. Section 2 presents central tools from functional analysis......, the application of Gabor expansions to image representation is considered in Sect. 6....

  2. Basic real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sohrab, Houshang H

    2014-01-01

    This expanded second edition presents the fundamentals and touchstone results of real analysis in full rigor, but in a style that requires little prior familiarity with proofs or mathematical language. The text is a comprehensive and largely self-contained introduction to the theory of real-valued functions of a real variable. The chapters on Lebesgue measure and integral have been rewritten entirely and greatly improved. They now contain Lebesgue’s differentiation theorem as well as his versions of the Fundamental Theorem(s) of Calculus. With expanded chapters, additional problems, and an expansive solutions manual, Basic Real Analysis, Second Edition, is ideal for senior undergraduates and first-year graduate students, both as a classroom text and a self-study guide. Reviews of first edition: The book is a clear and well-structured introduction to real analysis aimed at senior undergraduate and beginning graduate students. The prerequisites are few, but a certain mathematical sophistication is required. ....

  3. Software safety hazard analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1996-02-01

    Techniques for analyzing the safety and reliability of analog-based electronic protection systems that serve to mitigate hazards in process control systems have been developed over many years, and are reasonably well understood. An example is the protection system in a nuclear power plant. The extension of these techniques to systems which include digital computers is not well developed, and there is little consensus among software engineering experts and safety experts on how to analyze such systems. One possible technique is to extend hazard analysis to include digital computer-based systems. Software is frequently overlooked during system hazard analyses, but this is unacceptable when the software is in control of a potentially hazardous operation. In such cases, hazard analysis should be extended to fully cover the software. A method for performing software hazard analysis is proposed in this paper

  4. Pitfalls of Exergy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vágner, Petr; Pavelka, Michal; Maršík, František

    2017-04-01

    The well-known Gouy-Stodola theorem states that a device produces maximum useful power when working reversibly, that is with no entropy production inside the device. This statement then leads to a method of thermodynamic optimization based on entropy production minimization. Exergy destruction (difference between exergy of fuel and exhausts) is also given by entropy production inside the device. Therefore, assessing efficiency of a device by exergy analysis is also based on the Gouy-Stodola theorem. However, assumptions that had led to the Gouy-Stodola theorem are not satisfied in several optimization scenarios, e.g. non-isothermal steady-state fuel cells, where both entropy production minimization and exergy analysis should be used with caution. We demonstrate, using non-equilibrium thermodynamics, a few cases where entropy production minimization and exergy analysis should not be applied.

  5. ROBUST DECLINE CURVE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutawanir Darwis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Empirical decline curve analysis of oil production data gives reasonable answer in hyperbolic type curves situations; however the methodology has limitations in fitting real historical production data in present of unusual observations due to the effect of the treatment to the well in order to increase production capacity. The development ofrobust least squares offers new possibilities in better fitting production data using declinecurve analysis by down weighting the unusual observations. This paper proposes a robustleast squares fitting lmRobMM approach to estimate the decline rate of daily production data and compares the results with reservoir simulation results. For case study, we usethe oil production data at TBA Field West Java. The results demonstrated that theapproach is suitable for decline curve fitting and offers a new insight in decline curve analysis in the present of unusual observations.

  6. Applied multivariate statistical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on high-dimensional applications, this 4th edition presents the tools and concepts used in multivariate data analysis in a style that is also accessible for non-mathematicians and practitioners.  It surveys the basic principles and emphasizes both exploratory and inferential statistics; a new chapter on Variable Selection (Lasso, SCAD and Elastic Net) has also been added.  All chapters include practical exercises that highlight applications in different multivariate data analysis fields: in quantitative financial studies, where the joint dynamics of assets are observed; in medicine, where recorded observations of subjects in different locations form the basis for reliable diagnoses and medication; and in quantitative marketing, where consumers’ preferences are collected in order to construct models of consumer behavior.  All of these examples involve high to ultra-high dimensions and represent a number of major fields in big data analysis. The fourth edition of this book on Applied Multivariate ...

  7. Trajectory Based Traffic Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Benjamin Bjerre; Andersen, Ove; Lewis-Kelham, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point-and-click a......We present the INTRA system for interactive path-based traffic analysis. The analyses are developed in collaboration with traffic researchers and provide novel insights into conditions such as congestion, travel-time, choice of route, and traffic-flow. INTRA supports interactive point......-and-click analysis, due to a novel and efficient indexing structure. With the web-site daisy.aau.dk/its/spqdemo/we will demonstrate several analyses, using a very large real-world data set consisting of 1.9 billion GPS records (1.5 million trajectories) recorded from more than 13000 vehicles, and touching most...

  8. Physics analysis workstation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstad, H.

    1989-06-01

    The Physics Analysis Workstation (PAW) is a high-level program providing data presentation and statistical or mathematical analysis. PAW has been developed at CERN as an instrument to assist physicists in the analysis and presentation of their data. The program is interfaced to a high level graphics package, based on basic underlying graphics. 3-D graphics capabilities are being implemented. The major objects in PAW are 1 or 2 dimensional binned event data with fixed number of entries per event, vectors, functions, graphics pictures, and macros. Command input is handled by an integrated user interface package, which allows for a variety of choices for input, either with typed commands, or in a tree structure menu driven mode. 6 refs., 1 fig

  9. Real analysis on intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Choudary, A D R

    2014-01-01

    The book targets undergraduate and postgraduate mathematics students and helps them develop a deep understanding of mathematical analysis. Designed as a first course in real analysis, it helps students learn how abstract mathematical analysis solves mathematical problems that relate to the real world. As well as providing a valuable source of inspiration for contemporary research in mathematics, the book helps students read, understand and construct mathematical proofs, develop their problem-solving abilities and comprehend the importance and frontiers of computer facilities and much more. It offers comprehensive material for both seminars and independent study for readers with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. The first nine chapters followed by the appendix on the Stieltjes integral are recommended for graduate students studying probability and statistics, while the first eight chapters followed by the appendix on dynamical systems will be of use to students of biology and environmental scie...

  10. Adversarial risk analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, David L; Rios Insua, David

    2015-01-01

    Flexible Models to Analyze Opponent Behavior A relatively new area of research, adversarial risk analysis (ARA) informs decision making when there are intelligent opponents and uncertain outcomes. Adversarial Risk Analysis develops methods for allocating defensive or offensive resources against intelligent adversaries. Many examples throughout illustrate the application of the ARA approach to a variety of games and strategic situations. The book shows decision makers how to build Bayesian models for the strategic calculation of their opponents, enabling decision makers to maximize their expected utility or minimize their expected loss. This new approach to risk analysis asserts that analysts should use Bayesian thinking to describe their beliefs about an opponent's goals, resources, optimism, and type of strategic calculation, such as minimax and level-k thinking. Within that framework, analysts then solve the problem from the perspective of the opponent while placing subjective probability distributions on a...

  11. COMPUTER METHODS OF GENETIC ANALYSIS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Osipov

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic statistical methods used in conducting the genetic analysis of human traits. We studied by segregation analysis, linkage analysis and allelic associations. Developed software for the implementation of these methods support.

  12. Cost analysis guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    The first phase of the Depleted Uranium Hexafluoride Management Program (Program)--management strategy selection--consists of several program elements: Technology Assessment, Engineering Analysis, Cost Analysis, and preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Cost Analysis will estimate the life-cycle costs associated with each of the long-term management strategy alternatives for depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF6). The scope of Cost Analysis will include all major expenditures, from the planning and design stages through decontamination and decommissioning. The costs will be estimated at a scoping or preconceptual design level and are intended to assist decision makers in comparing alternatives for further consideration. They will not be absolute costs or bid-document costs. The purpose of the Cost Analysis Guidelines is to establish a consistent approach to analyzing of cost alternatives for managing Department of Energy's (DOE's) stocks of depleted uranium hexafluoride (DUF6). The component modules that make up the DUF6 management program differ substantially in operational maintenance, process-options, requirements for R and D, equipment, facilities, regulatory compliance, (O and M), and operations risk. To facilitate a consistent and equitable comparison of costs, the guidelines offer common definitions, assumptions or basis, and limitations integrated with a standard approach to the analysis. Further, the goal is to evaluate total net life-cycle costs and display them in a way that gives DOE the capability to evaluate a variety of overall DUF6 management strategies, including commercial potential. The cost estimates reflect the preconceptual level of the designs. They will be appropriate for distinguishing among management strategies

  13. Introduction to real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schramm, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    This text forms a bridge between courses in calculus and real analysis. It focuses on the construction of mathematical proofs as well as their final content. Suitable for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students of real analysis, it also provides a vital reference book for advanced courses in mathematics.The four-part treatment begins with an introduction to basic logical structures and techniques of proof, including discussions of the cardinality concept and the algebraic and order structures of the real and rational number systems. Part Two presents in-depth examinations of the compl

  14. Fourier analysis an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Stein, Elias M

    2003-01-01

    This first volume, a three-part introduction to the subject, is intended for students with a beginning knowledge of mathematical analysis who are motivated to discover the ideas that shape Fourier analysis. It begins with the simple conviction that Fourier arrived at in the early nineteenth century when studying problems in the physical sciences--that an arbitrary function can be written as an infinite sum of the most basic trigonometric functions.The first part implements this idea in terms of notions of convergence and summability of Fourier series, while highlighting applications such as th

  15. Emerging hot spot analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinau, Kristian Hegner

    Traditionally, focus in the transport field, both politically and scientifically, has been on private cars and public transport. Freight transport has been a neglected topic. Recent years has seen an increased focus upon congestion as a core issue across Europe, resulting in a great need for know...... speed data for freight. Secondly, the analytical methods used, space-time cubes and emerging hot spot analysis, are also new in the freight transport field. The analysis thus estimates precisely how fast freight moves on the roads in Northern Jutland and how this has evolved over time....

  16. Signal flow analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Abrahams, J R; Hiller, N

    1965-01-01

    Signal Flow Analysis provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of signal flow analysis. This book discusses the basic theory of signal flow graphs and shows their relation to the usual algebraic equations.Organized into seven chapters, this book begins with an overview of properties of a flow graph. This text then demonstrates how flow graphs can be applied to a wide range of electrical circuits that do not involve amplification. Other chapters deal with the parameters as well as circuit applications of transistors. This book discusses as well the variety of circuits using ther

  17. Automated Software Vulnerability Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezer, Emre C.; Kil, Chongkyung; Ning, Peng

    Despite decades of research, software continues to have vulnerabilities. Successful exploitations of these vulnerabilities by attackers cost millions of dollars to businesses and individuals. Unfortunately, most effective defensive measures, such as patching and intrusion prevention systems, require an intimate knowledge of the vulnerabilities. Many systems for detecting attacks have been proposed. However, the analysis of the exploited vulnerabilities is left to security experts and programmers. Both the human effortinvolved and the slow analysis process are unfavorable for timely defensive measure to be deployed. The problem is exacerbated by zero-day attacks.

  18. Spectral analysis by correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauque, J.M.; Berthier, D.; Max, J.; Bonnet, G.

    1969-01-01

    The spectral density of a signal, which represents its power distribution along the frequency axis, is a function which is of great importance, finding many uses in all fields concerned with the processing of the signal (process identification, vibrational analysis, etc...). Amongst all the possible methods for calculating this function, the correlation method (correlation function calculation + Fourier transformation) is the most promising, mainly because of its simplicity and of the results it yields. The study carried out here will lead to the construction of an apparatus which, coupled with a correlator, will constitute a set of equipment for spectral analysis in real time covering the frequency range 0 to 5 MHz. (author) [fr

  19. Northern blotting analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josefsen, Knud; Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Northern blotting analysis is a classical method for analysis of the size and steady-state level of a specific RNA in a complex sample. In short, the RNA is size-fractionated by gel electrophoresis and transferred by blotting onto a membrane to which the RNA is covalently bound. Then, the membrane...... is analysed by hybridization to one or more specific probes that are labelled for subsequent detection. Northern blotting is relatively simple to perform, inexpensive, and not plagued by artefacts. Recent developments of hybridization membranes and buffers have resulted in increased sensitivity closing...

  20. Subseabed disposal safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplick, C.M.; Kabele, T.J.

    1982-01-01

    This report summarizes the status of work performed by Analytic Sciences Corporation (TASC) in FY'81 on subseabed disposal safety analysis. Safety analysis for subseabed disposal is divided into two phases: pre-emplacement which includes all transportation, handling, and emplacement activities; and long-term (post-emplacement), which is concerned with the potential hazard after waste is safely emplaced. Details of TASC work in these two areas are provided in two technical reports. The work to date, while preliminary, supports the technical and environmental feasibility of subseabed disposal of HLW

  1. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  2. Gasohol and energy analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, M A

    1983-03-01

    Energy analysis contributed to the public debate on the gasohol programme in the U.S. where this analysis became a legal requirement. The published energy analyses for gasohol are reviewed and we assess their inherent assumptions and data sources. The analyses are normalised to S.I. units to faciltate comparisons. The process of rationalising the various treatments uncovered areas of uncertainties particularly in the methodologies which could be used to analyse some parts of the process. Although the definitive study has still to be written, the consensus is that maize to fuel ethanol via the traditional fermentation route is a net consumer of energy. (Refs. 13).

  3. Notes on functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2009-01-01

    These notes are a record of a one semester course on Functional Analysis given by the author to second year Master of Statistics students at the Indian Statistical Institute, New Delhi. Students taking this course have a strong background in real analysis, linear algebra, measure theory and probability, and the course proceeds rapidly from the definition of a normed linear space to the spectral theorem for bounded selfadjoint operators in a Hilbert space. The book is organised as twenty six lectures, each corresponding to a ninety minute class session. This may be helpful to teachers planning a course on this topic. Well prepared students can read it on their own.

  4. Analysis of maintenance strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laakso, K.; Simola, K.

    1998-01-01

    The main topics of the presentation include: (1) an analysis model and methods to evaluate maintenance action programs and the support decision to make changes in them and (2) to understand the maintenance strategies in a systems perspective as a basis for future developments. The subproject showed how systematic models for maintenance analysis and decision support, utilising computerised and statistical tool packages, can be taken into use for evaluation and optimisation of maintenance of active systems from the safety and economic point of view

  5. Foundations of stochastic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, M M; Lukacs, E

    1981-01-01

    Foundations of Stochastic Analysis deals with the foundations of the theory of Kolmogorov and Bochner and its impact on the growth of stochastic analysis. Topics covered range from conditional expectations and probabilities to projective and direct limits, as well as martingales and likelihood ratios. Abstract martingales and their applications are also discussed. Comprised of five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the basic Kolmogorov-Bochner theorem, followed by a discussion on conditional expectations and probabilities containing several characterizations of operators and mea

  6. Trade Analysis and Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelus, R.; Schot, P.M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to verify compliance with safeguards and draw conclusions on the absence of undeclared nuclear material and activities, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) collects and analyses trade information that it receives from open sources as well as from Member States. Although the IAEA does not intervene in national export controls, it has to monitor the trade of dual use items. Trade analysis helps the IAEA to evaluate global proliferation threats, to understand States' ability to report exports according to additional protocols but also to compare against State declarations. Consequently, the IAEA has explored sources of trade-related information and has developed analysis methodologies beyond its traditional safeguards approaches. (author)

  7. Highdimensional data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Over the last few years, significant developments have been taking place in highdimensional data analysis, driven primarily by a wide range of applications in many fields such as genomics and signal processing. In particular, substantial advances have been made in the areas of feature selection, covariance estimation, classification and regression. This book intends to examine important issues arising from highdimensional data analysis to explore key ideas for statistical inference and prediction. It is structured around topics on multiple hypothesis testing, feature selection, regression, cla

  8. Real Time Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, K.; Ruchika Mehra Vijayan, E.

    2017-11-01

    This paper aims to illustrate real time analysis of large scale data. For practical implementation we are performing sentiment analysis on live Twitter feeds for each individual tweet. To analyze sentiments we will train our data model on sentiWordNet, a polarity assigned wordNet sample by Princeton University. Our main objective will be to efficiency analyze large scale data on the fly using distributed computation. Apache Spark and Apache Hadoop eco system is used as distributed computation platform with Java as development language

  9. Social Set Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vatrapu, Ravi; Hussain, Abid; Buus Lassen, Niels

    2015-01-01

    of Facebook or Twitter data. However, there exist no other holistic computational social science approach beyond the relational sociology and graph theory of SNA. To address this limitation, this paper presents an alternative holistic approach to Big Social Data analytics called Social Set Analysis (SSA......This paper argues that the basic premise of Social Network Analysis (SNA) -- namely that social reality is constituted by dyadic relations and that social interactions are determined by structural properties of networks-- is neither necessary nor sufficient, for Big Social Data analytics...

  10. Analysis in Euclidean space

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffman, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Developed for an introductory course in mathematical analysis at MIT, this text focuses on concepts, principles, and methods. Its introductions to real and complex analysis are closely formulated, and they constitute a natural introduction to complex function theory.Starting with an overview of the real number system, the text presents results for subsets and functions related to Euclidean space of n dimensions. It offers a rigorous review of the fundamentals of calculus, emphasizing power series expansions and introducing the theory of complex-analytic functions. Subsequent chapters cover seq

  11. WATER SUPPLY ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    This analysis defines and evaluates the surface water supply system from the existing J-13 well to the North Portal. This system includes the pipe running from J-13 to a proposed Booster Pump Station at the intersection of H Road and the North Portal access road. Contained herein is an analysis of the proposed Booster Pump Station with a brief description of the system that could be installed to the South Portal and the optional shaft. The tanks that supply the water to the North Portal are sized, and the supply system to the North Portal facilities and up to Topopah Spring North Ramp is defined

  12. Structural analysis for Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2001-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential technique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is re-considered in this paper. Matching is re-formulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal over-determined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps...

  13. Structural analysis for diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Blanke, M.

    2002-01-01

    Aiming at design of algorithms for fault diagnosis, structural analysis of systems offers concise yet easy overall analysis. Graph-based matching, which is the essential tech-nique to obtain redundant information for diagnosis, is reconsidered in this paper. Matching is reformulated as a problem...... of relating faults to known parameters and measurements of a system. Using explicit fault modelling, minimal overdetermined subsystems are shown to provide necessary redundancy relations from the matching. Details of the method are presented and a realistic example used to clearly describe individual steps....

  14. Cadmium analysis in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, R.

    1980-12-01

    The report describes the development of a method for in vivo Cd-analysis. The method is based on the analysis of the prompt gamma radiation which is emitted by neutron capture of the isotope Cd113. Different parts of the body can be analysed selectively by neutrons in the interval of 1 to 100 KeV. The results show that the level of Cd in Kidneys can be measured without exceeding the dose of 40 mrad and that only 20% uncertainty is introduced when analysing Cd. The development has been made at the R2 reactor in Studsvik using 25 KeV neutrons. (G.B.)

  15. Contamination Analysis Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieda, Lubos

    2015-01-01

    This talk presents 3 different tools developed recently for contamination analysis:HTML QCM analyzer: runs in a web browser, and allows for data analysis of QCM log filesJava RGA extractor: can load in multiple SRS.ana files and extract pressure vs. time dataC++ Contamination Simulation code: 3D particle tracing code for modeling transport of dust particulates and molecules. Uses residence time to determine if molecules stick. Particulates can be sampled from IEST-STD-1246 and be accelerated by aerodynamic forces.

  16. Beginning statistics with data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteller, Frederick; Rourke, Robert EK

    2013-01-01

    This introduction to the world of statistics covers exploratory data analysis, methods for collecting data, formal statistical inference, and techniques of regression and analysis of variance. 1983 edition.

  17. Electronic Circuit Analysis Language (ECAL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenghang, C.

    1983-03-01

    The computer aided design technique is an important development in computer applications and it is an important component of computer science. The special language for electronic circuit analysis is the foundation of computer aided design or computer aided circuit analysis (abbreviated as CACD and CACA) of simulated circuits. Electronic circuit analysis language (ECAL) is a comparatively simple and easy to use circuit analysis special language which uses the FORTRAN language to carry out the explanatory executions. It is capable of conducting dc analysis, ac analysis, and transient analysis of a circuit. Futhermore, the results of the dc analysis can be used directly as the initial conditions for the ac and transient analyses.

  18. Prehistory analysis using photon activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausova, I.; Chvatil, D.; Tajer, J.

    2017-01-01

    Instrumental photon activation analysis (IPAA) is a suitable radio-analytical method for non-destructive determination of total nitrogen in various matrices. IPAA determination of nitrogen is based on 14 N (γ, n) 13 N nuclear reaction after high-energy photon irradiation. The analytically usable product of this photo-nuclear reaction is a positron emitter emitting only non-specific annihilation of 511 keV, which can be emitted by other radionuclides present in the sample. Some of them, besides the non-specific 511 keV line, also emit specific lines that allow their contribution to analytical radionuclide 13 N to be subtracted. An efficient source of high-energy photon radiation is the secondary bremsstrahlung generated by the conversion of the electron beam accelerated by a high-frequency circular accelerator - a microtron. The non-destructive IPAA contributed to the clarification of the origins of a precious bracelet originating from a fortified settlement in the area of Karlovy Vary - Drahovice from the late Bronze Age. (authors)

  19. Systems analysis - independent analysis and verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPietro, J.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; Badin, J.S. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The Hydrogen Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funds a portfolio of activities ranging from conceptual research to pilot plant testing. The long-term research projects support DOE`s goal of a sustainable, domestically based energy system, and the development activities are focused on hydrogen-based energy systems that can be commercially viable in the near-term. Energetics develops analytic products that enable the Hydrogen Program Manager to assess the potential for near- and long-term R&D activities to satisfy DOE and energy market criteria. This work is based on a pathway analysis methodology. The authors consider an energy component (e.g., hydrogen production from biomass gasification, hybrid hydrogen internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle) within a complete energy system. The work involves close interaction with the principal investigators to ensure accurate representation of the component technology. Comparisons are made with the current cost and performance of fossil-based and alternative renewable energy systems, and sensitivity analyses are conducted to determine the effect of changes in cost and performance parameters on the projects` viability.

  20. Learning Haskell data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Church, James

    2015-01-01

    If you are a developer, analyst, or data scientist who wants to learn data analysis methods using Haskell and its libraries, then this book is for you. Prior experience with Haskell and a basic knowledge of data science will be beneficial.

  1. CMS analysis school model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, S; Bloom, K; Shipsey, I; Cavanaugh, R; Klima, B; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J; Narain, M; Palla, F; Rolandi, G; Schörner-Sadenius, T

    2014-01-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  2. Manual for subject analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    This document is one in a series of publications known as the ETDE/INIS Joint Reference Series and also constitutes a part of the ETDE Procedures Manual. It presents the rules, guidelines and procedures to be adopted by centers submitting input to the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) or the Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDE). It is a manual for the subject analysis part of input preparation, meaning the selection, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing of relevant publications, and is to be used in conjunction with the Thesauruses, Subject Categories documents and the documents providing guidelines for the preparation of abstracts. The concept and structure of the new manual are intended to describe in a logical and efficient sequence all the steps comprising the subject analysis of documents to be reported to INIS or ETDE. The manual includes new chapters on preparatory analysis, subject classification, abstracting and subject indexing, as well as rules, guidelines, procedures, examples and a special chapter on guidelines and examples for subject analysis in particular subject fields. (g.t.; a.n.)

  3. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  4. [Analysis of pacemaker ECGs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Carsten W; Ekosso-Ejangue, Lucy; Sheta, Mohamed-Karim

    2015-09-01

    The key to a successful analysis of a pacemaker electrocardiogram (ECG) is the application of the systematic approach used for any other ECG without a pacemaker: analysis of (1) basic rhythm and rate, (2) QRS axis, (3) PQ, QRS and QT intervals, (4) morphology of P waves, QRS, ST segments and T(U) waves and (5) the presence of arrhythmias. If only the most obvious abnormality of a pacemaker ECG is considered, wrong conclusions can easily be drawn. If a systematic approach is skipped it may be overlooked that e.g. atrial pacing is ineffective, the left ventricle is paced instead of the right ventricle, pacing competes with intrinsic conduction or that the atrioventricular (AV) conduction time is programmed too long. Apart from this analysis, a pacemaker ECG which is not clear should be checked for the presence of arrhythmias (e.g. atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, junctional escape rhythm and endless loop tachycardia), pacemaker malfunction (e.g. atrial or ventricular undersensing or oversensing, atrial or ventricular loss of capture) and activity of specific pacing algorithms, such as automatic mode switching, rate adaptation, AV delay modifying algorithms, reaction to premature ventricular contractions (PVC), safety window pacing, hysteresis and noise mode. A systematic analysis of the pacemaker ECG almost always allows a probable diagnosis of arrhythmias and malfunctions to be made, which can be confirmed by pacemaker control and can often be corrected at the touch of the right button to the patient's benefit.

  5. A landscape analysis plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy E. Fleenor

    2002-01-01

    A Landscape Analysis Plan (LAP) sets out broad guidelines for project development within boundaries of the Kings River Sustainable Forest Ecosystems Project. The plan must be a dynamic, living document, subject to change as new information arises over the course of this very long-term project (several decades). Two watersheds, each of 32,000 acres, were dedicated to...

  6. Bayesian logistic regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Erp, H.R.N.; Van Gelder, P.H.A.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present a Bayesian logistic regression analysis. It is found that if one wishes to derive the posterior distribution of the probability of some event, then, together with the traditional Bayes Theorem and the integrating out of nuissance parameters, the Jacobian transformation is an

  7. Monotowns: A Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shastitko Andrei

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors propose an empirical analysis of the current situation in monotowns. The study questions the perceived seriousness of the ‘monotown problem’ as well as the actual challenges it presents. The authors use a cluster analysis to divide monotowns into groups for further structural comparison. The structural differences in the available databases limit the possibilities of empirical analysis. Hence, alternative approaches are required. The authors consider possible reasons for the limitations identified. Special attention is paid to the monotowns that were granted the status of advanced development territories. A comparative analysis makes it possible to study their general characteristics and socioeconomic indicators. The authors apply the theory of opportunistic behaviour to describe potential problems caused by the lack of unified criteria for granting monotowns the status of advanced development territories. The article identifies the main stakeholders and the character of their interaction; it desc ribes a conceptual model built on the principal/agent interactions, and identifies the parametric space of mutually beneficial cooperation. The solution to the principal/agent problem suggested in the article contributes to the development of an alternative approach to the current situation and a rational approach to overcoming the ‘monotown problem’.

  8. SWOT ANALYSIS - CHINESE PETROLEUM

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlan Wang; Lei Zhang; Qi Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This article was written in early December 2013, combined with the historical development and the latest data on the Chinese Petroleum carried SWOTanalysis. This paper discusses corporate resources, cost, management and external factors such as the political environment and the market supply and demand, conducted a comprehensive and profound analysis.

  9. Sensitivity Analysis Without Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peng; VanderWeele, Tyler J

    2016-05-01

    Unmeasured confounding may undermine the validity of causal inference with observational studies. Sensitivity analysis provides an attractive way to partially circumvent this issue by assessing the potential influence of unmeasured confounding on causal conclusions. However, previous sensitivity analysis approaches often make strong and untestable assumptions such as having an unmeasured confounder that is binary, or having no interaction between the effects of the exposure and the confounder on the outcome, or having only one unmeasured confounder. Without imposing any assumptions on the unmeasured confounder or confounders, we derive a bounding factor and a sharp inequality such that the sensitivity analysis parameters must satisfy the inequality if an unmeasured confounder is to explain away the observed effect estimate or reduce it to a particular level. Our approach is easy to implement and involves only two sensitivity parameters. Surprisingly, our bounding factor, which makes no simplifying assumptions, is no more conservative than a number of previous sensitivity analysis techniques that do make assumptions. Our new bounding factor implies not only the traditional Cornfield conditions that both the relative risk of the exposure on the confounder and that of the confounder on the outcome must satisfy but also a high threshold that the maximum of these relative risks must satisfy. Furthermore, this new bounding factor can be viewed as a measure of the strength of confounding between the exposure and the outcome induced by a confounder.

  10. Linear Regression Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Seber, George A F

    2012-01-01

    Concise, mathematically clear, and comprehensive treatment of the subject.* Expanded coverage of diagnostics and methods of model fitting.* Requires no specialized knowledge beyond a good grasp of matrix algebra and some acquaintance with straight-line regression and simple analysis of variance models.* More than 200 problems throughout the book plus outline solutions for the exercises.* This revision has been extensively class-tested.

  11. Visual Interactive Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchmeier-Andersen, Sabine; Møller Christensen, Jakob; Lihn Jensen, Bente

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the latest version of VIA (version 3.0). The development of the program was initiated by a demand for more systematic training of language analysis in high schools and universities. The system is now web-based, which enables teachers and students to share exercises across...

  12. Eleven papers in analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shabalin, P L; Yakubenko, A A; Pokhilevich, VA; Krein, M G

    1986-01-01

    This collection of eleven papers covers a broad spectrum of topics in analysis, from the study of certain classes of analytic functions to the solvability of singular problems for differential and integral equations to computational schemes for the partial differential equations and singular integral equations.

  13. Chapter 8. Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman L. McDonald; Christina D. Vojta; Kevin S. McKelvey

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the greatest barrier between monitoring and management is data analysis. Data languish in drawers and spreadsheets because those who collect or maintain monitoring data lack training in how to effectively summarize and analyze their findings. This chapter serves as a first step to surmounting that barrier by empowering any monitoring team with the basic...

  14. Python data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Idris, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    This book is for programmers, scientists, and engineers who have knowledge of the Python language and know the basics of data science. It is for those who wish to learn different data analysis methods using Python and its libraries. This book contains all the basic ingredients you need to become an expert data analyst.

  15. Haskell data analysis cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, Nishant

    2014-01-01

    Step-by-step recipes filled with practical code samples and engaging examples demonstrate Haskell in practice, and then the concepts behind the code. This book shows functional developers and analysts how to leverage their existing knowledge of Haskell specifically for high-quality data analysis. A good understanding of data sets and functional programming is assumed.

  16. Neutron Multiplicity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frame, Katherine Chiyoko [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-06-28

    Neutron multiplicity measurements are widely used for nondestructive assay (NDA) of special nuclear material (SNM). When combined with isotopic composition information, neutron multiplicity analysis can be used to estimate the spontaneous fission rate and leakage multiplication of SNM. When combined with isotopic information, the total mass of fissile material can also be determined. This presentation provides an overview of this technique.

  17. Advanced Economic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Marc W.; Laing, William

    2013-01-01

    An Economic Analysis (EA) is a systematic approach to the problem of choosing the best method of allocating scarce resources to achieve a given objective. An EA helps guide decisions on the "worth" of pursuing an action that departs from status quo ... an EA is the crux of decision-support.

  18. Activation Analysis of Aluminium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, Dag

    1961-01-15

    An analysis of pure aluminium alloyed with magnesium was per- formed by means of gamma spectrometry , Chemical separations were not employed. The isotopes to be determined were obtained in conditions of optimum activity by suitably choosing the time of irradiation and decay. The following elements were detected and measured quantitatively: Iron, zinc, copper, gallium, manganese, chromium, scandium and hafnium.

  19. VENTILATION TECHNOLOGY SYSTEMS ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a project to develop a systems analysis of ventilation technology and provide a state-of-the-art assessment of ventilation and indoor air quality (IAQ) research needs. (NOTE: Ventilation technology is defined as the hardware necessary to bring outdoor ...

  20. Process energy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiser, V.

    1993-01-01

    In Chapter 2 process energy cost analysis for chemical processing is treated in a general way, independent of the specific form of energy and power production. Especially, energy data collection and data treatment, energy accounting (metering, balance setting), specific energy input, and utility energy costs and prices are discussed. (R.P.) 14 refs., 4 figs., 16 tabs

  1. Analysis in indexing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens Erik

    2005-01-01

    is presented as an alternative and the paper discusses how this approach includes a broader range of analyses and how it requires a new set of actions from using this approach; analysis of the domain, users and indexers. The paper concludes that the two-step procedure to indexing is insufficient to explain...

  2. On frame multiresolution analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    We use the freedom in frame multiresolution analysis to construct tight wavelet frames (even in the case where the refinable function does not generate a tight frame). In cases where a frame multiresolution does not lead to a construction of a wavelet frame we show how one can nevertheless...

  3. Methods in algorithmic analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Dobrushkin, Vladimir A

    2009-01-01

    …helpful to any mathematics student who wishes to acquire a background in classical probability and analysis … This is a remarkably beautiful book that would be a pleasure for a student to read, or for a teacher to make into a year's course.-Harvey Cohn, Computing Reviews, May 2010

  4. Quantitative Moessbauer analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    The quantitative analysis of Moessbauer data, as in the measurement of Fe 3+ /Fe 2+ concentration, has not been possible because of the different mean square velocities (x 2 ) of Moessbauer nuclei at chemically different sites. A method is now described which, based on Moessbauer data at several temperatures, permits the comparison of absorption areas at (x 2 )=0. (Auth.)

  5. Statistical Analysis Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Søgaard, Karen; Gram, Bibi

    2015-01-01

    This is the analysis plan for the multicentre randomised control study looking at the effect of training and exercises in chronic neck pain patients that is being conducted in Jutland and Funen, Denmark. This plan will be used as a work description for the analyses of the data collected....

  6. CMS Analysis School Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, S. [Nebraska U.; Shipsey, I. [Purdue U.; Cavanaugh, R. [Illinois U., Chicago; Bloom, K. [Nebraska U.; Chan, Kai-Feng [Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.; D' Hondt, J. [Vrije U., Brussels; Klima, B. [Fermilab; Narain, M. [Brown U.; Palla, F. [INFN, Pisa; Rolandi, G. [CERN; Schörner-Sadenius, T. [DESY

    2014-01-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  7. Analysis of Endomorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Roberto; Hong, Jeong Hee; Szymanski, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    of such an algebra. Then we outline a powerful combinatorial approach to analysis of endomorphisms arising from permutation unitaries. The restricted Weyl group consists of automorphisms of this type. We also discuss the action of the restricted Weyl group on the diagonal MASA and its relationship...

  8. Introduction to ROC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelsey, C.A.; Mettler, F.A.

    1988-01-01

    An elementary introduction to ROC analysis illustrates how ROC curves depend on observer threshold levels and discusses the relation between ROC curve parameters and other measures of observer performance including accuracy sensitivity specificity true positive fraction, true negative fraction, false positive fraction and false negative fraction

  9. Information Security Risk Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Peltier, Thomas R

    2010-01-01

    Offers readers with the knowledge and the skill-set needed to achieve a highly effective risk analysis assessment. This title demonstrates how to identify threats and then determine if those threats pose a real risk. It is suitable for industry and academia professionals.

  10. Texture analysis of

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubsch, A.; Timmermans, K.

    2017-01-01

    Texture analysis is a method to test the physical properties of a material by tension and compression. The growing interest in commercialisation of seaweeds for human food has stimulated research into the physical properties of seaweed tissue. These are important parameters for the survival of

  11. Shifted Independent Component Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Morten; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2007-01-01

    Delayed mixing is a problem of theoretical interest and practical importance, e.g., in speech processing, bio-medical signal analysis and financial data modelling. Most previous analyses have been based on models with integer shifts, i.e., shifts by a number of samples, and have often been carried...

  12. Multiscale principal component analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akinduko, A A; Gorban, A N

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) is an important tool in exploring data. The conventional approach to PCA leads to a solution which favours the structures with large variances. This is sensitive to outliers and could obfuscate interesting underlying structures. One of the equivalent definitions of PCA is that it seeks the subspaces that maximize the sum of squared pairwise distances between data projections. This definition opens up more flexibility in the analysis of principal components which is useful in enhancing PCA. In this paper we introduce scales into PCA by maximizing only the sum of pairwise distances between projections for pairs of datapoints with distances within a chosen interval of values [l,u]. The resulting principal component decompositions in Multiscale PCA depend on point (l,u) on the plane and for each point we define projectors onto principal components. Cluster analysis of these projectors reveals the structures in the data at various scales. Each structure is described by the eigenvectors at the medoid point of the cluster which represent the structure. We also use the distortion of projections as a criterion for choosing an appropriate scale especially for data with outliers. This method was tested on both artificial distribution of data and real data. For data with multiscale structures, the method was able to reveal the different structures of the data and also to reduce the effect of outliers in the principal component analysis

  13. Euler principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liwicki, Stephan; Tzimiropoulos, Georgios; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is perhaps the most prominent learning tool for dimensionality reduction in pattern recognition and computer vision. However, the ℓ 2-norm employed by standard PCA is not robust to outliers. In this paper, we propose a kernel PCA method for fast and robust PCA,

  14. Nuclear analysis for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, R.T.; Iida, H.; Khripunov, V.; Petrizzi, L.; Sato, S.; Sawan, M.; Shatalov, G.; Schipakin, O.

    2001-01-01

    This paper summarizes the main results of nuclear analysis calculations performed during the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Engineering Design Activity (EDA). Major efforts were devoted to fulfilling the General Design Requirements to minimize the nuclear heating rate in the superconducting magnets and ensuring that radiation conditions at the cryostat are suitable for hands-on-maintenance after reactor shut-down. (author)

  15. Elementary functional analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Shilov, Georgi E

    1996-01-01

    Introductory text covers basic structures of mathematical analysis (linear spaces, metric spaces, normed linear spaces, etc.), differential equations, orthogonal expansions, Fourier transforms - including problems in the complex domain, especially involving the Laplace transform - and more. Each chapter includes a set of problems, with hints and answers. Bibliography. 1974 edition.

  16. Computer aided safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The document reproduces 20 selected papers from the 38 papers presented at the Technical Committee/Workshop on Computer Aided Safety Analysis organized by the IAEA in co-operation with the Institute of Atomic Energy in Otwock-Swierk, Poland on 25-29 May 1987. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 20 technical papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  17. Auroral Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-31

    but expinds ’acordiohlike.’ (4) The height- integrated intensity ratio of the red (6300 A) to green (5577 A) emisions of atomic o\\)gen is a good... molecular ion: Analysis of two rocket experiments, Planet. Space Sci. 16, 737, 1968. Hays, P. B. and C. D. Anger, The influence of ground scattering on

  18. Communication Network Analysis Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

    This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

  19. Making Strategic Analysis Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Bryan Gabbard , Assessing the Tradecraft of Intelligence Analysis, Santa Monica, Calif.: RAND Corporation, TR-293, 2008. 4 See The Commission on the...July 7, 2011: http://www.rand.org/pubs/occasional_papers/OP152.html Treverton, Gregory F., and C. Bryan Gabbard , Assessing the Tradecraft of

  20. Instrumental analysis, second edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christian, G.D.; O'Reilly, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    The second edition of Instrumental Analysis is a survey of the major instrument-based methods of chemical analysis. It appears to be aimed at undergraduates but would be equally useful in a graduate course. The volume explores all of the classical quantitative methods and contains sections on techniques that usually are not included in a semester course in instrumentation (such as electron spectroscopy and the kinetic methods). Adequate coverage of all of the methods contained in this book would require several semesters of focused study. The 25 chapters were written by different authors, yet the style throughout the book is more uniform than in the earlier edition. With the exception of a two-chapter course in analog and digital circuits, the book purports to de-emphasize instrumentation, focusing more on the theory behind the methods and the application of the methods to analytical problems. However, a detailed analysis of the instruments used in each method is by no means absent. The book has the favor of a user's guide to analysis